Science.gov

Sample records for satellite applications project

  1. Satellite Applications for Public Service: Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauffer, Sandra; And Others

    Summaries of 18 different projects involving the use of satellite communications are presented in this report, including PEACESAT Education and Communication Experiments, USP Network Satellite Communication Project, Project Satellite, Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), Appalachian Education Satellite Program, Alaska Education…

  2. Gulf offshore satellite applications project (GOSAP) (ERS-1 Pilot Project PP-USA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, E. K.; Baker, R. N.; Sailor, Richard V.; Schaudt, K. E.; Macdonald, Ian R.; Tapley, Bryon D.; Shum, C. K.; Amos, John F.; Berry, J. L.; Herring, A. T.

    1994-01-01

    Project GOSAP is a multi organizational effort to determine how best to use remote sensing technology, and ERS-1 data in particular, to address offshore problems and operations faced by the exploration and marine engineering industries, in the Gulf of Mexico. Remotely sensed data integrated with sea truth are used to quantify meteorologic and oceanographic events, to detect and track ocean currents and gyres, to image the sea floor, map subsurface geology, or detect oil seeps from orbital altitudes. Participants are evaluating the potential for satellite based offshore exploration, ocean engineering, and environmental applications using combined satellite and airborne measurements constrained by real time sea truth.

  3. The Evolution of Successful Satellite Science to Air Quality Application Projects: From Inception to Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Teams of scientist have been working for almost a decade with state, local, regional and federal Air Quality regulators and scientists on several projects that have been focused on improving biomass burning emissions within our nation's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Initially, the NEI was based strictly on ground-based information that often used data aggregated from previous years reported at the county-centroid and completely ignored the spatial domain of all fires. This methodology resulted in gross inaccuracies; however it was an ingrained system and the users and organizations were largely comfortable. Improvements were viewed as too costly. Our task was to convince regulators, managers and users of the value that could be added by using satellite data to enhance the NEI. Certainly, there were individuals that understood the value of using satellite data, but they needed support to convince the establishment of the intrinsic, cost-effective value of publically-available satellite data. It was essential to present arguments, as well as requested verification and validation statistics, in the format that most suited the objectives of application organizations. This process incorporated: knowledge of state-of-the-art satellite data, algorithms and science; a working knowledge of the users applications and requirements; interacting with individuals with a variety of skill sets and goals; and perhaps most importantly, listening to the goals and responsibilities of the user community and fully communicating. Today, the Environmental Protection Agency and several state and regional organizations are using satellite data to estimate biomass burnings emissions at daily and annual scales for a number of critical environmental management and policy activities including regulation setting and regional strategy development for attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We continue to work at the local, state and federal levels to improve the

  4. System considerations, projected requirements and applications for aeronautical mobile satellite communications for air traffic services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. D.; Miller, C. M.; Scales, W. C.; Dement, D. K.

    1990-01-01

    The projected application and requirements in the near term (to 1995) and far term (to 2010) for aeronautical mobile services supporting air traffic control operations are addressed. The implications of these requirements on spectrum needs, and the resulting effects on the satellite design and operation are discussed. The U.S. is working with international standards and regulatory organizations to develop the necessary aviation standards, signalling protocols, and implementation methods. In the provision of aeronautical safety services, a number of critical issues were identified, including system reliability and availability, access time, channel restoration time, interoperability, pre-emption techniques, and the system network interfaces. Means for accomplishing these critical services in the aeronautical mobile satellite service (AMSS), and the various activities relating to the future provision of aeronautical safety services are addressed.

  5. ARJIS satellite demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severance, Steve; Williams, Carl

    2005-06-01

    In 2003, the California Space Authority (CSA) was provided funding by the U. S. Congress through the Defense Appropriations Act to develop a project that would demonstrate the U.S. space enterprise capability that would contribute to the effectiveness of those engaged in Homeland Security. The project was given broad latitude in selecting the area of Homeland Security to be addressed and the nature of the space technology to be applied. CSA became aware of a nascent law enforcement data-sharing project in the San Diego region known as the Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARJIS). First developed by the police departments in San Diego, ARJIS is an innovative system that shares criminal justice information among 50 federal, state, and local agencies. ARJIS was completing a pilot project that enabled officers to receive information on handheld computers, which was transmitted wirelessly through cellular networks. The accessed information came from several databases that collectively contained the entire region's crime and arrest reports, traffic citations, and incidents, as well as state and county wants and warrants. The fundamental limitations that plague all cellular-based devices caught CSA's attention and resulted in a cooperative effort to harden the communications link between the patrol officer and critical data. The principal goal of the SATCOM development task was to create a proof-of-concept application that would use SATCOM links to augment the current ARJIS handheld wireless (cellular) capability. The successful technical demonstration and the positive support for satellite communications from the law enforcement community showed that this project filled a need-both for improved information sharing and for highly reliable communications systems.

  6. Final Report on LDRD Project: High-Bandwidth Optical Data Interconnects for Satellite Applications

    SciTech Connect

    SERKLAND, DARWIN K.; GEIB, KENT M.; BLANSETT, ETHAN L.; KARPEN, GARY D.; PEAKE, GREGORY M.; HARGETT, TERRY; MONTANO, VICTORIA; SULLIVAN, CHARLES T.; ALLERMAN, ANDREW A.; RIENSTRA, JEFFREY L.

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project ''High-Bandwidth Optical Data Interconnects for Satellite Applications.'' The goal of this LDRD has been to address the future needs of focal-plane-array (FPA) sensors by exploring the use of high-bandwidth fiber-optic interconnects to transmit FPA signals within a satellite. We have focused primarily on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) based transmitters, due to the previously demonstrated immunity of VCSELs to total radiation doses up to 1 Mrad. In addition, VCSELs offer high modulation bandwidth (roughly 10 GHz), low power consumption (roughly 5 mW), and high coupling efficiency (greater than -3dB) to optical fibers. In the first year of this LDRD, we concentrated on the task of transmitting analog signals from a cryogenic FPA to a remote analog-to-digital converter. In the second year, we considered the transmission of digital signals produced by the analog-to-digital converter to a remote computer on the satellite. Specifically, we considered the situation in which the FPA, analog-to-digital converter, and VCSEL-based transmitter were all cooled to cryogenic temperatures. This situation requires VCSELs that operate at cryogenic temperature, dissipate minimal heat, and meet the electrical drive requirements in terms of voltage, current, and bandwidth.

  7. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 1: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations: Executive summary. [usefulness of satellite snow-cover data for water yield prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1981-01-01

    Both LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data were used in improving snowmelt runoff forecasts. When the satellite snow cover data were tested in both empirical seasonal runoff estimation and short term modeling approaches, a definite potential for reducing forecast error was evident. A cost benefit analysis run in conjunction with the snow mapping indicated a $36.5 million annual benefit accruing from a one percent improvement in forecast accuracy using the snow cover data for the western United States. The annual cost of employing the system would be $505,000. The snow mapping has proven that satellite snow cover data can be used to reduce snowmelt runoff forecast error in a cost effective manner once all operational satellite data are available within 72 hours after acquisition. Executive summaries of the individual snow mapping projects are presented.

  8. Satellite medical centers project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Arvind

    2002-08-01

    World class health care for common man at low affordable cost: anywhere, anytime The project envisages to set up a national network of satellite Medical centers. Each SMC would be manned by doctors, nurses and technicians, six doctors, six nurses, six technicians would be required to provide 24 hour cover, each SMC would operate 24 hours x 7 days. It would be equipped with the Digital telemedicine devices for capturing clinical patient information and investigations in the form of voice, images and data and create an audiovisual text file - a virtual Digital patient. Through the broad band connectivity the virtual patient can be sent to the central hub, manned by specialists, specialists from several specialists sitting together can view the virtual patient and provide a specialized opinion, they can see the virtual patient, see the examination on line through video conference or even PCs, talk to the patient and the doctor at the SMC and controlle capturing of information during examination and investigations of the patient at the SMC - thus creating a virtual Digital consultant at the SMC. Central hub shall be connected to the doctors and consultants in remote locations or tertiary care hospitals any where in the world, thus creating a virtual hub the hierarchical system shall provide upgradation of knowledge to thedoctors in central hub and smc and thus continued medical education and benefit the patient thru the world class treatment in the smc located at his door step. SMC shall be set up by franchisee who shall get safe business opportunity with high returns, patients shall get Low cost user friendly worldclass health care anywhere anytime, Doctors can get better meaningful selfemplyment with better earnings, flexibility of working time and place. SMC shall provide a wide variety of services from primary care to world class Global consultation for difficult patients.

  9. Iowa satellite project ISAT-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Satellite systems to date have been mainly scientific in nature. Only a few systems have been of direct use to the public such as for telephone or television transmission. Space enterprises have remained a mystery to the general public and beyond the reach of the small business community. The result is a less than supportive public when it comes to space activities. The purpose of the ISAT-1 program is to develop a small and relatively inexpensive satellite that will serve the State of Iowa, primarily for educational purposes. It will provide products, services, and activities that will be educational, practical, and useful for a large number for people. The emphasis is on public awareness, 'space literacy', and routine practical applications rather than high technology. The initial conceptual design phase was complete when the current team took over the project. Some areas of the conceptual design were taken a little farther, but for the most part this team started at the detailed design stage.

  10. Linking satellite ICT application businesses with regional innovation centers and investors: The EC “INVESaT” project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiron, Florence; Kreisel, Joerg

    2009-09-01

    In the sector of information and communication technologies (ICT), whether in the USA, Japan, or Europe, innovative services are already in use, based on large-scale space-based infrastructure investments. Such systems are e.g. earth observation, telecommunication, and navigation, timing and positioning satellites. In combination with the advent of powerful handheld terminals and the demand for ubiquitous services, it is expected that info-mobility applications will reveal new sources of business in the years ahead, using in particular the Earth observation and future GALILEO systems to position any feature or user anywhere in the world within a few meter accuracy. Hence, satellite-based capabilities provide new and unique opportunities for economic stimulation and development. Many incubators and innovation centers in Europe have already grasped this growth potential. Yet, for many European players business growth appears below expectations compared to developments in the USA following the launch of GPS (Global Positioning System). Europe still has to overcome intrinsic barriers to seize these new business opportunities faster and with more visible economic impact by leveraging on SMEs and regional innovation centers to expand the commercial utilization of satellite capabilities and mobilization of appropriate financial resources. The paper elaborates on the INVESat project (funded by the EuropeInnova—European Commission), which aims at bridging the gap between Innovative enterprises and financial In VEstors in the emerging markets of SaTellite applications. The critical success factors required to stimulate and support more efficiently investments in this bread of innovative services will also be highlighted.

  11. The PVUSA-Hawaii Satellite Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rezachek, D.A.; Seki, A.; Sakai, K.

    1995-11-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) Project is a national, cooperative research, development and demonstration program designed to promote utility-scale use of photovoltaics. Five 20-kilowatt-peak (nominal) emerging technologies, as well as several other photovoltaic systems, are being demonstrated at a site near Davis, California and one emerging technology system is being demonstrated at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. The PVUSA-Hawaii Satellite Project was the first satellite system in the US. This paper describes the design, installation, operation and testing, maintenance, performance, and costs of the PVUSA-Hawaii Satellite Project. This system is compared to a similar system in Davis, and conclusions and recommendations based on more than five years of operation are presented.

  12. A Plan for Application of Communications Satellites in Education (Special Education Satellite Project). The Final Report/Proposal. Technical and Cost Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    This project was concerned with the utilization of communications satellites to assist in the implementation of P.L. 94-142, which deals with discrimination against the handicapped and provision of public education for handicapped children. The results of a national survey on personnel development needs of state education agencies are reported;…

  13. Map projections for satellite tracking.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    New map projections to be used for plotting successive satellite groundtracks show these tracks as straight lines. The map may be made conformal along any 2 parallels of latitude between the limits of latitude reached by the groundtrack, or the 'tracking limits'. If these parallels are equidistant from the Equator, they may both be made true to scale, and a cylindrical projection results. If these parallels are not equidistant from the Equator, only one may be made true to scale, and a conic projection results. The groundtracks generally have sharp breaks at either tracking limit. If the tracking limit is one of the parallels at which the map is conformal, there is no break in the groundtrack, and the conic projection may approach (but cannot become) an azimuthal projection.-Author

  14. Future communications satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1992-01-01

    The point of view of the research is made through the use of viewgraphs. It is suggested that future communications satellite applications will be made through switched point to point narrowband communications. Some characteristics of which are as follows: small/low cost terminals; single hop communications; voice compatible; full mesh networking; ISDN compatible; and possible limited use of full motion video. Some target applications are as follows: voice/data networks between plants and offices in a corporation; data base networking for commercial and science users; and cellular radio internodal voice/data networking.

  15. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 5: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations, northwest United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The study objective was to develop or modify methods in an operational framework that would allow incorporation of satellite derived snow cover observations for prediction of snowmelt derived runoff. Data were reviewed and verified for five basins in the Pacific Northwest. The data were analyzed for up to a 6-year period ending July 1978, and in all cases cover a low, average, and high snow cover/runoff year. Cloud cover is a major problem in these springtime runoff analyses and have hampered data collection for periods of up to 52 days. Tree cover and terrain are sufficiently dense and rugged to have caused problems. The interpretation of snowlines from satellite data was compared with conventional ground truth data and tested in operational streamflow forecasting models. When the satellite snow-covered area (SCA) data are incorporated in the SSARR (Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation) model, there is a definite but minor improvement.

  16. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 4: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations. Colorado Field Test Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, B. A.; Leaf, C. F.; Danielson, J. A.; Moravec, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The study was conducted on six watersheds ranging in size from 277 km to 3460 km in the Rio Grande and Arkansas River basins of southwestern Colorado. Six years of satellite data in the period 1973-78 were analyzed and snowcover maps prepared for all available image dates. Seven snowmapping techniques were explored; the photointerpretative method was selected as the most accurate. Three schemes to forecast snowmelt runoff employing satellite snowcover observations were investigated. They included a conceptual hydrologic model, a statistical model, and a graphical method. A reduction of 10% in the current average forecast error is estimated when snowcover data in snowmelt runoff forecasting is shown to be extremely promising. Inability to obtain repetitive coverage due to the 18 day cycle of LANDSAT, the occurrence of cloud cover and slow image delivery are obstacles to the immediate implementation of satellite derived snowcover in operational streamflow forecasting programs.

  17. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 3: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. J.; Hannaford, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Five southern Sierra snowmelt basins and two northern Sierra-Southern Cascade snowmelt basins were used to evaluate the effect on operational water supply forecasting from satellite imagery. Manual photointerpretation techniques were used to obtain SCA and equivalent snow line for the years 1973 to 1979 for the seven test basins using LANDSAT imagery and GOES imagery. The use of SCA was tested operationally in 1977-79. Results indicate the addition of SCA improve the water supply forecasts during the snowmelt phase for these basins where there may be an unusual distribution of snowpack throughout the basin, or where there is a limited amount of real time data available. A high correlation to runoff was obtained when SCA was combined with snow water content data obtained from reporting snow sensors.

  18. The Appalachian Education Satellite Project Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian Education Satellite Project, Lexington, KY.

    The first section of this report describes the objectives, project organization, and program of the Appalachian Education Satellite Project. The second section describes the resource coordinating centers and their seven missions: reading course development, career education course development for K-6 and 7-12, four-channel audio program…

  19. Spacecraft design project: High latitude communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josefson, Carl; Myers, Jack; Cloutier, Mike; Paluszek, Steve; Michael, Gerry; Hunter, Dan; Sakoda, Dan; Walters, Wes; Johnson, Dennis; Bauer, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The spacecraft design project was part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The project was intended to provide experience in the design of all major components of a satellite. Each member of the class was given primary responsibility for a subsystem or design support function. Support was requested from the Naval Research Laboratory to augment the Naval Postgraduate School faculty. Analysis and design of each subsystem was done to the extent possible within the constraints of an eleven week quarter and the design facilities (hardware and software) available. The project team chose to evaluate the design of a high latitude communications satellite as representative of the design issues and tradeoffs necessary for a wide range of satellites. The High-Latitude Communications Satellite (HILACS) will provide a continuous UHF communications link between stations located north of the region covered by geosynchronous communications satellites, i.e., the area above approximately 60 N latitude. HILACS will also provide a communications link to stations below 60 N via a relay Net Control Station (NCS), which is located with access to both the HILACS and geosynchronous communications satellites. The communications payload will operate only for that portion of the orbit necessary to provide specified coverage.

  20. Cesium standard for satellite application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, M. B.; Meirs, M.; Pascaru, I.; Weinstein, B.

    1983-01-01

    A Cesium frequency standard that was developed for satellite applications is discussed. It weighs 23 lbs. and uses 23.5 watts of power, achieves a stability of 1 x ten to the minus 13th power/100,000 seconds, and is radiation hardened. To achieve the weight and reliability requirements, both thick and thin film hybrid circuits were utilized. A crystal oscillator is used to improve short-term stability and performance on a moving platform.

  1. Small satellites for tropical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montpetit, Marie-Jose; Bonn, Ferdinand

    1993-11-01

    A number of mission studies were performed to assess the suitability of small satellite systems for tropical data acquisition. These studies took into account the specifics of the tropical user communities and were focused on remote sensing and resource management issues. The requirements and potential solutions for four application areas are discussed. For monitoring of forest and agricultural vegetation, a small synthetic aperture radar is considered with P, C, or X band imaging, possibly supplemented by a high resolution multispectral imager. The radar would have the capability to monitor below cloud cover which is often found in tropical regions. Optical, microwave, or spectrographic imaging would also be useful in small satellites for disaster monitoring (notably of floods), land management, and air pollution monitoring. A small satellite with data storage and forwarding capability is also envisioned to collect data from dependable, low-power, and low-cost ground sensors via a simple ultrahigh frequency uplink and download the data on a very high frequency downlink. All the small satellites would be launched in low inclination orbits to ensure a number of consecutive passes over the targeted tropical area.

  2. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 7: Cost/benefit analysis for the ASVT on operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P.; Loats, H.; Lloyd, D.; Newman, P.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the OASSO ASVT's were used to estimate the benefits accruing from the added information available from satellite snowcover area measurement. Estimates of the improvement in runoff prediction due to addition of SATSCAM were made by the Colorado ASVT personnel. The improvement estimate is 6-10%. Data were applied to subregions covering the Western States snow area amended by information from the ASVT and other watershed experts to exclude areas which are not impacted by snowmelt runoff. Benefit models were developed for irrigation and hydroenergy uses. The benefit/cost ratio is 72:1. Since only two major benefit contributors were used and since the forecast improvement estimate does not take into account future satellite capabilities these estimates are considered to be conservative. The large magnitude of the benefit/cost ratio supports the utility and applicability of SATSCAM.

  3. PM-GCD - A combined IR-MW satellite technique for frequent retrieval of heavy precipitation: Application to the EU FLASH project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Daniele; Dietrich, Stefano; di Paola, Francesco; Formenton, Marco; Mugnai, Alberto; Sanò, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Precipitation retrievals based on measurements from microwave (MW) radiometers onboard low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites can reach a high level of accuracy - and especially so, for deep convective precipitating systems. However, these observations do not provide a satisfactorily coverage of the rapid evolution of intense precipitating systems. As a result, the obtained precipitation retrievals are often of limited use for many important applications -- including support to authorities in activating flood alarms. To avoid this problem, several techniques have been developed that combine accurate MW estimates with frequent infrared (IR) observations from geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, such as the European Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). Within the European Union FP6 FLASH project, we have developed a new combined MW-IR technique for producing frequent precipitation retrievals from space (which we call PM-GCD technique). This technique uses passive-microwave (PM) retrievals in conjunction with the Global Convection Detection (GCD) technique that discriminates deep convective clouds within the GEO observations, based on the difference between the water vapor (6.2 μm ) and thermal-IR (10.8 μm ) channels. In essence, within the PM-GCD technique, deep convective areas are defined from MSG observations, then calibrated using MW-AMSU precipitation retrievals and finally propagated over time with a simple tracking algorithm. In this paper, we describe the PM-GCD technique and discuss the results of its application to a flood event that occurred on September 12-15, 2006 over the north-western Mediterranean coastal areas, and that has been selected for joint research by the EU FLASH and HYDRATE projects.

  4. Laser beamed power: Satellite demonstration applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Westerlund, Larry H.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible to use a ground-based laser to beam light to the solar arrays of orbiting satellites, to a level sufficient to provide all or some of the operating power required. Near-term applications of this technology for providing supplemental power to existing satellites are discussed. Two missions with significant commercial pay-off are supplementing solar power for radiation-degraded arrays and providing satellite power during eclipse for satellites with failed batteries.

  5. Potential applications of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaenzer, G.

    The applicability of Navstar GPS to civil air navigation is discussed. The accuracy of current air-navigation systems is reviewed; the basic principle and accuracy of GPS navigation are characterized; the relatively low cost of GPS receiving equipment is pointed out; and particular attention is given to hybrid systems combining GPS with inertial navigation. It is predicted that CAT III landings will be possible using such hybrid systems when the GPS satellites are fully deployed, even without access to the military GPS code. Techniques for GPS-based precision landings, reduced-noise landings, landings on parallel runways, control of taxiing maneuvers, and aircraft-based geodetic measurements are briefly described and illustrated with diagrams.

  6. Satellite based Ocean Forecasting, the SOFT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmann, L.; Tintoré, J.; Moneris, S.

    2003-04-01

    The knowledge of future oceanic conditions would have enormous impact on human marine related areas. For such reasons, a number of international efforts are being carried out to obtain reliable and manageable ocean forecasting systems. Among the possible techniques that can be used to estimate the near future states of the ocean, an ocean forecasting system based on satellite imagery is developped through the Satelitte based Ocean ForecasTing project (SOFT). SOFT, established by the European Commission, considers the development of a forecasting system of the ocean space-time variability based on satellite data by using Artificial Intelligence techniques. This system will be merged with numerical simulation approaches, via assimilation techniques, to get a hybrid SOFT-numerical forecasting system of improved performance. The results of the project will provide efficient forecasting of sea-surface temperature structures, currents, dynamic height, and biological activity associated to chlorophyll fields. All these quantities could give valuable information on the planning and management of human activities in marine environments such as navigation, fisheries, pollution control, or coastal management. A detailed identification of present or new needs and potential end-users concerned by such an operational tool is being performed. The project would study solutions adapted to these specific needs.

  7. Project 'VOLCANO': Electronics of tethered satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savich, N. A.

    The main goal of the 'VOLCANO' project developed jointly by the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics and space concern 'ENERGIA' is experimental investigation of the current-voltage characteristics of the 'Collector-Boom-Emitter' system simulating the long Tethered Satellite System (TSS) in the real space flight conditions on the transport ship 'PROGRESS'. These measurements will allow scientists to determine the attainable current values for different combinations of collectors and emitters (passive metallic sphere, thermocathode, hollow cathodes and show up some prospects of active TSS. The report is concerned with the concept, purpose and tasks of the project, the planned set up of the measurement equipment on the 'PROGRESS' ship and in the container extended on the deployable 100 m long boom end.

  8. Applications Technology Satellites -F and -G.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerwin, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) Program are to advance space technology in areas of importance to mankind. A brief description of the planned satellites and experiments is presented. The experiments include instructional television, communications, navigation, meteorology, spacecraft technology and science. The ATS-F and -G satellites will have 30-foot deployable antennas and will serve as three-axis stabilized platforms in geostationary orbit with 0.1 degree pointing accuracy.

  9. Narrow-Band Applications of Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlan, Bert; Horowitz, Andrew

    This paper attempts to describe the advantages of "narrow-band" applications of communications satellites for education. It begins by discussing the general controversy surrounding the use of satellites in education, by placing the concern within the larger context of the general debate over the uses of new technologies in education, and by…

  10. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 2: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations and data-collection systems in the Arizona test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Ground surveys and aerial observations were used to monitor rapidly changing moisture conditions in the Salt-Verde watershed. Repetitive satellite snow cover observations greatly reduce the necessity for routine aerial snow reconnaissance flights over the mountains. High resolution, multispectral imagery provided by LANDSAT satellite series enabled rapid and accurate mapping of snow-cover distributions for small- to medium-sized subwatersheds; however, the imagery provided only one observation every 9 days of about a third of the watershed. Low resolution imagery acquired by the ITOSa dn SMS/GOES meteorological satellite series provides the daily synoptic observation necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow-covered area in the entire watershed. Short term runoff volumes can be predicted from daily sequential snow cover observations.

  11. Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor); Peterson, R. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The history of remote sensing of snow cover is reviewed and the following topics are covered: various techniques for interpreting LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data; the status of future systems for continuing snow hydrology applications; the use of snow cover observations in streamflow forecasts by Applications Systems Verification and Transfer participants and selected foreign investigators; and the benefits of using satellite snow cover data in runoff prediction.

  12. Satellite Networks: Architectures, Applications, and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    Since global satellite networks are moving to the forefront in enhancing the national and global information infrastructures due to communication satellites' unique networking characteristics, a workshop was organized to assess the progress made to date and chart the future. This workshop provided the forum to assess the current state-of-the-art, identify key issues, and highlight the emerging trends in the next-generation architectures, data protocol development, communication interoperability, and applications. Presentations on overview, state-of-the-art in research, development, deployment and applications and future trends on satellite networks are assembled.

  13. Satellite remote sensing facility for oceanograhic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. H.; Kent, S. S.; Seidman, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The project organization, design process, and construction of a Remote Sensing Facility at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at LaJolla, California are described. The facility is capable of receiving, processing, and displaying oceanographic data received from satellites. Data are primarily imaging data representing the multispectral ocean emissions and reflectances, and are accumulated during 8 to 10 minute satellite passes over the California coast. The most important feature of the facility is the reception and processing of satellite data in real time, allowing investigators to direct ships to areas of interest for on-site verifications and experiments.

  14. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 6: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations NOAA/NESS support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    Geostationary and polar orbiting satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration were used to operationally provide field hydrologists with basin snowcover percentages for inclusion in runoff models. Data reduction is accomplished thru the use of optical rectification devices and electronic color density slicers. Over two thousand satellite-derived snow maps covering 30 different basins in the western United States were provided to users. Plans for improving snowmapping techniques on computer interactive systems and by all-digital analysis are presented. A description of the newest generation of NOAA polar orbiters, TIROS-N, and its potential for snowmapping is reviewed. Snowcover percentages for all basins determined between November 1974 and July 1978 are presented in tabular format.

  15. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  16. Photovoltaic power system for satellite Earth stations in remote areas: Project status and design description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system which will be installed at a remote location in Indonesia to provide power for a satellite Earth station and a classroom for video and audio teleconferences are described. The Earth station may also provide telephone service to a nearby village. The use of satellite communications for development assistance applications and the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic engine generator power system for remote satellite Earth stations are demonstrated. The Indonesian rural satellite project is discussed and the photovoltaic power system is described.

  17. Domestic satellite communications systems - Background and projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargellini, P. L.

    Planned and existing national and international communications satellites are reviewed, along with comparative costs for leasing or owning a satellite and the basic capabilities of communications spacecraft. Eleven different satellite communications systems existed in 1982, including Intelsat, Marisat/Inmarsat, and Intersputnik as the international segments, and the Molniya, Telesat, Palapa, Westar, Satcom, Comstar, Amersat, and the SBS national systems. Seven of the twenty countries leasing Intelsat services are planning their own satellites. Leasing permits full capabilities withno development costs and ensures the lessor of full use of the satellite capacities. Developing countries can then gain hands-on experience with space technologies. Future demands are discussed, noting the broadening of the available bandwidths, better orbit utilization, and increases in transponder numbers to handle increased loads in future spacecraft.

  18. Computer communications through telecommunications satellite systems - The NADIR project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, J.-L.

    Current developments in satellite digital communication in Europe are surveyed, and the status of the French NADIR project begun in 1980 is reported. The geographic coverage, transmission rates, propagation delays, broadcasting and multidestination channels, and error rates characteristic of present satellite systems are discussed, and the specific performance parameters of the Telecom-1 system, comprising three geosynchronous satellites (one operational and two backup) with six 25-Mbit/sec, 12-14-GHz digital transponders and one 4-6 GHz analog port (for telephone and TV services) each, are examined. Telecom-1 will operate in a TDMA-AD mode with coverage of up to 320 earth stations in Central and Western Europe, transmission rates of 2.4-2000 kbit/sec, and error rates less than 10 to the -6th during 99 percent of the time. New applications foreseen include remote processing, distributed databases, computer teleconferencing, and electronic mail systems; new basic tools such as bulk-transfer and transaction-transfer protocols and database-management systems will be required. These tools are under development and testing (using the ANIS Telecom-1 simulator) by NADIR.

  19. Gradio: Project proposal for satellite gradiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balmino, G.; Barilier, F.; Bernard, A.; Bouzat, C.; Riviera, G.; Runavot, J.

    1981-01-01

    A gradiometric approach, rather than the more complicated satellite to satellite tracking, is proposed for studying anomalies in the gravitational fields of the Earth and, possibly, other telluric bodies. The first analyses of a gradiometer based on four of ONERA's CACTUS or SUPERCACTUS accelerometers are summarized. it is shown that the obstacles to achieving the required accuracy are not insuperable. The device will be carried in a 1000 kg lens shaped satellite in a heliosynchronous orbit 200 to 300 km in altitude. The first launching is planned for the end of 1987.

  20. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. 3: A stochastic rain fade control algorithm for satellite link power via non linear Markow filtering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic and composite nature of propagation impairments that are incurred on Earth-space communications links at frequencies in and above 30/20 GHz Ka band, i.e., rain attenuation, cloud and/or clear air scintillation, etc., combined with the need to counter such degradations after the small link margins have been exceeded, necessitate the use of dynamic statistical identification and prediction processing of the fading signal in order to optimally estimate and predict the levels of each of the deleterious attenuation components. Such requirements are being met in NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project by the implementation of optimal processing schemes derived through the use of the Rain Attenuation Prediction Model and nonlinear Markov filtering theory.

  1. An overview of the communications technology satellite project: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, W.; Ogden, D.; Wright, D.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) project, a joint venture between NASA and the Canadian Department of Communications is given. A brief technical description of the CTS spacecraft and its cognate hardware and operations, a history of the CTS project, and a list of the CTS experiments and demonstrations conducted during the course of the project are given.

  2. An overview of the communications technology satellite project: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, W.; Ogden, D.; Wright, D.

    1982-12-01

    An overview of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) project, a joint venture between NASA and the Canadian Department of Communications is given. A brief technical description of the CTS spacecraft and its cognate hardware and operations, a history of the CTS project, and a list of the CTS experiments and demonstrations conducted during the course of the project are given.

  3. An overview of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, W.; Ogden, D.; Wright, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) project is reviewed. A technical description of the CTS spacecraft and its cognate hardware and operations is included. A historical treatise of the CTS project is provided. Also presented is an overview of the CTS experiments and demonstrations conducted during the course of the project.

  4. On the Beam: The Appalachian Education Satellite Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of a year's operation indicates the Appalachian Education Satellite Project is providing education courses to teachers at a reasonable cost and is proving that such an operation is feasible. (JC)

  5. User applications unique to mobile satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiel, David

    As AMSC enters the market with its mobile satellite services, it faces a sophisticated user group that has already experimented with a wide range of communications services, including cellular radio and Ku-band satellite messaging. AMSC's challenge is to define applications unique to the capabilities of its dedicated L band satellite and consistent with the provisions outlined in its FCC license. Through a carefully researched approach to its three main markets (aeronautical, land mobile, and maritime) AMSC is discovering a wellspring of interest in corporate and general aviation, trucking companies, pipeline monitoring and control companies, maritime management firms, telecommunications companies, and government agencies. A general overview is provided of AMSC's FCC license and corporate history, and the specific applications unique to each user group is discussed.

  6. A study program for geodetic satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The work is reported on support of the GEOS-C Program, National Geodetic Satellite program, and the Earth Physics Program. The statement of work, and a description of the GEOS-C are presented along with the trip reports, and the Earth and Ocean Physics Application program.

  7. Geophysical applications of satellite altimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwell, D.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Publications related to geophysical applications of Seasat and Geosat altimetry are reviewed for the period 1987-1990. Problems discussed include geoid and gravity errors, regional geoid heights and gravity anomalies, local gravity field/flexure, plate tectonics, and gridded geoid heights/gravity anomalies. 99 refs.

  8. The telemedicine spacebridge project: A joint US/Russian venture in long distance medicine via satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuzek, John E.; Cauley, Michael A.; Hollansworth, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The Telemedicine Spacebridge Demonstration Project is a joint U.S./Russian program whose purpose is to further the application of telemedicine both internationally, domestically, and in space. The system has been set up to use a Russian satellite over the Atlantic Ocean and a U.S. domestic satellite to allow physicians a two-way video and audio link between various sites of medical centers in the United States and the Central Hospital in Moscow, Russia. This paper contains a description of the project background, the Spacebridge system, the individual pieces of the system, and the operational experience gained thus far in the project.

  9. The telemedicine spacebridge project: A joint US/Russian venture in long distance medicine via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzek, John E.; Cauley, Michael A.; Hollansworth, James E.

    1994-03-01

    The Telemedicine Spacebridge Demonstration Project is a joint U.S./Russian program whose purpose is to further the application of telemedicine both internationally, domestically, and in space. The system has been set up to use a Russian satellite over the Atlantic Ocean and a U.S. domestic satellite to allow physicians a two-way video and audio link between various sites of medical centers in the United States and the Central Hospital in Moscow, Russia. This paper contains a description of the project background, the Spacebridge system, the individual pieces of the system, and the operational experience gained thus far in the project.

  10. Data Collection Satellite Application in Precision Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durào, O.

    2002-01-01

    's over Brazilian territory. There were 25 platforms when SCD-1 was launched. However this number is growing rapidly to 400 platforms, at first for measurements of water reservoir levels as well as other hydrology applications (The Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency - ANEEL is the customer), and for many other different applications such as meteorology, oceanography, environmental monitoring sciences, and people and animal tracking. The clear feeling is that users are discovering a satellite system whose benefits were not previously well understood when launched and being able to propose and come up with different and useful applications. A new field in the country that has a great potential to benefit from this system is agriculture. Per se, this is a very important sector of the Brazilian economy and its international trade. Combining it with space technology may justify the investment of new and low cost dedicated satellites. This paper describes a new proposal for use of the SCD-1,2,CBERS-1 satellite system for precision agriculture. New PCD's would be developed for measurements of chemical content of the soil, such as, for example, Nitrogen and others, beyond humidity and solar incidence. This can lead to a more efficient fertilization, harvesting and even the spray of chemical defensives, with the consequence of environment protection. The PCD's ground network so established, along with the information network already available, combined with the space segment of such a system may, as previously said, be able to justify the investment in low cost satellites with this sole purpose.

  11. Normalization and calibration of geostationary satellite radiances for the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desormeaux, Yves; Rossow, William B.; Brest, Christopher L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures are described for normalizing the radiometric calibration of image radiances obtained from geostationary weather satellites that contributed data to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The key step is comparison of coincident and collocated measurements made by each satellite and the concurrent AVHRR on the 'afternoon' NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellite at the same viewing geometry. The results of this comparison allow transfer of the AVHRR absolute calibration, which has been established over the whole series, to the radiometers on the geostationary satellites. Results are given for Meteosat-2, 3, and 4, for GOES-5, 6, and 7, for GMS-2, 3, and 4 and for Insat-1B. The relative stability of the calibrations of these radiance data is estimated to be within +/- 3 percent; the uncertainty of the absolute calibrations is estimated to be less than 10 percent. The remaining uncertainties are at least two times smaller than for the original radiance data.

  12. Intersatellite link application to commercial communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young S.; Atia, Ali E.; Ponchak, Denise S.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics of intersatellite link (ISL) systems, and their application to domestic, regional, and global satellite communications, are described. The quantitative advantages of using ISLs to improve orbit utilization, spectrum occupancy, transmission delay (compared to multi-hop links), coverage, and connectivity, and to reduce the number of earth station antennas, are also presented. Cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits of using ISLs are identified, and the technical and systems planning aspects of ISL systems implementation are addressed.

  13. Tailoring Systems Engineering Projects for Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen; Belvin, Keith

    2013-01-01

    NASA maintains excellence in its spaceflight systems by utilizing rigorous engineering processes based on over 50 years of experience. The NASA systems engineering process for flight projects described in NPR 7120.5E was initially developed for major flight projects. The design and development of low-cost small satellite systems does not entail the financial and risk consequences traditionally associated with spaceflight projects. Consequently, an approach is offered to tailoring of the processes such that the small satellite missions will benefit from the engineering rigor without overly burdensome overhead. In this paper we will outline the approaches to tailoring the standard processes for these small missions and describe how it will be applied in a proposed small satellite mission.

  14. Direct/community broadcast projects using space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frutkin, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of direct/community broadcast projects which are currently in preparation in India, Canada, and Japan. It is shown that the satellite broadcast experiments involved are conducted for practical domestic reasons. The broadcast activities in all three projects will not reach other countries' TV receivers unless those countries take deliberate steps to enable themselves to receive such broadcasts. It is pointed out that for technological reasons problems of intrusion and interference connected with the use of satellites in broadcast operations may be much easier to handle than similar problems related to conventional radio broadcasting.

  15. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. 1: Theoretical development and application to yearly predictions for selected cities in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    A rain attenuation prediction model is described for use in calculating satellite communication link availability for any specific location in the world that is characterized by an extended record of rainfall. Such a formalism is necessary for the accurate assessment of such availability predictions in the case of the small user-terminal concept of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project. The model employs the theory of extreme value statistics to generate the necessary statistical rainrate parameters from rain data in the form compiled by the National Weather Service. These location dependent rain statistics are then applied to a rain attenuation model to obtain a yearly prediction of the occurrence of attenuation on any satellite link at that location. The predictions of this model are compared to those of the Crane Two-Component Rain Model and some empirical data and found to be very good. The model is then used to calculate rain attenuation statistics at 59 locations in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii) for the 20 GHz downlinks and 30 GHz uplinks of the proposed ACTS system. The flexibility of this modeling formalism is such that it allows a complete and unified treatment of the temporal aspects of rain attenuation that leads to the design of an optimum stochastic power control algorithm, the purpose of which is to efficiently counter such rain fades on a satellite link.

  16. Timation 3 satellite. [artificial satellite for navigation, space radiation, and time transfer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the Timation 3 satellite are discussed. A diagram of the basic structure is provide to show the solar panels, navigation and telemetry antennas, gravity gradient booms, and solar cell experiments. The specific application of the satellite for time management or time transfer for navigation purposes is reported. Various measurements and experiments conducted by the satellite are described.

  17. Satellite Applications for K-12 Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, M.; Ackerman, S.; Lettvin, E.; Emerson, N.; Whittaker, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation will highlight interactive on-line curriculum developed at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. CIMSS has been on the forefront of educational software design for over two decades, routinely integrating on-line activities into courses on satellite remote sensing. In 2006, CIMSS began collaborating with education experts and researchers from the University of Washington to create an NSF-funded distance learning course for science teachers called Satellite Applications for Geoscience Education. This course includes numerous web-based learning activities, including a distance education tool called VISITview which allows instructors to connect with multiple students simultaneously to conduct a lesson. Developed at CIMSS to facilitate training of National Weather Service forecasters economically and remotely, VISITview is especially effective for groups of people discussing and analyzing maps or images interactively from many locations. Along with an on-line chat function, VISITview participants can use a speaker phone or a networked voice-enabled application to create a learning environment similar to a traditional classroom. VISITview will be used in two capacities: first, instructors will convey topics of current relevance in geoscience disciplines via VISITview. Second, the content experts will participate in "virtual visits" to the classrooms of the educators who take the course for full credit. This will enable scientists to interact with both teachers and students to answer questions and discuss exciting or inspiring examples that link satellite data to their areas of research. As long as a school has Internet access, an LCD projector and a speakerphone, VISITview sessions can be shared with an entire classroom. The geoscientists who developed material for the course and conducting VISITview lectures include a geologist from the University of Wisconsin-Richland, an

  18. Science operations management. [with Infrared Astronomy Satellite project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squibb, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    The operation teams engaged in the IR Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) project included scientists from the IRAS International Science Team. The detailed involvement of these scientists in the design, testing, validation, and operations phases of the IRAS mission contributed to the success of this project. The Project Management Group spent a substantial amount of time discussing science-related issues, because science team coleaders were members from the outset. A single scientific point-of-contact for the Management Group enhanced the depth and continuity of agreement reached in decision-making.

  19. A generalized transmultiplexer and its application to mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichiyoshi, Osamu

    1990-01-01

    A generalization of digital transmultiplexer technology is presented. The proposed method can realize transmultiplexer (TMUX) and transdemultiplexer (TDUX) filter banks whose element filters have bandwidths greater than the channel spacing frequency. This feature is useful in many communications applications. As an example, a satellite switched (SS) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) system is proposed for spot beam satellite communications, particularly for mobile satellite communications.

  20. Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

    1990-01-01

    The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

  1. Laser power beaming for satellite applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-09-22

    A serious consideration of laser power beaming for satellite applications appears to have grown out of a NASA mission analysis for transmitting power to lunar bases during the two week dark period. System analyses showed that laser power beaming to the moon in conjunction with efficient, large area solar cell collection panels, were an attractive alternative to other schemes such as battery storage and nuclear generators, largely because of the high space transportation costs. The primary difficulty with this scheme is the need for very high average power visible lasers. One system study indicated that lasers in excess of 10 MW at a wavelength of approximately 850 nm were required. Although such lasers systems have received much attention for military applications, their realization is still a long term goal.

  2. Monitoring Snow Using Geostationary Satellite Retrievals During the SAAWSO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Robert M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Kuligowski, Robert J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    The SAAWSO (Satellite Applications for Arctic Weather and SAR (Search And Rescue) Operations) field programs were conducted by Environment Canada near St. Johns, NL and Goose Bay, NL in the winters of 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. The goals of these programs were to validate satellite-based nowcasting products, including snow amount, wind intensity, and cloud physical parameters (e.g., cloud cover), over northern latitudes with potential applications to Search And Rescue (SAR) operations. Ground-based in situ sensors and remote sensing platforms were used to measure microphysical properties of precipitation, clouds and fog, radiation, temperature, moisture and wind profiles. Multi-spectral infrared observations obtained from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 provided estimates of cloud top temperature and height, phase (water, ice), hydrometer size, extinction, optical depth, and horizontal wind patterns at 15 min intervals. In this work, a technique developed for identifying clouds capable of producing high snowfall rates and incorporating wind information from the satellite observations is described. The cloud top physical properties retrieved from operational satellite observations are validated using measurements obtained from the ground-based in situ and remote sensing platforms collected during two precipitation events: a blizzard heavy snow storm case and a moderate snow event. The retrieved snow precipitation rates are found to be comparable to those of ground-based platform measurements in the heavy snow event.

  3. Monitoring Snow Using Geostationary Satellite Retrievals During the SAAWSO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Robert M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Kuligowski, Robert J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2016-09-01

    The SAAWSO (Satellite Applications for Arctic Weather and SAR (Search And Rescue) Operations) field programs were conducted by Environment Canada near St. Johns, NL and Goose Bay, NL in the winters of 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. The goals of these programs were to validate satellite-based nowcasting products, including snow amount, wind intensity, and cloud physical parameters (e.g., cloud cover), over northern latitudes with potential applications to Search And Rescue (SAR) operations. Ground-based in situ sensors and remote sensing platforms were used to measure microphysical properties of precipitation, clouds and fog, radiation, temperature, moisture and wind profiles. Multi-spectral infrared observations obtained from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 provided estimates of cloud top temperature and height, phase (water, ice), hydrometer size, extinction, optical depth, and horizontal wind patterns at 15 min intervals. In this work, a technique developed for identifying clouds capable of producing high snowfall rates and incorporating wind information from the satellite observations is described. The cloud top physical properties retrieved from operational satellite observations are validated using measurements obtained from the ground-based in situ and remote sensing platforms collected during two precipitation events: a blizzard heavy snow storm case and a moderate snow event. The retrieved snow precipitation rates are found to be comparable to those of ground-based platform measurements in the heavy snow event.

  4. SOFT project: a new forecasting system based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Ananda; Orfila, A.; Alvarez, Alberto; Hernandez, E.; Gomis, D.; Barth, Alexander; Tintore, Joaquim

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the SOFT project is to develop a new ocean forecasting system by using a combination of satellite dat, evolutionary programming and numerical ocean models. To achieve this objective two steps are proved: (1) to obtain an accurate ocean forecasting system using genetic algorithms based on satellite data; and (2) to integrate the above new system into existing deterministic numerical models. Evolutionary programming will be employed to build 'intelligent' systems that, learning form the past ocean variability and considering the present ocean state, will be able to infer near future ocean conditions. Validation of the forecast skill will be carried out by comparing the forecasts fields with satellite and in situ observations. Validation with satellite observations will provide the expected errors in the forecasting system. Validation with in situ data will indicate the capabilities of the satellite based forecast information to improve the performance of the numerical ocean models. This later validation will be accomplished considering in situ measurements in a specific oceanographic area at two different periods of time. The first set of observations will be employed to feed the hybrid systems while the second set will be used to validate the hybrid and traditional numerical model results.

  5. Compendium of Applications Technology Satellite user experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, N. A.; Strange, J. D.; Hein, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    The achievements of the user experiments performed with ATS satellites from 1967 to 1973 are summarized. Included are fixed and mobile point to point communications experiments involving voice, teletype and facsimile transmissions. Particular emphasis is given to the Alaska and Hawaii satellite communications experiments. The use of the ATS satellites for ranging and position fixing of ships and aircraft is also covered. The structure and operating characteristics of the various ATS satellite are briefly described.

  6. Analytical technique for satellite projected cross-sectional area calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yaacov, Ohad; Edlerman, Eviatar; Gurfil, Pini

    2015-07-01

    Calculating the projected cross-sectional area (PCSA) of a satellite along a given direction is essential for implementing attitude control modes such as Sun pointing or minimum-drag. The PCSA may also be required for estimating the forces and torques induced by atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure. This paper develops a new analytical method for calculating the PCSA, the concomitant torques and the satellite exposed surface area, based on the theory of convex polygons. A scheme for approximating the outer surface of any satellite by polygons is developed. Then, a methodology for calculating the projections of the polygons along a given vector is employed. The methodology also accounts for overlaps among projections, and is capable of providing the true PCSA in a computationally-efficient manner. Using the Space Autonomous Mission for Swarming and Geo-locating Nanosatellites mechanical model, it is shown that the new analytical method yields accurate results, which are similar to results obtained from alternative numerical tools.

  7. An ANSERLIN array for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colomb, F. Y.; Kunkee, D. B.; Mayes, P. E.; Smith, D. W.; Jamnejad, V.

    1990-01-01

    Design, analysis, construction, and test of linear arrays of ANSERLIN (annular sector, radiating line) elements are reported and discussed. Due to feeding simplicity and easy construction as well as good CP performance, a planar array composed of a number of such linear arrays each producing a shaped beam tilted in elevation, is a good candidate as a vehicle-mounted mechanically steered antenna for mobile satellite applications. A single level construction technique was developed that makes this type of array very cost competitive with other low-profile arrays. An asymmetric 19.5 inch long four-element array was fabricated and tested with reasonable performance. A smaller five-element symmetric array (16 inch long) was also designed and tested capable of operating in either sense of circular polarization. Efforts were made to successfully reduce this effect.

  8. Baltimore applications project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, T. S.; Yaffee, P.

    1978-01-01

    The Baltimore Applications Project (BAP) was originally designed as an experimental effort to assist the government of the City of Baltimore in applying technology to the solution of municipal problems. Recent modifications in the structuring and operation of the program are discussed. A tabular update on the individual tasks undertaken and their treatment is provided. Details of energy and nonenergy related tasks are presented in appendices.

  9. Spacecraft design project: High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The High Temperature Superconductor Infrared Imaging Satellite (HTSCIRIS) is designed to perform the space based infrared imaging and surveillance mission. The design of the satellite follows the black box approach. The payload is a stand alone unit, with the spacecraft bus designed to meet the requirements of the payload as listed in the statement of work. Specifications influencing the design of the spacecraft bus were originated by the Naval Research Lab. A description of the following systems is included: spacecraft configuration, orbital dynamics, radio frequency communication subsystem, electrical power system, propulsion, attitude control system, thermal control, and structural design. The issues of testing and cost analysis are also addressed. This design project was part of the course Advanced Spacecraft Design taught at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  10. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. Part 2: Theoretical development of a dynamic model and application to rain fade durations and tolerable control delays for fade countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic rain attenuation prediction model is developed for use in obtaining the temporal characteristics, on time scales of minutes or hours, of satellite communication link availability. Analagous to the associated static rain attenuation model, which yields yearly attenuation predictions, this dynamic model is applicable at any location in the world that is characterized by the static rain attenuation statistics peculiar to the geometry of the satellite link and the rain statistics of the location. Such statistics are calculated by employing the formalism of Part I of this report. In fact, the dynamic model presented here is an extension of the static model and reduces to the static model in the appropriate limit. By assuming that rain attenuation is dynamically described by a first-order stochastic differential equation in time and that this random attenuation process is a Markov process, an expression for the associated transition probability is obtained by solving the related forward Kolmogorov equation. This transition probability is then used to obtain such temporal rain attenuation statistics as attenuation durations and allowable attenuation margins versus control system delay.

  11. Advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and MM-wave bands in Japan's R and D satellite project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, Shunkichi; Ohmori, Shingo; Hamamoto, Naokazu; Yamamoto, Minoru

    1991-01-01

    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) studied an advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and millimeter-wave bands in the R&D Satellite project. The project started in 1990 and the satellite will be launched in 1997. On-board multi-beam interconnecting is one of basic functions to realize one-hop connection among Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs), mobile, and hand-held terminals in future mobile satellite communications system. An Intermediate Frequency (IF) filter bank and regenerative transponder are suitable for this function. The transponder configuration of an advanced mobile communications mission of the R&D Satellite for experiment is shown. High power transmitters of Ka and millimeter-wave bands, a 3x3 IF filter band and Single Channel Per Carrier/Time Division Multiplexing (SCPC/TDM) regenerative MODEMS, which will be boarded on the R&D Satellite, are being developed for the purpose of studying the feasibility of advanced mobile communications system.

  12. NPS alternate techsat satellite, design project for AE-4871

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This project was completed as part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The intent of the course is to provide experience in the design of all the major components in a spacecraft system. Team members were given responsibility for the design of one of the six primary subsystems: power, structures, propulsion, attitude control, telemetry, tracking and control (TT&C), and thermal control. In addition, a single member worked on configuration control, launch vehicle integration, and a spacecraft test plan. Given an eleven week time constraint, a preliminary design of each subsystem was completed. Where possible, possible component selections were also made. Assistance for this project came principally from the Naval Research Laboratory's Spacecraft Technology Branch. Specific information on components was solicited from representatives in industry. The design project centers on a general purpose satellite bus that is currently being sought by the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  13. SmallSats, Iodine Propulsion Technology, Applications to Low-Cost Lunar Missions, and the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Closing Remarks: ?(1) SmallSats hold significant potential for future low cost high value missions; (2) Propulsion remains a key limiting capability for SmallSats that Iodine can address: High ISP * Density for volume constrained spacecraft; Indefinite quiescence, unpressurized and non-hazardous as a secondary payload; (3) Iodine enables MicroSat and SmallSat maneuverability: Enables transfer into high value orbits, constellation deployment and deorbit; (4) Iodine may enable a new class of planetary and exploration class missions: Enables GTO launched secondary spacecraft to transit to the moon, asteroids, and other interplanetary destinations for approximately 150 million dollars full life cycle cost including the launch; (5) ESPA based OTVs are also volume constrained and a shift from xenon to iodine can significantly increase the transfer vehicle change in volume capability including transfers from GTO to a range of Lunar Orbits; (6) The iSAT project is a fast pace high value iodine Hall technology demonstration mission: Partnership with NASA GRC and NASA MSFC with industry partner - Busek; (7) The iSAT mission is an approved project with PDR in November of 2014 and is targeting a flight opportunity in FY17.

  14. Applications of Communications Satellites in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert P.

    Early experiments with the ATS-1 and ATS-3 satellites utilized one way and two way audio for a variety of university purposes, and several different television modes were employed in the ATS-6 satellite. Among the higher education activities on ATS-6 were inservice teacher education and the facilitation of regionalized medical education. A college…

  15. Satellite Emission Range Inferred Earth Survey (SERIES) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buennagel, L. A.; Macdoran, P. F.; Neilan, R. E.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Young, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) was developed by the Department of Defense primarily for navigation use by the United States Armed Forces. The system will consist of a constellation of 18 operational Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging (NAVSTAR) satellites by the late 1980's. During the last four years, the Satellite Emission Range Inferred Earth Surveying (SERIES) team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed a novel receiver which is the heart of the SERIES geodetic system designed to use signals broadcast from the GPS. This receiver does not require knowledge of the exact code sequence being transmitted. In addition, when two SERIES receivers are used differentially to determine a baseline, few cm accuracies can be obtained. The initial engineering test phase has been completed for the SERIES Project. Baseline lengths, ranging from 150 meters to 171 kilometers, have been measured with 0.3 cm to 7 cm accuracies. This technology, which is sponsored by the NASA Geodynamics Program, has been developed at JPL to meet the challenge for high precision, cost-effective geodesy, and to complement the mobile Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) system for Earth surveying.

  16. Earth resources applications of the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite (SEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. S.; Cook, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a four month study to define earth resource applications which are uniquely suited to data collection by a geosynchronous satellite. While such a satellite could also perform many of the functions of ERTS, or its low orbiting successors, those applications were considered in those situations where requirements for timely observation limit the capability of ERTS or EOS. Thus, the application presented could be used to justify a SEOS.

  17. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  18. Satellite communications application to Pacific countries above Ku band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Takashi

    1992-08-01

    An application of satellite communications above the Ku band to the Pacific region is described, focusing on: (1) Lightsat system and (2) a high capacity satellite system. A small geostationary satellite system using Ku band for the Federated States of Micronesia is shown as an example. A concept of multi-gigabits/second high capacity communications system using two satellites in the Ka band is described. The onboard bit-by-bit processing is very useful in the low link margin environment due to rain attenuation. These topics were obtained by the Asia Pacific Telecommunications Study granted by NASA conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  19. Satellite communications application to Pacific countries above Ku band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iida, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    An application of satellite communications above the Ku band to the Pacific region is described, focusing on: (1) Lightsat system and (2) a high capacity satellite system. A small geostationary satellite system using Ku band for the Federated States of Micronesia is shown as an example. A concept of multi-gigabits/second high capacity communications system using two satellites in the Ka band is described. The onboard bit-by-bit processing is very useful in the low link margin environment due to rain attenuation. These topics were obtained by the Asia Pacific Telecommunications Study granted by NASA conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  20. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Conceptual Design Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  1. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Siting Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential and development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  2. Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT and NOAA satellites data were used to study snow depth. These snow measurements were used to help forecast runoff and flooding. Many areas of California, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming were emphasized.

  3. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  4. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  5. Applications of Nano-Satellites and Cube-Satellites in Microwave and RF Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Goverdhanam, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of microwave technologies for Small Satellites including NanoSats and CubeSats. In addition, examples of space communication technology demonstration projects using CubeSats are presented. Furthermore, examples of miniature instruments for Earth science measurements are discussed.

  6. Applications of Nano-satellites and Cube-satellites in Microwave and RF Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Goverdhanam, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of microwave technologies for Small Satellites including NanoSats and CubeSats. In addition, examples of space communication technology demonstration projects using CubeSats are presented. Furthermore, examples of miniature instruments for Earth science measurements are discussed.

  7. Satellite Power System (SPS) military applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozeroff, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS) is examined. A number of potential military support possibilities are described. An SPS with military capabilities may have a strong negative impact on international relations if it is not internationalized. The SPS satellite would be vulnerable to military action of an enemy with good space capability, but would experience little or no threat from saboteurs or terrorists, except via the ground controls. The paper concludes with an outline of some of the key issues involved, and a number of recommendations for future study, including some areas for long term efforts.

  8. Continuation of the compendium of applications technology satellite and communications technology satellite user experiments 1967-1977, volume 2. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, N. A.; Nash, J. F.; Strange, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Approximately 453 reports, papers, and articles catalogued into an information retrieval system, covering communications experiments and demonstrations conducted, utilizing the Communications Technology Satellite and the Applications Technology Satellites 1, 3, 5, and 6 are listed.

  9. USDA Forest Service mobile satellite communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The airborne IR signal processing system being developed will require the use of mobile satellite communications to achieve its full capability and improvement in delivery timeliness of processed IR data to the Fire Staff. There are numerous other beneficial uses, both during wildland fire management operations or in daily routine tasks, which will also benefit from the availability of reliable communications from remote areas.

  10. LCROSS: Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmie, John

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the success of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) project. The LCROSS mission science goals was to: (1) Confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region on the Moon (2) Identify the form/state of hydrogen observed by at the lunar poles (3) Quantify, if present, the amount of water in the lunar regolith, with respect to hydrogen concentrations (4) Characterize the lunar regolith within a permanently shadowed crater on the Moon. The mission confirmed the presence of water ice on the moon by impacting a part of the spent Centaur upper stage into the Cabeus crater.. The presentation includes pictures of the development of the spacecraft, testing, launch, impact site, impact and a section of what the author called "Lunacy" which showed joking cartoons.

  11. Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

    1991-01-01

    This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

  12. Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

  13. Advanced Satellite Research Project: SCAR Research Database. Bibliographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1991-01-01

    The literature search was provided to locate and analyze the most recent literature that was relevant to the research. This was done by cross-relating books, articles, monographs, and journals that relate to the following topics: (1) Experimental Systems - Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and (2) Integrated System Digital Network (ISDN) and Advance Communication Techniques (ISDN and satellites, ISDN standards, broadband ISDN, flame relay and switching, computer networks and satellites, satellite orbits and technology, satellite transmission quality, and network configuration). Bibliographic essay on literature citations and articles reviewed during the literature search task is provided.

  14. Satellite laser ranging and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Schutz, B. E.; Eanes, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) provides an important capability for precise orbit determination and for geophysical parameter estimation to support a number of contemporary geodynamic and oceanographic investigations. The precision of the SLR measurement has improved from the early meter-level systems to the current capabilities of a few centimeters for the best systems. The accuracy of the orbits and geophysical parameter recovery have shown an associated improvement. Polar motion with accuracies of 2 mas, station coordinates better than 10 cm, and interstation baseline rates indicative of tectonic motion are determined routinely with the current set of global SLR data. This discussion reviews the SLR measurement, analysis approach, and some of the recent results derived from the current SLR data set.

  15. Applications technology satellites advanced mission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    Three spacecraft configurations were designed for operation as a high powered synchronous communications satellite. Each spacecraft includes a 1 kw TWT and a 2 kw Klystron power amplifier feeding an antenna with multiple shaped beams. One of the spacecraft is designed to be boosted by a Thor-Delta launch vehicle and raised to synchronous orbit with electric propulsion. The other two are inserted into a elliptical transfer orbit with an Atlas Centaur and injected into final orbit with an apogee kick motor. Advanced technologies employed in the several configurations include tubes with multiple stage collectors radiating directly to space, multiple-contoured beam antennas, high voltage rollout solar cell arrays with integral power conditioning, electric propulsion for orbit raising and on-station attitude control and station-keeping, and liquid metal slip rings.

  16. Baltimore applications project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, T. S.; Yaffee, P.

    1979-01-01

    An update is presented for the following projects: (1) asphalt pavement recycling; (2) data collection platform/water quality monitoring; (3) digital emergency traffic routing; (4) fire department communications and dispatch system; (5) health department management information system; (6) hazardous materials; (7) coal gasification; and (8) emergency vehicle proximity sensing.

  17. Satellite applications to electric-utility communications needs. [land mobile satellite service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstein, M.; Barnett, R.

    1981-01-01

    Significant changes in the Nation's electric power systems are expected to result from the integration of new technology, possible during the next decade. Digital communications for monitor and control, exclusive of protective relaying, are expected to double or triple current traffic. A nationwide estimate of 13 Mb/s traffic is projected. Of this total, 8 Mb/s is attributed to the bulk-power system as it is now being operated (4 Mb/s). This traffic could be accommodated by current communications satellites using 3- to 4.5-m-diameter ground terminals costing $35,000 to $70,000 each. The remaining 5-Mb/s traffic is attributed to new technology concepts integrated into the distribution system. Such traffic is not compatible with current satellite technology because it requires small, low-cost ground terminals. Therefore, a high effective isotropic radiated power satellite, such as the one being planned by NASA for the Land Mobile Satellite Service, is required.

  18. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further sub-divided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  19. Program on application of communications satellites to educational development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research in needs analysis, communications technology studies, and systems synthesis is reported. Existing and planned educational telecommunications services are studied and library utilization of telecommunications is described. Preliminary estimates are presented of ranges of utilization of educational telecommunications services for 1975 and 1985; instructional and public television, computer-aided instruction, computing resources, and information resource sharing for various educational levels and purposes. Communications technology studies include transmission schemes for still-picture television, use of Gunn effect devices, and TV receiver front ends for direct satellite reception at 12 GHz. Two major studies in the systems synthesis project concern (1) organizational and administrative aspects of a large-scale instructional satellite system to be used with schools and (2) an analysis of future development of instructional television, with emphasis on the use of video tape recorders and cable television. A communications satellite system synthesis program developed for NASA is now operational on the university IBM 360-50 computer.

  20. A comparison of filtering algorithms for GPS satellite navigation application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Peters, J. G.; Schutz, B. E.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of three square root filter formulations with the standard extended Kalman filter is described. The characteristics of the algorithms were compared by simulating the application of a phase one GPS system to the determination of a LANDSAT-D Satellite.

  1. Web-Based Satellite Products Database for Meteorological and Climate Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Dung; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Nguyen, Louis; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The need for ready access to satellite data and associated physical parameters such as cloud properties has been steadily growing. Air traffic management, weather forecasters, energy producers, and weather and climate researchers among others can utilize more satellite information than in the past. Thus, it is essential that such data are made available in near real-time and as archival products in an easy-access and user friendly environment. A host of Internet web sites currently provide a variety of satellite products for various applications. Each site has a unique contribution with appeal to a particular segment of the public and scientific community. This is no less true for the NASA Langley's Clouds and Radiation (NLCR) website (http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov) that has been evolving over the past 10 years to support a variety of research projects This website was originally developed to display cloud products derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) over the Southern Great Plains for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. It has evolved into a site providing a comprehensive database of near real-time and historical satellite products used for meteorological, aviation, and climate studies. To encourage the user community to take advantage of the site, this paper summarizes the various products and projects supported by the website and discusses future options for new datasets.

  2. The Progress for China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X.; Wu, Y.; Shan, X.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X.

    2008-12-01

    The underlying way to promote earthquake forecasting is to develop a three-dimensional observation and data processing system. According to the requirement of earthquake monitoring, the integrative three- dimensional observation system for Earthquake Monitoring contains of Earthquake Satellite Observation System which includes electromagnetism satellite (InSAR satellite) infrared satellite and etc; and Ground- based Digital Earthquake Monitoring Network. The presented researches show that electromagnetic and ionospheric precursor monitoring is one of the most effective means of short and imminent-term earthquake prediction. Being the first step, to develop and launch a seismo-electromagnetic trail satellite to detect the scenario and effects is proposed. The science targets of the trail satellite for probing earthquake electromagnetism are: (1) to identify seismic precursory information of electromagnetism, ionosphere, high-energy particle related to strong earthquakes and to explore its regulation and mechanism; (2) to obtain world-wide data of electromagnetic field, ionosphere, high energy particle; (3) to provide sharing data for international cooperation and scientific study; (4)to validate the effectiveness and credibility of the satellite in probing into seismo-electromagnetism ionosphere. For these targets, the trail satellite concerns various physics quantity such as electromagnetic field, electromagnetic wave, ionospheric plasma, high energy particle disturbances and etc. Of course certain accuracy is required. Based on requirement for the physical parameters and requirement for measurement precision, the scientific payloads have been selected as following: Search-Coil magnetometer, Electric field detector, Fluxgate magnetometer, GPS two-frequency Receiver, Plasma analyzer, Langmuir probe, Energetic particle detector and three-frequency transmitter. The main parameters about the satellite orbit are designed as that, Altitude should be 500km; Inclination is

  3. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Isenberg, Lon

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000-kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Statements of need are presented from DoD, DOE, and NASA. Safety issues are identified, and if they are properly addressed they should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the DoD, DOE, NASA, and the civilian community. These applications include both low- and high-altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low- and high-power lunar and planetary base power systems, broadband global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television.

  4. Nineteen hundred seventy three significant accomplishments. [Landsat satellite data applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Data collected by the Skylab remote sensing satellites was used to develop applications techniques and to combine automatic data classification with statistical clustering methods. Continuing research was concentrated in the correlation and registration of data products and in the definition of the atmospheric effects on remote sensing. The causes of errors encountered in the automated classification of agricultural data are identified. Other applications in forestry, geography, environmental geology, and land use are discussed.

  5. The application of image processing to satellite navigation. [considering landmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Given the locations of several landmarks on a satellite acquired image and their true geographic coordinates, the position and orientation of the satellite can be determined. Two methods for automatically locating the image coordinates of specified landmarks are described. The first, a particularly fast sequential similarity detection algorithm for template matching was originally described by Nagel and Rosenfeld. The second method involves iteratively resampling the picture function in the vicinity of the anticipated landmark. A variety of other speedup methods is also described. An application to SMS imagery is envisioned.

  6. Earth Resources Technology Satellite data collection project, ERTS - Bolivia. [thematic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite program of Bolivia has developed a multidisciplinary project to carry out investigations in cartography and to prepare various thematic maps. In cartography, investigations are being carried out with the ERTS-1 images and with existing maps, to determine their application to the preparation of new cartographic products on one hand and on the other to map those regions where the cartography is still deficient. The application of the MSS images to the geological mapping has given more than satisfactory results. Working with conventional photointerpretation, it has been possible to prepare regional geological maps, tectonic maps, studies relative to mining, geomorphological maps, studies relative to petroleum exploration, volcanological maps and maps of hydrologic basins. In agriculture, the ERTS images are used to study land classification and forest and soils mapping.

  7. Environmental statement for Applications Technology Satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The experiments, environmental impact, and applications of data collected by ATS are discussed. Data cover communications, navigation, meteorology, data collection (including data from small unattended remote stations such as buoys, seismology and hydrology monitors, etc.), geodesy, and scientific experiments to define the environment at synchronous orbit, and to monitor emissions from the sun.

  8. Application of China-Brazil Earth resources satellite in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yuliang; Zhao, Shangmin; Zhen, Liu; Bei, Jia

    2009-03-01

    The launch and successful operation of Chinese-Brazil Earth resources satellite (CBERS-1) in China has accelerated the application of space technology in China. These applications include agriculture, forestry, water conservation, land resources, city planning, environment protection and natural hazards monitoring and so on. The result of these applications provides a scientific basis for government decision making and has created great economic and social benefits in Chinese national economy construction. In this paper we present examples and provide auxiliary documentation of additional applications of the data from Earth resource monitoring.

  9. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.; Albrecht, G.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  10. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.

    1994-12-31

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  11. Satellite time-transfer: recent developments and projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, W.; Nawrocki, J.

    2006-10-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) keep a central role in the international timekeeping. American Global Positioning System (GPS) is a navigation system that has proven itself to be a reliable source of positioning for both the military community and the civilian community. But, little known by many, is the fact that GPS has proven itself to be an important and valuable utility to the timekeeping community (Lewandowski et al. 1999). GPS is a versatile and global tool which can be used to both distribute time to an arbitrary number of users and synchronise clocks over large distances with a high degree of precision and accuracy. Similar performance can be obtained with Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). It is expected in the near future satellites of a new European navigation system GALILEO might bring some important opportunities for international timekeeping. This paper after a brief introduction to international timekeeping focuses on the description of recent progress in time transfer techniques using GNSS satellites.

  12. Application of intersatellite links to domestic satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, D. S.; Spence, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study on intersatellite link (ISL) applications for domestic satellite communications are presented. It was determined if any technical, economic, or performance benefits could be gained by introducing intersatellite links into a domestic satellite communication network. Several key systems issues of domestic ISL's are addressed. These include the effect of a skewed traffic distribution on the selection of ISL satellite orbit locations, tolerable satellite spacing, and crosslink traffic-handling requirements. An ISL technology assessment is made by performing a parametric link analysis for several microwave and optical implementations. The impact of the crosslink on the end-to-end link performance is investigated for both regenerative and nonregenerative ISL architectures. A comparison is made between single satellite systems operating at C-, and Ku-bands and the corresponding ISL systems in terms of ground segment cost, space segment cost, and net link performance. Results indicate that ISL's can effectively expand the CONUS orbital arc, with a 60 GHz ISL implementation being the most attractive.

  13. Impact of far-side satellite tracking on gravity estimation in the SELENE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Heki, K.; Rowlands, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary results of numerical simulation are presented to examine the gravity estimation capability in the Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer), which will be launched in 2003. One of the new characteristics of the SELENE lunar gravimetry is 4-way satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking of a low-altitude lunar orbiter by means of a high-altitude relay satellite. It is shown that planned satellites configuration will provide a good far-side data coverage of the lunar orbiter and will improve lunar gravity field as well as far-side selenoid.

  14. Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission status and application of satellite-based global rainfall map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachi, Misako; Shimizu, Shuji; Kubota, Takuji; Yoshida, Naofumi; Oki, Riko; Kojima, Masahiro; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    . Collaboration with GCOM-W is not only limited to its participation to GPM constellation but also coordination in areas of algorithm development and validation in Japan. Generation of high-temporal and high-accurate global rainfall map is one of targets of the GPM mission. As a proto-type for GPM era, JAXA has developed and operates the Global Precipitation Map algorithm in near-real-time since October 2008, and hourly and 0.1-degree resolution binary data and images available at http://sharaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/GSMaP/ four hours after observation. The algorithms are based on outcomes from the Global Satellite Mapping for Precipitation (GSMaP) project, which was sponsored by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) under the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) framework between 2002 and 2007 (Okamoto et al., 2005; Aonashi et al., 2009; Ushio et al., 2009). Target of GSMaP project is to produce global rainfall maps that are highly accurate and in high temporal and spatial resolution through the development of rain rate retrieval algorithms based on reliable precipitation physical models by using several microwave radiometer data, and comprehensive use of precipitation radar and geostationary infrared imager data. Near-real-time GSMaP data is distributed via internet and utilized by end users. Purpose of data utilization by each user covers broad areas and in world wide; Science researches (model validation, data assimilation, typhoon study, etc.), weather forecast/service, flood warning and rain analysis over river basin, oceanographic condition forecast, agriculture, and education. Toward the GPM era, operational application should be further emphasized as well as science application. JAXA continues collaboration with hydrological communities to utilize satellite-based precipitation data as inputs to future flood prediction and warning system, as well as with meteorological agencies to proceed further data utilization in numerical weather prediction

  15. Applications of two-way satellite time and frequency transfer in the BeiDou navigation satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, ShanShi; Hu, XiaoGong; Liu, Li; Guo, Rui; Zhu, LingFeng; Chang, ZhiQiao; Tang, ChengPan; Gong, XiuQiang; Li, Ran; Yu, Yang

    2016-10-01

    A two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) device equipped in the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) can calculate clock error between satellite and ground master clock. TWSTFT is a real-time method with high accuracy because most system errors such as orbital error, station position error, and tropospheric and ionospheric delay error can be eliminated by calculating the two-way pseudorange difference. Another method, the multi-satellite precision orbit determination (MPOD) method, can be applied to estimate satellite clock errors. By comparison with MPOD clock estimations, this paper discusses the applications of the BDS TWSTFT clock observations in satellite clock measurement, satellite clock prediction, navigation system time monitor, and satellite clock performance assessment in orbit. The results show that with TWSTFT clock observations, the accuracy of satellite clock prediction is higher than MPOD. Five continuous weeks of comparisons with three international GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers (ACs) show that the reference time difference between BeiDou time (BDT) and golbal positoning system (GPS) time (GPST) realized IGS ACs is in the tens of nanoseconds. Applying the TWSTFT clock error observations may obtain more accurate satellite clock performance evaluation in the 104 s interval because the accuracy of the MPOD clock estimation is not sufficiently high. By comparing the BDS and GPS satellite clock performance, we found that the BDS clock stability at the 103 s interval is approximately 10-12, which is similar to the GPS IIR.

  16. 47 CFR 25.158 - Consideration of GSO-like satellite applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consideration of GSO-like satellite... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.158 Consideration of GSO-like satellite applications. (a) This section specifies the Commission's procedures...

  17. 47 CFR 25.157 - Consideration of NGSO-like satellite applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consideration of NGSO-like satellite... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.157 Consideration of NGSO-like satellite applications. (a) This section specifies the Commission's procedures...

  18. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  19. 47 CFR 25.158 - Consideration of GSO-like satellite applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of GSO-like satellite... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.158 Consideration of GSO-like satellite applications. (a) This section specifies the Commission's procedures...

  20. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  1. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  2. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  3. 47 CFR 25.157 - Consideration of NGSO-like satellite applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consideration of NGSO-like satellite... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.157 Consideration of NGSO-like satellite applications. (a) This section specifies the Commission's procedures...

  4. 47 CFR 25.157 - Consideration of NGSO-like satellite applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consideration of NGSO-like satellite... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.157 Consideration of NGSO-like satellite applications. (a) This section specifies the Commission's procedures...

  5. 47 CFR 25.158 - Consideration of GSO-like satellite applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consideration of GSO-like satellite... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.158 Consideration of GSO-like satellite applications. (a) This section specifies the Commission's procedures...

  6. 47 CFR 25.157 - Consideration of NGSO-like satellite applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of NGSO-like satellite... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.157 Consideration of NGSO-like satellite applications. (a) This section specifies the Commission's procedures...

  7. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  8. 47 CFR 25.158 - Consideration of GSO-like satellite applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consideration of GSO-like satellite... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.158 Consideration of GSO-like satellite applications. (a) This section specifies the Commission's procedures...

  9. 47 CFR 25.158 - Consideration of GSO-like satellite applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consideration of GSO-like satellite... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.158 Consideration of GSO-like satellite applications. (a) This section specifies the Commission's procedures...

  10. 47 CFR 25.157 - Consideration of NGSO-like satellite applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consideration of NGSO-like satellite... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.157 Consideration of NGSO-like satellite applications. (a) This section specifies the Commission's procedures...

  11. The Marshall Automated Wind Algorithm for Geostationary Satellite Wind Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The Marshall Automated Wind (MAW) algorithm was developed over a decade ago in support of specialized studies of mesoscale meteorology. In recent years, the algorithm has been generalized to address global climate issues and other specific objectives related to NASA missions. The MAW algorithm uses a tracking scheme which minimizes image brightness temperature differences in a sequence of satellite images to determine feature displacement (winds). With the appropriate methodology accurate satellite derived winds can be obtained from visible, infrared, and water vapor imagery. Typical errors are less than 4 m/s but depend on the quality and control constraints used in post-processing. Key to this success is the judicious use of template size and search area used for tracking, image resolution and time sampling, and selection of appropriate statistical constraints which may vary with image type and desired application. The conference paper and subsequent poster will provide details of the technique and examples of its application.

  12. Satellite auxiliary-propulsion selection techniques. Applications of selection techniques to the ATS-H satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis required to estimate auxiliary-propulsion system requirements for a mission which includes tipoff rate reduction, acquisitions, disturbance torques, orbital disturbances, and spacecraft commanded maneuvers is presented. The comparison of several candidate auxiliary-propulsion systems and system combinations for an advanced applications technology satellite (ATS-H) is described. A generalized auxiliary-propulsion system tradeoff, based on mission cost effectiveness criteria, is examined. The specific mission assumptions for the ATS-H spacecraft are included, along with a discussion of the sensitivity of the final selection to these assumptions.

  13. Teaching practical leadership in MIT satellite development class: CASTOR and Exoplanet projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuscia, Alessandra; Craig, Jennifer L.; Connor, Jane A.

    2012-08-01

    For more than a decade, the Aeronautics and Astronautics Department at MIT has offered undergraduate students the opportunity of conceiving, developing, implementing and operating new spacecraft's missions. During a three term class, junior and senior students experience all the challenges of a true engineering team project: design, analysis, testing, technical documentation development, team management, and leadership. Leadership instruction is an important part of the curricula; through the development of leadership skills, students learn to manage themselves and each other in a more effective way, increasing the overall productivity of the team. Also, a strong leadership education is a key factor in improving the abilities of future engineers to be effective team members and leaders in the companies and agencies in which they will work. However, too often leadership instruction is presented in an abstract way, which does not provide students with suggestions for immediate applicability. As a consequence, students underestimate the potential that leadership education can have on the development of their projects. To counteract that effect, a new approach for teaching "practical" leadership has been developed. This approach is composed of a set of activities developed to improve students' leadership skills in the context of a project. Specifically, this approach has been implemented in the MIT satellite development class. In that class, students experienced the challenges of building two satellites: CASTOR and Exoplanet. These two missions are real space projects which will be launched in the next two years, and which involve cooperation with different entities (MIT, NASA, and Draper). Hence, the MIT faculty was interested in developing leadership activities to improve the productivity of the teams in a short time. In fact, one of the key aspects of the approach proposed is that it can be quickly implemented in a single semester, requiring no more than 4 h of

  14. Interdisciplinary Earth Science Applications Using Satellite Radar Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Dai, C.; Yi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite altimetry was conceived as a space geodetic concept for ocean surface topography mapping in the NASA-sponsored 1969 Williamstown, MA Conference, and was tested as part of the passive and active radar payload (S192), along with a radiometer and a scatterometer, on Skylab-1 in May 14, 1973. Since then, numerous radar and laser satellite altimetry missions orbiting/flying-by the Earth, Mars, Mercury, Titan and the Moon have been launched, evolving from the original scientific objective of marine gravity field mapping to a geodetic tool to address interdisciplinary Earth and planetary sciences. The accuracy of the radar altimeter has improved from 0.9 m RMS for the S-192 Skylab Ku-band compressed-pulse altimeter, to 2 cm RMS (2 second average) for the dual-frequency pulse-limited radar altimetry and associated sensors onboard TOPEX/POSEIDON. Satellite altimetry has evolved into a unique cross-disciplinary geodetic tool in addressing contemporary Earth science problems including sea-level rise, large-scale general ocean circulation, ice-sheet mass balance, terrestrial hydrology, and bathymetry. Here we provide a concise review and describe specific results on the additional recent innovative and unconventional applications of interdisciplinary science research using satellite radar altimetry, including geodynamics, land subsidence, snow depth, wetland and cold region hydrology.

  15. The application of mobile satellite services to emergency response communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freibaum, J.

    1980-01-01

    The application of an integrated satellite/terrestrial emergency response communications system in disaster relief operations is discussed. Large area coverage communications capability, full-time availability, a high degree of mobility, plus reliability, are pointed out as criteria for an effective emergency communications system. Response time is seen as a major factor determining the possible survival and/or protection of property. These criteria, can not be met by existing communications systems and complete blackouts were experienced during the past decades caused by either interruption or destruction of existing power lines, and overload or inadequacy of remaining lines. Several emergency cases, caused by either hurricanes, tornados, or floods, during which communication via satellite was instrumental to inform rescue and relief teams, are described in detail. Seismic Risk Maps and charts of Major Tectonic Plates Earthquake Epicenters are given, and it is noted that, 35 percent of the U.S. population is living in critical areas. National and international agreements for the implementation of a satellite-aided global Search and Rescue Program is mentioned. Technological and economic breakthroughs are still needed in large multibeam antennas, switching circuits, and low cost mobile ground terminals. A pending plan of NASA to initiate a multiservice program in 1982/83, with a Land Mobile Satellite capability operating in the 806 - 890 MHz band as a major element, may help to accelerate the needed breakthroughs.

  16. Photovoltaic tests and applications project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Photovoltaic Tests and Applications Project during the period April 1976 through June 1977 are summarized. Results of efforts to identify potential near-term photovoltaic applications and users are discussed, including the outcome of an extensive survey of Federal government agencies. The status of application experiments is presented. Various general engineering efforts are reported, including the design and construction of a photovoltaic Systems Test Facility. Efforts to develop a high efficiency 10 kVA self-commutated inverter and controller specifically designed for photovoltaic systems are also discussed. The results of a wide variety of activities in the area of photovoltaic measurements and standards are related. Documents generated by the Project during the reporting period are listed in an Appendix.

  17. Educational Pico-Satellite Project CUBESAT - University of Tokyo's CUBESAT XI and its Operation Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Y.; Sako, N.; Eishima, T.; Ito, T.; Arikawa, Y.; Miyamura, N.

    2002-01-01

    University of Tokyo ISSL (Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory) has been developing a pico-satellite called "CubeSat" as an international joint program. In CubeSat project, 10cm cubic satellites have been developed by several universities and launched to the low-earth orbit altogether by Russian rocket "Dnepr". ISSL has developed "XI" series ([sai]: X-factor Investigator) satellites, and the flight model is already fabricated and ready for delivery. The mission of XI satellite is the on-orbit technology demonstration of the ultra-small satellite bus system with an extensive use of commercial-off-the-shelf components. XI transmits the Morse beacon and FM packet telemetry which provides the health data of the satellite. Additionally, XI has a CMOS camera which provides 15,000 pixels panchromatic images as an advanced mission. Ground operation is one of the key issues for CubeSats. Now we are promoting international ground station network in which several universities' ground stations connected by internet collaboratively operate university-built small satellites, which enlarges the link opportunity. Collaboration with amateur HAM engineers is also indispensable for search for the satellite or get beacon signal to estimate the satellite orbit. We are now developing operation concept based on these ideas. As the launch is scheduled in this fall, the operation plan will be fixed at the time of this conference. In this presentation the final design of ISSL's CubeSat XI and operation plan will be presented.

  18. The application of satellite data in monitoring strip mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, L. A.; Shahrokhi, F.

    1977-01-01

    Strip mines in the New River Drainage Basin of Tennessee were studied through use of Landsat-1 imagery and aircraft photography. A multilevel analysis, involving conventional photo interpretation techniques, densitometric methods, multispectral analysis and statistical testing was applied to the data. The Landsat imagery proved adequate for monitoring large-scale change resulting from active mining and land-reclamation projects. However, the spatial resolution of the satellite imagery rendered it inadequate for assessment of many smaller strip mines, in the region which may be as small as a few hectares.

  19. Expert system application education project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  20. Operational Applications from the Suomi Npp and Jpss Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.; Furgerson, J.; Sjoberg, W.; Weng, F.; Csiszar, I. A.; Kilcoyne, H.; Gleason, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the SUOMI National Polar Partnership (NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. JPSS provides critical data for key NOAA product and services, which the Nation depends on. These products and services include: Weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. Environmental monitoring - data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS, CERES and TSIS will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long-term observation of the environment; the records and products are critical to climate modelers, scientists, and decision makers concerned with advancing climate change understanding, prediction, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and policies. Data collection - JPSS satellites continue the POES data collection instruments that relay in situ data and observations from remote transmitters. These instruments relay data from remote, unmanned stations including wind, temperature and salinity readings from ocean buoys, which allow for the monitoring of the ocean. These instruments are also used to track wildlife. Search and rescue - JPSS will continue the search and rescue instruments on POES that

  1. Principle characteristics of the National Earth Observation Satellite. Project SPOT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cazenave, M.

    1977-01-01

    A recent meeting of the Economic and Social Committee examined the programs and means currently being implemented by France in the field in the field of space research and industry which could bring about fast results. This was prompted by man's desire to insure rational resource management of his planet and by man's awareness of the definite contribution that space observation can make to this field of research. Through discussion, the Economic and Social Committee has approved the plan for creating an earth observation satellite. A detailed discussion of the principle characteristics of this earth observation satellite include the objectives, the orbit, characteristics and operations of the platform, maintenance, attitude measurement, the power available and many other characteristics.

  2. Ongoing &new project in observation and sciences using micro satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligny, B.

    2004-11-01

    : This paper present the evolution studded and under development on the MYRIADE product line, where Alcatel and CNES has a partnership. These evolutions are proposed to fulfil the need of new missions on several domains such as science and earth observation in several orbits, increasing the energy for the payload, new orbit control strategy. These missions are succinctly described, the impacts on the satellite definition are mentioned and the solutions adopted are described.

  3. PROPERTIES OF SATELLITE GALAXIES IN THE SDSS PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY: LUMINOSITIES, COLORS, AND PROJECTED NUMBER DENSITY PROFILES

    SciTech Connect

    Lares, M.; Lambas, D. G.; Dominguez, M. J.

    2011-07-15

    We analyze photometric data in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) to infer statistical properties of faint satellites associated with isolated bright galaxies (M{sub r} < -20.5) in the redshift range 0.03 < z < 0.1. The mean projected radial number density profile shows an excess of companions in the photometric sample around the primaries, with approximately a power-law shape that extends up to {approx_equal} 700 kpc. Given this overdensity signal, a suitable background subtraction method is used to study the statistical properties of the population of bound satellites, down to magnitude M{sub r} = -14.5, in the projected radial distance range 100 < r{sub p} /kpc < 3(R{sub vir}). The maximum projected distance corresponds to the range 470-660 kpc for the different samples. We have also considered a color cut consistent with the observed colors of spectroscopic satellites in nearby galaxies so that distant redshifted galaxies do not dominate the statistics. We have tested the implementation of this background subtraction procedure using a mock catalog derived from the Millennium simulation semianalytic galaxy catalog based on a {Lambda} cold dark matter model. We find that the method is effective in reproducing the true projected radial satellite number density profile and luminosity distributions, providing confidence in the results derived from SDSS data. We find that the spatial extent of satellite systems is larger for bright, red primaries. Also, we find a larger spatial distribution of blue satellites. For the different samples analyzed, we derive the average number of satellites and their luminosity distributions down to M{sub r} = -14.5. The mean number of satellites depends very strongly on host luminosity. Bright primaries (M{sub r} < -21.5) host on average {approx}6 satellites with M{sub r} < -14.5. This number is reduced for primaries with lower luminosities (-21.5 < M{sub r} < -20.5) which have less than one satellite per host. We

  4. Application of Vision Metrology to In-Orbit Measurement of Large Reflector Onboard Communication Satellite for Next Generation Mobile Satellite Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akioka, M.; Orikasa, T.; Satoh, M.; Miura, A.; Tsuji, H.; Toyoshima, M.; Fujino, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite for next generation mobile satellite communication service with small personal terminal requires onboard antenna with very large aperture reflector larger than twenty meters diameter because small personal terminal with lower power consumption in ground base requires the large onboard reflector with high antenna gain. But, large deployable antenna will deform in orbit because the antenna is not a solid dish but the flexible structure with fine cable and mesh supported by truss. Deformation of reflector shape deteriorate the antenna performance and quality and stability of communication service. However, in case of digital beam forming antenna with phased array can modify the antenna beam performance due to adjustment of excitation amplitude and excitation phase. If we can measure the reflector shape precisely in orbit, beam pattern and antenna performance can be compensated with the updated excitation amplitude and excitation phase parameters optimized for the reflector shape measured every moment. Softbank Corporation and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology has started the project "R&D on dynamic beam control technique for next generation mobile communication satellite" as a contracted research project sponsored by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication of Japan. In this topic, one of the problem in vision metrology application is a strong constraints on geometry for camera arrangement on satellite bus with very limited space. On satellite in orbit, we cannot take many images from many different directions as ordinary vision metrology measurement and the available area for camera positioning is quite limited. Feasibility of vision metrology application and general methodology to apply to future mobile satellite communication satellite is to be found. Our approach is as follows: 1) Development of prototyping simulator to evaluate the expected precision for network design in zero order and first order 2) Trial

  5. An Intensive Research of Satellite Orbit Theory and Application in Orbit Determination, Forecast and Parameter Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. S.

    2011-03-01

    It has been over half a century since the launch of the first artificial satellite Sputnik in 1957, which marks the beginning of the Space Age. During the past 50 years, with the development and innovations in various fields and technologies, satellite application has grown more and more intensive and extensive. This thesis is based on three major research projects which the author joined in. These representative projects cover main aspects of satellite orbit theory and application of precise orbit determination (POD), and also show major research methods and important applications in orbit dynamics. Chapter 1 is an in-depth research on analytical theory of satellite orbits. This research utilizes general transformation theory to acquire high-order analytical solutions when mean-element method is not applicable. These solutions can be used in guidance and control or rapid orbit forecast within the accuracy of 10-6. We also discuss other major perturbations, each of which is considered with improved models, in pursuit of both convenience and accuracy especially when old models are hardly applicable. Chapter 2 is POD research based on observations. Assuming a priori force model and estimation algorithm have reached their accuracy limits, we introduce empirical forces to Shenzhou-type orbit in order to compensate possible unmodeled or mismodeled perturbations. Residuals are analyzed first and only empirical force models with actual physical background are considered. This not only enhances a posteriori POD accuracy, but also considerably improves the accuracy of orbit forecast. This chapter also contains theoretical discussions on modeling of empirical forces, computation of partial derivatives and propagation of various errors. Error propagation helps to better evaluate orbital accuracy in future missions. Chapter 3 is an application of POD in space geodesy. GRACE satellites are used to obtain Antarctic temporal gravity field between 2004 and 2007. Various changes

  6. Validation of satellite data for quality assurance in lake monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Brivio, P A; Giardino, C; Zilioli, E

    2001-03-14

    The operational application of remote sensing technologies to lake water quality monitoring requires products derived from remote sensing to be quantitatively self-consistent and have a certified accuracy. Fundamental elements in this quality assurance framework are sensor radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction models, which are briefly discussed in the paper. In order to evaluate the accuracy of present operational techniques to retrieve basic parameters from satellite data, such as water-leaving radiance and reflectance, an experiment was organised in the frame of SAtellite remote sensing for Lake MONitoring (SALMON), a European Union co-funded research project. A series of ship-based radiometric and atmospheric measuring campaigns were conducted on Lake Iseo and Lake Garda (Italy) together with limnological sampling. Four Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes were acquired during different seasons and simultaneous in situ measurements were made. After the radiometric calibration procedure, satellite digital images were processed by applying two entirely image-based atmospheric correction models. These models account for the effects of both additive scattering and multiplicative transmittance effects in the atmosphere on the at-satellite measured signal. The results achieved using these procedures were evaluated by comparing satellite-based estimates with in situ measurements of water reflectance. The root mean square difference between Landsat TM-derived reflectance values and ground measurements was close to 0.010 reflectance for each TM spectral band. Such image-based correction models, requiring no in situ field measurements during the satellite overpass, constitute a valid method of lake water monitoring.

  7. Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

  8. Applications of inverse pattern projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wansong; Bothe, Thorsten; Kalms, Michael K.; von Kopylow, Christoph; Jueptner, Werner P. O.

    2003-05-01

    Fast and robust 3D quality control as well as fast deformation measurement is of particular importance for industrial inspection. Additionally a direct response about measured properties is desired. Therefore, robust optical techniques are needed which use as few images as possible for measurement and visualize results in an efficient way. One promising technique for this aim is the inverse pattern projection which has the following advantages: The technique codes the information of a preceding measurement into the projected inverse pattern. Thus, it is possible to do differential measurements using only one camera frame for each state. Additionally, the results are optimized straight fringes for sampling which are independent of the object curvature. The hardware needs are low as just a programmable projector and a standard camera are necessary. The basic idea of inverse pattern projection, necessary algorithms and found optimizations are demonstrated, roughly. Evaluation techniques were found to preserve a high quality phase measurement under imperfect conditions. The different application fields can be sorted out by the type of pattern used for inverse projection. We select two main topics for presentation. One is the incremental (one image per state) deformation measurement which is a promising technique for high speed deformation measurements. A video series of a wavering flag with projected inverse pattern was evaluated to show the complete deformation series. The other application is the optical feature marking (augmented reality) that allows to map any measured result directly onto the object under investigation. Any properties can be visualized directly on the object"s surface which makes inspections easier than with use of a separated indicating device. The general ability to straighten any kind of information on 3D surfaces is shown while preserving an exact mapping of camera image and object parts. In many cases this supersedes an additional monitor to

  9. Analysis of global cloudiness comparison of meteor, Nimbus 7, and international satellite cloud climatology project (ISCCP) satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, I.I.; Schlesinger, M.E.

    1993-07-20

    In this first paper of a three-part series on cloudienss we intercompare the simultaneous cloudiness data obtained from Meteor satellites, Nimbus 7, and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for the one-year period, July 1983 to June 1984. Four versions of ISCCP cloudiness are obtained from analyses of the ISCCP-C1 data. These versions differ in their requirements for temporal and spectral sampling. ISCCPs 1 and 2 require for each 2.5{degree} x 2.5{degree} latitude-longitude cell that there be observations at least (N{sub d} = ) 20 of the 28-31 possible days per month and at least (N{sub h} = ) 5 of the 8 possible 3 hourly times each such day; ISCCPs 3 and 4 require only N{sub d} = 1 and N{sub h} = 1. The ISCCP 1-4 intercomparison shows that (1) the cloudiness differences due to the above temporal sampling are smaller than those due to the above spectral sampling; (2) both spectral and temporal sampling effects are larger for the northern hemisphere than for the southern hemisphere; and (3) the difference between zonal mean cloudiness with and without visible information generally increases with latitude from polar night to about 60{degree} latitude in the summer hemisphere. A special observational program in both the Arctic and the Antarctic is proposed to resolve the discrepancies among the satellite and ground-based cloudiness observations in polar latitudes.

  10. Project Assessment Skills Web Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goff, Samuel J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to utilize Ruby on Rails to create a web application that will replace a spreadsheet keeping track of training courses and tasks. The goal is to create a fast and easy to use web application that will allow users to track progress on training courses. This application will allow users to update and keep track of all of the training required of them. The training courses will be organized by group and by user, making readability easier. This will also allow group leads and administrators to get a sense of how everyone is progressing in training. Currently, updating and finding information from this spreadsheet is a long and tedious task. By upgrading to a web application, finding and updating information will be easier than ever as well as adding new training courses and tasks. Accessing this data will be much easier in that users just have to go to a website and log in with NDC credentials rather than request the relevant spreadsheet from the holder. In addition to Ruby on Rails, I will be using JavaScript, CSS, and jQuery to help add functionality and ease of use to my web application. This web application will include a number of features that will help update and track progress on training. For example, one feature will be to track progress of a whole group of users to be able to see how the group as a whole is progressing. Another feature will be to assign tasks to either a user or a group of users. All of these together will create a user friendly and functional web application.

  11. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in Mobile-Satellite Service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... terrestrial components in Mobile-Satellite Service networks operating in the 1.5./1.6 GHz and 1.6/2.4 GHz Mobile-Satellite Service. 25.149 Section 25.149 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations §...

  12. Accuracy of Satellite-Measured Wave Heights in the Australian Region for Wave Power Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meath, Sian E.; Aye, Lu; Haritos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the accuracy of satellite data, which may then be used in wave power applications. The satellite data are compared to data from wave buoys, which are currently considered to be the most accurate of the devices available for measuring wave characteristics. This article presents an analysis of satellite- (Topex/Poseidon) and…

  13. Application of Satellite Based Augmentation Systems to Altitude Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magny, Jean Pierre

    This paper presents the application of GNSS1, or more precisely of Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS), to vertical separation for en-route, approach and landing operations. Potential improvements in terms of operational benefit and of safety are described for two main applications. First, vertical separation between en-route aircraft, which requires a system available across wide areas. SBAS (EGNOS, WAAS, and MSAS) are very well suited for this purpose before GNSS2 becomes available. And secondly, vertical separation from the ground during approach and landing, for which preliminary design principles of instrument approach procedures and safety issues are presented. Approach and landing phases are the subject of discussions within ICAO GNSS-P. En-route phases have been listed as GNSS-P future work and by RTCA for development of new equipments.

  14. Application of high resolution satellite observations to monitor urban ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokhova, I. N.

    2011-02-01

    Topographic identification and mapping were carried out for different key plots in Moscow according to satellite images using geoinformation technologies; a complex ecological map was constructed for the key plots. The main advantage of this project is using the remote information for obtaining quick-look data on the ecosystem's state. The following ecological parameters were determined during the mapping: the percentage of forest area, the canopy's density, and the sites of forest uprooting in forests-parks; the recreational load on the soil cover in the forests, valleys of small rivers, and public gardens; the areas of disturbances of the herbaceous cover and soil overcompaction in lawns; the vertical and lateral structure of line plantings in community landscapes; and the disturbances in the land use in the territory of water-control areas of small rivers.

  15. The Iodine Satellite (iSat) Project Development Towards Critical Design Review (CDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Selby, Michael; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Byrne, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of Small Satellites in recent years, the systems flown to date have very limited propulsion capability. SmallSats are typically secondary payloads and have significant constraints for volume, mass, and power in addition to limitations on the use of hazardous propellants or stored energy (i.e. high pressure vessels). These constraints limit the options for SmallSat maneuverability. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate approved the iodine Satellite flight project for a rapid demonstration of iodine Hall thruster technology in a 12U configuration under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The project formally began in FY15 as a partnership between NASA MSFC, NASA GRC, and Busek Co, Inc., with the Air Force supporting the propulsion technology maturation. The team is in final preparation of the Critical Design Review prior to initiating the fabrication and integration phase of the project. The iSat project is on schedule for a launch opportunity in November 2017.

  16. Application of a Topological Metric for Assessing Numerical Ocean Models with Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, S. L.; Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Hiester, H. R.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite-based sensors provide a vast amount of observational data over the world ocean. Active microwave radars measure changes in sea surface height and backscattering from surface waves. Data from passive radiometers sensing emissions in multiple spectral bands can directly measure surface temperature, be combined with other data sources to estimate salinity, or processed to derive estimates of optically significant quantities, such as concentrations of biochemical properties. Estimates of the hydrographic variables can be readily used for assimilation or assessment of hydrodynamic ocean models. Optical data, however, have been underutilized in ocean circulation modeling. Qualitative assessments of oceanic fronts and other features commonly associated with changes in optically significant quantities are often made through visual comparison. This project applies a topological approach, borrowed from the field of computer image recognition, to quantitatively evaluate ocean model simulations of features that are related to quantities inferred from satellite imagery. The Modified Hausdorff Distance (MHD) provides a measure of the similarity of two shapes. Examples of applications of the MHD to assess ocean circulation models are presented. The first application assesses several models' representation of the freshwater plume structure from the Mississippi River, which is associated with a significant expression of color, using a satellite-derived ocean color index. Even though the variables being compared (salinity and ocean color index) differ, the MHD allows contours of the fields to be compared topologically. The second application assesses simulations of surface oil transport driven by winds and ocean model currents using surface oil maps derived from synthetic aperture radar backscatter data. In this case, maps of time composited oil coverage are compared between the simulations and satellite observations.

  17. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  18. A Follow-Up Report on the Appalachian Education Satellite Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In May of 1974, the Applied Technology Satellite Number 6 (ATS-6) was launched. Among the jobs planned for ATS-6 was the large-scale delivery of educational and health services. Sponsored by the National Institute of Education, education projects were developed for Alaska, Appalachia and the Rocky Mountain Region.

  19. Hardware demonstration of high-speed networks for satellite applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, Jonathon W.; Lee, David S.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the implementation results of a hardware demonstration utilizing the Serial RapidIO{trademark} and SpaceWire protocols that was funded by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL's) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) office. This demonstration was one of the activities in the Modeling and Design of High-Speed Networks for Satellite Applications LDRD. This effort has demonstrated the transport of application layer packets across both RapidIO and SpaceWire networks to a common downlink destination using small topologies comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom devices. The RapidFET and NEX-SRIO debug and verification tools were instrumental in the successful implementation of the RapidIO hardware demonstration. The SpaceWire hardware demonstration successfully demonstrated the transfer and routing of application data packets between multiple nodes and also was able reprogram remote nodes using configuration bitfiles transmitted over the network, a key feature proposed in node-based architectures (NBAs). Although a much larger network (at least 18 to 27 nodes) would be required to fully verify the design for use in a real-world application, this demonstration has shown that both RapidIO and SpaceWire are capable of routing application packets across a network to a common downlink node, illustrating their potential use in real-world NBAs.

  20. Applications of Satellite Geodesy in Environmental and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian

    Satellite geodesy plays an important role in earth observation. This dissertation presents three applications of satellite geodesy in environmental and climate change. Three satellite geodesy techniques are used: high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS), the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). In the first study, I use coastal uplift observed by GPS to study the annual changes in mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. The data show both spatial and temporal variations of coastal ice mass loss and suggest that a combination of warm atmospheric and oceanic condition drove these variations. In the second study, I use GRACE monthly gravity change estimates to constrain recent freshwater flux from Greenland. The data show that Arctic freshwater flux started to increase rapidly in the mid-late 1990s, coincident with a decrease in the formation of dense Labrador Sea Water, a key component of the deep southward return flow od the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Recent freshening of the polar oceans may be reducing formation of Labrador Sea Water and hence may be weakening the AMOC. In the third study, I use InSAR to monitor ground deformation caused by CO2 injection at an enhanced oil recovery site in west Texas. Carbon capture and storage can reduce CO 2 emitted from power plants, and is a promising way to mitigate anthropogenic warming. From 2007 to 2011, ~24 million tons of CO2 were sequestered in this field, causing up to 10 MPa pressure buildup in a reservoir at depth, and surface uplift up to 10 cm. This study suggests that surface displacement observed by InSAR is a cost-effective way to estimate reservoir pressure change and monitor the fate of injected fluids at waste disposal and CO2 injection sites.

  1. SCARF - The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Nils

    2014-05-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, has been launched in November 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, which will bring new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of Swarm, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. Scientific users will also benefit significantly from derived products, the so-called Level-2 products, that take into account the features of the constellation. The Swarm SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, has been established with the goal of deriving Level-2 products by combination of data from the three satellites, and of the various instruments. A number of Level-2 data products will be offered by this consortium, including various models of the core and lithospheric field, as well as of the ionospheric and magnetospheric field. In addition, derived parameters like mantle conductivity, thermospheric mass density and winds, field-aligned currents, an ionospheric plasma bubble index, the ionospheric total electron content and the dayside equatorial zonal electrical field will be calculated. This service is expected to be operational for a period of at least 5 years. The present paper describes the Swarm input data products (Level-1b and auxiliary data) used by SCARF, the various processing chains of SCARF, and the Level-2 output data products determined by SCARF.

  2. Flight and ground tests of a GOES satellite time receiver for satellite communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. L.; Nichols, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    A satellite time receiver was tested in various environmental conditions during the past year. The commercial receiver designed to work with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The test program included operation at low elevation during flight in a military cargo aircraft and long term comparison with laboratory standards. The GOES satellite time receiver offers an opportunity to provide easy wide area coverage synchronization at low cost.

  3. Exploring quantum computing application to satellite data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, S.; Zhang, S. Q.

    2015-12-01

    This is an exploring work on potential application of quantum computing to a scientific data optimization problem. On classical computational platforms, the physical domain of a satellite data assimilation problem is represented by a discrete variable transform, and classical minimization algorithms are employed to find optimal solution of the analysis cost function. The computation becomes intensive and time-consuming when the problem involves large number of variables and data. The new quantum computer opens a very different approach both in conceptual programming and in hardware architecture for solving optimization problem. In order to explore if we can utilize the quantum computing machine architecture, we formulate a satellite data assimilation experimental case in the form of quadratic programming optimization problem. We find a transformation of the problem to map it into Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) framework. Binary Wavelet Transform (BWT) will be applied to the data assimilation variables for its invertible decomposition and all calculations in BWT are performed by Boolean operations. The transformed problem will be experimented as to solve for a solution of QUBO instances defined on Chimera graphs of the quantum computer.

  4. Satellite Communications for Aeronautics Applications: Technology Development and Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Hoder, Douglas J.; Zakrajsek, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is performing research and development to improve the safety and increase the capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). Improved communications, especially to and from the aircraft flight deck, has been identified as an essential enabling technology for future improvements to the air traffic management system and aviation safety. NASA's Glenn Research Center is engaged in research and development of satellite communications technologies for aeronautical applications. A mobile aero terminal has been developed for use with Ku band commercial communications satellites. This experimental terminal will be used in mobile ground and air-based tests and demonstrations during 2000-2004. This paper will describe the basic operational parameters of the Ku Band aero terminal, the communications architecture it is intended to demonstrate, and the key technology issues being addressed in the tests and demonstrations. The design of the Ku Band aero terminal and associated ground testbed, planned tests and demonstrations, and results to date will be presented.

  5. A radiation-hardened, computer for satellite applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gaona, J.I. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes high reliability radiation hardened computers built by Sandia for application aboard DOE satellite programs requiring 32 bit processing. The computers highlight a radiation hardened (10 kGy(Si)) R3000 executing up to 10 million reduced instruction set instructions (RISC) per second (MIPS), a dual purpose module control bus used for real-time default and power management which allows for extended mission operation on as little as 1.2 watts, and a local area network capable of 480 Mbits/s. The central processing unit (CPU) is the NASA Goddard R3000 nicknamed the ``Mongoose or Mongoose 1``. The Sandia Satellite Computer (SSC) uses Rational`s Ada compiler, debugger, operating system kernel, and enhanced floating point emulation library targeted at the Mongoose. The SSC gives Sandia the capability of processing complex types of spacecraft attitude determination and control algorithms and of modifying programmed control laws via ground command. And in general, SSC offers end users the ability to process data onboard the spacecraft that would normally have been sent to the ground which allows reconsideration of traditional space-grounded partitioning options.

  6. 7 CFR 634.13 - Project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project applications. 634.13 Section 634.13..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and Funding § 634.13 Project applications. (a) The SRCWCC is to assure that a process exists to prepare the...

  7. 7 CFR 634.13 - Project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project applications. 634.13 Section 634.13..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and Funding § 634.13 Project applications. (a) The SRCWCC is to assure that a process exists to prepare the...

  8. 7 CFR 634.13 - Project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project applications. 634.13 Section 634.13..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and Funding § 634.13 Project applications. (a) The SRCWCC is to assure that a process exists to prepare the...

  9. The integration and application of multi-satellite radar altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Timothy James

    Satellite altimeter data spanning twenty-five years from GEOS-3, SEASAT, GEOSAT, ERS-1, TOPEX, and ERS-2 have been gathered, improved, validated, and integrated. Satellite data were updated with TOPEX-level corrections where possible. Wet troposphere and ionosphere altimeter corrections were evaluated globally, along-track, and zonally. Global mean sea level (GMSL) trend adjustments were made to ERS-1 and ERS-2 to correct for radiometer drifts with respect to TOPEX, improving their GMSL comparisons. IRI-95 model ionosphere corrections were evaluated against TOPEX dual-frequency measurements. New orbits were computed with improved accuracy for GEOS-3 (20 to 30 cm), SEASAT (10 to 15 cm), and GEOSAT (7 to 9 cm). An adaptive sequential filter was utilized to remove residual one-cycle-per-revolution radial orbit error. Optimal state noise compensation parameters for the filter were determined using a genetic algorithm. The application of the filter reduced single-satellite internal crossover differences. Relative altimeter biases between TOPEX and the other missions were determined using tide gauges. Relative biases were estimated for GEOS-3 (173 cm), SEASAT (37 and 26 cm, for 17-day and 3-day repeats), GEOSAT (7.9 and 8.9 cm, for GM and ERM), ERS-1 (-44.7 and -48.0 cm, for Phases A-F and Phase G), and ERS-2 (-9.0 cm). These biases are consistent with several other recent bias determinations and calibration campaigns. GMSL trends estimated for GEOSAT (1985--1988), ERS-1 (1991--1996), TOPEX (1993--1999), and ERS-2 (1995--1997), are -3.4 +/- 2.4, 2.3 +/- 1.1, 3.2 +/- 0.6, and 6.0 +/- 2.2 mm/year, respectively. GEOS-3 MSL exhibits a large slope (˜40 cm/year) and does not provide truly global coverage, and therefore cannot be used for global analyses. The short duration of the two SEASAT missions (July to October 1978) prevent GMSL trend analysis. GMSL from ERS-1, TOPEX, and ERS-2 were integrated into a single time series having an estimated mean sea level trend of 3

  10. Utility of regional satellite volcano deformation monitoring in Latin America: The CEOS pilot project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations are a cost effective tool for monitoring large numbers of volcanoes in areas with scarce instrumentation or difficult access. In the context of the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) has developed a pilot project to showcase remote sensing for volcano hazard mitigation and response. Specifically, the pilot aims to demonstrate the feasibility of global volcano monitoring of Holocene volcanoes by undertaking regional monitoring of volcanic arcs in Latin America, using satellite earth observations data to track deformation as well as gas, ash, and thermal emissions. Latin America was chosen because the volcanoes are situated in a diversity of environments, providing a good test of the capabilities of different types of satellite data under different conditions; volcanic activity is abundant, and monitoring agencies in Latin American countries would directly benefit from the resources that this pilot will make available. It is hoped that the regional study will demonstrate that Earth observation data can help to identify volcanoes that may become active in the future as well as track eruptive activity that may impact populations and infrastructure on the ground and in the air, ultimately leading to improved targeting for permanent satellite-based observations and in-situ volcanic monitoring efforts. The pilot project is posible thanks to data provided by the various space agencies (ESA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES, CSA). In this contribution, we focus on premilinary ground deformation results using SAR satellites for selected areas in the Northern and Southern Andes as well as the Caribbean with recent unrest. For example, in the Southern Andes we will present ALOS time series at Llaima (-38.7 S) and Peteroa (-35.2 S) volcanoes, both of which have had eruptions during the past ten years.

  11. Experiments applications guide: Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This applications guide first surveys the capabilities of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) system (both the flight and ground segments). This overview is followed by a description of the baseband processor (BBP) and microwave switch matrix (MSM) operating modes. Terminals operating with the baseband processor are referred to as low burst rate (LBR); and those operating with the microwave switch matrix, as high burst rate (HBR). Three very small-aperture terminals (VSATs), LBR-1, LBR-2, and HBR, are described for various ACTS operating modes. Also described is the NASA Lewis link evaluation terminal. A section on ACTS experiment opportunities introduces a wide spectrum of network control, telecommunications, system, and scientific experiments. The performance of the VSATs is discussed in detail. This guide is intended as a catalyst to encourage participation by the telecommunications, business, and science communities in a broad spectrum of experiments.

  12. The Iodine Satellite (iSat) Project Development Towards Critical Design Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Calvert, Derek; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Szabo, James; Byrne, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of small satellites in recent years, the systems flown to date have very limited propulsion capability. SmallSats are typically secondary payloads and have significant constraints for volume, mass, and power in addition to limitations on the use of hazardous propellants or stored energy. These constraints limit the options for SmallSat maneuverability. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate approved the iodine Satellite flight project for a rapid demonstration of iodine Hall thruster technology in a 12U (cubesat units) configuration under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The mission is a partnership between NASA MSFC, NASA GRC, and Busek Co, Inc., with the Air Force supporting the propulsion technology maturation. The team is working towards the critical design review in the final design and fabrication phase of the project. The current design shows positive technical performance margins in all areas. The iSat project is planned for launch readiness in the spring of 2017.

  13. The first ISLSCP field experiment (FIFE). [International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.; Strebel, D. E.; Murphy, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The background and planning of the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) field experiment (FIFE) are discussed. In FIFE, the NOAA series of satellites and GOES will be used to provide a moderate-temporal resolution coarse-spatial resolution data set, with SPOT and aircraft data providing the high-spatial resolution pointable-instrument capability. The paper describes the experiment design, the measurement strategy, the configuration of the site of the experiment (which will be at and around the Konza prairie near Manhattan, Kansas), and the experiment's operations and execution.

  14. Supporting Energy-Related Societal Applications Using NASA's Satellite and Modeling Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Whitlock, C. H.; Chandler, W. S.; Hoell, J. M.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Leng, G. S.; Lilienthal, P.

    2006-01-01

    Improvements to NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) web site are now being made through the Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project under NASA Science Mission Directorate Applied Science Energy Management Program. The purpose of this project is to tailor NASA Science Mission results for energy sector applications and decision support systems. The current status of SSE and research towards upgrading estimates of total, direct and diffuse solar irradiance from NASA satellite measurements and analysis are discussed. Part of this work involves collaborating with partners such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). Energy Management and POWER plans including historic, near-term and forecast datasets are also overviewed.

  15. An advanced satellite communication system for ISDN subscriber and trunk applications - DYANET-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsu, Toru; Umehira, Masahiro; Onuki, Masafumi; Nakashima, Hiroshi

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes an advanced satellite communication system for ISDN subscriber and trunk applications that is integrated into a terrestrial ISDN. The system concept of DYANET (DYnamic channel Assigning and routing satellite aided digital NETwork) has been extended to a new platform called DYANET-II which allows satellite communications to be applied to ISDN subscriber lines as well as trunk circuits. New network control technologies have been developed to achieve efficient satellite channel utilization and to ensure a single hop connection of a satellite channel without modifying existing networks. Moreover, compact earth station equipment has been newly developed for use on customer premises.

  16. Operational Estimation of Accumulated Precipitation using Satellite Observation, by Eumetsat Satellite Application facility in Support to Hydrology (H-SAF Consortium).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Diodato, A.; de Leonibus, L.; Zauli, F.; Biron, D.; Melfi, D.

    2009-04-01

    Operational Estimation of Accumulated Precipitation using Satellite Observation, by Eumetsat Satellite Application facility in Support to Hydrology (H-SAF Consortium). Cap. Attilio DI DIODATO(*), T.Col. Luigi DE LEONIBUS(*), T.Col Francesco ZAULI(*), Cap. Daniele BIRON(*), Ten. Davide Melfi(*) Satellite Application Facilities (SAFs) are specialised development and processing centres of the EUMETSAT Distributed Ground Segment. SAFs process level 1b data from meteorological satellites (geostationary and polar ones) in conjunction with all other relevant sources of data and appropriate models to generate services and level 2 products. Each SAF is a consortium of EUMETSAT European partners lead by a host institute responsible for the management of the complete SAF project. The Meteorological Service of Italian Air Force is the host Institute for the Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF). HSAF has the commitment to develop and to provide, operationally after 2010, products regarding precipitation, soil moisture and snow. HSAF is going to provide information on error structure of its products and validation of the products via their impacts into Hydrological models. To that purpose it has been structured a specific subgroups. Accumulated precipitation is computed by temporal integration of the instantaneous rain rate achieved by the blended LEO/MW and GEO/IR precipitation rate products generated by Rapid Update method available every 15 minutes. The algorithm provides four outputs, consisting in accumulated precipitation in 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours, delivered every 3 hours at the synoptic hours. These outputs are our precipitation background fields. Satellite estimates can cover most of the globe, however, they suffer from errors due to lack of a direct relationship between observation parameters and precipitation, the poor sampling and algorithm imperfections. For this reason the 3 hours accumulated precipitation is

  17. Precise satellite orbit determination with particular application to ERS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Joana Afonso Pereira

    The motivation behind this study is twofold. First to assess the accuracy of ERS-1 long arc ephemerides using state of the art models. Second, to develop improved methods for determining precise ERS-1 orbits using either short or long arc techniques. The SATAN programs, for the computation of satellite orbits using laser data were used. Several facilities were added to the original programs: the processing of PRARE range and altimeter data, and a number of algorithms that allow more flexible solutions by adjusting a number of additional parameters. The first part of this study, before the launch of ERS-1, was done with SEAS AT data. The accuracy of SEASAT orbits computed with PRARE simulated data has been determined. The effect of temporal distribution of tracking data along the arc and the extent to which altimetry can replace range data have been investigated. The second part starts with the computation of ERS-1 long arc solutions using laser data. Some aspects of modelling the two main forces affecting ERS-l's orbit are investigated. With regard to the gravitational forces, the adjustment of a set of geopotential coefficients has been considered. With respect to atmospheric drag, extensive research has been carried out on determining the influence on orbit accuracy of the measurements of solar fluxes (P10.7 indices) and geomagnetic activity (Kp indices) used by the atmospheric model in the computation of atmospheric density at satellite height. Two new short arc methods have been developed: the Constrained and the Bayesian method. Both methods are dynamic and consist of solving for the 6 osculating elements. Using different techniques, both methods overcome the problem of normal matrix ill- conditioning by constraining the solution. The accuracy and applicability of these methods are discussed and compared with the traditional non-dynamic TAR method.

  18. Applications Technology Satellite and Communications Technology Satellite user experiments for 1967 - 1980 reference book, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, N. A.; Nash, J. F.; Strange, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    A description of each of the satellites is given and a brief summary of each user experiment is presented. A Cross Index of User Experiments sorted by various parameters and a listing of keywords versus Experiment Number are presented.

  19. 7 CFR 634.13 - Project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and Funding..., especially participation by potential RCWP participants. Applications will be submitted in conformance with... State or areawide 208 water quality management plan. (c) Applications shall contain the...

  20. Research on the application of satellite remote sensing to local, state, regional, and national programs involved with resource management and environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, R. L.; Eastmond, R. J.; Barr, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    Project summaries and project reports are presented in the area of satellite remote sensing as applied to local, regional, and national environmental programs. Projects reports include: (1) Douglas County applications program; (2) vegetation damage and heavy metal concentration in new lead belt; (3) evaluating reclamation of strip-mined land; (4) remote sensing applied to land use planning at Clinton Reservoir; and (5) detailed land use mapping in Kansas City, Kansas.

  1. 23 CFR 627.5 - Applicable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicable projects. 627.5 Section 627.5 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS VALUE ENGINEERING § 627.5 Applicable projects. (a) A VE analysis shall be conducted prior to the completion of...

  2. 23 CFR 627.5 - Applicable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicable projects. 627.5 Section 627.5 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS VALUE ENGINEERING § 627.5 Applicable projects. (a) A VE analysis shall be conducted prior to the completion of...

  3. Development of a funding, cost, and spending model for satellite projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jesse P.

    1989-01-01

    The need for a predictive budget/funging model is obvious. The current models used by the Resource Analysis Office (RAO) are used to predict the total costs of satellite projects. An effort to extend the modeling capabilities from total budget analysis to total budget and budget outlays over time analysis was conducted. A statistical based and data driven methodology was used to derive and develop the model. Th budget data for the last 18 GSFC-sponsored satellite projects were analyzed and used to build a funding model which would describe the historical spending patterns. This raw data consisted of dollars spent in that specific year and their 1989 dollar equivalent. This data was converted to the standard format used by the RAO group and placed in a database. A simple statistical analysis was performed to calculate the gross statistics associated with project length and project cost ant the conditional statistics on project length and project cost. The modeling approach used is derived form the theory of embedded statistics which states that properly analyzed data will produce the underlying generating function. The process of funding large scale projects over extended periods of time is described by Life Cycle Cost Models (LCCM). The data was analyzed to find a model in the generic form of a LCCM. The model developed is based on a Weibull function whose parameters are found by both nonlinear optimization and nonlinear regression. In order to use this model it is necessary to transform the problem from a dollar/time space to a percentage of total budget/time space. This transformation is equivalent to moving to a probability space. By using the basic rules of probability, the validity of both the optimization and the regression steps are insured. This statistically significant model is then integrated and inverted. The resulting output represents a project schedule which relates the amount of money spent to the percentage of project completion.

  4. Variable conductance heat pipe technology. [research project resulting in heat pipe experiment on OAO-3 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. T.; Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Marcus, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    A research and development program in variable conductance heat pipe technology is reported. The project involved: (1) theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, (2) hydrodynamics, (3) heat transfer into and out of the pipe, (4) fluid selection, and (5) materials compatibility. The development, fabrication, and test of the space hardware resulted in a successful flight of the heat pipe experiment on the OAO-3 satellite. A summary of the program is provided and a guide to the location of publications on the project is included.

  5. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.

  6. Risk Reduction Activities for the Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, D.; Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Harvey, W.

    The Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a joint project between Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The NEOSSat project will develop a multi-mission micro-satellite bus that is expected to satisfy two concurrent missions: detection and tracking near-Earth asteroids (Near Earth Space Surveillance: NESS) and obtaining metric information on deep-space satellites (High Earth Orbit Surveillance System: HEOSS). The former will use NEOSSat's 15 cm diameter space telescope to discover and determine the orbits of inner Earth orbit (IEO) near-earth objects (NEOs) that cannot be easily observed from the ground. For its part, the HEOSS mission will demonstrate that a micro-satellite can be employed to produce surveillance of space (SofS) metric data of artificial earth-orbiting objects having orbital altitudes between 15,000 and 40,000 km having sufficient quality to be accepted by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. As a risk reduction effort for the NEOSSat project, a joint satellite tracking experiment was conducted by DRDC, CSA, the University of British Columbia and Dynacon using the MOST (Microvariability Oscillations of STars) microsatellite. MOST conducts precision photometric observations of bright stars and does not usually image starfields, but in October 2005, MOST returned Canada's first space based satellite tracking observations of two GPS spacecraft. Good quality metric tracking data were obtained despite the fact MOST was not designed to image, let alone attempt satellite tracking. The observations also provided an estimate of the targeted satellite brightness and the results were consistent with ground based V-band observations. These results demonstrate the soundness of the NEOSSat concept and the feasibility of the HEOSS mission. The nature of both science missions will require the NEOSSat sensor to be pointed to a different position in the sky on average every five minutes, with a goal of

  7. MITRA Virtual laboratory for operative application of satellite time series for land degradation risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nole, Gabriele; Scorza, Francesco; Lanorte, Antonio; Manzi, Teresa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to present the development of a tool to integrate time series from active and passive satellite sensors (such as of MODIS, Vegetation, Landsat, ASTER, COSMO, Sentinel) into a virtual laboratory to support studies on landscape and archaeological landscape, investigation on environmental changes, estimation and monitoring of natural and anthropogenic risks. The virtual laboratory is composed by both data and open source tools specifically developed for the above mentioned applications. Results obtained for investigations carried out using the implemented tools for monitoring land degradation issues and subtle changes ongoing on forestry and natural areas are herein presented. In detail MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat time series were analyzed comparing results of different statistical analyses and the results integrated with ancillary data and evaluated with field survey. The comparison of the outputs we obtained for the Basilicata Region from satellite data analyses and independent data sets clearly pointed out the reliability for the diverse change analyses we performed, at the pixel level, using MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat TM data. Next steps are going to be implemented to further advance the current Virtual Laboratory tools, by extending current facilities adding new computational algorithms and applying to other geographic regions. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the project PO FESR Basilicata 2007/2013 - Progetto di cooperazione internazionale MITRA "Remote Sensing tecnologies for Natural and Cultural heritage Degradation Monitoring for Preservation and valorization" funded by Basilicata Region Reference 1. A. Lanorte, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to characterize vegetation recovery after fire disturbance International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and

  8. Aeronautical mobile satellite service: Air traffic control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Dave

    1990-01-01

    Canada's history both in aviation and in satellite communications development spans several decades. The introduction of aeronautical mobile satellite communications will serve our requirements for airspace management in areas not served by line-of-sight radio and radar facilities. The ensuing improvements in air safety and operating efficiency are eagerly awaited by the aviation community.

  9. Application of satellite data to tropic/subtropic moisture coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. H.; Mcguirk, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to utilize various satellite products from a number of satellites together with data observed from platforms available during the FGGE Special Observing Periods to diagnose synoptic scale events in date void regions. The focus is on episodes of northeastward traveling cloud bands which move out of the ITCZ over the eastern North Pacific Ocean. These events are called moisture bursts.

  10. An Experiment in Educational Technology: An Overview of the Appalachian Education Satellite Project. Technical Report Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J., Ed.; Ausness, Claudine, Ed.

    The Appalachian Education Satellite Project was conceptualized in 1973 (1) to develop courses in reading and career-education instruction for teachers in the Appalachian region, and (2) to determine the feasibility of conducting such courses over a large geographical area via communication satellites. The courses consist of pretaped video…

  11. A potential 21st century satellite communications application - Personal communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, E. K.; Douville, R.

    1990-03-01

    It has been forecast that not only will the future needs for satellite communications grow, especially in the area of broadcasting and mobile services, but also that the requirements will be diversified. For voice and data traffic, satellite communications started with the requirements of the telephone companies. Over the past few years, with the availability of Ku-band and VSAT systems, private business networks have emerged. Heading into the 21st century, satellite communications will expand into the personal services domain. This paper describes a concept for a satellite-based personal radio system. To realize the personal communications system, the portable terminals have to be inexpensive and small, similar to the present portable or handheld cellular radio-phones in size. The system aspects, such as selection of frequency band, multiple access and payload configuration will be addressed. The advanced technology required for the portable personal satellite communications system will be discussed.

  12. 47 CFR 25.159 - Limits on pending applications and unbuilt satellite systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... party holding a controlling interest in that entity, within the meaning of 47 CFR 1.2110(b)(2). (3) For... satellite systems. 25.159 Section 25.159 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of...

  13. 47 CFR 25.159 - Limits on pending applications and unbuilt satellite systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... party holding a controlling interest in that entity, within the meaning of 47 CFR 1.2110(b)(2). (3) For... satellite systems. 25.159 Section 25.159 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of...

  14. 47 CFR 25.159 - Limits on pending applications and unbuilt satellite systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... party holding a controlling interest in that entity, within the meaning of 47 CFR 1.2110(b)(2). (3) For... satellite systems. 25.159 Section 25.159 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of...

  15. 47 CFR 25.159 - Limits on pending applications and unbuilt satellite systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... party holding a controlling interest in that entity, within the meaning of 47 CFR 1.2110(b)(2). (3) For... satellite systems. 25.159 Section 25.159 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of...

  16. 47 CFR 25.159 - Limits on pending applications and unbuilt satellite systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... party holding a controlling interest in that entity, within the meaning of 47 CFR 1.2110(b)(2). (3) For... satellite systems. 25.159 Section 25.159 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of...

  17. Preliminary Mission Results and Project Evaluation of the Delfi-C3 Nano-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Aalbers, G. T.; Ubbels, W. J.

    2008-08-01

    This paper discusses preliminary mission results of Delfi-C3 up till the early operations phase. The first section will discuss the design philosophy of Delfi-C3. To reduce operational risks, Delfi-C3 followed the KISS principle and is designed to be Single-Point-of-Failure- free. A balance is made between adoption of professional space engineering customs and standards on one hand and the limitations of small satellites, financial budgets and limited human resources on the other hand. The second section of the paper discusses the project planning and management of Delfi-C3. Addressed are reasonable timelines for the development of a nano-satellite, how to deal with a launch slip and the occasional conflicts between the interest of the students and the interest of the project. The third section of the paper will present the results of the early operations of Delfi-C3. Discussed are the performance of the payloads, the bus and the ground network of the satellite. Finally, an early statement of the mission success will be given.

  18. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Konrad; Key, J.; Maslanik, J.; Schweiger, A.

    1993-01-01

    This is the third annual report on: Sea Ice-Atmosphere Interaction - Application of Multispectral Satellite Data in Polar Surface Energy Flux Estimates. The main emphasis during the past year was on: radiative flux estimates from satellite data; intercomparison of satellite and ground-based cloud amounts; radiative cloud forcing; calibration of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) visible channels and comparison of two satellite derived albedo data sets; and on flux modeling for leads. Major topics covered are arctic clouds and radiation; snow and ice albedo, and leads and modeling.

  19. NASA applications project in Miami County, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, Chris J.; Fernandez, R. Norberto; Lozano-Garcia, D. Fabian

    1990-01-01

    This project was designed to acquaint county government officials and their clientele with remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) products that contain information about land conditions and land use. The specific project objectives are: (1) to investigate the feasibility of using remotely sensed data to identify and quantify specific land cover categories and conditions for purposes of tax assessment, cropland area measurements, and land use evaluation; (2) to evaluate the use of remotely sensed data to assess soil resources and conditions which affect productivity; (3) to investigate the use of satellite remote sensing data as an aid in assessing soil management practices; and (4) to evaluate the market potential of products derived from the above projects.

  20. Satellite Interconnection and Distance Delivery in Alaska: Toward the 21st Century. Summary and Recommendations of the Satellite Interconnection Project under the Direction of the Telecommunications Information Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Public Broadcasting Commission, Juneau.

    The Satellite Interconnection Project was created for the purpose of investigating the interest and need for improved interconnection, faster and of greater capacity than the capability of present systems, especially among Alaska state-supported users of video and audio transmissions. The intent was to explore the cost-benefit and the potential…

  1. Internetworking satellite and local exchange networks for personal communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Richard S.; Pinck, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    The demand for personal communications services has shown unprecedented growth, and the next decade and beyond promise an era in which the needs for ubiquitous, transparent and personalized access to information will continue to expand in both scale and scope. The exchange of personalized information is growing from two-way voice to include data communications, electronic messaging and information services, image transfer, video, and interactive multimedia. The emergence of new land-based and satellite-based wireless networks illustrates the expanding scale and trend toward globalization and the need to establish new local exchange and exchange access services to meet the communications needs of people on the move. An important issue is to identify the roles that satellite networking can play in meeting these new communications needs. The unique capabilities of satellites, in providing coverage to large geographic areas, reaching widely dispersed users, for position location determination, and in offering broadcast and multicast services, can complement and extend the capabilities of terrestrial networks. As an initial step in exploring the opportunities afforded by the merger of satellite-based and land-based networks, several experiments utilizing the NASA ACTS satellite and the public switched local exchange network were undertaken to demonstrate the use of satellites in the delivery of personal communications services.

  2. The FES2014 tidal atlas, accuracy assessment for satellite altimetry and other geophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyard, Florent Henri; Carrère, Loren; Cancet, Mathilde; Boy, Jean-Paul; Gégout, Pascal; Lemoine, Jean-Michel

    2016-04-01

    The FES2014 tidal atlas (elaborated in a CNES-supported joint project involving the LEGOS laboratory, CLS and Noveltis) is the last release of the FES atlases series. Based on finite element hydrodynamic modelling with data assimilation, the FES atlases are routinely improved by taken advantage of the increasing duration of satellite altimetry missions. However, the most remarkable improvement in the FES2014 atlas is the unprecedentedly low level of prior misfits (i.e. between the hydrodynamic simulations and data), typically less than 1.3 centimeters RMS for the ocean M2 tide. This makes the data assimilation step much more reliable and more consistent with the true tidal dynamics, especially in shelf and coastal seas, and diminish the sensitivity of the accuracy to the observation distribution (extremely sparse or inexistent in the high latitudes). The FES2014 atlas has been validated and assessed in various geophysical applications (satellite altimetry corrections, gravimetry, etc…), showing significant improvements compared to previous FES releases and other state-of -the-art tidal atlases (such as DTU10, GOT4.8, TPXO8).

  3. Application of the advanced communications technology satellite for teleradiology and telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Brent K.; Carter, Stephen J.; Rowberg, Alan H.

    1995-05-01

    The authors have an in-kind grant from NASA to investigate the application of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to teleradiology and telemedicine using the JPL developed ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) uplink. This experiment involves the transmission of medical imagery (CT, MR, CR, US and digitized radiographs including mammograms), between the ACTS/AMT and the University of Washington. This is accomplished by locating the AMT experiment van in various locations throughout Washington state, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Hawaii. The medical images are transmitted from the ACTS to the downlink at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, consisting of AMT equipment and the high burst rate-link evaluation terminal (HBR-LET). These images are then routed from LeRC to the University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSoM) through the Internet and public switched Integrated Serviced Digital Network (ISDN). Once images arrive in the UW Radiology Department, they are reviewed using both video monitor softcopy and laser-printed hardcopy. Compressed video teleconferencing and transmission of real-time ultrasound video between the AMT van and the UWSoM are also tested. Image quality comparisons are made using both subjective diagnostic criteria and quantitative engineering analysis. Evaluation is performed during various weather conditions (including rain to assess rain fade compensation algorithms). Compression techniques also are tested to evaluate their effects on image quality, allowing further evaluation of portable teleradiology/telemedicine at lower data rates and providing useful information for additional applications (e.g., smaller remote units, shipboard, emergency disaster, etc.). The medical images received at the UWSoM over the ACTS are directly evaluated against the original digital images. The project demonstrates that a portable satellite-land connection can provide subspecialty consultation and education for rural and remote

  4. "SeismoSAT" project results in connecting seismic data centres via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Živčić, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Bertoni, Michele; Delazer, Heimo

    2016-04-01

    Since 2002 the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are collecting, analysing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time. Up to now the data exchange between the seismic data centres relied on internet: this however was not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason, in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria project "SeismoSAT" (Progetto SeismoSAT, 2014) aimed in connecting the seismic data centres in real time via satellite. As already presented in the past, the general technical schema of the project has been outlined, data bandwidths and monthly volumes required have been quantified, the common satellite provider has been selected and the hardware has been purchased and installed. Right before the end of its financial period, the SeismoSAT project proved to be successful guaranteeing data connection stability between the involved data centres during an internet outage.

  5. Recent Trends of the Tropical Hydrological Cycle Inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Y. P.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Sud, Y. C.; Betts, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Scores of modeling studies have shown that increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere impact the global hydrologic cycle; however, disagreements on regional scales are large, and thus the simulated trends of such impacts, even for regions as large as the tropics, remain uncertain. The present investigation attempts to examine such trends in the observations using satellite data products comprising Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud and radiation. Specifically, evolving trends of the tropical hydrological cycle over the last 20-30 years were identified and analyzed. The results show (1) intensification of tropical precipitation in the rising regions of the Walker and Hadley circulations and weakening over the sinking regions of the associated overturning circulation; (2) poleward shift of the subtropical dry zones (up to 2deg/decade in June-July-August (JJA) in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.3-0.7deg/decade in June-July-August and September-October-November in the Southern Hemisphere) consistent with an overall broadening of the Hadley circulation; and (3) significant poleward migration (0.9-1.7deg/decade) of cloud boundaries of Hadley cell and plausible narrowing of the high cloudiness in the Intertropical Convergence Zone region in some seasons. These results support findings of some of the previous studies that showed strengthening of the tropical hydrological cycle and expansion of the Hadley cell that are potentially related to the recent global warming trends.

  6. Current and Future Applications of Multispectral (RGB) Satellite Imagery for Weather Analysis and Forecasting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; LaFontaine, Frank; McGrath, Kevin; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Current and future satellite sensors provide remotely sensed quantities from a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to the passive microwave, from both geostationary and low ]Earth orbits. The NASA Short ]term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a long history of providing multispectral imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA fs Terra and Aqua satellites in support of NWS forecast office activities. Products from MODIS have recently been extended to include a broader suite of multispectral imagery similar to those developed by EUMETSAT, based upon the spectral channels available from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aboard METEOSAT ]9. This broader suite includes products that discriminate between air mass types associated with synoptic ]scale features, assists in the identification of dust, and improves upon paired channel difference detection of fog and low cloud events. Future instruments will continue the availability of these products and also expand upon current capabilities. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES ]R will improve the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution of our current geostationary capabilities, and the recent launch of the Suomi National Polar ]Orbiting Partnership (S ]NPP) carries instruments such as the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Cross ]track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), which have unrivaled spectral and spatial resolution, as precursors to the JPSS era (i.e., the next generation of polar orbiting satellites. New applications from VIIRS extend multispectral composites available from MODIS and SEVIRI while adding new capabilities through incorporation of additional CrIS channels or information from the Near Constant Contrast or gDay ]Night Band h, which provides moonlit reflectance from clouds and detection of fires or city lights. This presentation will

  7. Applications of satellite technology to broadband ISDN networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Kwan, Robert K.; Chitre, D. M.; Henderson, T. R.; White, L. W.; Morgan, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two satellite architectures for delivering broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) service are evaluated. The first is assumed integral to an existing terrestrial network, and provides complementary services such as interconnects to remote nodes as well as high-rate multicast and broadcast service. The interconnects are at a 155 Mbs rate and are shown as being met with a nonregenerative multibeam satellite having 10-1.5 degree spots. The second satellite architecture focuses on providing private B-ISDN networks as well as acting as a gateway to the public network. This is conceived as being provided by a regenerative multibeam satellite with on-board ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) processing payload. With up to 800 Mbs offered, higher satellite EIRP is required. This is accomplished with 12-0.4 degree hopping beams, covering a total of 110 dwell positions. It is estimated the space segment capital cost for architecture one would be about $190M whereas the second architecture would be about $250M. The net user cost is given for a variety of scenarios, but the cost for 155 Mbs services is shown to be about $15-22/minute for 25 percent system utilization.

  8. A satellite based telemetry link for a UAV application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloise, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for a satellite based communication facility to service the needs of the Geographical Information System (GIS) data collection community are addressed in this paper. GIS data is supplied in the form of video imagery at sub-television rates in one or more spectral bands / polarizations laced with a position correlated data stream. The limitations and vicissitudes of using a terrestrial based telecommunications link to collect GIS data are illustrated from actual mission scenarios. The expectations from a satellite based communications link by the geophysical data collection community concerning satellite architecture, operating bands, bandwidth, footprint agility, up link and down link hardware configurations on the UAV, the Mobile Control Vehicle and at the Central Command and Data Collection Facility comprise the principle issues discussed in the first section of this paper. The final section of the paper discusses satellite based communication links would have an increased volume and scope of services the GIS data collection community could make available to the GIS user community, and the price the data collection community could afford to pay for access to the communication satellite described in the paper.

  9. Exploration applications of satellite imagery in mature basins - A summation

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z. )

    1991-08-01

    A series of examples supported by surface and subsurface controls illustrates procedures used to integrate satellite imagery interpretation into a conventional exploration program, and the potential contribution of such an approach to the recognition of new hydrocarbon plays in mature basins. Integrated analysis of satellite imagery data consists of four major steps. The first step focuses on the recognition of style, trend, and timing of deformation of exposed structures located at the basin interior or around its margins. This information is obtained through an integrated analysis of satellite imagery data, stereo aerial photography, surface geological mapping, and field observations. The second step consists of integrating the satellite imagery with gravity and magnetic data to recognize obscured and/or buried structures. The third step involves the analysis of available seismic data which is specifically processes to enhance subtle basement topography in order to determine influences on reservoir quality. In the fourth step, subsurface structure, isopach, show, and pool maps derived from available well information are integrated into the structural interpretation. These four analytical steps are demonstrated with examples form the Powder River basin, Western Canada basin, Paris basin, and Central basin platform of west Texas. In all of these highly mature basins, it is easy to demonstrate that (1) hydrocarbon migration and accumulation was largely controlled by subtle basement structures, and (2) these structures can be detected through the integrated analysis of satellite imagery.

  10. Geolocation applications of the Gonets LEO messaging satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir N.; Ashjaee, Javad M.

    1993-01-01

    Geostationary satellites carry a majority of the international telecommunications traffic not carried by transoceanic cable. However, because the radio path links to and from geostationary satellites total at least 70,000 km and because of inherent on-board spacecraft power limitations, earth stations used in conjunction with geostationary satellites are usually large and expensive. This limits their installation to areas with a well-developed industrial and economic infrastructure. This reality helps perpetuate a chicken egg dilemma for the developing countries and isolated regions. Economic integration with the developed world requires being 'networked'. But for many developing entities, even the initial price of entry exceeds their modest resources. Exclusion from the global information highways virtually assures retardation of economic growth for developing nations, remote and isolated areas. Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) earth stations are often thought of as a solution for networking developing regions. But economic considerations often forecloses this option. If VSAT size and cost is to be minimized, powerful spot beams from the satellite need to be focused on relatively small regions. This is not often feasible because of the high cost of the satellite itself. To dedicate a high power spot beam to a small region is usually not economically feasible.

  11. Applications of satellite and marine geodesy to operations in the ocean environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fubara, D. M.; Mourad, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for marine and satellite geodesy technology are assessed with emphasis on the development of marine geodesy. Various programs and missions for identification of the satellite geodesy technology applicable to marine geodesy are analyzed along with national and international marine programs to identify the roles of satellite/marine geodesy techniques for meeting the objectives of the programs and other objectives of national interest effectively. The case for marine geodesy is developed based on the extraction of requirements documented by authoritative technical industrial people, professional geodesists, government agency personnel, and applicable technology reports.

  12. Trans-Pacific HDR Satellite Communications Experiment Phase-2 Project Plan and Experimental Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Eddie; Kadowaki, Naoto; Yoshimura, Naoko; Takahashi, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Bergman, Larry; Bhasin, Kul

    2000-01-01

    The trans-Pacific high data rate (TP-HDR) satellite communications experiment was proposed at the Japan-U.S. Cooperation in Space (JUCS) Program Workshop held in Hawaii in 1993 and remote high definition video post-production was demonstrated as the first phase trial. ATM-based 45 Mbps trans-Pacific link was established in the first phase, and the following experiments with 155 Mbps was planned as the phase 2. This paper describes the experimental network configuration and project plan of TP-HDR experiment phase 2. Additional information is provided in the original.

  13. Monitoring Snow and Land Ice Using Satellite data in the GMES Project CryoLand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bippus, Gabriele; Nagler, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The main objectives of the project "CryoLand - GMES Service Snow and Land Ice" are to develop, implement and validate services for snow, glaciers and lake and river ice products as a Downstream Service within the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program of the European Commission. CryoLand exploits Earth Observation data from current optical and microwave sensors and of the upcoming GMES Sentinel satellite family. The project prepares also the basis for the cryospheric component of the GMES Land Monitoring services. The CryoLand project team consists of 10 partner organisations from Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Romania and is funded by the 7th Framework Program of the European Commission. The CryoLand baseline products for snow include fractional snow extent from optical satellite data, the extent of melting snow from SAR data, and coarse resolution snow water equivalent maps from passive microwave data. Experimental products include maps of snow surface wetness and temperature. The products range from large scale coverage at medium resolution to regional products with high resolution, in order to address a wide user community. Medium resolution optical data (e.g. MODIS, in the near future Sentinel-3) and SAR (ENVISAT ASAR, in the near future Sentinel-1) are the main sources of EO data for generating large scale products in near real time. For generation of regional products high resolution satellite data are used. Glacier products are based on high resolution optical (e.g. SPOT-5, in the near future Sentinel-2) and SAR (TerraSAR-X, in the near future Sentinel-1) data and include glacier outlines, mapping of glacier facies, glacier lakes and ice velocity. The glacier products are generated on users demand. Current test areas are located in the Alps, Norway, Greenland and the Himalayan Mountains. The lake and river ice products include ice extent and its temporal changes and snow extent on ice. The algorithms for these

  14. Applications of Multi Port Amplifier to personal satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egami, Shunichiro

    1995-01-01

    In personal satellite communications, satellite antenna beam becomes narrow, and number of beams will be thirty to more than one hundred. This paper shows that Multi Port Amplifier is most suitable to multiple beam transmitter for personal communications satellite. It was shown that the single beam coverage area(cell) diameter is determined by personal earth station(PES) eirp, uplink C/No and uplink frequency band. Required number of cells for European or North American regional coverage at FPLMTS uplink frequency band is shown as around 32. It was shown that 32 beams systems will be easily implemented by using 2 set of 16-port MPA. Redundancy to SSPA failure is considered by increasing number of SSPAs. Actual configuration for 16-port MPA are briefly shown. The presented configuration will be easy to implement and the most economical solution.

  15. Application of the Iridium Satellite System to Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Meza, Mike; Gupta, Om

    2008-01-01

    The next generation air transportation system will require greater air-ground communications capacity to accommodate more air traffic with increased safety and efficiency. Communications will remain primarily terrestrially based, but satellite communications will have an increased role. Inmarsat s aeronautical services have been approved and are in use for aeronautical safety communications provided by geostationary satellites. More recently the approval process for the Iridium low earth orbit constellation is nearing completion. The current Iridium system will be able to provide basic air traffic services communications suitable for oceanic, remote and polar regions. The planned second generation of the Iridium system, called Iridium NEXT, will provide enhanced capabilities and enable a greater role in the future of aeronautical communications. This paper will review the potential role of satellite communications in the future of air transportation, the Iridium approval process and relevant system testing, and the potential role of Iridium NEXT.

  16. Satellite Communications for Aeronautical Applications: Recent research and Development Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Communications systems have always been a critical element in aviation. Until recently, nearly all communications between the ground and aircraft have been based on analog voice technology. But the future of global aviation requires a more sophisticated "information infrastructure" which not only provides more and better communications, but integrates the key information functions (communications, navigation, and surveillance) into a modern, network-based infrastructure. Satellite communications will play an increasing role in providing information infrastructure solutions for aviation. Developing and adapting satellite communications technologies for aviation use is now receiving increased attention as the urgency to develop information infrastructure solutions grows. The NASA Glenn Research Center is actively involved in research and development activities for aeronautical satellite communications, with a key emphasis on air traffic management communications needs. This paper describes the recent results and status of NASA Glenn's research program.

  17. Application of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo to Satellite Contamination Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, Didier F. G.; Woronwicz, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A novel method is presented to estimate contaminant levels around spacecraft and satellites of arbitrarily complex geometry. The method uses a three-dimensional direct simulation Monte Carlo algorithm to characterize the contaminant cloud surrounding the space platform, and a computer-assisted design preprocessor to define the space-platform geometry. The method is applied to the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite to estimate the contaminant flux incident on the optics of the halogen occultation experiment (HALOE) telescope. Results are presented in terms of contaminant cloud structure, molecular velocity distribution at HALOE aperture, and code performance.

  18. Students and Teachers Exploring Local Landscapes to Interpret the Earth from Space Application to the International Polar Year (SATELLITES-IPY Application)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, K.; Hedley, M.; Benko, T.

    2007-12-01

    The SATELLITES Program was established in 1999 at the University of Toledo to engage students in "real science" and introduce Earth System Science and geospatial technologies into the K-12 environment. The SATELLITES Program has now expanded to include scientists from the OhioView Remote Sensing Consortium, teachers from over 200 schools and reaches students in countries from around the world through the GLOBE program. SATELLITES is made up of four parts 1. the Observing Earth from Space Summer Institute, 2. a fall field intensive through the GLOBE program to engage students in observing their environment, 3. a spring inquiry- based application project in which the students address an environmental question using the observations that they took and that other students at other schools in the GLOBE network have taken, and 4. the SATELLITES Conference where students present their inquiry-based projects. The week-long SATELITES summer Institute introduces teachers to geospatial technologies of GIS, GPS and remote sensing. Content knowledge is built through interactions with scientists and everything is linked to the Standards. Through the field campaign, students focus on observing locally to understand the global issues of the polar regions and melting of ice and snow.

  19. A distributed MDO architecture and its application on small satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zheng; Li, Guanhua; Fu, Junming

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces the technical feature of a former developed MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) architecture for spacecraft design, which is called Spacecraft Distributed Design Environment (SDIDE). SDIDE is an interactive spacecraft design system based on distributed network computing environment. It applies MDO in the whole lifecycle of spacecraft design, and makes nearly all kinds of system-level and discipline-level analysis tools work collaboratively. SDIDE uses a flexible bus scheme based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) to improve the integration and efficiency. The paper takes the structural optimization of the Tsinghua University "NS-1" small satellite as an example to illustrate the usage of the software system of SDIDE in assisting the overall design of satellite. The result of calculation shows that the software system can effectively decrease the cost of developing a satellite system and improve the overall performance of the satellite, accordingly proving the practicality and feasibility of the SDIDE architecture into the design process of a spacecraft.

  20. Application of satellite data to tropic-subtropic moisture coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Aylmer H.; Mcguirk, James P.

    1987-01-01

    Common tropical synoptic events, called moisture bursts, have been defined in terms of their appearance in infrared satellite imagery. Their synoptic and climatological behavior over the tropical North Pacific Ocean is described using data from four cool seasons, including the 1982 to 1983 El Nino winter and the January and May of 1979.

  1. Application and analysis of satellite orbit prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The numerical accuracy of a satellite orbit computation program was investigated. The effects of roundoff and truncation errors on the solution were determined. New formulations that have the mean motion based on the total energy are compared to the more classical formulations and evaluated via numerical experiments.

  2. Modulation and coding technology for deep space and satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Rafferty, W.

    1992-01-01

    Modulation and coding research and development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) currently emphasize Deep Space Communications Systems and advanced near earth Commercial Satellite Communications Systems. The Deep Space Communication channel is extremely signal to noise ratio limited and has long transmission delay. The near earth satellite channel is bandwidth limited with fading and multipath. Recent code search efforts at JPL have found a long constraint, low rate convolutional code (15, 1/6) which, when concatenated with a ten bit Reed-Solomon (RS) code, provides a 2.1 dB gain over that of the Voyager spacecraft - the current standard. The new code is only 2 dB from the theoretical Shannon limit. A flight qualified version of the (15, 1/6) convolutional encoder was implemented on the Galileo Spacecraft to be launched later this year. An L-band mobile link, use of the Ka-band for personal communications, and the development of subsystem technology for the interconnection of satellite resources by using high rate optical inter-satellite links are noted.

  3. Tools and Data Services from the NASA Earth Satellite Observations for Climate Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.

    2005-01-01

    and science products for climate applications. The intent is to inform users of the existence of this large collection of data and products; suggest starting points for cross-platform science projects and data mining activities and provide data services and tools information. More information about the GES/DISC/DAAC satellite data and products, tools, and services can be found at http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov.

  4. Prospects of application of survey satellite image for meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapochkina, A. B.; Kapochkin, B. B.; Kucherenko, N. V.

    The maximal interest is represented with the information from geostationary satellites. These satellites repeat shootings the chosen territories, allowing to study dynamics of images. Most interesting shootings in IR a range. Studying of survey image is applied to studying linear elements of clouds (LEC). It is established, that "LEC " arise only above breaks of an earth's crust. In research results of the complex analysis of the satellite data, hydrometeorological supervision, seismicity, supervision over deformations of a surface of the Earth are used. It is established that before formation "LEC " in a ground layer arise anomalies of temperature and humidity. The situation above Europe 16 May, 2001 is considered. "LEC " in Europe block carry of air weights from the west to the east. Synoptic conditions above the Great Britain July, 7-10, 2000 is considered. Moving "LEC" trace distribution of deformation waves to an earth's crust. Satellite shootings Europe before earthquake in Greece 14.08.2003 are considered. These days ground supervision were conducted and the data of the geostationary satellite were analyzed. During moving "LEC " occur failures (destruction houses & of gas mains), earthquake. The situation above Iberian peninsula 12-16.11.2001 is considered. "LEC" arose before flooding in Europe. The situation before flooding in Germany June, 6-8, 2002 and flooding on the river Kuban June, 16-23, 2002 is considered. In case of occurrence of tectonic compression of an earth's crust there are "LEC ", tracer intensive movements of air upwards and downwards above negative and positive anomalies of the form of a terrestrial surface, accordingly. Such meteorological situations are dangerous to flights of aircraft, the fast gravitational anomalies influencing into orbits of movement of satellites trace. The situation above equatorial Atlantic 26.03.2003 years is considered. At tectonic compression of continental scale overcast covers the whole continents for more

  5. "SeismoSAT" project state of the art: connecting seismic data centres via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Zivcic, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Bertoni, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Since 2002 the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area. At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centres relies on internet: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria project "SeismoSAT" aimed in connecting the seismic data centres in real time via satellite. As it will be illustrated, the general technical schema of the project has been approved, data bandwidths and monthly volumes required have been quantified, the common satellite provider has been selected, the hardware has been purchased and installed, and the all SeismoSAT project is in testing phase.

  6. "SeismoSAT" project results in connecting seismic data centres via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Živčić, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Bertoni, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002 the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area. Up to now the data exchange between the seismic data centres relied on internet: this however was not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria project "SeismoSAT" aimed in connecting the seismic data centres in real time via satellite. As already presented in the past, the general technical schema of the project has been approved, data bandwidths and monthly volumes required have been quantified, the common satellite provider has been selected and the hardware has been purchased and installed. We will here illustrate the SeismoSAT project final tests and results.

  7. User's guide to image processing applications of the NOAA satellite HRPT/AVHRR data. Part 1: Introduction to the satellite system and its applications. Part 2: Processing and analysis of AVHRR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huh, Oscar Karl; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Dirosa, Donald; Hill, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radar/High Resolution Picture Transmission (AVHRR/HRPT) imagery for earth resource applications is provided for the applications scientist for use within the various Earth science, resource, and agricultural disciplines. A guide to processing NOAA AVHRR data using the hardware and software systems integrated for this NASA project is provided. The processing steps from raw data on computer compatible tapes (1B data format) through usable qualitative and quantitative products for applications are given. The manual is divided into two parts. The first section describes the NOAA satellite system, its sensors, and the theoretical basis for using these data for environmental applications. Part 2 is a hands-on description of how to use a specific image processing system, the International Imaging Systems, Inc. (I2S) Model 75 Array Processor and S575 software, to process these data.

  8. Aviation Applications for Satellite-Based Observations of Cloud Properties, Convection Initiation, In-flight Icing, Turbulence and Volcanic Ash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mecikalski, John R.; Feltz, Wayne F.; Murray, John J.; Johnson, David B.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Bedka, Sarah M.; Wimmers, Anthony J.; Pavolonis, Michael; Berendes, Todd A.; Haggerty, Julie; Minnis, Pat; Bernstein, Ben; Williams, Earl

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Satellite Aviation Weather Products (ASAP) was jointly initiated by the NASA Applied Sciences Program and the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program in 2002. The initiative provides a valuable bridge for transitioning new and existing satellite information and products into Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation Weather Research Program (AWRP) efforts to increase the safety and efficiency of the airspace system. The ASAP project addresses hazards such as convective weather, turbulence (clear-air and cloud-induced), icing and volcanic ash and is particularly applicable in extending the monitoring of weather over data-sparse areas such as the oceans and other observationally remote locations. ASAP research is conducted by scientists from NASA, the FAA AWRP's Product Development Teams (PDT), NOAA and the academic research community. In this paper we provide a summary of activities since the inception of ASAP that emphasize the use of current-generation satellite technologies toward observing and mitigating specified aviation hazards. A brief overview of future ASAP goals is also provided in light of the next generation of satellite sensors (e.g., hyperspectral; high spatial resolution) to become operational in the 2006-2013 timeframe.

  9. Improving application of data quality information in accessing and using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Huang, T.; Xing, Z.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Chin, T. M.; Alarcon, C.

    2014-12-01

    A recurring demand in working with satellite-based earth science data records is the need to apply data quality information. Such quality information is often contained within the data files as an array of "flags", but can also be represented by more complex quality descriptions such as combinations of bit flags, or even other ancillary variables indicating thresholds to be applied to the geophysical variable of interest. For example, with Level 2 granules from the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) project up to 6 independent variables can be used to screen the sea surface temperature measurements on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Quality screening of Level 3 data from the upcoming Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instrument can be become even more complex, involving 26 unique bit states or conditions a user can screen for. The application of quality information is often a laborious process until the user understands the implications of all the flags and bit conditions, and requires iterative approaches using custom software. In addition, most visualization packages do not understand how to apply quality information. The Virtual Quality Screening Service, a recently funded 2013 NASA ACCESS project, aims to address these issues and concerns. The project will develop an infrastructure to expose, apply, and extract quality screening information, building off known and proven NASA components for data extraction and subset-by-value, implementations of Map Reduce workflows, data discovery, ontologies and exposure to the user of granule-based quality information. Further sharing of results through well defined URLs and visualization capabilities will also be described. The presentation will focus on overall description of the technologies and informatics principals employed by the project, and recent results and infrastructure status. Examples of implementations of the end-to-end web service for quality screening with GHRSST and SMAP granules will be

  10. Applications of satellite technology for regional organizations (Project ASTRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.; Wecker, S. C.

    1976-01-01

    The direct arithmetic processing of adaptive delta modulation (ADM) encoded signals, conversion from ADM encoded signals to pulse code modulation (PCM) encoded signals, and conversion from PCM to ADM encoded signals are discussed. It is shown that signals which are ADM encoded can be arithmetically processed directly, without first decoding. Operating on the DM bit stream, and employing only standard digital hardware, the sum, difference and product can be obtained in PCM and ADM format.

  11. Handling of subpixel structures in the application of satellite derived irradiance data for solar energy system analysis - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Hans Georg

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of satellite derived irradiance information, this type of data set is more and more in use for the design and operation of solar energy systems, most notably PV- and CSP-systems. By this, the need for data measured on-site is reduced. However, due to basic limitations of the satellite-derived data, several requirements put by the intended application cannot be coped with this data type directly. Traw satellite information has to be enhanced in both space and time resolution by additional information to be fully applicable for all aspects of the modelling od solar energy systems. To cope with this problem, several individual and collaborative projects had been performed in the recent years or are ongoing. Approaches are on one hand based on pasting synthesized high-resolution data into the low-resolution original sets. Pre-requite is an appropriate model, validated against real world data. For the case of irradiance data, these models can be extracted either directly from ground measured data sets or from data referring to the cloud situation as gained from the images of sky cameras or from monte -carlo initialized physical models. The current models refer to the spatial structure of the cloud fields. Dynamics are imposed by moving the cloud structures according to a large scale cloud motion vector, either extracted from the dynamics interfered from consecutive satellite images or taken from a meso-scale meteorological model. Dynamic irradiance information is then derived from the cloud field structure and the cloud motion vector. This contribution, which is linked to subtask A - Solar Resource Applications for High Penetration of Solar Technologies - of IEA SHC task 46, will present the different approaches and discuss examples in view of validation, need for auxiliary information and respective general applicability.

  12. Use of NASA Satellite Data in Aiding Mississippi Barrier Island Restoration Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco; Spruce, Joseph; Kalcic, Maria; Fletcher, Rose

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discusses a NASA Stennis Space Center project in which NASA-supported satellite and aerial data is being used to aid state and federal agencies in restoring the Mississippi barrier islands. Led by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO), this project will produce geospatial information products from multiple NASA-supported data sources, including Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data as well as ATLAS multispectral, CAMS multispectral, AVIRIS hyperspectral, EAARL, and other aerial data. Project objectives include the development and testing of a regional sediment transport model and the monitoring of barrier island restoration efforts through remote sensing. Barrier islands provide invaluable benefits to the State of Mississippi, including buffering the mainland from storm surge impacts, providing habitats for valuable wildlife and fisheries habitat, offering accessible recreational opportunities, and preserving natural environments for educating the public about coastal ecosystems and cultural resources. Unfortunately, these highly valued natural areas are prone to damage from hurricanes. For example, Hurricane Camille in 1969 split Ship Island into East and West Ship Island. Hurricane Georges in 1998 caused additional land loss for the two Ship Islands. More recently, Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike impacted the Mississippi barrier islands. In particular, Hurricane Katrina caused major damage to island vegetation and landforms, killing island forest overstories, overwashing entire islands, and causing widespread erosion. In response, multiple state and federal agencies are working to restore damaged components of these barrier islands. Much of this work is being implemented through federally funded Coastal Impact Assessment and Mississippi Coastal Improvement programs. One restoration component involves the reestablishment of the island footprints to that in 1969. Our project will employ NASA remote sensing

  13. Applications of satellite image processing to the analysis of Amazonian cultural ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrens, Clifford A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the application of satellite image processing towards identifying and comparing resource exploitation among indigenous Amazonian peoples. The use of statistical and heuristic procedures for developing land cover/land use classifications from Thematic Mapper satellite imagery will be discussed along with actual results from studies of relatively small (100 - 200 people) settlements. Preliminary research indicates that analysis of satellite imagery holds great potential for measuring agricultural intensification, comparing rates of tropical deforestation, and detecting changes in resource utilization patterns over time.

  14. Application of communications satellites to educational development. [technology utilization/information systems - bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of research is presented. The broad objectives of this interdisciplinary research effort were: (1) to assess the role of satellite communications as a means of improving education in the United States, as well as in less-developed areas of the world; (2) to generate basic knowledge which will aid in making rational decisions about satellite application in the field of education in the years ahead; (3) to devise systems and strategies for improving education; and (4) to educate individuals who will be knowledgeable about aspects of satellite communications policy which transcend any single discipline.

  15. Public service communications satellite. [health, education, safety and information transfer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    Health, education, public safety, and information transfer applications of public service communications satellites are discussed with particular attention to the use of communications satellites to improve rural health delivery. Health-care communications requirements are summarized. The communications system concept involves small inexpensive stationary, portable, and moving ground terminals which will provide communications between any two points in the U.S. with both fixed and moving terminals on a continuous 24-hour basis. User requirements, wavebands, and privacy techniques are surveyed.

  16. A preliminary design of a drag-free satellite and its application to geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, B. O.; Debra, D. B.; Kaula, W. M.

    1969-01-01

    The design of a drag-free satellite and its application to measuring tidal interaction of the earth and tesseral harmonics are discussed. Principle areas of discussion are: (1) the feasibility of making geophysical measurements which are not possible with conventional satellites, and (2) design of attitude and translation control systems for spinning vehicle and possible coupling of attitude and translation control for gravity stabilized vehicles.

  17. The Contribution of Operational and Research Applications from the Joint Polar Satellite System to Societal Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    Applications of satellite data are paramount to transform science and technology to product and services which are used in critical decision making. For the satellite community, good representations of technology are the satellite sensors, while science provides the instrument calibration and derived geophysical parameters. Weather forecasting is an application of the science and technology provided by remote sensing satellites. The Joint Polar Satellite System, which includes the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) provides formidable science and technology to support many applications and includes support to 1) weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are used to forecast weather events out to 7 days - nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites; 2) environmental monitoring -data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color; and 3) climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS and CERES will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. To bridge the gap between products and applications, the JPSS Program has established a proving ground program to optimize the use of JPSS data with other data sources to improve key products and services. A number of operational and research applications will be presented along with how the data and applications support a large number of societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS).

  18. Super-capacitor energy storage for micro-satellites: Feasibility and potential mission applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Tatsuo; Underwood, Craig

    2013-04-01

    Small satellites, weighting between 100 and 200 kg, have witnessed increasing use for a variety of space applications including remote sensing constellations and technology demonstrations. The energy storage/stored power demands of most spacecraft, including small satellites, are currently accommodated by rechargeable batteries—typically nickel-cadmium cells (specific energy of 50 Wh kg-1), or more recently lithium-ion cells (150 Wh kg-1). High energy density is a primary concern for spacecraft energy storage design, and these batteries have been sufficient for most applications. However, constraints on the allowable on-board battery size have limited peak power performance such that the maximum power supply capability of small satellites currently ranges between only 70 and 200 W. This relatively low maximum power limits the capabilities of small satellites in terms of payload design and selection. In order to enhance these satellites' power performance, the research reported in this paper focused on the implementation of super-capacitors as practical rechargeable energy storage medium, and as an alternative to chemical batteries. Compared to batteries, some super-capacitors are able to supply high power at high energy-efficiency, but unfortunately they still have a very low energy density (5-30 Wh kg-1). However, the provision of this high power capability would considerably widen the range of small satellite applications.

  19. An experimental low-cost ground station for the small satellite project bird.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayal, Hakan

    2000-03-01

    An experimental ground station (EGS) for the earth observing small satellite project BIRD of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is developed. The German Space Operations Center (GSOC) has the main responsibility for BIRD operations, while data reception is done by the receiving station in Neustrelitz. The objective of the EGS is to investigate and demonstrate direct user reception of regional data from earth observing satellites with a "low-cost" ground station as well as to analyze autonomous activity capabilities and experimental tests for mission operations. For this purpose, a small ground station with data reception and commanding capabilities is built. The station is located in Berlin on the top of the institute building. Many local authorities, such as agriculture or fire combat departments for example, needs only regional limited data to do a more efficient work in their region. The basic idea of the EGS is therefore, to analyze the capabilities and limits of a low-cost ground station, which gives the end-user, only the data which is needed by the local end-user. The antenna size of such a Station can be small, which is one of the important cost drivers. This paper shows the characteristics of such a station, which is developed for the BIRD satellite. Although the development work is still ongoing, it can be seen, that using a smaller coverage and COTS (Commercial of the Shelf) components (such as standard PC's), it is possible to develop a lowcost ground station, which meets the requirements for the described objectives.

  20. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service networks operating in the 1.5./1.6 GHz, 1.6/2.4 GHz and 2 GHz mobile-satellite service. 25.149 Section 25.149 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses...

  1. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service networks operating in the 1.5./1.6 GHz, 1.6/2.4 GHz and 2 GHz mobile-satellite service. 25.149 Section 25.149 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses...

  2. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service networks operating in the 1.5./1.6 GHz, 1.6/2.4 GHz and 2 GHz mobile-satellite service. 25.149 Section 25.149 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses...

  3. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the Mobile-Satellite Service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... terrestrial components in the Mobile-Satellite Service networks operating in the 1.5./1.6 GHz, 1.6/2.4 GHz and 2 GHz Mobile-Satellite Service. 25.149 Section 25.149 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses...

  4. A Survey of the Utility of Satellite Magnetometer Data for Application to Solid-earth Geophysical and Geological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A survey of potential users of low altitude satellite magnetic measurements for solid-earth and geological studies was conducted. The principal objectives of this survey were to: document the utility and application of the data and resultant products obtained from such a satellite mission, and establish a users committee for the proposed low altitude vector magnetometer satellite.

  5. Anik E2 over the Prairies: Inter-Organizational Collaboration in the Application of Satellite Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Angelina T.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the interorganizational collaboration that contributed to the development and satellite-mediated delivery of university courses to a highly dispersed, rural population. The project confirms that collaboration, within the context of adopting innovative procedures, is fraught with potential pitfalls. There are practical strategies that can…

  6. Application of Satellite Frost Forecast Technology to Other Parts of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D.; Chen, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal infrared data taken from the GOES satellite over a period of several hours was color enhanced by computer according to temperature. The varying temperatures were then used to assist in frost forecasting. Input from Michigan and Pennsylvania to the cold climate mapping project is emphasized in the report of the second year's activities of a two year effort.

  7. Project JOVE. [microgravity experiments and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyell, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate new areas of research pertaining to free surface-interface fluids mechanics and/or microgravity which have potential commercial applications. This paper presents an introduction to ferrohydrodynamics (FHD), and discusses some applications. Also, computational methods for solving free surface flow problems are presented in detail. Both have diverse applications in industry and in microgravity fluids applications. Three different modeling schemes for FHD flows are addressed and the governing equations, including Maxwell's equations, are introduced. In the area of computational modeling of free surface flows, both Eulerian and Lagrangian schemes are discussed. The state of the art in computational methods applied to free surface flows is elucidated. In particular, adaptive grids and re-zoning methods are discussed. Additional research results are addressed and copies of the publications produced under the JOVE Project are included.

  8. The Science and Applications Tethered Platform (SATP) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlina, P.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of tether systems in orbit are going to be demonstrated by the first planned flights of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS). These test flights will investigate the properties of tether systems as low altitude atmospheric research facilities and as electric power generators. Studies are being conducted with the purpose of testing a variety of concepts and approaches. A comparative analysis of results will allow the choosing of the most promising ideas for further development. The broad range of applications presently under study include applications in electrodynamics, transportation, microgravity in addition to basic research. The SATP project definition study is now about midway through its first phase. The analyses conducted have led to an appraisal of users interest in the project and to a deeper understanding of the problems associated with large, long-lived tether systems in space. In addition, two specialized platform designs, devoted to microgravity and precise pointing applications, are being studied because of their potential usefulness and the promise of technical feasibility.

  9. Planning for Applications of Communications Satellites in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, William K.

    This report of a project to develop and test a prototype system for the delivery of continuing education (CE) to two defined target groups of registered dietitians includes user needs, alternative approaches, the operational plan, the management plan, and personnel. Major tasks involved in the project are described: (1) development,…

  10. Communications technology satellite: United States experiments and disaster communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, P.; Hunczak, H. R.; Gurski, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Ground antennas from 0.6 to 5.0 meters in diameter were used as remote earth terminals by the United States for both wideband (television) and narrowband (voice, data) communication in conjunction with the Canadian Hermes satellite's high power transmitter. Experiments summarized cover teleconferencing and duplex videoconferencing for medical, educational, and civic purposes, as well as the remote interpretation of multilingual broadcasts from the United Nations. The capabilities of the system during real and simulated disasters at airports are assessed. Particular attention is given to miniexperiments for flood control in the Mississippi River basin and in Johnstown, Pennsylvania during the 1977 flood.

  11. Applications of satellite data relay to problems of field seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Miller, W. H.; Whitley, R.; Allenby, R. J.; Dennison, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    A seismic signal processor was developed and tested for use with the NOAA-GOES satellite data collection system. Performance tests on recorded, as well as real time, short period signals indicate that the event recognition technique used is nearly perfect in its rejection of cultural signals and that data can be acquired in many swarm situations with the use of solid state buffer memories. Detailed circuit diagrams are provided. The design of a complete field data collection platform is discussed and the employment of data collection platforms in seismic network is reviewed.

  12. A high gain antenna system for airborne satellite communication applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maritan, M.; Borgford, M.

    1990-01-01

    A high gain antenna for commercial aviation satellites communication is discussed. Electromagnetic and practical design considerations as well as candidate systems implementation are presented. An evaluation of these implementation schemes is given, resulting in the selection of a simple top mounted aerodynamic phased array antenna with a remotely located beam steering unit. This concept has been developed into a popular product known as the Canadian Marconi Company CMA-2100. A description of the technical details is followed by a summary of results from the first production antennas.

  13. Seven-core active fibre for application in telecommunication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipowicz, Marta; Napierała, Marek; Murawski, Michał; Ostrowski, Łukasz; Szostkiewicz, Łukasz; Szymański, Michał; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Anders, Krzysztof; Piramidowicz, Ryszard; Wójcik, Grzegorz; Makara, Mariusz; Poturaj, Krzysztof; Mergo, Paweł; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    The use of optical elements and other photonic components makes it possible to overcome telecommunication satellite's bottleneck problems such as size and weight reduction. Despite the unquestionable potential of such elements, nowadays they are not widely used in systems operating in space. This is due to many factors, including the fact that space radiation has disruptive influence on optical fibre. Namely it introduces additional radiation induced attenuation (RIA) that significantly lowers efficiency of optical fibre based systems. However, there is a possibility to produce radiation-hardened (rad-hard) components. One of them is seven core erbium-doped active fibre (MC-EDF) for fibre amplifiers in satellites that we have been developing. In this paper we present a detailed description of seven core structure design as well as experimental results. We report that average gain of 20 dB in C-band with noise figure of 5.8 dB was obtained. We also confirmed that low crosstalk value for a multicore fibre amplifier based on our fibre can be achieved.

  14. Applications technology satellite advanced missions study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four different spacecraft configurations were developed for geostationary service as a high power communications satellite. The first configuration is a Thor-Delta launch into a low orbit with a spiral ascent to synchronous altitude by ion engine propulsion. The spacecraft is earth oriented with rotating solar arrays. Configuration 2 is a direct injection Atlas/Centaur/Burner II vehicle which when in orbit is sun-oriented with a rotating transponder tower. Configurations 3 and 4 are Titan IIIC launches, and are therefore larger and heavier than Configuration 2. They are both sun-oriented, with rotating transponder towers and are directly injected into orbit. Technology discussed includes high power (up to 2 kW) transmitters with collectors radiating heat directly into space, and contoured antenna patterns designed to illuminate particular earth regions. There is also a review of potential users of the services which can be performed by this type satellite in such areas as information networking, public broadcasting and educational television.

  15. Low-stiction magnetic bearing for satellite application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, K. R.; Sivadasan, K. K.

    2002-05-01

    In this article, the design and development of a low-stiction two-axis-active magnetic bearing used in the reaction wheel of a remote sensing satellite is presented. Conventional design of the magnetic circuit and improvements in the design using finite element (FE) analysis were carried out. The results of investigations carried out to bring down the stiction torque of the magnetic bearing to a very low value of less than 1×10-4 Nm are also presented. Ideally for zero stiction, the cogging between the moving and stationary parts must be zero. In a reaction wheel of the satellite, there will be a permanent magnet brushless dc motor as the drive motor. Magnetic or eddy current sensors present in the motor commutation circuit will induce cogging between the moving and stationary parts. In this work, by properly designing all subsystems, the stiction has been brought down to as low as 0.75×10-4 Nm. Test results of the developed magnetic bearing match fairly with the computed values by FE analysis.

  16. Applications of Satellite Fluorescence to Constrain Global Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) by plant photosynthesis is the largest flux component of the global carbon budget and primary conduit for biological sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. While much is known about the functioning of photosynthesis at the leave-level, gross photosynthetic fluxes are still only loosely constrained at ecosystem, regional, and global scales. Uncertainty in the response of photosynthesis to the environment at these scales is a major source of uncertainty in prediction of biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks under climate change, and thus novel methods are needed to push the boundaries of carbon cycle science beyond leaf-level. Chlorophyll fluorescence has been a major tool for basic research in photosynthesis for nearly a century. It was recently discovered that solar induced fluorescence (SIF) can be accurately retrieved from space using high spectral resolution radiances, providing a new way to study photosynthesis at scales ranging from the ecosystem to the globe. Over the last 5-10 years, satellite based measurements of SIF have provided key new insights into the global distribution and functioning of plant photosynthesis, providing new ways to quantify global GPP, detect regional-scale changes in plant productivity in relation to light use efficiency and environmental controls, disentangle biological contributions to atmospheric carbon dioxide mole fractions, and refine process understanding in terrestrial biosphere models. Here, we highlight some of the key research advances emerging from satellite SIF.

  17. Application of satellite data to tropic/subtropic moisture coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, J. P.; Thompson, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to develop analysis tools for use of satellite data to interpret synoptic-scale systems in data-void regions. Interim goals are to: (1) quantify the synoptic information content of satellite data; and (2) utilize these data in the diagnosis of moisture bursts in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Researchers developed and implemented a statistical procedure for using TIROS N microwave data to infer infrared channel data for overcast conditions; they used the same procedure for deducing full TIROS N channel radiance profiles from NOAA 5 VTPR channel data over regions where the TIROS N data are missing. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of twice-daily channel radiance fields over the tropical eastern Pacific was completed. The vertically oriented eigenfunctions were interpreted in terms of typical meteorological events. The horizontal distribution of the eigenfunction amplitudes relates these meteorological signals to moisture bursts. A pair of moisture burst climatologies is complete: one of four years using infrared imagery (including the highly anomalous 1982 to 83 cold season); the other implementing 850 to 200 mb wind analyses in conjunction with GOES imagery. A number of different evaluations of the synoptic evolution of moisture fields (enhanced infrared imagery, moisture channel data, FGGE humidity analysis, and in situ station and sounding observations) are compared. All have limitations; all can be utilized together; all together are still less than adequate in the tropical Pacific.

  18. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application Project (MIRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA) Project. A detailed description of the MIRA camera service software architecture, encoder features, and on-board communications are presented. A description of a candidate camera under development is also shown.

  19. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Reports technical effort by AlliedSignal Engines in sixth year of DOE/NASA funded project. Topics include: gas turbine engine design modifications of production APU to incorporate ceramic components; fabrication and processing of silicon nitride blades and nozzles; component and engine testing; and refinement and development of critical ceramics technologies, including: hot corrosion testing and environmental life predictive model; advanced NDE methods for internal flaws in ceramic components; and improved carbon pulverization modeling during impact. ATTAP project is oriented toward developing high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication to carry forward to commercial production by 'bridging the gap' between structural ceramics in the laboratory and near-term commercial heat engine application. Current ATTAP project goal is to support accelerated commercialization of advanced, high-temperature engines for hybrid vehicles and other applications. Project objectives are to provide essential and substantial early field experience demonstrating ceramic component reliability and durability in modified, available, gas turbine engine applications; and to scale-up and improve manufacturing processes of ceramic turbine engine components and demonstrate application of these processes in the production environment.

  20. 7 CFR 634.13 - Project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and Funding... priorities established by the Governor and data and information in the approved agricultural portion of the... administration. This component is to set out the applicant's plan for carrying out the program in the...

  1. Applicability Evaluation of Object Detection Method to Satellite and Aerial Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Since satellite and aerial imageries are recently widely spread and frequently observed, combination of them are expected to complement spatial and temporal resolution each other. One of the prospective applications is traffic monitoring, where objects of interest, or vehicles, need to be recognized automatically. Techniques that employ object detection before object recognition can save a computational time and cost, and thus take a significant role. However, there is not enough knowledge whether object detection method can perform well on satellite and aerial imageries. In addition, it also has to be studied how characteristics of satellite and aerial imageries affect the object detection performance. This study employ binarized normed gradients (BING) method that runs significantly fast and is robust to rotation and noise. For our experiments, 11-bits BGR-IR satellite imageries from WorldView-3, and BGR-color aerial imageries are used respectively, and we create thousands of ground truth samples. We conducted several experiments to compare the performances with different images, to verify whether combination of different resolution images improved the performance, and to analyze the applicability of mixing satellite and aerial imageries. The results showed that infrared band had little effect on the detection rate, that 11-bit images performed less than 8-bit images and that the better spatial resolution brought the better performance. Another result might imply that mixing higher and lower resolution images for training dataset could help detection performance. Furthermore, we found that aerial images improved the detection performance on satellite images.

  2. Military reconnaissance application of high-resolution optical satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng-gang; Kang, Qing; Xun, Yi-jia; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Cui, Chang-bin

    2014-11-01

    As the remote sensing technology transformation from military use to civil use becomes deeper and faster, the resolution is better and better, and the relative techniques of the civil optical remote sensing satellite are richer and richer. So, modes such as civil use replacing military use, civil use covering military use, and civil use supporting military use are the real portraiture of high-resolution optical satellite remote sensing development currently. Taking the situations of the Taiwan authorities buying commercial remote sensing image to military reconnaissance, and the so-called military establishments exposed by media using satellite image as an example, the military reconnaissance application of civil high-resolution optical satellite remote sensing is discussed. Then, the actuality and reasons of huge measure engineering and ruled configuring, environment and signs of military area, equipment and exercitation establishments and three-dimension information of engineering and equipment which can be detected easily by remote sensing are analyzed.

  3. Application preliminary evaluation of HJ-1-C SAR satellite of S band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Lin, Yueguan

    2015-12-01

    On Nov 19, 2012, HJ-1-C launched successfully, which is belong to Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Prediction Small Satellite Constellation, and is the first civil Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite in China and the first successful SAR satellite of S band on-orbit operation in the world. During the on-orbit test period, National Disaster Reduction Center of China (NDRCC) preliminarily evaluated its disaster reduction application ability in the ice, flood, drought, snow, landslide and debris flow, etc. The results show that SAR satellite of S band has more highlight advantage than the HJ-1-A and HJ-1-B in the detailed characterization, and has well disaster reduction potential.

  4. An introduction to orbit dynamics and its application to satellite-based earth monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    The long term behavior of satellites is studied at a level of complexity suitable for the initial planning phases of earth monitoring missions. First-order perturbation theory is used to describe in detail the basic orbit dynamics of satellite motion around the earth and relative to the sun. Surface coverage capabilities of satellite orbits are examined. Several examples of simulated observation and monitoring missions are given to illustrate representative applications of the theory. The examples stress the need for devising ways of maximizing total mission output in order to make the best possible use of the resultant data base as input to those large-scale, long-term earth monitoring activities which can best justify the use of satellite systems.

  5. Modeling Polarized Solar Radiation from Various Scene Types for Satellite Remote-Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.

    2015-12-01

    To correct the polarization-induced errors in measured reflected solar spectra, the polarization state of the reflected solar light must be known. In this presentation, recent modeling of the polarized solar radiation from the ocean, desert, forest, and clouds is reported. The modeled polarized solar radiation quantities are compared with the PARASOL satellite measurements for various scene types. A novel super-thin cloud optical depth (OD) retrieval method based on polarization measurement is also introduced. This study provides a reliable approach for making the spectral Polarization Distribution Models (PDMs) for satellite inter-calibration applications of NASA's future Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission. This study also reports the advance in developing a technique to retrieve super-thin clouds with OD < ~0.3, which are missed by passive satellite sensors like the MODIS. Key words: Reflected solar radiation, polarization, correction of satellite data, retrieval of super-thin clouds.

  6. Payload Service System for the Small Satellites of Double Star Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H. X.; Chen, X. M.

    Double Star Project (DSP) is a cooperative program between ESA and China, which plan to be launched in 2003. The main objective of the program is to explore the magnetosphere of the earth. Using two small satellites, one is in near polar orbit, another is in near equatorial orbit; compensate CLUSTER II 4 satellites, to form 6 points measurements and to detect the 3-D small-scale structures and spatial-temporal variations of magnetosphere. ESA will provide several experiment payloads, which are identical to that of CLUSTER II, include Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM), Active Spacecraft Potential Control experiment (ASPOC), Spatial- Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuation experiment (STAFF), Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE), Hot Ion Analyzer (HIA) etc. China will provide the launcher, the satellite platform and several experiment payloads, include Heave Ion Detector (HID), High Energy Electron Detector (HEED), High Energy Proton Detector (HEPD), Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Detector etc. In order to reduce the cost, all the experiment payloads provided by ESA keep the same with that of CLUSTER II, include all interfaces even for data acquisition sequence. However the satellites and the interfaces of the payloads from China are different form CLUSTER II, so how to handle the data of the experiments became a challenge problem for the DSP. CSSAR designed a Payload Service System (PSS) to bridge the gap. PSS is a distributed system based on the 1553B data bus, it is consist of Bus Controller, Soiled State Recorder, High Rate Multiplexer, Remote Terminal, S-band Transmitter and Power Distributor. In Bus Controller the special interface designed to connect the ESA experiment payloads, which follow the same interface standard with CLUSTER II. All other payloads and instruments access the system via 1553B data bus. PSS acquire the science and housekeeping data of ESA experiments with the same sequence and period as they did in CLUSTER II, but the data will be

  7. A geostationary satellite system for mobile multimedia applications using portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losquadro, G.; Luglio, M.; Vatalaro, F.

    1997-01-01

    A geostationary satellite system for mobile multimedia services via portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals was developed within the framework of the Advanced Communications Technology Service (ACTS) programs. The architecture of the system developed under the 'satellite extremely high frequency communications for multimedia mobile services (SECOMS)/ACTS broadband aeronautical terminal experiment' (ABATE) project is presented. The system will be composed of a Ka band system component, and an extremely high frequency band component. The major characteristics of the space segment, the ground control station and the portable, aeronautical and mobile user terminals are outlined.

  8. The Interreg IV Italia-Austria "SeismoSAT" project: connecting seismic data centers via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Lenhardt, W.; Rauch, M.; Živčić, M.; Steiner, R.; Fabris, P.; Bertoni, M.

    2014-06-01

    Since 2002 OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps" (Bragato et al., 2004, 2010). The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area (Fig. 1). At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centers relies on their internet connections: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since the reliability of standard internet connections is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (PCBZ, Italy), OGS, ZAMG subsidiary in Tirol (ZAMG Tirol) and ARSO joined in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria Project "SeismoSAT" (Progetto SeismoSAT, 2012) aimed in connecting the seismic data centers in real time via satellite. ARSO does not belong to the Interreg Italia-Austria region: for this reason ARSO joined the SeismoSAT project as an "associated partner", which, according to Interreg rules can not be funded. ARSO participation in the project is therefore at the beginning limited in benefiting only indirectly from improvement in the robustness of the data exchange between the other data centers, while eventually fully taking part in the project if other sources of funding will be available. The project is in a

  9. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communications. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further subdivided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  10. The application of GIS in land satellite data management and service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Defeng

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of China's satellite remote sensing technology, ZY-1 02C, ZY-3 and TH-1 satellites have been successfully launched, ZY-3 satellite is China's first autonomous civilian high-resolution stereo mapping satellite, achieved a breakthrough in the field of civil high resolution mapping satellite[1]. Its successful applications have become a new milestone in the history of Chinese satellite surveying and mapping, undertake to build database of remote sensing information, promote the development of geographic space information industry. This paper, based on data distribution service subsystem of the construction of ZY-3 ground processing as an example, introduces GIS in the subsystem which plays an important role. This sub-system is the window of the ground system of information collection and product distribution, whose task is to provide ZY-3, ZY-1 02C a variety of sensor data distribution service at all levels of products, to provide users with a unified search, browse, order and download services, and has a certain capacity expansion upgrade, which provides a technical basis and guarantee for subsequent satellite distribution service. With ZY-3 satellite in orbit, the amount of data is increasing, how to efficiently manage multi-source image data becomes the system to be solved. In this paper, ArcGIS mosaic datasets is used to manage large-scale image data to solve the many problems that exist in the traditional image management and shared services to complete data distribution. At present, the distribution system has been stabilized, and serves the masses of users.

  11. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology 5(ST5) payload was successfully carried into orbit on an OSC Pegasus XL launch vehicle, which was carried aloft and dropped from the OSC Lockheed L-1011 from Vandenberg Air Force Base March 22,2006, at 9:03 am Eastern time, 6:03 am Pacific time. In order to reach the completion of the development and successful launch of ST 5, the systems integration and test(I&T) team determined that a different approach was required to meet the project requirements rather than the standard I&T approach used for single, room-sized satellites. The ST5 payload, part of NASA's New Millennium Program headquartered at JPL, consisted of three micro satellites (approximately 30 kg each) and the Pegasus Support Structure (PSS), the system that connected the spacecrafts to the launch vehicle and deployed the spacecrafts into orbit from the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. ST5 was a technology demonstration payload, intended to test six (6) new technologies for potential use for future space flights along with demonstrating the ability of small satellites to perform quality science. The main technology was a science grade magnetometer designed to take measurements of the earth's magnetic field. The three spacecraft were designed, integrated, and tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center with integration and environmental testing occurring in the Bldg. 7-1 0-15-29. The three spacecraft were integrated and tested by the same I&T team. The I&T Manager determined that there was insufficient time in the schedule to perform the three I&T spacecraft activities in series used standard approaches. The solution was for spacecraft #1 to undergo integration and test first, followed by spacecraft #2 and #3 simultaneously. This simultaneous integration was successful for several reasons. Each spacecraft had a Lead Test Conductor who planned and coordinated their spacecraft through its integration and test activities. One team of engineers and technicians executed the integration of all

  12. Practical applicability and preliminary results of the Baltic Environmental Satellite Remote Sensing System (SatBaltic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, B.; Ostrowska, M.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

    2012-04-01

    SatBaltic (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) project is being realized in Poland by the SatBaltic Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot - coordinator, the University of Gdańsk (Institute of Oceanography), the Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk (Institute of Physics) and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences). We present the first the results of the first year and a half of SatBaltic's implementation. The final result of the project is to be the creation and setting in motion of the SatBaltic Operational System (SBOS), the aim of which is to monitor effectively and comprehensively the state of the Baltic Sea environment using remote sensing techniques. Various aspects of the practical applicability of SBOS to the monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem are discussed. We present some examples of the maps of the various characteristics of the Baltic obtained using the current version of SBOS, including algorithms and models that are still in an unfinished state. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps.

  13. New Satellite Project Aerosol-UA: Remote Sensing of Aerosols in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Yatskiv, Ya.; Degtyaryov, O.; Syniavskyi, I.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Rosenbush, V.; Ivanov, Yu.; Makarov, A.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Danylevsky, V.; Sosonkin, M.; Moskalov, S.; Bovchaliuk, V; Lukenyuk, A.; Shymkiv, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the development of the Ukrainian space project Aerosol-UA which has the following three main objectives: (1) to monitor the spatial distribution of key characteristics of terrestrial tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols; (2) to provide a comprehensive observational database enabling accurate quantitative estimates of the aerosol contribution to the energy budget of the climate system; and (3) quantify the contribution of anthropogenic aerosols to climate and ecological processes. The remote sensing concept of the project is based on precise orbital measurements of the intensity and polarization of sunlight scattered by the atmosphere and the surface with a scanning polarimeter accompanied by a wide-angle multispectral imager-polarimeter. Preparations have already been made for the development of the instrument suite for the Aerosol-UA project, in particular, of the multi-channel scanning polarimeter (ScanPol) designed for remote sensing studies of the global distribution of aerosol and cloud properties (such as particle size, morphology, and composition) in the terrestrial atmosphere by polarimetric and spectrophotometric measurements of the scattered sunlight in a wide range of wavelengths and viewing directions from which a scene location is observed. ScanPol is accompanied by multispectral wide-angle imager-polarimeter (MSIP) that serves to collect information on cloud conditions and Earths surface image. Various components of the polarimeter ScanPol have been prototyped, including the opto-mechanical and electronic assemblies and the scanning mirror controller. Preliminary synthetic data simulations for the retrieval of aerosol parameters over land surfaces have been performed using the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) algorithm. Methods for the validation of satellite data using ground-based observations of aerosol properties are also discussed. We assume that designing, building, and launching into orbit a multi

  14. New satellite project Aerosol-UA: Remote sensing of aerosols in the terrestrial atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Yatskiv, Ya.; Degtyaryov, O.; Syniavskyi, I.; Mishchenko, M.; Rosenbush, V.; Ivanov, Yu.; Makarov, A.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Danylevsky, V.; Sosonkin, M.; Moskalov, S.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Lukenyuk, A.; Shymkiv, A.; Udodov, E.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the development of the Ukrainian space project Aerosol-UA which has the following three main objectives: (1) to monitor the spatial distribution of key characteristics of terrestrial tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols; (2) to provide a comprehensive observational database enabling accurate quantitative estimates of the aerosol contribution to the energy budget of the climate system; and (3) quantify the contribution of anthropogenic aerosols to climate and ecological processes. The remote sensing concept of the project is based on precise orbital measurements of the intensity and polarization of sunlight scattered by the atmosphere and the surface with a scanning polarimeter accompanied by a wide-angle multispectral imager-polarimeter. Preparations have already been made for the development of the instrument suite for the Aerosol-UA project, in particular, of the multi-channel scanning polarimeter (ScanPol) designed for remote sensing studies of the global distribution of aerosol and cloud properties (such as particle size, morphology, and composition) in the terrestrial atmosphere by polarimetric and spectrophotometric measurements of the scattered sunlight in a wide range of wavelengths and viewing directions from which a scene location is observed. ScanPol is accompanied by multispectral wide-angle imager-polarimeter (MSIP) that serves to collect information on cloud conditions and Earth's surface image. Various components of the polarimeter ScanPol have been prototyped, including the opto-mechanical and electronic assemblies and the scanning mirror controller. Preliminary synthetic data simulations for the retrieval of aerosol parameters over land surfaces have been performed using the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) algorithm. Methods for the validation of satellite data using ground-based observations of aerosol properties are also discussed. We assume that designing, building, and launching into orbit a multi

  15. Application of NASA ERTS-1 satellite imagery in coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T.; Berg, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Hallermeier, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Review of ERTS-1 imagery indicates that it contains information of great value in coastal engineering studies. A brief introduction is given to the methods by which imagery is generated, and examples of its application to coastal engineering. Specific applications discussed include study of the movement of coastal and nearshore sediment-laden water masses and information for planning and construction in remote areas of the world.

  16. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Work to develop and demonstrate the technology of structural ceramics for automotive engines and similar applications is described. Long-range technology is being sought to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. The Advanced Turbine Technology Application Project (ATTAP) test bed engine is designed such that, when installed in a 3,000 pound inertia weight automobile, it will provide low emissions, 42 miles per gallon fuel economy on diesel fuel, multifuel capability, costs competitive with current spark ignition engines, and noise and safety characteristics that meet Federal standards.

  17. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of Annual Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). This report covers plans and progress on ceramics development for commercial automotive applications over the period 1 Jan. - 31 Dec. 1991. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System program. This program is directed to provide the U.S. automotive industry the high-risk, long-range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption, reduced environmental impact, and a decreased reliance on scarce materials and resources. The program is oriented toward developing the high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication, such that industry can carry this technology forward to production in the 1990s. The ATTAP test bed engine, carried over from the previous AGT101 project, is being used for verification testing of the durability of next-generation ceramic components, and their suitability for service at Reference Powertrain Design conditions. This document reports the technical effort conducted by GAPD and the ATTAP subcontractors during the fourth year of the project. Topics covered include ceramic processing definition and refinement, design improvements to the ATTAP test bed engine and test rigs and the methodology development of ceramic impact and fracture mechanisms. Appendices include reports by ATTAP subcontractors in the development of silicon nitride and silicon carbide families of materials and processes.

  18. Development of a surface isolation estimation technique suitable for application of polar orbiting satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A.; Penn, L. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A technique is developed for the estimation of total daily insolation on the basis of data derivable from operational polar-orbiting satellites. Although surface insolation and meteorological observations are used in the development, the algorithm is constrained in application by the infrequent daytime polar-orbiter coverage.

  19. ACTS Satellite Telemammography Network Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachmar, Brian A.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch of NASA's Glenn Research Center has developed and demonstrated several advanced satellite communications technologies through the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program. One of these technologies is the implementation of a Satellite Telemammography Network (STN) encompassing NASA Glenn, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. the University of Virginia, and the Ashtabula County Medical Center. This paper will present a look at the STN from its beginnings to the impact it may have on future telemedicine applications. Results obtained using the experimental ACTS satellite demonstrate the feasibility of Satellite Telemammography. These results have improved teleradiology processes and mammography image manipulation, and enabled advances in remote screening methodologies. Future implementation of satellite telemammography using next generation commercial satellite networks will be explored. In addition, the technical aspects of the project will be discussed, in particular how the project has evolved from using NASA developed hardware and software to commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. Development of asymmetrical link technologies was an outcome of this work. Improvements in the display of digital mammographic images, better understanding of end-to-end system requirements, and advances in radiological image compression were achieved as a result of the research. Finally, rigorous clinical medical studies are required for new technologies such as digital satellite telemammography to gain acceptance in the medical establishment. These experiments produced data that were useful in two key medical studies that addressed the diagnostic accuracy of compressed satellite transmitted digital mammography images. The results of these studies will also be discussed.

  20. Application of lightning data to satellite-based rainfall estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David W.; Hinton, Barry B.; Auvine, Brian A.

    1991-01-01

    Information on lightning may improve rain estimates made from infrared images of a geostationary satellite. We address this proposition through a case from the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX). During the afternoon and evening of 13 July 1986 waves of showers and thunderstorms developed over and near the lower Tennessee River Valley. For the shower and thunderstorm region within 200 km of the National Weather Service radar at Nashville, Tennessee, we measure cold-cloud area in a sequence of GOES infrared images covering all but the end of the shower and thunderstorm period. From observations of the NASA/Marshall direction-finding network in this small domain, we also count cloud-to-ground lightning flashes and, from scans of the Nashville radar, we calculate volume rain flux. Using a modified version of the Williams and Houze scheme, over an area within roughly 240 km of the radar (the large domain), we identify and track cold cloud systems. For these systems, over the large domain, we measure area and count flashes; over the small domain, we calculate volume rain flux. For a temperature threshold of 235K, peak cloud area over the small domain lags both peak rain flux and peak flash count by about four hours. At a threshold of 226K, the lag is about two hours. Flashes and flux are matched in phase. Over the large domain, nine storm systems occur. These range in size from 300 to 60,000 km(exp 2); in lifetime, from about 2 1/2 h to 6 h or more. Storm system area lags volume rain flux and flash count; nevertheless, it is linked with these variables. In essential respects the associations were the same when clouds were defined by a threshold of 226K. Tentatively, we conclude that flash counts complement infrared images in providing significant additional information on rain flux.

  1. Development of a WebGIS-based monitoring and environmental protection and preservation system for the Black Sea: The ECO-Satellite project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2013-04-01

    The ECO-Satellite project has been approved in the frame of the Joint Operational Program "Black Sea Basin 2007-2013" and it is co-financed by the European Union through the European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument and the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance and National Funds. The overall objective of the project is to contribute to the protection and preservation of the water system of the Black Sea, with its main emphasis given to river deltas and protected coastal regions at the seaside. More specifically, it focuses on the creation of an environmental monitoring system targeting the marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea, thus strengthening the development of common research among the involved partners and increasing the intraregional knowledge for the corresponding coastal zones. This integrated multi-level system is based on the technological assets provided by satellite Earth observation data and Geo-Informatics innovative tools and facilities, as well as on the development of a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. Furthermore, a Web-GIS system is under development aiming in principle to support environmental decision and policy making by monitoring the state of marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea and managing all the aforementioned data sources and derived research results. The system is designed in a way that is easily expandable and adaptable for environmental management in local, regional national and trans-national level and as such it will increase the capacity of decision makers who are related to Black Sea environmental policy. Therefore, it is expected that administrative authorities, scientifically related institutes and environmental protection bodies in all eligible areas will show interest in the results and applications of the information system, since the ECO-Satellite project could serve as a support tool for the

  2. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  3. Joint Polar Satellite System's Operational and Research Applications from Suomi NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. JPSS provides critical data for key operational and research applications, and includes: 1) Weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. 2) Environmental monitoring - data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. 3) Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS and CERES will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long-term observation of the environment; the records and products are critical to climate modelers, scientists, and decision makers concerned with advancing climate change understanding, prediction, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and policies. To bridge the gap between products and applications, the JPSS Program has established a proving ground program to optimize the use of JPSS data with other data sources to improve key products and services. A number of operational and research applications will be discussed, including the use of CrIS and ATMS for improved weather forecasting, the use of VIIRS for environmental monitoring of sea ice, smoke, fire, floods, droughts, coastal water quality (e.g. harmful algal blooms

  4. R and D limited partnerships (possible applications in advanced communications satellite technology experiment program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Typical R&D limited partnership arrangements, advantages and disadvantages of R&D limited partnership (RDLPs) and antitrust and tax implications are described. A number of typical forms of RDLPs are described that may be applicable for use in stimulating R&D and experimental programs using the advanced communications technology satellite. The ultimate goal is to increase the rate of market penetration of goods and/or services based upon advanced satellite communications technology. The conditions necessary for these RDLP forms to be advantageous are outlined.

  5. IMT-2000 Satellite Standards with Applications to Mobile Air Traffic Communications Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The International Mobile Telecommunications - 2000 (IMT-2000) standard and more specifically the Satellite component of it, is investigated as a potential alternative for communications to aircraft mobile users en-route and in terminal area. Its application to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs is considered. A summary of the specifications of IMT-2000 satellite standards are outlined. It is shown via a system research analysis that it is possible to support most air traffic communication needs via an IMT-2000 infrastructure. This technology can compliment existing, or future digital aeronautical communications technologies such as VDL2, VDL3, Mode S, and UAT.

  6. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  7. Application of Satellite Frost Forecast Technology to Other Parts of the United States Phase II: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The history and status of University of Michigan and University of Pennsylvania involvement in determining if P-model for front prediction used in Florida is applicable to those geographic locations is reviewed. The possibility of using the S-model to develop a satellite front forecast system that can recall the distribution of temperatures during previous freezes from a particular area and bring that cold climate climatology to bear on present forecasts is discussed as well as a proposed GOES satellite downlink system to sectionalize the data used in Florida.

  8. ESPACE - a geodetic Master's program for the education of Satellite Application Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, K.; Kirschner, S.; Seitz, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades there has been a rapid development of new geodetic and other Earth observation satellites. Applications of these satellites such as car navigation systems, weather predictions, and, digital maps (such as Google Earth or Google Maps) play a more and more important role in our daily life. For geosciences, satellite applications such as remote sensing and precise positioning/navigation have turned out to be extremely useful and are meanwhile indispensable. Today, researchers within geodesy, climatology, oceanography, meteorology as well as within Earth system science are all dependent on up-to-date satellite data. Design, development and handling of these missions require experts with knowledge not only in space engineering, but also in the specific applications. That gives rise to a new kind of engineers - satellite application engineers. The study program for these engineers combines parts of different classical disciplines such as geodesy, aerospace engineering or electronic engineering. The satellite application engineering program Earth Oriented Space Science and Technology (ESPACE) was founded in 2005 at the Technische Universität München, mainly from institutions involved in geodesy and aerospace engineering. It is an international, interdisciplinary Master's program, and is open to students with a BSc in both Science (e.g. Geodesy, Mathematics, Informatics, Geophysics) and Engineering (e.g. Aerospace, Electronical and Mechanical Engineering). The program is completely conducted in English. ESPACE benefits from and utilizes its location in Munich with its unique concentration of expertise related to space science and technology. Teaching staff from 3 universities (Technische Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilian University, University of the Federal Armed Forces), research institutions (such as the German Aerospace Center, DLR and the German Geodetic Research Institute, DGFI) and space industry (such as EADS or Kayser-Threde) are

  9. Coastal applications of the ERTS-1 satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Samples are given of the possible applications of ERTS-1 imagery to coastal and nearshore studies. Briefly discussed are: (1) obtaining regional views of extended coastal areas; (2) distribution of sediments; (3) coastal configurations and changes; (4) barrier islands; (5) underwater penetration, and (6) coastal waves.

  10. Application of unscented filtering in analytical dynamic orbit determination for Geostationary satellite surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Kyoung-Min; Park, Eunseo; Choi, Byung Kyu

    The neutral atmosphere introduces a time delay in the propagation of GPS signals in the microwave frequencies due to refraction effects. To project this delay in a slant direction towards the satellite position, various mapping functions are proposed. As 90KEYWORDS: GPS based navigation; Tropospheric range error; Hydrostatic Mapping Function Dr. K. Parameswaran is supported by CSIR through Emeritus Scientist Scheme. *Corresponding author: cs ureshraju@vssc.gov.in

  11. Investigation of the current collected by a positively biased satellite with application to electrodynamic tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeski, John A.; Scales, Wayne A.; Hall, Christopher D.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between a positively biased body traveling through an ionospheric space plasma has direct application to electrodynamic tether (EDT) systems. A 2-D3v particle-in-cell model has been developed to study the plasma dynamics near a positively charged EDT system end-body and their impact on the current collected. The results show that the azimuthal current structures observed during the reflight of the tethered satellite system (TSS-1R) mission develop in the simulations and are found to enhance the current collected by the satellite by 67% when the magnetic field is ˜15° off of perpendicular to the orbital velocity. As the component of the magnetic field in the simulation's plane increases, the electrons are not able to easily cross the field lines causing plasma lobes to form in the +y and -y regions around the satellite. The lobes limit the current arriving at the satellite and also cause an enhanced wake to develop. A high satellite bias causes a stable bow shock structure to form in the ram region of the satellite, which limits the number of electrons entering the sheath region and thus limits the current collected. Electron-neutral collisions are found to destabilize the bow shock structure, and its current limiting effects were negated. Analytical curve fits based on the simulations are presented in order to characterize the dependence of the current collected on the magnetic field's orientation, space plasma magnetization, and satellite potential. The variations in the collected current induced by space plasma environmental changes may introduce new instabilities in an EDT system's dynamics.

  12. Satellite land use acquisition and applications to hydrologic planning models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Algazi, V. R.; Suk, M.

    1977-01-01

    A developing operational procedure for use by the Corps of Engineers in the acquisition of land use information for hydrologic planning purposes was described. The operational conditions preclude the use of dedicated, interactive image processing facilities. Given the constraints, an approach to land use classification based on clustering seems promising and was explored in detail. The procedure is outlined and examples of application to two watersheds given.

  13. Natural disaster reduction applications of the Chinese small satellite constellation for environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sanchao; Fan, Yida; Gao, Maofang

    2013-10-01

    The Small Satellite Constellation for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting (SSCEDMF) is an important component of Chinese satellites earth observation system. The first stage of SSCEDMF is composed by "2+1" satellites. The 2 optical satellites (HJ-1-A and HJ-1-B) and 1 S band microwave satellite (HJ-1-C) were successful launched on September 6, 2008 and November 19, 2012 respectively. This article introduced SSCEDMF characteristic and the disaster reduction application system and satellites on-orbit test works, and also analyzed the application capacity in natural disasters included flood, ice flooding, wild fire, severely drought, snow disasters, large area landslide and debris flow, sea ice, earthquake recovering, desertification and plant diseases and insect pests. Furthermore, we show some cases of China's and other countries' new natural disasters forecasting, monitoring, assessment and recovery construction.

  14. Data collection operational support system, part 1. [collected from satellite terminals operating as part of the ATS 6 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woughter, W. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Data Collection Operational Support system has been shown to be a usable means of transmitting numerical data over a 2-way VHF satellite link. It is also capable of supporting educational applications. The design, operation, use, results, and recommendations of the system are discussed.

  15. Optimization of Ocean Color Algorithms: Application to Satellite Data Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritorena, Stephane; Siegel, David A.; Morel, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the program is to develop and validate a procedure for ocean color data merging, which is one of the major goals of the SIMBIOS project. As part of the SIMBIOS Program, we have developed a merging method for ocean color data. Conversely to other methods our approach does not combine end-products like the subsurface chlorophyll concentration (chl) from different sensors to generate a unified product. Instead, our procedure uses the normalized water-leaving radiances L((sub wN)(lambda)) from single or multiple sensors and uses them in the inversion of a semi-analytical ocean color model that allows the retrieval of several ocean color variables simultaneously. Beside ensuring simultaneity and consistency of the retrievals (all products are derived from a single algorithm), this model-based approach has various benefits over techniques that blend end-products (e.g. chlorophyll): 1) It works with single or multiple data sources regardless of their specific bands; 2) It exploits band redundancies and band differences; 3) It accounts for uncertainties in the L((sub wN)(lambda)) data; 4) It provides uncertainty estimates for the retrieved variables.

  16. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of Annual Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report was prepared by Garrett Auxiliary Power Division (GAPD), a unit of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, a unit of Allied Signal, Inc. The report includes information provided by Garrett Ceramic Components, and the Norton Advanced Ceramics Company, (formerly Norton/TRW Ceramics), subcontractors to GAPD on the ATTAP. This report covers plans and progress on ceramics development for commercial automotive applications over the period 1 Jan. through 31 Dec. 1992. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System program. This program is directed to provide the U.S. automotive industry the high-risk, long-range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption, reduced environmental impact, and a decreased reliance on scarce materials and resources. The program is oriented toward developing the high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication, such that industry can carry this technology forward to production in the 1990's. The ATTAP test bed engine, carried over from the previous AGT101 project, is being used for verification testing of the durability of next generation ceramic components, and their suitability for service at Reference Powertrain Design conditions. This document reports the technical effort conducted by GAPD and the ATTAP subcontractors during the fifth year of the project. Topics covered include ceramic processing definition and refinement, design improvements to the ATTAP test bed engine and test rigs, and the methodology development of ceramic impact and fracture mechanisms. Appendices include reports by ATTAP subcontractors in the development of silicon nitride materials and processes.

  17. Satellite Cloud Data Validation through MAGIC Ground Observation and the S'COOL Project: Scientific Benefits grounded in Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crecelius, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Rogerson, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Students' Cloud Observation On-Line (S'COOL) Project was launched in 1997 as the Formal Education and Public Outreach arm of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Mission. ROVER, the Citizen Scientist area of S'COOL, started in 2007 and allows participants to make 'roving' observations from any location as opposed to a fixed, registered classroom. The S'COOL Project aids the CERES Mission in trying to answer the research question: 'What is the Effect of Clouds on the Earth's Climate'. Participants from all 50 states, most U.S. Territories, and 63 countries have reported more than 100,500 observations to the S'COOL Project over the past 16 years. The Project is supported by an intuitive website that provides curriculum support and guidance through the observation steps; 1) Request satellite overpass schedule, 2) Observe clouds, and 3) Report cloud observations. The S'COOL Website also hosts a robust database housing all participants' observations as well as the matching satellite data. While the S'COOL observation parameters are based on the data collected by 5 satellite missions, ground observations provide a unique perspective to data validation. Specifically, low to mid level clouds can be obscured by overcast high-level clouds, or difficult to observe from a satellite's perspective due to surface cover or albedo. In these cases, ground observations play an important role in filling the data gaps and providing a better, global picture of our atmosphere and clouds. S'COOL participants, operating within the boundary layer, have an advantage when observing low-level clouds that affect the area we live in, regional weather patterns, and climate change. S'COOL's long-term data set provides a valuable resource to the scientific community in improving the "poorly characterized and poorly represented [clouds] in climate and weather prediction models'. The MAGIC Team contacted S'COOL in early 2012 about making cloud observations as part of the MAGIC

  18. Neural-network-based satellite tracking for deep space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoozegar, Farid; Ruggier, Charles

    2003-09-01

    NASA has been considering the use of Ka-band for deep space missions primarily for downlink telemetry applications. At such high frequencies, although the link will be expected to improve by a factor of four, the current Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and transmitters would become less efficient due to higher equipment noise figures and antenna surface errors. Furthermore, the weather effect at Ka-band frequencies will dominate the degradations in link performance and tracking accuracy. At the lower frequencies, such as X-band, conventional CONSCAN or Monopulse tracking techniques can be used without much complexity, however, when utilizing Ka-band frequencies, the tracking of a spacecraft in deep space presents additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to provide a survey of neural network trends as applied to the tracking of spacecrafts in deep space at Ka-band under various weather conditions, and examine the trade-off between tracking accuracy and communication link performance.

  19. Satellite communications provisions on NASA Ames instrumented aircraft platforms for Earth science research/applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.

  20. International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Ice Snow Product in Native (NAT) Format (ISCCP_ICESNOW_NAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, William B. (Principal Investigator)

    Since 1983 an international group of institutions has collected and analyzed satellite radiance measurements from up to five geostationary and two polar orbiting satellites to infer the global distribution of cloud properties and their diurnal, seasonal and interannual variations. The primary focus of the first phase of the project (1983-1995) was the elucidation of the role of clouds in the radiation budget (top of the atmosphere and surface). In the second phase of the project (1995 onwards) the analysis also concerns improving understanding of clouds in the global hydrological cycle. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=112 Km; Longitude_Resolution=112 Km; Temporal_Resolution=5-day].

  1. Communication Satellites: Experimental & Operational, Commercial & Public Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The title reflects the first and major article in an issue of this newsletter devoted entirely to communication satellites. This series of articles on the potential and applications of communication satellites in development projects is concerned with their development for commercial and public service, development in the Pacific region, SPACECOM…

  2. Applications of NO2 Satellite Observations at High Latitudes for Monitoring Air Quality (ILMA): Objectives and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ialongo, Iolanda; Tamminen, Johanna

    2015-06-01

    The first results of ILMA project are presented in this paper. The project aims at increasing the scientific exploitation of satellite data for air quality monitoring at high latitudes. The specific focus of the project is evaluating the quality of satellite NO2 retrievals and preparing for upcoming TROPOMI mission. Satellite-based OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) NO2 total columns are compared with Pandora measurements performed in Helsinki in 2012. The median relative difference for OMI standard product is 1% and -6% for clear sky and all sky conditions, respectively. Larger differences between OMI and Pandora correspond to cloudy autumn-winter days with solar zenith angles above 70° . Both satellite and ground-based data show similar weekly cycle, with lower NO2 levels during the weekend compared to the weekdays.

  3. Optimization of Ocean Color Algorithms: Application to Satellite Data Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maritorena, Stephane; Siegel, David A.; Morel, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The objective of our program is to develop and validate a procedure for ocean color data merging which is one of the major goals of the SIMBIOS project. The need for a merging capability is dictated by the fact that since the launch of MODIS on the Terra platform and over the next decade, several global ocean color missions from various space agencies are or will be operational simultaneously. The apparent redundancy in simultaneous ocean color missions can actually be exploited to various benefits. The most obvious benefit is improved coverage. The patchy and uneven daily coverage from any single sensor can be improved by using a combination of sensors. Beside improved coverage of the global Ocean the merging of Ocean color data should also result in new, improved, more diverse and better data products with lower uncertainties. Ultimately, ocean color data merging should result in the development of a unified, scientific quality, ocean color time series, from SeaWiFS to NPOESS and beyond. Various approaches can be used for ocean color data merging and several have been tested within the frame of the SIMBIOS program. As part of the SIMBIOS Program, we have developed a merging method for ocean color data. Conversely to other methods our approach does not combine end-products like the subsurface chlorophyll concentration (chl) from different sensors to generate a unified product. Instead, our procedure uses the normalized water-leaving radiances (L(sub WN)(lambda)) from single or multiple sensors and uses them in the inversion of a semi-analytical ocean color model that allows the retrieval of several ocean color variables simultaneously. Beside ensuring simultaneity and consistency of the retrievals (all products are derived from a single algorithm), this model-based approach has various benefits over techniques that blend end-products (e.g. chlorophyll): 1) it works with single or multiple data sources regardless of their specific bands, 2) it exploits band

  4. Satellite-based surface solar radiation data provided by CM SAF - Solar energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentmann, Jörg; Müller, Richard W.; Posselt, Rebekka; Stöckli, Reto

    2013-04-01

    The planning of solar power plants requires accurate estimates of the solar energy available at the surface. Satellite observations provide useful information on the cloud coverage, which is one of the main factors modulating the solar surface radiation. This information can be used to estimate the solar surface radiation from satellite. Observations from geostationary satellites allow the retrieval of the surface solar radiation with high temporal (up to hourly) and spatial (approx. 5 km) resolution. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) is deriving surface solar radiation from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite instruments. While CM SAF is focusing on the generation of high-quality long-term climate data records, also operationally data is provided in short time latency within 8 weeks. CM SAF has already released one data set based on geostationary Meteosat satellite covering 1983 to 2005 (doi: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/RAD_MVIRI/V001) and one global data set based on measurements of the polar-orbiting AVHRR instruments covering 1982 to 2009 (doi: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLARA_AVHRR/V001). Here, we present details and applications of the CM SAF surface radiation data generated from the observations of the geostationary Meteosat satellites. The climate data set is available at high spatial (0.03 x 0.03 deg) and temporal (hourly, daily, monthly) resolutions. Besides global radiation, also the direct beam component is provided, which is for instance required for the estimation of the energy generated by solar thermal plants. Based on comparisons with surface observations the accuracy of CM SAF surface solar radiation data is better than 10 W/m2 on a monthly basis and 25 W/m2 on a daily basis. The data sets are well documented (incl. validation using surface observations) and available in netcdf-format at no cost without restrictions at www.cmsaf.eu. Solar energy applications of the data include the Photovoltaic Geographical

  5. Flood and Landslide Applications of High Time Resolution Satellite Rain Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Hong, Yang; Huffman, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental, potentially real-time systems to detect floods and landslides related to heavy rain events are described. A key basis for these applications is high time resolution satellite rainfall analyses. Rainfall is the primary cause for devastating floods across the world. However, in many countries, satellite-based precipitation estimation may be the best source of rainfall data due to insufficient ground networks and absence of data sharing along many trans-boundary river basins. Remotely sensed precipitation from the NASA's TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) operational system (near real-time precipitation at a spatial-temporal resolution of 3 hours and 0.25deg x 0.25deg) is used to monitor extreme precipitation events. Then these data are ingested into a macro-scale hydrological model which is parameterized using spatially distributed elevation, soil and land cover datasets available globally from satellite remote sensing. Preliminary flood results appear reasonable in terms of location and frequency of events, with implementation on a quasi-global basis underway. With the availability of satellite rainfall analyses at fine time resolution, it has also become possible to assess landslide risk on a near-global basis. Early results show that landslide occurrence is closely associated with the spatial patterns and temporal distribution of TRMM rainfall characteristics. Particularly, the number of landslides triggered by rainfall is related to rainfall climatology, antecedent rainfall accumulation, and intensity-duration of rainstorms. For the purpose of prediction, an empirical TMPA-based rainfall intensity-duration threshold is developed and shown to have skill in determining potential areas of landslides. These experimental findings, in combination with landslide surface susceptibility information based on satellite-based land surface information, form a starting point towards a potential operational landslide monitoring/warning system

  6. Potential future applications for the tracking and data relay satellite II (TDRS II) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    During the conceptual design phases of the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) II system provision was made for a future service growth (FSG) payload with an undefined mission. The intent of the FSG was to provide a resource for TDRS II applications which would be available to meet a change in requirements for the operational TDRS II system. This paper summarizes the effect of the consideration of potential FSG applications imposed on the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) II system. The following applications were considered as FSG candidates: An optical 650 Mbps space-to-space link (SSL) coupled to an optical or RF downlink, an RF or optical crosslink to extend the baseline TDRS II system coverage, -zone of exclusion (ZOE) closure, relay for lunar communications either RF or optically, and relay for Martian communications either RF or optically. This paper summarizes work done in the 1990 time frame on the above stated applications. Since then, NASA has sponsored several studies (during phase B of the TDRS II development cycle) of the ZOE closure application of the FSG. The purpose of this paper is to report on the efforts previously considered for the FSG. A previous paper was presented at the 1991 Congress related to the second application above. This paper extends this effort to the four stated applications.

  7. Nimbus Satellite Data Rescue Project for Sea Ice Extent: Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, G. G.; Sandler, M.; Moses, J. F.; Gallaher, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    Early Nimbus satellites collected both visible and infrared observations of the Earth at high resolution. Nimbus I operated in September, 1964. Nimbus II operated from April to November 1966 and Nimbus III operated from May 1969 to November 1969. We will discuss our procedures to recover this data into a modern digital archive useful for scientific analysis. The Advanced Videocon Camera System data was transmitted as an analog signal proportional to the brightness detected by a video camera. This was archived on black and white film. At NSIDC we are scanning and digitizing the film images using equipment derived from the motion picture industry. The High Resolution Infrared Radiance data was originally recorded in 36 bit words on 7 track digital tapes. The HRIR data were recently recovered from the tapes and TAP (tape file format from 1966) files were placed in EOSDIS archives for online access. The most interesting parts of the recovery project were the additional processing required to rectify and navigate the raw digital files. One of the artifacts we needed to identify and remove were fiducial marks representing latitude and longitude lines added to the film for users in the 1960's. The IR data recording inserted an artificial random jitter in the alignment of individual scan lines. We will describe our procedures to navigate, remap, detect noise and remove artifacts in the data. Beyond cleaning up the HRIR swath data or the AVCS picture data, we are remapping the data into standard grids for comparisons in time. A first run of all the Nimbus 2 HRIR data into EASE grids in NetCDF format has been completed. This turned up interesting problems of overlaps and missing data issues. Some of these processes require extensive computer resources and we have established methods for using the 'Elastic Compute Cloud' facility at Amazon.com to run the many processes in parallel. In addition we have set up procedures at the University of Colorado to monitor the ongoing

  8. Sea ice-atmosphere interaction. Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Konrad; Key, Jeff; Maslanik, Jim; Haefliger, Marcel; Fowler, Chuck

    1992-01-01

    Satellite data for the estimation of radiative and turbulent heat fluxes is becoming an increasingly important tool in large-scale studies of climate. One parameter needed in the estimation of these fluxes is surface temperature. To our knowledge, little effort has been directed to the retrieval of the sea ice surface temperature (IST) in the Arctic, an area where the first effects of a changing climate are expected to be seen. The reason is not one of methodology, but rather our limited knowledge of atmospheric temperature, humidity, and aerosol profiles, the microphysical properties of polar clouds, and the spectral characteristics of the wide variety of surface types found there. We have developed a means to correct for the atmospheric attenuation of satellite-measured clear sky brightness temperatures used in the retrieval of ice surface temperature from the split-window thermal channels of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensors on-board three of the NOAA series satellites. These corrections are specified for three different 'seasons' and as a function of satellite viewing angle, and are expected to be applicable to the perennial ice pack in the central Arctic Basin.

  9. Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Occultation: Processing Algorithms, Science Applications, and COSMIC-2 Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, W. S.; Sokolovskiy, S. V.; Kuo, Y. H.; Weiss, J.; Braun, J.; Hunt, D.; Pedatella, N. M.; Yue, X.; Ho, S. P.; Zeng, Z.; Wee, T. K.; Vanhove, T.

    2015-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Radio Occultation (RO) data are becoming a benchmark dataset of the international global observing system. The high vertical resolution, precision, and accuracy of retrieved atmospheric profiles makes GNSS RO ideal for weather and space weather specification and forecasting, climate change research and detection, and ground-based and satellite instrument validation. With a GNSS receiver on board a low-Earth orbiting (LEO) satellite, the amplitude and phase of the radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted from GNSS satellites can be measured very precisely as the ray tangent point descends from ~100 km altitude to the surface. With proper algorithms and observational modeling, vertical profiles of bending angle are derived. Profiles of refractivity, and subsequently pressure, temperature and humidity can be derived with additional a priori information. This presentation will first provide an overview of GNSS RO data processing algorithms and then present recent research results from challenging regions such as the upper stratosphere and the lower troposphere. Additional research results from science application studies using RO data will also be discussed. Finally, a status update of the COSMIC-2 mission due to launch in Sept 2016 will be presented.

  10. Application of satellite information for decision of scientific and applied tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalko, Vadim

    these are territories with high density of population and this is connected with unequal population and industry allocation on the territory of Ukraine. During 2009 it was conducted comparative data analysis about changes of greenhouse gases concen-tration over the territory of Ukraine from satellites ENVISAT (ESA, sensor SCIAMACHI) and Aqua (NASA, sensor AIRS). The analysis showed that data from different satellites complement one another and correspond to general tendencies which were fixed by ground methods. Those it was obtained the opportunity considerably increase the reliability of satellite assessments. UNO International Conference on Climate Changes which came to an end in December 2009 in Copenhagen confirmed the necessity to decrease greenhouse gases emissions for all coun-tries and continue to implement measures, according to requirements of Kyoto Protocol, for the society adaptation to climate changes. Thereby it's reasonable to carry out international researches within the framework of correspondent project, using obtained experience of our previous results in this sphere. The aim of these works is creation of the system of space audit monitoring of greenhouse gases balance for the reliable grounding and specification of their quotas for different countries and assessment of potential opportunities for quotas trading, in particular by Ukraine. To do this it's necessary to base the role of future Ukrainian satellites with correspondent sensors and systems of tested polygons. 2. Analysis of biophysical and spectral parameters changes for the geosystems with the aim of ecological forecasting. It was created the scientific base for risks forecasting of hydrologi-cal emergency situations (i.e. floods) and events induced by them (slides and submergences) during the further 30 years. The development is based on the application of energy-mass ex-change modeling in the geosystems and changes of climatic indications. Implementation of the developed approaches showed

  11. 7 CFR 1940.965 - Processing project preapplications/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Processing project preapplications/applications. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.965 Processing project preapplications/applications. Except for the project review and ranking process established in this subpart, all requests for funds from...

  12. 7 CFR 1940.965 - Processing project preapplications/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing project preapplications/applications. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.965 Processing project preapplications/applications. Except for the project review and ranking process established in this subpart, all requests for funds from...

  13. 7 CFR 1940.965 - Processing project preapplications/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing project preapplications/applications. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.965 Processing project preapplications/applications. Except for the project review and ranking process established in this subpart, all requests for funds from...

  14. 7 CFR 1940.965 - Processing project preapplications/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Processing project preapplications/applications. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.965 Processing project preapplications/applications. Except for the project review and ranking process established in this subpart, all requests for funds from...

  15. Economic project perspectives: An overview of the impact resulting from recent advances in satellite meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. R.; Boness, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    The impact of advanced satellite meteorology on long range weather forecasts, agriculture, commerce, and resource utilization are examined. All data are geared to obtaining a picture of various user needs and possible benefits.

  16. An overview of the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.; Strebel, D. E.; Murphy, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and scientific background leading up to FIFE, the experiment design, the scientific teams and equipment involved, and the actual execution of the experiment. The experiment was tasked with exploring techniques for utilizing satellite data to quantify important biophysical states and rates for model input. During the intensive field campaigns the fluxes of moisture, heat, carbon dioxide and radiation were measured with airborne and surface equipment in coordination with measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters and satellite overpasses.

  17. Multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver and its advantages in high-precision positioning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Danan; Chen, Wen; Cai, Miaomiao; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Minghua; Yu, Chao; Zheng, Zhengqi; Wang, Yuanfei

    2016-02-01

    The multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver is a high precision, low cost, and widely used emerging receiver. Using this type of receiver, the satellite and receiver clock errors can be eliminated simultaneously by forming between antenna single-differences, which is equivalent to the conventional double-difference model. However, current multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver products have not fully realized their potential to achieve better accuracy, efficiency, and broader applications. This paper introduces the conceptual design and derivable products of multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receivers involving the aspects of attitude determination, multipath effect mitigation, phase center variation correction, and ground-based carrier phase windup calibration. Through case studies, the advantages of multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receivers in high-precision positioning applications are demonstrated.

  18. Potential applications of digital, visible, and infrared data from geostationary environmental satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. B.; Waters, M. P., III; Tarpley, J. D.; Green, R. N.; Dismachek, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    An hourly, digital data base from the Visible/Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) instrument on the GOES-1 and SMS-2 geostationary satellites is described. Several examples of developmental applications of these quantitative digital data are presented. These include a review of recent attempts to develop products that are of use to meteorologists who provide services to aviation, agriculture, forestry, hydrology, oceanography, and climatology. The sample products include high resolution thermal gradients of land and ocean surfaces, thermal change analyses, fruit frost/freeze application, cloud-top altitude analysis, analysis of hurricane characteristics, and analyses of solar insolation.

  19. Small satellite technologies and applications II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horais, Brian J.

    The present conference on small satellite (SS) systems and their supporting technologies discusses the Medsat SS for malaria early warning and control, results of the Uosat earth-imaging system, commercial applications for MSSs, an SS family for LEO communications, videosignal signature-synthesis for fast narrow-bandwidth transmission, and NiH battery applications in SSs. Also discussed are the 'PegaStar' spacecraft concept for remote sensing, dual-cone scanning earth sensor processing algorithms, SS radiation-budget instrumentation, SDI's relevance to SSs, spacecraft fabrication and test integration, and cryocooler producibility. (For individual items see A93-28077 to A93-28100)

  20. Mathematical formulation of the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F) orbital maneuver control program (CNTRLF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorevich, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The mathematical formulation is presented of CNTRLF, the maneuver control program for the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The purpose is to specify the mathematical models that are included in the design of CNTRLF.

  1. Space processing applications rocket project. SPAR 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, R. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Rocket Project (SPAR) VIII Final Report contains the engineering report prepared at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as well as the three reports from the principal investigators. These reports also describe pertinent portions of ground-based research leading to the ultimate selection of the flight sample composition, including design, fabrication, and testing, all of which are expected to contribute immeasurably to an improved comprehension of materials processing in space. This technical memorandum is directed entirely to the payload manifest flown in the eighth of a series of SPAR flights conducted at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and includes the experiments entitled Glass Formation Experiment SPAR 74-42/1R, Glass Fining Experiment in Low-Gravity SPAR 77-13/1, and Dynamics of Liquid Bubbles SPAR Experiment 77-18/2.

  2. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Project overview; tether deployment; satellite system description; tether fundamentals; science applications; electrodynamic interactions; transportation; artificial gravity; and constellations; were described.

  3. 30 CFR 402.10 - Research-project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research-project applications. 402.10 Section 402.10 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH... Procedures § 402.10 Research-project applications. (a) Only those applications for grants that are...

  4. 30 CFR 402.10 - Research-project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Research-project applications. 402.10 Section 402.10 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH... Procedures § 402.10 Research-project applications. (a) Only those applications for grants that are...

  5. 34 CFR 76.303 - Joint applications and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Joint applications and projects. 76.303 Section 76.303... State for a Subgrant § 76.303 Joint applications and projects. (a) Two or more eligible parties may submit a joint application for a subgrant. (b) If the State must use a formula to distribute...

  6. 34 CFR 76.303 - Joint applications and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Joint applications and projects. 76.303 Section 76.303... State for a Subgrant § 76.303 Joint applications and projects. (a) Two or more eligible parties may submit a joint application for a subgrant. (b) If the State must use a formula to distribute...

  7. 34 CFR 76.303 - Joint applications and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Joint applications and projects. 76.303 Section 76.303... State for a Subgrant § 76.303 Joint applications and projects. (a) Two or more eligible parties may submit a joint application for a subgrant. (b) If the State must use a formula to distribute...

  8. 34 CFR 76.303 - Joint applications and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Joint applications and projects. 76.303 Section 76.303... State for a Subgrant § 76.303 Joint applications and projects. (a) Two or more eligible parties may submit a joint application for a subgrant. (b) If the State must use a formula to distribute...

  9. 34 CFR 76.303 - Joint applications and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Joint applications and projects. 76.303 Section 76.303... State for a Subgrant § 76.303 Joint applications and projects. (a) Two or more eligible parties may submit a joint application for a subgrant. (b) If the State must use a formula to distribute...

  10. 30 CFR 402.11 - Technology-development project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Technology-development project applications... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Application, Evaluation, and Management Procedures § 402.11 Technology-development project applications. (a) Grant awards will be used...

  11. 30 CFR 402.11 - Technology-development project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Technology-development project applications... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Application, Evaluation, and Management Procedures § 402.11 Technology-development project applications. (a) Grant awards will be used...

  12. 30 CFR 402.11 - Technology-development project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Technology-development project applications... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Application, Evaluation, and Management Procedures § 402.11 Technology-development project applications. (a) Grant awards will be used...

  13. 30 CFR 402.11 - Technology-development project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technology-development project applications... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Application, Evaluation, and Management Procedures § 402.11 Technology-development project applications. (a) Grant awards will be used...

  14. 30 CFR 402.11 - Technology-development project applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Technology-development project applications... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Application, Evaluation, and Management Procedures § 402.11 Technology-development project applications. (a) Grant awards will be used...

  15. The applications of satellites to communications, navigation and surveillance for aircraft operating over the contiguous United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craigie, J. H.; Otten, D. D.; Garabedian, A.; Morrison, D. D.; MALLINCKRODT; ZIPPER

    1970-01-01

    The objective was to determine on a priority basis the satellite applications to communications, navigation, and surveillance requirements for aircraft operating beyond 1975 over the contiguous United States and adjacent oceanic transition regions, and to determine if and how satellite technology can meet these requirements in a reliable, efficient, and economical manner. Major results and conclusions are as follows: (1) The satellite applications of greatest importance are surveillance and rapid collision warning communications; and (2) The necessary technology is available as demonstrated by an attractive system concept.

  16. A Project to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forests in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Sader, Steven; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    Cypress swamp forests of Louisiana offer many important ecological and economic benefits: wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, water quality, and recreation. Such forests are also threatened by multiple factors: subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, hurricanes, insect and nutria damage, timber harvesting, and land use conversion. Unfortunately, there are many information gaps regarding the type, location, extent, and condition of these forests. Better more up to date swamp forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration work (e.g., through the Coastal Forest Conservation Initiative or CFCI). In response, a collaborative project was initiated to develop, test and demonstrate cypress swamp forest mapping products, using NASA supported Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data. Research Objectives are: Develop, test, and demonstrate use of Landsat and ASTER data for computing new cypress forest classification products and Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data for detecting and monitoring swamp forest change

  17. Definition of multipath/RFI experiments for orbital testing with a small applications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birch, J. N.; French, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to define experiments for collection of RFI and multipath data for application to a synchronous relay satellite/low orbiting satellite configuration. A survey of analytical models of the multipath signal was conducted. Data has been gathered concerning the existing RFI and other noise sources in various bands at VHF and UHF. Additionally, designs are presented for equipment to combat the effects of RFI and multipath: an adaptive delta mod voice system, a forward error control coder/decoder, a PN transmission system, and a wideband FM system. The performance of these systems was then evaluated. Techniques are discussed for measuring multipath and RFI. Finally, recommended data collection experiments are presented. An extensive tabulation is included of theoretical predictions of the amount of signal reflected from a rough, spherical earth.

  18. Application of remote sensing to thermal pollution analysis. [satellite sea surface temperature measurement assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiser, H. W.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Sengupta, S.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical model development program for near-field thermal plume discharge and far field general circulation in coastal regions is being carried on at the University of Miami Clean Energy Research Institute. The objective of the program is to develop a generalized, three-dimensional, predictive model for thermal pollution studies. Two regions of specific application of the model are the power plants sites at the Biscayne Bay and Hutchinson Island area along the Florida coastline. Remote sensing from aircraft as well as satellites are used in parallel with in situ measurements to provide information needed for the development and verification of the mathematical model. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to identify problems and limitations of the presently available satellite data and to develop methods for enhancing and enlarging thermal infrared displays for mesoscale sea surface temperature measurements.

  19. New tools: potential medical applications of data from new and old environmental satellites.

    PubMed

    Huh, O K; Malone, J B

    2001-04-27

    The last 40 years, beginning with the first TIROS (television infrared observational satellite) launched on 1 April 1960, has seen an explosion of earth environmental satellite systems and their capabilities. They can provide measurements in globe encircling arrays or small select areas, with increasing resolutions, and new capabilities. Concurrently there are expanding numbers of existing and emerging infectious diseases, many distributed according to areal patterns of physical conditions at the earth's surface. For these reasons, the medical and remote sensing communities can beneficially collaborate with the objective of making needed progress in public health activities by exploiting the advances of the national and international space programs. Major improvements in applicability of remotely sensed data are becoming possible with increases in the four kinds of resolution: spatial, temporal, radiometric and spectral, scheduled over the next few years. Much collaborative research will be necessary before data from these systems are fully exploited by the medical community.

  20. Environmental Testing Philosophy for a Sandia National Laboratories' Small Satellite Project - A Retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    CAP,JEROME S.

    2000-08-24

    Sandia has recently completed the flight certification test series for the Multi-Spectral Thermal Imaging satellite (MTI), which is a small satellite for which Sandia was the system integrator. A paper was presented at the 16th Aerospace Testing Seminar discussing plans for performing the structural dynamics certification program for that satellite. The testing philosophy was originally based on a combination of system level vibroacoustic tests and component level shock and vibration tests. However, the plans evolved to include computational analyses using both Finite Element Analysis and Statistical Energy Analysis techniques. This paper outlines the final certification process and discuss lessons learned including both things that went well and things that should/could have been done differently.

  1. Evaluating the Application of Multi-Satellite Observations in Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John

    2011-01-01

    When monitoring local or regional hydrosphere dynamics for applications such as agricultural productivity or drought and flooding events, it is necessary to have accurate, high-resolution estimates of terrestrial water and energy storages. Though in-situ observations provide reliable estimates of hydrologic states and fluxes, they are only capable of accurately capturing the dynamics at relatively discrete points in space and time, which makes them inadequate for characterizing the variability of the water budget across scales. In contrast, satellite-based remote sensing is ideal for providing observations of hydrological states and fluxes because it provides spatially-distributed observations at spatial and temporal scales required for regional land surface process modeling. Due to the continued progress in algorithm development and emerging satellite technology, we now have near-real time monitoring of several components of the water cycle including precipitation, soil moisture, lake and river height, terrestrial water storage, snow cover, and evapotranspiration. As these data become more readily available, their application to hydrologic modeling is becoming more common, however there remains little consensus on the most appropriate method for optimal integration and evaluation in regard to hydrological applications. Here we present two case studies operationally applying several remotely sensed products from AMSR-E, GRACE, and MODIS and discuss assimilation strategies, ease of integration and interpretation, and methods for quantifying the success of the application methodology.

  2. Satellite snowcover and runoff monitoring in central Arizona. [Salt River Project: Salt-Verde Watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, H. H.; Kirdar, E.; Warskow, W. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Although the very high resolution experimental LANDSAT imagery permits rapid snow cover mapping at low cost, only one observation is available very 9 days. In contrast, low resolution operational imagery acquired by the ITOS and SMS/GOES satellites provide the daily synoptic observations necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow covered areas in the entire Salt-Verde watershed. Geometric distortions in meteorological satellite imagery require specialized optical equipment or digital image processing for snow cover mapping.

  3. Accelerated life tests of specimen heat pipe from Communication Technology Satellite (CTS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A gas-loaded variable conductance heat pipe of stainless steel with methanol working fluid identical to one now on the CTS satellite was life tested in the laboratory at accelerated conditions for 14 200 hours, equivalent to about 70 000 hours at flight conditions. The noncondensible gas inventory increased about 20 percent over the original charge. The observed gas increase is estimated to increase operating temperature by about 2.2 C, insufficient to harm the electronic gear cooled by the heat pipes in the satellite. Tests of maximum heat input against evaporator elevation agree well with the manufacturer's predictions.

  4. Formal methods demonstration project for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divito, Ben L.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program is cooperating in a pilot project to apply formal methods to live requirements analysis activities. As one of the larger ongoing shuttle Change Requests (CR's), the Global Positioning System (GPS) CR involves a significant upgrade to the Shuttle's navigation capability. Shuttles are to be outfitted with GPS receivers and the primary avionics software will be enhanced to accept GPS-provided positions and integrate them into navigation calculations. Prior to implementing the CR, requirements analysts at Loral Space Information Systems, the Shuttle software contractor, must scrutinize the CR to identify and resolve any requirements issues. We describe an ongoing task of the Formal Methods Demonstration Project for Space Applications whose goal is to find an effective way to use formal methods in the GPS CR requirements analysis phase. This phase is currently under way and a small team from NASA Langley, ViGYAN Inc. and Loral is now engaged in this task. Background on the GPS CR is provided and an overview of the hardware/software architecture is presented. We outline the approach being taken to formalize the requirements, only a subset of which is being attempted. The approach features the use of the PVS specification language to model 'principal functions', which are major units of Shuttle software. Conventional state machine techniques form the basis of our approach. Given this background, we present interim results based on a snapshot of work in progress. Samples of requirements specifications rendered in PVS are offered to illustration. We walk through a specification sketch for the principal function known as GPS Receiver State processing. Results to date are summarized and feedback from Loral requirements analysts is highlighted. Preliminary data is shown comparing issues detected by the formal methods team versus those detected using existing requirements analysis methods. We conclude by discussing our plan to complete the remaining

  5. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robutness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ashley; Rakoczy, John; Heather, Daniel; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  6. Boundary-layer heat and moisture budgets from FIFE. [First International satellite land surface climatology project Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R. L.; Macpherson, J. I.; Kelly, R. D.; Betts, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft stacks were flown upwind and downwind of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment site in Kansas to measure the heat and moisture budgets of the boundary layer under fairly clear skies for four daytime periods. The terms in the conservation equation are evaluated. The vertical flux divergence and advection do not account for the difference between surface and low-level aircraft flux estimates. Budget estimates of the surface fluxes using the aircraft data agree well with surface flux measurements, but extrapolation of the aircraft fluxes gives surface fluxes that are too low.

  7. Revisiting a Hydrological Analysis Framework with International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 Rainfall, Net Radiation, and Runoff Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Fekete, Balazs M.; Huffman, George J.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 (ISLSCP-2) data set provides the data needed to characterize the surface water budget across much of the globe in terms of energy availability (net radiation) and water availability (precipitation) controls. The data, on average, are shown to be consistent with Budyko s decades-old framework, thereby demonstrating the continuing relevance of Budyko s semiempirical relationships. This consistency, however, appears only when a small subset of the data with hydrologically suspicious behavior is removed from the analysis. In general, the precipitation, net radiation, and runoff data also appear consistent in their interannual variability and in the phasing of their seasonal cycles.

  8. Practical Application of NASA-Langley Advanced Satellite Products to In-Flight Icing Nowcasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Ben C.; Wolff, Cory A.; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Experimental satellite-based icing products developed by the NASA Langley Research Center provide new tools to identify the locations of icing and its intensity. Since 1997, research forecasters at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have been helping to guide the NASA Glenn Research Center's Twin Otter aircraft into and out of clouds and precipitation for the purpose of characterizing in-flight icing conditions, including supercooled large drops, the accretions that result from such encounters and their effect on aircraft performance. Since the winter of 2003-04, the NASA Langley satellite products have been evaluated as part of this process, and are being considered as an input to NCAR s automated Current Icing Potential (CIP) products. This has already been accomplished for a relatively straightforward icing event, but many icing events have much more complex characteristics, providing additional challenges to all icing diagnosis tools. In this paper, four icing events with a variety of characteristics will be examined, with a focus on the NASA Langley satellite retrievals that were available in real time and their implications for icing nowcasting and potential applications in CIP.

  9. Tracking motions from satellite water vapor imagery: Quantitative applications to hurricane track forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher; Nieman, Steve; Aberson, Sim; Franklin, James

    1993-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from GOES satellites has been available for over a decade. These data are used extensively, mainly in a qualitative mode, by forecasters in the United States (Weldon and Holmes, 1991). Some attempts have been made at quantifying the data by tracking features in time sequences of the imagery (Stewart et al., 1985; Hayden and Stewart, 1987). For a variety of reasons, applications of this approach have produced marginal results (Velden, 1990). Recently, METEOSAT-3 (M-3) was repositioned at 50W by the European Space Agency, in order to provide complete coverage of the Atlantic Ocean. Data from this satellite are being transmitted to the U.S. for operational use. Compared with the GOES satellite, the M-3 has a superior resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in its water vapor channel, which translates into improved automated tracking capabilities. During a period in 1992 which included the Atlantic hurricane season, water vapor tracking algorithms were applied to the M-3 data in order to evaluate the coverage, accuracy and model impact of the derived vectors. Data sets were produced during several tropical cyclone cases, including Hurricane Andrew. In this paper, the M-3 water vapor wind sets are assessed, and their impact on a hurricane track forecast model is examined.

  10. Education on the Beam: A Progress Report on the Appalachian Education Satellite Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J.; And Others

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) saw the sixth Applied Technology Satellite (ATS-6) as a means of improving the quality of inservice teacher education by distributing high quality courses from a central source. There were 15 classroom sites scattered from New York to Alabama; the basic television reception equipment cost approximately…

  11. Project Integration Architecture: Inter-Application Propagation of Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    A principal goal of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is to facilitate the meaningful inter-application transfer of application-value-added information. Such exchanging applications may be largely unrelated to each other except through their applicability to an overall project; however, the PIA effort recognizes as fundamental the need to make such applications cooperate despite wide disparaties either in the fidelity of the analyses carried out, or even the disciplines of the analysis. This paper discusses the approach and techniques applied and anticipated by the PIA project in treating this need.

  12. Applications of Emerging Satellites for Ocean Bio-geo Chemical and Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, R.; Ladner, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging satellites for hyper and multispectral sensing of the oceans spectral ocean color are enabling improved capability for monitoring real-time ocean conditions and processes. These sensors can define physical and biological processes occurring at space scales from lakes and estuaries to coastal and open waters and will resolve temporal scales at hourly, daily to seasonal variability. These emerging satellite products are critical for data assimilation into ocean physical and ecological modeling and providing future capability for ocean forecasting. Emerging polar orbiters to be discussed are: 1) VIIRS with new ocean color, SST and day night bands and 2) HICO - hyperspectral high resolution coastal imager. Additionally emerging geostationary sensors to be discussed are: 1) GOCI - Korean ocean color satellite and 2) GeoCape - planned ocean color sensor. New products and applications to exploit emerging sensors for ocean monitoring of water quality and physical conditions in based on importance of inter-satellite radiometric calibration to maintain consistency between sensors and products. These products will address the impact of increased anthropogenic activity along coasts and rivers. Methods and procedures to insure sensor calibration insures future products can be merged at different time and space scales. Emerging capabilities include: 1) improved surface heat flux for physical models 2) new near shore products in optically shallow water such as sea grass mapping, bathymetry and bio-optical water quality 3) tracking surface currents and ecological sources and sinks. 4) Improved spatial and temporal changes in bio-optical conditions to characterize changes in ecological water quality (dissolved organics, carbon flux, phytoplankton biomass, particle composition and size.) 5) Inland lakes and river monitoring.

  13. Foodstuff Survey Around a Major Nuclear Facility with Test of Satellite Image Application

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1999-07-16

    'A foodstuff survey was performed around the Savannah River Site, Aiken SC. It included a census of buildings and fields within 5 km of the boundary and determination of the locations and amounts of crops grown within 80 km of SRS center. Recent information for this region was collected on the amounts of meat, poultry, milk, and eggs produced, of deer hunted, and of sports fish caught. The locations and areas devoted to growing each crop were determined in two ways: by the usual process of assuming uniform crop distribution in each county on the basis of agricultural statistics reported by state agencies, and by analysis of two LANDSAT TM images obtained in May and September. For use with environmental radionuclide transfer and radiation dose calculation codes, locations within 80 km were defined for 64 sections by 16 sectors centered on the Site and by 16-km distance intervals from 16 km to 80 km. Most locally-raised foodstuff was distributed regionally and not retained locally for consumption. For four food crops, the amounts per section based on county agricultural statistics prorated by area were compared with the amounts per section based on satellite image analysis. The median ratios of the former to the latter were 0.6 - 0.7, suggesting that the two approaches are comparable but that satellite image analysis gave consistently higher amounts. Use of satellite image analysis is recommended on the basis of these findings to obtain site-specific, as compared to area-averaged, information on crop locations in conjunction with radionuclide pathway modelling. Some improvements in technique are suggested for satellite image application to characterize additional crops.'

  14. Magneto-plasma sail: An engineering satellite concept and its application for outer planet missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Funaki, Ikkoh; Nakayama, Yoshinori; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Nonaka, Satoshi; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Sawai, Shujiro; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Asahi, Ryusuke; Otsu, Hirotaka; Nakashima, Hideki

    2006-10-01

    The magneto-plasma sail (mini-magnetospheric plasma propulsion) produces the propulsive force due to the interaction between the artificial magnetic field around the spacecraft inflated by the plasma and the solar wind erupted from the Sun with a speed of 300 800 km/s. The principle of the magneto-plasma sail is based on the magnetic sail whose original concept requires a huge mechanical coil structure, which produces a large magnetic field to capture the energy of the solar wind. Meanwhile in the case of the magneto-plasma sail, the magnetic field will be expanded by the inertia of plasma flow to a few tens of kilometer in diameter, resulting in a thrust of a few Newton R. Winglee's group of the University of Washington originally proposed the idea of magnetic field inflation by the plasma. This paper investigates the characteristics of the magneto-plasma sail by comparing it with the other low-thrust propulsion systems (i.e., electric propulsion and solar sail), and the potential of its application to near future outer planet missions is studied. Furthermore, an engineering validation satellite concept is proposed in order to confirm the propulsion system specification and operation methodology. The main features are summarized as: (1) The satellite mass is around 180 kg assuming the H-IIA piggyback launch. (2) Since the magnetopause of the Earth magnetosphere is about 10 Re at Sun side and the bow shock is located at about 13 Re from the Earth, the satellite is injected into an orbit with 250 km perigee altitude and 20 Re apogee distance where apogee is located at the Sun side. (3) The magneto-plasma sail is turned on only in the vicinity of apogee outside the Earth's magnetosphere. (4) The thrust is estimated by the orbit determination result, and the plasma wind monitor is installed on the satellite to establish the relationship between the solar wind and the thrust.

  15. Magneto plasma sail: an engineering satellite concept and its application for outer planet missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Funaki, Ikkoh; Nakayama, Yoshinori; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Nonaka, Satoshi; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Sawai, Shujiro; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Asahi, Ryusuke; Otsu, Hirotaka; Nakashima, Hideki

    2003-11-01

    The magneto-plasma sail (mini-magnetospheric plasma propulsion) produces the propulsive force due to the interaction between the artificial magnetic field around the spacecraft inflated by the plasma and the solar wind erupted from the Sun with a speed of 300~800 km/s. The principle of the magneto-plasma sail is based on the magnetic sail whose original concept requires a huge mechanical coil structure, which produces a large magnetic field to capture the energy of the solar wind. Meanwhile in the case of the magneto-plasma sail, the magnetic field will be expanded by the inertia of plasma flow to a few tens of km in diameter, resulting in a thrust of a few N. R. Winglee's group of the University of Washington originally proposed the idea of magnetic field inflation by the plasma. This paper investigates the characteristics of the magneto-plasma sail by comparing it with the other low-thrust propulsion systems (i.e., electric propulsion and solar sail), and the potential of its application to near future outer planet missions is studied. Furthermore, an engineering validation satellite concept is proposed in order to confirm the propulsion system specification and operation methodology. The main features are summarized as: 1) The satellite mass is around 180kg assuming the H-IIA piggyback launch. 2) Since the magnetopause of the Earth magnetosphere is about 10Re at Sun side and the bow shock is located at about 13Re from the Earth, the satellite is injected into an orbit with 250km perigee altitude and 20Re apogee distance where apogee is located at the Sun side. 3) The magneto-plasma sail is turned on only in the vicinity of apogee outside the Earth's magnetosphere. 4) The thrust is estimated by the orbit determination result, and the plasma wind monitor is installed on the satellite to establish the relationship between the solar wind and the thrust.

  16. Application of a satellite communication and location system for bomb damage assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, J.P.

    1994-09-01

    The Global Verification and Location System (GVLS) is a satellite based communication package proposed for the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIR satellites. This system provides the capability to relay bursts of information from small, low power mobile transmitters to command and control facilities. Communication paths through multiple GPS satellites within the field of view allow location of the transmitter using time difference of arrival (TDOA) techniques. Alternately, the transmitter can transmit its own location if known by various other means. Intended applications include determination of the status and location of high-valued assets such as shipments of proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials and treaty-limited items or downed air crews and special operations forces in need of extraction from hostile territory. GVLS provides an enabling technology which can be applied to weapon impact location. The remote transmitter is small and light enough to be integrated into a weapon delivery vehicle, such as a cruise missile, and requires power only during the last second of flight. The antenna is a conformal patch design, therefore minimizing aerodynamic considerations. Precise impact locations are determined by the GVLS system and can be communicated to responsible commands in near real time allowing rapid bomb damage assessment and retargeting without the typical delays of overhead reconnaissance. Since burst data communication is used, weapon status immediately prior to impact can be transmitted providing knowledge of proper arming sequence and other pertinent information. If desired, periodic bursts can be transmitted while in flight, enabling in-course tracking of the weapon. If fully deployed, the GVLS system would consist of communication relays on 24 GPS satellites, five ground stations deployed worldwide, and portable base stations for authorized users to receive and display locations and contents of their transmissions.

  17. Flood and Landslide Applications of Near Real-time Satellite Rainfall Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Negri, Andrew; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Floods and associated landslides are one of the most widespread natural hazards on Earth, responsible for tens of thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in property damage every year. During 1993-2002, over 1000 of the more than 2,900 natural disasters reported were due to floods. These floods and associated landslides claimed over 90,000 lives, affected over 1.4 billion people and cost about $210 billion. The impact of these disasters is often felt most acutely in less developed regions. In many countries around the world, satellite-based precipitation estimation may be the best source of rainfall data due to lack of surface observing networks. Satellite observations can be of essential value in improving our understanding of the occurrence of hazardous events and possibly in lessening their impact on local economies and in reducing injuries, if they can be used to create reliable warning systems in cost-effective ways. This article addressed these opportunities and challenges by describing a combination of satellite-based real-time precipitation estimation with land surface characteristics as input, with empirical and numerical models to map potential of landslides and floods. In this article, a framework to detect floods and landslides related to heavy rain events in near-real-time is proposed. Key components of the framework are: a fine resolution precipitation acquisition system; a comprehensive land surface database; a hydrological modeling component; and landslide and debris flow model components. A key precipitation input dataset for the integrated applications is the NASA TRMM-based multi-satellite precipitation estimates. This dataset provides near real-time precipitation at a spatial-temporal resolution of 3 hours and 0.25deg x 0.25deg. By careful integration of remote sensing and in-situ observations, and assimilation of these observations into hydrological and landslide/debris flow models with surface topographic information, prediction of useful

  18. Technology development of the Space Transportation System mission and terrestrial applications of satellite technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) is discussed, including the launch processing system, the thermal protection subsystem, meteorological research, sound supression water system, rotating service structure, improved hypergol or removal systems, fiber optics research, precision positioning, remote controlled solid rocket booster nozzle plugs, ground operations for Centaur orbital transfer vehicle, parachute drying, STS hazardous waste disposal and recycle, toxic waste technology and control concepts, fast analytical densitometry study, shuttle inventory management system, operational intercommunications system improvement, and protective garment ensemble. Terrestrial applications are also covered, including LANDSAT applications to water resources, satellite freeze forecast system, application of ground penetrating radar to soil survey, turtle tracking, evaluating computer drawn ground cover maps, sparkless load pulsar, and coupling a microcomputer and computing integrator with a gas chromatograph.

  19. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Turbine Technologies Application Project (ATTAP) is in the fifth year of a multiyear development program to bring the automotive gas turbine engine to a state at which industry can make commercialization decisions. Activities during the past year included reference powertrain design updates, test-bed engine design and development, ceramic component design, materials and component characterization, ceramic component process development and fabrication, ceramic component rig testing, and test-bed engine fabrication and testing. Engine design and development included mechanical design, combustion system development, alternate aerodynamic flow testing, and controls development. Design activities included development of the ceramic gasifier turbine static structure, the ceramic gasifier rotor, and the ceramic power turbine rotor. Material characterization efforts included the testing and evaluation of five candidate high temperature ceramic materials. Ceramic component process development and fabrication, with the objective of approaching automotive volumes and costs, continued for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Engine and rig fabrication, testing, and development supported improvements in ceramic component technology. Total test time in 1992 amounted to 599 hours, of which 147 hours were engine testing and 452 were hot rig testing.

  20. Interim results from the characterization testing of the Engineering Development (EDM) rubidium clocks for satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Edward D., Jr.; Danzy, Fredrick

    1990-01-01

    Some interim results from the environmental testing program to evaluate the Engineering Design Model (EDM) of the EG and G Spaceborne Rubidium Clock are presented. This effort is in support of the Global Positioning System (GPS) BLOCK IIR program and is intended to characterize the performance of EG and G design for BLOCK IIR satellite applications. Two EG and G EDM units are currently under test at NRL's Clock Test Facility to measure the long-term frequency stability, drift, and frequency versus temperature characteristics.

  1. A 20 GHz low noise, low cost receiver for digital satellite communication system, ground terminal applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Glen

    1988-01-01

    A 45 month effort for the development of a 20 GHz, low-noise, low-cost receiver for digital, satellite communication system, ground terminal applications is discussed. Six proof-of-concept receivers were built in two lots of three each. Performance was generally consistent between the two lots. Except for overall noise figure, parameters were within or very close to specification. While noise figure was specified as 3.5 dB, typical performance was measured at 3.0 to 5.5 dB, over the full temperature range of minus 30 C to plus 75 C.

  2. NASA satellite communications application research. Phase 2: Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EFH communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benet, James

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes the work performed from 9 Jun. 1992 to 31 Jul. 1993 on the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 program, Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-efficiency, high-power, EHF solid state amplifiers that are smaller, lighter, more efficient, and less costly than existing traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers by combining the output power from up to several hundred solid state amplifiers using a unique orthomode spatial power combiner (OSPC).

  3. SatCam: A mobile application for coordinated ground/satellite observation of clouds and validation of satellite-derived cloud mask products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumley, L.; Parker, D.; Flynn, B.; Holz, R.; Marais, W.

    2011-12-01

    SatCam is an application for iOS devices that allows users to collect observations of local cloud and surface conditions in coordination with an overpass of the Terra, Aqua, or NPP satellites. SatCam allows users to acquire images of sky conditions and ground conditions at their location anywhere in the world using the built-in iPhone or iPod Touch camera at the same time that the satellite is passing overhead and viewing their location. Immediately after the sky and ground observations are acquired, the application asks the user to rate the level of cloudiness in the sky (Completely Clear, Mostly Clear, Partly Cloudy, Overcast). For the ground observation, the user selects their assessment of the surface conditions (Urban, Green Vegetation, Brown Vegetation, Desert, Snow, Water). The sky condition and surface condition selections are stored along with the date, time, and geographic location for the images, and the images are uploaded to a central server. When the MODIS (Terra and Aqua) or VIIRS (NPP) imagery acquired over the user location becomes available, a MODIS or VIIRS true color image centered at the user's location is delivered back to the SatCam application on the user's iOS device. SSEC also proposes to develop a community driven SatCam website where users can share their observations and assessments of satellite cloud products in a collaborative environment. SSEC is developing a server side data analysis system to ingest the SatCam user observations, apply quality control, analyze the sky images for cloud cover, and collocate the observations with MODIS and VIIRS satellite products (e.g., cloud mask). For each observation that is collocated with a satellite observation, the server will determine whether the user scored a "hit", meaning their sky observation and sky assessment matched the automated cloud mask obtained from the satellite observation. The hit rate will be an objective assessment of the accuracy of the user's sky observations. Users with

  4. The New 20-Year Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Merged Satellite and Rainguage Monthly Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Xie, Ping Ping; Rudolf, Bruno; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John

    1999-01-01

    A new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis has been completed as part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). This Version 2 of the community generated data set is a result of combining the procedures and data sets as described. The global, monthly, 2.5x 2.5 degree latitude-longitude product utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/1) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. The low-orbit microwave estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. In the 1986-present period TOVS-based precipitation estimates are adjusted to GPCP fields and used in polar regions to produce globally-complete results. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the procedures of Xie and Arkin and their OLR Precipitation Index (OPI). The 20-year climatology of the Version 2 GPCP analysis indicates the expected features of a very strong Pacific Ocean ITCZ and SPCZ with maximum 20-year means approaching 10 mm/day. A similar strength maximum over land is evident over Borneo. Weaker maxima in the tropics occur in the Atlantic ITCZ and over South America and Africa. In mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere the Western Pacific and Western Atlantic maxima have values of approximately 7 mm/day, while in the Southern Hemisphere the mid-latitude maxima are located southeast of Africa, in mid-Pacific as an extension of the SPCZ and southeast of South America. In terms of global totals the GPCP analysis shows 2.7 mm/day (3.0 mm/day over ocean; 2.1 mm/day over land), similar to the Jaeger climatology, but not other climatologies. Zonal averages peak at 6 mm/day at 7*N with mid-latitude peaks of about 3 mm/day at 40-45* latitude

  5. OmniTRACS - A commercial Ku-band mobile satellite terminal and its applicability to military mobile terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Franklin P.; Gilhousen, Klein S.; Jacobs, Irwin M.; Weaver, Lindsay A., Jr.

    The technical characteristics of the OmniTRACS system are described. This system is the first operational mobile Ku-band satellite communications system and provides two-way message and position determination service to mobile terminals using existing Ku-band satellites. Interference to and from the system is minimized by the use of spread-spectrum techniques, together with low-power, low-data-rate transmissions. The applicability of this technology to implement a military mobile terminal operating over existing SHF satellites is also presented. Features discussed include the return- and forward-link modulating signals, the return-link power density, and the mobile-terminal hardware.

  6. CT projection estimation and applications to fast and local reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Guy M.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, a straightforward method of estimating the CT projections is applied to simplified pre-processing, simplified reconstruction filtering, and to low-dose and local CT image reconstruction. The method relies on the projection- to-projection data redundancy that is shown to exist in CT. In the pre-processing application, the output of a few, angularly sparse fully pre-processed projections, is utilized in a linearization model to estimate directly the output of pre- processing for all the other projections. In the reconstruction filtering application, and with projection i and k being fully filtered, intermediate projection j low frequency components are estimated by a linear combination of projections i and k. That estimate is then subtracted from projection j, and the resulting high-frequency components are then filtered without zeropadding. By linearity the same combination of fully filtered projections i and k is added back to projection j. A factor two simplification is obtained, that can be leveraged for reconstruction speed or cost reduction. The local reconstruction application builds on the filtering method, by showing that truncated data is sufficient for calculating a filtered projection high-frequencies, while a very simple projection completion model is shown to be effective in estimating the low frequencies. Image quality comparisons are described.

  7. Fire Monitoring - The use of medium resolution satellites (AVHRR, MODIS, TET) for long time series processing and the implementation in User Driven Applications and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, E.-M.; Stein, E.; Strunz, G.; Strobl, C.; Frey, C.

    2015-04-01

    This paper introduces fire monitoring works of two different projects, namely TIMELINE (TIMe Series Processing of Medium Resolution Earth Observation Data assessing Long -Term Dynamics In our Natural Environment) and PHAROS (Project on a Multi-Hazard Open Platform for Satellite Based Downstream Services). It describes the evolution from algorithm development from in applied research to the implementation in user driven applications and systems. Concerning TIMELINE, the focus of the work lies on hot spot detection. A detailed description of the choice of a suitable algorithm (round robin approach) will be given. Moreover, strengths and weaknesses of the AVHRR sensor for hot spot detection, a literature review, the study areas and the selected approach will be highlighted. The evaluation showed that the contextual algorithm performed best, and will therefore be used for final implementation. Concerning the PHAROS project, the key aspect is on the use of satellite-based information to provide valuable support to all phases of disaster management. The project focuses on developing a pre-operational sustainable service platform that integrates space-based EO (Earth Observation), terrestrial sensors and communication and navigation assets to enhance the availability of services and products following a multi-hazard approach.

  8. The use of telecommunications satellites by the air, sea, and land military forces and by civil defense - Project SICRAL AM/136/80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzoni, A.

    1983-03-01

    The projected uses and design concept of SICRAL, an Italian satellite program being developed for classified and emergency communications, are discussed. It is shown that a dedicated satellite, as a complement to terrestrial systems, is ideally suited to serve the needs of the armed forces, in cooperation with NATO, and of the civil defense organizations. SICRAL should provide normal and secure telephone, telegraph and teletype, facsimile, and data-transmission services to a variable mix of fixed and mobile stations, using the SHF, UHF, and EHF bands. Present plans call for two 1400-kg triaxially stabilized multiple-payload-type geostationary satellites, one operational and one in reserve, with a third satellite ready for launch as soon as the reserve satellite becomes operational. SICRAL could be launched by Ariane IV or Shuttle for preoperational testing within five years and full operational status in six or seven years, including time for ground-facility construction.

  9. A Study on the Potential Applications of Satellite Data in Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    In this study we explore the potential applications of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) -like satellite sensors in air quality research for some Asian regions. The MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT), NCEP global reanalysis meteorological data, and daily surface PM(sub 10) concentrations over China and Thailand from 2001 to 2009 were analyzed using simple and multiple regression models. The AOT-PM(sub 10) correlation demonstrates substantial seasonal and regional difference, likely reflecting variations in aerosol composition and atmospheric conditions, Meteorological factors, particularly relative humidity, were found to influence the AOT-PM(sub 10) relationship. Their inclusion in regression models leads to more accurate assessment of PM(sub 10) from space borne observations. We further introduced a simple method for employing the satellite data to empirically forecast surface particulate pollution, In general, AOT from the previous day (day 0) is used as a predicator variable, along with the forecasted meteorology for the following day (day 1), to predict the PM(sub 10) level for day 1. The contribution of regional transport is represented by backward trajectories combined with AOT. This method was evaluated through PM(sub 10) hindcasts for 2008-2009, using ohservations from 2005 to 2007 as a training data set to obtain model coefficients. For five big Chinese cities, over 50% of the hindcasts have percentage error less than or equal to 30%. Similar performance was achieved for cities in northern Thailand. The MODIS AOT data are responsible for at least part of the demonstrated forecasting skill. This method can be easily adapted for other regions, but is probably most useful for those having sparse ground monitoring networks or no access to sophisticated deterministic models. We also highlight several existing issues, including some inherent to a regression-based approach as exemplified by a case study for Beijing, Further studies will be

  10. Combining satellite observations to develop a global soil moisture product for near-real-time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enenkel, Markus; Reimer, Christoph; Dorigo, Wouter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Pfeil, Isabella; Parinussa, Robert; De Jeu, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA) (ESA CCI SM) is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from 10 different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI product for daily global updates via satellite-derived near-real-time (NRT) soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced Scatterometer on-board the two MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. In addition to adaptations of the ESA CCI SM processing chain for NRT datasets, the quality of the NRT datasets is a main source of uncertainty. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new CCI NRT dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average global correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R) is 0.80. An initial validation with 40 in situ observations in France, Spain, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT, respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT product is nearly as accurate as the existing ESA CCI SM product and, therefore, of significant value for operational applications such as drought and flood forecasting, agricultural index insurance or weather forecasting.

  11. Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubenrauch, C. J.; Rossow, W. B.; Kinne, S.; Ackerman, S.; Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H.; Getzewich, B.; Di Girolamo, L.; Guignard, A.; Heidinger, A.; Maddux, B.; Menzel, P.; Minnis, P.; Pearl, C.; Platnick, S.; Riedi, J.; Sun-Mack, S.; Walther, A.; Winker, D.; Zeng, S.; Zhao, G.

    2012-01-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the whole globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years in length. However, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provided the first coordinated intercomparison of publically available, standard global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multiangle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. A monthly, gridded database, in common format, facilitates further assessments, climate studies and the evaluation of climate models.

  12. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advanced Turbine Technology Application Project (ATTAP) activities during the past year were highlighted by test-bed engine design and development activities; ceramic component design; materials and component characterization; ceramic component process development and fabrication; component rig testing; and test-bed engine fabrication and testing. Although substantial technical challenges remain, all areas exhibited progress. Test-bed engine design and development activity included engine mechanical design, power turbine flow-path design and mechanical layout, and engine system integration aimed at upgrading the AGT-5 from a 1038 C metal engine to a durable 1371 C structural ceramic component test-bed engine. ATTAP-defined ceramic and associated ceramic/metal component design activities include: the ceramic combustor body, the ceramic gasifier turbine static structure, the ceramic gasifier turbine rotor, the ceramic/metal power turbine static structure, and the ceramic power turbine rotors. The materials and component characterization efforts included the testing and evaluation of several candidate ceramic materials and components being developed for use in the ATTAP. Ceramic component process development and fabrication activities are being conducted for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine vanes, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Component rig testing activities include the development of the necessary test procedures and conduction of rig testing of the ceramic components and assemblies. Four-hundred hours of hot gasifier rig test time were accumulated with turbine inlet temperatures exceeding 1204 C at 100 percent design gasifier speed. A total of 348.6 test hours were achieved on a single ceramic rotor without failure and a second ceramic rotor was retired in engine-ready condition at 364.9 test hours. Test-bed engine fabrication, testing, and development supported improvements in ceramic component technology

  13. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    ATTAP activities during the past year were highlighted by an extensive materials assessment, execution of a reference powertrain design, test-bed engine design and development, ceramic component design, materials and component characterization, ceramic component process development and fabrication, component rig design and fabrication, test-bed engine fabrication, and hot gasifier rig and engine testing. Materials assessment activities entailed engine environment evaluation of domestically supplied radial gasifier turbine rotors that were available at the conclusion of the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project as well as an extensive survey of both domestic and foreign ceramic suppliers and Government laboratories performing ceramic materials research applicable to advanced heat engines. A reference powertrain design was executed to reflect the selection of the AGT-5 as the ceramic component test-bed engine for the ATTAP. Test-bed engine development activity focused on upgrading the AGT-5 from a 1038 C (1900 F) metal engine to a durable 1371 C (2500 F) structural ceramic component test-bed engine. Ceramic component design activities included the combustor, gasifier turbine static structure, and gasifier turbine rotor. The materials and component characterization efforts have included the testing and evaluation of several candidate ceramic materials and components being developed for use in the ATTAP. Ceramic component process development and fabrication activities were initiated for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine vanes, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Component rig development activities included combustor, hot gasifier, and regenerator rigs. Test-bed engine fabrication activities consisted of the fabrication of an all-new AGT-5 durability test-bed engine and support of all engine test activities through instrumentation/build/repair. Hot gasifier rig and test-bed engine testing

  14. Principles and satellite applications of the information-efficient spectral imaging sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, B.R.; Gentry, S.M.; Sweatt, W.C.; Motomatsu, S.E.; Boye, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    Remote sensing by satellite is increasingly important to the national government for treaty verification, battlefield monitoring, and other activities. In addition, civilian oriented applications are increasing in areas such as geology, meteorology, ecology, forestry, and agriculture. Spectral imaging sensors, an important subclass of satellite-borne sensors, have been shown to provide information far superior to that of conventional panchromatic images in many of these applications. However, spectral imaging adds at least two challenges to the already difficult task of viewing the earth from a distance of hundreds of kilometers. First, with numerous spectral channels, the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased in any one channel. Second the data rates of spectral imaging sensors (10 Mbytes/sec, or more) stress the limits of the electronic systems, including the onboard data storage, the downlink bandwidth, and the earthbound image analysis system. This report describes a new concept which the authors have dubbed the information-efficient spectral imaging sensor (ISIS) which addresses these two problems. In addition, it offers the promise of nearly real-time identification of targets.

  15. The long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Our Earth's environment is experiencing rapid changes due to natural variability and human activities. To monitor, understand and predict environment changes to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, use of long-term high-quality satellite data products is critical. The Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite, generated at Beijing Normal University, currently includes 12 products, including leaf area index (LAI), broadband shortwave albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downwelling shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface skin temperature, longwave net radiation, daytime all-wave net radiation, fraction of absorbed photosynetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR), fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary productivity (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). Most products span from 1981-2014. The algorithms for producing these products have been published in the top remote sensing related journals and books. More and more applications have being reported in the scientific literature. The GLASS products are freely available at the Center for Global Change Data Processing and Analysis of Beijing Normal University (http://www.bnu-datacenter.com/), and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umd.edu). After briefly introducing the basic characteristics of GLASS products, we will present some applications on the long-term environmental changes detected from GLASS products at both global and local scales. Detailed analysis of regional hotspots, such as Greenland, Tibetan plateau, and northern China, will be emphasized, where environmental changes have been mainly associated with climate warming, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.

  16. Application of convolve-multiply-convolve SAW processor for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lie, Y. S.; Ching, M.

    1991-01-01

    There is a need for a satellite communications receiver than can perform simultaneous multi-channel processing of single channel per carrier (SCPC) signals originating from various small (mobile or fixed) earth stations. The number of ground users can be as many as 1000. Conventional techniques of simultaneously processing these signals is by employing as many RF-bandpass filters as the number of channels. Consequently, such an approach would result in a bulky receiver, which becomes impractical for satellite applications. A unique approach utilizing a realtime surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor is presented. The application of a Convolve-Multiply-Convolve (CMC) chirp transform processor is described. The CMC processor transforms each input channel into a unique timeslot, while preserving its modulation content (in this case QPSK). Subsequently, each channel is individually demodulated without the need of input channel filters. Circuit complexity is significantly reduced, because the output frequency of the CMC processor is common for all input channel frequencies. The results of theoretical analysis and experimental results are in good agreement.

  17. A Report on University Applications of Satellite/Cable Technology; First Annual International Communications Conference (Madison, Wisconsin, June 3-5, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lorne A., Comp.; Riccomini, Betsy, Comp.

    The aim of the conference on University Applications of Satellite/Cable Technology was to stimulate discussion among universities, industry, and government on the possibilities of satellite and cable technology in the future. Twenty-six presentations were made covering the following topics: the current status of satellite/cable technology; the…

  18. Multi-scale model of the ionosphere from the combination of modern space-geodetic satellite techniques - project status and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Hugentobler, U.; Jakowski, N.; Dettmering, D.; Liang, W.; Limberger, M.; Wilken, V.; Gerzen, T.; Hoque, M.; Berdermann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Near real-time high resolution and high precision ionosphere models are needed for a large number of applications, e.g. in navigation, positioning, telecommunications or astronautics. Today these ionosphere models are mostly empirical, i.e., based purely on mathematical approaches. In the DFG project 'Multi-scale model of the ionosphere from the combination of modern space-geodetic satellite techniques (MuSIK)' the complex phenomena within the ionosphere are described vertically by combining the Chapman electron density profile with a plasmasphere layer. In order to consider the horizontal and temporal behaviour the fundamental target parameters of this physics-motivated approach are modelled by series expansions in terms of tensor products of localizing B-spline functions depending on longitude, latitude and time. For testing the procedure the model will be applied to an appropriate region in South America, which covers relevant ionospheric processes and phenomena such as the Equatorial Anomaly. The project connects the expertise of the three project partners, namely Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut (DGFI) Munich, the Institute of Astronomical and Physical Geodesy (IAPG) of the Technical University Munich (TUM) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Neustrelitz. In this presentation we focus on the current status of the project. In the first year of the project we studied the behaviour of the ionosphere in the test region, we setup appropriate test periods covering high and low solar activity as well as winter and summer and started the data collection, analysis, pre-processing and archiving. We developed partly the mathematical-physical modelling approach and performed first computations based on simulated input data. Here we present information on the data coverage for the area and the time periods of our investigations and we outline challenges of the multi-dimensional mathematical-physical modelling approach. We show first results, discuss problems

  19. Evaluation and Applications of the satellite-based CM SAF Solar Surface Radiation Climate Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentmann, J.; Herzog, S.; Kothe, S.; Mueller, R. W.; Pfeifroth, U.; Ahrens, B.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2015-12-01

    The incoming surface solar radiation has been defined as an essential climate variable by GCOS. It is mandatory to monitor this part of the earth's energy balance, and thus gain insights on the state and variability of the climate system. In addition, data sets of surface solar radiation have received increased attention over the recent years as an important source of information for solar energy applications. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) is deriving surface solar radiation from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite instruments. While CM SAF is focusing on high-quality long-term climate data records, operational data is also provided with a short time latency within about 2 weeks. Here we present the SARAH data set (Solar Surface Radiation Dataset - Heliosat) based on Meteosat satellite observations. SARAH provides hourly, daily- and monthly-averaged data of the effective cloud albedo (CAL), the direct normalized solar radiation (DNI) and the solar irradiance (SIS) from 1983 to 2013 for the full view of the Meteosat satellite (i.e, Europe, Africa, parts of South America, and the Atlantic ocean). The data sets are generated with a high spatial resolution of 0.05 deg allowing for detailed regional studies, and are available in netcdf-format at no cost without restrictions at www.cmsaf.eu. The mean absolute bias (i.e., the accuracy) of the SARAH data set as compared to surface reference observations has been determined to be 5.5 W/m2 for SIS and 8.2 W/m2 for DNI, i.e., within the accuracy of the ground-based measurements. The interannual and decadal variability of the SARAH SIS data are comparable to surface observations in Europe, although with a tendency to underestimate the mean increase in surface solar radiation (1.65 W/m2/dec compared to 3.3 W/m2/dec). Substantial temporal and spatial variability in the overall increase in surface solar radiation is found in the SARAH data set. Temporal changes in the frequency

  20. The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010-2020.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kent F; Mercader, Rodrigo J; Haight, Robert G; Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2011-09-01

    The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding how newly established satellite populations may affect economic costs can help program managers to justify and design prevention and control strategies. We estimate the economic costs caused by EAB for the 10-yr period from 2010 to 2020 for scenarios of fewer EAB satellite populations than those found from 2005 to 2010 and slower expansion of satellite populations found in 2009. We measure the projected discounted cost of treatment, removal, and replacement of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) growing in managed landscapes in U.S. communities. Estimated costs for the base scenario with the full complement of satellites in 2005-2010 and no program to mitigate spread is $12.5 billion. Fewer EAB satellites from 2005 to 2010 delay economic costs of $1.0 to 7.4 billion. Slower expansion of 2009 satellite populations delays economic costs of $0.1 to 0.7 billion. Satellite populations that are both distant from the core EAB infestation and close to large urban areas caused more economic costs in our simulations than did other satellites. Our estimates of delayed economic costs suggest that spending on activities that prevent establishment of new satellite EAB populations or slow expansion of existing populations can be cost-effective and that continued research on the cost and effectiveness of prevention and control activities is warranted.

  1. A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, André; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Brotas, Vanda; Groom, Steve; Grant, Michael; Taberner, Malcolm; Antoine, David; Arnone, Robert; Balch, William M.; Barker, Kathryn; Barlow, Ray; Bélanger, Simon; Berthon, Jean-François; Beşiktepe, Şükrü; Brando, Vittorio; Canuti, Elisabetta; Chavez, Francisco; Claustre, Hervé; Crout, Richard; Frouin, Robert; García-Soto, Carlos; Gibb, Stuart W.; Gould, Richard; Hooker, Stanford; Kahru, Mati; Klein, Holger; Kratzer, Susanne; Loisel, Hubert; McKee, David; Mitchell, Brian G.; Moisan, Tiffany; Muller-Karger, Frank; O'Dowd, Leonie; Ondrusek, Michael; Poulton, Alex J.; Repecaud, Michel; Smyth, Timothy; Sosik, Heidi M.; Twardowski, Michael; Voss, Kenneth; Werdell, Jeremy; Wernand, Marcel; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO), span between 1997 and 2012, and have a global distribution. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed for validation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were preserved throughout the work and made available in the final table. Using all the data in a validation exercise increases the number of matchups and enhances the representativeness of different marine regimes. By making available the metadata, it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. The compiled data are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.854832 (Valente et al., 2015).

  2. Applications Technology Satellite and Communications Technology Satellite user experiments for 1967-1980 reference book. Volume 4: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, N. A.; Nash, J. F.; Strange, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The important user experiments conducted during the fourteen year period from 1966 to 1980 are summarized. A description of each of the satellites and a brief summary of each user experiment is presented. A cross index of user experiments sorted by various parameters and a listing of keywords versus experiment number is included. The experiments are grouped by type of service offered; for example, education, health services, and data transmission. A bibliography of reports by accession number and by author is also presented. User viewpoints of the systems are presented.

  3. Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeting, M.

    The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the

  4. The Satellite Development Project in French Language & Culture: France-TV Magazine. FIPSE Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duverlie, Claud; Pease, Elizabeth

    In 1987, a project was undertaken to expand and further develop "France-TV Magazine," a French language and culture video magazine series featuring cultural and political topics and current events taken from actual French television broadcasts. The project addressed needs for the following: (1) culturally authentic, timely, live materials; (2)…

  5. The global distribution of observed cloudiness - A contribution to the ISCCP. [International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Julius; Hahn, Carole J.; Warren, Stephen G.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite-inferred overall global cloud patterns generally corroborate those derived from ground-based observations. Both show significant differences of cloudiness between the two hemispheres and over extended land as compared with ocean areas. However, the averaged latitudinal values of surface-based observed cloud amounts are about 10 percent higher than those derived from Nimbus-7 observations. The largest difference (10-20 percent) is in the subtropics of each hemisphere and at subpolar and polar latitudes during the summer. The difference in reported average global total cloud amounts is about 10 percent.

  6. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing for Response to and Recovery from Meteorological Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew I.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Bell, Jordan R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous on-orbit satellites provide a wide range of spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions supporting the use of their resulting imagery in assessments of disasters that are meteorological in nature. This presentation will provide an overview of recent use of Earth remote sensing by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in response to disaster activities in 2012 and 2013, along with case studies supporting ongoing research and development. The SPoRT Center, with support from NASA's Applied Sciences Program, has explored a variety of new applications of Earth-observing sensors to support disaster response. In May 2013, the SPoRT Center developed unique power outage composites representing the first clear sky view of damage inflicted upon Moore and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma following the devastating EF-5 tornado that occurred on May 20. Subsequent ASTER, MODIS, Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 imagery help to identify the damaged areas. Higher resolution imagery of Moore, Oklahoma were provided by commercial satellites and the recently available International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) instrument. New techniques are being explored by the SPoRT team in order to better identify damage visible in high resolution imagery, and to monitor ongoing recovery for Moore, Oklahoma. This presentation will provide an overview of near real-time data products developed for dissemination to SPoRT's partners in NOAA's National Weather Service, through collaboration with the USGS and other federal agencies. Specifically, it will focus on integration of various data sets within the NOAA National Weather Service Damage Assessment Toolkit, which allows meteorologists in the field to consult available satellite imagery while performing their damage assessment.

  7. Potential application of Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi tracker on satellite images for automatic change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Tasneem; Singh, Dharmendra; Raman, Balasubramanian

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring agricultural areas is still a very challenging task. Various models and methodologies have been developed for monitoring the agricultural areas with satellite images, but their practical applicability is limited due to the complexity in processing and dependence on a priori information. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility of the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) tracker, which is generally useful for tracking objects in video images, for monitoring agricultural areas. The KLT tracker was proposed to deal with the problem of image registration, but the use of the KLT tracker in satellite images for land cover monitoring is rarely reported. Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) data has been used to identify and track the agricultural areas. The tracked pixels were compared with the agriculture pixels obtained from a decision tree algorithm and both results are closely matched. An image differencing change detection technique has been applied after KLT tracker implementation to observe the "change" and "no change" pixels in agricultural areas. It is observed that two kinds of changes are being detected. The areas where agriculture was not there earlier, but now is present, the changes are called positive changes. In the areas where agriculture was present earlier, but now is not present, those changes are referred to as negative changes. Unchanged areas retrieved from both the images are labeled as "no change" pixels. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is that it uses a simplified version of the KLT tracker to efficiently select and track the agriculture features on the basis of their spatial information and does not require a priori information every time.

  8. The ESA project SC4MGV "Assessment of Satellite Constellations for Monitoring the Variations in Earth's Gravity Field" - overview, objectives and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reubelt, Tilo; Sneeuw, Nico; Iran Pour, Siavash; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas; Murböck, Michael; Daras, Ilias; Visser, Pieter; de Texeira de Encarnação, Joao; van Dam, Tonie; Weigelt, Matthias; Cesare, Stefano; Cornara, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    In recent years several studies, publications and projects dealt with future gravity mission studies for time variable gravity field recovery of the successive era of GRACE and GRACE-FO. Besides improved satellite and sensor technology (e.g. laser interferometry and drag-free systems) sophisticated satellite formations and multi-satellite formations indicate a great potential for mitigating aliasing effects and for improving sensitivity and isotropy. Especially pendulum formations and Bender constellations, which consist of two inline satellite pairs - one on a near polar orbit and one on an inclined orbit - showed very promising results. Since pendulum formations are regarded as hardly feasible at the moment due to serious technological problems, e.g. large range rates and high precision active satellite pointing, the Bender constellations which make use of mature inline formations are regarded as an appropriate choice. In autumn 2012 ESA called for a project where the orbit design, gravity recovery approaches and post-processing algorithms should be optimized for Bender constellations. In this contribution, the project, its objectives, the project team as well as first results for the mission requirements and the orbit design are presented.

  9. Satellite Measurement of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor: Development and Applications and Applications for the ARM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brian J. Soden

    2005-01-11

    Upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) measurements from the 6.7 micron channel on GOES (8, 9, 12) and GMS-5 satellites were employed to develop a near real-time UTH product that is now available from the ARM External Data Center (XDC). The UTH product is available in either gridded format (2.0 x 2.0 lat-lon resolution), full-disk pixel resolution, or individual pixel resolution for both the SGP and TWP sites. This product provides the basis for the instrument intercomparison and validation activities (Section 0.2), diurnal analysis and model evaluation (0.3), and cloud lifecycle studies (0.5); and is also an important component of the research proposed here. Full details regarding the retrieval algorithm for the ARM sites can be found in Soden et al. (2004a) and references therein.

  10. Satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.; Watkins, Michael M.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in satellite positioning techniques and their applications are reviewed on the basis of the theoretical and practical work published by U.S. researchers in 1987-1990. Current techniques are classified into two main categories: satellite laser tracking and radio tracking. Particular attention is given to the Geoscience Laser Ranging System, the Lunar Laser Ranging concept; GPS ephemerides determination, fiducial networks, and reference frame; static GPS positioning; and kinematic GPS positioning.

  11. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small, Multiple Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The ST5 payload, part of NASA s New Millennium Program headquartered at JPL, consisted of three micro satellites (approx. 30 kg each) deployed into orbit from the Pegasus XL launch. ST5 was a technology demonstration mission, intended to test new technologies for potential use for future missions. In order to meet the launch date schedule of ST 5, a different approach was required rather than the standard I&T approach used for single, room-sized satellites. The I&T phase was planned for spacecraft #1 to undergo integration and test first, followed by spacecraft #2 and #3 in tandem. A team of engineers and technicians planned and executed the integration of all three spacecraft emphasizing versatility and commonality. They increased their knowledge and efficiency through spacecraft #1 integration and testing and utilized their experience and knowledge to safely execute I&T for spacecraft #2 and #3. Each integration team member could perform many different roles and functions and thus better support activities on any of the three spacecraft. The I&T campaign was completed with STS s successful launch on March 22,2006

  12. Satellite quenching timescales in clusters from projected phase space measurements matched to simulated orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Kyle A.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We measure the star formation quenching efficiency and timescale in cluster environments. Our method uses N-body simulations to estimate the probability distribution of possible orbits for a sample of observed SDSS galaxies in and around clusters based on their position and velocity offsets from their host cluster. We study the relationship between their star formation rates and their likely orbital histories via a simple model in which star formation is quenched once a delay time after infall has elapsed. Our orbit library method is designed to isolate the environmental effect on the star formation rate due to a galaxy's present-day host cluster from `pre-processing' in previous group hosts. We find that quenching of satellite galaxies of all stellar masses in our sample (109 - 1011.5 M⊙) by massive (> 1013 M⊙) clusters is essentially 100 per cent efficient. Our fits show that all galaxies quench on their first infall, approximately at or within a Gyr of their first pericentric passage. There is little variation in the onset of quenching from galaxy-to-galaxy: the spread in this time is at most ˜2 Gyr at fixed M★. Higher mass satellites quench earlier, with very little dependence on host cluster mass in the range probed by our sample.

  13. Multi-year Satellite and Surface Observations of AOD in support of Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John

    2012-11-01

    We use combined multi-year measurements from the surface and space for assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol properties within a large (~400x400 km) region centered on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, along the East Coast of the United States. The ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements at Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) site and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on board the Terra and Aqua satellites provide horizontal and temporal variations of aerosol optical depth, while the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) offers the altitudes of aerosol-layers. The combined ground-based and satellite measurements indicated several interesting features among which were the large differences in the aerosol properties observed in July and February. We applied the climatology of aerosol properties for designing the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The TCAP field campaign involves 12-month deployment (started July 1, 2012) of the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod and complimentary aerosol observations from two research aircraft: the DOE Gulfstream-1 (G-1) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) B200 King Air. Using results from the coordinated G-1 and B200 flights during the recent (July, 2012) Intensive Observation Period, we demonstrated that the G-1 in situ measurements and B200 active remote sensing can provide complementary information on the temporal and spatial changes of the aerosol properties off the coast of North America.

  14. The application of satellite differential SAR interferometry-derived ground displacements in hydrogeology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, D.L.; Hoffmann, J.

    2007-01-01

    The application of satellite differential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, principally coherent (InSAR) and to a lesser extent, persistent-scatterer (PSI) techniques to hydrogeologic studies has improved capabilities to map, monitor, analyze, and simulate groundwater flow, aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence. A number of investigations over the previous decade show how the spatially detailed images of ground displacements measured with InSAR have advanced hydrogeologic understanding, especially when a time series of images is used in conjunction with histories of changes in water levels and management practices. Important advances include: (1) identifying structural or lithostratigraphic boundaries (e.g. faults or transitional facies) of groundwater flow and deformation; (2) defining the material and hydraulic heterogeneity of deforming aquifer-systems; (3) estimating system properties (e.g. storage coefficients and hydraulic conductivities); and (4) constraining numerical models of groundwater flow, aquifer-system compaction, and land subsidence. As a component of an integrated approach to hydrogeologic monitoring and characterization of unconsolidated alluvial groundwater basins differential SAR interferometry contributes unique information that can facilitate improved management of groundwater resources. Future satellite SAR missions specifically designed for differential interferometry will enhance these contributions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  15. Biological visual attention guided automatic image segmentation with application in satellite imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sina, M. I.; Cretu, A.-M.; Payeur, P.

    2012-03-01

    Taking inspiration from the significantly superior performance of humans to extract and interpret visual information, the exploitation of biological visual mechanisms can contribute to the improvement of the performance of computational image processing systems. Computational models of visual attention have already been shown to significantly improve the speed of scene understanding by attending only the regions of interest, while distributing the resources where they are required. However, there are only few attention-based computational systems that have been used in practical applications dealing with real data and up to now, none of the computational attention models was demonstrated to work under a wide range of image content, characteristics and scales such as those encountered in satellite imaging. This paper outlines some of the difficulties that the current generation of visual attention-inspired models encounter when dealing with satellite images. It then proposes a novel algorithm for automatic image segmentation and regions of interest search that combines elements of human visual attention with Legendre moments applied on the probability density function of color histograms. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach obtains better results than one of the most evolved current computational attention model proposed in the literature.

  16. Fast Fourier transformation resampling algorithm and its application in satellite image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenping

    2014-01-01

    The image resampling algorithm, fast Fourier transformation resampling (FFTR), is introduced. The FFTR uses a global function in the Fourier expansion form to represent an image, and the image resampling is achieved by the introduction of a phase shift in the Fourier expansion. The comparison with the cubic spline interpolation approach in the image resampling is presented, which shows that FFTR is more accurate in the satellite image resampling. The FFTR algorithm is also generally reversible, because both the resampled and its original images share the same Fourier spectrum. The resampling for the images with hot spots is discussed. The hot spots in an image are the pixels with the second-order derivatives that are order of magnitude larger than the average value. The images with the hot spots are resampled with the introduction of a local Gaussian function to model the hot spot data, so that the remaining data for the Fourier expansion are continuous. Its application to the infrared channel image of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Imager, to mitigate a diurnally changing band co-registration, is presented.

  17. Applications of the PUSH satellite precipitation error scheme for flood monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcacchia, Leonardo; Maggioni, Viviana; Sapiano, Mathew; Adler, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The PUSH (Precipitation Uncertainties for Satellite Hydrology) error scheme, previously validated over Oklahoma, is now tested over a different study area at higher temporal resolution. A new product is being used for the reference precipitation: Stage IV Radar data available for the contiguous United States, at three hourly and 0.25° temporal/spatial resolution. We focus our study on Iowa during 2009-2013 and perform a comparison with the previous work over Oklahoma. This study is a first attempt to generalize the PUSH framework to other land regions of the world. This will be of particular use in regions of the world where gauges are sparse, and satellite retrievals represent the only available precipitation estimate on which hydrological applications (e.g., flood forecasting) and water resources management can rely. Results show the versatility of the PUSH code and its ability to reproduce the probability density function of the benchmark precipitation and its error spatial pattern. The precipitation product, corrected by using the estimated error, is given as input to the Global Flood Monitoring System (GFMS), developed by the University of Maryland, to produce streamflow and routed runoff estimations across the study area. The model results are thus compared with the data collected during the GPM field campaign IFloodS in the spring of 2013.

  18. Results of the 3 November 1974 Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6) trilateration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, P. E.; Lynn, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The highly successful 24 hour trilateration tracking and orbit determination test conducted on 3 November 1974 is described. In this test a new method of accurately computing geostationary spacecraft orbits was applied to the Applications Technology Satellite (ats-6). A single tracking station interrogates several strategically deployed ground based transponders via the synchronous satellite whose orbit is to be determined. The ATS-6 tracking data measurement noise over the 24 hour period was observed to be 0.3 mm/sec in range rate and 1.5 meters in range. By means of overlap orbit computation using 2 separate tracking data bases, the ATS-6 total position and velocity uncertainties were determined to reach a minimum of 30 meters and 0.2 cm/sec respectively. The maximum position and velocity uncertainty over this same time period was determined to be approximately 250 meters and 2 cm/sec respectively. A position determination using simultaneous tracking of the NASA-GSFC site by ATS-6 and ATS-3 was also performed. Station location recovery was to an accuracy on the order of 100 meters over the first 10 hours of tracking.

  19. Microgravity science and applications projects and payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of work conducted by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA is presented. The goals of the program are the development and implementation of a reduced-gravity research, science and applications program, exploitation of space for human benefits, and the application of reduced gravity research for the development of advanced technologies. Space research of fluid dynamics and mass transport phenomena is discussed and the facilities available for reduced gravity experiments are presented. A program for improving communication with the science and applications communities and the potential use of the Space Station for microgravity research are also examined.

  20. Applications of thin film technology toward a low-mass solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    Previous concepts for solar power satellites have used conventional-technology photovoltaics and microwave tubes. The authors propose using thin film photovoltaics and an integrated solid state phased array to design an ultra-lightweight solar power satellite, resulting in a potential reduction in weight by a factor of ten to a hundred over conventional concepts for solar power satellites.

  1. Educational Applications of Communications Satellites in Canada. New Technologies in Canadian Education Series. Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, J. Murray

    Canada has explored the use of satellites as a means to provide information and communications services to geographically isolated populations since 1962. Between 1972 and 1984, five series of satellites known as Anik A, B, C, and D and Hermes were launched. Each satellite provided expanded communications services, and each led to research and…

  2. Summary of the Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations Working Session, 20 August 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Various techniques for reducing the satellite data to a form usable by the operational agencies were covered in mini-presentations by the operational satellite snow interpretive personnel. Similar discussions were made by operational agency stream flow forecasters on how satellite-derived snow data could be incorporated into runoff forecasting methods.

  3. Versatile self-reconfigurable digital processing platform for satellite and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichocki, A.; Nowosielski, W.; Orleanski, P.

    2012-05-01

    This document presents the concept and implementation of a reconfigurable digital processing platform for airborne and satellite systems. Some recent trends visible in the technology development of on-board electronics were taken under consideration during the conceptual phase of the design. They were, namely, use of commercial-of-the-shelf (or COTS) components, utilization of FPGAs, common interfaces and system re-programmability. On the other hand, a matter that is constantly being a challenge for these types of applications that must be considered as crucial is the reliability. The key feature of described prototype device is a fusion of two different approaches: static functionality and ability of a self-reconfiguration on the fly, while retaining high availability of a system, especially when the configuration is altered by space radiation.

  4. Application of satellite estimates of rainfall distribution to simulate the potential for malaria transmission in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS) is a mechanistic model developed to assess malaria risk in areas where the disease is water-limited. This model relies on precipitation inputs as its primary forcing. Until now, applications of the model have used ground-based precipitation observations. However, rain gauge networks in the areas most affected by malaria are often sparse. The increasing availability of satellite based rainfall estimates could greatly extend the range of the model. The minimum temporal resolution of precipitation data needed was determined to be one hour. The CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH ) distributed by NOAA fits this criteria, as it provides 30-minute estimates at 8km resolution. CMORPH data were compared to ground observations in four West African villages, and calibrated to reduce overestimation and false alarm biases. The calibrated CMORPH data were used to force HYDREMATS, resulting in outputs for mosquito populations, vectorial capacity and malaria transmission.

  5. PacketLib: A C++ Library for Scientific Satellite Telemetry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.

    PacketLib is a C++ open-source software library for writing applications which deal with satellite telemetry source packets, provided that the packets are compliant with the CCSDS Telemetry and Telecommand Standards. The library is being used within the Italian Space Agency (ASI) mission AGILE for simulation, graphical display, processing and decoding of the telemetry generated by the Test Equipment (TE) of two AGILE detectors. From an input stream of bytes, the library is able to recognize automatically the source packets (described by a simple configuration file), and provides a simple access to each packet field by means of an object oriented interface. In the same way the library writes source packets to output stream. Various types of input and output streams are abstracted by a software layer.

  6. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small, Multiple Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The ST5 technology demonstration mission led by GSFC of NASA's New Millennium Program managed by JPL consisted of three micro satellites (approximately 30 kg each) deployed into orbit from the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. In order to meet the launch date schedule of ST5, a different approach was required rather than the standard I&T approach used for single, room-sized satellites. The three spacecraft were designed, integrated, and tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It was determined that there was insufficient time in the schedule to perform three spacecraft I&T activities in series using standard approaches. The solution was for spacecraft #1 to undergo integration and test first, followed by spacecraft #2 and #3 simultaneously. This simultaneous integration was successful for several reasons. Each spacecraft had a Lead Test Conductor who planned and coordinated their spacecraft through its integration and test activities. One team of engineers and technicians executed the integration of all three spacecraft, learning and gaining knowledge and efficiency as spacecraft #1 integration and testing progressed. They became acutely familiar with the hardware, operation and processes for I&T, thus had the experience and knowledge to safely execute I&T for spacecraft #2 and #3. The integration team was extremely versatile; each member could perform many different activities or work any spacecraft, when needed. ST5 was successfully integrated, tested and shipped to the launch site per the I&T schedule that was planned three years previously. The I&T campaign was completed with ST5's successful launch on March 22, 2006.

  7. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) Methods and Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project 6: CRA Methods and Applications addresses the need to move beyond traditional risk assessment practices by developing CRA methods to integrate and evaluate impacts of chemical and nonchemical stressors on the environment and human health. Project 6 has three specific obje...

  8. QFD Application to a Software - Intensive System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, T. L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD), adapted to requirements engineering for a software-intensive system development project, and sysnthesizes the lessons learned from the application of QFD to the Network Control System (NCS) pre-project of the Deep Space Network.

  9. Computer Applications Project. Phase I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Phase I of this project for the development of educational materials to teach the use of the computer (1) as an aid to management and decision making, or (2) as an instructional tool, included expansion of background technical reports, completion of computer programs, printing of field test versions of materials, commercial publisher interaction,…

  10. 18 CFR 401.4 - Project applications and proposed revisions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 401.4 Project applications and proposed revisions and changes. (a) Applications for inclusion of new... projects may submit applications for the inclusion of new private projects and the deletion or...

  11. 18 CFR 401.4 - Project applications and proposed revisions and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Project applications and proposed revisions and changes. (a) Applications for inclusion of new public... projects may submit applications for the inclusion of new private projects and the deletion or...

  12. The Design and Application of Data Storage System in Miyun Satellite Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiping; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Zhao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    China has launched Chang'E-3 satellite in 2013, firstly achieved soft landing on moon for China's lunar probe. Miyun satellite ground station firstly used SAN storage network system based-on Stornext sharing software in Chang'E-3 mission. System performance fully meets the application requirements of Miyun ground station data storage.The Stornext file system is a sharing file system with high performance, supports multiple servers to access the file system using different operating system at the same time, and supports access to data on a variety of topologies, such as SAN and LAN. Stornext focused on data protection and big data management. It is announced that Quantum province has sold more than 70,000 licenses of Stornext file system worldwide, and its customer base is growing, which marks its leading position in the big data management.The responsibilities of Miyun satellite ground station are the reception of Chang'E-3 satellite downlink data and management of local data storage. The station mainly completes exploration mission management, receiving and management of observation data, and provides a comprehensive, centralized monitoring and control functions on data receiving equipment. The ground station applied SAN storage network system based on Stornext shared software for receiving and managing data reliable.The computer system in Miyun ground station is composed by business running servers, application workstations and other storage equipments. So storage systems need a shared file system which supports heterogeneous multi-operating system. In practical applications, 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16 channels, and the maximum data transfer rate of each channel is up to 15MB/s. Thus the network throughput of file system is not less than 240MB/s. At the same time, the maximum capacity of each data file is up to 810GB. The storage system planned requires that 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16

  13. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small, Multiple Satellite Missions: Experiences From The Space Technology 5 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This brief presentation describes the mechanical and electrical integration activities and environmental testing challenges of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Project. Lessons learned during this process are highlighted, including performing mechanical activities serially to gain efficiency through repetition and performing electrical activities based on the level of subsystem expertise available.

  14. The Role of Orograph and Parallax Corrections on High Resolution Geostationary Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Flash Flood Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Davenport, Clay; Scofield, Rod

    1999-01-01

    The current generation of geosynchronous satellites exhibits considerably improved capabilities in the area of resolution, gridding accuracy, and sampling frequency as compared to their predecessors. These improvements have made it possible to accurately observe the life cycle of small scale, short-live phenomenon like rapidly developing thunderstorms, at a very high spatial and temporal resolutions. While the gain in the improved resolution is not significant for synoptic scale cloud systems, it plays a major role on the computation of precipitation values for mesoscale and stonn scale systems. Two of the important factor on the accurate precision of precipitation from satellite imagery are the position of the cloud tops as viewed by the satellite and the influence of orographic effects on the distribution of precipitation. The first problem has to do with the fact that the accurate estimation of precipitation from data collected by a satellite in geosynchronous orbit requires the knowledge of the exact position of the cloud tops with respect to the ground below. This is not a problem when a cloud is located directly below the satellite; at large viewing angles the geographic coordinates on satellite images are dependent on cloud heights and distance from the sub-satellite point. The latitude and longitude coordinates for high convective cloud tops are displaced away from the sub-satellite point and may be shifted by as much as 20 Km from the sea level coordinates. The second problem has to do with the variations in rainfall distribution with elevation. Ground observations have shown that precipitation amounts tend to increase with height and that the slope of the hill or mountain that is facing the prevailing wind normally receives greater rainfall then do the lee slopes. The purpose of the study is to show the recent developments at the Office of Research and Applications (ORA) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NESDIS) in Camp Springs

  15. NASA applications project in Miami County, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, R. Norberto; Lozano-Garcia, D. Fabian; Wyss, Phillip J.; Johannsen, Chris J.

    1989-01-01

    The study site selection is intended to serve all of the different research areas within the project, i.e., soil conditions, soil management, etc. There are seven major soil associations or soils formed on similar landscapes in the Miami Co., and over 38 soil series that were mapped. Soil sampling was conducted in some sites because of its variability in soils and cover types, variable topography, and presence of erosion problems. Results from analysis of these soil data is presented.

  16. Safety Cases for Global Navigation Satellite Systems' Safety of Life(SOL) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Yepez, Amaya Atencia

    2010-09-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) have recently been enhanced to provide additional guarantees for the accuracy, integrity, reliability and coverage of their services. These infrastructures are intended to be robust against jamming. They support real-time self-diagnostic error detection and provide end-users with detailed information about precision and integrity. In consequence, they are gradually being introduced into safety-related applications. This paper argues that greater attention needs to be paid to the ways in which these navigation infrastructures are being integrated into the safety cases that support Safety of Life(SoL) applications. In particular, we contrast the significant investments that have been made in analysing the safety of GNSS aviation applications, such as en-route operations and non-precision approaches, with the relative lack of progress in other industries. There is also a need for greater consistency between the safety arguments that support similar GNSS applications. This helps to ensure that safety managers and regulators consider a similar set of hazards when seeking to integrate these new navigation infrastructures into SoL systems. While international aviation organisations have taken important steps to establish communication mechanisms within their industry, the same cannot be said for other industries. The ad hoc nature of the safety arguments supporting many recent proposals creates a danger that technological innovation will outstrip our commitment to mitigate or avoid future hazards. Unless these issues are addressed then accidents involving the first wave of SoL applications will further jeopardise the development of GNSS infrastructures.

  17. A Rapid Prototyping Look at NASA's Next Generation Earth-Observing Satellites; Opportunities for Global Change Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, L.; Young, D. F.; Parker, P. A.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program extends the results of Earth Science Division (ESD) research and knowledge beyond the scientific and research communities to contribute to national priority applications with societal benefits. The Applied Sciences Program focuses on, (1) assimilation of NASA Earth-science research results and their associated uncertainties to improve decision support systems and, (2) the transition of NASA research results to evolve improvements in future operational systems. The broad range of Earth- science research results that serve as inputs to the Applied Sciences Program are from NASA's Research and Analysis Program (R&A) within the ESD. The R&A Program has established six research focus areas to study the complex processes associated with Earth-system science; Atmospheric Composition, Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems, Climate Variability and Change, Earth Surface and Interior, Water and Energy Cycle, and Weather. Through observations-based Earth-science research results, NASA and its partners are establishing predictive capabilities for future projections of natural and human perturbations on the planet. The focus of this presentation is on the use of research results and their associated uncertainties from several of NASA's nine next generation missions for societal benefit. The newly launched missions are, (1) CloudSat, and (2) CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), both launched April 28, 2006, and the planned next generation missions include, (3) the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), (4) the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), (5) the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), (6) Glory, for measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols and total solar irradiance for long-term climate records, (7) Aquarius, for measuring global sea surface salinity, (8) the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM), and (9) the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) for measuring long-term climate trends and global

  18. Application of ERTS-1 satellite imagery for land use mapping and resource inventories in the central coastal region of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Thaman, R. R.; Senger, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 satellite imagery has proved a valuable data source for land use as well as natural and cultural resource studies on a regional basis. ERTS-1 data also provide an excellent base for mapping resource related features and phenomena. These investigations are focused on a number of potential applications which are already showing promise of having operational utility.

  19. Studies of dynamo field structure and related effects: DE satellite project guest investigator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    The establishment of the latitudinal and longitudinal structure of the low latitude dynamo electric (DE) field was initiated using data primarily from the Unified Abstract (UA) files of the Atmosphere Explorer E (AE-E) satellite. Mass plots of the vertical ion drift values were made for 1977, 1978, and 1979. The average diurnal variation of V sub v within 20 degrees of the dip equator is remarkably similar to that obtained at Jicamarca in the same years. The average meridional ion drift velocity vectors, obtained as a function of latitude by combining the average vertical and horizontal (nearly north-south) ion drift values from the AE-E, showed the expected variations with local time and season based on the well known equatorial fountain effect theory. The average diurnal variation of the vertical drift was found for four different ranges of dip latitude for a northern solstice season. The effect of the transequatorial neutral winds was as evident in this plotting format as in the meridional or fountain effect format. Finally, the average vertical drift velocity V sub v, not the east-west electric field E sub ew, was found to be approximately independent of longitude, as expected from the dynamo theory.

  20. Satellite Validation: A Project to Create a Data-Logging System to Monitor Lake Tahoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Rudy A.

    2005-01-01

    Flying aboard the satellite Terra, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an imaging instrument used to acquire detailed maps of Earth's surface temperature, elevation, emissivity, and reflectance. An automated site consisting of four buoys was established 6 years ago at Lake Tahoe for the validation of ASTERS thermal infrared data. Using Campbell CR23X Dataloggers, a replacement system to be deployed on a buoy was designed and constructed for the measurement of the lake's temperature profile, surrounding air temperature, humidity, wind direction and speed, net radiation, and surface skin temperature. Each Campbell Datalogger has been programmed to control, power, and monitor 14 different temperature sensors, a JPL-built radiometer, and an RM Young 32500 meteorological station. The logger communicates with the radiometer and meteorological station through a Campbell SDM-SIO4 RS232 serial interface, sending polling commands, and receiving filtered data back from the sensors. This data is then cataloged and sent back across a cellular modem network every hour to JPL. Each instrument is wired via a panel constructed with 18 individual plugs that allow for simple installation and expansion. Data sent back from the system are analyzed at JPL, where they are used to calibrate ASTER data.

  1. Use of Satellite Remote Sensing of Cloud and Rainfall for Selected Operational Applications in the Fields of Applied Hydrology and Food Production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Clare

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The material presented in this thesis takes the form of a series of discrete, but inter-related projects on subjects related to the use of satellite remote sensing techniques for selected applications in the fields of cloud, rainfall, vegetation and food production monitoring and assessment. Detailed literature reviews have been carried out on remote sensing techniques in these fields, in particular, for rainfall monitoring and the development of systems for food crop prediction from various rainfall, vegetation and crop monitoring algorithms. The second part of the thesis is devoted to a series of practical projects using five different and contrasting satellite rainfall monitoring techniques using visible and/or infrared imagery, three applied over the Sultanate of Oman and two over West Africa. The case studies applied over the Sultanate of Oman show a range of techniques from manual nephanalyses of Potential Rain Clouds and the derivation of a 20 year record of Tropical Cyclone tracks over the Arabian Sea, to the manual Bristol rainfall monitoring technique and its human-machine interactive successor BIAS, which are applicable to the analysis of short term extreme rainfall events. The remaining two techniques were developed simultaneously over West Africa. The first, namely, PERMIT (the Polar-orbiter Effective Rainfall Monitoring Technique), was developed by the Author, and the second, ADMIT (Agricultural Drought Monitoring Integrated Technique), by a colleague, Giles D'Souza. The development, testing on data from July and August 1985 and July 1986, and subsequent modification of the PERMIT technique is described. The 1986 Case Study results have been compared with the ADMIT results from the same data set, as part of a project funded by FAO to compare the performance of four Meteosat rainfall monitoring techniques (Snijders 1988). PERMIT was designed to be an economic, (in terms of satellite data and

  2. The Rural Wings Project: Bridging the Digital Divide with Satellite-Provided Internet. Phase I--Identifying and Analysing the Learning Needs of 31 Communities in 10 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Henrik; Mihailidis, Paul; Larsson, Ken; Sotiriou, Menelaos; Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos; Gargalakos, Michail

    2007-01-01

    The digitally marginalised communities are in focus in the EU-funded Rural Wings project 2006-2008. The aim is to identify and analyse the user learning needs in non-connected communities and to meet these needs by providing satellite Internet broadband connections, education and tools. This article reports the findings of the user needs…

  3. Satellite-Delivered Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnall, Gail C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  4. Global Burned Area Mapping from European Satellites: the ESA FIRE_CCI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvieco, E.; Sandow, C.; Guenther, K. P.; González-Alonso, F.; Pereira, J. M.; Pérez, O.; Bradley, A. V.; Schultz, M.; Mouillot, F.; Ciais, P.

    2012-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is part of the European contribution to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program. Fire disturbance is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) included in the ESA CCI program. It focus on mapping burned area (BA) using European sensors (ATSR, VEGETATION and MERIS data), and in comparing the performance of the results with other existing datasets. The project aims at developing and validating algorithms to produce consistent, stable, error-characterized global BA information. The project includes as well developing algorithms to generate georeferenced and calibrated reflectances of (A)ATSR, VEGETATION and MERIS data, identifying potential sources of confusion with burned areas (clouds, smoke, cloud shadows, water, snow, topographic shadows). The final product will be a merging of BA information derived from three different sensors . The outputs will be adapted to the needs of the atmospheric and vegetation modelling communities.

  5. Satellite surface soil moisture from SMOS and Aquarius: Assessment for applications in agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, Catherine; Rowlandson, Tracy; Berg, Aaron; Burns, Travis; L'Heureux, Jessika; Tetlock, Erica; Adams, Justin R.; McNairn, Heather; Toth, Brenda; Itenfisu, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Satellite surface soil moisture has become more widely available in the past five years, with several missions designed specifically for soil moisture measurement now available, including the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission. With a wealth of data now available, the challenge is to understand the skill and limitations of the data so they can be used routinely to support monitoring applications and to better understand environmental change. This paper examined two satellite surface soil moisture data sets from the SMOS and Aquarius missions against in situ networks in largely agricultural regions of Canada. The data from both sensors was compared to ground measurements on both an absolute and relative basis. Overall, the root mean squared errors for SMOS were less than 0.10 m3 m-3 at most sites, and less where the in situ soil moisture was measured at multiple sites within the radiometer footprint (sites in Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario). At many sites, SMOS overestimates soil moisture shortly after rainfall events compared to the in situ data; however this was not consistent for each site and each time period. SMOS was found to underestimate drying events compared to the in situ data, however this observation was not consistent from site to site. The Aquarius soil moisture data showed higher root mean squared errors in areas where there were more frequent wetting and drying cycles. Overall, both data sets, and SMOS in particular, showed a stable and consistent pattern of capturing surface soil moisture over time.

  6. Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, C.; Bishop, C.; Hawkins, O.; Grealey, E.; Cox, C.; Thomas, D.; Trimel, S.

    2009-07-01

    Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

  7. Application of Multispectral Satellite Data for Geological Mapping in Antarctic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.; Hong, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing imagery is capable to provide a solution to overcome the difficulties associated with geological field mapping in the Antarctic. Advanced optical and radar satellite imagery is the most applicable tool for mapping and identification of inaccessible regions in Antarctic. Consequently, an improved scientific research using remote sensing technology would be essential to provide new and more complete lithological and structural data to fill the numerous knowledge gaps on Antarctica's geology. In this investigation, Oscar coast area in Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP) was selected to conduct a remote sensing study using Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. Contrast-enhanced Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composites, band ratios and Relative Band Depth (RBD) image processing techniques were applied to Landsat-8 and ASTER dataset for establishing the spectral separation of the main lithologic groups exposed in the study area. The outcomes of this investigation demonstrated the applications of SWIR and TIR bands of the multispectral remote sensing datasets to identify lithological units and producing geological maps with suitable accuracy of ice-free rock regions in the Antarctic Peninsula. The results could be extended to map coverage of non-investigated regions further east and validated previously inferred geological observations concerning other rocks and mineral deposits throughout the Antarctica.

  8. Latest Progress In Novel High Conductivity And Highly Stable Composite Structure Developments For Satellite Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebor, Maximillian; Reichmann, Olaf; Pfeiffer, Ernst K.; Ihle, Alexander; Linke, Stefan; Tschepe, Christoph; Roddecke, Susanne; Richter, Ines; Berrill, Mark; Santiago-Prowald, Julian

    2012-07-01

    Materials such as aluminium, titanium and carbon fibre based composites are indispensable in space business. However, special demands on spaceborne applications require both new ideas and new concepts but also powerful novel materials. These days the trend is to substitute aluminium for CFRP basically in order to safe mass or to decrease thermal expansions. Nevertheless there are upcoming requirements that cannot be met using standard CFRP materials. In this connection innovative composites have to be introduced. In the frame of this paper three major applications for such material requests are considered, i.e.: • antennas • satellite platform structural panels • radiators. The new composites need to cope with the following challenges and demands: high operational temperature range, high stiffness, high strength, high thermal conductivity, vacuum compatibility, low mass, high in- orbit stability, compatibility with metallic parts and many more. Some of these demands have to be fulfilled in conjunction. Herein the innovative composites cover new raw materials and their combination, manufacturing process enhancement as well as new inspection and test methods. It has been observed that by using the developed CFRPs it is possible to satisfy and excel the needs. However, these materials feature a different behaviour than conventional composites which has to be taken into account during future design.

  9. Applications for Near-Real Time Satellite Cloud and Radiation Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Chee, Thad L.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Smith, W.; Ayers, Jeffrey K.; Benjamin, Stanley; Chang, F.-L.; Nguyen, Louis; Norris, Peter; Rolf, Riechle; Reinecker, Michele; Shan, B.; DaSilva, Arlindo; Yost, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA Langley Research Center, a variety of cloud, clear-sky, and radiation products are being derived at different scales from regional to global using geostationary satellite (GEOSat) and lower Earth-orbiting (LEOSat) imager data. With growing availability, these products are becoming increasingly valuable for weather forecasting and nowcasting. These products include, but are not limited to, cloud-top and base heights, cloud water path and particle size, cloud temperature and phase, surface skin temperature and albedo, and top-of-atmosphere radiation budget. Some of these data products are currently assimilated operationally in a numerical weather prediction model. Others are used unofficially for nowcasting, while testing is underway for other applications. These applications include the use of cloud water path in an NWP model, cloud optical depth for detecting convective initiation in cirrus-filled skies, and aircraft icing condition diagnoses among others. This paper briefly describes a currently operating system that analyzes data from GEOSats around the globe (GOES, Meteosat, MTSAT, FY-2) and LEOSats (AVHRR and MODIS) and makes the products available in near-real time through a variety of media. Current potential future use of these products is discussed.

  10. Sea ice-atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, K.; Schweiger, A.; Maslanik, J.; Key, J.; Weaver, R.; Barry, R.

    1990-01-01

    The application of multi-spectral satellite data to estimate polar surface energy fluxes is addressed. To what accuracy and over which geographic areas large scale energy budgets can be estimated are investigated based upon a combination of available remote sensing and climatological data sets. The general approach was to: (1) formulate parameterization schemes for the appropriate sea ice energy budget terms based upon the remotely sensed and/or in-situ data sets; (2) conduct sensitivity analyses using as input both natural variability (observed data in regional case studies) and theoretical variability based upon energy flux model concepts; (3) assess the applicability of these parameterization schemes to both regional and basin wide energy balance estimates using remote sensing data sets; and (4) assemble multi-spectral, multi-sensor data sets for at least two regions of the Arctic Basin and possibly one region of the Antarctic. The type of data needed for a basin-wide assessment is described and the temporal coverage of these data sets are determined by data availability and need as defined by parameterization scheme. The titles of the subjects are as follows: (1) Heat flux calculations from SSM/I and LANDSAT data in the Bering Sea; (2) Energy flux estimation using passive microwave data; (3) Fetch and stability sensitivity estimates of turbulent heat flux; and (4) Surface temperature algorithm.

  11. Applications for Near-Real Time Satellite Cloud and Radiation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Chee, T.; Bedka, K. M.; Smith, W.; Ayers, J.; Benjamin, S.; Chang, F.; Jones, T. A.; Nguyen, L.; Norris, P. M.; Reichle, R. H.; Rienecker, M. M.; da Silva, A.; Yost, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    At NASA Langley Research Center, a variety of cloud, clear-sky, and radiation products are being derived at different scales from regional to global using geostationary satellite (GEOSat) and lower Earth-orbiting (LEOSat) imager data. With growing availability, these products are becoming increasingly valuable for weather forecasting and nowcasting. These products include, but are not limited to, cloud-top and base heights, cloud water path and particle size, cloud temperature and phase, surface skin temperature and albedo, and top-of-atmosphere radiation budget. Some of these data products are currently assimilated operationally in a numerical weather prediction model. Others are used unofficially for nowcasting, while testing is underway for other applications. These applications include the use of cloud water path in an NWP model, cloud optical depth for detecting convective initiation in cirrus-filled skies, and aircraft icing condition diagnoses among others. This paper briefly describes a currently operating system that analyzes data from GEOSats around the globe (GOES, Meteosat, MTSAT, FY-2) and LEOSats (AVHRR and MODIS) and makes the products available in near-real time through a variety of media. Current potential future use of these products is discussed.

  12. Application of satellite remote-sensing data to land selection and management. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringer, W. J.; Miller, J. M.; Belon, A. E.; Shapiro, L. H.; Anderson, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    A pilot project conducted to demonstrate the utility and economy of satellite data in preparing thematic maps of a wilderness area emphasizing those resources of greatest interest to the potential owner is described. Vegetation maps delineating potential commercial timber and maps of suggested mineral prospecting areas of seven scattered regions were prepared by interpretation of LANDSAT images, coupled with a limited amount of ground truth. Images acquired both in winter and summer seasons were registered to township maps and used in making interpretations of the areal extent of commercial timber potentials. The amount of snow cover visible through the forest canopies was found to be a useful indicator of timber potentials. Identification was made of characteristic topographic features which are typical of flood plain deposits or of the well developed trellis drainage patterns which can indicate the strike of structural grain of underlying Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The presence of igneous and mixed igneous and metamorphic rocks were indicated by combinations of spectral differences and anomalous interruptions of local radial drainage patterns.

  13. 78 FR 22855 - Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program-Short-Term Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program--Short-Term Projects AGENCY: Office...-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program--Short-Term Projects Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.021A. DATES:...

  14. Application of Parametrized Post-Newtonian Methods to the Gravitational IS of Satellite Energy Exchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.

    1998-01-01

    Project Satellite Energy Exchange (SEE) is a free-flying, high altitude satellite that utilizes space to construct a passive, low-temperature, nano-g environment in order to accurately measure the poorly known gravitational constant G plus other gravitational parameters that are difficult to measure in an earth-based laboratory. Eventually data received from SEE must be analyzed using a model of the gravitational interaction including parameters that describe deviations from general relativity and experiment. One model that can be used to fit tile data is the Parametrized post- Newtonian (PPN) approximation of general relativity (GR) which introduces ten parameters which have specified values in (GR). It is the lowest-order, consistent approximation that contains non linear terms. General relativity predicts that the Robertson parameters, gamma (light deflection), and beta (advance of the perihelion), are both 1 in GR. Another eight parameters, alpha(sub k), k=1,2,3 and zeta(sub k), k=1,2,3,4 and Xi are all zero in GR. Non zero values for alpha(sub k) parameters predict preferred frame effects; for zeta(sub k) violations of globally conserved quantities such as mass, momentum and angular momentum; and for Xi a contribution from the Whitehead theory of gravitation, once thought to be equivalent to GR. In addition, there is the possibility that there may be a preferred frame for the universe. If such a frame exists, then all observers must measure the velocity omega of their motion with respect to this universal rest frame. Such a frame is somewhat reminiscent of the concept of the ether which was supposedly the frame in which the velocity of light took the value c predicted by special relativity. The SEE mission can also look for deviations from the r(exp -2) law of Newtonian gravity, adding parameters alpha and lamda for non Newtonian behavior that describe the magnitude and range of the r(exp -2) deviations respectively. The foundations of the GR supposedly agree

  15. Application of seasonal rainfall forecasts and satellite rainfall observations to crop yield forecasting for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greatrex, H. L.; Grimes, D. I. F.; Wheeler, T. R.

    2009-04-01

    Rain-fed agriculture is of utmost importance in sub-Saharan Africa; the FAO estimates that over 90% of food consumed in the region is grown in rain-fed farming systems. As the climate in sub-Saharan Africa has a high interannual variability, this dependence on rainfall can leave communities extremely vulnerable to food shortages, especially when coupled with a lack of crop management options. The ability to make a regional forecast of crop yield on a timescale of months would be of enormous benefit; it would enable both governmental and non-governmental organisations to be alerted in advance to crop failure and could facilitate national and regional economic planning. Such a system would also enable individual communities to make more informed crop management decisions, increasing their resilience to climate variability and change. It should be noted that the majority of crops in the region are rainfall limited, therefore the ability to create a seasonal crop forecast depends on the ability to forecast rainfall at a monthly or seasonal timescale and to temporally downscale this to a daily time-series of rainfall. The aim of this project is to develop a regional-scale seasonal forecast for sub-Saharan crops, utilising the General Large Area Model for annual crops (GLAM). GLAM would initially be driven using both dynamical and statistical seasonal rainfall forecasts to provide an initial estimate of crop yield. The system would then be continuously updated throughout the season by replacing the seasonal rainfall forecast with daily weather observations. TAMSAT satellite rainfall estimates are used rather than rain-gauge data due to the scarcity of ground based observations. An important feature of the system is the use of the geo-statistical method of sequential simulation to create an ensemble of daily weather inputs from both the statistical seasonal rainfall forecasts and the satellite rainfall estimates. This allows a range of possible yield outputs to be

  16. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results are summarized for six materials science experiments conducted during the second space processing applications rocket mission flown by NASA. The individual experiments discussed are: (1) solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic; (2) feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams; (3) direct observation of dendrite remelting and macrosegregation in castings; (4) agglomeration in immiscible liquids; (5) casting dispersion - strengthened composites at zero gravity; and (6) solidification behavior of Al-In alloys under zero gravity conditions.

  17. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F. (Compiler); Chassay, R. (Compiler)

    1976-01-01

    The experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of nine scientific experiments conducted during the first Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight are summarized. The nine individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic, feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams, characterization of rocket vibration environment by measurement of mixing of two liquids, uniform dispersions of crystallization processing, direct observation of solidification as a function of gravity levels, casting thoria dispersion-strengthened interfaces, contained polycrystalline solidification, and preparation of a special alloy for manufacturing of magnetic hard superconductor under zero-g environment.

  18. Space Processing Applications Rocket project SPAR III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F.

    1978-01-01

    This document presented the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarized the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies.

  19. Satellite Observations from SEVIRI of Saharan dust over West Africa, within the context of the Fennec project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, J.; Brindley, H.

    2012-04-01

    During the summer months, the atmosphere over the western half of the Sahara carries some of the highest dust loadings on the planet. This situation develops when intense solar heating over the dry desert creates a deep and hot low pressure system (the Saharan Heat Low, SHL), which allows a strong vertical mixing of dust. The Fennec* consortium project aims to address the deficiency in observations from the sparsely populated western Sahara through the use of field campaign measurements made in June 2011, incorporating observations from ground instruments, aircraft, and from satellite instruments such as SEVIRI, in combination with climate modelling. Fennec aims to study the poorly understood behaviour of the SHL, and the processes which take place within it. Due to their high temporal resolution, observations from SEVIRI can offer new insights into the timing of activation of specific dust sources, and the processes governing their behaviour. Here we employ a multi-year, high time-resolution record of dust detection and aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from SEVIRI using an algorithm developed at Imperial College to both identify areas of high dust loading and diagnose diurnal patterns in their activation. We will present results from the SEVIRI record alongside results from other satellite instruments such as MODIS, and place these findings in the context of the initial ground-based and in-situ observations available from the Fennec field campaign. We will also identify surface features which can contaminate the dust detection retrieval, due to their emissivities in the 8.7 micron channel. New techniques can be used to filter out these features, based on the difference between the brightness temperatures at 10.8 and 8.7 microns. Using surface visibility measurements and AERONET data, we will evaluate the consequences of this on the dust detection and AOD record. * Fennec is a consortium project which includes groups from the universities of Oxford, Imperial

  20. Documentation requirements for Applications Systems Verification and Transfer projects (ASVTs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchy, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Application Systems Verification and Transfer Projects (ASVTs) are deliberate efforts to facilitate the transfer of applications of NASA-developed space technology to users such as federal agencies, state and local governments, regional planning groups, public service institutions, and private industry. This study focused on the role of documentation in facilitating technology transfer both to primary users identified during project planning and to others with similar information needs. It was understood that documentation can be used effectively when it is combined with informal (primarily verbal) communication within each user community and with other formal techniques such as organized demonstrations and training programs. Documentation examples from eight ASVT projects and one potential project were examined to give scope to the investigation.

  1. System definition phase and acquisition phase project plan for Small Astronomy Satellite SAS-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The objective of the SAS-D project is to conduct spectral distribution studies of celestial ultraviolet sources using an Explorer-class spacecraft launched by a Delta vehicle into a geosynchronous orbit in the last half of 1975. The telescope system is intended for use by guest astronomers for a major portion of the total observing time. The concept of the overall system, designed to resemble functionally the operation of a ground-based observatory, should maximize the usefulness of the instrument to the astronomical community by limiting the amount of special instruction needed to use the spaceborne telescope. The SAS-D mission will obtain information on what stars, nebulae, and galaxies are and how they develop.

  2. Towards sentiment analysis application in housing projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadzir, Nurul Husna; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2016-08-01

    In becoming a develop nation by 2020, Malaysia Government realized the need in providing affordable house to the public. Since Second Malaysia Plan, government has implemented various affordable housing projects and it continues until recent Malaysia Plan. To measure the effectiveness of the initiatives taken, public opinion is necessary. A social media platform has been seen as the most effective mechanism to get information on people's thought and feeling towards certain issues. One of the best ways to extract emotions and thoughts from what people post in social media is through Sentiment Analysis (SA). There are three different levels of analysis: document level, sentence level and feature level. Most of previous research focused on the classification of sentiment at document or sentence level. Unfortunately, both document and sentence level does not discover what exactly people like or not. While the analysis based on feature, there exist accuracy problem when classifying the sentiment scores. This paper will propose a new framework that focuses on sentiment classification scores at feature level to overcome the uncertainty and accuracy issues on the result.

  3. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Domestic Applications of Communication Satellite Technology. Staff Paper Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Task Force on Communications Policy, Washington, DC.

    A staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy examines the feasibility of a domestic communications satellite system. Although, with expected technological advancement, satellites may play a significant role in domestic transmission and are economically feasible right now, a number of remaining questions make the…

  4. A Guide to the Literature on Application of Communications Satellites to Educational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert P.; Singh, Jai P.

    Because of the ability of communications satellites to distribute electronic information (radio, television, digital computer data) over wide areas with potentially attractive costs, considerable interest has been shown in using satellite technology to enhance educational programs, both in the United States and in other countries. In view of these…

  5. A guide to the literature on application of communications satellites to educational development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A review of literature dealing with communication satellite technology is presented for the nontechnical reader with emphasis on the educational aspects. An introduction is provided for: satellite technology; nontechnological aspects including economic, organizational, social, and political factors; and educational and developmental uses. A guide to selected literature, and a bibliography are included.

  6. Green Applications for Space Power Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel (Principal Investigator)

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft propulsion and power for many decades has relied on Hydrazine monopropellant technology for auxiliary power units (APU), orbital circularization, orbit raising/lowering and attitude control. However, Hydrazine is toxic and therefore requires special ground handling procedures to ensure launch crew safety. The Swedish Company ECAPS has developed a technology based upon the propellant Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) that offers higher performance, higher density and reduced ground handling support than Hydrazine. This blended propellant is called LMP-103S. Currently, the United States Air Force (USAF) is pursuing a technology based on Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate (HAN, otherwise known as AF-M315E) with industry partners Aerojet and Moog. Based on the advantages offered by these propellants, MSFC should explore powering APU's with these propellants. Due to the availability of space hardware, the principal investigator has found a collection of USAF hardware, that will act as a surrogate, which operates on a Hydrazine derivative. The F-16 fighter jet uses H-70 or 30% diluted Hydrazine for an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) which supplies power to the plane. The PI has acquired two EPU's from planes slated for destruction at the Davis Monthan AFB. This CIF will include a partnership with 2 other NASA Centers who are individually seeking seed funds from their respective organizations: Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). KSC is preparing for future flights from their launch pads that will utilize green propellants and desire a low-cost testbed in which to test and calibrate new leak detection sensors. DFRC has access to F-16's which can be used by MSFC & KSC to perform a ground test that demonstrates emergency power supplied to the jet. Neither of the green propellant alternatives have been considered nor evaluated for an APU application. Work has already been accomplished to characterize and obtain the properties of these 2 propellants

  7. SECULAR EVOLUTION OF A SATELLITE BY TIDAL EFFECT: APPLICATION TO TRITON

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, Alexandre C. M.

    2009-10-10

    Some of the satellites in the solar system, including the Moon, appear to have been captured from heliocentric orbits at some point in their past, and then have evolved to the present configurations. The exact process of how this trapping occurred is unknown, but the dissociation of a planetesimal binary in the gravitational field of the planet, gas drag, or a massive collision seem to be the best candidates. However, all these mechanisms leave the satellites in elliptical orbits that need to be damped to the present almost circular ones. Here, we give a complete description of the secular tidal evolution of a satellite just after entering a bounding state with the planet. In particular, we take into account the spin evolution of the satellite, which has often been assumed synchronous in previous studies. We apply our model to Triton and successfully explain some geophysical properties of this satellite, as well as the main dynamical features observed for the Neptunian system.

  8. A review of satellite time-transfer technology: Accomplishments and future applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, R. S.; Chi, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    The research accomplishments by NASA in meeting the needs of the space program for precise time in satellite tracking are presented. As a major user of precise time signals for clock synchronization of NASA's worldwide satellite tracking networks, the agency provides much of the necessary impetus for the development of stable frequency sources and time synchronization technology. The precision time required for both satellite tracking and space science experiments has increased at a rate of about one order of magnitude per decade from 1 millisecond in the 1950's to 100 microseconds during the Apollo era in the 1960's to 10 microseconds in the 1970's. For the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System, satellite timing requirements will be extended to 1 microsecond and below. These requirements are needed for spacecraft autonomy and data packeting.

  9. An efficient mosaic algorithm considering seasonal variation: application to KOMPSAT-2 satellite images.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaewon; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Yun, Sang-Ho

    2015-03-09

    As the aerospace industry grows, images obtained from Earth observation satellites have been successfully used in various fields. Specifically, the demand for a high-resolution (HR) optical images is gradually increasing, and hence the generation of a high-quality mosaic image is being magnified as an interesting issue. In this paper, we have proposed an efficient mosaic algorithm for HR optical images that are significantly different due to seasonal change. The algorithm includes main steps such as: (1) seamline extraction from gradient magnitude and seam images; (2) histogram matching; and (3) image feathering. Eleven Kompsat-2 images characterized by seasonal variations are used for the performance validation of the proposed method. The results of the performance test show that the proposed method effectively mosaics Kompsat-2 adjacent images including severe seasonal changes. Moreover, the results reveal that the proposed method is applicable to HR optic images such as GeoEye, IKONOS, QuickBird, RapidEye, SPOT, WorldView, etc.

  10. Comparison of Global Navigation Satellite System Devices on Speed Tracking in Road (Tran)SPORT Applications

    PubMed Central

    Supej, Matej; Čuk, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Global Naavigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are, in addition to being most widely used vehicle navigation method, becoming popular in sport-related tests. There is a lack of knowledge regarding tracking speed using GNSS, therefore the aims of this study were to examine under dynamic conditions: (1) how accurate technologically different GNSS measure speed and (2) how large is latency in speed measurements in real time applications. Five GNSSs were tested. They were fixed to a car's roof-rack: a smart phone, a wrist watch, a handheld device, a professional system for testing vehicles and a high-end Real Time Kinematics (RTK) GNSS. The speed data were recorded and analyzed during rapid acceleration and deceleration as well as at steady speed. The study produced four main findings. Higher frequency and high quality GNSS receivers track speed at least at comparable accuracy to a vehicle speedometer. All GNSS systems measured maximum speed and movement at a constant speed well. Acceleration and deceleration have different level of error at different speeds. Low cost GNSS receivers operating at 1 Hz sampling rate had high latency (up to 2.16 s) and are not appropriate for tracking speed in real time, especially during dynamic movements. PMID:25494349

  11. Comparison of Global Navigation Satellite System Devices on Speed Tracking in Road (Tran)SPORT Applications.

    PubMed

    Supej, Matej; Cuk, Ivan

    2014-12-08

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are, in addition to being most widely used vehicle navigation method, becoming popular in sport-related tests. There is a lack of knowledge regarding tracking speed using GNSS, therefore the aims of this study were to examine under dynamic conditions: (1) how accurate technologically different GNSS measure speed and (2) how large is latency in speed measurements in real time applications. Five GNSSs were tested. They were fixed to a car's roof-rack: a  smart phone, a wrist watch, a handheld device, a professional system for testing vehicles and a high-end Real Time Kinematics (RTK) GNSS. The speed data were recorded and analyzed during rapid acceleration and deceleration as well as at steady speed. The study produced four main findings. Higher frequency and high quality GNSS receivers track speed at least at comparable accuracy to a vehicle speedometer. All GNSS systems measured maximum speed and movement at a constant speed well. Acceleration and deceleration have different level of error at different speeds. Low cost GNSS receivers operating at 1 Hz sampling rate had high latency (up to 2.16 s) and are not appropriate for tracking speed in real time, especially during dynamic movements.

  12. Application of MMIC modules in future multiple beam satellite antenna systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, J.

    1982-01-01

    Multiple beam antenna systems for advanced communication satellites operating in the 30/20 GHz frequency bands (30 GHz uplink, 20 GHz downlink) were developed. Up to twenty 0.3 deg HPBW fixed spot beams and six 0.3 deg HPBW scanning spot beams will be required. Array-fed dual reflector antenna systems in which monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phase shift and amplifier modules are used with each radiating element of the feed array for beam pointing and power gain were developed. The feasibility of distributed power amplification and beam pointing with MMIC modules in the elements of an array and to develop a data base for future development were demonstrated. The technical discussion centers around the potential advantages of ""monolithic'' antennas for specific applications as compared to systems using high powered TWT's. These include: reduced losses in the beam forming network; advantage of space combining and graceful degradation; dynamic control of beam pointing and illumination contour; and possibilities for cost and weight reduction.

  13. Optical frequency comb based multi-band microwave frequency conversion for satellite applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinwu; Xu, Kun; Yin, Jie; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Hua; Liu, Tao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-01-13

    Based on optical frequency combs (OFC), we propose an efficient and flexible multi-band frequency conversion scheme for satellite repeater applications. The underlying principle is to mix dual coherent OFCs with one of which carrying the input signal. By optically channelizing the mixed OFCs, the converted signal in different bands can be obtained in different channels. Alternatively, the scheme can be configured to generate multi-band local oscillators (LO) for widely distribution. Moreover, the scheme realizes simultaneous inter- and intra-band frequency conversion just in a single structure and needs only three frequency-fixed microwave sources. We carry out a proof of concept experiment in which multiple LOs with 2 GHz, 10 GHz, 18 GHz, and 26 GHz are generated. A C-band signal of 6.1 GHz input to the proposed scheme is successfully converted to 4.1 GHz (C band), 3.9 GHz (C band) and 11.9 GHz (X band), etc. Compared with the back-to-back (B2B) case measured at 0 dBm input power, the proposed scheme shows a 9.3% error vector magnitude (EVM) degradation at each output channel. Furthermore, all channels satisfy the EVM limit in a very wide input power range.

  14. Using NASA Satellite and Model Analysis for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Chandler, W. S.; Whitlock, C. H.; Westberg, D. J.; Zhang, T.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation describes the successful tailoring of NASA research data sets to meet environmental information needs of the renewable energy sector. The data sets currently used for these purposes include the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Surface Radiation Budget data set (SRB), the FLASHFlux (Fast Longwave and SHortwave Fluxes from Global CERES and MODIS observations), and the NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) versions 4.0.3 and 5.0/5.1. These data are available through the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) web interface (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse). The NASA Earth Science Applied Science program has supported the development of the SSE web interface through a project called the Prediction of World Energy Resource (POWER, http://power.larc.nasa.gov/). The paths of modifying/preparing these data sets for energy applications for the SSE web site are described. These data help engineers, architects, and project analysts develop feasibility studies for renewable energy technology projects, make regional assessments and long-term energy market forecasts. Thus, small-scale projects to regional energy analysis may benefit from this information. The SSE web site has nearly 50,000 users worldwide and version 6.0 is now averaging 250,000 and 60,000 hits and data downloads per month, respectively. Examples of the usage of these data sets are shown to help describe the need and impact of this information. These examples come from the many collaborative partners in this work such as the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Natural Resources Canada RETScreen project. The presentation also gives potential future data needs of these types of technologies and how NASA data could help contribute to meeting those needs. This is particularly pertinent facing the growing needs to develop clean energy sources to

  15. The history and nature of the Baltimore applications project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Baltimore Applications Project (BAP), an experiment jointly conducted by the City of Baltimore and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was begun in May 1974 in response to a request by the City. The main purpose of the BAP is the identification of technology for beneficial application to the City operations. An independent evaluation, performed after three years of operation, indicates very good project results and confirms the choices of the experiment's basic features. The BAP demonstrates one way to achieve successful intergovernmental transfer of Federal technology.

  16. Application of the generalized vertical coordinate ocean model for better representing satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. T.

    2002-01-01

    It is found that two adaptive parametric functions can be introduced into the basic ocean equations for utilizing the optimal or hybrid features of commonly used z-level, terrain- following, isopycnal, and pressure coordinates in numerical ocean models. The two parametric functions are formulated by combining three techniques: the arbitrary vertical coordinate system of Kasahara (1 974), the Jacobian pressure gradient formulation of Song (1 998), and a newly developed metric factor that permits both compressible (non-Boussinesq) and incompressible (Boussinesq) approximations. Based on the new formulation, an adaptive modeling strategy is proposed and a staggered finite volume method is designed to ensure conservation of important physical properties and numerical accuracy. Implementation of the combined techniques to SCRUM (Song and Haidvogel1994) shows that the adaptive modeling strategy can be applied to any existing ocean model without incurring computational expense or altering the original numerical schemes. Such a generalized coordinate model is expected to benefit diverse ocean modelers for easily choosing optimal vertical structures and sharing modeling resources based on a common model platform. Several representing oceanographic problems with different scales and characteristics, such as coastal canyons, basin-scale circulation, and global ocean circulation, are used to demonstrate the model's capability for multiple applications. New results show that the model is capable of simultaneously resolving both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq, and both small- and large-scale processes well. This talk will focus on its applications of multiple satellite sensing data in eddy-resolving simulations of Asian Marginal Sea and Kurosio. Attention will be given to how Topex/Poseidon SSH, TRMM SST; and GRACE ocean bottom pressure can be correctly represented in a non- Boussinesq model.

  17. Evaluation and Application of Satellite-Based Latent Heating Profile Estimation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Grecu, Mircea; Yang, Song; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, methods for estimating atmospheric latent heating vertical structure from both passive and active microwave remote sensing have matured to the point where quantitative evaluation of these methods is the next logical step. Two approaches for heating algorithm evaluation are proposed: First, application of heating algorithms to synthetic data, based upon cloud-resolving model simulations, can be used to test the internal consistency of heating estimates in the absence of systematic errors in physical assumptions. Second, comparisons of satellite-retrieved vertical heating structures to independent ground-based estimates, such as rawinsonde-derived analyses of heating, provide an additional test. The two approaches are complementary, since systematic errors in heating indicated by the second approach may be confirmed by the first. A passive microwave and combined passive/active microwave heating retrieval algorithm are evaluated using the described approaches. In general, the passive microwave algorithm heating profile estimates are subject to biases due to the limited vertical heating structure information contained in the passive microwave observations. These biases may be partly overcome by including more environment-specific a priori information into the algorithm s database of candidate solution profiles. The combined passive/active microwave algorithm utilizes the much higher-resolution vertical structure information provided by spaceborne radar data to produce less biased estimates; however, the global spatio-temporal sampling by spaceborne radar is limited. In the present study, the passive/active microwave algorithm is used to construct a more physically-consistent and environment-specific set of candidate solution profiles for the passive microwave algorithm and to help evaluate errors in the passive algorithm s heating estimates. Although satellite estimates of latent heating are based upon instantaneous, footprint- scale data, suppression

  18. Laser ranging application to time transfer using geodetic satellite and to other Japanese space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunimori, Hiroo; Takahashi, Fujinobu; Itabe, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been developing a laser time transfer system using a satellite laser ranging (SLR) system. We propose Japanese geodetic satellite 'AJISAI', launched in 1986 as a target satellite. The surface is covered not only with corner cube reflectors but also with mirrors. The mirrors are originally designed for observation of flushing solar light reflected by the separate mirrors while the satellite is spinning. In the experiment, synchronized laser pulses are transferred via specified mirror from one station to another while the satellite is up on the horizon to both stations. The system is based on the epoch timing ranging system with 40 ps ranging precision, connected together with UTC(CRL). Simulation study indicates that two stations at thousands of km distance from each other can be linked with signal strength of more than 10 photons and the distributed images of laser beam from AJISAI mirrors give many chances for two stations to link each other during a single AJISAI pass. Retro-reflector In Space for Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS) and RendDezVous docking mission of Experimental Technology Satellite-7 (ETS-7) are briefly presented.

  19. Sandia photovoltaic systems definition and application experiment projects

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.

    1983-04-01

    A compilation is given of the abstracts and visual material used in presentation at the Fourth Photovoltaic Systems Definition and Applications Projects Integration Meeting held at the Marriott Hotel, April 12-14, 1983, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting provided a forum for detailed analyses on recently completed and current activities. These activities include systems research, balance-of-system technology development, residential experimentation, and evaluation of intermediate-sized applications.

  20. The Application of Games Theory to Group Project Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Application of game theory to small-group project evaluation in higher education instruction finds that the best strategy for students wishing high grades may not be a strategy that promotes teamwork and cooperation. Suggests that putting students into groups may randomly disadvantage some students relative to others, producing serious unfairness…

  1. Evaluation of the latest satellite-gauge precipitation products and their hydrologic applications over the Huaihe River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ruochen; Yuan, Huiling; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Xiaoman

    2016-05-01

    Satellite-gauge quantitative precipitation estimate (QPE) products may reduce the errors in near real-time satellite precipitation estimates by combining rain gauge data, which provides great potential to hydrometeorological applications. This study aims to comprehensively evaluate four of the latest satellite-gauge QPEs, including NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42V7 product, NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) MORPHing technique (CMORPH) bias-corrected product (CMORPH CRT), CMORPH satellite-gauge merged product (CMORPH BLD) and CMORPH satellite-gauge merged product developed at the National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) (CMORPH CMA). These four satellite-gauge QPEs are statistically evaluated over the Huaihe River basin during 2003-2012 and applied into the distributed Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to assess hydrologic utilities. Compared to the China Gauge-based Daily Precipitation Analysis (CGDPA) newly developed at CMA/NMIC, the four satellite-gauge QPEs generally depict the spatial distribution well, with the underestimation in the southern mountains and overestimation in the northern plain of the Huaihe River basin. Specifically, both TRMM and CMORPH CRT adopt simple gauge adjustment algorithms and exhibit relatively poor performance, with evidently deteriorated quality in winter. In contrast, the probability density function-optimal interpolation (PDF-OI) gauge adjustment procedure has been applied in CMORPH BLD and CMORPH CMA, resulting in higher quality and more stable performance. CMORPH CMA further benefits from a merged dense gauge observation network and outperforms the other QPEs with significant improvements in rainfall amount and spatial/temporal distributions. Due to the insufficient gauge observations in the merging process, CMORPH BLD features the similar error characteristics of CMORPH CRT with a positive bias of light precipitation and a negative

  2. Applications of neural network methods to the processing of earth observation satellite data.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Diego G

    2006-03-01

    The new generation of earth observation satellites carries advanced sensors that will gather very precise data for studying the Earth system and global climate. This paper shows that neural network methods can be successfully used for solving forward and inverse remote sensing problems, providing both accurate and fast solutions. Two examples of multi-neural network systems for the determination of cloud properties and for the retrieval of total columns of ozone using satellite data are presented. The developed algorithms based on multi-neural network are currently being used for the operational processing of European atmospheric satellite sensors and will play a key role in related satellite missions planed for the near future.

  3. Applications of satellite snow cover in computerized short-term streamflow forecasting. [Conejos River, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leaf, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is described whereby the correlation between: (1) satellite derived snow-cover depletion and (2) residual snowpack water equivalent, can be used to update computerized residual flow forecasts for the Conejos River in southern Colorado.

  4. Remote sensing of three-dimensional cirrus clouds from satellites: application to continuous-wave laser atmospheric transmission and backscattering.

    PubMed

    Liou, K N; Ou, Szu-Cheng; Takano, Yoshihide; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2006-09-10

    A satellite remote sensing methodology has been developed to retrieve 3D ice water content (IWC) and mean effective ice crystal size of cirrus clouds from satellite data on the basis of a combination of the conventional retrieval of cloud optical depth and particle size in a horizontal plane and a parameterization of the vertical cloud profile involving temperature from sounding and/or analysis. The inferred 3D cloud fields of IWC and mean effective ice crystal size associated with two impressive cirrus clouds that occurred in the vicinity of northern Oklahoma on 18 April 1997 and 9 March 2000, obtained from the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, have been validated against the ice crystal size distributions that were collected independently from collocated and coincident aircraft optical probe measurements. The 3D cloud results determined from satellite data have been applied to the simulation of cw laser energy propagation, and we show the significance of 3D cloud geometry and inhomogeneity and spherical atmosphere on the transmitted and backscattered laser powers. Finally, we demonstrate that the 3D cloud fields derived from satellite remote sensing can be used for the 3D laser transmission and backscattering model for tactical application.

  5. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  6. Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth on August 27, 2005 by revealing MODIS true-color imagery for that day. This animation is on a cartesian map projection, so the satellite w...

  7. Google Earth as a Vehicle to Integrating Multiple Layers of Environmental Satellite Data for Weather and Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, F. J.; Miller, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    One of the main challenges facing current and future environmental satellite systems (e.g, the future National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS)) is reaching and entraining the diverse user community via communication of how these systems address their particular needs. A necessary element to meeting this challenge is effective data visualization: facilitating the display, animation and layering of multiple satellite imaging and sounding sensors (providing complementary information) in a user-friendly and intuitive fashion. In light of the fact that these data are rapidly making their way into the classroom owing to efficient and timely data archival systems and dissemination over the Internet, there is a golden opportunity to leverage existing technology to introduce environmental science to wide spectrum of users. Google Earth's simplified interface and underlying markup language enables access to detailed global geographic information, and contains features which are both desirable and advantageous for geo-referencing and combining a wide range of environmental satellite data types. Since these satellite data are available with a variety of horizontal spatial resolutions (tens of km down to hundreds of meters), the imagery can be sub-setted (tiled) at a very small size. This allows low-bandwidth users to efficiently view and animate a sequence of imagery while zoomed out from the surface, whereas high-bandwidth users can efficiently zoom into the finest image resolution when viewing fine-scale phenomena such as fires, volcanic activity, as well as the details of meteorological phenomena such as hurricanes, rainfall, lightning, winds, etc. Dynamically updated network links allow for near real-time updates such that these data can be integrated with other Earth-hosted applications and exploited not only in the teaching environment, but also for operational users in the government and private industry sectors. To conceptualize how environmental

  8. Forestry applications project/timber resource. Sam Houston National forest inventory and development of a survey planning model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Forestry Applications Project has been directed towards solving the problem of meeting informational needs of the resource managers utilizing remote sensing data sources including satellite data, conventional aerial photography, and direct measurement on the ground in such combinations as needed to best achieve these goals. It is recognized that sampling plays an important role in generating relevant information for managing large geographic populations. The central problem, therefore, is to define the kind and amount of sampling and the place of remote sensing data sources in that sampling system to do the best possible job of meeting the manager's informational needs.

  9. Plans for phase coherent long baseline interferometry for geophysical applications using the Anik-B communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, W. H.; Petrachenko, W. T.; Yen, J. L.; Galt, J. A.; Waltman, W. B.; Knoweles, S. H.; Popelar, J.

    1980-01-01

    A pilot project to establish an operational phase stable very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) for geophysical studies is described. Methods for implementation as well as practical applications are presented.

  10. Telescope Spectrophotometric and Absolute Flux Calibration, and National Security Applications, Using a Turntable Laser on a Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, J.; Burgett, W.; Rhodes, J.

    We propose a tunable laser-based satellite-mounted spectrophotometric and absolute flux calibration system, to be utilized by ground- and space-based telescopes. As uncertainties on the photometry, due to imperfect knowledge of both telescope optics and the atmosphere, will in the near future begin to dominate the uncertainties on fundamental cosmological parameters such as WL (Omega_Lambda) and w in measurements from SNIa, weak gravitational lensing, and baryon oscillations, a method for reducing such uncertainties is needed. We propose to improve spectrophotometric calibration, currently obtained using standard stars, by placing a tunable laser and a wide-angle light source on a satellite by early next decade (perhaps included in the upgrade to the GPS satellite network) to improve absolute flux calibration to 0.1% and relative spectrophotometric calibration to better than 0.001% across the visible and near-infrared spectrum. As well as fundamental astrophysical applications, the system proposed here potentially has broad utility for defense and national security applications such as ground target illumination and space communication. For further details please see http://www.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0604339.

  11. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Nguyen, Louis; Palikonda, Rabindra; Hong, Gang; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chee, Thad; Scarino, Benjamin; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Fleeger, Cecilia; Ayers, J. Kirk; Chang, Fu-Lung; Heck, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-­-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-­-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-­-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  12. Effect of nanofluid on thermal performance of heat pipe with two evaporators; application to satellite equipment cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashaei, P. R.; Shahryari, M.

    2015-06-01

    A study on the behavior of nanofluid in a cylindrical heat pipe with two heat sources is performed to analyze the nanofluid application in heat-dissipating satellite equipment cooling. Pure water, Al2O3-water and TiO2-water nanofluids are used as working fluids. An analytical modeling is presented to predict the wall temperature profile for the heat pipe assuming saturated vapor and conduction heat transfer for porous media and wall, respectively. The effects of particle concentration levels (φ=0 (distilled water), 2, 4, and 8%), particle diameters (dp=10, 20, and 40 nm) on the local wall temperature, heat transfer coefficient, thermal resistance, and the size of the heat pipe are investigated. It is observed that the better wall temperature uniformity can be achieved using nanofluid which results in lower temperature difference between evaporators and condenser sections. Results reveal that applying nanoparticle with smaller size and higher concentration level increases heat transfer coefficient remarkably by reducing thermal resistance of saturated porous media. It is also found that the presence of nanoparticles in water can lead to a reduction in weight of heat pipe, and thus satellite, under nearly identical condition. The findings of this paper prove the potential of nanofluid in satellite equipment cooling application.

  13. Neural Networks Technique for Filling Gaps in Satellite Measurements: Application to Ocean Color Observations.

    PubMed

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir; Nadiga, Sudhir; Mehra, Avichal; Bayler, Eric; Behringer, David

    2016-01-01

    A neural network (NN) technique to fill gaps in satellite data is introduced, linking satellite-derived fields of interest with other satellites and in situ physical observations. Satellite-derived "ocean color" (OC) data are used in this study because OC variability is primarily driven by biological processes related and correlated in complex, nonlinear relationships with the physical processes of the upper ocean. Specifically, ocean color chlorophyll-a fields from NOAA's operational Visible Imaging Infrared Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used, as well as NOAA and NASA ocean surface and upper-ocean observations employed--signatures of upper-ocean dynamics. An NN transfer function is trained, using global data for two years (2012 and 2013), and tested on independent data for 2014. To reduce the impact of noise in the data and to calculate a stable NN Jacobian for sensitivity studies, an ensemble of NNs with different weights is constructed and compared with a single NN. The impact of the NN training period on the NN's generalization ability is evaluated. The NN technique provides an accurate and computationally cheap method for filling in gaps in satellite ocean color observation fields and time series.

  14. Filling the Gaps: The Synergistic Application of Satellite Data for the Volcanic Ash Threat to Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Pavolonis, Michael; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Lindsay, Francis; Haynes, John

    2013-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in recent years, estimating volcanic ash concentration for the full extent of the airspace affected by volcanic ash remains a challenge. No single satellite, airborne or ground observing system currently exists which can sufficiently inform dispersion models to provide the degree of accuracy required to use them with a high degree of confidence for routing aircraft in and near volcanic ash. Toward this end, the detection and characterization of volcanic ash in the atmosphere may be substantially improved by integrating a wider array of observing systems and advancements in trajectory and dispersion modeling to help solve this problem. The qualitative aspect of this effort has advanced significantly in the past decade due to the increase of highly complementary observational and model data currently available. Satellite observations, especially when coupled with trajectory and dispersion models can provide a very accurate picture of the 3-dimensional location of ash clouds. The accurate estimate of the mass loading at various locations throughout the entire plume, however improving, remains elusive. This paper examines the capabilities of various satellite observation systems and postulates that model-based volcanic ash concentration maps and forecasts might be significantly improved if the various extant satellite capabilities are used together with independent, accurate mass loading data from other observing systems available to calibrate (tune) ash concentration retrievals from the satellite systems.

  15. Neural Networks Technique for Filling Gaps in Satellite Measurements: Application to Ocean Color Observations

    PubMed Central

    Nadiga, Sudhir; Mehra, Avichal; Bayler, Eric; Behringer, David

    2016-01-01

    A neural network (NN) technique to fill gaps in satellite data is introduced, linking satellite-derived fields of interest with other satellites and in situ physical observations. Satellite-derived “ocean color” (OC) data are used in this study because OC variability is primarily driven by biological processes related and correlated in complex, nonlinear relationships with the physical processes of the upper ocean. Specifically, ocean color chlorophyll-a fields from NOAA's operational Visible Imaging Infrared Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used, as well as NOAA and NASA ocean surface and upper-ocean observations employed—signatures of upper-ocean dynamics. An NN transfer function is trained, using global data for two years (2012 and 2013), and tested on independent data for 2014. To reduce the impact of noise in the data and to calculate a stable NN Jacobian for sensitivity studies, an ensemble of NNs with different weights is constructed and compared with a single NN. The impact of the NN training period on the NN's generalization ability is evaluated. The NN technique provides an accurate and computationally cheap method for filling in gaps in satellite ocean color observation fields and time series. PMID:26819586

  16. A technique for measurement of earth station antenna G/T by radio stars and Applications Technology Satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochevar, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    A new technique has been developed to accurately measure the G/T of a small aperture antenna using geostationary satellites and the well established radio star method. A large aperture antenna having the capability of accurately measuring its G/T by using a radio star of known power density is used to obtain an accurate G/T to use as a reference. The CNR of both the large and small aperture antennas are then measured using an Applications Technology Satellite (ATS). After normalizing the two C/N ratios to the large antenna system noise temperature the G/T or the gain G of the small aperture antenna can then be determined.

  17. Basic research and data analysis for the national geodetic satellite program and for the earth and ocean physics applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Activities related to the National Geodetic Satellite Program are reported and include a discussion of Ohio State University's OSU275 set of tracking station coordinates and transformation parameters, determination of network distortions, and plans for data acquisition and processing. The problems encountered in the development of the LAGEOS satellite are reported in an account of activities related to the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program. The LAGEOS problem involves transmission and reception of the laser pulse designed to make accurate determinations of the earth's crustal and rotational motions. Pulse motion, ephemeris, arc range measurements, and accuracy estimates are discussed in view of the problem. Personnel involved in the two programs are also listed, along with travel activities and reports published to date.

  18. Dynamics of variable-length tethers with application to tethered satellite deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. L.; Ren, G. X.; Zhu, W. D.; Ren, H.

    2011-08-01

    The dynamics of variable-length tethers are studied using a flexible multibody dynamics method. The governing equations of the tethers are derived using a new, hybrid Eulerian and Lagrangian framework, by which the mass flow at a boundary of a tether and the length variation of a tether element are accounted for. The variable-length tether element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation is developed to simulate the deployment of satellite tethers. The coupled dynamic equations of tethers and satellites are obtained using the Lagrangian multiplier method. Several tethered satellite systems involving large displacements, rotations, and deformations are numerically simulated, where the tethers are released from several meters to about 1 km. A control strategy is proposed to avoid slackness of the tethers during deployment. The accuracy of the modeling and solution procedures was validated on an elevator model.

  19. Application of heuristic satellite plan synthesis algorithms to requirements of the WARC-88 allotment plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyward, Ann O.; Reilly, Charles H.; Walton, Eric K.; Mata, Fernando; Olen, Carl

    1990-01-01

    Creation of an Allotment Plan for the Fixed Satellite Service at the 1988 Space World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) represented a complex satellite plan synthesis problem, involving a large number of planned and existing systems. Solutions to this problem at WARC-88 required the use of both automated and manual procedures to develop an acceptable set of system positions. Development of an Allotment Plan may also be attempted through solution of an optimization problem, known as the Satellite Location Problem (SLP). Three automated heuristic procedures, developed specifically to solve SLP, are presented. The heuristics are then applied to two specific WARC-88 scenarios. Solutions resulting from the fully automated heuristics are then compared with solutions obtained at WARC-88 through a combination of both automated and manual planning efforts.

  20. Satellite Technologies in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portz, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on ways of using satellite imagery obtained from the Internet, to enhance classroom learning. Discusses satellite deployment; classroom applications, including infrared imagery, high-resolution photography, and global positioning satellites; and use of satellite data for hands-on activities, including cartography, city and community…

  1. Adjusting Satellite Rainfall Error in Mountainous Areas for Flood Modeling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Astitha, M.; Vergara, H. J.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the use of high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) for evaluating biases of satellite rainfall estimates of flood-inducing storms in mountainous areas and associated improvements in flood modeling. Satellite-retrieved precipitation has been considered as a feasible data source for global-scale flood modeling, given that satellite has the spatial coverage advantage over in situ (rain gauges and radar) observations particularly over mountainous areas. However, orographically induced heavy precipitation events tend to be underestimated and spatially smoothed by satellite products, which error propagates non-linearly in flood simulations.We apply a recently developed retrieval error and resolution effect correction method (Zhang et al. 2013*) on the NOAA Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) product based on NWP analysis (or forecasting in the case of real-time satellite products). The NWP rainfall is derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) set up with high spatial resolution (1-2 km) and explicit treatment of precipitation microphysics.In this study we will show results on NWP-adjusted CMORPH rain rates based on tropical cyclones and a convective precipitation event measured during NASA's IPHEX experiment in the South Appalachian region. We will use hydrologic simulations over different basins in the region to evaluate propagation of bias correction in flood simulations. We show that the adjustment reduced the underestimation of high rain rates thus moderating the strong rainfall magnitude dependence of CMORPH rainfall bias, which results in significant improvement in flood peak simulations. Further study over Blue Nile Basin (western Ethiopia) will be investigated and included in the presentation. *Zhang, X. et al. 2013: Using NWP Simulations in Satellite Rainfall Estimation of Heavy Precipitation Events over Mountainous Areas. J. Hydrometeor, 14, 1844-1858.

  2. Application of Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis to Floods and Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Hong, Yang; Huffman, George

    2007-01-01

    Satellite data acquired and processed in real time now have the potential to provide the spacetime information on rainfall needed to monitor flood and landslide events around the world. This can be achieved by integrating the satellite-derived forcing data with hydrological models and landslide algorithms. Progress in using the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) as input to flood and landslide forecasts is outlined, with a focus on understanding limitations of the rainfall data and impacts of those limitations on flood/landslide analyses. Case studies of both successes and failures will be shown, as well as comparison with ground comparison data sets both in terms of rainfall and in terms of flood/landslide events. In addition to potential uses in real-time, the nearly ten years of TMPA data allow retrospective running of the models to examine variations in extreme events. The flood determination algorithm consists of four major components: 1) multi-satellite precipitation estimation; 2) characterization of land surface including digital elevation from NASA SRTM (Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission), topography-derived hydrologic parameters such as flow direction, flow accumulation, basin, and river network etc.; 3) a hydrological model to infiltrate rainfall and route overland runoff; and 4) an implementation interface to relay the input data to the models and display the flood inundation results to potential users and decision-makers. In terms of landslides, the satellite rainfall information is combined with a global landslide susceptibility map, derived from a combination of global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a weighted linear combination approach. In those areas identified as "susceptible" (based on the surface characteristics), landslides are forecast where and when a rainfall intensity/duration threshold is exceeded. Results are described

  3. Development and Application of New Quality Model for Software Projects

    PubMed Central

    Karnavel, K.; Dillibabu, R.

    2014-01-01

    The IT industry tries to employ a number of models to identify the defects in the construction of software projects. In this paper, we present COQUALMO and its limitations and aim to increase the quality without increasing the cost and time. The computation time, cost, and effort to predict the residual defects are very high; this was overcome by developing an appropriate new quality model named the software testing defect corrective model (STDCM). The STDCM was used to estimate the number of remaining residual defects in the software product; a few assumptions and the detailed steps of the STDCM are highlighted. The application of the STDCM is explored in software projects. The implementation of the model is validated using statistical inference, which shows there is a significant improvement in the quality of the software projects. PMID:25478594

  4. Development and application of new quality model for software projects.

    PubMed

    Karnavel, K; Dillibabu, R

    2014-01-01

    The IT industry tries to employ a number of models to identify the defects in the construction of software projects. In this paper, we present COQUALMO and its limitations and aim to increase the quality without increasing the cost and time. The computation time, cost, and effort to predict the residual defects are very high; this was overcome by developing an appropriate new quality model named the software testing defect corrective model (STDCM). The STDCM was used to estimate the number of remaining residual defects in the software product; a few assumptions and the detailed steps of the STDCM are highlighted. The application of the STDCM is explored in software projects. The implementation of the model is validated using statistical inference, which shows there is a significant improvement in the quality of the software projects.

  5. Two locations, two times, and the element set. [applicable to orbit determination of artificial satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.; Randall, P. M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A robust analytical formulation is developed to apply classical initial orbital determination to artificial satellites whose locations are uncertain to about 1 cu km and separated in time by no more than 30 min. An analytical simplification reduces Gauss's method, iteration on the semilatus rectum, iteration on the true anomaly, and the Lambert-Euler technique, to the solution of a single equation in one unknown, instead of the usual coupled triplet of three equations in three unknowns. The method is demonstrated for all common artificial satellite orbits over a variety of time intervals between the two location vectors, and for a varied set of position and distance errors.

  6. Orbit-spectrum sharing between the fixed-satellite and broadcasting-satellite services with applications to 12 GHz domestic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    A systematic, tutorial analysis of the general problem of orbit-spectrum sharing among inhomogeneous satellite system is presented. Emphasis is placed on extrapolating and applying the available data on rain attenuation and on reconciling differences in the results of various measurements of the subjective effects of interference on television picture quality. An analytic method is presented for determining the approximate values of the intersatellite spacings required to keep mutual interference levels within prescribed limits when many dissimilar satellites share the orbit. A computer model was developed for assessing the interference compatibility of arbitrary configurations of large numbers of geostationary satellite systems. It is concluded that the band from 11.7 c GHz can be shared effectively by broadcasting-satellite and fixed-satellite systems. Recommendations for future study are included.

  7. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). 1944 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed in development and demonstration of structural ceramics technology for automotive gas turbine engines. At the end of this period, the project name was changed to ``Ceramic Turbine Engine Demonstration Project``, effective Jan. 1995. Objectives are to provide early field experience demonstrating the reliability and durability of ceramic components in a modified, available gas turbine engine application, and to scale up and improve the manufacturing processes for ceramic turbine engine components and demonstrate the application of these processes in the production environment. The 1994 ATTAP activities emphasized demonstration and refinement of the ceramic turbine nozzles in the AlliedSignal/Garrett Model 331-200[CT] engine test bed in preparation for field testing; improvements in understanding the vibration characteristics of the ceramic turbine blades; improvements in critical ceramics technologies; and scaleup of the process used to manufacture ceramic turbine components.

  8. Laser-activated remote phosphor light engine for projection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Martin; Mehl, Oliver; Hartwig, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in blue emitting laser diodes enable attractive solutions in projection applications using phosphors for efficient light conversion with very high luminance levels. Various commercially available projectors incorporating this technology have entered the market in the past years. While luminous flux levels are still comparable to lamp-based systems, lifetime expectations of classical lamp systems are exceeded by far. OSRAM GmbH has been exploring this technology for several years and has introduced the PHASER® brand name (Phosphor + laser). State-of-the-art is a rotating phosphor wheel excited by blue laser diodes to deliver the necessary primary colors, either sequentially for single-imager projection engines, or simultaneously for 3-panel systems. The PHASER® technology enables flux and luminance scaling, which allows for smaller imagers and therefore cost-efficient projection solutions. The resulting overall efficiency and ANSI lumen specification at the projection screen of these systems is significantly determined by the target color gamut and the light transmission efficiency of the projection system. With increasing power and flux level demand, thermal issues, especially phosphor conversion related, dominate the opto-mechanical system design requirements. These flux levels are a great challenge for all components of an SSL-projection system (SSL:solid-state lighting). OSRAḾs PHASER® light engine platform is constantly expanded towards higher luminous flux levels as well as higher luminance levels for various applications. Recent experiments employ blue laser pump powers of multiple 100 Watts to excite various phosphors resulting in luminous flux levels of more than 40 klm.

  9. Object-adapted inverse pattern projection: generation, evaluation, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothe, Thorsten; Li, Wansong; von Kopylow, Christoph; Juptner, Werner P.

    2003-05-01

    Fast and robust 3D quality control as well as fast deformation measurement is of particular importance for industrial inspection. Additionally a direct response about measured properties is desired. Therefore, robust optical techniques are needed which use as few images as possible for measurement and visualize results in an efficient way. One promising technique for this aim is the inverse pattern projection which has the following advantages: The technique codes the information of a preceding measurement into the projected inverse pattern. Thus, it is possible to do differential measurements using only one camera frame for each state. Additionally, the results are optimized straight fringes for sampling which are independent of the object curvature. The ability to use any image for inverse projection enables the use for augmented reality, i.e. any properties can be visualized directly on the object's surface which makes inspections easier than with use of a separated indicating device. The hardware needs are low as just a programmable projector and a standard camera are necessary. The basic idea of inverse pattern projection, necessary algorithms ane found optimizations are demonstrated, roughly. Evaluation techniques were found to preserve a high quality phase measurement under imperfect conditions. The different application fields can be sorted out by the type of pattern used for inverse projection. We select two main topics for presentation. One is the incremental (one image per state) deformation measurement which is a promising technique for high speed deformation measurements. A video series of a wavering flag with projected inverse pattern was evaluated to show the complete deformation series. The other application is the optical feature marking (augmented reality) that allows to map any measured result directly onto the object under investigation. The general ability to straighten any kind of information on 3D surfaces is shown while preserving an exact

  10. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  11. Satellite cloud and precipitation property retrievals for climate monitoring and hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, E. L. A.

    2012-03-01

    of this diurnal cycle than CMORPH, possibly due to the higher temporal and spatial resolution. Chapter 6 presents a study on the relation between soil moisture observed by AMSR-E and the precipitation occurrence frequency and intensity from CPP over West Africa. During the afternoon, precipitation occurrence frequency over dry soils becomes significantly higher than over wet soils, whereas for precipitation intensity no significant difference is discerned. The study demonstrates that the combination of satellite-based soil moisture and precipitation observations can be helpful in improving the understanding of the land surface-precipitation interaction over tropical areas. The thesis concludes with a number of recommendations on future algorithm improvements and potential research applications. For both cloud phase and precipitation properties, extension of the algorithm to include nighttime observations would be desirable to enable detailed studies on the full diurnal cycle. Further, the SEVIRI High-Resolution Visible (HRV) channel could be incorporated to correct retrieved cloud physical properties for broken and inhomogeneous cloud cases. Finally, the accurate cloud phase and precipitation datasets combined with the high SEVIRI spatial and temporal sampling resolution enables possibilities for detailed research on climate monitoring, nowcasting applications, evaluation of cloud schemes in climate models, studies on land surface-precipitation interactions (with a special focus on the diurnal cycle), and assimilation of the datasets in weather and climate models

  12. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  13. Studies of Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations from Satellite Data and Their Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Steffen, Konrad; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large changes in the sea ice cover have been observed recently. Because of the relevance of such changes to climate change studies it is important that key ice concentration data sets used for evaluating such changes are interpreted properly. High and medium resolution visible and infrared satellite data are used in conjunction with passive microwave data to study the true characteristics of the Antarctic sea ice cover, assess errors in currently available ice concentration products, and evaluate the applications and limitations of the latter in polar process studies. Cloud-free high resolution data provide valuable information about the natural distribution, stage of formation, and composition of the ice cover that enables interpretation of the large spatial and temporal variability of the microwave emissivity of Antarctic sea ice. Comparative analyses of co-registered visible, infrared and microwave data were used to evaluate ice concentrations derived from standard ice algorithms (i.e., Bootstrap and Team) and investigate the 10 to 35% difference in derived values from large areas within the ice pack, especially in the Weddell Sea, Amundsen Sea, and Ross Sea regions. Landsat and OLS data show a predominance of thick consolidated ice in these areas and show good agreement with the Bootstrap Algorithm. While direct measurements were not possible, the lower values from the Team Algorithm results are likely due to layering within the ice and snow and/or surface flooding, which are known to affect the polarization ratio. In predominantly new ice regions, the derived ice concentration from passive microwave data is usually lower than the true percentage because the emissivity of new ice changes with age and thickness and is lower than that of thick ice. However, the product provides a more realistic characterization of the sea ice cover, and are more useful in polar process studies since it allows for the identification of areas of significant divergence and polynya

  14. Flow and fracture of ices, with application to icy satellites (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, W. B.; Stern, L. A.; Pathare, A.; Golding, N.

    2013-12-01

    Exploration of the outer planets and their satellites by spacecraft over the past 4 decades has revealed that the prevailing low temperatures in the outer solar system have not produced "dead" cryoworlds of generic appearance. Rather, there is an extraordinary diversity in average densities, presence/absence and compositions of atmospheres and planetary rings, average albedos and their seasonal changes, near-surface compositions, and surface records of impact cratering and endogenic tectonic and igneous processes. One reason for this diversity is that the icy minerals present in abundance on many of these worlds are now or once were at significant fractions of their melting temperatures. Hence, a host of thermally activated processes related to endogenic activity (such as crystal defect migration, mass diffusion, surface transport, solid-solid changes of state, and partial melting) may occur that can enable inelastic flow on the surfaces and in the interiors of these bodies. Planetary manifestations include viscous crater relaxation in ice-rich terrain, cryovolcanism, the presence of a stable subsurface ocean, and the effects of solid-ice convection in deep interiors. We make the connection between theoretical mechanisms of deformation and planetary geology through laboratory experiment. Specifically, we develop quantitative constitutive flow laws (strain rate vs. stress) that describe the effects of relevant environmental variables (hydrostatic pressure, temperature, phase composition, chemical impurities). Our findings speak to topics including (1) the behavior of an outer ice I layer, its thickness, the depth to which a stagnant lid might extend, and possibility of wholesale overturn; (2) softening effects of dissolved species such as ammonia and perchlorate; (3) hardening effects of enclathration and of rock dust; and (4) effects of grain size on strength and factors affecting grain size. Other applications of lab data include dynamics of the deep interiors of

  15. GLORI (GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument): A New Airborne GNSS-R receiver for land surface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    GLORI (GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument) is a new receiver dedicated to the airborne measurement of surface parameters such as soil moisture and biomass above ground and sea state (wave height and direction) above oceans. The instrument is based on the PARIS concept [Martin-Neira, 1993] using both the direct and surface-reflected L-band signals from the GPS constellation as a multistatic radar source. The receiver is based on one up-looking and one down-looking dual polarization hemispherical active antennas feeding a low-cost 4-channel SDR direct down-conversion receiver tuned to the GPS L1 frequency. The raw measurements are sampled at 16.368MHz and stored as 2-bit, IQ binary files. In post-processing, GPS acquisition and tracking are performed on the direct up-looking signal while the down-looking signal is processed blindly using tracking parameters from the direct signal. The obtained direct and reflected code-correlation waveforms are the basic observables for geophysical parameters inversion. The instrument was designed to be installed aboard the ATR42 experimental aircraft from the French SAFIRE fleet as a permanent payload. The long term goal of the project is to provide real-time continuous surface information for every flight performed. The aircraft records attitude information through its Inertial Measurement Unit and a commercial GPS receiver records additional information such as estimated doppler and code phase, receiver location, satellites azimuth and elevation. A series of test flights were performed over both the Toulouse and Gulf of Lion (Mediterranean Sea) regions during the period 17-21 Nov 2014 together with the KuROS radar [Hauser et al., 2014]. Using processing methods from the literature [Egido et al., 2014], preliminary results demonstrate the instrument sensitivity to both ground and ocean surface parameters estimation. A dedicated scientific flight campaign is planned at the end of second quarter 2015 with

  16. Study of a passive companion microsatellite to the SAOCOM-1B satellite of Argentina, for bistatic and interferometric SAR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Christian; Derauw, Dominique; Orban, Anne; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of a preparatory study aimed at exploring candidate applications that could benefit from a passive micro-satellite accompanying the L-band SAOCOM-1B satellite of Argentina, and to carry out a limited demonstration, based on data acquired during ESA airborne campaigns, of selected applications. In a first step of the study, the potential applications were identified and prioritized based on the mission context and strategic applications, scientific need, and feasibility. The next step of the study was to carry out some demonstrations using data sets acquired during the BioSAR 2007-2009, TropiSAR 2009 and IceSAR 2007 campaigns. A P-band InSAR digital elevation model was generated from BioSAR 2007 data. Time-series of interferometric coherence maps were obtained as a tool for change detection and monitoring. PolInSAR processing was carried out on BioSAR 2007 and IceSAR data.

  17. Overview of Materials and Power Applications of Coated Conductors Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiohara, Yuh; Taneda, Takahiro; Yoshizumi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    There are high expectations for coated conductors in electric power applications such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, power cables, and transformers owing to their ability to contribute to stabilizing and increasing the capacity of the electric power supply grid as well as to reducing CO2 emission as a result of their high critical-current characteristics. Research and development has been performed on wires/tapes and electric power devices worldwide. The Materials and Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) Project is a five-year national project in Japan started in 2008, supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), to develop both coated conductors that meet market requirements and basic technologies for the above-mentioned power applications using coated conductors. In this article, research and development results are reviewed and compared with the interim/final targets of the project, and future prospects are discussed.

  18. Application of advanced on-board processing concepts to future satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. L.; Hoffman, M.; Kota, S. L.; Ruddy, J. M.; White, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    An initial definition of on-board processing requirements for an advanced satellite communications system to service domestic markets in the 1990's is presented. An exemplar system architecture with both RF on-board switching and demodulation/remodulation baseband processing was used to identify important issues related to system implementation, cost, and technology development.

  19. Program on Application of Communications Satellites to Educational Development. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

    An interdisciplinary program is exploring the educational services which communications satellites may help provide and the synthesis of systems for delivering these services in the United States. From November 1970 to November 1971 substantial progress was made in three primary program categories: needs analysis, communications technology…

  20. The Veterans Administration Experiments in Health Communications on the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-6). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Kathryn S.

    Because many of the Veterans Administration hospitals in Appalachia are located great distances from medical teaching facilities, high powered communication satellites have been employed to facilitate quality two-way communication between medical personnel scattered throughout the region. To achieve diagnostic, therapeutic, and educational…