Science.gov

Sample records for satellites

  1. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  2. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  3. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    PubMed

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  4. Satellite Vulnerabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-18

    per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...allies. 8  Satellites and Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance We have become dependent also on our satellite surveillance assets...uninterrupted ISR”, with “space intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) systems…fundamental to air power—especially to the execution

  5. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (Editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  6. Satellite Videoconferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is helping thousands of teachers to learn more about aerospace matters, improve their classroom skills, and expand significantly the content of their aerospace education curricula by means of live educational satellite videoconferences. The 1 1/2 hour 'Update for Teachers' programs originate at Oklahoma State University (OSU) Telecommunications Center. The television signals are transmitted to the WESTAR IV communications satellite, which remits them to participating schools across the U.S. and in parts of Mexico and Canada. The schools are equipped with small home style satellite reception dishes. Education Satellite Videoconference programs are conducted four times yearly, covering a variety of aerospace subjects. Teachers can call toll-free and have questions answered after the speaker's presentations. Information about NASA educational resources and how to obtain them will be provided.

  7. Satellite (Natural)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  8. Satellite Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    The Radio Regulations set out complex procedures to ensure that when new systems start to use the frequency bands allocated to them there is minimal disruption to existing systems using the same bands. The process of satellite coordination is described, and the issues for radio astronomy are discussed. In order to be protected by the ITU-R machinery radio telescopes need to be officially registered. The issue of paper satellites highlights the need for early registration to gain priority over incoming systems. Modern developments including the use of complex Monte-Carlo simulations to predict interference levels, and the issue of adjacent band interference, are discussed.

  9. Virtual Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammrs, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

  10. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  11. Tethered Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes concept for placing several communication satellites in geostationary orbit without taking up more space than assigned to single satellite. Proposed scheme eases orbital crowding more economically than space platforms. Concept requires minimal redesign of existing satellites and accommodates many satellites in just one orbital slot. System much lighter in weight than geostationary platform and easier and more economical to transport.

  12. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  13. Exploring the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert Hamilton

    1986-01-01

    Data on the Uranian satellites from the January 25, 1986 flyby of Voyager 2 are presented. Ten new satellites were discovered by Voyager 2; the features and orbits of these ten satellites are examined. The main geological characteristics for Oberon, Umbriel, Titania, Ariel, and Miranda discovered in the Voyager 2 images are described. Possible relationships between the Uranian satellites and Jovian and Saturnian satellites are being researched.

  14. Geostationary satellite log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. H.

    The present listing of current and planned geostationary satellites for the Fixed Satellite Service, Maritime Mobile Satellite Service, Broadcasting Satellite Service, and Space Research Service, are ordered along increasing East longitude orbit position; they update previously published lists through December, 1985. Also given is a key to the frequency bands used by current and planned satellites and replacement satellites; subband locations are designated by an up/down-link frequency column. Service allocations and the applicable ITU region for bands not allocated worldwide are included.

  15. China's satellite communications discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  16. Small satellite product assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontlivault, J.; Cadelec, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    In order to increase the interest in small satellites, their cost must be reduced; reducing product assurance costs induced by quality requirements is a major objective. For a logical approach, small satellites are classified in three main categories: satellites for experimental operations with a short lifetime, operational satellites manufactured in small mass with long lifetime requirements, operational satellites (long lifetime required), of which only a few models are produced. The various requirements as regards the product assurance are examined for each satellite category: general requirements for space approach, reliability, electronic components, materials and processes, quality assurance, documentation, tests, and management. Ideal product assurance system integrates quality teams and engineering teams.

  17. Satellite orbit predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  18. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  19. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites. PMID:21994595

  20. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2009-12-01

    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites.

  1. Stereo Measurements from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R.

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this presentation include: 1) 'Stereographic Observations from Geosynchronous Satellites: An Important New Tool for the Atmospheric Sciences'; 2) 'Thunderstorm Cloud Top Ascent Rates Determined from Stereoscopic Satellite Observations'; 3) 'Artificial Stereo Presentation of Meteorological Data Fields'.

  2. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  3. Which satellites were used?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    The three satellites ERBS, NOAA-9, NOAA-10 carrying two ERBE instrument packages (Scanner and NonScanner) were used. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center built the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) on which ... and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather monitoring satellites, NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 in 1984 and 1986, respectively. ...

  4. Geodetic Secor Satellite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  5. Survey: National Environmental Satellite Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The national Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) receives data at periodic intervals from satellites of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series and from the Improved TIROS (Television Infrared Observational Satellite) Operational Satellite. Within the conterminous United States, direct readout and processed products are distributed to users over facsimile networks from a central processing and data distribution facility. In addition, the NESS Satellite Field Stations analyze, interpret, and distribute processed geostationary satellite products to regional weather service activities.

  6. Fundamentals of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, A. H.

    The basic operating principles and capabilities of conventional and satellite-based navigation systems for air, sea, and land vehicles are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams. Consideration is given to autonomous onboard systems; systems based on visible or radio beacons; the Transit, Cicada, Navstar-GPS, and Glonass satellite systems; the physical laws and parameters of satellite motion; the definition of time in satellite systems; and the content of the demodulated GPS data signal. The GPS and Glonass data format frames are presented graphically, and tables listing the GPS and Glonass satellites, their technical characteristics, and the (past or scheduled) launch dates are provided.

  7. Public service satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the communications satellite system is discussed, taking into account a suggestion by Clarke in 1945 concerning the significance of geosynchronous satellites, the establishment of Intelsat, reductions in the cost of transatlantic telephone calls as a result of satellite communications service, questions of satellite cost, and the need for larger satellites. It is pointed out that the use of the Space Shuttle will reduce the cost of placing a satellite in orbit from more than half to less than a quarter of the total cost of design, construction, and launch. Attention is given to studies of a personal communications system which involves direct broadcast from a 'wrist watch radio' to a high-capacity, multibeam satellite for retransmission to ground communications centrals.

  8. Satellite Data Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    emphasized. After a discussion of existing standard tariffed satellite data services and special tariffed data services we list some possible future data...international maritime cammunica- tions satellite (MARISAT) is scheduled for launch early in 1975, and an inter- national aeronautical satellite (AEROSAT...circuit may achieve a data rate of 9600 bits per second under carefully controlled conditions [8]. A 50,000 bits per second data circuit, tariffed

  9. Satellite communication antenna technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  10. Satellite networks for education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite based educational networking is discussed with particular attention given to the potential uses of communications satellites to help meet educational needs in the United states. Four major subject areas were covered; (1) characteristics and structure of networks, (2) definition of pressures within educational establishment that provide motivation for various types of networks, (3) examination of current educational networking status for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intra-state educational communication networks, computer networks, and cable television for education, and (4) identification of possible satellite based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems.

  11. Satellite Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Aerospace Sciences of the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, used three NASA Computer programs (SANDTRACKS, ODG, NORAD) to develop a Satellite Tracking System for real time utilization of TIROS weather/environment satellite information. SANDTRACKS computes the satellite's position relative to the Earth. ODG allows plotting a view of Earth as seen by the satellite. NORAD computes sight direction, visibility times and maximum elevation angle during each orbit. With the system, UND's Earth System Science Institute will be able to routinely monitor agricultural and environmental conditions of the Northern Plains.

  12. Satellite Antenna Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through the Technology Affiliates Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the ACTS antenna system was transferred from experimental testing status to commercial development with KVH Industries, Inc. The ACTS design enables mobile satellite antennas to remain pointed at the satellite, regardless of the motion or vibration on which it is mounted. KVH's first product based on the ACTS design is a land-mobile satellite antenna system that will enable direct broadcast satellite television aboard moving trucks, recreational vehicles, trains, and buses. Future products could include use in broadcasting, emergency medical and military vehicles.

  13. Processing of satellite imagery at the National Environmental Satellite Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, M.

    1977-01-01

    The National Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) image product processing system is described. Other topics discussed include: (1) image processing of polar-orbiter satellite data; (2) image processing of geostationary satellite data; and (3) quality assurance and product monitoring.

  14. Signals from Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect for relative motion between a source of waves and an observer and the orbital dynamics of communications satellites. Presents preliminary calculations of the satellite's altitude and linear velocity using only the concepts of the Doppler shift and the mechanics of motion in a circular path. (JRH)

  15. Amateur Radio Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, David P.

    The Amateur Radio Satellite Communications project had, as its goal, the assembly of an amateur radio satellite station in a high school physics classroom. Specific objectives were to provide: (1) a special source of interest as a motivator for attracting students and building public relations; (2) a center of interest as a motivator for the study…

  16. Jovian satellite nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of the history of Jovian satellite nomenclature is given to indicate the background for the names proposed for the numbered satellites. The new names are consistent with established tradition and should cause minimal confusion with other named objects in the solar system.

  17. Communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

  18. Communication satellite technology trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuccia, Louis

    1986-01-01

    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  19. Tethered satellite control mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrias, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The tethered satellite control mechanisms consist of four major subsystems. The reel drive mechanism stores the tether. It is motor driven and includes a level wind to uniformly feed the tether to the reel. The lower boom mechanism serves two primary functions: (1) it measures tether length and velocity as the tether runs through the mechanism, and (2) it reads the tether tension at the reel. It also provides change the direction for the tether from the reel to the upper boom mechanism. The deployment boom positions the upper boom mechanism with satellite out of the cargo bay. The deployment function places the 500-kg satellite 20 m away from the Space Shuttle (producing a small natural gravity gradient force), impacts an initial velocity to the satellite for deployment, and allows for satellite docking at a safe distance from the body of the Space Shuttle. The upper boom mechanism (UBM) services three functions: (1) it provides tether control to the satellite as the satellite swings in and out of plane; (2) it reads tether tension in the low range during the early deployment and final retrieval parts of the mission; and (3) it produces additional tether tension at the reel when tether tension to the satellite is in the low range.

  20. Satellite networks for education.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of satellite-based educational networking. The characteristics and structure of networks are reviewed, and pressures within the educational establishment that are providing motivation for various types of networks are discussed. A number of studies are cited in which networking needs for educational sectors and services are defined. The current status of educational networking for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intrastate educational communication networks, computer networks, cable television for education, and continuing and proposed educational experiments using NASA's Applications Technology Satellites is reviewed. Possible satellite-based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems are described. Some remarks are made concerning public policy aspects of future educational satellite system development.

  1. Communications satellite needs examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supharat

    1985-02-01

    Thailand can use a communications satellite to provide various forms of international and domestic telecommunications services such as telephone, teleprinter, telephotograph, television and radio service. This can be done in a manner that is just as efficient as using a microwave radio and underwater and optical fiber cable system. A communications satellite is also superior in terms of flexibility and speed in putting it into operation with no restrictions on distance, routes or geographical characteristics. A ground radio transmitter-receiver station can be built anywhere radio waves from the satellite can be picked up. Costs of launching a satellite into orbit and procedures involved from a regulatory point of view are examined. Initiatives taken to provide Thailand with its own satellites are highlighted.

  2. Transit satellite system timing capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finsod, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    Current time transfer capabilities of the Transit Satellite System are reviewed. Potential improvements in the changes in equipment and operational procedures using operational satellites are discussed.

  3. Satellite Services Workshop, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Key issues associated with the orbital servicing of satellites are examined including servicing spacecraft and equipment, servicing operations, economics, satellite design, docking and berthing, and fluid management.

  4. Iridium Satellite Signal Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The Iridium Satellite constellation is unique to satellite communication networks in that it allows for transmission of data between satellites instead of relying on transmission by the bent pipe methodology. As such, this network is far more secure than other satellite communication networks, and forces interception to occur within the locale of the transmission from modem to satellite or within the locale of the downlink from the satellite other modem. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the security weaknesses within the Iridium protocol, showing that it was possible to track one of these satellites with a high gain antenna, resulting in the ability to anticipate transmission, to acquire the location of that transmission, and to uncover the content of that transmission. This project was completed as part of the summer student program at the Southwest Research Institute. The presentation will demonstrate the thought process used in chronological order, essentially demonstrating how I achieved the result from my point of view as the summer progressed.

  5. Probability of satellite collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarter, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.

  6. Land mobile communications satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.

    1986-09-01

    The economic value and salient technical and operational characteristics of a European Land Mobile Communication Satellite (LMCS) to complement and supplement the demand for mobile services of Western European countries in the 1995 to 2005 time frames were assessed. A significant future expansion of demand for LCMS services on the part of the public is anticipated. Important augmentations of current service capabilities could be achieved by a satellite service, improving the overall system performances and/or assisting the PTT's in containing their investments in the required infrastructure. The satellite service itself could represent a profitable revenue producer.

  7. Skeletal muscle satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form

  8. Satellite Multicarrier Demodulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James; Kwatra, Subhash C.; Jamale, Mohsin M.; Fernandez, John P.; Eugene, Linus P.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed onboard signal processing system for communications satellites performs real-time conversion of multiple uplink (received) signals in single-channel-per-carrier, frequency-division-multiple-access (SCPC/FDMA) format to downlink (transmitted) signals in time-division-multiplexed (TDM) format. Conversion approach enhances use of allocated spectrum and reduces required effective isotropic radiated power at both transponder (satellite) and Earth stations. Equipment needed to implement scheme less complex and less expensive than time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) formats. More economical future satellite communication systems made possible through use of many small-capacity multiservice Earth terminals.

  9. Overview of commercial satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beakley, G. W.

    1984-07-01

    A brief history of communications satellites is presented, taking into account the launching of Sputnik 1 in October 1957, the Explorer 1 in January of 1958, the launch of the Score as the world's first active communications satellite in December 1958, the Communications Satellite Act in 1962, and the launch of 'Early Bird' in 1964. The Intelsat satellites are considered along with maritime satellite communications, the U.S. domestic satellite systems, Alaskan satellite communications, cable television, broadcast TV stations, print media, the hotel/motel industry as a large market for satellite communications terminals, the opening of a minicable and satellite master antenna TV market for TV receive-only systems, and business telecommunications earth terminals. Attention is also given to future directions regarding satellite positions, the concept of 'video-plus', and direct broadcast satellites.

  10. Orbit determination accuracies using satellite-to-satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.; Argentiero, P. D.; Schmid, P. E.

    1977-01-01

    The uncertainty in relay satellite sate is a significant error source which cannot be ignored in the reduction of satellite-to-satellite tracking data. Based on simulations and real data reductions, it is numerically impractical to use simultaneous unconstrained solutions to determine both relay and user satellite epoch states. A Bayesian or least squares estimation technique with an a priori procedure is presented which permits the adjustment of relay satellite epoch state in the reduction of satellite-to-satellite tracking data without the numerical difficulties introduced by an ill-conditioned normal matrix.

  11. Origins of satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Harris, A. W.; Lunine, J. I.

    Satellites are an inevitable consequence of most plausible planetary accumulation processes. They can arise from gaseous or particulate circumplanetary disks, continuously fed during accretion of the planet or infrequently created by large impacts. They can also arise from capture, aided by gas drag. Fission (in the Darwinian sense) is highly unlikely. This review seeks to assess critically the alternatives within the context of current ideas of the early solar system, guided by both cosmochemical and dynamical constraints, but unencumbered by prejudices concerning planetary growth. Topics discussed include the dynamics of both gaseous and particulate disks, the role of large impacts in creating satellite source material, the role of capture, and the thermodynamics of satellite accretion. Possible explanations for each of the satellite systems are offered.

  12. Satellites map the oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbs, A. R.; Wilson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing systems, both operational and planned, for monitoring the ocean winds, temperatures, chlorophyll concentrations, ice flows, and the sea surface and ocean floor topographies are described. Seasat demonstrated the effectiveness of scatterometer measurements for measuring wind velocities and directions, and a new scatterometer may be launched on the U.S. Navy NROSS spacecraft in 1988. The NOAA-7 and -8 satellites carry IR sensors to monitor ocean temperatures, and can thus forewarn of the onset of El Nino. Ocean currents are traced with radar altimeters such as the one planned for the Topex satellite as a follow-on to instrumentation tested during the three-month lifetime of the Seasat satellite. Further analytical development is required, however, to improve the data analyses of the altimeter and scatterometer readings, and to account for errors introduced by the observed features and the interposed atmospheric phenomena.

  13. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1974-01-01

    The various types of meteorological satellites are enumerated. Vertical sounding, parameter extraction technique, and both macroscale and mesoscale meteorological phenomena are discussed. The heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system is considered, along with ocean surface and hydrology.

  14. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  15. Satellite positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keydel, W.

    The basic physical principles, technology, and capabilities of satellite position-finding systems (SPFSs) are examined in a general overview. Topics discussed include the properties of EM waves as a basis for measurement; two-way (radar) SPFSs with active satellites (to locate passive targets); one-way SPFSs with active satellites (for self-location using a passive receiver); one-way SPFSs with passive satellites and active objects (for emergency search-and-rescue use); radar altimeters, radar scatterometers, and SARs; Doppler methods; and range-difference and pseudorange time-of-flight methods. Consideration is given to problems of precision in time measurements and orbit measurement and prediction, improved precision using differential methods, the predicted accuracy of Navstar GPS, propagation-related limitations, user demands, and political and economic factors influencing future SPFS development.

  16. Domestic Communication Satellites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  17. Virophages or satellite viruses?

    PubMed

    Krupovic, Mart; Cvirkaite-Krupovic, Virginija

    2011-11-01

    It has been argued that the smaller viruses associated with giant DNA viruses are a new biological entity. However, Mart Krupovic and Virginija Cvirkaite-Krupovic argue here that these smaller viruses should be classified with the satellite viruses.

  18. Trends In Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  19. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  20. Epos TCS Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manunta, Michele; Mandea, Mioara; Fernández-Turiel, José Luis; Stramondo, Salvatore; Wright, Tim; Walter, Thomas; Bally, Philippe; Casu, Francesco; Zeni, Giovanni; Buonanno, Sabatino; Zinno, Ivana; Tizzani, Pietro; Castaldo, Raffaele; Ostanciaux, Emilie; Diament, Michel; Hooper, Andy; Maccaferri, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    TCS Satellite Data is devoted to provide Earth Observation (EO) services, transversal with respect to the large EPOS community, suitable to be used in several application scenarios. In particular, the main goal is to contribute with mature services that have already well demonstrated their effectiveness and relevance in investigating the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and unrest episodes as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The TCS Satellite Data will provide two kinds of services: satellite products/services, and Value-added satellite products/services. The satellite products/services are composed of three (EPOSAR, GDM and COMET) well-identified and partly already operational elements for delivering Level 1 products. Such services will be devoted to the generation of SAR interferograms, DTM and ground displacement maps through the exploitation of different advanced EO techniques for InSAR and optical data analysis. The Value-added satellite products/services are composed of 4 elements (EPOSAR, 3D-Def, Mod and COMET) of Level 2 and 3 products. Such services integrate satellite and in situ measurements and observations to retrieve information on source mechanism, such as the geometry (spatial location, depth, volume changes) and the physical parameters of the deformation sources, through the exploitation of modelling approaches. The TCS Satellite Data will provide products in two different processing and delivery modes: 1- surveillance mode - routinely product generation; 2- on demand mode - product generation performed on demand by the user. Concerning the surveillance mode, the goal is providing continuous satellite measurements in areas of particular interest from a geophysical perspective (supersites). The objective is the detection of displacement patterns changing along time and their geophysical explanation. This is a valid approach for inter-seismic movements and volcanic unrest, post-seismic and post

  1. Tactical Satellite 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    TACTICAL SATELLITE 3 THE 4S SYMPOSIUM Thomas M. Davis (1), Stanley D. Straight (2), Dr. Ronald B. Lockwood (3) (1) Air Force Research...Laboratory Science and Technology ( S &T) initiative that explores the capability and technological maturity of small, low-cost satellites. It features a...technology area, these S &T efforts also help mitigate technology risk and establish a potential concept of operations for future acquisitions. The

  2. Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, C. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A satellite based energy concept is described, including the advantages of the basic concept, system characteristics, cost, and environmental considerations. An outline of a plan for the further evaluation and implementation of the system is given. It is concluded that the satellite concept is competitive with other advanced power generation systems when a variety of factors are considered, including technical feasibility, cost, safety, natural resources, environment, baseload capability, location flexibility, land use, and existing industrial base for implementation.

  3. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  4. The Archimedes satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart C.; Shurvinton, William D.

    1992-03-01

    Archimedes is a satellite system conceived by the European Space Agency (ESA) to effectively serve the European market for Mobile Radio Services (MRS). This paper describes the requirements and technical design of the Archimedes satellite system. The underlying assumptions and trade-offs behind the design are detailed and the design is compared and contrasted against alternative design solutions, both technically and economically. A path forward for the development of the system is indicated.

  5. Radio determination satellite service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briskman, Robert D.

    1990-07-01

    The capabilities and measured performance of a geosynchronous satellite-based service called the radio determination satellite service (RDSS), which operates at radio frequencies allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and is licensed in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), are discussed. Plans for both improvement in capability and expansion to nearly global coverage are described. Since RDSS can also provide radio navigation, some comparisons of this service with the Global Positioning System (GPS) are made.

  6. Satellite Communications Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    got access to GE’s corporate R&D center as part of the acquisition of GE Aerospace. A recent (5 FEB 93) NASA/National Science Foundation (NSF...million and $175 million. Cost of Products - Satellite Communicatons Services The cost of Satellite Communications Services is going down steadily, and...agreement also covers procurement by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) Corporation (Japan’s largest telecom company), and Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK

  7. Satellite Applications for Public Service: Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauffer, Sandra; And Others

    Summaries of 18 different projects involving the use of satellite communications are presented in this report, including PEACESAT Education and Communication Experiments, USP Network Satellite Communication Project, Project Satellite, Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), Appalachian Education Satellite Program, Alaska Education…

  8. Jupiter: its captured satellites.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M

    1971-08-27

    Because of the small size and irregular orbits of the seven outer satellites of Jupiter, it is often assumed that they were derived by capture. The conditions whereby Jupiter can capture satellites have therefore been examined. Relationships derived on the basis of the three-body problem for planets in elliptical orbits enable the dimensions of the capture orbits around Jupiter to be calculated. It is found that Jupiter may capture satellites through the inner Lagrangian point when at perihelion or at aphelion. Captures at perihelion should give rise to satellites in direct orbits of 11.48 x 10(6) kilometers and capture at aphelion to retrograde orbits of 21.7 x 10(6) kilometers. The correspondence with the seven outer satellites suggests that Jupiter VI, VIl, and X in direct orbits at 11.47, 11.74, and 11.85 x 10(6) kilometers were captured at Jupiter perihelion, whereas Jupiter VIII, IX, XI, and XII in retrograde orbits of 23.5, 23.7, 22.5, and 21.2 x 10(6) kilometers were captured when Jupiter was at aphelion. Examination of the precapture orbits indicates that the seven outer satellites were derived from the asteroid belt.

  9. The satellites of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Observations and the probable natures of the five known satellites of Uranus are reviewed. Photographic, photoelectric and CCD photometry of the satellites since 1961, although in agreement within experimental error, is not as mutually consistent as may be expected, and broadband JHK photometry falls in a portion of the J-H, H-K color diagram difficult to interpret. Spectrophotometry in the range 0.3-1.1 microns taken on two separate occasions is inconsistent, with only the relatively neutral reflectances of Titania and Oberon regarded as well established. Near-infrared spectrophotometry has revealed the presence of water ice or frost on the satellite surfaces, possibly in a very pure state, with spectra most similar to Ganymede. Estimations of the properties of the satellites from their surface geometric albedos, assumed mean densities and dynamics yield radii in the range 160-520 km, albedos on the order of 0.5 and densities of about 1.3 g/cu cm, similar to the icy Saturn satellites. The satellites are also believed to have formed after the event that caused the planet to tilt to its present obliquity.

  10. Satellite Technologies in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portz, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on ways of using satellite imagery obtained from the Internet, to enhance classroom learning. Discusses satellite deployment; classroom applications, including infrared imagery, high-resolution photography, and global positioning satellites; and use of satellite data for hands-on activities, including cartography, city and community…

  11. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  12. ISDN - The case for satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; McDougal, P. J.

    1987-05-01

    The role of satellites in the proposed Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is examined. ISDN is to be a unified global network providing international telecommunication services. The delay time connected with satellite communications is considered. The advantages of using satellites in ISDN are: (1) the digital services available with satellites (time-division multiple access, intermediate data rate, and Intelsat business services); (2) satellite networking features; (3) flexibility; and (4) global interconnectivity. It is noted that with the use of powerful transmitters on satellites, the growth of small earth stations, and developments in band switching and intersatellite links that satellites are applicable to ISDN.

  13. Satellite Communications for ATM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  14. International communications via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLucas, J. L.

    The evolution of communications satellite systems is traced in terms of technical capabilities and technological advances. The Communications Act of 1962 led to the establishment of INTELSAT on an international basis in 1964. The original 19 signatory nations has grown to over 100, and over 800 ground relay stations have been built. The INTELSAT system comprises spacecraft over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and handles 2/3 of the world's international electronic communications and all transoceanic television. The 1965 Early Bird satellite had a 240 two-way telephone link capacity and weighed 38 kg, while the Intelsat V satellites, of which there will be nine, have increased the capacity to 20,000 voice circuits and Intelsat VI will double the number by 1993. Increasing demand for satellite communications links is driving the design and development of space platforms for multiple missions of communications, meteorological studies, and on-board switching and data processing in excess of current multiple satellite systems.

  15. Soviet early warning satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, G. E.

    1982-02-01

    Satellite orbits and groups for the Cosmos spacecraft are discussed, noting that the orbits are configured to provide full early warning system coverage. The regular crossing of a ground track which includes all the Minuteman bases in the U.S. is noted, as are time constraints for the launch into a suitable orbit without introducing orbital anomalies. Cosmos 1024 was observed to need four corrections in order to reach a point where free libration over a fixed ground station was possible for a year until replacement by the Cosmos 1124 occurred. The current configuration is a total of nine satellites with 40 deg spacing, which yields full coverage, although it is indicated that only three satellites ever operate simultaneously.

  16. Estimation in satellite control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debra, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    The use of estimators or observers is discussed as applied to satellite attitude control and the control of drag-free satellites. The practical problems of implementation are discussed, and the relative advantages of full and reduced state estimators are compared, particularly in terms of their effectiveness and bandwidth as filters. Three applications are used to illustrate the principles. They are: (1) a reaction wheel control system, (2) a spinning attitude control system, and (3) a drag-free satellite translational control system. Fixed estimator gains are shown to be adequate for these (and many other) applications. Our experience in the hardware realization of estimators has led to categorize the error sources in terms of those that improve with increased estimator gains and those that get worse with increased estimator gains.

  17. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  18. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1991-01-01

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  19. ESA's satellite communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  20. The Clementine satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The first US satellite to the Moon in more than two decades was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base (Santa Barbara County), California, on January 25, 1994. The satellite was named Clementine because it carried only enough fuel to complete its mission before it was [open quotes]lost and gone forever.[close quotes] The Clementine satellite tested 23 advanced technologies during its mission for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. In fulfilling its scientific goals, Clementine provided a wealth of information relevant to the mineralogy of the lunar surface. Using six on-board cameras designed and built at the Laboratory, Clementine mapped the entire surface of the Moon at resolutions never before attained. Clementine also provided range data that will be used to construct a relief map of the lunar surface.

  1. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  2. Satellite communications system 'Tyulpan'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuyan, R. K.; Tarasov, E. V.; Belousov, A. P.; Balyk, V. M.; Kovtunenko, V. M.; Morozov, V. A.; Andreev, V. A.; v'yunenko, K. A.

    1993-10-01

    A concept of the satellite communication system called 'Tyulpan' (because or its tulip-resembling shape) is considered. This conception envisages the use of six satellites-retranslators installed on high-latitude elliptic orbits. Such a system can provide the communication for mean- and high-latitude region of Europe, Asia, and America. For the communication, super small ground stations of 0.4 m in diameter can be used. In the development of system conception, the already existing technical solutions and possibility of conversion or existing installations of military destination were taken into account. Therefore, the system considered can be realized at the earliest possible date.

  3. Satellite altitude determination uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite altitude determination uncertainties will be discussed from the standpoint of the GEOS-C satellite, from the longer range viewpoint afforded by the Geopause concept. Data are focused on methods for short-arc tracking which are essentially geometric in nature. One uses combinations of lasers and collocated cameras. The other method relies only on lasers, using three or more to obtain the position fix. Two typical locales are looked at, the Caribbean area, and a region associated with tracking sites at Goddard, Bermuda and Canada which encompasses a portion of the Gulf Stream in which meanders develop.

  4. Public service satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the high effective isotropic radiated power provided by high-power satellite transmitters and high-gain antennas could be used in conjunction with economical ground receivers to furnish public services in remote areas of the U.S. Applications to health care, education and public safety are mentioned. A system concept involving a communications satellite operating in the Ku-band (12-GHz down, 14-GHz up) and either 100/30 watt stationary earth terminals with 1-1.8 m antennas or mobile terminals with omnidirectional antennas is presented.

  5. Mexico's first domestic satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, M. E.; Elbert, B. R.

    The principal features of the Morelos communications satellite program, providing Mexico with C-band and Ku-band TV and telephone services beginning in 1985, are reviewed. Two satellites, modified versions of the Hughes HS-376 dual-spin bus, will be launched by STS and controlled from a tracking, telemetery, and command station near Mexico City; the 184-station ground network currently operating with Intelsat-IV will be expanded to about 1000 C-band stations (plus numerous small Ku-band receivers) by 1990. The spacecraft design, communications-subsystem performance, repeater equipment, antennas, and coverage pattern are presented in tables, drawings, diagrams, photographs and maps and discussed.

  6. Land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, John D.

    1990-07-01

    The general advantages and potential operating characteristics of the mobile satellite service (MSS) are described, and distinctions are made between radio telephone, which is interconnected to the public switched telephone network, and private mobile radio systems. Mobile satellite service offers voice, data, position location, and paging services, interconnection to the public switched telephone network, and the possibility of private networks. Performance and cost characteristics are given along with summaries of market needs and market demands. The space and ground systems of the MSS are described.

  7. Declassified intelligence satellite photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Recently declassified photographs from spy satellites are an important addition to the record of the Earth?s land surface held by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). More than 800,000 high-resolution photos taken between 1959 through 1972 were made available by Executive Order of the President. The collection is held at the USGS EROS Data Center, near Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and are offered for public sale. For some purposes in earth science studies, these photos extend the record of changes in the land surface another decade back in time from the advent of the Landsat earth-observing satellite program.

  8. Satellites For Sale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'For Sale' sign refering to the two satellites, Palapa B-2 and Westar 6 that they retrieved from orbit after their Payload Assist Modules (PAM) failed to fire. Astronaut Joseph P. Allen IV, who also participated in the two EVAs, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar 6 nearer Discovery's aft.

  9. The American Satellite Company (ASC) satellite deployed from payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The American Satellite Company (ASC) communications satellite is deployed from the payload bay of the Shuttle Discovery. A portion of the cloudy surface of the earth can be seen to the left of the frame.

  10. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.

    1989-07-01

    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  11. The satellite configuration of satellite-TV navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu-Ping

    2001-02-01

    The positioning accuracy and availability of navigation system are affected directly by the quality of satellite configuration. The possible satellite configurations for satellite-TV navigation system are discussed and estimated in this paper. The results show that a well setted configuration or a resonable integration of satellite-TV navigation system and Chinese Loran-C will improve the positioning accuracy and availability of the system.

  12. Inertial storage for satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhaure, D.

    1984-01-01

    A new system is being developed that performs satellite attitude control, attitude reference, and energy storage utilizing inertia wheels. The baseline approach consists of two counter rotating flywheels suspended in specially designed magnetic bearings, spin axis motor/generators, and a control system. The control system regulates the magnetic bearings and spin axis motor/generators and interacts with other satellite subsystems (photovoltaic array, star trackers, Sun sensors, magnetic torquers, etc.) to perform the three functions. Existing satellites utilize separate subsystems to perform attitude control, provide attitude reference, and store energy. These functions are currently performed using reaction or momentum wheels, gyros, batteries, and devices that provide an absolute reference (Sun sensors and star trackers). A Combined Attitude, Reference, and Energy Storage (CARES) system based on high energy density inertial energy storage wheels (flywheels) has potential advantages over existing technologies. Even when used only for energy storage, this system offers the potential for substantial improvements in life, energy efficiency, and weight over existing battery technologies. Utilizing this same device for both attitude control and attitude reference would result in significant additional savings in overall satellite weight and complexity.

  13. Learning Through Satellite Broadcasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamoorthy, P. V.

    1975-01-01

    SITE is an experimental project which would provide vital inputs in designing and executing a satellite-based instructional television system, particularly in rural areas, to stimulate national development in India with important managerial, economic, technological, and social implications. (Author/BP)

  14. Small satellite radiometric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    A critical need for the Mission to Planet Earth is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, flexible radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated data and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs). 12 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Ocean surveillance satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  16. Perception via satellite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1970-01-01

    The earth resources observation satellite (EROS) program in the Department of the Interior is intended to gather and use data from satellites and aircraft on natural and man-made features of the earth's surface. Earth resources technology satellite will provide the EROS program with data for use in dealing with natural resource problems and understanding the interaction between man and the environment. Applications will include studies of tectonic features, hydrologic problems, location of fish schools, determination of the conditions of range land, mapping land use for urban planning, studies of erosion and change along coastlines and major streams, and inventories of land use and land forms. In addition, the ERTS data may be used for detecting forest and crop diseases and inventorying crops. The ERTS satellite will be in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit so that each point on the earth's surface will be sensed every 17 to 20 days, at the same time of day. Multispectral photography is being investigated for its usefulness in hydrology. Side-looking airborne radar has not yet been widely used in hydrologic studies, although it is an excellent tool for all-weather, day or night, coverage of large areas. Other techniques being investigated include passive microwave radiometry, ultraviolet and visible stimulated luminescence, and absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Data distribution satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Jorasch, Ronald E.; Wiskerchen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of a data distribution satellite (DDS) system. The DDS would operate in conjunction with the tracking and data relay satellite system to give ground-based users real time, two-way access to instruments in space and space-gathered data. The scope of work includes the following: (1) user requirements are derived; (2) communication scenarios are synthesized; (3) system design constraints and projected technology availability are identified; (4) DDS communications payload configuration is derived, and the satellite is designed; (5) requirements for earth terminals and network control are given; (6) system costs are estimated, both life cycle costs and user fees; and (7) technology developments are recommended, and a technology development plan is given. The most important results obtained are as follows: (1) a satellite designed for launch in 2007 is feasible and has 10 Gb/s capacity, 5.5 kW power, and 2000 kg mass; (2) DDS features include on-board baseband switching, use of Ku- and Ka-bands, multiple optical intersatellite links; and (3) system user costs are competitive with projected terrestrial communication costs.

  18. Satellite-Based Videoconferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education Report, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Educators can broadcast videoconferences to students in different parts of the world at an affordable cost using geostationary satellites. Describes the design and presentation of videoconferences and outlines steps in their development: budgeting, scheduling, selecting presenters and moderators, choosing production and telecast facilities,…

  19. On satellite constellation selection

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-05-01

    Analytical estimates can be used to produce and discuss optimal constellations. They are in close agreement with phase-space estimates and exact solutions. They suggest that distributions of inclined orbits could reduce satellite numbers by factors of 2--3 while improving uniformity. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER =4.6 % for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μsat leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.

  1. OMV With Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This 1986 artist's concept shows the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) towing a satellite. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  2. Satellite camera image navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamel, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Graul, Donald W. (Inventor); Savides, John (Inventor); Hanson, Charles W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Pixels within a satellite camera (1, 2) image are precisely located in terms of latitude and longitude on a celestial body, such as the earth, being imaged. A computer (60) on the earth generates models (40, 50) of the satellite's orbit and attitude, respectively. The orbit model (40) is generated from measurements of stars and landmarks taken by the camera (1, 2), and by range data. The orbit model (40) is an expression of the satellite's latitude and longitude at the subsatellite point, and of the altitude of the satellite, as a function of time, using as coefficients (K) the six Keplerian elements at epoch. The attitude model (50) is based upon star measurements taken by each camera (1, 2). The attitude model (50) is a set of expressions for the deviations in a set of mutually orthogonal reference optical axes (x, y, z) as a function of time, for each camera (1, 2). Measured data is fit into the models (40, 50) using a walking least squares fit algorithm. A transformation computer (66 ) transforms pixel coordinates as telemetered by the camera (1, 2) into earth latitude and longitude coordinates, using the orbit and attitude models (40, 50).

  3. THE ONE ROOM SATELLITE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DREYFUS, LEE S.

    A WISCONSIN HIGH SCHOOL FRENCH CLASS AND A GROUP OF STUDENTS IN AN ENGLISH CALSS AT THE LYCEE HENRI IV OF PARIS, FRANCE, PARTICIPATED IN A COMBINED CLASS SESSION IN THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL TV CLASSROOM EXCHANGE. THE TV SIGNALS WERE EXCHANGED BY MEANS OF THE EARLY BIRD SATELLITE AND PERMITTED THE STUDENTS TO EXCHANGE MESSAGES. DURING THE TELECAST…

  4. Building Satellites is Easier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Phyllis Nimmo

    1996-01-01

    'Building Satellites' is a story about Jim Marsh's recovery from a severe head injury told by his wife Phyllis from the moment she learned of its happening, through the ups and downs of a lengthy rehabilitation, until his return to work and daily living. It continues on, however, and narrates his battle with the more insidious Grave's disease. Told in the first person, 'Building Satellites' vividly portrays Phyllis's thoughts and feelings throughout this experience with scrupulous honestly. This is a story worth reading for many reasons. First of all, Jim was an accomplished scientist, respected by his colleagues both in this country and abroad. Secondly, it narrates the many stages of his recovery from head injury with detailed readable accuracy; it informs us as well as inspires. Finally, 'Building Satellites" also tells us the story of Phyllis Marsh's remarkable creative response to this crisis. It narrates her personal experiences as she progresses through the strange and somewhat bizarre world of medicine and rehabilitation, guided by a few basic beliefs, which she learned as a child in Iowa, that provided her with the strength to endure. 'Building Satellites' seems to reaffirm our unconscious, but settled conviction, that when confornted overnight with adversity, we are somehow given the means for coping, supported by our basic beliefs, strengthened by family and friends, and eventually learning to accept any outcome.

  5. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2015-07-24

    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.

  6. Satellite Weather Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, R. Joe

    1982-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive (about $1,500) direct-readout ground station for use in secondary school science/mathematics programs. Includes suggested activities including, among others, developing map overlays, operating station equipment, interpreting satellite data, developing weather forecasts, and using microcomputers for data storage, orbit…

  7. Domestic Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Network Project Notebook, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The June, 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) decision allowed an "open skies" policy in regard to domestic communication satellites and raised Liberal opposition to a situation where exclusive and unchecked communications power is now in the hands of private entrepreneurs, primarily the big Defense Department oriented…

  8. Small satellite space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, Keith

    1994-01-01

    CTA Space Systems has played a premier role in the development of the 'lightsat' programs of the 80's and 90's. The high costs and development times associated with conventional LEO satellite design, fabrication, launch, and operations continue to motivate the development of new methodologies, techniques, and generally low cost and less stringently regulated satellites. These spacecraft employ low power 'lightsat' communications (versus TDRSS for NASA's LEO's) and typically fly missions with payload/experiment suites that can succeed, for example, without heavily redundant backup systems and large infrastructures of personnel and ground support systems. Such small yet adaptable satellites are also typified by their very short contract-to-launch times (often one to two years). This paper reflects several of the methodologies and perspectives of our successful involvement in these innovative programs and suggests how they might relieve NASA's mounting pressures to reduce the cost of both the spacecraft and their companion mission operations. It focuses on the use of adaptable, sufficiently powerful yet inexpensive PC-based ground systems for wide ranging user terminal (UT) applications and master control facilities for mission operations. These systems proved themselves in successfully controlling more than two dozen USAF, USN, and ARPA satellites at CTA/SS. UT versions have linked with both GEO and LEO satellites and functioned autonomously in relay roles often in remote parts of the world. LEO applications particularly illustrate the efficacy of these concepts since a user can easily mount a lightweight antenna, usually an omni or helix with light duty rotors and PC-based drivers. A few feet of coax connected to a small transceiver module (the size of a small PC) and a serial line to an associated PC establishes a communications link and together with the PC constitute a viable ground station. Applications included geomagnetic mapping; spaceborne solid state

  9. Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth on August 27, 2005 by revealing MODIS true-color imagery for that day. This animation is on a cartesian map projection, so the satellite w...

  10. Meteorological measurements from satellite platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    Quantitative exploitation of meteorological data from geosynchronous satellites is starting to move from the laboratory to operational practice. Investigations of the data applications portion of the total meteorological satellite system include: (1) tropospheric wind shear and the related severe storm circulations; (2) kinematic properties of the tropical atmosphere as derived from cloud motion vectors; (3) application of a geostationary satellite rake system to measurements of rainfall; and (4) pointing error analysis of geosynchronous satellites.

  11. Mobile satellite service for Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sward, David

    1988-01-01

    The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system and a special program designed to provide interim mobile satellite services (IMSS) during the construction phase of MSAT are described. A mobile satellite system is a key element in extending voice and and data telecommunications to all Canadians.

  12. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Rosa

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  13. Satellite Aerodynamics and Density Determination from Satellite Dynamic Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag and lift properties of a satellite are first expressed as a function of two parameters associated with gas-surface interaction at the satellite surface. The dynamic response of the satellite as it passes through the atmosphere is then expressed as a function of the two gas-surface interaction parameters, the atmospheric density, the satellite velocity, and the satellite orientation to the high speed flow. By proper correlation of the observed dynamic response with the changing angle of attack of the satellite, it is found that the two unknown gas-surface interaction parameters can be determined. Once the gas-surface interaction parameters are known, the aerodynamic properties of the satellite at all angles of attack are also determined.

  14. Irregular Satellites of the Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    2005-01-01

    This proposal is directed towards the observational exploration of the irregular satellite systems of the planets. Primarily we use large-format CCD cameras on the world's largest telescopes, on Mauna Kea, to discover new irregular satellites and then to monitor their positions in order to ascertain their orbital characteristics. Separate observations are taken to determine the physical properties of the irregular satellites. The big picture science objective is to determine how these satellites were captures, and to use the properties of the satellites and their orbits to place constraints on early solar system (including formation) processes. Work in the first year has focussed on a major investigation of the Saturn irregular satellite system. We secured observing time on the Subaru and Gemini 8-m diameter telescopes in December 2004, January, February and March 2005 for the conduct of a deep, wide-area survey. This has resulted in the detection and orbit determination for 12 new satellites to be announced in the next week or two. Additional satellites were lost, temporarily, due to unusually poor weather conditions on Mauna Kea. These objects will be recovered and their orbits published next year. A separate survey of the Uranus irregular satellites was published (Sheppard, Jewitt and Kleyna 2005). Away from the telescope, we have discovered the amazing result that the four giant planets possess similar numbers of irregular satellites. This flies in the face of the standard gas-drag model for satellite capture, since only two of the giant planets are gas giants and the others (Uranus and Neptune) formed by a different process and in the absence of much gas. The constancy of the satellite number (each giant holds approximately 100 irregular satellites measured down to the kilometer scale) is either a coincidence, with different capture mechanisms at different planets giving by chance the same total numbers of irregular satellites, or indicates that the satellites

  15. An aeronautical mobile satellite experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, T. C.; Dessouky, K. I.; Lay, N. E.

    1990-01-01

    The various activities and findings of a NASA/FAA/COMSAT/INMARSAT collaborative aeronautical mobile satellite experiment are detailed. The primary objective of the experiment was to demonstrate and evaluate an advanced digital mobile satellite terminal developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the NASA Mobile Satellite Program. The experiment was a significant milestone for NASA/JPL, since it was the first test of the mobile terminal in a true mobile satellite environment. The results were also of interest to the general mobile satellite community because of the advanced nature of the technologies employed in the terminal.

  16. The AMSC mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-01-01

    The American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC) Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system is described. AMSC will use three multi-beam satellites to provide L-band MSS coverage to the United States, Canada and Mexico. The AMSC MSS system will have several noteworthy features, including a priority assignment processor that will ensure preemptive access to emergency services, a flexible SCPC channel scheme that will support a wide diversity of services, enlarged system capacity through frequency and orbit reuse, and high effective satellite transmitted power. Each AMSC satellite will make use of 14 MHz (bi-directional) of L-band spectrum. The Ku-band will be used for feeder links.

  17. TOPEX satellite option study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic design of the fleet satellite communication spacecraft (FLTSATCOM) can easily accommodate any of the three payload options for the ocean dynamic topography experiment (TOPEX). The principal mission requirements as well as the payload accommodations and communications systems needed for launching this payload are reviewed. The existing FLTSATCOM satellite design is identified and the approaches for the proposed propulsion system are described in addition to subsystems for mechanical; power; attitude and velocity control; and telemetry, tracking and control are described. The compatability of FLTSATCOM with the launch vehicle is examined and its capabilities vs TOPEX requirements are summarized. Undetermined changes needed to meet data storage, thermal control, and area to mass ratio requirements are discussed. Cost estimates are included for budgetary and planning purposes. The availability of the described design is assessed based on the continuing production of FLTSATCOM spacecraft during the schedule span planned for TOPEX.

  18. Future switching satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campanella, S. Joseph; Pontano, Benjamin A.; Chalmers, Harvey

    1988-01-01

    Communications satellites of the future are likely to use much narrower beams in order to increase the uplink G/T and the downlink EIRP so that small earth terminals of the VSAT class can achieve full mesh connectivity. These satellites will need onboard switches to route traffic from originating upbeams to destination downbeams. This paper presents a new approach to accomplishing this rerouting using destination-directed packets that inherently carry the information needed to control the onboard switch connections and to adjust the traffic flow among the beams and the stations. The method also inherently provides channel multiplication and DAMA advantages which result in maximally efficient utilization of the space segment resource.

  19. Saturn's outer satellite - Phoebe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Voyager 2 took these images of Saturn's outer satellite Phoebe, on Sept. 4, 1981, from 2.2 million kilometers (1.36 million miles)away. This pair shows two different hemispheres of the satellite. The left image shows a bright mountain on the upper right edge reflecting the light of the setting sun. This mountain is possibly the central peak of a large impact crater taking up most of the upper right quadrant of Phoebe in this view. The right images shows a hemisphere with an intrinsically bright spot in the top portion of the image as well as the ridges appearing bright in the sunset light of the lower right. These images were processed by the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  20. Introduction to Satellite Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-15

    vector (meters/second) m is mass of the oahect (knnrl: ’ ) 2-3 Cl1, CCP IlOb 5 10 November 1975 ( )) I tie Indjbs Lit d bid\\, is ’Ilk’d’/ ~~ Sd t...Careful 1. 1, iil V CIS theto; iul.plI it; it 0’elocii% perpelid tiu t to tile idditiS vector . This \\’elocitV, (.oiiiwiilit is cdjli--ti tilt 11i dC5Vui st...velocity, v, is the vector sum of these two velocities. (6) Artificial satellites. Artificial satellites obey the samp sf-t of laws and follow the

  1. Manned engineering test satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Hiromi; Satou, Masao; Tomoeda, Hisao; Obara, Hiroaki; Oomura, Katsutoshi

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual design of manned engineering satellites is presented. The mission scenarios for developing manned engineering satellites involve: (1) selecting mission equipment to enable preferential development and validation of mandatory technologies among those for Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS); (2) selecting mission equipment to enable development and validation of independent domestic technologies as well as utilizing to the utmost the manned space technology acquired through the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM); and (3) installing the most effective mission on the basis of relationships with Extravehicular Activity (EVA), robot, and retrieval-type spacecraft technologies, and trends of overseas manned space technology. The results of reviews on the system and subsystems, such as attitude and orbit control, structure, thermal control, electric power, communication, and data processing subsystems are outlined. The results of reviews on the structure, weight, and reentry phase operation are presented.

  2. Commercial satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolin, C.

    1991-09-01

    Telespazio provides satellites services for fixed and mobile telecommunications utilizing the space segments of INTELSAT, EUTELSAT and INMARSAT since inception. Telespazio's main facilities are located in the three centers of Fucino (central Italy), Lario (northern Italy) and Scanzano (Sicily) for a total of 7 stations operating traffic for a number of Italian and Foreign Telecommunications organizations. As at December 31, 1990 a total of 4500 voice grade and data circuits were in operations connecting Italy to nearly a hundred Overseas and European destinations. Over 400,000 and 530,000 minutes of telephone and telex were transmitted, respectively, through Fucino Coast Earth Station via INMARSAT satellite during 1990 to and from ships and other mobile vehicles. Both occasional and regular television services are broadcast and received. The total number of hours of TV services broadcast in 1990 reached the record figure of more than 5500.

  3. Satellite Tracking and Observability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Turailic Code 62xC DO FORM 1473,84 MAR B3APRed,tonmaybeuseduntIeshausted SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete...kepler and Newton. These laws of motion apply to artificial satellites as well as planets and moons. The physical geometries and forces are the same...and are evenly spaced from each other . These are called meridians and they intersect with the equator at right angles. Meridians 3oin at both poles

  4. Satellite servicing economic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Therefore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  5. Satellite freeze forecast system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Provisions for back-up operations for the satellite freeze forecast system are discussed including software and hardware maintenance and DS/1000-1V linkage; troubleshooting; and digitized radar usage. The documentation developed; dissemination of data products via television and the IFAS computer network; data base management; predictive models; the installation of and progress towards the operational status of key stations; and digital data acquisition are also considered. The d addition of dew point temperature into the P-model is outlined.

  6. Recovery of spinning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppey, J. M.; Mahaffey, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of a space tug and a spinning satellite in a coupled configuration was simulated and analyzed. A docking concept was developed to investigate the requirements pertaining to the design of a docking interface. Sensing techniques and control requirements for the chase vehicle were studied to assess the feasibility of an automatic docking. The effects of nutation dampers and liquid propellant slosh motion upon the docking transient were investigated.

  7. Balancing Vanguard Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkovich, A.; Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    The Vanguard satellites and component parts were balanced within the specified limits by using a Gisholt Type-S balancer in combination with a portable International Research and Development vibration analyzer and filter, with low-frequency pickups. Equipment and procedures used for balancing are described; and the determination of residual imbalance is accomplished by two methods: calculation, and graphical interpretation. Between-the-bearings balancing is recommended for future balancing of payloads.

  8. ASPEC: Solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  9. Satellite servicing economic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Threfore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  10. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-27

    Council in Los Angeles, California, July 25, 1996. 9 Robert B Murrett, “NGA — Then and Now; Celebrating 10 Years of GEOINT,” Pathfinder , September/October...Domestic Spy Satellites before the House Committee on Homeland Security, September 6, 2007; also, Statement of Lisa Graves, Deputy Director of the Center...United States House of Representatives, September 1, 2007. 24 Lisa Graves, Deputy Director of the Center for National Security Studies, Statement before

  11. Origin of the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Tittemore, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The current understanding of the origin of the Uranian satellites is assessed by reviewing relevant data on the Uranian satellites, including those obtained by Voyager, and comparing these properties with those of the satellites of the other outer planets. The nature of the early solar system, including the origin of the giant planets, is discussed as a preface to alternative hypotheses for the origin of the nebular disk within which the Uranian satellites formed. The chemical and physical properties of this disk are discussed, as well as the accretion of the satellites from disk solid matter. Predictions of alternative scenarios for the satellites' origin with the relevant observational constraint are compared. The orbital evolution of the larger satellites of Uranus is discussed to gain an understanding of their present orbital properties and possibly important past tidal heating episodes.

  12. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-01-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  13. Satellite Servicing Technology Development Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, R.; Waltz, D.; Schrock, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new capability regarding the U.S. space efforts will be related to the servicing of satellites in orbit utilizing first-generation space station as the collection point or base for Shuttle-delivered payloads. Orbital maneuvering vehicles could move payloads or spacecraft assembled at the Shuttle/space station terminus to other earth orbit locations. It is assumed that such a capability will be initially available in the early 1990's. The benefits provided by satellite servicing in orbit are discussed, taking into account extended satellite lifetimes, lower acquisition cost, improved satellite performance, the possibility to change a satellite's mission, optimized science, and higher satellite reliability. The requirements for Satellite Servicing Technology Development Missions (TDMs) are considered. It is found that existing technology is insufficient, in various areas, to perform the servicing operations. A list is provided of critical technologies which must be developed.

  14. Larger Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Steven; Buratti, B. J.; Hansen, C.; Hurford, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-09-01

    Outer planets exploration in the past three decades has revealed a diverse host of large icy bodies undergoing a myriad of geological and chemical processes remarkably similar yet alien to those occurring on Earth. The most active of these, including the Galilean satellites and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan, are obvious targets for future robotic exploration. The broader host of satellites larger than 100 km should also figure into NASA's goals, owing to their abundance and insights they offer into past and present geological processes, Solar System formation and planetary evolution. Included in this class are the enigmatic objects Dione, with its smooth planes and fractured regions; Mimas with its giant crater Herschel; Iapetus, which has an odd shape and a mysterious equatorial ridge; Miranda, which has been subjected to drastic geologic reconfiguration; and Triton, with its geyser-like plumes. Many bodies in this class are of sufficient size and density to have hosted internal liquid water oceans in their early history, or even in the present epoch, making them targets of astrobiological interest. We discuss the importance of larger icy satellites to NASA's objectives, their importance for understanding, geology, chemistry and dynamics in the Solar System, and observational and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in the next decade.

  15. A satellite anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, W. B.; Heelis, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design, development, and testing of components of a satellite anemometer, an instrument for measuring neutral winds in the upper atmosphere from a satellite platform. The device, which uses four nearly identical pressure sensors, measures the angle of arrival of the bulk neutral flow in the satellite frame of reference. It could also be used in a feedback loop to control spacecraft attitude with respect to the ram velocity direction. We have now developed miniaturized ionization pressure gauges that will work well from the slip flow region near 115 km up to the base of the exosphere, which covers the entire altitude range currently being considered for Tether. Laboratory tests have demonstrated a very linear response to changes in ram angle out to +/- 20 deg. (transverse wind component of 2.7 km s(exp -1)) from the ram, and a monotonic response to out beyond 45 deg. Pitch (vertical wind) and yaw (horizontal wind) can be sampled simultaneously and meaningfully up to 10 Hz. Angular sensitivity of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 ms(exp -1) is readily attainable, but absolute accuracy for winds will be approximately 1 deg (130 m/s) unless independent attitude knowledge is available. The critical elements of the design have all been tested in the laboratory.

  16. Vanguard Satellite Separation Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    Early in the Vanguard program it became apparent that a thoroughly reliable means of separating the satellite packages from the third-stage rocket would be required. A completely self -contained standard mechanism was developed with redundant firing circuits for use on both test vehicles and satellite-launching vehicles. A change in the experimental objectives of the test-vehicle payload units necessitated modification of some of the standard separation mechanisms. A strap, pull-pin, girth-ring separation device was developed which employed the basic actuation of the standard mechanisms. Evidence of residual burning of the third stage made it necessary to delay separation longer than the time designed into the long-delay separation device. The standard separation mechanism was modified and integrated with the satellite command receiver system so that a ground command after third-stage burnout would cause separation. Flight performance of the various separation mechanisms proved their reliability; they performed without failure in all Vanguard launchings.

  17. Tethered satellite design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manarini, G.

    1986-01-01

    The capability of the satellite to perform a variety of space operations to be accomplished from the shuttle is reviewed considering use of the satellite with man-in-loop and closed loop modes and deployment (toward or away from Earth, up to 100 km), stationkeeping, retrieval and control of the satellite. Scientific payloads are to be used to perform experiments and scientific investigation for applications such as magnetometry, electrodynamics, atmospheric science, chemical release, communications, plasmaphysics, dynamic environment, and power and thrust generation. The TSS-S will be reused for at least 3 missions after reconfiguration and refurbishment by changing the peculiar mission items such as thermal control, fixed boom for experiments, aerodynamic tail for yaw attitude control, external skin, experiments, and any other feature. The TSS-S is to be composed of three modules in order to allow independent integration of a single module and to facilitate the refurbishment and reconfiguration between flights. The three modules are service, auxiliary propulsion, and payload modules.

  18. Laser satellite power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  19. Heart Monitoring By Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ambulance antenna shown is a specially designed system that allows satellite-relayed two-way communications between a moving emergency vehicle and a hospital emergency room. It is a key component of a demonstration program aimed at showing how emergency medical service can be provided to people in remote rural areas. Satellite communication permits immediate, hospital- guided treatment of heart attacks or other emergencies by ambulance personnel, saving vital time when the scene of the emergency is remote from the hospital. If widely adopted, the system could save tens of thousands of lives annually in the U.S. alone, medical experts say. The problem in conventional communication with rural areas is the fact that radio signals travel in line of sight. They may be blocked by tall buildings, hills and mountains, or even by the curvature of the Earth, so signal range is sharply limited. Microwave relay towers could solve the problem, but a complete network of repeater towers would be extremely expensive. The satellite provides an obstruction-free relay station in space.

  20. NORAD satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Joseph J. F.

    1987-01-01

    NORAD routinely tracks about 6000 orbiting objects. During the last 30 days of orbital time, prior to reentry, special perturbations are used in the orbital update procedure. Besides routine orbit determination, NORAD does special tasks such as predicting satellite orbit conjunctions within 20 km, ephimerides of weather satellites, satellite decay predictions and other studies. Since their mission is operational, they do not store the data from their analyses. The ballistic coefficient is not known for most of the orbiting objects. If a ballistic coefficient were derived that was consistent with one density model, it might give erroneous results if used with a different density model. Given the ballistic coefficient, density values could, in principle, be obtained from their tracking data. The densities would represent an integrated mean over the orbital path near perigee. They would be model dependent and would not necessarily represent the real density. In summary, the primary need is for reliable forecasts of solar flux (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity (Ap) in the 1 to 4 week time scale. Forecasts over longer time spans would also be useful for special projects.

  1. ACTS Satellite Telemammography Network Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachmar, Brian A.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch of NASA's Glenn Research Center has developed and demonstrated several advanced satellite communications technologies through the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program. One of these technologies is the implementation of a Satellite Telemammography Network (STN) encompassing NASA Glenn, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. the University of Virginia, and the Ashtabula County Medical Center. This paper will present a look at the STN from its beginnings to the impact it may have on future telemedicine applications. Results obtained using the experimental ACTS satellite demonstrate the feasibility of Satellite Telemammography. These results have improved teleradiology processes and mammography image manipulation, and enabled advances in remote screening methodologies. Future implementation of satellite telemammography using next generation commercial satellite networks will be explored. In addition, the technical aspects of the project will be discussed, in particular how the project has evolved from using NASA developed hardware and software to commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. Development of asymmetrical link technologies was an outcome of this work. Improvements in the display of digital mammographic images, better understanding of end-to-end system requirements, and advances in radiological image compression were achieved as a result of the research. Finally, rigorous clinical medical studies are required for new technologies such as digital satellite telemammography to gain acceptance in the medical establishment. These experiments produced data that were useful in two key medical studies that addressed the diagnostic accuracy of compressed satellite transmitted digital mammography images. The results of these studies will also be discussed.

  2. Improved accuracies for satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammeyer, P. C.; Fiala, A. D.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    A charge coupled device (CCD) camera on an optical telescope which follows the stars can be used to provide high accuracy comparisons between the line of sight to a satellite, over a large range of satellite altitudes, and lines of sight to nearby stars. The CCD camera can be rotated so the motion of the satellite is down columns of the CCD chip, and charge can be moved from row to row of the chip at a rate which matches the motion of the optical image of the satellite across the chip. Measurement of satellite and star images, together with accurate timing of charge motion, provides accurate comparisons of lines of sight. Given lines of sight to stars near the satellite, the satellite line of sight may be determined. Initial experiments with this technique, using an 18 cm telescope, have produced TDRS-4 observations which have an rms error of 0.5 arc second, 100 m at synchronous altitude. Use of a mosaic of CCD chips, each having its own rate of charge motion, in the focal place of a telescope would allow point images of a geosynchronous satellite and of stars to be formed simultaneously in the same telescope. The line of sight of such a satellite could be measured relative to nearby star lines of sight with an accuracy of approximately 0.03 arc second. Development of a star catalog with 0.04 arc second rms accuracy and perhaps ten stars per square degree would allow determination of satellite lines of sight with 0.05 arc second rms absolute accuracy, corresponding to 10 m at synchronous altitude. Multiple station time transfers through a communications satellite can provide accurate distances from the satellite to the ground stations. Such observations can, if calibrated for delays, determine satellite orbits to an accuracy approaching 10 m rms.

  3. Mobile satellite service communications tests using a NASA satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Katherine H.; Koschmeder, Louis A.; Hollansworth, James E.; ONeill, Jack; Jones, Robert E.; Gibbons, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Emerging applications of commercial mobile satellite communications include satellite delivery of compact disc (CD) quality radio to car drivers who can select their favorite programming as they drive any distance; transmission of current air traffic data to aircraft; and handheld communication of data and images from any remote corner of the world. Experiments with the enabling technologies and tests and demonstrations of these concepts are being conducted before the first satellite is launched by utilizing an existing NASA spacecraft.

  4. Satellite-to-satellite system and orbital error estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, P. E.; Argentiero, P. D.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1976-01-01

    Satellite-to-satellite tracking and orbit computation accuracy is evaluated on the basis of data obtained from near earth spacecraft via the geostationary ATS-6. The near earth spacecraft involved are Apollo-Soyuz, GEOS-3, and NIMBUS-6. In addition ATS-6 is being tracked by a new scheme wherein a single ground transmitter interrogates several ground based transponders via ATS-6 to achieve the precision geostationary orbits essential in satellite-to-satellite orbit computation. Also one way Doppler data is being recorded aboard NIMBUS-6 to determine the position of meteorological platforms. Accuracy assessments associated with the foregoing mission related experiments are discussed.

  5. Nano-Satellite Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culver, Harry

    1999-01-01

    Abstract NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing a new class of satellites called the nano-satellite (nano-sat). A major objective of this development effort is to provide the technology required to enable a constellation of tens to hundreds of nano-satellites to make both remote and in-situ measurements from space. The Nano-sat will be a spacecraft weighing a maximum of 10 kg, including the propellant mass, and producing at least 5 Watts of power to operate the spacecraft. The electronics are required to survive a total radiation dose rate of 100 krads for a mission lifetime of two years. There are many unique challenges that must be met in order to develop the avionics for such a spacecraft. The first challenge is to develop an architecture that will operate on the allotted 5 Watts and meet the diverging requirements of multiple missions. This architecture will need to incorporate a multitude of new advanced microelectronic technologies. The microelectronics developed must be a modular and scalable packaging of technology to solve the problem of developing a solution to both reduce cost and meet the requirements of various missions. This development will utilize the most cost effective approach, whether infusing commercially driven semiconductor devices into spacecraft applications or partnering with industry to design and develop low cost, low power, low mass, and high capacity data processing devices. This paper will discuss the nano-sat architecture and the major technologies that will be developed. The major technologies that will be covered include: (1) Light weight Low Power Electronics Packaging, (2) Radiation Hard/Tolerant, Low Power Processing Platforms, (3) High capacity Low Power Memory Systems (4) Radiation Hard reconfiguragble field programmable gate array (rFPGA)

  6. Explorer Satellite Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eyraud, J. P.; Richter, H. L.; Victor, W. K.

    1960-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the design restrictions and the philosophy which enabled the Explorer satellites to be first during the IGY to reveal the presence of a belt of intense cosmic radiation encircling the earth's equator. In addition, an indication of the amount and momentum of cosmic dust in the solar system was obtained from the Explorers. Methods used to obtain reliability in the transducing and communications system are described, together with interpretations of space-environment information as deduced from the narrow-band telemetry.

  7. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Model calculations and analyses have been carried out to compare with several sets of data (dose, induced radioactivity in various experiment samples and spacecraft components, fission foil measurements, and LET spectra) from passive radiation dosimetry on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The calculations and data comparisons are used to estimate the accuracy of current models and methods for predicting the ionizing radiation environment in low earth orbit. The emphasis is on checking the accuracy of trapped proton flux and anisotropy models.

  8. Flexible satellite data services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, L.; Dinwiddy, S.

    Four different satellite data service system concepts are examined, and are all shown to be useful, depending on the applications. A 34-Mbit/s TDMA system is an excellent choice for a large fully meshed network using relatively few earth stations. A twin 2-Mbit/s TDM-plus-TDMA system is good for small predominantly star-connected networks. In addition, it is suggested that a 2/8/34 Mbit/s multicarrier hybrid system can be used as a low-risk alternative to immediate full-scale TDMA, particularly when system growth is in the number of earth stations and not in traffic per station.

  9. Radio broadcasting via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    1990-10-01

    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  10. X-ray satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the second quarter 1985 development of the X-ray satellite project is presented. It is shown that the project is proceeding according to plan and that the projected launch date of September 9, 1987 is on schedule. An overview of the work completed and underway on the systems, subsystems, payload, assembly, ground equipment and interfaces is presented. Problem areas shown include cost increases in the area of focal instrumentation, the star sensor light scattering requirements, and postponements in the data transmission subsystems.

  11. Satellite attitude control simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debra, D. B.; Powell, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Work was conducted to develop an extremely low drift rate gyroscope and a very precise star tracker. A proposed relativity satellite will measure very accurately the theoretically predicted 'relativistic' precession of the gyroscope relative to an inertial reference frame provided by the star tracker. Aspects of precision spinning attitude control are discussed together with questions of gyro operation, and the hopping mode for lunar transportation. For the attitude control system of the lunar hopper, a number of control laws were investigated. The studies indicated that some suboptimal controls should be adequate for the system.

  12. The Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This composite includes the four largest moons of Jupiter which are known as the Galilean satellites. The Galilean satellites were first seen by the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1610. Shown from left to right in order of increasing distance from Jupiter, Io is closest, followed by Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

    The order of these satellites from the planet Jupiter helps to explain some of the visible differences among the moons. Io is subject to the strongest tidal stresses from the massive planet. These stresses generate internal heating which is released at the surface and makes Io the most volcanically active body in our solar system. Europa appears to be strongly differentiated with a rock/iron core, an ice layer at its surface, and the potential for local or global zones of water between these layers. Tectonic resurfacing brightens terrain on the less active and partially differentiated moon Ganymede. Callisto, furthest from Jupiter, appears heavily cratered at low resolutions and shows no evidence of internal activity.

    North is to the top of this composite picture in which these satellites have all been scaled to a common factor of 10 kilometers (6 miles) per picture element.

    The Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft acquired the Io and Ganymede images in June 1996, the Europa images in September 1996, and the Callisto images in November 1997.

    Launched in October 1989, the spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web

  13. The Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This composite includes the four largest moons of Jupiter which are known as the Galilean satellites. From left to right, the moons shown are Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa. The Galilean satellites were first seen by the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1610. In order of increasing distance from Jupiter, Io is closest, followed by Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

    The order of these satellites from the planet Jupiter helps to explain some of the visible differences among the moons. Io is subject to the strongest tidal stresses from the massive planet. These stresses generate internal heating which is released at the surface and makes Io the most volcanically active body in our solar system. Europa appears to be strongly differentiated with a rock/iron core, an ice layer at its surface, and the potential for local or global zones of water between these layers. Tectonic resurfacing brightens terrain on the less active and partially differentiated moon Ganymede. Callisto, furthest from Jupiter, appears heavily cratered at low resolutions and shows no evidence of internal activity.

    North is to the top of this composite picture in which these satellites have all been scaled to a common factor of 10 kilometers (6 miles) per picture element.

    The Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft obtained the Io and Ganymede images in June 1996, while the Europa images were obtained in September 1996. Because Galileo focuses on high resolution imaging of regional areas on Callisto rather than global coverage, the portrait of Callisto is from the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft.

    Launched in October 1989, the spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World

  14. LDEF satellite radiation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1994-01-01

    Some early results are summarized from a program under way to utilize LDEF satellite data for evaluating and improving current models of the space radiation environment in low earth orbit. Reported here are predictions and comparisons with some of the LDEF dose and induced radioactivity data, which are used to check the accuracy of current models describing the magnitude and directionality of the trapped proton environment. Preliminary findings are that the environment models underestimate both dose and activation from trapped protons by a factor of about two, and the observed anisotropy is higher than predicted.

  15. Future communications satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1992-01-01

    The point of view of the research is made through the use of viewgraphs. It is suggested that future communications satellite applications will be made through switched point to point narrowband communications. Some characteristics of which are as follows: small/low cost terminals; single hop communications; voice compatible; full mesh networking; ISDN compatible; and possible limited use of full motion video. Some target applications are as follows: voice/data networks between plants and offices in a corporation; data base networking for commercial and science users; and cellular radio internodal voice/data networking.

  16. TDRSS Augmentation System for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  17. Satellite stabilization using space leeches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Michael W.; Kim, Dong-Min

    1990-01-01

    A control algorithm for satellite stabilization using a space leech is presented. The space leech is assumed to have n reaction wheels with known moments of inertia about their axis of rotation. All mass properties of the satellite are assumed to be unknown. The algorithm brings the satellite to a specified attitude trajectory. Simulations were performed to demonstrate the controller. The model parameters and specific algorithm used and the results obtained are presented.

  18. Detection and localization of satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista Aranda, Manuel

    The surveillance of orbital space is conducted in order to (1) detect military activities, (2) keep a tally of active and 'dead' satellites, launch vehicle upper stages, explosion debris, etc., and (3) prevent collisions with active satellites, as well as anticipate the exact timing of satellite reentries. An account is presently given of the complex system of optical- and radar-sensor space surveillance conducted by agencies of the U.S. government.

  19. Direct broadcast satellite technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamon, P. M.

    The satellites discussed here are those that have been proposed for operation in the 12.2-12.7 GHz band in the U.S. to provide domestic services. Technical issues are summarized which will influence policy, regulatory practices, and decisions bearing on domestic and international sharing. Technical approaches are presented for the efficient use of the orbit to be used by direct broadcast satellites for the Broadcasting-Satellite Service.

  20. Satellite relocation by tether deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hrach, Frank J.

    1989-01-01

    Several new uses of satellite tethers are discussed, including: (1) using tether extension to reposition a satellite in orbit without fuel expenditure by extending a mass on the end of a tether; (2) using a tether for energy storage to power the satellite during eclipse; and (3) using a tether for eccentricity pumping to correct perturbations in the orbit and as a means of adding energy to the orbit for boosting and orbital transfer.

  1. Satellite relocation by tether deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hrach, Frank J.

    1991-01-01

    Several new uses of satellite tethers are discussed, including: (1) using tether extension to reposition a satellite in orbit without fuel expenditure by extending a mass on the end of a tether; (2) using a tether for energy storage to power the satellite during eclipse; and (3) using a tether for eccentricity pumping to correct perturbations in the orbit and as a means of adding energy to the orbit for boosting and orbital transfer.

  2. Communications satellite systems capacity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, L.; Hines, T.; Tunstall, B.

    1982-01-01

    Analog and digital modulation techniques are compared with regard to efficient use of the geostationary orbit by communications satellites. Included is the definition of the baseline systems (both space and ground segments), determination of interference susceptibility, calculation of orbit spacing, and evaluation of relative costs. It is assumed that voice or TV is communicated at 14/11 GHz using either FM or QPSK modulation. Both the Fixed-Satellite Service and the Broadcasting-Satellite Service are considered. For most of the cases examined the digital approach requires a satellite spacing less than or equal to that required by the analog approach.

  3. The inner satellites of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Synott, S.

    1981-01-01

    The Jupiter moon Amalthea and the smaller satellites J1, J2, and J3, discovered by Voyagers 1 and 2, are discussed under the collective appellation of 'inner satellites', which distinguishes them from the Galilean satellites and the outer satellites, J6-J13. Amalthea is a dark, irregular body on which two large craters are visible, with an estimated surface gravity of 5-7 cm/sec-squared. It is speculated that Amalthea's unique color/reflectance characteristics are due to prolonged charged particle and high-velocity micrometeoroid exposure. Dimensional data are presented for J1-3.

  4. Satellite communication for public services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, R. S.; Redisch, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    Public service programs using NASA's ATS-6 and CTS satellites are discussed. Examples include the ATS-6 Health and Education Telecommunications experimental program and the use of CTS to enable students in one university to take courses presented at another distant university. Possible applications of satellite communication systems to several areas of public service are described, and economic and political obstacles hindering the implementation of these programs are considered. It is suggested that a federally sponsored program demonstrating the utility of satellites accomodating a large number of small terminals is needed to encourage commercial satellite operations.

  5. Land mobile satellite demonstration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

    1988-01-01

    A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

  6. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  7. Icy Satellites: Perpetual Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Moore, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    The ice-rich moons of the outer solar system are worlds of perpetual permafrost. By analogy to the terrestrial roles of silicates and water ice, surface materials of these worlds commonly consist of components that are respectively refractory and volatile at local environmental conditions. We consider the physical properties, volatile components, and geomorphological characteristics of outer planet satellite surfaces and shallow regoliths as analogs to permafrost environments. Near-surface temperatures of ~40 to 165 K preclude melting of water-ice, except where endogenic activity has increased surface temperatures locally. However, water and/or more volatile ices can be transported in the vapor phase, and can liquefy in the deeper subsurface. In the water-ice-poor regolith of Io, SO2 and possibly H2S are volatile ices that can be transported in the vapor phase and can liquefy at depth, resulting in degradation and local collapse of the ground surface. Sublimation degradation is especially evident in images of Callisto, where slow diffusive loss of CO2 is the likely erosive agent. On Neptune's large moon Triton, nitrogen plays the role of a permafrost volatile, near its melting temperature in a regolith of more refractory ices. Most large icy satellites probably have water-rich subsurface oceans, and it has been proposed that Europa's subsurface ocean might sustain life. Frigid surface temperatures and severe charged particle radiation preclude near-surface metabolism, but organisms could potentially survive within deeper regions and local upwelling plumes that approach the ice melting temperature.

  8. The power relay satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.E.

    1994-12-31

    The availability and use of renewable energy sources compatible with reducing risks to the global environment are key to sustainable development. Large-scale, renewable energy resources at undeveloped or underutilized sites are potentially available on several continents. The Power Relay Satellite (PRS) concept has the potential to access these remote energy resources by coupling primary electricity generation from terrestrial transmission lines. A global PRS network can be envisioned to provide a high degree of flexibility for supplying energy demands worldwide with wireless power transmitted from sites on Earth to geosynchronous orbit and then reflected to receivers interfacing with terrestrial power transmision networks. Past developments in wireless power transmission (WPT) are reviewed and recent successful results are noted. The origins of the PRS concept, and a possible configuration are discussed, principles of WPT at microwave frequencies, functional requirements, and system design contraints are outlined, and space transportation concepts presented. PRS assessments including applicable technologies, economic projections, and societal issues are highlighted. It is concluded that the PRS provides a promising option to access renewable resources at great distances from major markets, and represents an important stage in the future development in the future of solar power satellites.

  9. The power relay satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    The availability and use of renewable energy sources compatible with reducing risks to the global environment are key to sustainable development. Large-scale, renewable energy resources at undeveloped or underutilized sites are potentially available on several continents. The Power Relay Satellite (PRS) concept has the potential to access these remote energy resources by coupling primary electricity generation from terrestrial transmission lines. A global PRS network can be envisioned to provide a high degree of flexibility for supplying energy demands worldwide with wireless power transmitted from sites on Earth to geosynchronous orbit and then reflected to receivers interfacing with terrestrial power transmision networks. Past developments in wireless power transmission (WPT) are reviewed and recent successful results are noted. The origins of the PRS concept, and a possible configuration are discussed, principles of WPT at microwave frequencies, functional requirements, and system design contraints are outlined, and space transportation concepts presented. PRS assessments including applicable technologies, economic projections, and societal issues are highlighted. It is concluded that the PRS provides a promising option to access renewable resources at great distances from major markets, and represents an important stage in the future development in the future of solar power satellites.

  10. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Declassified photographs from U.S. intelligence satellites provide an important worldwide addition to the public record of the Earth’s land surface. This imagery was released to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in accordance with Executive Order 12951 on February 23, 1995. The NARA has the original declassified film and a viewing copy. The USGS has another copy of the film to complement the Landsat archive.The declassified collection involves more than 990,000 photographs taken from 1959 through 1980 and was released on two separate occasions: February 1995 (Declass 1) and September 2002 (Declass 2). The USGS copy is maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Both the NARA and EROS provide public access to this unique collection that extends the record of land-surface change back another decade from the advent of the Landsat program that began satellite operations in 1972.

  11. Enceladus: a vanishing satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Enceladus, a satellite of Saturn, is the smallest celestial body in the Solar System where volcanic activity is observed. Every second, the mass of ~200 kg is ejecting into space. The size of the satellite directly after accretion (this body is referred here as proto-Enceladus) is unknown. It can be estimated in two ways. First, if the average mass outflow is equal to the present rate then the satellite's original mass was ~30% bigger than today. Second, we assume here that density of proto-Enceladus was equal to the present density of Mimas because they were formed in the same part of the nebula. Mimas is dead, so it preserves original composition. Both approaches give similar initial Enceladus' radius (~296 km) and its surface area (~1.1×106 km2). The present values are: 252 km and 7.99×105 km2. The loss of matter should lead to global compression of the crust. Typical effects of compression are: thrust faults, folding, and subduction. However, such forms are not dominant on Enceladus. We propose here special tectonic model that could explain this paradox. The volatiles escape from the hot region through the fractures forming plumes in the space. The loss of the volatiles results in a void, an instability, and motion of solid matter into hot region to fill the void in statu nascendi. The motion includes: Subsidence of the lithosphere of SPT. Flow of matter in the mantle. Motion of lithospheric plates adjacent to SPT towards the active region. If emerging void is being filled by the subsidence of SPT only, then the velocity of subsidence is ~0.05 mm·yr-1. However, all three types of motion are probably important, so the subsidence is slower but mantle flow and plates' motion also play a role in filling the void. Note that in our model reduction of the crust area is not a result of compression but it is a result of the plate sinking. Therefore the compressional surface features do not have to be dominant. Note also that we do not know the present age of the

  12. Workshop on Satellite Meteorology. Part 1; Satellite and Their Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Workshop on Satellite Meteorology is co-sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University and the American Meteorlogical Society's Committee on Meteorological Aspects of Aerospace Systems. The workshop covers uses of satellite data in atmospheric science. It provides state-of-the-art information to those in Universities, research groups, and other users. One area of primary focus is to provide source material to university personnel for developing and augmenting courses in satellite meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. The items in the program include information on meteorological satellites and data sources, uses of satellite imagery for all scales of weather analysis and forecasting, uses of sounding data and other radiance information and research opportunities on interactive systems. Each session is presented by a group of experts in the field and includes an open discussion of the state-of-the-art and promising areas for future development. This pre-print volume is one of three parts on the workshop. The three parts are: PART I. Satellites and Their Data; PART II. Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation; PART III. Satellite Soundings and Their Uses.

  13. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  14. Satellite-Based Educational Services. Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operations Research, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This memorandum contains engineering information relevant to the use of communication satellites for educational purposes. Information is provided for ground terminals as well as satellites. Satellite related issues addressed include: (1) expected life of service of various satellites, (2) constraints on the availability of the satellites, (3)…

  15. The Future of Satellite Communications Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowland, Wayne

    1985-01-01

    Discusses technical advances in satellite technology since the 1960s, and the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization's role in these developments; describes how AUSSAT, Australia's domestic satellite system, exemplifies the latest developments in satellite technology; and reviews satellite system features, possible future…

  16. Sentinels in the Sky: Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Robert

    This publication describes forecasting weather activity using satellites. Information is included on the development of weather satellites, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite System (including the polar-orbiting satellites), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). The publication…

  17. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, J. W., Jr.; Arnold, C. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program is a total satellite system composed of spacecraft with meteorological sensors, an Earth-based command and control network, user stations, launch vehicle and support; with a communication network linking the various segments together. The various system segments are described.

  18. Satellite Geography: Tomorrow's Perspective Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteford, Gary T.

    1985-01-01

    Advocates the implementation of satellite geography programs to increase student interest and ability in monitoring earth conditions. Recommends integration and application of remotely sensed data to all levels of the curriculum and especially in environmental education programs. Discusses future developments in satellite information systems. (ML)

  19. Satellite (IRLS) tracking of elk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    The practicability of tracking free roaming animals in natural environments by satellite systems is reported. Satellite systems combine continuous tracking with simultaneous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters through a combination of radio tracking and biotelemetric ground systems that lead to a better understanding of animal behavior and migration patterns.

  20. Drag-free satellite control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debra, Daniel B.

    1989-01-01

    A drag-free satellite cancels the effect of external disturbances. Although the forces may be small, a satellite is disturbed by residual air drag, radiation pressure, micrometeorite impact, and other small forces that act on its surface disturbing its orbit, which is principally determined by the gravity field. In some missions, these small perturbations that make the satellite deviate from its purely gravitational orbit are limiting. An internal unsupported proof mass is shielded by the satellite from the external disturbances. The position of the shield (or the main part of the satellite) is measured with respect to the internal proof mass, and this information is used to actuate a propulsion system which moves the satellite to follow the proof mass. A drag-free control system is illustrated. Since the proof mass is shielded it follows a purely gravitational orbit - as does the satellite following it - hence the name drag-free satellite. The idea was conceived by Lange (1964) and has been applied to many mission studies since. In some cases, it is not necessary to cancel the disturbances, only to measure them so they may be taken into account. In such cases, an accelerometer may be a more suitable solution (for example, using the ONERA Cactus or the Bell Aerosystems MESA).

  1. Radiocommunications for meteorological satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the spectrum utilization and frequency requirements of present and planned meteorological satellite programs. The sensors, and TIROS operational systems are discussed along with the Nimbus and Synchronous Meteorological Satellites. STORMSAT, SEASAT, and the Spacelab are briefly described.

  2. Satellite Technology Demonstration; Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federation of Rocky Mountain States, Inc., Denver, CO.

    The goal of the Satellite Technology Demonstration project (STD) was to show the feasibility of a satellite-based media system for isolated, rural populations and to test and evaluate user acceptance and the cost of various delivery modes using a variety of materials. The STD amalgamated the resources of government, health, education, and…

  3. Satellites: Teaching Technology Looks Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Philip

    1973-01-01

    A Satellite will beam career education programs to 56 rural junior high schools and 12 public broadcasting stations in eight Rocky Mountain States. Programing on health, drug education, and English as a second language will be beamed to Alaskan elementary schools. Satellite beamed programs to India are planned on improving occupations skills, food…

  4. Newspaper Uses of Satellite Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, David

    Replacing slower mail service, satellite transmission now gives the newspaper industry a practical and almost spontaneous method for sending all kinds of information to any newspaper across the country. Unlike other communication industries, newspapers did not begin to make widespread use of satellite technology until 1979, when government…

  5. Satellite Rings Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie clip (of which the release image is a still frame), taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft as it approached Jupiter, shows the motions, over a 16 hour-period, of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies.

    The movie was made from images taken during a 40-hour sequence of the Jovian ring on December 11, 2000.

    Cassini is a cooperative mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  6. Solar power from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1977-01-01

    Microwave beaming of satellite-collected solar energy to earth for conversion to useful industrial power is evaluated for feasibility, with attention given to system efficiencies and costs, ecological impact, hardware to be employed, available options for energy conversion and transmission, and orbiting and assembly. Advantages of such a power generation and conversion system are listed, plausible techniques for conversion of solar energy (thermionic, thermal electric, photovoltaic) and transmission to earth (lasers, arrays of mirrors, microwave beams) are compared. Structural fatigue likely to result from brief daily eclipses, 55% system efficiency at the present state of the art, present projections of system costs, and projected economic implications of the technology are assessed. Two-stage orbiting and assembly plans are described.

  7. Astronomy from satellite clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachnik, R.; Labeyrie, A.

    1984-03-01

    Attention is called to the accumulating evidence that giant space telescopes, comprising a number of separate mirrors on independent satellites, are a realistic prospect for providing research tools of extraordinary power. The ESA-sponsored group and its counterpart in the US have reached remarkably similar conclusions regarding the basic configuration of extremely large synthetic-aperture devices. Both share the basic view that a cluster of spacecraft is preferable to a single monolithic structure. The emphasis of the US group has been on a mission that sweeps across as many sources as possible in the minimum time; it is referred to as SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry). The European group has placed more emphasis on obtaining two-dimensional images. Their system is referred to as TRIO because, at least initially, it involves three independent systems. Detailed descriptions are given of the two systems.

  8. Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edler, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Potential organizational options for a solar power satellite system (SPS) were investigated. Selection and evaluation criteria were determined to include timeliness, reliability, and adequacy to contribute meaningfully to the U.S. supply; political feasibility (both national and international); and cost effectiveness (including environmental and other external costs). Based on these criteria, four organizational alternatives appeared to offer reasonable promise as potential options for SPS. A large number of key issues emerged as being factors which would influence the final selection process. Among these issues were a variety having to do with international law, international institutions, environmental controls, economics, operational flexibility, congressional policies, commercial-vs-governmental ownership, national dedication, and national and operational stategic issues.

  9. A satellite anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, W. B.; Ponzi, Ugo; Arduini, Carlo; Di Ruscio, Maurizio

    1992-01-01

    We present the conceptual design of an instrument that can provide a continuous analog measure of the pitch and yaw angles of a low altitude satellite in the frame of the neutral atmosphere. The device, which uses pressure sensor orientation to provide its signal, can function in an attitude control loop and/or be used to measure atmospheric winds or wave motions. Any arbitrary angle of attack (pitch and yaw) less than +/- 45 deg can be selected for a heading. The sensitivity of the device is 0.1 deg but this would be limited by low ambient pressure at high altitudes and by multiple particle collisions in and below the slip flow region. The development of a prototype flight unit is in progress.

  10. Capture-ejector satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Eldred, C. H.; Martin, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A satellite in the form of a large rotating rim which can be used to boost spacecraft from low-Earth orbit to higher orbits is described. The rim rotates in the plane of its orbit such that the lower portion of the rim is traveling at suborbital velocity, while the upper portion is travelling at greater than orbital velocity. Ascending spacecraft or payloads arrive at the lowest portion of the rim at suborbital velocities, where the payloads are released on a trajectory for higher orbits; descending payloads employ the reverse procedure. Electric thrusters placed on the rim maintain rim rotational speed and altitude. From the standpoint of currently known materials, the capture-ejector concept may be useful for relatively small velocity increments.

  11. Alaska's giant satellite network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, A.

    1983-07-01

    The evolution and features of the Alaskan telecommunications network are described, with emphasis on the satellite links. The Alaskan terrain is rugged and largely unpopulated. Satcom V provides C-band (6/4 GHz) transmission with 24 transponders, each having a 40 MHz bandwidth. The Alascom company operated 105 4.5 m earth-based antennas for remote villages, which receive both telephone and television services. There are also 27 10-m dishes for regional and military applications and a 30 m dish, one of three dishes for links to the centerminous U.S. Currently, half the villages have private and business telephone communications facilities and 200 villages have access to two television stations, one educational, one entertainment. Teleconferencing is possible for government and educational purposes, and discussions are underway with NASA to establish a mobile radio communications capacity.

  12. Polar research from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    In the polar regions and climate change section, the topics of ocean/atmosphere heat transfer, trace gases, surface albedo, and response to climate warming are discussed. The satellite instruments section is divided into three parts. Part one is about basic principles and covers, choice of frequencies, algorithms, orbits, and remote sensing techniques. Part two is about passive sensors and covers microwave radiometers, medium-resolution visible and infrared sensors, advanced very high resolution radiometers, optical line scanners, earth radiation budget experiment, coastal zone color scanner, high-resolution imagers, and atmospheric sounding. Part three is about active sensors and covers synthetic aperture radar, radar altimeters, scatterometers, and lidar. There is also a next decade section that is followed by a summary and recommendations section.

  13. Enceladus: a vanishing satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    Enceladus, a satellite of Saturn, is the smallest celestial body in the Solar System where volcanic activity is observed. Every second, the mass of 200 kg is ejecting into space. The size of the satellite directly after accretion (this body is referred here as proto-Enceladus) is unknown. It can be estimated in two ways. First, if the average mass outflow is equal to the present rate then the satellite’s original mass was 30% bigger than today. Second, we assume here that density of proto-Enceladus was equal to the present density of Mimas because they were formed in the same part of the nebula. Mimas is dead, so it preserves original composition. Both approaches give similar initial Enceladus’ radius ( 296 km) and its surface area ( 1.1×106 km2). The present values are: 252 km and 7.99×105 km2. The loss of matter should lead to global compression of the crust. Typical effects of compression are: thrust faults, folding, and subduction. However, such forms are not dominant on Enceladus. We propose here special tectonic model that could explain this paradox. The volatiles escape from the hot region through the fractures forming plumes in the space. The loss of the volatiles results in a void, an instability, and motion of solid matter into hot region to fill the void in statu nascendi. The motion includes: (i) Subsidence of the lithosphere of SPT. (ii) Flow of matter in the mantle. (iii) Motion of lithospheric plates adjacent to SPT towards the active region. If emerging void is being filled by the subsidence of SPT only, then the velocity of subsidence is 0.05 mm·yr-1. However, all three types of motion are probably important, so the subsidence is slower but mantle flow and plates’ motion also play a role in filling the void. Note that in our model reduction of the crust area is not a result of compression but it is a result of the plate sinking. Therefore the compressional surface features do not have to be dominant. Note also that we do not know the

  14. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  15. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  16. 30 GHz Commercial Satellite Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's research and development work in satellite communications for the past 10 years has included a major technology thrust aimed at opening the Ka frequency band to commercial exploitation. This has included the development and testing of advanced system network architectures, on-board switching and processing, multibeam and phased array antennas, and satellite and ground terminal RF and digital hardware. Development work in system hardware has focused on critical components including power amplifiers, satellite IF switch matrices, low noise receivers, baseband processors, and high data rate bandwidth efficient modems. This paper describes NASA's work in developing and testing 30 GHz low noise satellite receivers for commercial space communications uplink applications. Frequencies allotted for fixed service commercial satellite communications in the Ka band are 27.5 - 30.0 GHz for uplink transmission and 17.7 - 20.2 GHz for downlink transmission. The relatively large 2.5 GHz bandwidth lends itself to wideband, high data rate digital transmission applications.

  17. Cratering of the Uranian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, William B.; Chapman, Clark R.; Housen, Kevin R.

    Available crater counts and their interpretations are reviewed, with emphasis on essential scaling considerations and comparisons with hypotheses developed for interpreting the cratering records on other planets and satellites. New approaches are employed to scaling based on new measurements of crater depths and morphology, which show craters in ice to be unexpectedly different from those in rock. It is found that the published crater counts on the Uranian satellites, despite mutual inconsistencies, can be interpreted as compatible with cratering by the heliocentric population of cometary bodies that was responsible for much of the cratering of the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Scaling arguments are applied to the catastrophic breakup of icy satellites and ring particles. The importance of large-scale collisions in disrupting the inner Uranian satellites is found to depend on the shape of the size distribution of cometary bodies at large sizes.

  18. Land mobile satellite system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiesling, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

  19. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollansworth, James E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  20. The APL satellite refrigerator program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leffel, C. S., Jr.; Vonbriesen, R.

    1981-07-01

    Four satellite refrigerators were built and installed on a satellite to cool gamma ray spectrometers. The p-78-1 satellite, launched on February 24, 1979, was the first satellite to carry gamma ray detectors that were cooled by mechanical refrigerators. Still operating successfully after over 18 months in orbit, this is the first satellite experiment of any kind on which mechanical refrigerators have been operated for longer than a few weeks. This report describes the selection and specifications of the refrigerators as determined by APL and Lockheed, the design and construction of the refrigerators by Philips Laboratories, the design and construction of the motor drive and instrumentation electronics by APL, the APL qualification and acceptance test programs, and the APL laboratory life test program. The orbital performance of the refrigerators is discussed.

  1. Cratering of the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, William B.; Chapman, Clark R.; Housen, Kevin R.

    1991-01-01

    Available crater counts and their interpretations are reviewed, with emphasis on essential scaling considerations and comparisons with hypotheses developed for interpreting the cratering records on other planets and satellites. New approaches are employed to scaling based on new measurements of crater depths and morphology, which show craters in ice to be unexpectedly different from those in rock. It is found that the published crater counts on the Uranian satellites, despite mutual inconsistencies, can be interpreted as compatible with cratering by the heliocentric population of cometary bodies that was responsible for much of the cratering of the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Scaling arguments are applied to the catastrophic breakup of icy satellites and ring particles. The importance of large-scale collisions in disrupting the inner Uranian satellites is found to depend on the shape of the size distribution of cometary bodies at large sizes.

  2. The Communications Satellite as Educational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Drawing on the experiences of several countries, the author describes satellite technology, discusses the feasibility of satellite use in traditional educational institutions, and analyzes the role of satellites in social development. (SK)

  3. The exterior tidal potential acting on a satellite. [satellite orbits/satellite perturbation - gravitation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, P.

    1975-01-01

    A theory is presented that points out the existence of several long period and 'cross effects' in the coefficients in the expansion of the geopotential and in the motion of satellites. The tidal potential, defined as small periodic variations in the geopotential, was calculated. The influence of these geopotential variations on satellite perturbation is examined. Spherical harmonics were employed.

  4. The Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this 'family portrait,' the four Galilean Satellites are shown to scale. These four largest moons of Jupiter shown in increasing distance from Jupiter are (left to right) Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

    These global views show the side of volcanically active Io which always faces away from Jupiter, icy Europa, the Jupiter-facing side of Ganymede, and heavily cratered Callisto. The appearances of these neighboring satellites are amazingly different even though they are relatively close to Jupiter (350,000 kilometers for Io; 1, 800,000 kilometers for Callisto). These images were acquired on several orbits at very low 'phase' angles (the sun, spacecraft, moon angle) so that the sun is illuminating the Jovian moons from completely behind the spacecraft, in the same way a full moon is viewed from Earth. The colors have been enhanced to bring out subtle color variations of surface features. North is to the top of all the images which were taken by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    Io, which is slightly larger than Earth's moon, is the most colorful of the Galilean satellites. Its surface is covered by deposits from actively erupting volcanoes, hundreds of lava flows, and volcanic vents which are visible as small dark spots. Several of these volcanoes are very hot; at least one reached a temperature of 2000 degrees Celsius (3600 degrees Fahrenheit) in the summer of 1997. Prometheus, a volcano located slightly right of center on Io's image, was active during the Voyager flybys in 1979 and is still active as Galileo images were obtained. This global view was obtained in September 1996 when Galileo was 485,000 kilometers from Io; the finest details that can be discerned are about 10 km across. The bright, yellowish and white materials located at equatorial latitudes are believed to be composed of sulfur and sulfur dioxide. The polar caps are darker and covered by a redder material.

    Europa has a very different surface from its

  5. Multi-mission Satellite Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  6. Satellite Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumori, Ichiro

    1999-01-01

    Satellite altimetry provides the only routine observation of a dynamic variable of the global ocean. For instance, measurements from the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter have provided dramatic basin-wide images of the space-time evolution of sea level associated with the 1997-98 El Nino event. The nature of large-scale ocean circulation is being studied that underlies such sea level changes measured by satellite altimetry. To first approximation, properties of large-scale (order 1000 km and larger) sea level variability is latitudinally dependent. An analysis using a general circulation model shows that sea level changes are largely due to wind-driven baroclinic (depth dependent) circulation in the tropics (within 20 degrees of the equator), but are primarily due to the expansion and contraction of near surface water in temperate latitudes (between 20 deg. and 40 deg.) forced by seasonal heating and cooling. In contrast, wind-driven barotropic (depth independent) circulation dominates sea level variability in high latitudes (40 deg. and higher) characterized by periods that are as short as a few days. The presence of such inhomogeneity and the significance of high-frequency, large-scale sea level changes had not been fully recognized prior to this study, and are summarized in Fukumori et al. Numerical models provide theoretical relationships among properties that can be inverted using observations so as to estimate the entire state of the ocean, including properties that are otherwise difficult to measure remotely. The process is data assimilation. An approximate Kalman filter and smoother have been devised to assimilate three years of TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level data into a global ocean general circulation model. The figure below demonstrates the skill of the assimilation, and shows the altimeter assimilated estimate being in closer agreement than the simulation is with independent in situ measurements of subsur ace temperature and velocity, consistent with formal

  7. Artificial satellite break-ups. I - Soviet ocean surveillance satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. L.

    1983-02-01

    An analysis of the breakup patterns of eight Soviet Kosmos series ocean surveillance satellites is presented. It is noted that half of the 4700 objects presently detected in earth orbit are shards from destroyed objects. The locations and heading of each Soviet satellite breakup were tracked by the Naval Space Survelliance System. All events in the eastern hemisphere occurred in the ascending phase, while western hemisphere breakups happened in the descending phase. Gabbard (1971) diagrams of altitude vs. period are plotted as a function of a fragment's orbital period. The diagrams have been incorporated into a NASA computer program to backtrack along the fragments' paths to determine the pattern of the breakup. Although objects have been projected to have separated from some of the satellites before breakup, a discussion of the evidence leads to the conclusion that even though the satellites may have exploded no purpose can yet be discerned for the actions.

  8. Satellite Data Simulator Unit: A Multisensor, Multispectral Satellite Simulator Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masunaga, Hirohiko; Matsui, Toshihisa; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Hou, Arthur Y.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Bauer, Peter; Olson, William S.; Sekiguchi, Miho; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2010-01-01

    Several multisensor simulator packages are being developed by different research groups across the world. Such simulator packages [e.g., COSP , CRTM, ECSIM, RTTO, ISSARS (under development), and SDSU (this article), among others] share overall aims, although some are targeted more on particular satellite programs or specific applications (for research purposes or for operational use) than others. The SDSU or Satellite Data Simulator Unit is a general-purpose simulator composed of Fortran 90 codes and applicable to spaceborne microwave radiometer, radar, and visible/infrared imagers including, but not limited to, the sensors listed in a table. That shows satellite programs particularly suitable for multisensor data analysis: some are single satellite missions carrying two or more instruments, while others are constellations of satellites flying in formation. The TRMM and A-Train are ongoing satellite missions carrying diverse sensors that observe clouds and precipitation, and will be continued or augmented within the decade to come by future multisensor missions such as the GPM and Earth-CARE. The ultimate goals of these present and proposed satellite programs are not restricted to clouds and precipitation but are to better understand their interactions with atmospheric dynamics/chemistry and feedback to climate. The SDSU's applicability is not technically limited to hydrometeor measurements either, but may be extended to air temperature and humidity observations by tuning the SDSU to sounding channels. As such, the SDSU and other multisensor simulators would potentially contribute to a broad area of climate and atmospheric sciences. The SDSU is not optimized to any particular orbital geometry of satellites. The SDSU is applicable not only to low-Earth orbiting platforms as listed in Table 1, but also to geostationary meteorological satellites. Although no geosynchronous satellite carries microwave instruments at present or in the near future, the SDSU would be

  9. Galilean satellites - Anomalous temperatures disputed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Veeder, G. J.; Cutts, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Anomalous averaged infrared brightness temperatures of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter reported by Gross (1975) are rejected as falsely conceived and lacking physical reality. It is argued that the calculations of equilibrium temperatures should be corrected, whereupon predictions would be in satisfactory agreement with observations, in conformity with the radiometric method of determining the diameters of asteroids and satellites. The IR irradiance and the related disk-averaged brightness temperature for the spectral band are recommended as more relevant. Attention is drawn to some interesting discrepancies between calculated and observed temperatures of the Jovian satellites which merit further investigation.

  10. Satellite signatures in SLR observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the evidence for the detection of satellite-dependent signatures in the laser range observations obtained by the UK single-photon Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) System models of the expected observation distributions from Ajisai and Lageos are developed from the published satellite spread functions and from the characteristics of the SLR System and compared with the observations. The effects of varying return strengths are discussed using the models and by experimental observations of Ajisai, during which a range of return levels from single to multiple photons is achieved. The implications of these results for system-dependent center for mass corrections are discussed.

  11. The economics of satellite retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Greenberg, Joel S.

    1988-01-01

    The economics of space operations with and without the Space Station have been studied in terms of the financial performance of a typical communications-satellite business venture. A stochastic Monte-Carlo communications-satellite business model is employed which includes factors such as satellite configuration, random and wearout failures, reliability of launch and space operations, stand-down time resulting from failures, and insurance by operation. Financial performance impacts have been evaluated in terms of the magnitude of investment, net present value, and return on investment.

  12. ISDN - The case for satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.; McDougal, Patrick J.

    1987-05-01

    The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) holds much promise for both suppliers and users of telecommunications in the near future. This article examines the role of satellites in this new ISDN environment and emphasizes several advantages of satellites in the ongoing evolution to an all-digital world. In specific, the role of Intelsat, the global satellite system, is discussed with emphasis on Intelsat's digital services which today can offer all the characteristics and standards of ISDN in a flexible, cost-efficient manner.

  13. Use of communications. [satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the field of satellite communications is reviewed, and useful services which may be provided by future satellite communications systems are considered. Recommendations are made with regard to mobile communications for use on land and at sea, position determination, mineral and energy exploration, the possibility of using electronic means to assist in main delivery, education and health-care experiments, and the use of satellite telecommunications to enhance the quality of life in rural areas by making available a full range of educational and entertainment programs. The needs of the amateur radio community are also considered.

  14. Progress in satellite tracking cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Fuller, M.R.; Landfried, S.E.; Higuchi, H.; Vermillion, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    We review the history of tracking cranes with satellite telemetry and identify some of the difficulties in designing satellite transmitters and harnesses for cranes. Miniaturization of these transmitters and a plethora of harnessing experiments since 1989 allow us to recommend limited application of this technology to all species of cranes. We are still uncertain, however, if cranes harnessed with satellite telemetry devices are able to reproduce after migration. Because of this uncertainty, we urge caution in the use of this technology, especially with breeding adults in severely endangered populations. This manuscript also describes continuing research needs.

  15. Geometry of a mapping satellite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed mapping satellite Mapsat is to consist of fixed fore, vertical, and aft linear detector arrays, any two of which may be used simultaneously to obtain digital images for one- dimensional stereo correlation. The satellite attitude may be varied according to Fourier series to enable a given detector on one array to follow closely the groundtrack sensed by the corresponding detector on another array throughout the orbit. These tracking errors are negligible for a satellite stable within anticipated ranges. The required computations have been programmed in FORTRAN IV. -Author

  16. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, Richard T.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was conceived to help maintain U.S. leadership in the world's communications-satellite market. This experimental satellite is expected to be launched by NASA in 1992 and to furnish the technology necessary for establishing very small aperture terminal digital networks which provide on-demand full-mesh connectivity, and 1.544-MBPS services with only a single hop. Utilizing on-board switching and processing, each individual voice or data circuit can be separately routed to any location in the network. This paper provides an overview of the ACTS and discusses the value of the technology for future communications systems.

  17. IONOSAT Ionospheric satellite cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V.; Lizunov, G.; Fedorov, O.; Yampolsky, Yu.; Ivchenko, V.

    2008-11-01

    The IONOSAT project (from IONOspheric SATellites) is proposed by National Space Agency of Ukraine for First European Space Program as a part of Space Weather (SW) Program. As it is commonly accepted, Space Weather means the changes of the conditions on the Sun, in solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere which may affect the operation and reliability of on-board and ground technological systems and threaten human health. In this chain ionosphere is specific and integral part of SW formation. Moreover, namely in the ionosphere main part of the energy absorption of Sun-activated sporadic corpuscular and radiation fluxes takes places. The excitation of ionosphere by falling fluxes produces its "luminescence" in wide frequency band - from ULF waves till ultraviolet - and by this ionosphere works as an efficient "screen" or SW indicator. A goal of the proposed project is long-term spatial-temporal monitoring of main field and plasma parameters of ionosphere with aim to further develop fundamental conceptions of solar-terrestrial connections physics, nowcasting and forecast of SW, and diagnostics of natural and technogenic hazards with the help of scientific payload installed on-board a cluster of 3 low-Earth orbit (LEO) microsatellites (tentative launch date - 2012 year). The state of the project proposal and realization plans are discussed.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  19. Satellite Propellant Pump Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  20. First micro-satellite and new enhanced small satellite series in DFH Satellite Co. Ltd.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Bin; Dai, Shoulun; Zhang, Weiwen; Hu, Gefeng; Lan, Ding

    2007-06-01

    As one important department of CAST (Chinese Academy of Space Technology), with responsibility for small and micro-satellite development, DFH Satellite Co. Ltd. (DFHSat) manufactured and launched six small satellites from 2000 to 2004. Nowadays, DFHSat is developing micro-satellite and new enhanced small satellite series. The first micro-satellite as a basic type is named HummerSat-1. HummerSat-1 is three-axis stabilized with orbit control capability. Information and power control are implemented through an on-board network, GaAs solar cell and Li-ion battery are adopted to obtain and storage power, S-band TT&C and data transmission works are used. The payload of HummerSat-1 has a weight of 60 kg and power consumption of 200 W. The enhanced small satellite series based on technology of HummerSat-1 is planned by DFHSat. It would be aiming to form a continuative product spectrum of 80-200 kg. The enhanced series is focused on satisfying different missions, including earth remote sensing, communication, science exploration, etc.

  1. TRMM Satellite Video of Amara

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM satellite on Dec. 16, at 2043 UTC showed scattered bands of moderate to heavy rain falling at a rate of over 76.9 mm/3 inches per hour spiraling into Amara's center. Cloud tops reached 13km/~8...

  2. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  3. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth`s radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  4. Taos: A low cost satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, P.

    Aerospatiale, under contract to CNES, has studied a new satellite based system with the double mission of mobile tracking and paging. This is called Taos. A constellation of five Taos satellites will allow positioning with an accuracy of 1 km, as well as small message transmission with a maximum time delay of 2 hours. Using a low earth orbit, Taos will have a small power budget, with the attendant gains in dimensions, mass, and eventually cost. The emergence of such class of lightsats has been fostered by the progress of electronics, as well as the new small launchers now being offered. Furthermore, the market is clearly hungry for ever more worldwide data collection. This paper describes the Taos system of satellite and ground segment, for which a primary goal will be a significant reduction of the recurring price. Weighing 152 kg, each satellite will have a power of 270 W.

  5. Uranus satellites - Densities and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Torrence V.; Brown, Robert H.; Pollack, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Homogeneous and core-differentiated silicate/ice models of the Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon are examined in the light of imaging observations and mass and density determinations obtained during the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The data and model predictions are compared in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The mass fractions of silicates in Oberon and Titania are found to be between 0.42 and 0.65, about the same as the average for the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn but significantly higher than that for the smaller Saturnian satellites or that predicted by current solar-nebula models. It is suggested that the satellites formed by accretion of material from their primary planets' outer envelopes. The observed rock/ice fractions are attributed to solar-nebula CO and solid-organics abundances and to preferential dissolution of H2O in outer-envelope planetesimals.

  6. NASA's TRMM Satellite Captures Cosme

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Tuesday, June 25, Cosme became a hurricane. NASA's TRMM satellite flew over Cosme at 9:46 a.m. EDT shortly before it was upgraded to a hurricane. A rainfall analysis from TRMM's Microwave Imager...

  7. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth's radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  8. The satellite of Pluto. III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, R. S.; Christy, J. W.

    1981-03-01

    Speckle observations of the satellite of Pluto are used to determine the orbital radius and mass of the Pluto-satellite system. Resolved images of the planet and its satellite were obtained by the speckle interferometer on the 3.6-m Mauna Kea reflector. From position angles obtained from elongated images taken over the last 15 years, two speckle measures and the separation obtained with the USNO electrographic cameras, a circular satellite orbit with a radius of 19,700 + or - 300 km is obtained, with a period of 6.3871 + or - 0.0002 days, inclination of 94 + or - 3 deg, node on the equator of 221 + or - 3 deg and true anomaly on January 31, 1982 of 75 + or - 8 deg. Results lead to an inverse mass of the system of 1.34 + or - 0.07 x 10 to the 8th.

  9. Visual Data Analysis for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Yee; Bhate, Sachin; Fitzpatrick, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The Visual Data Analysis Package is a collection of programs and scripts that facilitate visual analysis of data available from NASA and NOAA satellites, as well as dropsonde, buoy, and conventional in-situ observations. The package features utilities for data extraction, data quality control, statistical analysis, and data visualization. The Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) satellite data extraction routines from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory were customized for specific spatial coverage and file input/output. Statistical analysis includes the calculation of the relative error, the absolute error, and the root mean square error. Other capabilities include curve fitting through the data points to fill in missing data points between satellite passes or where clouds obscure satellite data. For data visualization, the software provides customizable Generic Mapping Tool (GMT) scripts to generate difference maps, scatter plots, line plots, vector plots, histograms, timeseries, and color fill images.

  10. Build Your Own Satellite - TDRS

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) project is dedicated to providing science, technology, engineering, art and math curricula and activities to teachers and students worldwide. In this vi...

  11. Cloudsat Satellite Images of Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's CloudSat satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on May 25, at 5 p.m. EDT and saw a deep area of moderate to heavy-moderate precipitation below the freezing level (where precipitation changes f...

  12. Satellite Animation Shows California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows a series of moisture-laden storms affecting California from Jan. 6 through Jan. 9, 2017. TRT: 00:36 Credit: NASA...

  13. Satellite tracking of threatened species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISTO/satellite_tracking. It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  14. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  15. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  16. Satellite Imagery Via Personal Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) was incorporated by NASA in the Tiros 8 weather satellite. APT included an advanced satellite camera that immediately transmitted a picture as well as low cost receiving equipment. When an advanced scanning radiometer was later introduced, ground station display equipment would not readily adjust to the new format until GSFC developed an APT Digital Scan Converter that made them compatible. A NASA Technical Note by Goddard's Vermillion and Kamoski described how to build a converter. In 1979, Electro-Services, using this technology, built the first microcomputer weather imaging system in the U.S. The company changed its name to Satellite Data Systems, Inc. and now manufactures the WeatherFax facsimile display graphics system which converts a personal computer into a weather satellite image acquisition and display workstation. Hardware, antennas, receivers, etc. are also offered. Customers include U.S. Weather Service, schools, military, etc.

  17. Haystack Ultrawideband Satellite Imaging Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    www.ll.mit.edu September 2014 Since the launch of satellites into Earth orbits more than 50 years ago, space has become crowded. Commercial and military...satellites, both active and defunct, share the space environment with an assort- ment of space debris , such as remnants of damaged spacecraft and...spent rocket boosters. This profusion of orbiting objects could seriously threaten space assets, such as the International Space Station or NASA’s

  18. Satellite observation of effusive volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S.; Friedman, J.D.

    1970-01-01

    Infrared emission from an active effusive volcanic eruption on Surtsey, Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland, was recorded by airborne and satellite infrared systems at irregular intervals between 19 August and 3 October 1966. Ground and lava temperature measurements and volumetric lava outflow data permitted a comparison to be made between total thermal-energy yield and radiant emission recorded by the satellite system. The Nimbus HRIR recorded radiant emission at a level of about 3% of the estimated total thermal yield.

  19. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  20. Intelsat satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The launch schedule for Intelsat 5-B, the prime Intelsat satellite to provide communications services between the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, is presented. The planned placement of the satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit, and circularization of the orbit at geosynchronous altitude over the equator are described. Characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, AC-56, are given. The launch operation is summarized and the launch sequence presented. The Intelsat team and contractors are listed.

  1. The data distribution satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, Ronald C.; Weinberg, Aaron

    1991-01-01

    The Data Distributed Satellite (DDS) will be capable of providing the space research community with inexpensive and easy access to space payloads and space data. Furthermore, the DDS is shown to be a natural outgrowth of advances and evolution in both NASA's Space Network and commercial satellite communications. The roadmap and timescale for this evolution is described along with key demonstrations, proof-of-concept models, and required technology development that will support the projected system evolution toward the DDS.

  2. Satellite Trends and Defense Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    ensuring a high grade of end-to-end performance. Amprican Satellite Corporation ha, recently installed a "dedicated user" data network for DoD where all...Frederick J. Altman, et al, Satellite Communications Reference Data Handbook, Computer Sciences Corporation (uly 1-972-). [2] L.G. Roberts, "Data by the...Transactions on Communicatons , Apr 1975, pp 401-409. [23] N. Abramson, "The ALOHA System - Another Alternative for Computer Communication," 1970 Fall

  3. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  4. Assimilation of Satellite Ozone Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, I.; Winslow, N.; Wargan, K.; Hayashi, H.; Pawson, S.; Rood, R.

    2003-01-01

    This talk will discuss assimilation of ozone data from satellite-borne instruments. Satellite observations of ozone total columns and profiles have been measured by a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instruments, and more recently by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment. Additional profile data are provided by instruments on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and by occultation instruments on other platforms. Instruments on Envisat' and future EOS Aura satellite will supply even more comprehensive data about the ozone distribution. Satellite data contain a wealth of information, but they do not provide synoptic global maps of ozone fields. These maps can be obtained through assimilation of satellite data into global chemistry and transport models. In the ozone system at NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO) any combination of TOMS, SBUV, and Microwave Limb sounder (MLS) data can be assimilated. We found that the addition of MLS to SBUV and TOMS data in the system helps to constrain the ozone distribution, especially in the polar night region and in the tropics. The assimilated ozone distribution in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is sensitive also to finer changes in the SBUV and TOMS data selection and to changes in error covariance models. All results are established by comparisons of assimilated ozone with independent profiles from ozone sondes and occultation instruments.

  5. Geology of the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, S. K.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A geological analysis of six of the Uranus satellites observed in detail by Voyager 2 is presented. All of the satellites except the smallest, Puck, show evidence of cryovolcanic resurfacing: global on the largest four satellites, local in the spectacular coronae on Miranda. The cryovolcanic materials exhibit a range of albedos and morphologies, which are interpreted to reflect a variety of compositions and conditions of eruption at least as complex as those which occur on earth. Eruptions are predominantly large fissure flows that produce extensive flood deposits. Possible evidence of small circular vents and cryoclastic volcanic activity is seen on Miranda and Ariel. All of the satellites except Puck also have extensive sets of grabens and riftlike canyons that show remarkable similarity of pattern: intersection sets trending roughly NW-SW and NE-SW in the low latitudes grading into E-W trends near the poles. As a group, the Uranian satellites are somewhat more active geologically than similarly sized Saturnian satellites.

  6. The American mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, William B.

    1990-01-01

    During 1989, the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) was authorized to construct, launch, and operate satellites to provide mobile satellite services (MSS) to the U.S. and Puerto Rico. The AMSC has undertaken three major development programs to bring a full range of MSS services to the U.S. The first program is the space segment program that will result in the construction and launch of the satellites as well as the construction and installation of the supporting ground telemetry and command system. The second segment will result in the specification, design, development, construction, and installation of the Network Control System necessary for managing communications access to the satellites, and the specification and development of ground equipment for standard circuit switched and packet switched communications services. The third program is the Phase 1 program to provide low speed data services within the U.S. prior to availability of the AMSC satellites and ground segment. Described here are the present status and plans for these three programs as well as an update on related business arrangements and regulatory matters.

  7. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  8. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  9. More Satellites of Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.

    1997-03-01

    We present a revised and expanded catalog of satellite galaxies of a set of isolated spiral galaxies similar in luminosity to the Milky Way. This sample of 115 satellites, 69 of which were discovered in our multifiber redshift survey, is used to probe the results obtained from the original sample further (Zaritsky et al.). The satellites are, by definition, at projected separations <~500 kpc, have absolute recessional velocity differences with respect to the parent spiral of less than 500 km s-1, and are at least 2.2 mag fainter than their associated primary galaxy. A key characteristic of this survey is the strict isolation of these systems, which simplifies any dynamical analysis. We find no evidence for a decrease in the velocity dispersion of the satellite system as a function of radius out to galactocentric radii of 400 kpc, which suggests that the halo extends well beyond 200 kpc. Furthermore, the new sample affirms our previous conclusions (Zaritsky et al.) that (1) the velocity difference between a satellite and its primary is not strongly correlated with the rotation speed of the primary, (2) the system of satellites has a slight net rotation (34 +/- 14 km s-1) in the same sense as the primary's disk, and (3) that the halo mass of an ~L* spiral galaxy is in excess of 2 × 1012 M⊙. Lick Observatory Bulletin B1346.

  10. Satellite Attitude from a Raven Class Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Cache MATLAB was used as an interface to the jSim libraries, including orbit propagation, Earth Track determination, and satellite orientation methods...collection opportunities of the satellite. The combined software tool calculates the satellite orientation required to image the asset location... satellite orientation estimations, with only the photometric signatures with strong features being correctly estimated. The strong features that

  11. Satellites You Can See for Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Artificial satellites are easily observed most nights when the weather is fine. The website called "Heavens Above" at www.heavens-above.com will help locate these satellites flying over one's location. It also includes how bright they will appear. The direction of travel of each satellite in the night sky also indicates the type of satellite. For…

  12. ARJIS satellite demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severance, Steve; Williams, Carl

    2005-06-01

    In 2003, the California Space Authority (CSA) was provided funding by the U. S. Congress through the Defense Appropriations Act to develop a project that would demonstrate the U.S. space enterprise capability that would contribute to the effectiveness of those engaged in Homeland Security. The project was given broad latitude in selecting the area of Homeland Security to be addressed and the nature of the space technology to be applied. CSA became aware of a nascent law enforcement data-sharing project in the San Diego region known as the Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARJIS). First developed by the police departments in San Diego, ARJIS is an innovative system that shares criminal justice information among 50 federal, state, and local agencies. ARJIS was completing a pilot project that enabled officers to receive information on handheld computers, which was transmitted wirelessly through cellular networks. The accessed information came from several databases that collectively contained the entire region's crime and arrest reports, traffic citations, and incidents, as well as state and county wants and warrants. The fundamental limitations that plague all cellular-based devices caught CSA's attention and resulted in a cooperative effort to harden the communications link between the patrol officer and critical data. The principal goal of the SATCOM development task was to create a proof-of-concept application that would use SATCOM links to augment the current ARJIS handheld wireless (cellular) capability. The successful technical demonstration and the positive support for satellite communications from the law enforcement community showed that this project filled a need-both for improved information sharing and for highly reliable communications systems.

  13. Satellite medical centers project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Arvind

    2002-08-01

    World class health care for common man at low affordable cost: anywhere, anytime The project envisages to set up a national network of satellite Medical centers. Each SMC would be manned by doctors, nurses and technicians, six doctors, six nurses, six technicians would be required to provide 24 hour cover, each SMC would operate 24 hours x 7 days. It would be equipped with the Digital telemedicine devices for capturing clinical patient information and investigations in the form of voice, images and data and create an audiovisual text file - a virtual Digital patient. Through the broad band connectivity the virtual patient can be sent to the central hub, manned by specialists, specialists from several specialists sitting together can view the virtual patient and provide a specialized opinion, they can see the virtual patient, see the examination on line through video conference or even PCs, talk to the patient and the doctor at the SMC and controlle capturing of information during examination and investigations of the patient at the SMC - thus creating a virtual Digital consultant at the SMC. Central hub shall be connected to the doctors and consultants in remote locations or tertiary care hospitals any where in the world, thus creating a virtual hub the hierarchical system shall provide upgradation of knowledge to thedoctors in central hub and smc and thus continued medical education and benefit the patient thru the world class treatment in the smc located at his door step. SMC shall be set up by franchisee who shall get safe business opportunity with high returns, patients shall get Low cost user friendly worldclass health care anywhere anytime, Doctors can get better meaningful selfemplyment with better earnings, flexibility of working time and place. SMC shall provide a wide variety of services from primary care to world class Global consultation for difficult patients.

  14. RADAR "SAIL" satellite concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguttes, Jean Paul; Sombrin, Jacques; Conde, Eric

    1996-11-01

    The Radar SAIL concept is based on the use of a rectangular antenna lying in the dawn-dusk orbital plane with the length (along speed vector) smaller than the height. Such geometry makes it possible to place the solar cells on the back of the antenna, to use gravity gradient stabilisation, and to implement multipath-free GPS interferometric measurement of the antenna deformation thus allowing structural relaxation. Less obviously, the geometry favours the RADAR design too, by allowing grating lobes and therefore a lower density of built-in electronic in the active antenna. The antenna can be thin and packed for launch inside a cylinder-shaped bus having pyrotechnic doors for the antenna deployement and bearing the rest of the payload and the service equipment. With respect to a standard design of performant missions, cost savings come from the bus, whose functions (AOCS, power supply) are simplified, from the launch since the mass budget and the stowing configuration become compatible with medium size rockets (LLV2/3, DELTA-LITE, LM-4.), and from the active antenna built-in electronics. The RADAR SAIL concept is all the more cost effective when the mission requires a large, high and short antenna, i.e. high resolution (<5m), low frequency band (L or S or even P), high revisiting, multiple frequencies. Mission implementation and funding can be favored by the new capability to share the satellite between autonomous regional operators. Combined with ground DBF (digital beam forming) technique, the concept allows extremely simple and low cost missions providing a fixed wide swath (10 to 15 m resolution within 500km to 1000 km swath) for systematic surveillance or monitoring.

  15. Satellite observations of ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, W.; Payne, V.; Kulawik, S. S.; Bowman, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene (C2H4) is a trace gas commonly associated with boreal fire plumes and the petrochemical industry. It has a short lifetime (~1-2 days) in the troposphere due to its reaction with OH. Chemical destruction of ethylene in the atmosphere leads to the production of ozone precursors such as carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde. The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer aboard the Aura satellite that measures thermal infrared radiances with high spectral resolution. Trace gas products retrieved routinely from TES spectra include O3, CO, H2O, HDO, CH4, NH3, HCOOH, CH3OH, with OCS and PAN to be included in the next data release. The TES spectra also includes a wealth of untapped information about other trace gasses including ethylene. Ethylene was first observed in TES spectra by Alvarado et al. (2011), though it has yet to be developed into an operational product. Our study focuses on the detection and initial quantitative estimates of ethylene in TES special observations taken in support of the 2008 ARCTAS mission. Initial observations of HCN in the spectra may provide a way to distinguish between fire plume and petrochemical derived ethylene. Results indicate a correlation between ethylene and CO in fresh fire plumes but not in older plumes, consistent with the gas's short lifetime. The approach adopted here to detect ethylene in the TES 2008 ARCTAS special observations can easily be expanded to larger datasets, including those from other thermal infrared sounders as well as to other trace gases.

  16. A satellite for demonstration of Panel Extension Satellite (PETSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Yoshiki; Sahara, Hironori; Nakasuka, Shinichi; Greenland, Stephen; Morimoto, Takeshi; Koyama, Kanichi; Kobayashi, Chisato; Kikuchi, Hideaki; Okada, Takanori; Tanaka, Hidenori

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the current status, configuration, architecture, and key technologies of SOHLA-2, the demonstration mission of the PETSAT (Panel ExTension SATellite) concept. The PETSAT proposal is for a modular satellite consisting of any number of unfolding functional panels. These panels are designed around an open architecture and connected through standardized interfaces. The interfaces between panels incorporate a reliable "plug-in" format, such that when combined, the integrated system takes on the intended satellite function in a redundant and distributed manner. By combining the different panel types in any number and configuration, flexibility to mission requirements is achieved. Some panels for performing basic satellite functions will be available as commercial-off-the-shelf components, and others custom developed dependent on the mission. During launch these panels are stowed in a folded low volume configuration, which is then extended on-orbit, realizing a satellite with a large area for the mounting of solar arrays, mission systems, extensible booms, or any other components. SOHLA-2 is both a concept demonstration and a lightning detection mission in the VHF band. It weighs less than 50 kg and consists of six panels: communication, attitude control, propulsion, mission, experiment and bus function. The bus function panel is based on the successful Cubesat XI developed at the University of Tokyo and this acts as the manager of the technology demonstration aspects for the mission. By basing the architecture upon a proven technology, the reliability of the satellite is increased. It is intended that the satellite be launched in early 2008.

  17. Telemetry Data Collection from Oscar Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Paul C.; Horan, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, configuration, and operation of a satellite station built for the Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Laboratory in the Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Engineering at New Mexico State University (NMSU). This satellite station consists of a computer-controlled antenna tracking system, 2m/70cm transceiver, satellite tracking software, and a demodulator. The satellite station receives satellite,telemetry, allows for voice communications, and will be used in future classes. Currently this satellite station is receiving telemetry from an amateur radio satellite, UoSAT-OSCAR-11. Amateur radio satellites are referred to as Orbiting Satellites Carrying Amateur Radio (OSCAR) satellites as discussed in the next section.

  18. Satellite services system analysis study. Volume 2: Satellite and services user model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Satellite services needs are analyzed. Topics include methodology: a satellite user model; representative servicing scenarios; potential service needs; manned, remote, and automated involvement; and inactive satellites/debris. Satellite and services user model development is considered. Groundrules and assumptions, servicing, events, and sensitivity analysis are included. Selection of references satellites is also discussed.

  19. Low-Earth orbit satellite servicing economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. F.; Cepollina, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Servicing economics of low Earth orbit satellites were studied. The following topics are examined: the economic importance of the repair missions; comparison of mission cost as opposed to satellite modulation transfer functions over a 10 year period; the effect of satellite flight rate change due to changes in satellite failure rate; estimated satellite cost reduction with shuttle operation projects from the 1960's to the 1970's; design objectives of the multimission modular spacecraft; and the economic importance of the repair mission.

  20. Lopsided Collections of Satellite Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    You might think that small satellite galaxies would be distributed evenly around their larger galactic hosts but local evidence suggests otherwise. Are satellite distributions lopsided throughout the universe?Satellites in the Local GroupThe distribution of the satellite galaxies orbiting Andromeda, our neighboring galaxy, is puzzling: 21 out of 27 ( 80%) of its satellites are on the side of Andromeda closest to us. In a similar fashion, 4 of the 11 brightest Milky Way satellites are stacked on the side closest to Andromeda.It seems to be the case, then, that satellites around our pair of galaxies preferentially occupy the space between the two galaxies. But is this behavior specific to the Local Group? Or is it commonplace throughout the universe? In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Noam Libeskind (Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Germany) set out to answer this question.Properties of the galaxies included in the authors sample. Left: redshifts for galaxy pairs. Right: Number of satellite galaxies around hosts. [Adapted from Libeskind et al. 2016]Asymmetry at LargeLibeskind and collaborators tested whether this behavior is common by searching through Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations for galaxy pairs that are similar to the Milky Way/Andromeda pair. The resulting sample consists of 12,210 pairs of galaxies, which have 46,043 potential satellites among them. The team then performed statistical tests on these observations to quantify the anisotropic distribution of the satellites around the host galaxies.Libeskind and collaborators find that roughly 8% more galaxies are seen within a 15 angle facing the other galaxy of a pair than would be expected in a uniform distribution. The odds that this asymmetric behavior is randomly produced, they show, are lower than 1 in 10 million indicating that the lopsidedness of satellites around galaxies in pairs is a real effect and occurs beyond just the Local Group.Caution for ModelingProbability that

  1. Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Born, George H.; Leonard, Jason M.; McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Fujimoto, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    A navigation technology known as LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation) has been known to produce very impressive navigation results for scenarios involving two or more cooperative satellites near the Moon, such that at least one satellite must be in an orbit significantly perturbed by the Earth, such as a lunar halo orbit. The two (or more) satellites track each other using satellite-to-satellite range and/or range-rate measurements. These relative measurements yield absolute orbit navigation when one of the satellites is in a lunar halo orbit, or the like. The geometry between a lunar halo orbiter and a GEO satellite continuously changes, which dramatically improves the information content of a satellite-to-satellite tracking signal. The geometrical variations include significant out-of-plane shifts, as well as inplane shifts. Further, the GEO satellite is almost continuously in view of a lunar halo orbiter. High-fidelity simulations demonstrate that LiAISON technology improves the navigation of GEO orbiters by an order of magnitude, relative to standard ground tracking. If a GEO satellite is navigated using LiAISON- only tracking measurements, its position is typically known to better than 10 meters. If LiAISON measurements are combined with simple radiometric ground observations, then the satellite s position is typically known to better than 3 meters, which is substantially better than the current state of GEO navigation. There are two features of LiAISON that are novel and advantageous compared with conventional satellite navigation. First, ordinary satellite-to-satellite tracking data only provides relative navigation of each satellite. The novelty is the placement of one navigation satellite in an orbit that is significantly perturbed by both the Earth and the Moon. A navigation satellite can track other satellites elsewhere in the Earth-Moon system and acquire knowledge about both satellites absolute positions and velocities

  2. Minuteman 2 launched small satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Sunny; Hinders, Kriss; Martin, Trent; Mcmillian, Shandy; Sharp, Brad; Vajdos, Greg

    1994-01-01

    The goal of LEOSat Industries' Spring 1994 project was to design a small satellite that has a strong technology demonstration or scientific justification and incorporates a high level of student involvement. The satellite is to be launched into low earth orbit by the converted Minuteman 2 satellite launcher designed by Minotaur Designs, Inc. in 1993. The launch vehicle shroud was modified to a height of 90 inches, a diameter of 48 inches at the bottom and 35 inches at the top for a total volume of 85 cubic feet. The maximum allowable mass of the payload is about 1100 lb., depending on the launch site, orbit altitude, and inclination. The satellite designed by LEOSat Industries is TerraSat, a remote-sensing satellite that will provide information for use in space-based earth studies. It will consist of infrared and ultraviolet/visible sensors similar to the SDI-developed sensors being tested on Clementine. The sensors will be mounted on the Defense Systems, Inc. Standard Satellite-1 spacecraft bus. LEOSat has planned for two satellites orbiting the Earth with trajectories similar to that of LANDSAT 5. The semi-major axis is 7080 kilometers, the eccentricity is 0, and the inclination is 98.2 degrees. The estimated mass of TerraSat is 145 kilograms and the estimated volume is 1.8 cubic meters. The estimated cost of TerraSat is $13.7 million. The projected length of time from assembly of the sensors to launch of the spacecraft is 13 months.

  3. Using Cell Phones From Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    During the past several years, an interest has grown in using commercial telecommunications techniques to supply Telemetry and Command (T&C) services. Recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) has outlined plans to utilize satellite-based telecommunications services to support space operations in space missions over the next several decades. NASA currently obtains the bulk of its telecommunications services for earth-orbiting satellites via the existing government-owned and controlled Space Network (SN) system. This system consists of the constellation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and the associated ground terminals and communications intrastructure. This system is valuable and effective for scientific satellites costing over one million dollars. However, for smaller satellites, this system becomes problematic due to the cost of transponders and support infrastructure. The nominal transponders for using the TDRS cannot be obtained for a cost in dollars, and size, weight, or power that the 3 Corner Satellite project can afford. For these types of nanosatellite missions, alternatives that fit the mission cost and satellite profiles are needed. In particular, low-cost access using existing commercial infrastructure would be useful to mission planners. In particular, the ability to obtain low data rate T&C services would be especially valuable. The nanosatellites generally have low T&C requirements and therefore would benefit from using commercial services that could operate in the 2400 bps - 9600 bps range, especially if contact times longer than the 5 - 10 minute ground station passes could be found.

  4. Minuteman 2 launched small satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sunny; Hinders, Kriss; Martin, Trent; McMillian, Shandy; Sharp, Brad; Vajdos, Greg

    1994-05-01

    The goal of LEOSat Industries' Spring 1994 project was to design a small satellite that has a strong technology demonstration or scientific justification and incorporates a high level of student involvement. The satellite is to be launched into low earth orbit by the converted Minuteman 2 satellite launcher designed by Minotaur Designs, Inc. in 1993. The launch vehicle shroud was modified to a height of 90 inches, a diameter of 48 inches at the bottom and 35 inches at the top for a total volume of 85 cubic feet. The maximum allowable mass of the payload is about 1100 lb., depending on the launch site, orbit altitude, and inclination. The satellite designed by LEOSat Industries is TerraSat, a remote-sensing satellite that will provide information for use in space-based earth studies. It will consist of infrared and ultraviolet/visible sensors similar to the SDI-developed sensors being tested on Clementine. The sensors will be mounted on the Defense Systems, Inc. Standard Satellite-1 spacecraft bus. LEOSat has planned for two satellites orbiting the Earth with trajectories similar to that of LANDSAT 5. The semi-major axis is 7080 kilometers, the eccentricity is 0, and the inclination is 98.2 degrees. The estimated mass of TerraSat is 145 kilograms and the estimated volume is 1.8 cubic meters. The estimated cost of TerraSat is $13.7 million. The projected length of time from assembly of the sensors to launch of the spacecraft is 13 months.

  5. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  6. Jupiter small satellite montage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A montage of images of the small inner moons of Jupiter from the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft shows the best views obtained of these moons during Galileo's 11th orbit around the giant planet in November 1997. At that point, Galileo was completing its first two years in Jupiter orbit--known as the Galileo 'prime mission'--and was about to embark on a successful two-year extension, called the Galileo Europa Mission.

    The top two images show the moon Thebe. Thebe rotates by approximately 50 degrees between the time these two images were taken, so that the same prominent impact crater is seen in both views; this crater, which has been given the provisional name Zethus, is near the point on Thebe that faces permanently away from Jupiter.

    The next two images show the moon Amalthea; they were taken with the Sun directly behind the observer, an alignment that emphasizes patterns of intrinsically bright or dark surface material. The third image from the top is a view of Amalthea's leading side, the side of the moon that 'leads' as Amalthea moves in its orbit around Jupiter. This image looks 'noisy' because it was obtained serendipitously during an observation of the Jovian satellite Io (Amalthea and Io shared the same camera frame but the image was exposed for bright Io rather than for the much darker Amalthea). The fourth image from the top emphasizes prominent 'spots' of relatively bright material that are located near the point on Amalthea that faces permanently away from Jupiter. The bottom image is a view of the tiny moon Metis.

    In all the images, north is approximately up, and the moons are shown in their correct relative sizes. The images are, from top to bottom: Thebe taken on November 7, 1997 at a range of 504,000 kilometers (about 313,000 miles); Thebe on November 7, 1997 at a range of 548,000 kilometers (about 340,000 miles); Amalthea on November 6, 1997 at a range of about 650,000 kilometers (about 404,000 miles); Amalthea on November

  7. Geostationary operational environmental satellite /GOES/ - A multifunctional satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallette, L. A.

    The GOES satellites are multifunctional satellites whose primary function is to provide continuous measurements of the earth's surface and atmosphere from two geostationary orbit locations: 75 deg W and 135 deg W. This objective is accomplished with the visible infrared spin scan radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS), and the Space Environment Monitor (SEM), which includes three instruments: a magnetometer, solar X-ray sensor, and an energetic particle sensor, which monitor the near earth space environment. The satellite's communication system provides several user oriented functions, including: (1) Transmission of VAS data; (2) Transmission of SEM data; (3) Transponder capabilities for stretched VAS (SVAS) data, weather facsimile (WEFAX) data, and trilateration signals; (4) transponder capabilities for data collection platform interrogation and data collection platform reply.

  8. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  9. Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakoda, D.; Hiser, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School's (NPS) Space Systems Academic Group (SSAG) is designing and developing a small communications satellite for launch aboard the shuttle as a complex autonomous payload (CAP). The objectives of PANSAT are three-fold. First, PANSAT will provide an ideal educational tool for the officer students at NPS supporting Space Systems Engineering and Space Systems Operations with hands-on hardware development. Second, the satellite will provide digital store-and-forward communications, or packet radio, for the amateur radio community. The third objective is to provide a low-cost, space-based platform for small experiments. PANSAT will be launched from the shuttle at a nominal altitude of 200 n.m. and an inclination of at least 37 degrees. The satellite weight is 150 lbs. Since there is no attitude control, eight dipole whip antennas will be used to provide isotropic ground coverage for communications. FM digital communications will be used with up-link and down-link on a single frequency in the amateur band of 437.25 MHz. A maximum 50 kHz of bandwidth is envisioned for the satellite. The expected lifetime of the satellite is 1 1/2 to 2 years before atmospheric reentry. The PANSAT design consists of the following: communications subsystem (COMM); computer, or data processor and sequencer (DP&S); power subsystem; structure subsystem; and experiment payload.

  10. Satellite remote sensing. An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.

    1987-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, which is the monitoring, evaluation and prediction of the resources and features of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere from satellites, is an exciting, fast-growing technique used by environmental scientists to improve their knowledge of our planet. The non-military and non-communications satellites launched by the US, USSR, and the European Community produce digital images of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. These images are used to search for undiscovered mineral resources, to conduct population, land use and resource censuses, to control pests and pollution, to illustrate weather movements on television and much more. This introductory book examines the physical basis of remote sensing-the sensors and satellites used to collect data, and the methods used to process these data as well as the application of satellite remote sensing in the study of vegetation, land use, geology, soils, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The last chapter looks at the future: space stations, international coordination, etc.

  11. Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, D.; Lashbrook, D.; Mckibben, B.; Gardener, N.; Rivers, T.; Nottingham, G.; Golden, B.; Barfield, B.; Bruening, J.; Wood, D.

    1992-01-01

    A current thrust in satellite communication systems considers a low-Earth orbiting constellations of satellites for continuous global coverage. Conceptual design studies have been done at the time of this design project by LORAL Aerospace Corporation under the program name GLOBALSTAR and by Motorola under their IRIDIUM program. This design project concentrates on the spacecraft design of the GLOBALSTAR low-Earth orbiting communication system. Overview information on the program was gained through the Federal Communications Commission licensing request. The GLOBALSTAR system consists of 48 operational satellites positioned in a Walker Delta pattern providing global coverage and redundancy. The operational orbit is 1389 km (750 nmi) altitude with eight planes of six satellites each. The orbital planes are spaced 45 deg., and the spacecraft are separated by 60 deg. within the plane. A Delta 2 launch vehicle is used to carry six spacecraft for orbit establishment. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize code-division multiple access (spread spectrum modulation) for digital relay, voice, and radio determination satellite services (RDSS) yielding position determination with accuracy up to 200 meters.

  12. Satellite Tracking Astrometric Network (STAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Gai, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of precise orbit tracking and determination of different types of satellites has been explored for at least some 25 years (Arimoto et al., 1990). Proposals in this sense made use mainly of astrometric observations, but multiple tracking techniques combining transfer and laser ranging was also suggested (Guo et al., 2009; Montojo et al., 2011), with different requirements and performances ranging from $\\sim100$~m to tenths of meters.In this work we explore the possible improvements and a novel implementation of a technique relying on large angle, high precision astrometry from ground for the determination of satellite orbits. The concept is based on combined observation of geostationary satellites and other near-Earth space objects from two or more telescopes, applying the triangulation principle over widely separated regions of the sky. An accuracy of a few $10^{-2}$~m can be attained with 1-meter-class telescopes and a field of vied of some arcminutes.We discuss the feasibility of the technique, some of the implementation aspects, and the limitations imposed by atmospheric turbulence. The potential benefits for satellite orbit control and navigation systems are presented, depending on the number and position of the contributing telescopes.We also discuss the possibility that, by reversing the roles of stars and satellites, the same kind of observations can be used for verification and maintenance of astrometric catalogs.

  13. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  14. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  15. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  16. Design of amall deployable satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumbo, S.; Leofanti, J.; Corradi, S.; Allegri, G.; Marchetti, M.

    2003-08-01

    One of the scientific satellite programmes of Rome University "La Sapienza", called DeSat, is here reported, with major emphasis on the mechanical and structure subsystems. The principal payload of the entire system is represented by a titanium recirculating ball screw boom whose mass reaches one third of the total mass budget. The goal of the mission is to space qualify a new micro-satellite multipurpose platform, called LEO-MicroBAR, and to qualify the titanium linear actuator. Both the two systems have been developed by the Aerospace and Astronautics Engineering Department (AAED). The boom will be used to investigate the validity of its design for space applications, like precise off platform positioning of devices and instruments, GPS interferometry, sensor measurements and robotics. It will be shielded against space interactions by a titanium bellow system whose main functions will be impact protection, antirotation, boom passive thermal control. The satellite geometry, when the boom is in deployed configuration, is highly stretched and the name "deployable satellite" was natural. The large deployment mechanism, compared to the small bus, has influenced the design of every satellite subsystem leading to innovative solutions in terms of design, materials, equipment and instruments.

  17. Research Supporting Satellite Communications Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan Stephen; Lyman, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the second year of research effort under the grant Research Supporting Satellite Communications Technology. The research program consists of two major projects: Fault Tolerant Link Establishment and the design of an Auto-Configurable Receiver. The Fault Tolerant Link Establishment protocol is being developed to assist the designers of satellite clusters to manage the inter-satellite communications. During this second year, the basic protocol design was validated with an extensive testing program. After this testing was completed, a channel error model was added to the protocol to permit the effects of channel errors to be measured. This error generation was used to test the effects of channel errors on Heartbeat and Token message passing. The C-language source code for the protocol modules was delivered to Goddard Space Flight Center for integration with the GSFC testbed. The need for a receiver autoconfiguration capability arises when a satellite-to-ground transmission is interrupted due to an unexpected event, the satellite transponder may reset to an unknown state and begin transmitting in a new mode. During Year 2, we completed testing of these algorithms when noise-induced bit errors were introduced. We also developed and tested an algorithm for estimating the data rate, assuming an NRZ-formatted signal corrupted with additive white Gaussian noise, and we took initial steps in integrating both algorithms into the SDR test bed at GSFC.

  18. General relativity and satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The general relativistic correction to the position of a satellite is found by retaining Newtonian physics for an observer on the satellite and introducing a potential. The potential is expanded in terms of the Keplerian elements of the orbit and substituted in Lagrange's equations. Integration of the equations shows that a typical earth satellite with small orbital eccentricity is displaced by about 17 cm. from its unperturbed position after a single orbit, while the periodic displacement over the orbit reaches a maximum of about 3 cm. The moon is displaced by about the same amounts. Application of the equations to Mercury gives a total displacement of about 58 km. after one orbit and a maximum periodic displacement of about 12 km.

  19. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  20. Interference problems for nongeostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollfrey, W.

    1984-01-01

    The interference problems faced by nongeostationary satellites may be of major significance. A general discussion indicates the scope of the problems and describes several configurations of importance. Computer programs are described, which are employed by NASA/JPL and the U.S. Air Force Satellite Control Facility to provide interference-free scheduling of commands and data transmission. Satellite system mission planners are not concerned with the precise prediction of interference episodes, but rather with the expected total amount of interference, the mean and maximum duration of events, and the mean spacing between episodes. The procedures in the theory of probability developed by the author which permit calculation of such quantities are described and applied to several real cases. It may be anticipated that the problems will become steadily worse in the future as more and more data transmissions attempt to occupy the same frequency band.

  1. Dark Matter Tested with Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.; Tiret, O.

    2010-06-01

    Recently, the distribution of velocity dispersion as far as 400 kpc around red isolated galaxies was derived from statistical studies of satellites in the SDSS [1]. This could help to constrain dark matter models at intermediate scales. We compare the predictions of different DM distributions, ΛCDM with NFW or cored profiles, and also modified gravity models, with observations. It is shown how the freedom in the various parameters (radial distribution of satellites, velocity anisotropy, external field effect), prevents to disentangle the models, which all can give pretty good fits to the data. In all cases, realistic radial variations of velocity anisotropy are used for the satellites, and a constant stellar-mass to light ratio for the host galaxies.

  2. Space surveillance satellite catalog maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Phoebe A.

    1990-04-01

    The United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) is a Unified Command of the Department of Defense with headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado Springs, Co. One of the responsibilities of USSPACECOM is to detect, track, identify, and maintain a catalog of all manmade objects in earth orbit. This satellite catalog is the most important tool for space surveillance. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to identify why the command does the job of satellite catalog maintenance. Second, to describe what the satellite catalog is and how it is maintained. Third, and finally, to identify the questions that must be addressed if this command is to track small space object debris. This paper's underlying rationale is to describe our catalog maintenance services so that the members of our community can use them with assurance.

  3. Gaussian entanglement distribution via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In this work we analyze three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme, the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the tradeoff between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation.

  4. Landsat—Earth observation satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-11-25

    Since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth’s land surface, providing data that serve as valuable resources for land use/land change research. The data are useful to a number of applications including forestry, agriculture, geology, regional planning, and education. Landsat is a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA develops remote sensing instruments and the spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and data distribution. The result of this program is an unprecedented continuing record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  5. Satellite Data Transmission (SDT) requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; White, M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    An 85 Mb/s modem/codec to operate in a 34 MHz C-band domestic satellite transponder at a system carrier to noise power ratio of 19.5 dB is discussed. Characteristics of a satellite channel and the approach adopted for the satellite data transmission modem/codec selection are discussed. Measured data and simulation results of the existing 50 Mbps link are compared and used to verify the simulation techniques. Various modulation schemes that were screened for the SDT are discussed and the simulated performance of two prime candidates, the 8 PSK and the SMSK/2 are given. The selection process that leads to the candidate codec techniques are documented and the technology of the modem/codec candidates is assessed. Costs of the modems and codecs are estimated.

  6. The Mexican national satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.; Briskman, R. D.

    1983-10-01

    The satellites, tracking, telemetry, command, and monitoring facilities, and the earth station complex for the Mexican national satellite system, Morelos, are described. The spacecraft are intended to provide educational television, rural telephony, data transmission, and business and industrial services. Scheduled for 1985 launch, the satellites will be placed in GEO and use the C and Ku bands with 12 narrow band and six wideband transponders. Spin-stabilized and solar cell powered, the functional mass will be 666 kg, including propellant. The solar panels will provide 940 W of power and 830 W will be available from NiCd batteries during eclipse conditions. The earth station will be located at Iztapalapa, which will have a 12 m antenna, redundant uplink and downlink radios, and command and ranging equipment. Back-up capability will be provided by a station at Tulancingo. Ku band and C band stations are in planning.

  7. Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    The selling price of electrical power varies with time. The economic viability of space solar power is maximum if the power can be sold at peak power rates, instead of baseline rate. Price and demand of electricity was examined from spot-market data from four example markets: New England, New York City, suburban New York, and California. The data was averaged to show the average price and demand for power as a function of time of day and time of year. Demand varies roughly by a factor of two between the early-morning minimum demand, and the afternoon maximum; both the amount of peak power, and the location of the peak, depends significantly on the location and the weather. The demand curves were compared to the availability curves for solar energy and for tracking and non-tracking satellite solar power systems in order to compare the market value of terrestrial and solar electrical power. In part 2, new designs for a space solar power (SSP) system were analyzed to provide electrical power to Earth for economically competitive rates. The approach was to look at innovative power architectures to more practical approaches to space solar power. A significant barrier is the initial investment required before the first power is returned. Three new concepts for solar power satellites were invented and analyzed: a solar power satellite in the Earth-Sun L2 point, a geosynchronous no-moving parts solar power satellite, and a nontracking geosynchronous solar power satellite with integral phased array. The integral-array satellite had several advantages, including an initial investment cost approximately eight times lower than the conventional design.

  8. Satellite-Based Quantum Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Richard J; Nordholt, Jane E; McCabe, Kevin P; Newell, Raymond T; Peterson, Charles G

    2010-09-20

    Single-photon quantum communications (QC) offers the attractive feature of 'future proof', forward security rooted in the laws of quantum physics. Ground based quantum key distribution (QKD) experiments in optical fiber have attained transmission ranges in excess of 200km, but for larger distances we proposed a methodology for satellite-based QC. Over the past decade we have devised solutions to the technical challenges to satellite-to-ground QC, and we now have a clear concept for how space-based QC could be performed and potentially utilized within a trusted QKD network architecture. Functioning as a trusted QKD node, a QC satellite ('QC-sat') could deliver secret keys to the key stores of ground-based trusted QKD network nodes, to each of which multiple users are connected by optical fiber or free-space QC. A QC-sat could thereby extend quantum-secured connectivity to geographically disjoint domains, separated by continental or inter-continental distances. In this paper we describe our system concept that makes QC feasible with low-earth orbit (LEO) QC-sats (200-km-2,000-km altitude orbits), and the results of link modeling of expected performance. Using the architecture that we have developed, LEO satellite-to-ground QKD will be feasible with secret bit yields of several hundred 256-bit AES keys per contact. With multiple ground sites separated by {approx} 100km, mitigation of cloudiness over any single ground site would be possible, potentially allowing multiple contact opportunities each day. The essential next step is an experimental QC-sat. A number of LEO-platforms would be suitable, ranging from a dedicated, three-axis stabilized small satellite, to a secondary experiment on an imaging satellite. to the ISS. With one or more QC-sats, low-latency quantum-secured communications could then be provided to ground-based users on a global scale. Air-to-ground QC would also be possible.

  9. Natural Satellite Ephemerides at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Robert Arthur; Brozovic, Marina

    2015-08-01

    There are currently 176 known natural planetary satellites in the solar system; 150 are officially recognized by the IAU and 26 have IAU provisional designations. We maintain ephemerides for all of the satellites at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and make them available electronically through the On-Line Solar System Data Service known as Horizons(http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons) and in the form of generic Spice Kernels (SPK files) from NASA's Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/naif). General satellite information such as physical constants and descriptive orbital elements can be found on the JPL Solar System Dynamics Website (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov). JPL's ephemerides directly support planetary spacecraft missions both in navigation and science data analysis. They are also used in general scientific investigations of planetary systems. We produce the ephemerides by fitting numerically integrated orbits to observational data. Our model for the satellite dynamics accounts for the gravitational interactions within a planetary system and the external gravitational perturbations from the Sun and planets. We rely on an extensive data set to determine the parameters in our dynamical models. The majority of the observations are visual, photographic, and CCD astrometry acquired from Earthbased observatories worldwide and the Hubble Space Telescope. Additional observations include optical and photoelectric transits, eclipses, occultations, Earthbased radar ranging, spacecraft imaging,and spacecraft radiometric tracking. The latter data provide information on the planet and satellite gravity fields as well as the satellite position at the times of spacecraft close encounters. In this paper we report on the status of the ephemerides and our plan for future development, specifically that in support of NASA's Juno, Cassini, and New Horizons missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Pluto, respectively.

  10. Severe storms observing satellite (STORMSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The primary payload for this satellite is the Advanced Atmospheric Sounding and Imaging Radiometer which will perform precise infrared temperature sounding and visible/infrared imaging from geostationary orbit. A secondary payload instrument which may be utilized on STORMSAT is the Microwave Atmospheric Sounding Radiometer which provides an independent set of temperature and humidity sounding in cloudy, meteorologically active regions. The study provides satellite designs and identifies mission-unique subsystems using the Multimission Modular Spacecraft using a Shuttle/Interim Upper Stage launch vehicle.

  11. Land mobile satellite propagation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, David C.

    1988-01-01

    During the Fall of 1987 a land mobile satellite demonstration using the MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W was performed. While all the data have not been digested, some observations are in order. First, the system worked remarkably well for the margins indicated. Second, when the system worked poorly, the experimenters could almost always identify terrain or other obstacles causing blockage. Third, the forward link seems relatively more reliable than the return link, and occasional return link problems occured which have not been entirely explained.

  12. NASA's mobile satellite development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafferty, William; Dessouky, Khaled; Sue, Miles

    1988-01-01

    A Mobile Satellite System (MSS) will provide data and voice communications over a vast geographical area to a large population of mobile users. A technical overview is given of the extensive research and development studies and development performed under NASA's mobile satellite program (MSAT-X) in support of the introduction of a U.S. MSS. The critical technologies necessary to enable such a system are emphasized: vehicle antennas, modulation and coding, speech coders, networking and propagation characterization. Also proposed is a first, and future generation MSS architecture based upon realized ground segment equipment and advanced space segment studies.

  13. Vocoders in mobile satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriedte, W.; Canavesio, F.; dal Degan, N.; Pirani, G.; Rusina, F.; Usai, P.

    Owing to the power constraints that characterize onboard transmission sections, low-bit-rate coders seem suitable for speech communications inside mobile satellite systems. Vocoders that operate at rates below 4.8 kbit/s could therefore be a desirable solution for this application, providing also the redundancy that must be added to cope with the channel error rate. After reviewing the mobile-satellite-systems aspects, the paper outlines the features of two different types of vocoders that are likely to be employed, and the relevant methods of assessing their performances. Finally, some results from computer simulations of the speech transmission systems are reported.

  14. The FAA satellite communications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Karen L.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is developing satellite communications capabilities to enhance air traffic services, first in oceanic and remote regions, and later for United States domestic services. The program includes four projects which develop technical standards, assure adequate system performance, support implementation, and provide for research and development for selected areas of U.S. domestic satellite communications. The continuing focus is the application of automated data communications, which is already permitting enhanced and regular position reporting. Voice developments, necessary for non-routine communications, are also included among the necessary activities to improve ATC communications.

  15. Data compression for satellite images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. H.; Wintz, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    An efficient data compression system is presented for satellite pictures and two grey level pictures derived from satellite pictures. The compression techniques take advantages of the correlation between adjacent picture elements. Several source coding methods are investigated. Double delta coding is presented and shown to be the most efficient. Both predictive differential quantizing technique and double delta coding can be significantly improved by applying a background skipping technique. An extension code is constructed. This code requires very little storage space and operates efficiently. Simulation results are presented for various coding schemes and source codes.

  16. Customer concerns regarding satellite servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    The organization of orbital servicing of satellites is discussed. Provision of servicing equipment; design interfaces between the satellite and the servicing equipment; and the economic viability of the concept are discussed. The proposed solution for satisfying customer concerns is for the servicing organizations to baseline an adequate inventory of servicing equipment with standard interfaces and established servicing costs. With this knowledge, the customer can conduct tradeoff studies and make programmatic decisions regarding servicing options. A dialog procedure between customers and servicing specialists is outlined.

  17. Solar power satellite status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a solar power satellite program is considered. It is suggested that the solar power satellite is an engineering rather than a science program - that is, that no scientific breakthroughs are required before initiating the project. Available technology is examined, and several key questions are discussed: how efficient is microwave transfer of energy; how feasible is construction in space; and will the advantages of continuous insolation compensate for the costs of building a solar power plant in synchronous orbit 23,000 miles above the earth.

  18. Morelos Satellite System for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.

    1986-03-01

    The telephone, television, and data communication services that the Morelos Satellite System (MSS) provides are discussed. The design and functions of the MSS which consists of two geosynchronous communication satellites that operate in C and Ku frequency bands and are located at 113.5 deg and 116.5 deg W longitude are described. The capabilities of the antenna, communication, attitude control, telemetry, command, reaction control, electrical power, and thermal control subsystems are studied. The components of the earth station are examined. The economic and social benefits possible from the application of the MSS to banking, rural clinics, food distribution services, and the oil and electric industries are analyzed.

  19. Passive solar reflector satellite revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, C.; Daly, J. C.

    1980-07-01

    Passive light weight reflectors in space which direct the incident solar energy to a specified location on the Earth surface are proposed as an alternative system for the solar power satellite to overcome conversion losses and to avoid the need for photovoltaic cells. On Earth, either photovoltaic cells or a steam turbine alternator on a solar tower, or a similar conventional, relatively high efficiency cycle are used for electricity generation. The constraints which apply to the design of the optical system if a single satellite is placed in geostationary orbit are outlined. A single lens and a two lens system are discussed.

  20. Passive solar reflector satellite revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, C.; Daly, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Passive light weight reflectors in space which direct the incident solar energy to a specified location on the Earth surface are proposed as an alternative system for the solar power satellite to overcome conversion losses and to avoid the need for photovoltaic cells. On Earth, either photovoltaic cells or a steam turbine alternator on a solar tower, or a similar conventional, relatively high efficiency cycle are used for electricity generation. The constraints which apply to the design of the optical system if a single satellite is placed in geostationary orbit are outlined. A single lens and a two lens system are discussed.

  1. Emerging technologies for communication satellite payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüceer, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments in payload designs will allow more flexible and efficient use of telecommunication satellites. Important modifications in repeater designs, antenna structures and spectrum policies open up exciting opportunities for GEO satellites to support a variety of emerging applications, ranging from telemedicine to real-time data transfer between LEO satellite and ground station. This study gives information about the emerging technologies in the design of communication satellites' transceiver subsystem and demonstrates the feasibility of using fiber optic links for the local oscillator distribution in future satellite payloads together with the optical inter-satellite link.

  2. Broadcast satellite service: The international dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samara, Noah

    1991-01-01

    The dawn of the 1990's has witnessed the birth of a new satellite service - satellite sound broadcasting. This new service is characterized by digital transmission at data rates up to 256 kb/s from satellites in geostationary orbit to small, low-cost, mobile and portable receivers. The satellite sound broadcasting service is a logical step beyond navigation satellite service, such as that provided by the GPS Navstar system. The mass market appeal of satellite sound broadcasting in the area of lightsat technology and low-cost digital radios has greatly facilitated the financing of this type of space service.

  3. Providing satellite systems for the national weather satellite services.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. G.; Press, H.; Stampfl, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of cooperative arrangements and agreements among NASA, the Department of Commerce, and other governmental agencies in developing and operating meteorological satellite systems. The development of present interagency agreements and their conditions are discussed along with differences from the usual NASA program introduced by the supplier-client relationship between NASA and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration).

  4. Satellite switched FDMA advanced communication technology satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, S.; Higton, G. H.; Wood, K.; Kline, A.; Furiga, A.; Rausch, M.; Jan, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The satellite switched frequency division multiple access system provided a detailed system architecture that supports a point to point communication system for long haul voice, video and data traffic between small Earth terminals at Ka band frequencies at 30/20 GHz. A detailed system design is presented for the space segment, small terminal/trunking segment at network control segment for domestic traffic model A or B, each totaling 3.8 Gb/s of small terminal traffic and 6.2 Gb/s trunk traffic. The small terminal traffic (3.8 Gb/s) is emphasized, for the satellite router portion of the system design, which is a composite of thousands of Earth stations with digital traffic ranging from a single 32 Kb/s CVSD voice channel to thousands of channels containing voice, video and data with a data rate as high as 33 Mb/s. The system design concept presented, effectively optimizes a unique frequency and channelization plan for both traffic models A and B with minimum reorganization of the satellite payload transponder subsystem hardware design. The unique zoning concept allows multiple beam antennas while maximizing multiple carrier frequency reuse. Detailed hardware design estimates for an FDMA router (part of the satellite transponder subsystem) indicate a weight and dc power budget of 353 lbs, 195 watts for traffic model A and 498 lbs, 244 watts for traffic model B.

  5. Searching for satellites of Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B.; Li, J.; McFadden, L.; Mutchler, M.; McLean, B.; Russell, C.

    2014-07-01

    The existence of satellites, or lack thereof, around Ceres is of great interest to the Dawn mission, which is currently en route to Ceres and will arrive in February 2015. The Dawn spacecraft will orbit Ceres at altitudes of 1180 to 6400 km, well within the satellite stability region. The final opportunity for observations of Ceres with HST prior to Dawn's arrival occurred in April 2014, when Ceres will make a close pass at opposition to Earth. In addition to providing additional targets for exciting physical studies by the Dawn instruments, satellites, if there were any, would substantially affect Dawn's orbit planning in order to accommodate observations and ensure spacecraft safety. For example, detection of satellites would allow this program to derive a more accurate measurement of the mass of Ceres, which is important for the mission planners to determine the orbit of the spacecraft. With the observation planning process already underway, early detection of satellites will provide sufficient time to adapt mission plans to be able to observe any satellites on ingress or during the mapping orbits. The timing is particularly important, since the spacecraft now has use of only two reaction wheels, which is already impacting mission design, and which prevents Dawn from conducting its own deep satellite search as was accomplished prior to arrival at Vesta. Because of this, an HST survey is critical for Dawn operations at Ceres. Since satellite detection could require a change to the mission's nominal orbital strategy and present risk from dust associated with any satellites, it is crucial to put Dawn in the best position to succeed. HST observed Ceres using the High Resolution Channel (HRC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to study the physical properties of Ceres and carried out surface mapping (Parker et al. 2004, Thomas et al. 2005, Li et al. 2006). Several ''long-V'' (F555W filter) exposures were taken using the full field of view of the ACS-HRC to

  6. Satellite voice broadcast system study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of providing Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts by satellite relay, rather than via terrestrial relay stations. Satellite voice broadcast systems are described for three different frequency bands: HF (26 MHz), VHF (68 MHz), and L-band (1.5 GHz). The geographical areas of interest at HF and L-band include all major land masses worldwide with the exception of the U.S., Canada, and Australia. Geostationary satellite configurations are considered for both frequency bands. In addition, a system of subsynchronous, circular satellites with an orbit period of 8 hours is developed for the HF band. VHF broadcasts, which are confined to the Soviet Union, are provied by a system of Molniya satellites. Satellites intended for HF or VHF broadcastinbg are extremely large and heavy. Satellite designs presented here are limited in size and weight to the capability of the STS/Centaur launch vehicle combination. Even so, at HF it would take 47 geostationary satellites or 20 satellites in 8-hour orbits to fully satisfy the voice-channel requirements of the broadcast schedule provided by VOA. On the other hand, three Molniya satellites suffice for the geographically restricted schedule at VHF. At L-band, only four geostationary satellites are needed to meet the requirements of the complete broadcast schedule. Moreover, these satellites are comparable in size and weight to current satellites designed for direct broadcast of video program material.

  7. Mobile satellite regulation in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Lon C.; Sonnenfeldt, Walter H.

    During the last decade, the U.S. FCC has developed the regulatory structure for the provision of mobile services via satellite. In May 1989, the FCC awarded American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) a license to provide the full range of domestic mobile satellite services in the U.S. At that time, the FCC reaffirmed the U.S. mobile satellite industry structure and spectrum allocations that had been adopted previously. Also in May 1989, the FCC authorized the Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT), the U.S. Signatory to Inmarsat, to provide international aeronautical satellite service via the Inmarsat system. Earlier in 1989, the FCC permitted the use of Ku-band satellites to provide messaging and tracking services. In the mid-1980's, the FCC established the Radiodetermination Satellite Service and awarded licenses. Among the mobile satellite matters currently facing the FCC are whether additional spectrum should be allocated for domestic 'generic' mobile satellite services, the regulatory structure for the provision of mobile satellite service on an interim basis before AMSC launches its dedicated satellites, and whether to authorize a low earth orbit satellite system to provide mobile data service.

  8. Mobile satellite regulation in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Lon C.; Sonnenfeldt, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    During the last decade, the U.S. FCC has developed the regulatory structure for the provision of mobile services via satellite. In May 1989, the FCC awarded American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) a license to provide the full range of domestic mobile satellite services in the U.S. At that time, the FCC reaffirmed the U.S. mobile satellite industry structure and spectrum allocations that had been adopted previously. Also in May 1989, the FCC authorized the Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT), the U.S. Signatory to Inmarsat, to provide international aeronautical satellite service via the Inmarsat system. Earlier in 1989, the FCC permitted the use of Ku-band satellites to provide messaging and tracking services. In the mid-1980's, the FCC established the Radiodetermination Satellite Service and awarded licenses. Among the mobile satellite matters currently facing the FCC are whether additional spectrum should be allocated for domestic 'generic' mobile satellite services, the regulatory structure for the provision of mobile satellite service on an interim basis before AMSC launches its dedicated satellites, and whether to authorize a low earth orbit satellite system to provide mobile data service.

  9. Satellite-based quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Single-photon quantum communications offers the attractive feature of ``future proof'' security rooted in the laws of quantum physics for the transfer of cryptographic keys. Secure distribution of keys is necessary for the encryption and authentication of conventional communications. Ground-based quantum communications experiments in optical fiber have attained transmission ranges in excess of 200 km, but for larger distances to become feasible we proposed a methodology that would make satellite-to-ground quantum communications possible. Satellite feasibility studies have been published by research groups in the US, Europe, Japan and China, and collaborations in several countries have published conceptual experimental plans. In this talk we will review the main features required for low-earth orbit satellite-toground quantum communications, and describe the results of ground-based quantum communications experiments across atmospheric paths conducted by our team over the past decade. Using these results as an anchor, we will describe a link model, incorporating photon transmission, loss and background physical processes, for estimating satellite-to-ground quantum communications performance. We will show results from this model for the projected performance of a hypothetical quantum communications terminal on the International Space Station, with a hypothetical ground terminal in Los Alamos, NM. In collaboration with Jane Nordholt, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  10. Medium Spatial Resolution Satellite Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stensaas, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This project provides characterization and calibration of aerial and satellite systems in support of quality acquisition and understanding of remote sensing data, and verifies and validates the associated data products with respect to ground and and atmospheric truth so that accurate value-added science can be performed. The project also provides assessment of new remote sensing technologies.

  11. The Mobile Satellite Services Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Samuel

    Mobile satellite (MSAT) technology is the basis for a new component of the telecommunications industry capable of providing services to small inexpensive subscriber terminals located almost any place in the world. The market for MSAT space segment capacity (bandwidth and power) is a natural monopoly that can be logically and technically…

  12. Technology for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. P.; Gouker, M. A.; Summers, C.; Gallagher, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for satellite electromagnetic energy transfer and power conversion at millimeter and infrared wavelengths are discussed. The design requirements for rectenna receiving elements are reviewed for both coherent radiation sources and Earth thermal infrared emission. Potential power transmitters including gyrotrons, free electron lasers, and CO2 lasers are assessed along with the rectification properties of metal-oxide metal diode power converters.

  13. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  14. Monitoring Global Temperatures From Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Christy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Report provides evidence that passive microwave radiometry from satellites provides more-precise information on atmospheric temperatures than sparse distribution of thermometers. Accurate temperatures needed for detection of "greenhouse" warming, evaluation of computer models of change in climate, and for understanding important factors in climate system.

  15. Satellite Sees 3 Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of GOES-15 satellite observations from July 8 (6:00 p.m. EDT) to July 12 (9:30 a.m. EDT), 2012, shows Hurricane Daniel weaken to a remnant low pressure area nearing Hawaii, while Emi...

  16. The Cooperative Satellite Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caler, Michelle

    This document describes the Cooperative Satellite Learning Project (CSLP) which is designed to educate students in the areas of space science, engineering, and technology in a business-like atmosphere. The project is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Association (NASA), Allied Signal Technical Services Corporation, and…

  17. Satellite monitoring of black bear.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

  18. University Satellite Campus Management Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Doug; Stott, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Among the 60 or so university satellite campuses in Australia are many that are probably failing to meet the high expectations of their universities and the communities they were designed to serve. While in some cases this may be due to the demand driven system, it may also be attributable in part to the ways in which they are managed. The…

  19. Electric power for space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The development of electric power systems for satellites is discussed as an evolutionary process requiring the integration of power generation, power storage, and power control and distribution. The growth of space electric power systems is traced. The capabilities and limitations of the various elements (i.e. silicon solar cells) are discussed together with their impact on future technological growth.

  20. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  1. The DSI small satellite launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, S.; Gibbons, D.; Wise, J.; Nguyen, D.

    1992-01-01

    A new launcher has been developed by DSI, that is compatible with the GAS canisters. It has the proven capability to deploy a satellite from an orbiting Shuttle that is 18 inches in diameter, 31 inches long, and weighing 190 pounds. These DSI Launchers were used aboard the Discovery (STS-39) in May 1991 as part of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) to deploy three small satellites known as Chemical Release Observation (CRO) satellites A, B, and C. Because the satellites contained hazardous liquids (MMH, UDMH, and MON-10) and were launched from GAS Cylinders without motorized doors, the launchers were required to pass NASA Shuttle Payload safety and verification requirements. Some of the more interesting components of the design were the V-band retention and separation mechanism, the separation springs, and the launcher electronics which provided a properly inhibited release sequence operated through the Small Payload Accommodations Switch Panel (SPASP) on board the Orbiter. The original plan for this launcher was to use a motorized door. The launcher electronics, therefore has the capability to be modified to accommodate the door, if desired.

  2. Introductory Course on Satellite Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giger, Kaspar; Knogl, J. Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Satellite navigation is widely used for personal navigation and more and more in precise and safety-critical applications. Thus, the subject is suited for attracting the interest of young people in science and engineering. The practical applications allow catching the students' attention for the theoretical background. Educational material on the…

  3. Adaptive arrays for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, I. J.; Ksienski, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    The suppression of interfering signals in a satellite communication system was studied. Adaptive arrays are used to suppress interference at the reception site. It is required that the interference be suppressed to very low levels and a modified adaptive circuit is used which accomplishes the desired objective. Techniques for the modification of the transmit patterns to minimize interference with neighboring communication links are explored.

  4. A power satellite sonic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, J. H.; Rice, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A simulator is described which generates and transmits a beam of audible sound energy mathematically similar to the solar power satellite (SPS) power beam. The simulator provides a laboratory means for analysis of ground based closed loop SPS phase control and of ionospheric effects on the SPS microwave power beam.

  5. Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite Data Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A seminar was organized by NASA to acquaint the meteorological community with data now available, and data scheduled to be available in the future, from geosynchronous meteorological satellites. The twenty-four papers were presented in three half-day sessions in addition to tours of the Image Display and LANDSAT Processing Facilities during the afternoon of the second day.

  6. Dynamics of Inner Neptunian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2005-08-01

    Observations show that all of Neptune's inner satellites have small but non-zero inclinations relative to their local Laplacian planes. If we make the reasonable assumption that the moons formed from an extremely thin accretion disk (similar to Saturn's rings) resulting from catastrophic disruption of the original satellite system during the capture of Triton, then the orbital tilts of the moons, albeit small, require an explanation. We are investigating the hypothesis that passages through inclination-type mean motion resonances during satellite migration are responsible for these inclinations. With massive Triton on a nearby tilted orbit, this process can be significantly different from those that happened elsewhere in the Solar System. Furthermore, the study of the dynamical history of the system can help establish Triton's capture scenario and constrain the physical properties of both the planet and the satellites. Through detailed numerical simulations for a series of first- and second-order mean motion resonance encounters between Proteus and Larissa, we find that, for each resonance passage, the three second-order inclination resonances, which usually provide the strongest inclination kicks, are dominated by two new ones. We have identified the newcomers as 3-body resonances involving the nodal precession of Triton. Our findings indicate that the two satellites probably need to pass through at least three mean motion resonances (2:1, 5:3 and 3:2) to account for their current orbital tilts, which requires that Proteus have formed interior to 4.25RN rather that at its current location of 4.7RN, and Neptune's Q is less than 24000. It is not clear whether additional resonances occurred due to chaotic evolution resulting from the overlap of strong first-order eccentricity resonances which happened for resonances that may have occurred earlier than the 5:3. These chaotic interactions can strongly affect satellite inclinations. Finally, the 4.7o tilt of the

  7. GOES Weather Satellite Watches The Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA satellites such as STEREO, SOHO, and SDO are dedicated to studying the sun. GOES is a weather satellite but also watches the sun constantly. Watch this video and learn why space weather data i...

  8. IMPROVING BIOGENIC EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH SATELLITE IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review how existing and future applications of satellite imagery can improve the accuracy of biogenic emission estimates. Existing applications of satellite imagery to biogenic emission estimates have focused on characterizing land cover. Vegetation dat...

  9. Meteorological satellites: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Past developments, accomplishments and future potential of meteorological satellites are discussed. Meteorological satellite design is described in detail. Space platforms and their meteorological applications are discussed. User needs are also discussed.

  10. CCRS Landcover Maps From Satellite Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trishchenko, Alexander

    2008-01-15

    The Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) presents several landcover maps over the SGP CART site area (32-40N, 92-102W) derived from satellite data including AVHRR, MODIS, SPOT vegetation data, and Landsat satellite TM imagery.

  11. DIORAMA Model of Satellite Body Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Werley, Kenneth Alan

    2016-03-04

    The DIORAMA GPS satellite platform orientation model is described. Satellites need to keep sensors pointed towards the earth and solar panels oriented to face the sun (when not in the earth’s shadow) while they orbit the earth.

  12. Our World: A-Train Satellites

    NASA Video Gallery

    The A-Train consists of five satellites orbiting Earth that use the latest NASA technology to study the Earth's system. This segment introduces Aqua, one of the satellites that studies water on Earth.

  13. Satellite Earth resources data, module U-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Satellite data image products potentially useful in solving Earth resource and environmental problems are described. Sources for satellite data and user information are given. Recommendations for suitability of use of data from each satellite are presented. Satellite sources of Earth resources data are summarized for satellites launched since 1965 and those projected for launch through the late 1980s. The sensors of interest on each satellite, the wavelength or frequency of operation, and the resolution are given. Color ranges are illustrated and compared. The form and utility of aircraft and LANDSAT images are compared. Data from the Gemini-Apollo photography, Skylab, meteorological satellites, the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, Seasat, LANDSAT, and projected future satellites are briefly described.

  14. TRMM Satellite Rainfall Data on Iselle

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM satellite rainfall data overlaid on an enhanced infrared image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows heavy rainfall occurring around the Iselle's eye. The most intense rain was falling at a ra...

  15. Cloudsat and MTSAT Satellites Observer Atsani

    NASA Video Gallery

    This Aug. 19 image combines cloud imagery from Japan's MTSAT satellite and NASA's CloudSat satellite. Areas of pink and red designate larger amounts of liquid and ice. Light blue indicate smaller c...

  16. TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

  17. NASA Now: Orbital Mechanics: Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Video Gallery

    This NASA Now program is all about satellites and their orbits. Dr. James Gleason, project scientist for NPP, explains what it takes for a satellite to stay in orbit, why there are different types ...

  18. NASA compendium of satellite communications programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive review of worldwide satellite communication programs is reported that ranges in time from the inception of satellite communications to mid-1971. Particular emphasis is placed on program results, including experiments conducted, communications system operational performance, and technology employed.

  19. Cryovolcanism on the icy satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kargel, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence of past cryovolcanism is widespread and extremely varied on the icy satellites. Some cryovolcanic landscapes, notably on Triton, are similar to many silicate volcanic terrains, including what appear to be volcanic rifts, calderas and solidified lava lakes, flow fields, breached cinder cones or stratovolcanoes, viscous lava domes, and sinuous rilles. Most other satellites have terrains that are different in the important respect that no obvious volcanoes are present. The preserved record of cryovolcanism generally is believed to have formed by eruptions of aqueous solutions and slurries. Even Triton's volcanic crust, which is covered by nitrogen-rich frost, is probably dominated by water ice. Nonpolar and weakly polar molecular liquids (mainly N2, CH4, CO, CO2, and Ar), may originate by decomposition of gas-clathrate hydrates and may have been erupted on some icy satellites, but without water these substances do not form rigid solids that are stable against sublimation or melting over geologic time. Triton's plumes, active at the time of Voyager 2's flyby, may consist of multicomponent nonpolar gas mixtures. The plumes may be volcanogenic fumaroles or geyserlike emissions powered by deep internal heating, and, thus, the plumes may be indicating an interior that is still cryomagmatically active; or Triton's plumes may be powered by solar heating of translucent ices very near the surface. The Uranian and Neptunian satellites Miranda, Ariel, and Triton have flow deposits that are hundreds to thousands of meters thick (implying highly viscous lavas); by contrast, the Jovian and Saturnian satellites generally have plains-forming deposits composed of relatively thin flows whose thicknesses have not been resolved in Voyager images (thus implying relatively low-viscosity lavas). One possible explanation for this inferred rheological distinction involves a difference in volatile composition of the Uranian and Neptunian satellites on one hand and of the Jovian and

  20. Earth and ocean dynamics satellites and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of the present state of satellite and ground systems making observations of the dynamics of the solid earth and the oceans. Emphasis is placed on applications of space technology for practical use. Topics discussed include: satellite missions and results over the last two decades in the areas of earth gravity field, polar motions, earth tides, magnetic anomalies, and satellite-to-satellite tracking; laser ranging systems; development of the Very Long Baseline Interferometer; and Skylab radar altimeter data applications.

  1. Teledesic pushes $9-billion, 900-satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    Teledesic Corp. is seeking FCC approval to deploy a communication satellite system, costing $9 billion and using more than 900 satellites in low Earth orbit. This system would provide telephone and broadband data service to remote areas and developing countries. The two major stockholders in Teledesic are William Gates (of Microsoft Corp.) and Craig McCaw (of McCaw Cellular Communications). Each satellite would act as a node in a packet-switching network. The satellites would provide continuous global coverage.

  2. Fuzzy Logic Controller for Small Satellites Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    tracking of the ground station) 3 PLATFORM DEFINITION The satellite structure is simply a parallelepiped and the platform is customised according to...the mission type in order to accomplish the different mission objectives (see Figure 1). Satellite mass and volume were chosen without reference to a...Solar Panels (two) 2*0.4 m2 Total satellite mass 120 kg Satellite Dimensions 0.6*0.6*0.8 m Propulsion System N/A Orbital State GPS receiver Attitude

  3. Laser beamed power: Satellite demonstration applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Westerlund, Larry H.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible to use a ground-based laser to beam light to the solar arrays of orbiting satellites, to a level sufficient to provide all or some of the operating power required. Near-term applications of this technology for providing supplemental power to existing satellites are discussed. Two missions with significant commercial pay-off are supplementing solar power for radiation-degraded arrays and providing satellite power during eclipse for satellites with failed batteries.

  4. Satellite cells: the architects of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chang, Natasha C; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is attributed to the resident muscle stem cell termed satellite cell. Satellite cells are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration as they ultimately provide the myogenic precursors that rebuild damaged muscle tissue. Satellite cells characteristically are a heterogeneous population of stem cells and committed progenitor cells. Delineation of cellular hierarchy and understanding how lineage fate choices are determined within the satellite cell population will be invaluable for the advancement of muscle regenerative therapies.

  5. Compendium of Applications Technology Satellite user experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, N. A.; Strange, J. D.; Hein, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    The achievements of the user experiments performed with ATS satellites from 1967 to 1973 are summarized. Included are fixed and mobile point to point communications experiments involving voice, teletype and facsimile transmissions. Particular emphasis is given to the Alaska and Hawaii satellite communications experiments. The use of the ATS satellites for ranging and position fixing of ships and aircraft is also covered. The structure and operating characteristics of the various ATS satellite are briefly described.

  6. Engineering calculations for communications satellite systems planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, Charles H.; Walton, Eric K.; Kohnhorst, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is described that was used to calculate minimum required satellite separations based on total link carrier to interference requirements. Also summarized are recent results with a switching algorithm for satellite synthesis problems. Analytic solution value bounds for two of the satellite synthesis models studied are described. Preliminary results from an empirical study of alternate mixed integer programming models for satellite synthesis are presented. Research plans for the near future are discussed.

  7. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  8. Experiment In Aeronautical-Mobile/Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas C.; Lay, Norman E.; Dessouky, Khaled

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of performance of digital mobile/satellite communication terminals of advanced design intended for use in ground stations and airplanes in aeronautical-mobile service. Study was collaboration of NASA, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Communications Satellite Corp. (COMSAT), and International Maritime Satellite System (INMARSAT).

  9. Investigations of earth dynamics from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The consequences of the earth's elasticity are examined for close-earth satellites. The ideas of polar motion and earth tides are developed in a form applicable to satellite studies, since the polar motion, the body tide, and the ocean tide are all suitable for study by use of satellites. Analysis of available polar-motion data is performed.

  10. Developing a global aeronautical satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dement, Donald K.

    1988-01-01

    Arinc, an airline industry-owned and operated company in the United States, has taken steps toward establishing a global aeronautical satellite communications system. Plans call for initiation of a thin-route data operation in 1989, upgrading to establish voice communications via shared spot-beam transponders carried on other satellites, and deploying a worldwide network using dedicated satellites by 1994.

  11. Navy Satellite Communications in the Hellenic Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    113 A. ECONOMICAL MODEL ------------------------ 113 B. LAUNCH COST AS A FUNCTION OF WEIGHT- 117 C. COST EFFICIENCY... MODEL ------------------- 118 VI. DEVELOPMENTAL DECISIONS------------------------ 120 A. UHF vs SHF------------------------------- 120 B. ACTIVE vs...nationwide, emergency military satellite communication network ? 3. Economic evaluation of an active satellite system. 5 4. A military satellite communication

  12. Processor Units Reduce Satellite Construction Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    As part of the effort to build the Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), Marshall Space Flight Center developed a low-cost telemetry unit which is used to facilitate communication between a satellite and its receiving station. Huntsville, Alabama-based Orbital Telemetry Inc. has licensed the NASA technology and is offering to install the cost-cutting units on commercial satellites.

  13. Sustained Satellite Missions for Climate Data Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David

    2012-01-01

    Satellite CDRs possess the accuracy, longevity, and stability for sustained moni toring of critical variables to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system and predict future conditions. center dot Satellite CDRs are a critical element of a global climate observing system. center dot Satellite CDRs are a difficult challenge and require high - level managerial commitment, extensive intellectual capital, and adequate funding.

  14. The use of mobile satellite communication terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, P. A.

    The role of small portable terminals in military satellite systems is examined; the discussion embraces terminals with an antenna reflector diameter of seven meters or less. Emphasis is placed on the specification of MARMOSET (Marconi Mobile Satellite Earth Terminal). Also considered are ship-borne satellite terminals, the improved SCOT terminal, interoperability, reduced downlink power, and reliability and availability.

  15. The Impact of Satellites on Cable Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chayes, Abram

    Two recent developments in communications satellite technology may speed the coming of cable TV (CATV) networks. First, increases in satellite power are reducing the cost of ground stations. Second, a connection between one ground station, the satellite, and any other ground station is no longer necessarily fixed. Now one station can communicate…

  16. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  17. System and Apparatus for Deploying a Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Luis H. (Inventor); Hudeck, John D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A frictionless satellite constraint system is provided. The constraint system includes at least one clamp bar configured to restrain a satellite within the constraint system in an axial direction. The constraint system also includes a plurality of pins configured to restrain the satellite within the constraint system in a lateral direction.

  18. ON ALIGNMENT OF SUN, EARTH, AND SATELLITE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The results are reported of an investigation of the relations among the launch parameters of an earth satellite and the time and position of alignment of the sun , the earth, and the satellite. The effects of variations of the launch conditions upon the satellite’s time of transit across the solar disc are determined. (Author)

  19. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  20. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor...

  1. Satellite to measure equatorial ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer E (Explorer 55) Satellite is described. The satellite will gather information on the earth's upper atmosphere, particularly regarding the condition of the protective ozone layer. The satellite will also provide information concerning the earth's heat balance, and heat flow characteristics, and energy conversion mechanisms.

  2. Direct-Broadcast Satellites and Cultural Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Ithiel de Sola

    1975-01-01

    Argues that progress in satellite communications depends upon the assurance that satellites are useful to people in all countries, and that a world television network and a worldwide packet data communication system would help achieve that goal, and asserts that direct-satellite television broadcasting does not represent, at present, an active…

  3. Direct broadcast satellite service by direct broadcast satellite corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, W. L.; Radin, H. W.

    1984-03-01

    It is noted that common carrier operation implies the offer to transmit television programs or any other information in electronic form for any customer at a rate posted in a tariff recorded at the FCC and applied without discrimination. The satellite system developed must be flexible enough to provide virtually any transmision service its customers may decide to offer at some future time. This means that spot beams must be available, which will permit the programmer to concentrate his offerings on particular regions of the country. Also, with the first satellite, there will be full-coverage service to the entire contiguous United States; in this way, programmers wishing to reach a nationwide audience will be able to do so from the beginning of their DBS operation. In addition, there will be an effective isotropic radiated power level that is high enough to accommodate high-definition television. As a common carrier, it is also necessary to seek the maximum possible standardization of signal transmission formats, receiver and antenna characteristics, and satellite locations so that programmers wishing to provide either subscription-supported or advertiser-supported programs can reach the widest possible audiences.

  4. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  5. An aeronautical-mobile satellite experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas C.; Dessouky, Khaled I.; Lay, Norman E.

    1991-01-01

    The various activities and findings of a NASA/FAA/COMSAT/INMARSAT collaborative aeronautical mobile-satellite experiment are detailed. The primary objective of the experiment was to demonstrate and evaluate an advanced digital mobile-satellite terminal developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the NASA Mobile Satellite Program. The experiment was a significant milestone for NASA/JPL, since it was the first test of the mobile terminal in a true mobile-satellite environment. The results were also of interest to the general mobile-satellite community because of the advanced nature of the technologies employed in the terminal.

  6. A new wave of communication satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, R. R.; Cuccia, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    Satellites provide at present telephone, television, data, and business services on a national, regional, and international scale, and the geostationary arc has become crowded at C-band (6/4 GHz) and Ku-band (14/11 GHz) frequencies. The evolution and the present state of satellite communications are discussed along with details regarding the development of direct broadcast satellites, the position of Canada with respect to satellite communications, Japanese developments, ESA and Eutelsat, aspects of collaboration between France and Germany regarding communications satellites, the United Kingdom, and the Nordic countries.

  7. Weather Satellite Pictures and How to Obtain Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Noel J.; Johnson, Philip

    1982-01-01

    An introduction to satellite meteorology is presented to promote use of live weather satellite photographs in the classroom. Topics addressed include weather satellites, how they work, earth emissions, satellite photography, satellite image analysis, obtaining satellite pictures, and future considerations. Includes sources for materials to…

  8. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  9. Thermal Targets for Satellite Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2001-01-10

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is currently calibrating the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite sponsored by the Department of Energy. The MTI imager is a research and development project with 15 wavebands in the visible, near-infrared, short-wave infrared, mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared spectral regions. A plethora of targets with known temperatures such as power plant heated lakes, volcano lava vents, desert playas and aluminized Mylar tarps are being used in the validation of the five thermal bands of the MTI satellite. SRTC efforts in the production of ''cold targets'' with aluminized Mylar tarps will be described. Visible and thermal imagery and wavelength dependent radiance measurements of the calibration targets will be presented.

  10. Satellite observed thermodynamics during FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    During the First Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment (FGGE), determinations of temperature and moisture were made from TIROS-N and NOAA-6 satellite infrared and microwave sounding radiance measurements. The data were processed by two methods differing principally in their horizontal resolution. At the National Earth Satellite Service (NESS) in Washington, D.C., the data were produced operationally with a horizontal resolution of 250 km for inclusion in the FGGE Level IIb data sets for application to large-scale numerical analysis and prediction models. High horizontal resolution (75 km) sounding data sets were produced using man-machine interactive methods for the special observing periods of FGGE at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and archived as supplementary Level IIb. The procedures used for sounding retrieval and the characteristics and quality of these thermodynamic observations are given.

  11. Avionics for a small satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Larry; Jochim, David; Shuler, Robert

    2001-02-01

    This paper discusses a small, seven and a half (7.5) inch diameter, satellite that NASA-JSC is developing as a technology demonstrator for an astronaut assistant. The free flyer, the Mini-AERCam, is designed to off load the flight crew's workload by performing inspections of the exteriors of the Space Shuttle or International Space Station. The Mini-AERCam is intended to be operated by the flight crew, thereby reducing the number of Extra Vehicle Activities (EVA) and reducing crew workload as a result. The paper focuses on the design constraints for a small satellite and the technology approach used to achieve the set of high performance requirements specified for the Mini-AERCam. Particular attention is paid to the flight computer as it is the system integration point of the Mini-AERCam. .

  12. The orbit of Pluto's satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen speckle interferometric observations of the Pluto system have been used to improve the determination of the orbital elements for Pluto's satellite. Calibration uncertainties appear to be the dominant source of error, but the observation of a partial occultation of the satellite by Pluto has been used to constrain the orbit solution. The orbital period is found to be in excellent agreement with the rotational period of the planet, reinforcing the belief that the system is completely tidally evolved. The orbital radius and period imply a total mass for the system of 6.8 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the -9th solar masses. Density constraints place an upper limit of 3615 + or - 90 km on the diameter of Pluto, while observations of the first mutual events establish a crude lower limit of about 2800 km.

  13. Advances in understanding begomovirus satellites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Begomoviruses are numerous and geographically widespread viruses that cause devastating diseases in many crops. Monopartite begomoviruses are frequently associated with betasatellites or alphasatellites. Both betasatellite and alphasatellite DNA genomes are approximately half the size of begomovirus DNA genomes. Betasatellites are essential for induction of typical disease symptoms. The βC1 genes encoded by the betasatellites have important roles in symptom induction, in suppression of transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing, and they can affect jasmonic acid responsive genes. Host plants of begomoviruses have evolved diverse innate defense mechanisms against the βC1 protein to counter these challenges. Alphasatellites have been identified mainly in monopartite begomoviruses that associate with betasatellites and have no known contributions to pathogenesis of begomovirus-betasatellite disease complexes. Applications of current molecular tools are facilitating viral diagnosis and the discovery of novel species of geminiviruses and satellite DNAs and are also advancing our understanding of the global diversity and evolution of satellite DNAs.

  14. Avionics for a Small Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Larry; Jochim, David; Schuler, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a small. seven and a half (7.5) inch diameter. satellite that NASA-JSC is developing as a technology demonstrator for an astronaut assistant free flyer. The Free Flyer is designed to off load flight crew work load by performing inspections of the exterior of Space Shuttle or International Space Station. The Free Flyer is designed to be operated by the flight crew thereby reducing the number of Extra Vehicle Activities (EVA) or by an astronaut on the ground further reducing crew work load. The paper focuses on the design constraint of a small satellite and the technology approach used to achieve the set of high performance requirements specified for the Free Flyer. Particular attention is paid to the processor card as it is the heart and system integration point of the Free Flyer.

  15. Satellite Relaying of Geophysical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) for transmitting surface data to an orbiting satellite for relaying to a central data distribution center are being used in a number of geophysical applications. "Off-the-shelf" DCP's, transmitting through Landsat or GOES satellites, are fully capable of relaying data from low-data-rate instruments, such as tiltmeters or tide gauges. In cooperation with the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Goddard has successfully installed DCP systems on a tide gauge and tiltmeter array on Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Because of the high-data-rate requirements, a practical relay system capable of handling seismic information is not yet available. Such a system could become the basis of an operational hazard prediction system for reducing losses due to major natural catastrophies such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides or tsunamis.

  16. Multicolor Observations of Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H.; Vrba, F.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of B, V, R and I band observations of a sample of geostationary communications satellites with the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station 40-inch Ritchey telescope. The observations were done in July 2015, and covered 68% of the targets observable from Flagstaff. The targets were observed with an azimuthal solar phase angle smaller than 5 degrees, in an attempt to sample the satellite properties during the period where they are likely to be at peak brightness. We present the distribution of magnitudes and colors, and interpret these results. We also discuss the application of the results presented in this contribution to the design of future optical interferometers capable of imaging these targets.

  17. Desert Dust Satellite Retrieval Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carboni, E.; Thomas, G. E.; Sayer, A. M.; Siddans, R.; Poulsen, C. A.; Grainger, R. G.; Ahn, C.; Antoine, D.; Bevan, S.; Braak, R.; Brindley, H.; DeSouza-Mchado, S.; Deuze, J. L.; Diner, D.; Ducos, F.; Grey, W.; Hsu, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Kahn, R.; North, P. R. J.; Salustro, C.; Smith, A.; Tanre, D.; Torres, O.; Veihelmann, B.

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a comparison of satellite retrievals of Saharan desert dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) during a strong dust event through March 2006. In this event, a large dust plume was transported over desert, vegetated, and ocean surfaces. The aim is to identify and understand the differences between current algorithms, and hence improve future retrieval algorithms. The satellite instruments considered are AATSR, AIRS, MERIS, MISR, MODIS, OMI, POLDER, and SEVIRI. An interesting aspect is that the different algorithms make use of different instrument characteristics to obtain retrievals over bright surfaces. These include multi-angle approaches (MISR, AATSR), polarisation measurements (POLDER), single-view approaches using solar wavelengths (OMI, MODIS), and the thermal infrared spectral region (SEVIRI, AIRS). Differences between instruments, together with the comparison of different retrieval algorithms applied to measurements from the same instrument, provide a unique insight into the performance and characteristics of the various techniques employed. As well as the intercomparison between different satellite products, the AODs have also been compared to co-located AERONET data. Despite the fact that the agreement between satellite and AERONET AODs is reasonably good for all of the datasets, there are significant differences between them when compared to each other, especially over land. These differences are partially due to differences in the algorithms, such as as20 sumptions about aerosol model and surface properties. However, in this comparison of spatially and temporally averaged data, at least as significant as these differences are sampling issues related to the actual footprint of each instrument on the heterogeneous aerosol field, cloud identification and the quality control flags of each dataset.

  18. Satellite services handbook. Interface guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Satellite interfaces for on orbit servicing, both manned and unmanned are identified, and is intended to be used by designers of space vehicles, both foreign and domestic. A primary concern is for design of interfaces with the astronaut in the loop, especially extravehicular activity, but also intravehicular activity and operations that are remote but have man-in-the-loop. The main emphasis is on servicing in low earth orbits from the Space Shuttle and also from the Space Station or other platforms.

  19. Cesium standard for satellite application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, M. B.; Meirs, M.; Pascaru, I.; Weinstein, B.

    1983-01-01

    A Cesium frequency standard that was developed for satellite applications is discussed. It weighs 23 lbs. and uses 23.5 watts of power, achieves a stability of 1 x ten to the minus 13th power/100,000 seconds, and is radiation hardened. To achieve the weight and reliability requirements, both thick and thin film hybrid circuits were utilized. A crystal oscillator is used to improve short-term stability and performance on a moving platform.

  20. The TOPEX satellite option study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of an existing spacecraft bus and subsystems to the requirements of ocean circulation measurements are assessed. The operational meteorological satellite family TIROS and DMSP are recommended. These programs utilize a common bus to satisfy their Earth observation missions. Note that although the instrument complements were different, the pointing accuracies were different, and, initially, the boosters were different, a high degree of commonality was achieved.

  1. Improved thermal force modeling for GPS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Y.; Schutz, R. E.; Abusali, P. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Geophysical applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) require the capability to estimate and propagate satellite orbits with high precision. An accurate model of all the forces acting on a satellite is an essential part of achieving high orbit accuracy. Methods of analyzing the perturbation due to thermal radiation and determining its effects on the long-term orbital behavior of GPS satellites are presented. The thermal imbalance force, a nongravitational orbit perturbation previously considered negligible, is the focus of this article. The earth's shadowing of a satellite in orbit causes periodic changes in the satellite's thermal environment. Simulations show that neglecting thermal imbalance in the satellite force model gives orbit error larger than ten meters over several days for eclipsing satellites. This orbit mismodeling can limit accuracy in orbit determination and in estimation of baselines used for geophysical applications.

  2. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  3. Satellite telecommunications in the civil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, W. T. T.

    1982-02-01

    It is pointed out that, in connection with the ever-increasing demand for international circuits, satellite telecommunications has become a major electronics growth area over the past decade. More countries, particularly those in the Third World are joining the Intelsat (International Satellite) network. Plans are being implemented for the provision of major regional satellite systems such as the European Communication Satellite (ECS) by Eutelsat (an organization of European telephone authorities) and Arabsat by the Arab Satellite Communications Organization. Attention is given to details regarding ground stations, the provision of maritime satellite communications to ships at sea, future developments, aspects of direct broadcasting, and new applications. A major breakthrough in satellite communications during the 1980s is likely to be in the field of business systems in developed countries.

  4. Cassini ISS Satellite Orbit Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitale, J. N.; Jacobson, R. A.; Porco, C. C.; Owen, W. M.; Charnoz, S.; Murray, C. D.; Brahic, A.; Evans, M. W.; Beurle, K.; Cooper, N.; Cassini Imaging

    2004-11-01

    We report on the orbits of several small Saturnian satellites, either recovered or newly-discovered in recent Cassini imaging observations. The mean motions of Pan and Atlas have been corrected based on recent Cassini imaging combined with Voyager observations. Two small satellites, S/2004 S 1 and S/2004 S 2, have been discovered between the orbits of Mimas and Enceladus on orbits that are nearly circular and uninclined. Both bodies were observed for a fraction of one orbit on June 1, 2004 and S/2004 S 1 was subsequently detected in images shuttered three weeks earlier. Those bodies may be recovered in late October in imaging sequences designed for that purpose. A third new object was detected in images from June 21, 2004, orbiting just outside the F ring. However, a search for additional detections revealed something orbiting interior to the F ring near the longitude at which the new object would be expected 5 hours later. A low-residual orbit that crosses the F ring has been found to explain all of the observations, but it is not yet clear whether the two sequences imaged the same object or two different objects that coincidentally were found orbiting at the same longitude but at different orbital semimajor axes. These issues make its nature -- solid satellite or F ring clump -- unclear. The data, fitting procedures, and results will be discussed.

  5. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., Io, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  6. Ultraviolet Spectra of Uranian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, Ted

    1996-07-01

    The ultraviolet reflectance spectra of the icy satellites ofUranus are largely unknown. We propose to use the HubbleSpace Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph in order to obtainthe first high S/N UV spectra of Ariel, Titania, and Oberon.Because of our innovative targeting approach, we have alsobeen able to include Umbriel in our observational plans.These satellites sample almost the full range of UV albedosand UV/VIS colors exhibited by the large Uranian satellites.The spectral resolution and range will overlap with earth-based telescopic and spacecraft observations of these objectsallowing for comparisons of the UV data with existing visualand near-infrared spectra of these objects. These comparisonswill ultimately provide greater constraints on the relativelylow albedo spectrally neutral non-ice component on the Uraniansatellites. The existance of UV spectral features due tospecies such as O_3, H_2O_2 or carbon-rich macromolecules(e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) can provide evidencefor modification of the surfaces via plasma or meteoriticbombardment, alteration by high-energy ultraviolet radiation,or accretion of particles from nearby sources such asplanetary rings or dust bands.

  7. Payload accommodations. Satellite servicing support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Roscoe

    1990-01-01

    The proposed technology studies discussed at the Space Transportation Avionics Symposium in Williamsburg, VA on 7 to 9 November 1989, are discussed. The discussions and findings of the Payload Accommodations Subpanel are also summarized. The major objective of the proposed focused technology development is to develop and demonstrate (ground and flight) autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking/berthing capabilities to support satellite servicing. It is expected that autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR and D) capabilities will benefit both the users (e.g., satellite developers and operators) and the transportation system developers and operators. AR and D will provide increased availability of rendezvous and docking services by reducing the operational constraints associated with current capabilities. These constraints include specific lighting conditions, continuous space-to-ground communications, and lengthy ground tracking periods. AR and D will provide increased cost efficiency with the potential for reduced propellant expenditures and workloads (flight and/or ground crews). The AR and D operations will be more consistent, allowing more flexibility in the design of the satellite control system and docking/berthing mechanisms.

  8. Jupiter and Its Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Jupiter is one of the two most studied planets other than Earth in our Solar System. It is the largest, fastest rotating, has the strongest magnetic field, and an incredibly diverse set of satellites, most prominent of which are the four Galilean satellites discovered in 1610. Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto encompass some of the most bizarre environments known in the solar system, from Io, the most volcanically active and perhaps the most inhospitable body known, to Europa, currently thought to be the most likely extraterrestrial abode for habitability, to Ganymede, which is larger than Mercury, and Callisto, which has the oldest surface known in the solar system with the widest array of crater morphologies known. One of the premier areas of scientific return in solar system research in the past 15 years, due in large part to the Galileo mission and observations by the Hubble Space Telescope, has been a remarkable increase in our knowledge about these satellites. Discoveries have been made of tenuous molecular oxygen atmospheres on Europa and Ganymede, a magnetic field and accompanying auroral emissions at the poles of Ganymede, and of ozone and sulfur dioxide embedded in the surfaces of Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Io's unusual sulfur dioxide atmosphere, including its volcanic plumes and strong electrodynamic interaction with magnetospheric plasma, has finally been quantitatively characterized. This talk will present highlights from the recent discoveries and advances in our understanding of these fascinating objects.

  9. An automated mapping satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvocoreses, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    Topographic maps are compiled by manually operated stereoplotters that recreate the geometry of two wide-angle overlapping stereo frame photographs. Continuous imaging systems such as strip cameras, electro-optical scanners, or linear arrays of detectors (push brooms) can also create stereo coverage from which topography can be compiled; however, the instability of an aircraft in the atmosphere makes this approach impractical. The benign environment of space permits a satellite to orbit the Earth with very high stability as long as no local perturbing forces are involved. Solid-state linear-array sensors have no moving parts and create no perturbing force on the satellite. Digital data from highly stabilized stereo linear arrays are amenable to simplified processing to produce both planimetric imagery and elevation data. A proposed satellite, called MAPSAT, could accomplish automated mapping in near real time. Image maps as large as 1:50,000 scale with contours as close as 20-m interval may be produced from MAPSAT data.

  10. Satellite-based laser windsounder

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.F.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Quick, C.R.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project`s primary objective is to determine the technical feasibility of using satellite-based laser wind sensing systems for detailed study of winds, aerosols, and particulates around and downstream of suspected proliferation facilities. Extensive interactions with the relevant operational organization resulted in enthusiastic support and useful guidance with respect to measurement requirements and priorities. Four candidate wind sensing techniques were evaluated, and the incoherent Doppler technique was selected. A small satellite concept design study was completed to identify the technical issues inherent in a proof-of-concept small satellite mission. Use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of a Fabry-Perot would significantly simplify the optical train and could reduce weight, and possibly power, requirements with no loss of performance. A breadboard Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based system has been built to verify these predictions. Detailed plans were made for resolving other issues through construction and testing of a ground-based lidar system in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin, and through numerical lidar wind data assimilation studies.

  11. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., lo, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  12. Downward continuation of gravity information from satellite to satellite tracking or satellite gradiometry in local areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, R.

    1975-01-01

    Integral formulas in the parameter domain are used instead of a representation by spherical harmonics. The neglected regions will cause a truncation error. The application of the discrete form of the integral equations connecting the satellite observations with surface gravity anomalies is discussed in comparison with the least squares prediction method. One critical point of downward continuation is the proper choice of the boundary surface. Practical feasibilities are in conflict with theoretical considerations. The properties of different approaches for this question are analyzed.

  13. Global Positioning System Satellite Selection Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, Frederick A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The satellite selection method as utilized by the spaceborne Global Positioning System receiver provides navigational solutions and is designed for use in low Earth orbit. The satellite selection method is a robust algorithm that can be used a GPS receiver to select appropriate GPS satellites for use in calculating point solutions or attitude solutions. The method is takes into account the difficulty of finding a particular GPS satellite phase code, especially when the search range in greatly increased due to Doppler shifts introduced into the carrier frequency. The method starts with an update of the antenna pointing and spacecraft vectors to determine the antenna backplane direction. Next, the GPS satellites that will potentially be in view of the antenna are ranked on a list, whereby the list is generated based on the estimated attitude and position of each GPS satellite. Satellites blocked by the Earth are not entered on this list. A second list is created, whereby the GPS satellites are ranked according to their desirability for use in attitude determination. GPS satellites are ranked according to their orthogonality to the antenna backplane, and according to geometric dilution of precision considerations. After the lists are created, the channels of the spaceborne GPS receiver are assigned to various GPS satellites for acquisition and lock. Preliminary Doppler frequencies for searching are assigned to the various channels.

  14. Cost Consideration for Future Communications Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the cost driving factors of the future communications satellite rather than discussing its cost itself directly, in terms of development period of time, services, and R&D by government. In the first, a period of time for development of a communications system is discussed in comparison of satellite communications system with a terrestrial communications system. Generally speaking, the terrestrial communications system is developed in a short period. Especially, the recent network related IT technology changes very rapidly, like so-called as "Dog Year". On the other hand, it takes a long time, more than several years, to develop a satellite communications system. This paper will discuss this time period of development is how to influence the system realization in various cases. In the second, the service related cost is discussed. First, a mobile communications satellite system is considered as an example. The tremendous penetration speed of the terrestrial cellular phones prevents from the success of the mobile satellite communications system. The success of the mobile satellite communications system depends on how early and user friendly to develop its user terminals. Second, the broadcasting service is described as a successful example. It is described that the satellite broadcasting has a very competitive advantage to the terrestrial broadcasting service from the cost point of view. Finally, the cost of the technology R&D for the future communication satellite by the government is discussed. A model of the future communications satellite for next 30 years has been proposed(1)(2). As an example, this paper estimates the satellite cost of the 60 Gbps range of capacity which is called as 1.5G satellite, where the capacity of the second generation Internet satellite (2G) is 50-500 Gbps per satellite. In the paper, the R&D plan of the future communications satellite will be discussed as a next R&D project to the first generation Internet

  15. Digital frequency control of satellite frequency standards. [Defense Navigation Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    In the Frequency and Time Standard Development Program of the TIMATION System, a new miniaturized rubidium vapor frequency standard has been tested and analyzed for possible use on the TIMATION 3A launch, as part of the Defense Navigation Satellite Development Program. The design and construction of a digital frequency control was required to remotely control this rubidium vapor frequency standard as well as the quartz oscillator in current use. This control must be capable of accepting commands from a satellite telemetry system, verify that the correct commands have been sent and control the frequency to the requirements of the system. Several modifications must be performed to the rubidium vapor frequency standard to allow it to be compatible with the digital frequency control. These include the addition of a varactor to voltage tune the coarse range of the flywheel oscillator, and a modification to supply the C field current externally. The digital frequency control for the rubidium vapor frequency standard has been successfully tested in prototype form.

  16. German telecommunications satellite (Deutscher fernmelde satellit) (DFS-1 and -2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiendlmeier, G.; Schmeller, H.

    1991-01-01

    The German Telecommunications Satellite (DFS) Program is to provide telecommunications service for high data rate transmission of text and video data to the Federal Republic of Germany within the 11-14 GHz and 20-30 GHz bands. The space segment of this program is composed of three satellites, DFS-1, DFS-2, and DFS-3, which will be located at 23.5 degrees E longitude of the geostationary orbit. The DFS will be launched from the Center Spatial Guyanis in French Giana on an Ariane launch vehicle. The mission follows the typical injection sequence: parking orbit, transfer orbit, and earth orbit. Attitude maneuvers will be performed to orient the spacecraft prior to Apogee Kick Motor (AKM) firing. After AKM firing, drift phase orbital and attitude maneuvers will be performed to place the spacecraft in its final geostationary position. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. Information is presented in tabular form for the following areas: DSN support, compatibility testing, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibilities.

  17. FUSE satellite electrical power subsystem

    SciTech Connect

    Roufberg, L.; Noah, K.

    1998-07-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite will be placed into a low earth orbit to investigate astrophysical processes related to the formation and development of the early universe. The FUSE satellite is considered a pathfinder for NASA's Mid-Class Explorers (MIDEX). To reduce mission cost and development time while delivering quality science, NASA has enforced strict cost caps with a clear definition of high-level science objectives. As a result, a significant design driver for the electrical power subsystem (EPS) was to minimize cost. The FUSE EPS is a direct energy transfer, unregulated bus architecture, with batteries directly on the bus and solar array power limted by pulse-width-modulated shunt regulators. The power subsystem electronics (PSE) contains circuitry to control battery charging, provide power to the loads, and provide fault protection. The electronics is based on the PSE which Orbital (formerly, Fairchild Space) designed and built for NASA/GSFC's XTE spacecraft. However, the FUSE PSE design incorporates a number of unique features to meet the mission requirements. To minimize size of the solar panels due to stowed attachment constraints, GaAs/Ge solar cells were selected. This is the first time this type of large area, thinned solar cell with integral bypass diodes are being used for a NASA LEO mission. The solar panels support a satellite load power of 520W. Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries are used which are identical to the RADARSAT-I design, except for different temperature sensors. This is the first mission for which Orbital is using SAFT NiCd batteries. The spacecraft bus, including the EPS, has successfully completed environmental testing and has been delivered for instrument integration. Tradeoffs involved in designing the EPS and selecting components based on the requirements are discussed. Analyses including solar array and battery sizing and energy balance are presented in addition to results from testing the flight

  18. European small geostationary communications satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei, , Dr.; Ellmers, Frank; Winkler, Andreas; Schuff, Herbert; Sansegundo Chamarro, Manuel Julián

    2011-04-01

    Hispasat Advanced Generation 1 (HAG1) is the first satellite using the SGEO platform, which is under the development in the ESA Artes-11 program. Since the last presentation in the IAC 2007, a European industrial consortium led by OHB has completed the mission and spacecraft design. The platform Preliminary Design Review has been carried out in May 2008. The customer for the first mission is a commercial operator—Hispasat. The contract was signed in December 2008 and the satellite will be launched in 2012. To give confidence to the customer, SGEO platform will use up to date flight proven technologies. HAG1 carries 20/24 Ku-band and 3/5 Ka-band transponders to provide commercial services. Some innovative payload technologies will also be flown on board of HAG1 to gain in-orbit heritage. SGEO has also been selected as the baseline platform for the ESA Data Relay Satellite (EDRS). Phase-A study has just kicked off in January 2009. The targeted launch date is 2013. Heinrich Hertz will also use the SGEO platform. Heinrich Hertz is funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and provides flight opportunities for technologies and components developed by the German Space Industry. With the HAG1 contract in hand, and EDRS and Heinrich Hertz in the line, OHB with its partners has the confidence that it will be able to speed up the product development of the SGEO platform for potential customers in the commercial market. This paper will first present the updated platform design and the status of the product development will be followed with the introduction of innovative payload technologies on board the first mission—HAG1 and ended with the mission concepts of EDRS and Heinrich Hertz missions.

  19. Simulation of Satellite Vibration Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettacchioli, Alain

    2014-06-01

    During every mechanical qualification test of satellites on vibrator, we systematically notice beating phenomena that appear every time we cross a mode's frequency. There could lead to an over-qualification of the tested specimen when the beating reaches a maximum and a under-qualification when the beating passes by a minimum. On a satellite, three lateral modes raise such a problem in a recurring way: the first structure mode (between 10 and 15 hertz) and the two tanks modes (between 35 and 50 hertz).To step forward in the resolution of this problem, we are developing a simulator which is based on the identification of the responses of the accelerometers that are fixed on the satellite and on the shaker slip table. The estimated transfer functions then allow to reconstruct at once the sensors response and the drive which generated them.For the simulation, we do not select all the sensors but only those on the slip table and those used to limit the input level (notching). We may also add those which were close to generate a notching.To perform its calculations, the simulator reproduces on one hand the unity amplitude signal (cola) which serves as frequency reference for the sweep achievement (generally 3 octaves per minute from 5 to 100 and even 150 Hertz), and on the other hand, the vibrator control loop. The drive amplitude is calculated at each cola's period by taking into account a compression factor. The control applied through the amplifier to the shaker coil is the product of this amplitude by the cola. The simulated measurements are updated at each sampling period thanks to the propagation of the identified model. The superposition of these curves on those supplied by real sensors during the tests allows to validate the simulation.Thereby, it seems possible to actively control the beatings thanks to a real-time corrector which uses these identifications.

  20. Satellite Geodesy—Foundations, Methods, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fell, Patrick

    This text is an updated English translation of Satellitengeodasie, a book that was published in German in 1989. The text is the first in many years that attempts to cover the broad spectrum of methods, applications, and systems, both classical and current, that have developed in the field of satellite geodesy.The material is presented in a structure that follows the major observational methods used in satellite geodesy: classical techniques, Doppler, GPS, laser, altimetry, and special methods including satellite-to-satellite tracking, satellite radiometry, and VLBI. Before introducing these observational techniques in detail, the author provides the fundamentals on reference frames, time signal propagation, orbital mechanics and basic applications of satellite geodesy in positioning, gravity field modeling, navigation, marine geodesy, kinematics, and geodynamics. An excellent reference list completes the text.

  1. Kagawa Satellite “STARS” in Shikoku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohmi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Andatsu, Akira; Takagi, Yohei; Nishikawa, Yusuke; Kaneko, Takashi; Kunitom, Daisuke

    The Space Tethered Autonomous Robotic Satellite (STARS) is being developed in Kagawa University, and it will be launched by the H-IIA rocket by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in summer 2008. STARS is the first satellite developed in Shikoku, and its specific characteristics are: (i) mother and daughter satellites, which have basic satellite system respectively, and those are launched at the same time; (ii) large space system more than 5m by extending tether; (iii) robotic system, the daughter satellite controls its arm link and the mother satellite controls tether extension. Development of STARS in Kagawa University demonstrates space technology in local community, which has been considered to be a national project. Also, it promotes popularization, enlightenment, and understanding of space technology in local area of the Kagawa prefecture and around it.

  2. Secular motion around synchronously orbiting planetary satellites.

    PubMed

    Lara, Martin; San-Juan, Juan F; Ferrer, Sebastián

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the secular motion of a spacecraft around the natural satellite of a planet. The satellite rotates synchronously with its mean motion around the planet. Our model takes into account the gravitational potential of the satellite up to the second order, and the third-body perturbation in Hill's approximation. Close to the satellite, the ratio of rotation rate of the satellite to mean motion of the orbiter is small. When considering this ratio as a small parameter, the Coriolis effect is a first-order perturbation, while the third-body tidal attraction, the ellipticity effect, and the oblateness perturbation remain at higher orders. Then, we apply perturbation theory and find that a third-order approach is enough to show the influence of the satellite's ellipticity in the pericenter dynamics. Finally, we discuss the averaged system in the three-dimensional parametric space, and provide a global description of the flow.

  3. Satellite-tracking and earth-dynamics research programs. [NASA Programs on satellite orbits and satellite ground tracks of geodetic satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Observations and research progress of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory are reported. Satellite tracking networks (ground stations) are discussed and equipment (Baker-Nunn cameras) used to observe the satellites is described. The improvement of the accuracy of a laser ranging system of the ground stations is discussed. Also, research efforts in satellite geodesy (tides, gravity anomalies, plate tectonics) is discussed. The use of data processing for geophysical data is examined, and a data base for the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program is proposed. Analytical models of the earth's motion (computerized simulation) are described and the computation (numerical integration and algorithms) of satellite orbits affected by the earth's albedo, using computer techniques, is also considered. Research efforts in the study of the atmosphere are examined (the effect of drag on satellite motion), and models of the atmosphere based on satellite data are described.

  4. Cartography of irregularly shaped satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Edwards, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    Irregularly shaped satellites, such as Phobos and Amalthea, do not lend themselves to mapping by conventional methods because mathematical projections of their surfaces fail to convey an accurate visual impression of the landforms, and because large and irregular scale changes make their features difficult to measure on maps. A digital mapping technique has therefore been developed by which maps are compiled from digital topographic and spacecraft image files. The digital file is geometrically transformed as desired for human viewing, either on video screens or on hard copy. Digital files of this kind consist of digital images superimposed on another digital file representing the three-dimensional form of a body.

  5. Data Recovery from SCATHA Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Boyd, G. M.; Redding, M. T.; McNab, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    This document gives a brief description of the SCATHA (P78-2) satellite and consolidates into one location information relevant to the generation of the SCATHA Summary Data parameters for the European Space Agency (ESA), under ESTEC Contract No. 11006/94/NL/CC, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), under Grant No. NAGW-414 1. Included are descriptions of the instruments from which the Summary Data parameters are generated, their derivation, and archival. Any questions pertaining to the Summary Data parameters should be directed to Dr. Joseph Fennell.

  6. NASA's program in communication satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that NASA is currently proceeding with a revitalized R&D program aimed at the development and demonstration of advanced communication satellite system concepts and the related enabling technologies. The paper reviews the important elements of this program thrust, the approach NASA is taking to assure proper involvement of both the system supplier industry and the service supplier industry and the specific technology focus in the near term. Finally, highlights of the current NASA and industry activities related to opening up the 30/20 GHz frequency band for both commercial and military use are presented.

  7. An NNSS satellite timing receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, C. L.; Kumar, K.; Andharia, H. I.; Singh, M.; Dsouza, V.; Goel, V. K.; Sisodia, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Navy Navigation Satellite System, NNSS, offers a unique worldwide facility for precise time synchronization. Space Applications Centre (SAC) developed a simple timing receiver. Using this timing receiver first the internal time consistency of NNSS was studied and then its performance to synchronize time was compared with that of National Time Standard. The methodology of data analysis, results, and various sources of error which affect the time transfer accuracy were studied and described. The main source of error was found to be the receiver delay which varies with signal strength. It is possible to apply that this delay correction empirically provided signal strength is recorded.

  8. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

    2007-08-01

    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass < 20 kg) will accommodate four scientific instruments: solar EUV/UV monitor (SEM), solar wind monitor (SWIM), magnetometer (MAG) and radiation environment monitor (REM). The payload monitors the solar conditions at Mars and characterizes the Mars environment to support other missions and science investigations. Monitoring of the solar wind parameters (velocity, density, and field) is the key for any aeronomy and solar wind interaction mission at Mars. The solar EUV / UV (HeII 30.4 nm and HII 121.6 nm) flux monitoring is required for upper atmosphere / ionosphere studies. The radiation environment monitoring is needed to study space weather effects on the near-Mars environment as well as for the preparations for man-flights. MEMOS follows the design philosophy of a detached and autonomously flying instrument for achieving the mentioned objectives. It is intended to be carried "piggy-back" to Mars on a suitable mission. Potential missions are: ESA Mars orbiters within the NEXT or Cosmic Vision programs, NASA Mars orbiters, national / bilateral Mars missions. At Mars MEMOS is separated from its carrier (parent satellite) via the release mechanism implemented in the dual formation flight mission PRISMA. The separation will take place during the orbit insertion scenario of the parent satellite at Mars thus placing MEMOS in a highly elliptical orbit guarantying sufficient observation time in the solar wind. In orbit MEMOS will autonomously detumble and spin-up to ~1 rpm for reasons of stabilization and to fulfill instrument requirements. Such a low spin-rate is sufficient for a required inertial pointing accuracy of 2.5° because of the small external disturbance torques (< 10-7 Nm) predominant at Mars responsible for nutation and precession of the spin-axis. The

  9. Small satellite radiation budget instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A major diagnostic in understanding the response of the Earth's climate to natural or anthropogenic changes is the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere. Two classes of measurements may be undertaken: (1) a monitoring of the radiation balance over decade-long long time-scales, and (2) measurements designed to provide a sufficiently complete data set to validate or improve models. This paper discusses some of the important ingredients in obtaining such data, and presents a description of some candidate instrumentation for use on a small satellite. 23 refs.

  10. Small satellite radiation budget instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-05-01

    A major diagnostic in understanding the response of the Earth`s climate to natural or anthropogenic changes is the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere. Two classes of measurements may be undertaken: (1) a monitoring of the radiation balance over decade-long long time-scales, and (2) measurements designed to provide a sufficiently complete data set to validate or improve models. This paper discusses some of the important ingredients in obtaining such data, and presents a description of some candidate instrumentation for use on a small satellite. 23 refs.

  11. Trends in NASA communication satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.; Robbins, W. H.; Stretchberry, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the potential applications of satellite communications technology in meeting the national needs in education, health care, culture, and data transfer techniques. Experiments with the NASA ATS 1, 3 and 5 spacecraft, which are conducted in an attempt to satisfy such needs, are reviewed. The future needs are also considered, covering the requirements of multiple region coverage, communications between regions, large numbers of ground terminals, multichannel capability and high quality TV pictures. The ATS F and CTS spacecraft are expected to be available in the near future to expand experiments in this field.

  12. Communication Satellites, 1958-1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    eeclilig o/ the( IFEL. V*ol. 78. No. 7 JOul /III nciiien/110 ( olih cIc e, koilRurl /iClccOnIIIInIit aticcni’ . 1FF19). (’Olterensce PIN 1lCatjon NO...Satellite Communications (April tiolis (April 1989). 1989). Plemel. R. A.. R. Rothery. and L. James , "Design of a 14/12 GHz Edelson. B. and,-A. Werth. "SPADE...at 11/14 GHz," International Con- ence (March 1990). ference on Communications: ICC 󈨐 (June 1976). Navas, M. J. and G. E. Prescott , "An Algorithm

  13. Solar power satellite cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harron, R. J.; Wadle, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The solar power configuration costed is the 5 GW silicon solar cell reference system. The subsystems identified by work breakdown structure elements to the lowest level for which cost information was generated. This breakdown divides into five sections: the satellite, construction, transportation, the ground receiving station and maintenance. For each work breakdown structure element, a definition, design description and cost estimate were included. An effort was made to include for each element a reference that more thoroughly describes the element and the method of costing used. All costs are in 1977 dollars.

  14. Resolving Seamounts in Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H.

    2006-12-01

    We have examined three factors influencing the use of satellite altimeter data to map seamounts and guyots in the deep ocean: (1) the resolution of seamount and guyot gravity anomalies by altimetry; (2) the non-linearity of the relationship between gravity and bathymetry; and (3) the homogeneity of the mass density within the seamount or guyot. When altimeter data are used to model the marine gravity anomaly field the result may have limited resolution due to noise levels in the altimeter data, track spacing of the satellite profiles, inclination angles of the orbits, and filters used to combine and interpolate the data (Sandwell and Smith, JGR, 1997). We compared the peak-to-trough amplitude of gravity anomalies in Sandwell and Smith`'s version 15.1 field to peak-to-trough amplitudes measured by gravimeters on board ships. The satellite gravity field amplitudes match ship measurements well over seamounts and guyots having volumes exceeding ~2000 km3. Over smaller volume seamounts, where the anomalies have most of their power at quite short wavelengths, the satellite field under-estimates the anomaly amplitude. If less filtering could be done, or a new mission with a lower noise level were flown, more of the anomalies associated with small seamounts might be resolved. Smith and Sandwell (Science, 1997) predicted seafloor topography from altimetric gravity assuming that the density of seafloor topography is nearly constant over ~100 km distances, and that the relationship between gravity and topography may be approximated by a liner filter over those distances. In fact, the true theoretical relationship is non-linear (Parker, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc, 1972); it can be expressed as an N-th order expansion, with the N=1 term representing a linear filter and the N>1 terms accounting for higher-order corrections. We find that N=2 is a sufficient approximation at both seamounts and guyots. Constant density models of large volume guyots do not fit the observed gravity

  15. Critical inclinations in satellite theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deprit, A.

    1978-01-01

    The main problem of satellite theory is described in polar coordinates by a Hamiltonian function. It is proposed to find a solution of the Hamiltonian function with the following properties: (1) the reference orbit is Keplerian; (2) no restriction is imposed on the eccentricity; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small eccentricities; and (3) no restriction is imposed on the inclination; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small inclinations; also it is valid even in the neighborhood of inclinations at which the perigee is stationary.

  16. Communication Satellites 1958 to 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    October I960, was a success. Communication tests were performed by two ground terminals, located in New Jersey and Puerto Rico. The satellite performed...and Puerto Rico. 7.2.1 Over/iew (Refs. 137, 1A4, 367-380) ( In September 1965, the American Broadcasting Company filed a request with the...Alaska, and Puerto Rico. The Intelsat terminal in Alaska became a part of the RCA system and the terminal in Puerto Rico became a part of the AT&T

  17. Global trade in satellites and launch services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearing before the Subcommittee on Space of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives is presented. Written testimony, submittals for the record, and responses to written questions are included. Topics concerning the global trade in satellites and launch services include foreign competition, the China and Russia trade agreements, Commerce licensing on international sales and export, trade control, technology transfer, satellite communications and the economy, satellites and the global information infrastructure, commercial space revenues, and enforcement of trade policies.

  18. TOPEX satellite concept. TOPEX option study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. P.; Case, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    Candidate bus equipment from the Viking, Applications Explorer Mission, and Small Scientific Satellite programs for application to the TOPEX mission options is assessed. Propulsion module equipment and subsystem candidates from the Applications Explorer Mission satellites and the Small Scientific Satellite spacecraft are evaluated for those TOPEX options. Several subsystem concepts appropriate to the TOPEX options are described. These descriptions consider performance characteristics of the subsystems. Cost and availability information on the candidate equipment and subsystems are also provided.

  19. A study of satellite emergency locator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Satellite emergency locator systems were studied. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility and hardware requirements for satellite systems capable of identifying and locating the position emergency locator transmitters and emergency position indicating radio beacons. Both geosynchronous and near-polar-orbiting satellites were considered. One of the most important aspects of the study was to minimize the cost of the hardware required.

  20. STS-5 deployment of communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Telesat Canada ANIK C-3 communications satellite rises from its protective 'cradle' (obscured by another such device in the foreground) in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The empty, closed shield in the cargo bay (foreground) earlier had protected Satellite Business Systems (SBS-3) satellite. Both orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods, part of the vertical tail and part of the wing stand out in this photo.

  1. Coordinates of features on the Galilean satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.; Katayama, F. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The coordinate systems of each of the Galilean satellites are defined and coordinates of features seen in the Voyager pictures of these satellites are presented. The control nets of the satellites were computed by means of single block analytical triangulations. The normal equations were solved by the conjugate iterative method which is convenient and which converges rapidly as the initial estimates of the parameters are very good.

  2. A SEARCH FOR SATELLITES AROUND CERES

    SciTech Connect

    Bieryla, A.; Parker, J. Wm.; Young, E. F.; Stern, S. A.; McFadden, L. A.; Russell, C. T.; Sykes, M. V.; Gladman, B.

    2011-06-15

    We conducted a satellite search around the dwarf planet 1 Ceres using Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based Palomar data. No candidate objects were found orbiting Ceres in its entire stability region down to {approx}500 km from the surface of Ceres. Assuming a satellite would have the same albedo as Ceres, which has a visual geometric albedo of 0.07-0.10, our detection limit is sensitive to satellites larger than 1-2 km in diameter.

  3. Satellite Attitude Control Using Atmospheric Drag

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Satellite Attitude Control Using Atmospheric Drag THESIS David B. Guettler, Captain, USAF AFIT/GA/ENY/07-M10 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...U.S. Government. AFIT/GA/ENY/07-M10 Satellite Attitude Control Using Atmospheric Drag THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GA/ENY/07-M10 Satellite Attitude Control Using Atmospheric Drag David B. Guettler, BS Captain

  4. History of on-orbit satellite fragmentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauer, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Since the first serious satellite fragmentation occurred in Jun. 1961, and instantaneously increased the total Earth satellite population by more than 400 percent, the issue of space operations within the finite region of space around the Earth has been the subject of increasing interest and concern. The prolific satellite fragmentations of the 1970's and the marked increase in the number of fragmentations in the 1980's served to widen international research into the characteristics and consequences of such events. Plans for large, manned space stations in the next decade and beyond demand a better understanding of the hazards of the dynamic Earth satellite population. The contribution of satellite fragmentations to the growth of the Earth satellite population is complex and varied. The majority of detectable fragmentation debris have already fallen out of orbit, and the effects of 40 percent of all fragmentations have completely disappeared. In this volume, satellite fragmentations are categorized by their assessed nature and to a lesser degree by their effect on the near-Earth space environment. A satellite breakup is the usually destructive disassociation of an orbital payload, rocket body, or structure, often with a wide range of ejecta velocities. A satellite breakup may be accidental or the result of intentional actions, e.g., due to a propulsion system malfunction or a space weapons test, respectively. An anomalous event is the unplanned separation, usually at low velocity, of one or more detectable objects from a satellite which remains essentially intact. Anomalous events can be caused by material deterioration of items such as thermal blankets, protective shields, or solar panels. As a general rule, a satellite breakup will produce considerably more debris, both trackable and non-trackable, than an anomalous event. From one perspective, satellite breakups may be viewed as a measure of the effects of man's activity on the environment, while anomalous

  5. Minor planets: the discovery of minor satellites.

    PubMed

    Binzel, R P; VAN Flandern, T C

    1979-03-02

    The recent confirmation of the discovery of a satellite of the minor planet 532 Herculina indicates that other similar anomalous sightings are probably also due to satellites, which must therefore be numerous and commonplace. There are now 23 candidate satellites for eight minor planets, and no one of these minor planets occulting a star has failed to show evidence of at least one secondary event. Such companions are gravitationally stable but apparently have rapid tidal evolution rates.

  6. Communications satellite no. 2 (CS-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Japanese CS-2 satellite is to provide national communications and industrial communications, such as special emergency and remote communications, and to contribute to the development of technology pertaining to communications satellites. Description and operating parameters of the following satellite components are presented: structure, communications system, telemetry/command system, electric power system, attitude and antenna control system, secondary propulsion system, apogee motor, framework, and heat control system.

  7. Small Satellite Access of the Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen; Minnix, Timothy O.; Vigil, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Small satellites have been perceived as having limited access to NASA's Space Network (SN). The potential for satellite access of the space network when the design utilizes a fixed antenna configuration and low-power, coded transmission is analyzed. From the analysis, satellites using this configuration in high-inclination orbits are shown to have a daily data throughput in the 100 to 1000 Mbit range using the multiple access communications service.

  8. Satellite delivery of B-ISDN services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, R. K.; Price, K. M.; Chitre, D. M.; White, L. W.; Henderson, T. R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will address the role of technology in the satellite delivery of B-ISDN services. Satellites excel in serving remote users and in providing multicast and broadcast services. Benefits to potential users employing these satellite broadband services will be examined together with their respective network architecture. Two application requirements are then proposed. The critical technologies needed in the realization of these architectures will be identified.

  9. Licensing of future mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepkowski, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    The regulatory process for licensing mobile satellite systems is complex and can require many years to complete. This process involves frequency allocations, national licensing, and frequency coordination. The regulatory process that resulted in the establishment of the radiodetermination satellite service (RDSS) between 1983 and 1987 is described. In contrast, each of these steps in the licensing of the mobile satellite service (MSS) is taking a significantly longer period of time to complete.

  10. Design of the American Mobile Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittiver, Charles

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) Mobile Satellite System (MSS). A summary of the mobile satellite (MSAT) design and overall performance is provided. The design and components of both the forward link and return link transponders are described in detail. The design and operation of a unique hybrid matrix amplifier that offers flexible power distribution is outlined. The conceptual design and performance of three types of land mobile antennas are described.

  11. Changes in Earth's albedo measured by satellite.

    PubMed

    Wielicki, Bruce A; Wong, Takmeng; Loeb, Norman; Minnis, Patrick; Priestley, Kory; Kandel, Robert

    2005-05-06

    NASA global satellite data provide observations of Earth's albedo, i.e., the fraction of incident solar radiation that is reflected back to space. The satellite data show that the last four years are within natural variability and fail to confirm the 6% relative increase in albedo inferred from observations of earthshine from the moon. Longer global satellite records will be required to discern climate trends in Earth's albedo.

  12. Engineering calculations for communications satellite systems planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, E.; Aebker, E.; Mata, F.; Reilly, C.

    1991-01-01

    The final phase of a satellite synthesis project is described. Several methods for generating satellite positionings with improved aggregate carrier to interference characteristics were studied. Two general methods for modifying required separation values are presented. Also, two methods for improving aggregate carrier to interference (C/I) performance of given satellite synthesis solutions are presented. A perturbation of the World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) synthesis is presented.

  13. A public service communications satellite user brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The capabilities of a proposed communications satellite that would be devoted to experiments and demonstrations of various public services is described. A Public Service Communications Satellite study was undertaken at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to define the problems and opportunities of a renewed NASA role and the form such NASA involvement should take. The concept that has evolved has resulted from careful consideration of experiments that were already undertaken on existing satellites.

  14. Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    a mission control segment. The space segment consists of a cross-linked constellation of satellites to provide worldwide coverage. The terminal...2014. AEHF-3 is fully integrated into the Milstar constellation and performing well, operating from 120 deg West. Satellite Control Authority of...support a four satellite constellation from FY 2015 through FY 2030. The estimates assume that AEHF and Milstar will be operated in parallel by the 4th

  15. TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  16. Origin and Evolution of Saturn's Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnoz, Sebastien; Salmon, J.; Crida, A.; Brahic, A.

    2009-09-01

    All Saturn’ small satellites, orbiting below Mimas'orbit, share some common physical and dynamical properties : they have strong water absorption bands (Poulet & Cuzzi, 2002 Icarus 160, 350-358, Cuzzi et al., in press) , they have strange and elongated shapes and are under dense (Charnoz et al, 2007 Science 318, 1622, Porco et al. 2007 Science 318, 1602). They are also dynamically coupled with Saturn rings. In addition, due to their small size, they should not be primordial because of the meteoroid bombardment. They dynamically evolve under the tidal torque of the planet and the rings, in addition to satellite's perturbations. A theory of their origin still needs to be done. We show in the present work that these small satellites may be the natural result of the viscous spreading of Saturn's rings. Using a new 1D coupled hydrodynamic + dynamical evolution code, we compute that the rings viscous spreading may naturally form a population of 10-50 km size satellites, with and orbital organisation similar to the today population of small satellites. Self-regulation processes are at work limiting the maximum mass of small satellite to about the mass of Janus, consistently with observations. This satellite formation scenario of a new kind (due to the viscous spreading of a disk) seems to explain the composition, the shape, the total mass, and the low density of Saturn's small satellites. It would give also an interesting explanation to the origin of the F ring. In conclusion, Saturn's small satellites may be considered as a specific category of satellites whose origin is very different either from Saturn's main satellites of Saturn's captured satellites. They could be the "children” of the rings.

  17. Doppler factors in satellite-to-satellite tracking. [with relativistic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marini, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Doppler factors occurring in range rate satellite-to-satellite tracking measurements are derived with special relativistic effects included. The error resulting from the use of simplified expressions for these factors is discussed.

  18. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) simulator development for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The simulation development associated with the network models of both the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures is documented. The ISIS Network Model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communications satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete event simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters, and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  19. The Satisfying Sport of Satellite Spotting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazekas, Andrew S.

    2003-09-01

    On clear evenings, sky watchers can see satellites traveling across the sky beginning about an hour to 90 minutes after sunset. There are a few hundred satellites that are at least 20 feet in length or fly between 100 and 500 miles altitude, which can be seen without telescopes or binoculars. Satellites fly in a straight line and have no flashing or colored lights. They appear as a point of light and last two to five minutes before disappearing into the Earth's shadow. The articles provides Internet resources where readers can get information on how to view satellites from their own locations.

  20. Domestic satellite services for rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briskman, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    It is pointed out that rural areas can be served by a domestic satellite communications system in an efficient and economical manner. To accomplish such efficiency and economy, the engineering parameters of the satellite communications system must be analyzed and selected with a view toward achieving the desired performance at minimum total cost. The equipment for an entire rural satellite communication system serving 1200 communities can be acquired for approximately $200 million (1983 dollars). An identical system, however, could also be implemented at much lower capital costs by leasing space segment capacity from existing satellite systems (Briskman and Savage, 1983).

  1. A forecast of broadcast satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martino, J. P.; Lenz, R. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents forecasts of likely changes in broadcast satellite technology, the technology of ground terminals, and the technology of terrestrial communications competitive with satellites. The impacts of these changes in technology are then assessed, using a cross-impact model of U.S. domestic telecommunications, to determine the consequences of various possible changes in communications satellite technology. These consequences are discussed in terms of various possible services, for households, businesses, and specialized customers, which might become economically viable as a result of improvements in satellite technology.

  2. The Cyclic Nature of Martian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.

    2016-10-01

    The inward tidal decay of Phobos will cause the satellite to rapidly disrupt into a ring as it reaches the Rigid Roche Limit at ~ 1.6 Mars radii in less than 70 My. This ring will viscously spread to eventually form a new generation of satellites at the Fluid Roche Limit at ~ 3.2 Mars radii. We have constructed a ring-satellite model to show that this is only the latest in a series of satellite-ring cycles that have occurred repeatedly throughout Martian history, beginning with a ring created by a giant impact. During each cycle, ring material is deposited onto Mars, decreasing the mass of the ring-satellite system, such that each cycle produces progressively less massive satellites. We find that at least ~ 5 ring/satellite cycles are needed to produce a Phobos mass satellite in its current orbit. Furthermore, the decay of each ring system would have deposited a significant volume of ring material onto Mars throughout the early Noachian and into the late Amazonian. Some anomalous sedimentary deposits on Mars may be linked to these periodic episodes of ring deposition.

  3. Rotational dynamics of irregularly shaped natural satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisdom, Jack

    1987-01-01

    The rotational histories of irregularly shaped satellites are studied and are found to differ from the standard picture of tidal evolution of satellite rotations. Prior to capture into the synchronous rotation resonance, a narrow attitude-unstable chaotic zone is entered and the satellite begins to tumble chaotically. It is noted that enhanced dissipation of energy during the chaotic-tumbling phase may effect the orbital evolution. The theory suggests that, eventually, the rotation stays close to one of the accessible attitude-stable islands long enough for the weak tidal torque to remove the satellite from the chaotic zone.

  4. Small satellite debris catalog maintenance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Phoebe A.

    1991-01-01

    The United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) is a unified command of the Department of Defense, and one of its tasks is to detect, track, identify, and maintain a catalog of all man-made objects in Earth orbit. This task is called space surveillance, and the most important tool for space surveillance is the satellite catalog. The command's reasons for performing satellite catalog maintenance is presented. A satellite catalog is described, and small satellite-debris catalog-maintenance issues are identified. The underlying rationale is to describe the catalog maintenance services so that the members of the community can use them with assurance.

  5. Satellites at work (Space in the seventies)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The use of satellites in the areas of communications, meteorology, geodesy, navigation, air traffic control, and earth resources technology is discussed. NASA contributions to various programs are reviewed.

  6. TUBSAT-1, satellite technology for educational purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginati, A.

    1988-01-01

    TUBSAT-1 (Technical University of Berlin Satellite) is an experimental low-cost satellite within the NASA Get Away Special (GAS) program. This project is being financed by the German BMFT (Federal Ministry for Research and Technology), mainly for student education. The dimensions and weight are determined by GAS requirements and the satellite will be ejected from the space shuttle into an approximately 300-km circular orbit. It is a sun/star oriented satellite with an additional spin stabilization mode. The first planned payload is to be used for observing flight paths of migratory birds from northern Europe to southern Africa and back.

  7. Spectrophotometric remote sensing of planets and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent comprehensive results on spectrophotometric remote sensing of planets and satellites are reviewed. The moon and terrestrial planets are considered in terms of individual surface elements, reflectance spectra being analyzed to show the composition of the soils of these bodies. For more distant, unresolved objects, including the asteroids, the Galilean satellites, the small satellites of Jupiter, the rings and satellites of Saturn and Uranus, as well as Triton and Pluto, the global or hemispheric averages of surface composition are the objects of study. The absorptions due to methane gas and frost are indicated.

  8. Satellite Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nicolas A; Bentzinger, C Florian; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Skeletal muscles are essential for vital functions such as movement, postural support, breathing, and thermogenesis. Muscle tissue is largely composed of long, postmitotic multinucleated fibers. The life-long maintenance of muscle tissue is mediated by satellite cells, lying in close proximity to the muscle fibers. Muscle satellite cells are a heterogeneous population with a small subset of muscle stem cells, termed satellite stem cells. Under homeostatic conditions all satellite cells are poised for activation by stimuli such as physical trauma or growth signals. After activation, satellite stem cells undergo symmetric divisions to expand their number or asymmetric divisions to give rise to cohorts of committed satellite cells and thus progenitors. Myogenic progenitors proliferate, and eventually differentiate through fusion with each other or to damaged fibers to reconstitute fiber integrity and function. In the recent years, research has begun to unravel the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms controlling satellite cell behavior. Nonetheless, an understanding of the complex cellular and molecular interactions of satellite cells with their dynamic microenvironment remains a major challenge, especially in pathological conditions. The goal of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current knowledge on satellite cell characteristics, functions, and behavior in muscle regeneration and in pathological conditions.

  9. Advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The research performed by GTE Government Systems and the University of Colorado in support of the NASA Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program is summarized. Two levels of research were undertaken. The first dealt with providing interim services Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) satellite (ISIS) capabilities that accented basic rate ISDN with a ground control similar to that of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The ISIS Network Model development represents satellite systems like the ACTS orbiting switch. The ultimate aim is to move these ACTS ground control functions on-board the next generation of ISDN communications satellite to provide full-service ISDN satellite (FSIS) capabilities. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design are obtainable from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models of the major subsystems of the ISDN communications satellite architecture. Discrete event simulation experiments would generate data for analysis against NASA SCAR performance measure and the data obtained from the ISDN satellite terminal adapter hardware (ISTA) experiments, also developed in the program. The Basic and Option 1 phases of the program are also described and include the following: literature search, traffic mode, network model, scenario specifications, performance measures definitions, hardware experiment design, hardware experiment development, simulator design, and simulator development.

  10. Land mobile satellite communications systems and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, E.

    1992-07-01

    An overview of existing and planned land mobile satellite communications systems and services is given. Operational and planned global systems such as Inmarsat, Iridium, and Globalstar, are highlighted, and the main technical details are listed. European and U.S. concepts are discussed. Applications for land mobile satellite communications are addressed, such as fleet management and global personal communications. The main technological challenges which are important for the future development of mobile communications, such as efficient use of spectrum, use of higher frequency bands, processing satellites with multiple beams, and suitable satellite orbits, are identified.

  11. Integration of mobile satellite and cellular systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drucker, Elliott H.; Estabrook, Polly; Pinck, Deborah; Ekroot, Laura

    1993-01-01

    By integrating the ground based infrastructure component of a mobile satellite system with the infrastructure systems of terrestrial 800 MHz cellular service providers, a seamless network of universal coverage can be established. Users equipped for both cellular and satellite service can take advantage of a number of features made possible by such integration, including seamless handoff and universal roaming. To provide maximum benefit at lowest posible cost, the means by which these systems are integrated must be carefully considered. Mobile satellite hub stations must be configured to efficiently interface with cellular Mobile Telephone Switching Offices (MTSO's), and cost effective mobile units that provide both cellular and satellite capability must be developed.

  12. A Satellite Frost Forecasting System for Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Since the first of two minicomputers that are the main components of the satellite frost forecast system was delivered in 1977, the system has evolved appreciably. A geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) system provides the satellite data. The freeze of January 12-14, 1981, was documented with increasing interest in potential of such systems. Satellite data is now acquired digitally rather than by redigitizing the GOES-Tap transmissions. Data acquisition is now automated, i.e., the computers are programmed to operate the system with little, if any, operation intervention.

  13. Satellite technology. [Landsat 1 and ITOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branchflower, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    An exposure to satellite design and fabrication techniques used in unmanned satellite programs is provided. Spacecraft configurations of the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) and the improved ITOS operational satellite, which are typical of the construction and layout techniques presently in use, are discussed. Support and service subsystems are described taking the ERTS subsystems as representative. The subsystems explained comprise: power, attitude control, orbit adjustment, wideband telemetry, tracking-telemetry-command, auxiliary processing, electrical integration, and spaceborne recording devices. A number of photographs, renditions and diagrams illustrates the text.

  14. Mobile satellite service in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-01-01

    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  15. The tethered satellite electrodynamics experiment project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, John M.

    1988-01-01

    NASA and Italy's PSN have undertaken the Tethered Satellite Electrodynamics Experiment, in which two tethered bodies will be equipped with data-collecting scientific instruments, as the first stage of the development of the Tethered Satellite System that can be deployed by the Space Shuttle. The experiment will give attention to the electromagnetic interaction between the satellite/tether/orbiter system and the ambient space plasma, and should demonstrate the operation of both satellite- and Shuttle-borne electrodynamic instruments with a conductive tether.

  16. Satellite Gravity Drilling the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, R. R. B.; Potts, L. V.; Leftwich, T. E.; Kim, H. R.; Han, S.-H.; Taylor, P. T.; Ashgharzadeh, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of satellite-measured gravity and topography can provide crust-to-core mass variation models for new insi@t on the geologic evolution of the Earth. The internal structure of the Earth is mostly constrained by seismic observations and geochemical considerations. We suggest that these constraints may be augmented by gravity drilling that interprets satellite altitude free-air gravity observations for boundary undulations of the internal density layers related to mass flow. The approach involves separating the free-air anomalies into terrain-correlated and -decorrelated components based on the correlation spectrum between the anomalies and the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain-decorrelated gravity anomalies are largely devoid of the long wavelength interfering effects of the terrain gravity and thus provide enhanced constraints for modeling mass variations of the mantle and core. For the Earth, subcrustal interpretations of the terrain-decorrelated anomalies are constrained by radially stratified densities inferred from seismic observations. These anomalies, with frequencies that clearly decrease as the density contrasts deepen, facilitate mapping mass flow patterns related to the thermodynamic state and evolution of the Earth's interior.

  17. Platelet satellitism: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of platelet-polymorph (platelet-polymorphonuclear leukocyte) rosettes was investigated in EDTA-anticoagulated blood obtained from two patients who exhibited the phenomenon of platelet satellitism. Most of the platelet profiles were attached to the polymorph surface by broad areas of contact. Examination of these broad areas of contact at high magnification revealed an intercellular material of low electron density. This material appeared to form strands, which bridged the intercellular space and spanned the entire area formed by the apposing plasma membranes. Phagocytosis of entire platelets was only observed in 1 case. The platelet profiles that participated in rosette formation revealed a large number of glycogen particles, compared with unattached platelets. Ultrastructural examination of "stress" platelets obtained from five normal subjects treated with steroids similarly showed a large number of glycogen particles, although no rosette formation or phagocytosis of platelets was observed. The etiology of platelet satellitism is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7223859

  18. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  19. Photometric Study of Uranian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesten, Philip R.

    1998-10-01

    The best summary of my work at NASA is expressed in the following abstract, submitted the Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society and to be presented at the annual meeting in Madison in October. We report photometric measurements of Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel and Titania (10.4 Aug. 1995), and Neptune's satellite Triton (21.2 Sept. 1995) with the infrared camera (IRCAM) and standard J (1.13 - 1.42 microns), H (1.53 - 1.81 microns), and K (2.00 - 2.41 microns) filters at the 3.8-m UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea. The individual images frames are 256 x 256 pixels with a platescale of .286 arcsec/pixel, resulting in a 1.22 arc min field of view. This summer brought the IR photometry measurements nearly to a close. As indicated by the abstract above, I will present this work at the annual DPS meeting in October. In anticipation of the opening of the new Carl Sagan Laboratory for Cosmochemisty, of which I will be a participating member, I also devoted a considerable fraction of the summer to learning the biochemistry which underlies the experiments to be conducted. To put the end of the summary close to the beginning, it was a most productive summer.

  20. Iowa satellite project ISAT-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Satellite systems to date have been mainly scientific in nature. Only a few systems have been of direct use to the public such as for telephone or television transmission. Space enterprises have remained a mystery to the general public and beyond the reach of the small business community. The result is a less than supportive public when it comes to space activities. The purpose of the ISAT-1 program is to develop a small and relatively inexpensive satellite that will serve the State of Iowa, primarily for educational purposes. It will provide products, services, and activities that will be educational, practical, and useful for a large number for people. The emphasis is on public awareness, 'space literacy', and routine practical applications rather than high technology. The initial conceptual design phase was complete when the current team took over the project. Some areas of the conceptual design were taken a little farther, but for the most part this team started at the detailed design stage.

  1. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Latham, D. W.; Seager, S.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Villasenor, J. S.; Winn, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction of TESS target stars will be 30-100 times brighter than those observed by Kepler satellite, and therefore TESS . planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS will make it possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars. TESS will provide prime targets for observation with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future. TESS data will be released with minimal delay (no proprietary period), inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the very nearest and brightest main-sequence stars hosting transiting exoplanets, thus providing future observers with the most favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  2. Iowa satellite project ISAT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-07-01

    Satellite systems to date have been mainly scientific in nature. Only a few systems have been of direct use to the public such as for telephone or television transmission. Space enterprises have remained a mystery to the general public and beyond the reach of the small business community. The result is a less than supportive public when it comes to space activities. The purpose of the ISAT-1 program is to develop a small and relatively inexpensive satellite that will serve the State of Iowa, primarily for educational purposes. It will provide products, services, and activities that will be educational, practical, and useful for a large number for people. The emphasis is on public awareness, 'space literacy', and routine practical applications rather than high technology. The initial conceptual design phase was complete when the current team took over the project. Some areas of the conceptual design were taken a little farther, but for the most part this team started at the detailed design stage.

  3. Environmentally induced discharges on satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    A discharge process whose trigger conditions are a negative exposed metallic surface surrounded by a less negative dielectric, and a large voltage gradient at a dielectric/metal interface is proposed. Analysis of SCATHA data for a discharge substantiates the postulation. Surface discharges cause a small transient charge transfer to space which results in voltage transients. A method of computing these transients, based on the charge lost through the capacitance to space and a fraction of charge stored in the dielectric at the discharge source was developed. It gives an estimate of the discharge transients at the discharge site, which is used as input for coupling code analysis of structure/system response. The transient computations were applied to a three-axis stabilized, geosynchronous satellite for both sunlight and eclipse charging. The energy of the transient pulses are about 1 mJ for sunlight discharge and 8 mJ for eclipse. Changing of selected coatings on the satellite would relieve the stress.

  4. Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The subsystem and structural design of the Naval Post Graduate School's Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT) is described. The objectives of PANSAT are: (1) to provide an ideal educational tool for officer students; (2) to provide digital store-and-forward communications, or packet radio, for the amateur radio community; and (3) to provide a low-cost space-based platform for small experiments. PANSAT will be launched from the Shuttle at a nominal altitude of 200 nmi. and an inclination of at least 37 deg. Since there is no attitude control, eight dipole whip antennas will be used to provide isotropic ground coverage for communications. FM digital communications will be used with up-link and down-link on a single frequency in the amateur band of 144 to 146 MHz or 437 to 438 MHz. The satellite's communications subsystem, data processor and sequencer, power subsystem, structure subsystem, and experiment payload are described. The major experiment being considered will test the on-orbit annealing of radiation damaged solar cells.

  5. Satellite operations support expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Satellite Operations Support Expert System is an effort to identify aspects of satellite ground support activity which could profitably be automated with artificial intelligence (AI) and to develop a feasibility demonstration for the automation of one such area. The hydrazine propulsion subsystems (HPS) of the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) were used as applications domains. A demonstration fault handling system was built. The system was written in Franz Lisp and is currently hosted on a VAX 11/750-11/780 family machine. The system allows the user to select which HPS (either from ISEE or IUE) is used. Then the user chooses the fault desired for the run. The demonstration system generates telemetry corresponding to the particular fault. The completely separate fault handling module then uses this telemetry to determine what and where the fault is and how to work around it. Graphics are used to depict the structure of the HPS, and the telemetry values displayed on the screen are continually updated. The capabilities of this system and its development cycle are described.

  6. Photometric Study of Uranian Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesten, Philip R.

    1998-01-01

    The best summary of my work at NASA is expressed in the following abstract, submitted the Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society and to be presented at the annual meeting in Madison in October. We report photometric measurements of Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel and Titania (10.4 Aug. 1995), and Neptune's satellite Triton (21.2 Sept. 1995) with the infrared camera (IRCAM) and standard J (1.13 - 1.42 microns), H (1.53 - 1.81 microns), and K (2.00 - 2.41 microns) filters at the 3.8-m UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea. The individual images frames are 256 x 256 pixels with a platescale of .286 arcsec/pixel, resulting in a 1.22 arc min field of view. This summer brought the IR photometry measurements nearly to a close. As indicated by the abstract above, I will present this work at the annual DPS meeting in October. In anticipation of the opening of the new Carl Sagan Laboratory for Cosmochemisty, of which I will be a participating member, I also devoted a considerable fraction of the summer to learning the biochemistry which underlies the experiments to be conducted. To put the end of the summary close to the beginning, it was a most productive summer.

  7. Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) network model for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Full Service Integrated Services Digital Network (FSIS) network model for advanced satellite designs describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ACTS and the Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) perform ISDN protocol analyses and switching decisions in the terrestrial domain, whereas FSIS makes all its analyses and decisions on-board the ISDN satellite.

  8. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J.; Nelson, J.; Goldberg, M.; Sjoberg, W.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean prediction center at the national hurricane center's tropical analysis and forecast Branch, the Weather Prediction center and the Satellite analysis branch of NESDIS make up the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation and Satellite Analysis. These centers had early exposure to JPSS products using the S-NPP Satellite that was launched in 2011. Forecasters continue to evaluate new products in anticipation for the launch of JPSS-1 sometime in 2017.

  9. Economics of satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    This paper is partly a tutorial, telling systematically how one goes about calculating the total annual costs of a satellite communications system, and partly the expression of some original ideas on the choice of parameters so as to minimize these costs. The calculation of costs can be divided into two broad categories. The first is technical and is concerned with estimating what particular equipment will cost and what will be the annual expense to maintain and operate it. One starts in the estimation of any new system by listing the principal items of equipment, such as satellites, earth stations of various sizes and functions, telemetry and tracking equipment and terrestrial interfaces, and then estimating how much each item will cost. Methods are presented for generating such estimates, based on a knowledge of the gross parameters, such as antenna size, coverage area, transmitter power and information rate. These parameters determine the system performance and it is usually possible, knowing them, to estimate the costs of the equipment rather well. Some formulae based on regression analyses are presented. Methods are then given for estimating closely related expenses, such as maintenance and operation, and then an approximate method is developed for estimating terrestrial interconnection costs. It is pointed out that in specific cases when tariff and geographical information are available, it is usually better to work with specific data, but nonetheless it is often desirable, especially in global system estimating, to approximate these interconnect costs without recourse to individual tariffs. The procedure results in a set of costs for the purchase of equipment and its maintenance, and a schedule of payments. Some payments will be incurred during the manufacture of the satellite and before any systems operation, but many will not be incurred until the system is no longer in use, e.g. incentives. In any case, with the methods presented in the first section, one

  10. Timation 3 satellite. [artificial satellite for navigation, space radiation, and time transfer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the Timation 3 satellite are discussed. A diagram of the basic structure is provide to show the solar panels, navigation and telemetry antennas, gravity gradient booms, and solar cell experiments. The specific application of the satellite for time management or time transfer for navigation purposes is reported. Various measurements and experiments conducted by the satellite are described.

  11. The dynamic phenomena of a tethered satellite: NASA's first Tethered Satellite Mission, TSS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Mowery, D. K.; Tomlin, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    The tethered satellite system (TSS) was envisioned as a means of extending a satellite from its base (space shuttle, space station, space platform) into a lower or higher altitude in order to more efficiently acquire data and perform science experiments. This is accomplished by attaching the satellite to a tether, deploying it, then reeling it in. When its mission is completed, the satellite can be returned to its base for reuse. If the tether contains a conductor, it can also be used as a means to generate and flow current to and from the satellite to the base. When current is flowed, the tether interacts with the Earth's magnetic field, deflecting the tether. When the current flows in one direction, the system becomes a propulsive system that can be used to boost the orbiting system. In the other direction, it is a power generating system. Pulsing the current sets up a dynamic oscillation in the tether, which can upset the satellite attitude and preclude docking. A basic problem occurs around 400-m tether length, during satellite retrieval when the satellite's pendulous (rotational) mode gets in resonance with the first lateral tether string mode. The problem's magnitude is determined by the amount of skiprope present coming into this resonance condition. This paper deals with the tethered satellite, its dynamic phenomena, and how the resulting problems were solved for the first tethered satellite mission (TSS-1). Proposals for improvements for future tethered satellite missions are included. Results from the first tethered satellite flight are summarized.

  12. Determination of the number of navigation satellites within satellite acquisition range

    SciTech Connect

    Kurenkov, Vladimir I. E-mail: ask@ssau.ru; Kucherov, Alexander S. E-mail: ask@ssau.ru; Gordeev, Alexey I.; Shilov, Lev B.

    2014-12-10

    The problem of determination of the number of navigation satellites within acquisition range with regard to antenna systems configuration and stochastic land remote sensing satellite maneuvers is the subject considered in the paper. Distribution function and density function of the number of navigation satellites within acquisition range are obtained.

  13. Satellite RNA associated with bamboo mosaic potexvirus shares similarity with satellites associated with sobemoviruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, J S; Lin, N S

    1995-01-01

    A putative nonstructural protein encoded by a satellite RNA associated with bamboo mosaic potexvirus shares 46% identity with the capsid protein of satellite virus of panicum mosaic sobemovirus. The sequence similarity among satellite plant viruses which have no apparent relationship implies a common origin.

  14. Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Wilson, Edward; How, Jonathan; Sanenz-Otero, Alvar; Chamitoff, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized spherical satellites. They will be used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres will fly within the cabin of the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation flying spacecraft configurations. SPHERES is a testbed for formation flying by satellites, the theories and calculations that coordinate the motion of multiple bodies maneuvering in microgravity. To achieve this inside the ISS cabin, bowling-ball-sized spheres perform various maneuvers (or protocols), with one to three spheres operating simultaneously . The Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) experiment will test relative attitude control and station-keeping between satellites, re-targeting and image plane filling maneuvers, collision avoidance and fuel balancing algorithms, and an array of geometry estimators used in various missions. SPHERES consists of three self-contained satellites, which are 18 sided polyhedrons that are 0.2 meter in diameter and weigh 3.5 kilograms. Each satellite contains an internal propulsion system, power, avionics, software, communications, and metrology subsystems. The propulsion system uses CO2, which is expelled through the thrusters. SPHERES satellites are powered by AA batteries. The metrology subsystem provides real-time position and attitude information. To simulate ground station-keeping, a laptop will be used to transmit navigational data and formation flying algorithms. Once these data are uploaded, the satellites will perform autonomously and hold the formation until a new command is given.

  15. Spectral properties of icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Wagner, Roland; Clark, Roger; Cruikshank, Dale; Brown, Robert; Roatsch, Thomas; Buratti, Bonnie; Matson, Dennis; Dalle Ore, Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Nicholson, Phil; Baines, Kevin; Sotin, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Since 2004 Cassini is orbiting the Saturnian system with its instruments investigating the chemical and physical properties of Saturn ‘s atmosphere, its magnetosphere, its numerous satellites and rings. The VIMS instrument onboard Cassini enables not only to identify the Saturn satellites’ compositional units but also to map their distribution across the surfaces, to relate their location and extension to specific geological and/or geomorphological surface features and to characterize surface alterations induced by the space environment. Although, the VIMS spectra of the Saturnian satellites’ surfaces are dominated by H2O-ice, its distribution and physical characteristics differ distinctly from one satellite to the other. Global hemispherical differences are mostly related to the satellite’s orbital position within the Saturnian system, i.e. the distance to Saturn and its E ring, with particles originating from Saturn’s magnetosphere and/or the ice grains coming from the E ring impacting their surfaces. Often, these hemispherical differences are characterized by a dark non-icy contaminant more concentrated on their trailing hemispheres, while the more water ice-rich leading hemispheres appear covered by fresh material ejected by an impact event and/or by impacting E-ring particles. Tethys, however, situated closer to Enceladus and the E ring and deeper within Saturn’s magnetosphere, shows a more complex pattern. Compositional changes on a regional and local scale could be identified and related to the geological processes, i.e. impact cratering, tectonics, and erosion. Particularly, young impact craters and tectonic features reveal clean H2O ice of relatively large grain size while the “fresh” (unaltered) surface material offers a unique view into the crustal properties and evolution of its satellite. Whereas, prominent graben systems on Dione and Rhea are characterized by a pronounced ice signature - Ithaca Chasma on Tethys is barely recognizable

  16. Satellite Retrieval of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G.; Robles Gonzalez, C.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Decae, R.

    SATELLITE RETRIEVAL of AEROSOL PROPERTIES G. de Leeuw, C. Robles Gonzalez, J. Kusmierczyk-Michulec and R. Decae TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague, The Netherlands; deleeuw@fel.tno.nl Methods to retrieve aerosol properties over land and over sea were explored. The dual view offered by the ATSR-2 aboard ERS-2 was used by Veefkind et al., 1998. The retrieved AOD (aerosol optical depth) values compare favourably with collocated sun photometer measurements, with an accuracy of 0.06 +/- 0.05 in AOD. An algorithm developed for GOME on ERS-2 takes advantage of the low surface reflection in the UV (Veefkind et al., 2000). AOD values retrieved from ATSR-2 and GOME data over western Europe are consistent. The results were used to produce a map of mean AOD values over Europe for one month (Robles-Gonzalez et al., 2000). The ATSR-2 is al- gorithm is now extended with other aerosol types with the aim to apply it over the In- dian Ocean. A new algorithm is being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to be launched in 2003 on the NASA EOS-AURA satellite. It is expected that, based on the different scattering and absorption properties of various aerosol types, five major aerosol classes can be distinguished. The experience with the retrieval of aerosol properties by using several wavelength bands is used to develop an algorithm for Sciamachy to retrieve aerosol properties both over land and over the ocean which takes advantage of the wavelengths from the UV to the IR. The variation of the AOD with wavelength is described by the Angstrom parameter. The AOD and the Angstrom parameter together yield information on the aerosol size distribution, integrated over the column. Analysis of sunphotometer data indicates a relation between the Angstrom parameter and the mass ratio of certain aerosols (black carbon, organic carbon and sea salt) to the total particulate matter. This relation has been further explored and was applied to satellite data over land to

  17. Get Close to Glaciers with Satellite Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of remote sensing from satellites to monitor glaciers. Discusses efforts to use remote sensing satellites of the Landsat series for examining the global distribution, mass, balance, movements, and dynamics of the world's glaciers. Includes several Landsat images of various glaciers. (TW)

  18. Mammalian satellite DNA: a speaking dumb.

    PubMed

    Enukashvily, Natella I; Ponomartsev, Nikita V

    2013-01-01

    The tandemly organized highly repetitive satellite DNA is the main DNA component of centromeric/pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin. For almost a century, it was considered as "junk DNA," only a small portion of which is used for kinetochore formation. The current review summarizes recent data about satellite DNA transcription. The possible functions of the transcripts are discussed.

  19. Future developments in maritime satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steciw, A.

    1981-11-01

    Future developments in maritime satellite communications, which could be provided by a second-generation maritime space segment are discussed. Current weaknesses such as high costs and bulky equipment are given, and basic terminal standards that could be embodied in a second generation system are considered, including three scenarios based on traffic, terminal characteristics, and mission requirements. The aeronautical satellite service is also summarized.

  20. Federal Research and Development for Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report of the Committee on Satellite Communications (COSC) reviews a number of future communication needs which could be satisfied by satellite systems, including needs in fields such as education, health care delivery, hazard warning, navigation aids, search and rescue, electronic mail delivery, time and frequency dissemination, and…

  1. The Direct Satellite Connection: Definitions and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigand, Rolf T.

    1980-01-01

    Defines direct satellite broadcasting as the transmission of broadcast signals via high-powered satellites that permit direct reception of television or radio programs by means of small antennas. Outlines American, European, and Japanese plans for direct-to-home television reception and implications for the broadcasting industry. (JMF)

  2. The Arctic Regional Communications Small SATellite (ARCSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, Joseph; Kress, Martin; Sims, William; Spehn, Stephen; Jaeger, Talbot; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    Traditional satellite missions are extremely complex and expensive to design, build, test, launch and operate. Consequently many complementary operational, exploration and research satellite missions are being formulated as a growing part of the future space community capabilities using formations of small, distributed, simple to launch and inexpensive highly capable small scale satellites. The Arctic Regional Communications small SATellite (ARCSAT) initiative would launch a Mini-Satellite "Mothership" into Polar or Sun Sync low-earth-orbit (LEO). Once on orbit, the Mothership would perform orbital insertion of four internally stored independently maneuverable nanosatellites, each containing electronically steerable antennas and reconfigurable software-defined radios. Unlike the traditional geostationary larger complex satellite communication systems, this LEO communications system will be comprised of initially a five small satellite formation that can be later incrementally increased in the total number of satellites for additional data coverage. ARCSAT will provide significant enabling capabilities in the Arctic for autonomous voice and data communications relay, Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA), data-extraction from unattended sensors, and terrestrial Search & Rescue (SAR) beacon detection missions throughout the "data starved desert" of the Arctic Region.

  3. Satellite Attitude Dynamics Simulation and Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    done using a dual actuator system of a reaction wheel and gas jet thrusters. Tachometers and an absolute optical encoder will provide sensing...capabilities of satellite position and satellite and reaction wheel velocities. This paper describes in detail the procedures used during design from

  4. DIGITAL DATA ARCHIVAL SYSTEM FOR NIMBUS SATELLITE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In the near future a NIMBUS Satellite will be sent into orbit to collect data on global weather conditions. This satellite represents a signif icant...the forhotographic images of cloud cover with supplemental infrared infor mation to provide a comprehensive record of upper atmospheric conditions

  5. National geodetic satellite program, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunnell, C. A.; Ferriter, P.; Gebel, G.; Hopfield, H. S.; Schaefer, M. M.; Yionoulis, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) space research program was directed toward modeling the gravitational field of the earth from an analysis of the Doppler shifts on the transmitted frequencies of the satellites as obtained by the tracking stations. Emphasis is on the satellites involved and the methods used in accomplishing this aim.

  6. Introduction to Satellite Communications Technology for NREN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Thom

    2004-01-01

    NREN requirements for development of seamless nomadic networks necessitates that NREN staff have a working knowledge of basic satellite technology. This paper addresses the components required for a satellite-based communications system, applications, technology trends, orbits, and spectrum, and hopefully will afford the reader an end-to-end picture of this important technology.

  7. Meeting the Challenge. Mass Education by Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Glen

    A study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a satellite delivery system to provide market information to farmers. The program delivered by satellite was Crop Market Prospects, a one-day conference that presents the market outlook for both crops and inputs, investigates the world grain situation, and provides a long-term outlook.…

  8. Some Legal Problems of Satellite Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Fred S.

    Now that the technical aspects of satellite transmission have been solved, there remain the more complex and difficult problems of maintaining both order in outer space and the rights of nations and individuals as these rights may be affected by broadcasts transmitted by satellite stations. These broadcasts, whether beamed to a ground station or…

  9. Air deployment of satellite-tracked drifters

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, R.E.; Richardson, P.L.; Blumenthal, B.P.

    1980-05-20

    Six free-drifting buoys tracked by the Nimbus 6 satellite were successfully launched by C-130 aircraft in a series of deployments during 1977-1979. The buoys were launched in Gulf Stream rings which had been identified with airborne XBT surveys and satellite infrared images. This is the first operational test of these air-deployable buoys.

  10. Millimeter accuracy satellites for two color ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1993-01-01

    The principal technical challenge in designing a millimeter accuracy satellite to support two color observations at high altitudes is to provide high optical cross-section simultaneously with minimal pulse spreading. In order to address this issue, we provide, a brief review of some fundamental properties of optical retroreflectors when used in spacecraft target arrays, develop a simple model for a spherical geodetic satellite, and use the model to determine some basic design criteria for a new generation of geodetic satellites capable of supporting millimeter accuracy two color laser ranging. We find that increasing the satellite diameter provides: a larger surface area for additional cube mounting thereby leading to higher cross-sections; and makes the satellite surface a better match for the incoming planar phasefront of the laser beam. Restricting the retroreflector field of view (e.g. by recessing it in its holder) limits the target response to the fraction of the satellite surface which best matches the optical phasefront thereby controlling the amount of pulse spreading. In surveying the arrays carried by existing satellites, we find that European STARLETTE and ERS-1 satellites appear to be the best candidates for supporting near term two color experiments in space.

  11. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of...

  12. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of...

  13. Communication Satellites: Experimental & Operational, Commercial & Public Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The title reflects the first and major article in an issue of this newsletter devoted entirely to communication satellites. This series of articles on the potential and applications of communication satellites in development projects is concerned with their development for commercial and public service, development in the Pacific region, SPACECOM…

  14. Optical remote sensing small satellite project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xibin; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhaowei; Xu, Guodong

    2004-01-01

    Optical Remote Sensing Small Satellite is for high-tech flight demonstration's test and three dimensions mapping. Its system overview is presented in the paper, and it includes such items as mission objective and mission requirements, satellite system scheme, reliability, cost budget project schedule and management and operation.

  15. NASA Compendium of Satellite Communications Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of worldwide communication programs that range in time from the inception of satellite communications to August 1971. The programs included are: Echo, Courier, West Ford, Telstar, Relay, Syncom, Lincoln experimental satellites, Intelsat, Tacsat, Skynet, Nato system, and Telesat.

  16. Optical Studies of Artificial Earth Satellites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the visual and photographic methods and the design features of a camera at Aberystwyth with a brief justification for satellite tracking. Indicates that satellite measurements have been used to determine the shape of the earth and diurnal variations in atmospherical densities. (CC)

  17. The European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Eutelsat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Jean

    An overview is presented of Eutelsat, which was created in 1977 by 17 European telecommunications operators to provide mobile and fixed satellite communication services to the entire continent. The eight Eutelsat satellites now in orbit are utilized for telephony and business services, for direct-to-home broadcasting, for the distribution and exchange of radio and television programs, and for land mobile services.

  18. TRMM Satellite Flyby of Tropical Storm Halong

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM Satellite 3-D Flyby of Tropical Storm Halong On July 31, NASA's TRMM Satellite showed rain was falling at a rate of over 85.6 mm (about 3.4 inches) per hour in bands wrapping around Hal...

  19. Atmospheric structure determined from satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, K. S.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The capabilities of the Nimbus 6 satellite sounding data for use in synoptic analysis were considered and interpreted. An evaluation of the ability of the satellite sounding data to detect and depict structural features of the atmosphere was made on the basis of vertical profiles of average difference and standard deviation of differences between satellite and rawinsonde data at nine pressure levels from 850 to 100 mb; and constant pressure charts and cross sections of satellite, rawinsonde and difference values. Results indicate that satellite measurements of temperature as well as the vertical lapse rate and horizontal gradient of temperature are accurate enough to show large scale patterns but not to precisely define fronts or tropopauses; satellite measurements of dew point temperature are smoothed enough to severely reduce contrasts between air masses across fronts; the magnitude of the standard deviation of differences between rawinsonde and satellite data for most variables increases with the synoptic activity in the region; and the most reliable variables to examine from satellite data for depiction of synoptic features are the temperature equivalent potential temperature and mixing ratio.

  20. Wave climate assessment by satellite remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Barstow, S.F.; Krogstad, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    Satellite remote sensing is quickly becoming a major information source for wave climate assessments. The present paper surveys various measurement principles and illustrates applications of satellite altimeter wave data from both the GEOSAT, Topex/Poseidon and ERS-1 Exact Repeat missions. The paper also discusses use of Wave Mode and Image Mode SAR data obtained by ERS-1.