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Sample records for saudi arabian children

  1. Lead pollution in urban and rural Saudi Arabian children

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, P.; Kutbi, I.I. )

    1989-11-01

    In the last two decades, vehicular traffic increased spectacularly in Saudi Arabia, from 243,000 registered motor vehicles in 1973 to over 5 million at present. All these vehicles use leaded gasoline, one of the major sources of lead contamination in the ambient air and dusts in the cities. To evaluate the impact of this high level of environmental lead, scalp hair of 200 school boys, aged 6-8 years, from each of the two cities (Makkah in the western region and Riyadh in the central region) and two Village Groups (one around Makkah city and the other around Riyadh city) were analyzed in this study for lead concentrations. Makkah is one of the oldest and most densely populated cities with congested housing and narrow winding streets. Riyadh on the other hand is the newly developing, planned capital city of Saudi Arabia. The Village Groups were chosen so as to reflect a control environment away from heavy traffic and industrial activity. The usefulness of hair as an important biopsy material for environmental pollution studies has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Effect of lead on the central nervous system of the children may result in mental retardation and even death in case of acute encephalopathy.

  2. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  3. Pilot study of the prevalence of head lice infestation in a population of Saudi Arabian children.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P

    1987-06-01

    The prevalence of infestation with the head louse, Pediculus capitis, was assessed among the child population, from birth to 10 years old inclusive, of the rapidly expanding Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah. Over a period of two months, 300 consecutive children attending the general practitioner for any reason were examined specifically to identify those infested with head lice: 37 cases of active infestation were found, which is an overall prevalence of 12%. An interesting distribution, however, was noted in respect of age, ranging from less than 2% in the first year of life, rising rapidly to around 30% in ages six to eight years, thereafter declining steadily to about 16% by age 10 years. The distribution of infestation among males and females was broadly similar. These results show a high head lice infestation, particularly in the early school years, where presumably interpersonal contacts are most frequent, facilitating contagious spread. As the head lice is known to spread several viral and rickettsial diseases, such as relapsing fever and typhus, greater efforts should be made towards patient education in hygiene, and towards identifying and treating the disease when found.

  4. Peak expiratory flow rates in healthy Saudi Arabian children living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Graff-Lonnevig, V; Harfi, H; Tipirneni, P

    1993-11-01

    The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in 457 healthy Saudi schoolchildren (235 boys and 222 girls) aged 6 to 16 years, living in Riyadh, using two simple and commercially available airflow meters, Wright peak flow meter and the mini-Wright peak flow meter. All measurements were obtained in the standing position and the best of three trials was recorded. Standing height and age were used as independent variables. The regression equations for PEFR were determined for boys and girls separately. The boys had higher values than the girls at all heights. The difference was not significant. Both boys and girls had lower PEFRs as compared with European children and American children of different racial origin (P < .0001). When age was added to height as the second independent variable the Saudi boys and girls had significantly lower PEFRs than Swedish and British children (P < .0001). One explanation for these differences may be that the Saudi children on the average are shorter and have lower body weights than, eg, American children. The PEFR did not differ when using the Wright peak flow meter or the mini-Wright peak flow meter. These findings will serve as an important basis for preparing charts for normal PEFR values for Saudi children.

  5. The Comorbidity of ADHD in the General Population of Saudi Arabian School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate comorbidity of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), anxiety, and depression and to investigate the impaired social and academic developments among children with ADHD in primary school settings in Saudi Arabia. Method: Data for the purpose of this study are obtained from parent and teachers of 652…

  6. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  7. Male Saudi Arabian Freshman Science Majors at Jazan University: Their Perceptions of Parental Educational Practices on Their Science Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    2012-01-01

    Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of education…

  8. Metal concentrations in pearl oyster, Pinctada radiata, collected from Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Sadig, M.; Alam, I.

    1989-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a shallow semi-closed water body. Several industrial complexes have been established along its coast line during the past decade. The effluent from these facilities is being discharged into the Gulf. These discharges pose potential hazards to the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf. The Saudi Arabian government is striving to protect the marine environment of the Gulf and has commissioned several studies to assess the damage from the industrial and municipal discharges. In these studies, marine organisms, for example, fish, clams, sea urchins, oysters, and plankton, along with sediments and seawater, have been analyzed for various pollutants. This study reports metal concentrations in pearl oysters collected from the Saudi Arabian coastal areas of the Arabian Gulf.

  9. Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Williams, Joseph B.; Champagne, Alex M.; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75–60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69–24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09–13.18%), ceramide (2.18–13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53–12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions. PMID:24600311

  10. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  11. On Selected Morphemes in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carla; Schneider, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Following a year of study of Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL), we are documenting our findings to provide a grammatical sketch of the language. This paper represents one part of that endeavor and focuses on a description of selected morphemes, both manual and non-manual, that have appeared in the course of data collection. While some of the…

  12. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  13. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  14. Collectivists' Decision-Making: Saudi Arabian Graduate Students' Study Abroad Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakaboski, Tamara; Perez-Velez, Karla; Almutairi, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    The authors in this qualitative study explored how Saudi Arabian students selected a teaching focused research institution by examining Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and U.S. national influences, institutional factors, and personal influencers. Despite the continued rise in Saudi Arabian students studying at U.S. universities, limited published research…

  15. Examining the Experiences and Adjustment Challenges of Saudi Arabian Students in the California State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jeremy Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences and adjustment challenges of Saudi Arabian students in the California State University (CSU) system. Specifically, the study was conducted to better understand and serve the Saudi Arabian students studying in the system. The design for this mixed method study integrated both quantitative and…

  16. Sensory processing dysfunction among Saudi children with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Al-Heizan, Mohammed O; AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Natho, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] There is a dearth of studies that have examined the occurrence of sensory processing dysfunction and its components in Saudi Arabian children with autism. Therefore, this study investigated the manifestation of sensory processing dysfunction in autism and compared the functional components of sensory processing between Saudi Arabian children with and without autism. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 46 Saudi Arabian children with autism and 30 children without autism participated in this study. The sensory processing functions of both groups were assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. [Results] The overall findings indicated that 84.8% of children with autism demonstrated definite sensory processing dysfunction. The most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the under-responsive/seeks sensation (89.13%), auditory filtering (73.90%), and tactile sensitivity (60.87%) domains. Most of the children without autism (66.66%) demonstrated typical sensory function; the most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the tactile sensitivity (33.3%), under-responsive/seeks sensation (23.33%), and movement sensitivity (20%) domains. [Conclusion] Saudi Arabian children with and without autism have clinically significant sensory dysfunctions. However, the prevalence of those sensory dysfunctions in children with autism is significantly higher than in the children without autism.

  17. The Saudi Arabian Heat Low: A Numerical Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    hours, the temperature trace • 1 o " " . , 81 SIGMA 0 .07 RADIUS 37.1 KN 3 (a) 270 0 2 4 36 40 .0 ~ * 64 I SIGMA 0 .47 RADIUS "?q.S K" 310 11146 -OS...AD-R45 575 THE SAUDI ARABIAN HEAT LOW: A NUMERICAL PERSPECTIVE(U) 1/ 3 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH L E FREEMAN 1984 AFIT/CI/NR-84...your organization or another agency if AFIT had not?’ ( ) a. YES ( ) b. NO 3 . The benefits of AFIT research can often be expressed by the equivalent

  18. Mineralogy of Saudi Arabian soils: eastern region

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Dixon, J.B.; Aba-Husayn, M.M.

    1983-03-01

    Mineralogical properties of soils along a 500 km east-west transect of an eastern province of Saudi Arabia were examined. Mineralogical composition of soils along the eastern coastal playa near Al Qatif is mostly gypsum or calcite in the whole soil, and smectite among layer silicate minerals in the clay fraction (<2mm). In soils of the Harad area palygorskite and smectite are the major layer silicate minerals. In the Al Kharj area kaolinite and smectite are the major clay minerals. Small amounts of chlorite occur in all soils studied although it varies in thermal stability and the amount is very small in Al Kharj 11 and Al Kharj Mountain surface soils. In the entire eastern region mica and vermiculite are present in the soil clays. The results of transmission electron microscpoy and x-ray diffraction analyses show that acicular palygorskite is widely distributed in the eastern-region soils. Palygorskite is believed to originate from the underlying Mio-Pliocene limestone in the basin, and to be redistributed by alluvial and eolian processes.

  19. Saudi Arabian Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned; Pearson, Susan; Clarke, Paula; Chambers, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It affects 3-7% of school-aged children, interfering with their academic performance and social interactions. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of teachers in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The…

  20. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilali, Sara M.; Al-Kahtani, Eman; Zaman, Babar; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Shahri, Abdullah; Edward, Deepak P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%). Of these, 278 (69.3%) were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively). Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007). Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%), lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%), lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4%) and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%). Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study. PMID:26909216

  1. Analysis of Shuttle Multispecral Infrared Radiometer measurements of the western Saudi Arabian shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Abbott, E.

    1987-01-01

    During the November 12-14, 1981 mission of the space shuttle Columbia, the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) recorded radiances in 10 channels along a 100m wide groundtrack across the western Saudi Arabian shield.-from Authors

  2. Preliminary noise survey and data report of Saudi Arabian data

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R.

    1997-08-01

    From November 1995 to March 1996 a total of 9 broadband temporary stations were deployed across Saudi Arabian shield. These stations consisted of STS-2 seismometers recorded continuously at 40 sps on RefTek dataloggers. All installations were at bedrock sites. Using data sections selected randomly during the deployment, noise studies showed that most stations were exceptionally quiet with noise level near the USGS low noise model for frequencies higher than 0.1 Hz. At lower frequencies, the horizontal components showed increased noise levels, possibly due to instrumental characteristics. High-frequency (greater than 1 Hz) noise varied as much as 10 db between day and night for some stations (RAYN, TAIF) while more isolated stations (HALM) were constant. Seasonal noise levels also varied, with April to June being the quietest months. Slight changes in peak microseism frequency also occurred seasonally.

  3. The Road to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Expatriate Teachers' Pedagogical Practices in the Cultural Context of Saudi Arabian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, Amani K.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored the need for culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) in Saudi Arabian higher education, especially when students have a cultural background that differs from that of their instructor. The study documented how expatriate teachers structured their pedagogical practices in the Saudi Arabian context. It examined how these…

  4. Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km

  5. The Tetramorium squaminode species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with a new record from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and keys to Arabian species

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Al Dhafer, Hathal M.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Arabian species of the Tetramorium squaminode-group are treated. Tetramorium squaminode Santschi, 1911 is recorded for the first time from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula. Keys to the two Arabian species of the Tetramorium squaminode-group, Tetramorium latinode Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 and Tetramorium squaminode, based on worker and queen castes, are given and a regional distribution map is provided. Notes on habitats of Tetramorium squaminode are presented. PMID:26019665

  6. Factors Influencing the Use of Learning Management System in Saudi Arabian Higher Education: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiri, Mohammed J. Sherbib; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical framework underlying a research on factors that influence utilization of the Jusur Learning Management System (Jusur LMS) in Saudi Arabian public universities. Development of the theoretical framework was done based on library research approach. Initially, the existing literature relevant to…

  7. Molecular Assay and Genotyping of Hepatitis C Virus among Infected Egyptian and Saudi Arabian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Mohamed MS; Sofy, Ahmed R; Mousa, Adel A; Ahmed, Mohamed A; Alganzory, Mohamed R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a common cause of liver fibrosis that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotyping among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients using different molecular techniques. HCV RNA viral load was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. For HCV genotyping, RT-PCR hybridization fluorescence-based method and reverse hybridization line probe assay (INNO-LiPA) were used. A total of 40 anti-HCV-positive patients with chronic hepatitis C were examined for HCV RNA, genotyping, and different laboratory investigations. In the present study, HCV genotypes 4, mixed 4.1b, and 1 were detected in patients of both countries, while genotype 2 was only detected in Saudi Arabian patients. Genotyping methods for HCV showed no difference in the classification at the genotype level. With regard to HCV subtypes, INNO-LiPA assay was a reliable test in HCV genotyping for the detection of major genotypes and subtypes, while RT-PCR-based assay was a good test at the genotype level only. HCV genotype 4 was found to be the predominant genotype among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients. In conclusion, data analysis for detecting and genotyping HCV was an important factor for understanding the epidemiology and treatment strategies of HCV among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients. PMID:26512201

  8. RADIATION PROTECTION IN AN INTERVENTIONAL LABORATORY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN AND SAUDI ARABIAN HOSPITALS.

    PubMed

    Alahmari, Mohammed Ali S; Sun, Zhonghua; Bartlett, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the use of protection devices and attitudes of interventional professionals (including radiologists, cardiologists, vascular surgeons, medical imaging technicians and nurses) towards radiation protection will differ between Saudi Arabian and Australian hospitals. Hard copies of an anonymous survey were distributed to 10 and 6 clinical departments in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia and metropolitan hospitals in Western Australia, respectively. The overall response rate was 43 % comprising 110 Australian participants and 63 % comprising 147 Saudi participants. Analysis showed that Australian respondents differed significantly from Saudi respondents with respect to their usages of leaded glasses (p < 0.001), ceiling-suspended lead screen (p < 0.001) and lead drape suspended from the table (p < 0.001). This study indicates that the trained interventional professionals in Australia tend to adhere to benefit from having an array of tools for personal radiation protection than the corresponding group in Saudi Arabia.

  9. Male Saudi Arabian freshman science majors at Jazan University: Their perceptions of parental educational practices on their science achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of education and participant's choice of science major were used to identify groups for the purpose of data analysis. Data were gathered using five independent variables concerning parental educational practices (attitude, involvement, autonomy support, structure and control) and the dependent variable of science scores in high school. The sample consisted of 338 participants and was arbitrarily drawn from the science-based colleges (medical, engineering, and natural science) at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia. The data were tested using Pearson's analysis, backward multiple regression, one way ANOVA and independent t-test. The findings of the study reveal significant correlations for all five of the variables. Multiple regressions revealed that all five of the parents' educational practices indicators combined together could explain 19% of the variance in science scores and parental attitude toward science and educational involvement combined accounted for more than 18% of the variance. Analysis indicates that no significant difference is attributable to parental involvement and educational level. This finding is important because it indicates that, in Saudi Arabia, results are not consistent with research in Western or other Asian contexts.

  10. Nd, Pb, Sr, and O isotopic characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, D.B.; Frost, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    New Nd, Sr and O isotopic data for granitoid rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield are presented together with published Nd, Pb, Sr and O isotopic data and all available geologic and geochronologic information to re-evaluate the terranes defined for the Saudi Arabian part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Three groups of terranes are identified: 1) the western arc terranes, 2) the eastern arc terranes, and 3) the Khida terrane. The Khida terrane is the only terrane composed of pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust. The western arc terranes are of oceanic arc affinity, and have the least radiogenic Pb and Sr and most radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions and some of the lowest ??18O values of any rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield. Although some previous studies have characterized the eastern arc terranes as of continental affinity, this study shows that they too are composed of Neoproterozoic oceanic arcs, although their sources have slightly elevated 208Pb/204Pb, Nd, Sri, and ??18O values compared to the western arc terranes. These data suggest that either the isotopic composition of the mantle source for the western arc terranes is more depleted than that of the eastern arc terranes or the eastern arc terranes have been mixed with a small amount of cratonic source material, or both. We further elaborate on the Hulayfah-Ad Dafinah fault zone as a major boundary within the Saudi Arabian portion of the East African Orogen. With further study, its northern extension may be shown to pass through what has been defined as the Hail terrane, and its southern extension appears to lie under cover east of the Tathlith-Malahah terrane and extend into Yemen. It may represent the collision zone between East and West Gondwana, and at the very least it is an important suture between groups of arc terranes of contrasting isotopic composition caught between two converging continents.

  11. Capripoxvirus disease in an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Greth, A; Gourreau, J M; Vassart, M; Nguyen-Ba-Vy; Wyers, M; Lefevre, P C

    1992-04-01

    Lumpy skin disease caused by a capripoxvirus was observed in a captive-bred female Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) at the National Wildlife Research Center, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Clinical signs included severe general depression with fever, anorexia, greater than 1,000 nodular cutaneous lesions and gradual recovery over 2 mo. The virus was found by electron microscopy and paired sera showed an increasing virus neutralization antibody titer against capripoxvirus. A serologic survey of the herd of 90 oryx showed a low prevalence (2%) of this infection. This report describes the first case of lumpy skin disease in an Arabian oryx.

  12. Vanadium and nickel content of Nowruz spill tar flakes on the Saudi Arabian coastline and their probable environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

    1984-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf is experiencing the worst oil spill in its history. The spill originates from two war damaged Iranian oil wells in the Nowruz oil field. Much of the oil is entering Saudi Arabian waters and washes ashore in the form of tar like flakes. In late March and early April 1983, fish, snake, turtle, and bird kills of different magnitude were noted along the Saudi Arabian coastline. In the early days of the spill Saudi Arabian authorities suspected sources other than the Nowruz spill to be causing the kills. Research was initiated to identify the origin of tar like flakes, their environmental impact and the cause of fish, snake, turtle and bird kills. This paper discusses some of the results of this research.

  13. The Saudi Arabian Quandary: The Economy’s Inability to Sustain Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    ODTÜ Gelişme Dergisi, 31 (Haziran), 2004, The Saudi Arabian quandary: The economy’s inability to sustain growth Robert Looney Naval...and stagnation. The economy appeared incapable of sustaining growth without a rising infusion of oil revenues. The purpose of this paper is to...government gave to social expenditures and defense. The implications are that if the economy is to achieve self- sustained growth independent of

  14. Different Resting State EEG Features in Children from Switzerland and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alahmadi, Nsreen; Evdokimov, Sergey A.; Kropotov, Yury (Juri); Müller, Andreas M.; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research field concerned with studying the influences of different cultures on brain anatomy and function. In this study, we examined whether different cultural or genetic influences might influence the resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) in young children (mean age 10 years) from Switzerland and Saudi Arabia. Methods: Resting state EEG recordings were obtained from relatively large groups of healthy children (95 healthy Swiss children and 102 Saudi Arabian children). These EEG data were analyzed using group independent components analyses (gICA) and conventional analyses of spectral data, together with estimations of the underlying intracortical sources, using LORETA software. Results: We identified many similarities, but also some substantial differences with respect to the resting state EEG data. For Swiss children, we found stronger delta band power values in mesial frontal areas and stronger power values in three out of four frequency bands in occipital areas. For Saudi Arabian children, we uncovered stronger alpha band power over the sensorimotor cortex. The additionally measured theta/beta ratio (TBR) was similar for Swiss and Saudi Arabian children. Conclusions: The different EEG resting state features identified, are discussed in the context of different cultural experiences and possible genetic influences. In addition, we emphasize the importance of using appropriate EEG databases when comparing resting state EEG features between groups. PMID:27853430

  15. Comprehension of English Text among Saudi Arabian and American Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren; McAlister, Kimberly Walker

    2014-01-01

    Reading comprehension was investigated between undergraduates at a university in Louisiana, United States (n = 17) and an English-based university in Saudi Arabia (n = 41) for the purpose of comparing variance and proficiency. Comprehension was measured with an 8th grade curriculum-based measure administered in English. The research hypothesis of…

  16. Attitude of Saudi Arabian adults towards consanguineous marriage

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Omar A.; Al-Shaia, Walaa A.; Al-Hamam, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Marzoug, Hala M.; Ahmed, Anwar E.; Bagha, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on the attitudes of Saudi adults towards consanguinity is scarce. The study aimed to explore the attitudes towards consanguinity and its associations with socio-demographic characteristics in a sample of Saudi adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 386 outpatient waiting-area attendees at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City-Riyadh were included. Participants were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics, attitude towards consanguinity and the reasons behind this. Results: The positive attitude towards consanguinity among the study respondents was 48.1% with 95% confidence interval (42.91–53.33%). Social and traditional culture (59.9%) were found to be the predominant reasons for favoring consanguinity in Saudi Arabia. Evidence against a positive attitude towards consanguinity was noted in respondents who received medical information about consanguinity versus those who had not received medical information (42.3% vs. 57%, p-value = 0.008). According to the multivariate logistic model, the odds of a positive attitude towards consanguinity were 2 times higher for males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.147, 4.290) and 4.1 times higher in respondents in consanguineous marriages (aOR: 4.1; 95% CI: 2.350, 7.156). The odds of a positive attitude towards consanguinity were 50% less in respondents who received health information on consanguinity compared to those who had not received health information about consanguinity (aOR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.253, 0.863). Conclusion: One in every two Saudi adults favors consanguinity however, Saudi men and women differ in their attitudes towards consanguinity. Receiving health information on consanguinity was associated with a negative attitude towards this practice. PMID:26835408

  17. Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study1234

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Fatimah M; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Kang, Paul T; Hakim, Iman A; Going, Scott; Yousef, Jehad M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M; Kumosani, Taha A; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention is equivocal. Saudi Arabian women may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because of a darker skin type and a greater likelihood of reduced ultraviolet B radiation exposure. Data regarding the vitamin D status of Saudi Arabian women and its relation to breast cancer risk are lacking. Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. Design: A case-control study was conducted among 120 breast cancer cases and 120 controls. The study population was drawn from patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from June to August 2009. Participants completed questionnaires on diet and medical history, and serum samples were collected from all women to measure circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. Results: The participants had a mean age of 47.8 y and a mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) of 30.0. Breast cancer cases had significantly lower (mean ± SD) serum concentrations of 25(OH)D (9.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL) than did controls (15.4 ± 12.3 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In comparison with those in the highest category of vitamin D status for this population (≥20 ng/mL), the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for invasive breast cancer were 6.1 (2.4, 15.1) for women with a serum 25(OH)D concentration <10 ng/mL and 4.0 (1.6, 10.4) for women with a serum concentration of ≥10 to <20 ng/mL (P-trend = 0.0001). Conclusion: An inverse association exists between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and breast cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817231. PMID:23697705

  18. Sequential stratigraphy of Jurassic and Cretaceous in the central Saudi Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Le Nindre, Y.M.; Manivit, J.; Vaslet, D. ); Manivit, H. Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris )

    1991-08-01

    Depositional sequences and system tracts in the Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Central Saudi Arabian platform have been established on the basis of precise lithofacies analysis, detailed sedimentologic interpretation, and accurate age determination by ammonites, nautoli, brachipods, echinoids, and nannoflora. A eustatic depositional model integrated with accepted worldwide sequential stratigraphic data is proposed, and appears to correlate fairly well with the 1988 global sea level chart by Haq and others, particularly for the Lower and Middle Jurassic and the Middle and Upper Cretaceous. Ages determined by accurate biostratigraphic data enable time correlations to be made with third-order eustatic cycles from Vail's 1988 global chart. Eustatic changes therefore appear to be the main factors of sedimentary control during the Jurassic and Cretaceous on the Arabian platform.

  19. Exploring When and Why to Use Arabic in the Saudi Arabian EFL Classroom: Viewing L1 Use as Eclectic Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khresheh, Asim

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate when and why to use Arabic as L1 in the Saudi Arabian EFL classroom. For this purpose, 45 classroom observations were performed for beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels of students. 5 classes were chosen randomly for each level and each class was observed three times. Based on the classroom observations,…

  20. Source Credibility during the Gulf War: A Q-Study of Rural and Urban Saudi Arabian Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Makaty, Safran S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studies how male Saudi Arabians sought and placed credibility in information sources about the Gulf War. Finds two groups: global-oriented, who were international radio-oriented; and village-oriented, primarily rural, who placed more trust in domestic media. Shows that all relied more heavily on broadcast media than on print media. (SR)

  1. Professional knowledge among Swedish and Saudi healthcare practitioners regarding oro-facial pain in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Al-Khotani, A; Naimi-Akbar, A; Björnsson, O; Christidis, N; Alstergren, P

    2016-01-01

    Oro-facial pain (OFP) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents are a growing problem. To meet patients' healthcare needs, professionals must perform their work intuitively and with quality. Therefore, a high degree of professional knowledge is necessary. To investigate the professional knowledge regarding OFP/TMD in children and adolescents among Swedish and Saudi Arabian dental and medical specialists compared with Swedish OFP specialists. One questionnaire including the four domains Chronic pain and behaviour; Aetiology; Diagnosis and classification; Treatment and prognosis was distributed to 383 potential participants, that is physicians and dentists in Sweden and Saudi Arabia. The Swedish OFP/TMD specialists were used as a reference group. The response rates from Sweden and Saudi Arabia were 49% and 86%, respectively. The degree of agreement was highest in the domain Chronic pain and behaviour, especially for the Swedish groups. Regarding the other three domains, the agreement was modest to poor. In general, Swedish groups showed a higher agreement with Swedish OFP/TMD specialists than Saudi Arabian groups. This study shows that professional knowledge regarding OFP/TMD in children and adolescents is limited among Swedish and Saudi Arabian dental and medical professionals compared to Swedish OFP/TMD specialists. In Swedish groups, the professional knowledge is more accurate than in the corresponding Saudi Arabian. With these results in mind, and the frequent prevalence of OFP/TMD in children and adolescents, one can draw the conclusion that there is a need for modern medical education regarding OFP/TMD among both physicians and dentists, especially in Saudi Arabia.

  2. Cytotoxicity, mode of action and antibacterial activities of selected Saudi Arabian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flora of Saudi Arabia is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the Arabian Peninsula and comprises very important genetic resources of crop and medicinal plants. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the organic extracts from twenty six Saudi Arabian medicinal plants. The study was also extended to the investigation of the effects of the extracts from the four best plants, Ononis serrata (SY160), Haplophyllum tuberculatum (SY177), Pulicaria crispa (SY179), and Achillea beiberstenii (SY-200) on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, caspases activities and mitochondrial function in leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line. Methods A resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on a panel of human cancer cell lines whilst the microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The best activity on leukemia cell lines were recorded with SY177 (IC50 of 9.94 μg/mL) and SY179 (IC50 of 1.81 μg/mL) against CCRF-CEM as well as Ach-b (IC50 of 9.30 μg/mL) and SY160 (IC50 of 5.06 μg/mL) against HL60 cells. The extracts from SY177 and SY179 were also toxic against the seven solid cancer cell lines studied with the highest IC50 values of 31.64 μg/mL (SY177 against Hep-G2 cells). SY177 and Ach-b induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases whilst SY160 and SY179 induced arrest in G0/G1 phase. All the four plant extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells with the alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In the antibacterial assays, only Ach-b displayed moderate antibacterial activities against E. coli and E. aerogenes ATCC strains (MIC of 256 μg/mL), AG100ATeT and K. pneumoniae ATCC strains (MIC of 128 μg/mL). Conclusions Finally, the results of the present

  3. Magmatic history of Red Sea rifting: perspective from the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An early stage of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting is recorded by a Tertiary dyke complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain. Field relations and new K/Ar dates indicate episodic magmatism from approx 30 m.y. to the present day and rift-related magmatism as early as 50 m.y. Localized volcanism and sheeted dyke injection ceased at approx 20 m.y. and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dykes, marking the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea. Differences in the depths and dynamics of mantle-melt extraction and transport may account for the transition from mixed alkaline-subalkaline bimodal magmatism of the pre-20 m.y. rift basin to exclusively subalkaline (tholeiitic) magmatism of the Red Sea spreading axis and the alkali basalt volcanism inland.-L.C.H.

  4. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area.

  5. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roberts, May B; Jones, Geoffrey P; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Neale, Stephen; Thorrold, Simon; Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral reef communities between 26.8 °N and 18.6 °N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna.

  6. Impact of software and hardware technologies on occupational health and safety policies in Saudi Arabian oil refineries.

    PubMed

    Idreis, Hany M; Siqueira, Carlos E; Levenstein, Charles C

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to examine the impact of technology importation on occupational health and safety in both Saudi Arabian and U.S. oil refining industries. Technologies imported to the Saudi oil industry take two forms: hardware (sophisticated equipment to run oil facilities) and software (policies and regulations pertaining to workers' health and safety, and employment rights installed by Aramco's founding multinational companies). This study utilizes qualitative, historically oriented, cross-national case studies to compare and assess workers' health, safety, and rights in Saudi Aramco with its U.S. counterpart, Motiva Enterprises. Two facilities were chosen to conduct field research: the Saudi Aramco oil refinery at Jeddah and Motiva's refinery at Port Arthur, Texas. The Jeddah refinery is fully owned by Saudi Aramco, thus, representing Aramco's health and safety policies and regulations. The Port Arthur refinery serves as a reference case study for U.S. oil refining facilities. The aspects of occupational health and safety in Saudi Aramco--ExxonMobil's joint ventures SAMREF and LUBREF--also are discussed to examine workers' health policies in both companies. The American oil industry made a significant contribution in establishing the Saudi oil industry, with the cooperation of the Saudi government. Despite having outstanding employment benefits schemes in Saudi Aramco, the presence of an organized work force better serves employee participation in Motiva than in Aramco. Safety systems such as Process Safety Management (PSM)--applied in Motiva--partially exist in Aramco to operate hardware technologies safely. Motiva training systems are better through PACE's Triangle of Prevention (TOP). Both companies follow the same pattern of handling occupational injuries and diseases; however, Saudi government agencies (GOSI) are responsible for compensating and treating injured workers. Saudi workers expressed conditional support for the worker committee program

  7. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  8. Predicting Relationship of Smoking Behavior Among Male Saudi Arabian College Students Related to Their Religious Practice.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.

  9. Novel Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase Gene Mutations in Saudi Arabian Hyperuricemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mohammed; Al-Arfaj, Abdulrahman Saud; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Fahad Al-Arfaj, Hussein; Reddy Parine, Narasimha; Purusottapatnam Shaik, Jilani; Khan, Zahid; Ali Khan Pathan, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, a steady increase in the incidence of HPRT-related hyperuricemia (HRH) has been observed in Saudi Arabia. We examined all the nine exons of HPRT gene for mutations in ten biochemically confirmed hyperuricemia patients, including one female and three normal controls. In all, we identified 13 novel mutations in Saudi Arabian HPRT-related hyperuricemia patients manifesting different levels of uric acid. The Lys103Met alteration was highly recurrent and was observed in 50% of the cases, while Ala160Thr and Lys158Asn substitutions were found in two patients. Moreover, in 70% of the patients ≥2 mutations were detected concurrently in the HPRT gene. Interestingly, one of the patients that harbored Lys103Met substitution along with two frameshift mutations at codons 85 and 160 resulting in shortened protein demonstrated unusually high serum uric acid level of 738 μmol/L. Two of the seven point mutations that resulted in amino acid change (Lys103Met and Val160Gly) were predicted to be damaging by SIFT and Polyphen and were further analyzed for their protein stability and function by molecular dynamics simulation. The identified novel mutations in the HPRT gene may prove useful in the prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. PMID:25136576

  10. The Khida terrane - Geology of Paleoproterozoic rocks in the Muhayil area, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, D.B.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The bulk of the Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia is underlain by Neoproterozoic terranes of oceanic affinity that were accreted during Pan-African time (about 680- 640Ma). Geologicalmappingandisotopicinvestigations during the 1980’s,however, provided the first evidence for Paleoproterozoic continental crust within the east- central part of the shield in Saudi Arabia. These studies delineated an older basement domain, herein referred to as the Khida terrane (Fig. l), which is defined as that part of the southern Afif composite terrane underlain by Paleoproterozoicto Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). The isotopic and geochronologic work to support our current studies within the Khida terrane are discussed in a companion abstract (Whitehouse et al., this volume). The regional geology and geochronology of the region has been summarized in detail by Johnson (1996). The current study is based on the continued use of samples previously collected in the Khida area by the authors and others as well as new field work conducted by us in 1999. This work further defines the occurrence of late Paleoproterozoic rocks at Jabal Muhayil, which is located at the eastern margin of the exposed terrane (Fig. 1). Our isotopic work is at an early stage and this abstract partly relates geologic problems that remain to be resolved. 

  11. Emergence of Rare Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria as Potential Pathogens in Saudi Arabian Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Bright; Enani, Mushira; Shoukri, Mohammed; AlThawadi, Sahar; AlJohani, Sameera; Al- Hajoj, Sahal

    2017-01-01

    the finding warrants a new threat to the Saudi Arabian clinical settings. PMID:28076350

  12. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer in a Saudi Arabian Population

    PubMed Central

    Alkhayal, Khayal A.; Awadalia, Zainab H.; Vaali-Mohammed, Mansoor-Ali; Al Obeed, Omar A.; Al Wesaimer, Alanoud; Halwani, Rabih; Zubaidi, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D, causally implicated in bone diseases and human malignancies, exerts its effects through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a transcription factor modulating the expression of several genes in different pathways. Genetic variants in the VDR gene have been associated with several cancers in different population including colorectal cancer. Objective To assess the association of VDR gene polymorphisms in relation with colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Saudi population. Methods The polymorphisms of VDR gene (BsmI, FokI, ApaI and TaqI) were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction amplification of segments of interest followed by Sanger sequencing. One hundred diagnosed CRC patients and 100 healthy control subjects that were age and gender matched were recruited. Results We did not observe significant association of any of the four VDR polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk in the overall analysis. Although not statistically significant, the AA genotype of BsmI conferred about two-fold protection against CRCs compared to the GG genotype. Stratification of the study subjects based on age and gender suggests statistically significant association of CRC with the ‘C’ allele of ApaI in patients >57 years of age at disease diagnosis and BsmI polymorphism in females. In addition, statistically significant differences were observed for the genotypic distributions of VDR-BsmI, ApaI and TaqI SNPs between Saudi Arabian population and several of the International HapMap project populations. Conclusion Despite the absence of correlation of the examined VDR polymorphisms with CRCs in the combined analysis, ApaI and BsmI loci are statistically significantly associated with CRC in elderly and female patients, respectively. These findings need further validation in larger cohorts prior to utilizing these SNPs as potential screening markers for colorectal cancers in Saudi population. PMID:27309378

  13. Measurements of CO and CH4 in the troposphere over Saudi Arabia, India, and the Arabian Sea during the 1979 International Summer Monsoon Experiment /MONEX/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, R. E.; Condon, E. P.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    During the 1979 Summer MONEX, 150 air samples collected over Saudi Arabia, India, and the Arabian Sea were analyzed for CO and CH4. Near Dhahran and over the Ganges Valley there were high concentrations of CO, around 300 ppbv, in the boundary layer. Out over the Saudi Arabian desert there was no sharp increase in the boundary layer. It is suggested that these high concentrations originate from pollution sources. Low values of CO, down to 80 ppbv, are found over the Arabian Sea as the monsoon progresses, and these may originate from the Southern Hemisphere. Methane over Saudi Arabia (1.59 ppmv) is a little higher than that over the Arabian Sea (1.54 ppmv) probably because the latter region is influenced by air from the Southern Hemisphere.

  14. Climatic controls on the interannual to decadal variability in Saudi Arabian dust activity: Toward the development of a seasonal dust prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Wang, Fuyao; Alkolibi, Fahad; Fadda, Eyad; Bakhrjy, Fawzieh

    2015-03-01

    The observed climatic controls on springtime and summertime Saudi Arabian dust activities during 1975-2012 are analyzed, leading to development of a seasonal dust prediction model. According to empirical orthogonal function analysis, dust storm frequency exhibits a dominantly homogeneous pattern across Saudi Arabia, with distinct interannual and decadal variability. The previously identified positive trend in remotely sensed aerosol optical depth since 2000 is shown to be a segment of the decadal oscillation in dust activity, according to long-duration station record. Regression and correlation analyses reveal that the interannual variability in Saudi Arabian dust storm frequency is regulated by springtime rainfall across the Arabian Peninsula and summertime Shamal wind intensity. The key drivers of Saudi Arabian dust storm variability are identified. Winter-to-spring La Niña enhances subsequent spring dust activity by decreasing rainfall across the country's primary dust source region, the Rub' al Khali Desert. A relatively cool tropical Indian Ocean favors frequent summer dust storms by producing an anomalously anticyclonic circulation over the central Arabian Peninsula, which enhances the Shamal wind. Decadal variability in Saudi Arabian dust storm frequency is associated with North African rainfall and Sahel vegetation, which regulate African dust emissions and transport to Saudi Arabia. Mediterranean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) also regulate decadal dust variability, likely through their influence on Sahel rainfall and Shamal intensity. Using antecedent-accumulated rainfall over the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa, and Mediterranean SSTs, as low-frequency predictors, and tropical eastern Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean SSTs as high-frequency predictors, Saudi Arabia's seasonal dust activity is well predicted.

  15. The miswak (chewing stick) and oral health. Studies on oral hygiene practices of urban Saudi Arabians.

    PubMed

    al-Otaibi, Meshari

    2004-01-01

    The miswak, a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth, is made from the plant Salvadora persica. For religious and cultural reasons, miswak use is firmly established and widespread in Saudi Arabia and most other Muslim countries. Only recently has scientific evaluation of the miswak been undertaken. The aims of the thesis were: 1) to explore current oral hygiene habits and oral health awareness among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender and educational level (papers I and II); 2) to compare mechanical plaque removal and gingival health after miswak use and toothbrushing (paper III); 3) to compare the effect of miswak use and toothbrushing on subgingival plaque microflora (paper IV). In papers I and II, structured interviews were conducted with 1200 regular patients at two centres in the city of Makkah, providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age, into 6 age groups from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each centre. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subjects' age, gender, and educational levels and analysed statistically by a generalized linear model and ANOVA. In papers III and IV, the subjects comprised 15 healthy Saudi Arabian male volunteers aged 21 to 36 years, attending the Dental Center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah City. A single-blind, randomised crossover design was used. The Turesky modified Quigley-Hein plaque and Löe-Silness gingival indices and digital photographs of plaque distribution were recorded in Paper III and in Paper IV plaque was sampled for DNA-testing. Inhibition zones around miswak material were examined on agar plates with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and the leukotoxicity of this bacterium was analysed in a bioassay with macrophages +/- miswak extracts (paper IV). In papers I and II, 73% of the subjects used a toothbrush and 65% used a miswak daily

  16. Recent heat flow survey and sea-floor spreading in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franken, D.; Al Amri, Z. M.

    2013-12-01

    Saudi Aramco obtained 225 new heat flow measurements along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, using an 11 m long Lister-type probe. To allow for geological control, most of the measurements were made along 2D seismic lines. In shallow areas, measurements were performed in bathymetric deeps to improve data coverage. It was observed that water bottom temperatures show an undisturbed linear gradient from ~ 21.2 °C at ~500 m water depth, to ~ 21.8 °C at ~2500 m. Consequently, high quality measurements were made from water depths as shallow as 400 m. Hard grounds on top of Pleistocene sediments prevented penetration of the probe near the toes of Upper Miocene salt glaciers terminating at the axial ridge. Based on this survey and previous data, the heat flow values range from ~80 -100 mWm-2 along the shoreline to over 350 mWm-2 at the axial ridge. However, anomalously low values between 8 and 20 mWm-2 were measured on the spreading axis where seismic data indicate Pleistocene sediments overlie volcanic rocks, probably due to groundwater circulation. One anomalously high heat flow value of 1136 mWm-2 was measured near the axial ridge, at a place where Pleistocene sediments overlie mobile salt, probably due to hydrothermal activity. In general, the regional distribution of heat flow in the eastern Red Sea shows exponential decay away from the inferred spreading axis. This is consistent with the inference that seafloor spreading in the northern Red Sea started around 15 Ma.

  17. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg‑1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg‑1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg‑1) and tea (10–97 μg kg‑1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg‑1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  18. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-01-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg−1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg−1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg−1) and tea (10–97 μg kg−1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg−1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey. PMID:28150749

  19. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-02

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg(-1). In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg(-1)), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg(-1)) and tea (10-97 μg kg(-1)) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg(-1), and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  20. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  1. Saudi arabian students' chemistry achievement and science attitudes stemming from lecture-demonstration and small group teaching methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Harold; Al-Faleh, Nasser

    The study was designed to determine differences between two chemistry teaching methods on students' chemistry achievement and attitudes toward science. The two methods were the large lecture-demonstration and small-group laboratory approaches to teaching chemistry. The subjects were 74 eleventh-grade Saudi Arabian students randomly assigned to the two treatment groups. The findings revealed that the small-group laboratory students exhibited significantly greater chemistry achievement than students in the lecture-demonstration group on both immediate and delayed posttests. The results also indicated that students taught by the lab approach possessed more desirable attitudes toward science.

  2. The Khida terrane - Geochronological and isotopic evidence for Paleoproterozoic and Archean crust in the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehouse, M.J.; Stoeser, D.B.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Khida terrane of the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia has been proposed as being underlain by Paleoproterozoic to Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). Detailed geological aspects of the Khida terrane, particularly resulting from new fieldwork during 1999, are discussed in a companion abstract (Stoeser et al., this volume). We present conventional and ion- microprobe U-Pb zircon geoenronology, Nd whole-rock, and feldspar Pb isotopic data that further elucidate the pre-Pan-African evolution of the Khida terrane. Locations for the Muhayil samples described below are shown in figure 2 of Stoeser et al. (this volume). 

  3. Association between TLR-9 polymorphisms and colon cancer susceptibility in Saudi Arabian female patients

    PubMed Central

    Semlali, Abdelhabib; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Al Amri, Abdullah; Azzi, Arezki; Arafah, Maha; Kohailan, Muhammad; Shaik, Jilani P; Almadi, Majid Abdulrahman; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Alharbi, Othman; Ali Azzam, Nahla; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud

    2017-01-01

    Objective The authors aimed to explore the relationship between the expression/polymorphisms of TLR-9 and susceptibility to colon cancer development in the Saudi Arabian population. Methods In total, blood samples from 115 patients with colon cancer and 102 participants without colon cancer were analyzed in this study. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from the TLR-9 gene, including two sites within the TLR-9 gene’s promoter region (rs352144 and rs187084) and one site in a TLR-9 intron region (rs5743839). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from logistic regression models after adjusting for age, gender, and tumor localization. To investigate the differential expression of TLR-9 in colon cancer, TLR-9 expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on 40 matched normal and colon tissues. Results The authors found that TLR-9 expression was decreased in colon cancer tissues as compared with that in normal tissues. Moreover, significant associations between the TLR-9 rs187084 SNP and colon cancer risk were observed in female patients only. In rs187084, the T allele had a significantly lower frequency (2.8 times) in female cancer patients than in controls (0.27 vs 0.41). The TLR-9 rs352139 and rs352144 SNPs were significantly associated with colon cancer development when the tumor was located in the rectal area. Conclusion The findings support the hypothesis that TLR-9 has an anticancer role in colon cancer development. Furthermore, genetic variation may influence colon cancer development, and SNPs in TLR-9 could serve as biomarkers for decision making in the treatment of females with rectal cancer. PMID:28031717

  4. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Tullia I; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific.

  5. Reactivation of the Pleistocene trans-Arabian Wadi ad Dawasir fluvial system (Saudi Arabia) during the Holocene humid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Albert; Mahjoub, Ayman; Neubert, Eike; Preusser, Frank; Schwalb, Antje; Szidat, Sönke; Wulf, Gerwin

    2016-10-01

    The Wadi ad Dawasir fluvial system in central Saudi Arabia is investigated using remote sensing and sedimentology, in combination with bio-proxy analyses (molluscs and ostracods). Age control is provided by radiocarbon as well as luminescence dating, using both quartz and feldspar grains. It is shown that the fluvial system was active from the Asir Mountains across the partially sand-covered interior of the Arabian Peninsula to the Arabian Gulf during the Holocene humid period. Sedimentology and faunal analysis reveal the presence of perennial streams and a permanent freshwater lake in the distal reach of the Dawasir system that are synchronous with fluvial accumulation in the headwaters of its major tributary, Wadi Tathlith. The increased runoff during the Holocene led to a re-activation of streams that largely followed pre-existing Late Pleistocene courses and eroded into older sediments. The absence of Holocene lakes in most of the Rub' al-Khali implies that trans-Arabian rivers were mainly fed by precipitation in the Asir Mountains. Monsoonal rainfall was apparently stronger there as well as in the northern, south-eastern and southern part of the Arabian Peninsula (southern Yemen and Oman), but it apparently did not directly affect the interior during the Holocene. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows a narrow trans-Arabian green freshwater corridor as the result of phases of sustained flow lasting up to several centuries. The permanent availability of water and subsistence for wildlife provided a favourable environment for human occupation as documented by Neolithic stone tools that are found all along Wadi ad Dawasir.

  6. Combating Deviants: The Saudi Arabian Approach to Countering Extremism and Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-09

    East Policy XV, no. 2, Summer 2008), 118. 3 Brigadier General Ahmed S . Al-Mufarih. The Role of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Combating Terrorism...1932.9 The current Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a population of 23 million, which includes over 5.3 million non- national residents. Until the mid... Saudi Arabia has residents from Africa, Asia, and Western nations . The binding factor that makes all Saudi citizens equal is that they speak Arabic

  7. The Association of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Polymorphism with Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Saudi Arabian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A.; Al-Anazi, Mashael R.; Al-Zoghaibi, Fahad; Abdo, Ayman A.; Sanai, Faisal M.; Khan, Mohammed Q.; Al-Ashgar, Hamad I.; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single stranded RNA virus. It affects millions of people worldwide and is considered as a leading cause of liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A recent study reported that TLR4 gene polymorphisms are good prognostic predictors and are associated with protection from liver fibrosis among Caucasians. This study aims to investigate the implication of genetic polymorphisms of TLR4 gene on the HCV infection in Saudi Arabian patients. Two SNPs in the TLR4 gene, rs4986790 (A/G) and rs4986791 (C/T), were genotyped in 450 HCV patients and 600 uninfected controls. The association analysis confirmed that both SNPs showed a significant difference in their distribution between HCV-infected patients and uninfected control subjects (P < 0.0001; OR = 0.404, 95% CI = 0.281–0.581) and (P < 0.0001; OR = 0.298, 95% CI = 0.201–0.443), respectively. More importantly, haplotype analysis revealed that four haplotypes, AC, GT, GC, and AT (rs4986790, rs4986791), were significantly associated with HCV infection when compared with control subjects. One haplotype AC was more prominently found when chronic HCV-infected patients were compared with cirrhosis/HCC patients (frequency = 94.7% and P = 0.04). Both TLR4 SNPs under investigation were found to be significantly implicated with HCV-infection among Saudi Arabian population. PMID:25177689

  8. Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype

    PubMed Central

    AlQahtani, Nabeeh A.; Haralur, Satheesh B.; AlMaqbol, Mohammad; AlMufarrij, Ali Jubran; Al Dera, Ahmed Ali; Al-Qarni, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. Materials and Methods: On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Results: Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. Conclusions: The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype. PMID:27195228

  9. An Analysis of Activities in Saudi Arabian Middle School Science Textbooks and Workbooks for the Inclusion of Essential Features of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldahmash, Abdulwali H.; Mansour, Nasser S.; Alshamrani, Saeed M.; Almohi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    This study examines Saudi Arabian middle school science textbooks' coverage of the essential features of scientific inquiry. All activities in the middle school science textbooks and workbooks were analyzed by using the scientific inquiry "essential features" rubric. The results indicated that the essential features are included in about…

  10. "I Am Different from Other Women in the World": The Experiences of Saudi Arabian Women Studying Online in International Master Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that investigated seven female Saudi Arabian students of the University of Liverpool's online Masters programmes. Qualitative, first-person research methods and hermeneutic phenomenology were chosen for the analysis and interpretation of transcripts (Langeveld, 1983; van Manen, 1997; Creswell,…

  11. Analysis of sounds produced by Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Oryctes elegans larvae and adults in data palm trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian commercial orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sounds produced by larval and adult palm tree pests in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards were recorded using commercially available insect acoustic detection instruments. The trees and offshoots were inspected for presence/absence of insects and other visual signs of infestation. Subsequently, the sp...

  12. New insights into the provenance of Saudi Arabian Palaeozoic sandstones from heavy mineral analysis and single-grain geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassis, Alexander; Hinderer, Matthias; Meinhold, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Saudi Arabian Palaeozoic siliciclastics cover a stratigraphic range from the Cambrian to the Permian. They crop out along the eastern margin of the Arabian Shield and are comprised of highly mature sandstones. Their heavy mineral assemblage reflects their mineralogical maturity and is dominated by the ultra-stable phases zircon, tourmaline and rutile. Less stable accessories are apatite, staurolite and garnet. Standard heavy mineral analysis of samples from two study areas in central/northern (Tabuk area) and southern (Wajid area) Saudi Arabia reveals distinct changes in provenance. Cambrian-Ordovician sandstones are first-cycle sediments, probably sourced from the 'Pan-African' basement. The overlying Hirnantian glaciogenic deposits consist of recycled Cambrian-Ordovician material. Devonian-Permian sandstones show a significant influx of fresh basement material, as attested by an increase of meta-stable heavy minerals. Single-grain geochemical analysis of rutile and garnet has proven to be a powerful supplementary technique. Rutile varietal studies reveal distinct differences in host rock lithologies between the two study areas: the Tabuk area contains predominantly felsic rutiles, whereas the Wajid area has more mafic input. Zr-in-rutile thermometry identified granulite-facies detritus in the lower Palaeozoic of the Tabuk area and has the potential to further define source areas. The distribution patterns of garnet host rock lithologies are remarkably similar in both study areas. They are dominated by amphibolite-facies metasediments and intermediate to felsic igneous rocks. Garnets derived from granulite-facies metasediments, which are scarce in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, also occur. Possible source rocks for high-grade garnets can be found in Yemen or farther south in the Mozambique Belt.

  13. Resistivity soundings and VLF profiles for siting groundwater wells in a fractured basement aquifer in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kruse, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal shortages of groundwater are common in parts of the Arabian Shield, where complex basement hydrogeology can make siting of water wells difficult. To identify optimal production well locations, six 200-400 m-long Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic traverses and ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VESes) were run at the western edge of the Arabian Shield near At-Taif town, Saudi Arabia. Here wadi sediments overlie fractured Precambrian basement, which in turn overlies unfractured basement. The fractured basement forms the water supply aquifer. Both VLF and VES data indicate significant lateral heterogeneity in the electrical conductivity of both wadi and basement deposits over lengths scales as small as ∼100 m. VES results correlate closely with data from two wells in the study area. The change in resistivity at the wadi-to-fractured basement contact is relatively subtle, but the transition from low resistivity fractured basement to high resistivity unfractured basement is well resolved. Inferred wadi thicknesses range from 0 to 14 m; the electrically conductive fractured basement extends from wadi down to 12-32 m depth. VES data indicate the fractured basement aquifer thickens progressively to the south in this area. A production well, sited on the basis of the VES analysis, successfully yielded 70m3/day. The relationship between VLF and VES data is complex, suggesting that the terrain is heterogeneous on the scale of the different effective sampling volumes of the two methods, and/or that fracture azimuth is locally heterogeneous. Overall resistivities in this study are similar to those observed at other locations in Saudi Arabia, suggesting these methods may be widely applicable for siting of groundwater wells in the complex basement of the Arabian Shield.

  14. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  15. Replication of GWAS Coding SNPs Implicates MMEL1 as a Potential Susceptibility Locus among Saudi Arabian Celiac Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saadah, Omar I.; Shaik, Noor Ahmad; Banaganapalli, Babajan; Salama, Mohammed A.; Al-Harthi, Sameer E.; Wang, Jun; Shawoosh, Harbi A.; Alghamdi, Sharifa A.; Bin-Taleb, Yagoub Y.; Alhussaini, Bakr H.; Elango, Ramu; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD), a gluten intolerance disorder, was implicated to have 57 genetic susceptibility loci for Europeans but not for culturally and geographically distinct ethnic populations like Saudi Arabian CD patients. Therefore, we genotyped Saudi CD patients and healthy controls for three polymorphisms, that is, Phe196Ser in IRAK1, Trp262Arg in SH2B3, and Met518Thr in MMEL1 genes. Single locus analysis identified that carriers of the 518 Thr/Thr (MMEL1) genotype conferred a 1.6-fold increased disease risk compared to the noncarriers (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.22–5.54; P < 0.01). This significance persisted even under allelic (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.05–2.28; P = 0.02) and additive (OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.17–0.71; P = 0.03) genetic models. However, frequencies for Trp262Arg (SH2B3) and Phe196Ser (IRAK1) polymorphisms were not significantly different between patients and controls. The overall best MDR model included Met518Thr and Trp262Arg polymorphisms, with a maximal testing accuracy of 64.1% and a maximal cross-validation consistency of 10 out of 10 (P = 0.0156). Allelic distribution of the 518 Thr/Thr polymorphism in MMEL1 primarily suggests its independent and synergistic contribution towards CD susceptibility among Saudi patients. Lack of significant association of IRAK and SH2B3 gene polymorphisms in Saudi patients but their association in European groups suggests the genetic heterogeneity of CD. PMID:26843707

  16. Identifying Characteristics of a "Good School" in the British and Saudi Arabian Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzahrani, Saeed Musaid H.; Hammersley-Fletcher, Linda; Bright, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at establishing whether primary schools in the Saudi education system conform to the characteristics of what are referred to as "good schools" in the British education system. The findings established through this study show that only 43.75% of primary schools in Saudi conform to the characteristics of what are referred…

  17. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in intertidal gastropod and bivalve shells from central Arabian Gulf coastline, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    In order to assess pollutants and impact of environmental changes along the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast, forty specimens of gastropod and bivalve shells belonging to Diodora funiculata, Lunella coronata, Cerithium caeruleum, Barbatia parva, Pinctada margaritifera, Amiantis umbonella, Acrosterigma assimile and Asaphis violascens from five localities are selected for Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cd, Se, As, Co, B, Cr, Hg, Mo analysis. The analysis indicated that heavy metal values (except Fe) were less than those recorded in molluscan shells from Gulf of Oman, Red Sea and Indian Ocean. D. funiculate, L. coronata, B. parva and P. margaritifera are good accumulators of Cu, As, Cr. The other species gave a nearly constant concentration in all the studied areas. Al Jubail coast recorded the highest heavy metal concentrations (except Mn at Ras Al-Ghar and Se at Al Jubail industrial city). Heavy metal contamination is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources, especially effluents from petrochemical industries, sewage and desalination plants.

  18. Using a genetic-fuzzy algorithm as a computer aided diagnosis tool on Saudi Arabian breast cancer database.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Abir; Tchier, F

    2017-04-01

    The computer-aided diagnosis has become one of the major research topics in medical diagnostics. In this research paper, we focus on designing an automated computer diagnosis by combining two major methodologies, namely the fuzzy base systems and the evolutionary genetic algorithms and applying them to the Saudi Arabian breast cancer diagnosis database, to be employed for assisting physicians in the early detection of breast cancers, and hence obtaining an early-computerized diagnosis complementary to that by physicians. Our hybrid algorithm, the genetic-fuzzy algorithm, has produced optimized diagnosis systems that attain high classification performance, in fact, our best three rule system obtained a 97% accuracy, with simple and well interpretive rules, and with a good degree of confidence of 91%.

  19. Prevailing oral hygiene practices among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender and socio-economic background.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Meshari; Zimmerman, Mikael; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2003-08-01

    The aim was to analyze prevailing oral hygiene practices among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender, and socio-economic background. Structured interviews were performed with 1155 regular patients at two centers providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively, in the city of Makkah. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age into 6 age categories from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each center. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subject's age and gender, and analyzed statistically using a generalized linear model. It was found that 73% used a toothbrush daily, while a miswak was used daily by 65%. Significant differences were found between genders and age groups, and between the centers. Regular miswak use was more prevalent among men (P < 0.01), while women used toothbrush more than miswak (P < 0.05). Regular miswak use was more frequent at older age (P < 0.001) and tooth brushing was less prevalent. Forty-four percent of the 51- to 60-year-old patients at the military center never used a toothbrush. Regular toothbrush use was more prevalent in the youngest age groups (P < 0.001). Among the 10- to 15-year-olds, 45% at the university center used only a toothbrush, while no adolescents at the military center used only a toothbrush. We conclude that there are large differences in current oral hygiene habits among Saudi Arabians, and that these are related mainly to age and socio-economic level, and to a lesser extent gender. This should be taken into account when planning oral health strategies for different categories.

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites and their prevalence in the Arabian red fox (Vulpes vulpes arabica) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Omer, Sawsan A

    2011-08-25

    The gastrointestinal parasites and prevalence of infestation in the Arabian red fox Vulpes vulpes arabica Thomas, were investigated at the King Khalid Wildlife Research Centre (KKWRC) in Thumamah, Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia. Faecal samples were collected from 58 wild caught foxes while under anaesthesia and examined for gastrointestinal parasites stages. Male and female foxes were infected with three major groups of parasites; cestodes, nematodes, protozoa as well as an acanthocephalan. Faecal analyses revealed that 22 foxes (37.9%) were infected with two different Isospora spp. and three (5.2%) with an undescribed Eimeria sp., 12 (20.7%). Nine individuals (15.5%) harboured hookworms, (Trichosomoides sp.), two (3.5%) were infected with Trichuris sp. (probably Trichuris vulpes) and one individual (1.7%) with Taenia sp. (probably Taenia hydatigena). Carcasses of five male and three female foxes were necropsied. Four of the necropsied carcasses yielded Ancylostoma caninum, two each harboured Pterygodermatitis affinis, T. vulpes and Macracanthorhynchus catalinus, in six foxes Joyeuxiella echinorynchoides was found. Five and four foxes were infected with T. hydatigena and Diplopylidium nölleri, respectively. The possible role of the Arabian red fox as an intercalary host essential for the life cycle of Trichosomoides sp., common to the Libyan jird, Meriones libycus, in particular and the importance of this species as a vector for zoonotic infections and in the spread of other parasites to wild and domestic animals in general is discussed.

  1. Dental age assessment of Western Saudi children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2–20 years), for forensic odontology application. Materials and methods This cross-sectional survey analyzed orthopantomograms (OPGs) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age-groups by the lead author, using the methods of the Atlas of Tooth Development. Results OPGs from a total of 252 patients [110 (44%) males, 142 (56%) females] aged 2–20 years (24–240 months) were examined in this study. The average estimated and chronological ages of subjects differed significantly p < 0.001 (143 ± 55.4 vs. 145 ± 57.9 months). Most (65.5%) estimates were within 12 months of subjects’ chronological ages; 19% overestimated and 15.5% underestimated age by >12 months. Conclusion This study, conducted in a sub-population of different origin than the UK sample used for the development of the London Atlas, identified variation in age estimates that may have significant impacts on results. The establishment of a composite international repository of atlas-based data for diverse ethnic sub-populations would be of great value to clinicians across the globe. PMID:26236126

  2. Genome at Juncture of Early Human Migration: A Systematic Analysis of Two Whole Genomes and Thirteen Exomes from Kuwaiti Population Subgroup of Inferred Saudi Arabian Tribe Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Alsmadi, Osama; Hebbar, Prashantha; Antony, Dinu; Behbehani, Kazem; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    Population of the State of Kuwait is composed of three genetic subgroups of inferred Persian, Saudi Arabian tribe and Bedouin ancestry. The Saudi Arabian tribe subgroup traces its origin to the Najd region of Saudi Arabia. By sequencing two whole genomes and thirteen exomes from this subgroup at high coverage (>40X), we identify 4,950,724 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), 515,802 indels and 39,762 structural variations. Of the identified variants, 10,098 (8.3%) exomic SNPs, 139,923 (2.9%) non-exomic SNPs, 5,256 (54.3%) exomic indels, and 374,959 (74.08%) non-exomic indels are ‘novel’. Up to 8,070 (79.9%) of the reported novel biallelic exomic SNPs are seen in low frequency (minor allele frequency <5%). We observe 5,462 known and 1,004 novel potentially deleterious nonsynonymous SNPs. Allele frequencies of common SNPs from the 15 exomes is significantly correlated with those from genotype data of a larger cohort of 48 individuals (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.91; p <2.2×10−16). A set of 2,485 SNPs show significantly different allele frequencies when compared to populations from other continents. Two notable variants having risk alleles in high frequencies in this subgroup are: a nonsynonymous deleterious SNP (rs2108622 [19:g.15990431C>T] from CYP4F2 gene [MIM:*604426]) associated with warfarin dosage levels [MIM:#122700] required to elicit normal anticoagulant response; and a 3′ UTR SNP (rs6151429 [22:g.51063477T>C]) from ARSA gene [MIM:*607574]) associated with Metachromatic Leukodystrophy [MIM:#250100]. Hemoglobin Riyadh variant (identified for the first time in a Saudi Arabian woman) is observed in the exome data. The mitochondrial haplogroup profiles of the 15 individuals are consistent with the haplogroup diversity seen in Saudi Arabian natives, who are believed to have received substantial gene flow from Africa and eastern provenance. We present the first genome resource imperative for designing future genetic studies in Saudi Arabian

  3. Knowledge, awareness, attitudes and sources of vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency in Saudi children

    PubMed Central

    Alshamsan, Fatimah M.; Bin-Abbas, Bassam S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D and its sources among Saudi Arabian children. Methods: One hundred patients (vitamin D-deficient children) and 100 healthy children participated in the study. Participants were interviewed separately on topics including their awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D using multiple-choice, and short-answer questions. This prospective, cross-sectional study was performed on children and adolescents between January 2011 and December 2011 at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Only 28% were aware of the sources of vitamin D, while 64% of healthy subjects were aware. Similarly, only 50% of patients and their parents knew of the health benefits of vitamin D, while 70% of healthy subjects had knowledge. Hence, our findings agree with previous findings that low levels of awareness and knowledge regarding vitamin D and its sources persist. Conclusion: Most vitamin D deficient cases were unaware of vitamin D sources. However, half of the patient/parents were aware of benefits of vitamin D. Hence, we recommend that an improved campaign for awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D and its sources are needed. PMID:27146624

  4. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Saudi Arabian schoolchildren in relation to sources of exposure.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Stark, Christopher; Mohammed, Nuredin; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I; Göen, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contain a number of known carcinogenic compounds, and urinary biomarkers have been widely used as a measure of exposure but quantitative relationships with exposure variables have proved elusive. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between exposures to phenanthrene and pyrene from atmospheric and dietary sources with the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrenes in urine as biomarkers of exposure. The study population consisted of 204 male schoolchildren attending three schools in different parts of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia who provided urine samples on each of three consecutive days. Outdoor air measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were made at the schools and the children provided information on diet, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and incense, and various lifestyle factors through a questionnaire. Mixed models with random effects for subjects nested within site were fitted in order to examine the relationship between exposure variables and urinary PAH metabolites. A unit increase (1 ng m(-3)) in ambient pyrene (particulate plus gaseous phase) was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI: 1.01%, 5.13%) increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration. A unit increase in ambient phenanthrene was associated with a 1.01% (95% CI: 0.03%, 2.02%) increase in total hydroxyphenanthrene concentrations. Consumption of chargrilled food increased the 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrene concentrations by 24% (95% CI: 11%, 37%) and 17% (95% CI: 8%, 26%) respectively. We did not find evidence of association for environmental tobacco smoke exposure or incense burning. It is concluded that both respiratory exposure and consumption of chargrilled food are considerable sources of PAH exposure in this population as reflected by concentrations of urinary biomarkers.

  5. Relationship between Curie isotherm surface and Moho discontinuity in the Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; Alotaibi, Abdulrahman M.; Saud, Ramzi

    2016-10-01

    The Arabian shield is a Precambrian complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks located approximately one-third of the way across the western Arabian Peninsula, with uncommon exposures along the Red Sea coast. We used aeromagnetic data acquired by others over the past several decades to estimate the depth to the Curie temperature isotherm throughout this region. Our goal was to further understand the lithospheric structure, thermal activity, and seismicity to assist in geothermal exploration. We also compared the Curie temperature isotherm with the crustal thickness to investigate the possibility that mantle rocks are magnetic in some parts of the Arabian shield. Depths to the Curie isotherm were estimated by dividing the regional aeromagnetic grid into 26 overlapping windows. Each window was then used to estimate the shape of the power spectrum. The windows had dimensions of 250 × 250 km to allow investigation of depths as deep as 50 km. The results show the presence of a Curie isotherm at a depth of 10-20 km near the Red Sea, increasing to 35-45 km in the interior of the Arabian shield. The Curie isotherm generally lies above the Moho in this region but deepens into the mantle in some locations, notably beneath the Asir Terrane.

  6. Critical Success Factors for eLearning in Saudi Arabian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhabeeb, Abdullah; Rowley, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer insights into the development of eLearning systems and the perceptions of key players in the management of eLearning systems in three large universities in Saudi Arabia. It establishes the relative importance of different factors and compares these findings with studies conducted elsewhere in the…

  7. Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

  8. A New Perspective on the Quest for Education: The Saudi Arabian Way to Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavan, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, thanks to the foresight and generosity of the Al Saud ruling family, has always devoted great efforts to the development of education. Investments in higher education, in particular, have increased exponentially in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some facts and figures about the new developments…

  9. Islamic Teachers' Perceptions of Improving Critical Thinking Skills in Saudi Arabian Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadai, Mesfer Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this explanatory sequential mixed-method study is to examine Islamic teachers' thoughts on improving critical thinking skills in elementary schools in the Southwestern province of Saudi Arabia. This study involves the collection of quantitative data and an explanation of the quantitative results with qualitative data. In the first…

  10. Bringing the Field into the Classroom: A Field Methods Course on Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Anika; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    The methodology used in one graduate-level linguistics field methods classroom is examined through the lens of the students' experiences. Four male Deaf individuals from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia served as the consultants for the course. After a brief background information about their country and its practices surrounding deaf education, both…

  11. Economic viability of the Saudi Arabian petrochemical industry: methanol as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Salem, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the pursuit of the diversification strategy, Saudi planners invested a sizable amount of oil surplus in export-oriented petrochemical projects at Jubail and Yanbu. For this strategy to be realized, the projects must be economically viable. Economic viability entails the presence of petrochemical plants that are self-sustaining and self-perpetuating in the long run without state subsidies. In view of the projects, heavy reliance on state subsidies along with their location in a remote area, far from the source of demand, it is hypothesized that, barring a significant shift in the development strategy, a dynamic industrial sector focusing on the development of the petrochemical industry is unlikely to emerge in Saudi Arabia and that the export-led growth strategy that accords it a key role in the nation's development is not likely to prove viable. In verifying the hypothesis, a comparative cost analysis was conducted comparing the cost structure at the Ibn-Sina methanol plant to a similar plant in Alberta, Canada. According to the authors forecast of methanol revenues and costs, the Saudi petrochemical industry exemplified by the methanol project emerges to be as a net absorber of rather than contributor to the nation's financial resources and in this regard appears to impede the process of capital formation and economic growth.

  12. Saudi Arabian expatriate worker fitness-screening programme: a review of 14 years of data.

    PubMed

    Alswaidi, F M; Memish, Z A; Al-Hakeem, R F; Atlam, S A

    2013-07-01

    Expatriate workers must be medically examined in their country of origin at accredited centres prior to their arrival in any Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) country and are reexamined when they enter the country. This review investigated the epidemiological profile of registered expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia who were found medically unfit to work. A descriptive analysis was performed on 4,272,480 records of a Ministry of Health database from 1997 to 2010. The greatest proportion of workers was from Indonesia (34.3%). The total proportion of unfit expatriate workers was low (0.71%). The highest rate of unfitness was among workers from Ethiopia (4.06%), followed by Somalia (2.41%). Hepatitis B infection was the most common cause (57.5%), followed by noncommunicable diseases (21.2%) and hepatitis C infection (17.4%). This review suggests that the total number of workers registered in the Saudi Ministry of Health was underestimated, and the rate of unfit workers was lower than for other GCC countries, suggesting that standards and quality assurance in Saudi laboratories require revision.

  13. Analysis of hemoglobin F production in Saudi Arabian families with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Miller, B A; Salameh, M; Ahmed, M; Olivieri, N; Antognetti, G; Orkin, S H; Huisman, T H; Nathan, D G

    1987-09-01

    Erythrocytes and progenitor-derived erythroblasts of sickle cell anemia patients from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia contain increased fetal hemoglobin and G gamma globin. A distinctive DNA polymorphism haplotype in the beta globin gene cluster (++- +-), tightly coupled to a C----T substitution at position -158 5' to the cap site of the G gamma globin gene, is strongly associated with sickle cell disease in this region. To determine whether the increased fetal hemoglobin production and/or elevated G gamma globin content are tightly linked to this haplotype, we studied 55 members of five Saudi families in which sickle cell disease is present. The results did not suggest a tight linkage of the haplotype to increased fetal hemoglobin production. On the other hand, several sickle trait family members heterozygous for the haplotype had normal fetal hemoglobin production in culture but elevated G gamma to A gamma ratios in peripheral blood. This observation suggests that in this genetic background increased expression of the G gamma globin gene may occur without a measurable increase in total fetal hemoglobin production. The family studies also clearly demonstrate that increased fetal hemoglobin production by erythroid progenitors is dependent on zygosity for the sickle gene in this population. These findings strongly suggest that other factors, such as the products of genes stimulated by hemolytic stress or other genetic determinants associated with the Saudi beta S chromosome, may interact with the -158 C----T substitution and influence gamma globin gene expression in this population.

  14. The desire to utilize postmastectomy breast reconstruction in Saudi Arabian women

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Basim A.; Samargandi, Osama A.; Alghamdi, Hattan A.; Sayegh, Anas A.; Hakeem, Yasir J.; Merdad, Leena; Merdad, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study factors that influence the desire to utilize breast reconstruction after mastectomy, and to investigate the barriers to reconstruction among women in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at 2 surgical centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all breast cancer patients attending the surgery clinics for follow-up after mastectomy between January and March 2013. Ninety-one patients met the study inclusion criteria. The first part of the questionnaire covered the demographic and socioeconomic information regarding factors that might influence the desire to utilize breast reconstruction including possible barriers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the significant predictors of the desire to undergo reconstruction. Results: Overall, 16.5% of patients underwent breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Young age and high educational attainment were significantly associated with an increased desire to undergo reconstruction. The main barriers to reconstruction were the lack of adequate information on the procedure (63%), concerns on the complications of the procedure (68%), and concerns on the reconstruction interfering with the detection of recurrence (54%). Conclusion: Age and educational level were significant predictors of the desire to utilize breast reconstruction. Furthermore, modifiable barriers included the lack of knowledge and misconceptions on the procedure. Addressing these issues may increase the rate of breast reconstruction in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25737172

  15. Analysis of Saudi Arabian middle and high school science teachers' conceptions of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroa, Hiya Mohammed

    This study was conducted to explore Saudi middle and high school science teachers' conceptions of the Nature of Science (NOS). It also detected the effects of gender, science content major, and years of teaching experience on teachers' conceptions of the NOS. The study included a sample of 786 science teachers (137 male and 649 female) who were teaching in middle and high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 1995-1996 academic year. The study was conducted using a translated version of the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS) developed by Kimball (1967). The scale contains 29 items ranging from "agree" to "disagree", and the scoring of the items ranged from 29 to 87. The lowest score is 29 (1 x 29) and the highest score possible on the test is 87 (3 x 29 items). The data collected was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The study revealed that Saudi science teachers as a group hold numerous misconceptions about the NOS with a significant difference in understanding the NOS between the male and female teachers. The study also showed that teachers with a major in physics held more adequate views than did teachers with other majors. In addition, novice teachers were found to have more adequate conceptions of the NOS than did experienced teachers.

  16. Saudi Arabian solar radiation network and data for validating satellite remote sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Daryl R.; Wilcox, Stephen; Anderberg, Mary; Al-Awaji, Saleh H.; Al Abbadi, Naif M.; Mahfoodh, Mohammed Y. b.

    1999-09-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will be launching complex satellite remote-sensing platforms for monitoring the earth's radiation budget, land use, and atmospheric physics for periods exceeding 10 years. These Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) platforms will strive to detect man-made and natural variations in the Earth's climate. Form 1993 to the present (1999), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, conducted a joint solar radiation resource assessment project to upgrade the solar resources assessment capability of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KACST has deployed a high quality 12-station network in Saudi Arabia for monitoring solar total horizontal, direct beam, and diffuse radiation. One- and five-minute network data is collected and assessed for quality. 80 percent or more of the network data fall within quality limits of +/- 5 percent for correct partitioning between the three radiation components. This network will provide measured data for validating the NASA remote sensing systems. We describe the network, quality assessment procedures, and the result of estimating aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor. These are important for validating satellite estimates of radiation fluxes in and at the top of the Earth's atmosphere.

  17. Antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical composition of seaweeds collected from Saudi Arabia (Red Sea and Arabian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Moubayed, Nadine M S; Al Houri, Hadeel Jawad; Al Khulaifi, Manal M; Al Farraj, Dunia A

    2017-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the antibacterial activity of selected brown and green marine algae collected from Saudi Arabia Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. The methanolic and acetone extracts were tested against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans in an attempt to be used as an alternative to commonly used antibiotics. Both brown seaweed species Sargassum latifolium B and Sargassum platycarpum A methanolic extracts were found to be active against gram positive than gram negative; however, S. latifolium acetone extract gave the highest inhibitory activity against Salmonella sp. On the other hand, Cladophorasocialis organic extract demonstrated higher antibacterial activity than the fresh extract but both C. socialis extracts revealed decreased activity compared to Sargassum extracts. Cladophora methanolic extract showed an obvious effect on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The present work shows a comparable therapeutic potency of the tested seaweed members Sargassum and Cladophora extracts in treating human microbial pathogens to synthetic chemical antibiotics. A remarkable higher antioxidant DPPH free radical scavenging effect was recorded with Sargassum sp. compared to Cladophora sp. FTIR Infrared Spectrometer analysis together with the high performance liquid chromatography provided a detailed description of the possible functional constituents and the major chemical components present in marine macroalgae particularly in brown seaweeds to be mainly of phenolic nature to which the potent antimicrobial activity is being attributed.

  18. A New Ant Species of the Genus Tetramorium Mayr, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Saudi Arabia, with a Revised Key to the Arabian Species

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.; Taylor, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Tetramorium amalae sp. n. is described and illustrated from Saudi Arabia based on two worker caste specimens collected in Al Bahah region. The new species belongs to the T. shilohense group and appears to be closely related to T. dysderke Bolton from Nigeria. T. amalae is distinguished by having well-developed frontal carinae, smaller eyes, greater head length and width, greater pronotal width, and the petiole node is longer than broad. Tetramorium latinode Collingwood & Agosti is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia and for only the second time since the original description. The worker caste of T. latinode is redescribed and illustrated using scanning electron micrographs to facilitate recognition and the gyne is described for the first time with observations given on species relationships, biology and habitat. A revised key to the nineteen Tetramorium species recorded from Arabian Peninsula based on worker castes is provided. Tetramorium bicarinatum (Nylander) is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia. It is suggested that T. amalae and T. latinode are endemic to the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:22389667

  19. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Results Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). Conclusions A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words:Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia. PMID:27957258

  20. Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: A traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Gettings, M.E.; Blank, H.R.; Healy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The crustal and upper mantle compressional-wave velocity structure across the southwestern Arabian Shield has been investigated by a 1000-km-long seismic refraction profile. The profile begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, trends southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan, and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, and six shot points were used, including one in the Red Sea. Two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques, used to analyze amplitude-normalized record sections indicate that the Arabian Shield is composed, to first order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of about 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. West of the Shield-Red Sea margin, the crust thins to a total thickness of less than 20 km, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal inhomogeneity at the northeast end of the profile probably represents the suture zone between two crustal blocks of different composition. Elsewhere along the profile, several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneiss domes, the most prominent of which is the Khamis Mushayt gneiss. Based on their velocities, these domes may constitute areas where lower crustal rocks have been raised some 20 km. Two intracrustal reflectors in the center of the Shield at 13 km depth probably represent the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovic??ic?? discontinuity beneath the Shield varies from a depth of 43 km and mantle velocity of 8.2 km/s in the northeast to a depth of 38 km and mantle velocity of 8.0 km/s depth in the southwest near the Shield-Red Sea transition. Two velocity discontinuities occur in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. The crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Arabian Shield is

  1. Peralkaline and peraluminous granites and related mineral deposits of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.

    1983-01-01

    Existing geochemical and geologic data for many parts of the Arabian Shield were compiled as a basis for evaluating the resource potential of the granites of the Shield. Commodities associated with granites that have potential for economic mineral deposits include tin, tungsten, molybdenum, beryllium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, uranium, thorium, rare-earth elements, and fluorite. Prospecting methods useful in discriminating those granites having significant economic potential include reconnaissance geologic mapping, petrographic and mineralogic studies, geochemical sampling of rock and wadi sediment, and radiometric surveying.

  2. Trace-element geochemistry of postorogenic granites from the northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, John S.; Knight, R.J.; VanTrump, G.; Budahn, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations determined for all of the trace elements included in this study of postorogenic granites from the northeastern Arabian Shield are best described by log-normal distributions. The trace elements are divided into two groups: (1) compatible lithophile and siderophile elements (strontium, cobalt, scandium, manganese, europium, and titanium) and (2) incompatible lithophile elements (uranium, thorium, tantalum, rubidium, and rare-earth elements, except europium). The compatible elements exhibit greatest concentrations in the metaluminous postorogenic granites, and concentrations decrease with increasing degree of magma evolution. Economic potential for these elements and other geochemically similar elements is considered to be low. The concentrations of the incompatible elements increase with increasing degree of magma evolution and are greatest in the peralkaline and peraluminous granites. There is some geologic evidence that pegmatite and vein-forming processes were operative toward the end stage of postorogenic magmatism in the northeastern Arabian Shield, and therefore there is some probability for economic potential for these elements. It is suggested that such potential is greatest where highly evolved postorogenic granites intruded volatile (generally water )-rich country rocks.

  3. The pattern for common anaemia among Saudi children.

    PubMed

    el-Hazmi, M A; Warsy, A S

    1999-08-01

    Anaemia is of frequent occurrence in children in different parts of the world and poses a significant health problem. A few isolated reports indicate that anaemia occurs at a high prevalence rate in Saudi Arabia though the actual prevalence in several regions is not known. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different types of anaemias in Saudi children in different areas of the country. Blood samples were collected from 5381 children less than 14 years of age, and haematological analysis and red cell indices were determined. The results of haematological parameters were used to group the children as anaemic (Hb < 11.2 g/dl) and non-anaemic (Hb > 11.2 g/dl) and the red cell indices were used to classify the anaemia as hypochromic-microcytic, normochromic-normocytic, and normochromic-macrocytic. The overall prevalence of anaemia in Saudi children was 24.8 per cent. The prevalence was highest in the children from the Eastern province (41.3 per cent) and lowest in the central province (16.5 per cent). Within each province differences were obvious in the prevalence of anaemias in the different areas. The majority of the anaemia in the eastern and south-western provinces was hypochromic-microcytic, while in the north-western and central provinces normochromic-normocytic anaemia occurred most frequently. Macrocytic anaemia was not encountered in any of the screened areas of the central province and many areas of the eastern province. However, in north-western and south-western provinces it occurred at a frequency of 0.15-3.4 per cent. The data show that anaemia is a frequent problem in Saudi children living in different parts of Saudi Arabia and emphasizes the need for nutritional and genetic assessment to determine the nutritional contributions to anaemias and hence the correction of nutritional anaemias by proper dietary intervention.

  4. Experiences of obesity among Saudi Arabian women contemplating bariatric surgery: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Alqout, Ohud; Reynolds, Frances

    2014-05-01

    This study explored experiences of obesity, its perceived causes and motives for surgery, as described by seven Saudi women contemplating bariatric surgery. The women experienced cultural restrictions on their physical and social activities. Obesity embodied these restrictions, attracting stigma and moral failure. Traditional clothing, foods, hospitality norms and limited outdoor female activities were regarded as barriers to weight loss. Bariatric surgery was chosen to protect health and to access normative female roles. Some were encouraged by relatives who had undergone surgery. Opting for surgery reflected both participants' sense of powerlessness to self-manage weight and the social acceptability, within their family context, of this biomedical approach.

  5. Serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Kai; Hamblin, Christopher; Jung, Sandra; Ostrowski, Stéphane; Mwanzia, Jacob; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Anderson, John; Armstrong, Robert M; Anajariyah, Saud

    2005-01-01

    A total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) distributed in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. Arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, equine herpesvirus 9, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The high seroprevalence to BTV and EHDV in the UAE and SA indicates that Arabian oryx are likely to be susceptible to infection by these viruses and therefore could act as a source of virus to vectors during the infective stage of infection. Moreover, antibodies were detected against RPV and BRSV in sera from SA and against BAV-3 in sera from the UAE. No antibodies were found against bovine herpesvirus-1, caprine herpesvirus-1, enzootic bovine leucosis virus, and peste des petits ruminants virus. On the basis of these results, caution should be applied when considering translocation of Arabian oryx, and only those proven to be free of infectious agents that might present a risk to other species should be moved.

  6. The potential of high heat generating granites as EGS source to generate power and reduce CO2 emissions, western Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekharam, D.; Lashin, A.; Al Arifi, N.; Al Bassam, A.; El Alfy, M.; Ranjith, P. G.; Varun, C.; Singh, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    Saudi Arabia's dependence on oil and gas to generate electricity and to desalinate sea water is widely perceived to be economically and politically unsustainable. A recent business as usual simulation concluded that the Kingdom would become an oil importer by 2038. There is an opportunity for the country to over come this problem by using its geothermal energy resources. The heat flow and heat generation values of the granites spread over a cumulative area of 161,467 sq. km and the regional stress regime over the western Saudi Arabian shield strongly suggest that this entire area is potential source of energy to support 1) electricity generation, 2) fresh water generation through desalination and 3) extensive agricultural activity for the next two decades. The country can adopt a policy to harness this vast untapped enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) to mitigate climate and fresh water related issues and increase the quantity of oil for export. The country has inherent expertise to develop this resource.

  7. Petrology and chemistry of Jebel Tanumah complex, Khamis Mushayt, Southern Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassief, M. O.; Ali, H. M.; Zakir, F. A.

    The mafic intrusive complex at Jebel Tanumah is located 15 km north-west of Khamis Mushayt in the southern Arabian Shield and includes olivine-bearing gabbro as well as amphibole-diopside-hornblende gabbro cumulates. These rocks have been generally metamorphosed to upper greeenschist-lower amphibolite facies. Fourteen white rock silicate analyses indicate that the majority of the rocks are calc-alkaline to tholeiitic in composition. The two major structural units in the Khamis Mushayt region identified by Coleman consist of the basement complex of Asir Mountains and the younger metamorphic rocks. Syntectonic granitic rocks intruded the antiforms characterizing the younger rocks whereas the lower parts of the synforms are intruded by post-tectonic intrusions of layered gabbros such as the one studied at Jebel Tanumah.

  8. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on island arc, synorogenic, post-orogenic and anorogenic granitoids in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, F. A.; Foden, J. D.; Collins, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    The Arabian Shield preserves a protracted magmatic record of repeated amalgamation of juvenile subduction terranes that host granite intrusions ranging in age from the early Neoproterozoic to the Cambrian, which were emplaced into convergent and within-plate settings. Geochronology and whole-rock geochemistry of sampled Saudi Arabian granitoids define and distinguish four discrete age groups: 1) ~ 845-700 Ma island arc and synorogenic granitoids (IA + Syn), 2) ~ 640-610 Ma granitoids from the Nabitah and Halaban Suture (NHSG), 3) ~ 610-600 Ma post-orogenic perthitic (hypersolvus) granitoids (POPG), and 4) < 600 Ma anorogenic aegirine-bearing perthitic (hypersolvus) granitoids (AAPG). Groups 1, 2 and 3 include suites ranging from I-S- to A-type granites that have REE signatures typical of volcanic arc settings and show intra-suite variation that could be controlled by a combination of crustal assimilation and fractional crystallisation. Their mafic parental magmas have N-MORB-, or arc-tholeiite-like geochemistry. By contrast, group 4 A-type granites are more enriched in HREE and in incompatible elements such as Nb, Rb, Ga, Nd, Zr and Y and have lower Ce/Yb and higher Y/Nb ratios. These granitoids are interpreted to have been emplaced into within-plate and back-arc settings. Granitoid data also provide evidence that there may be two distinct mantle sources to the mafic parents of the granite suites. These are distinguished as contaminated and enriched mantle using Nb and Y and Nd isotopes. All granitoid suites are isotopically juvenile (ɛNd + 3 to + 6) and fall between the upper field crustal values of the Paleoproterozoic Khida terrane (ɛNd + 1) and contemporary depleted mantle. However, Nd isotopes distinguish contamination in group 1-3 mafic end-members beneath sutures which are interpreted to be derived from the contemporary MORB-type mantle wedge with subsequent crustal assimilation and fractionation to I- and A-type granitoids. The youngest (after 600 Ma) A

  9. Distribution of mercury in molluscs, seawaters and coastal sediments of Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al-Kahtany, Khaled

    2016-12-01

    In order to assess the distribution of mercury along the Tarut coast, Arabian Gulf, Thirty eight (38) sediment samples, twenty six (26) seawater samples, and forty (40) Mollusca specimens were collected from the Tarut coast. The concentrations of Mercury in the sediments of the studied area (average = 0.55 μg/g) are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea, and the Gulf of Finland. The concentrations of Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (median effect concentration (MEC), and probable effect concentration (PEC) indicating possible Hg contamination. According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), thirty four (34) samples occur in class 4 and four (4) samples occur in class 5, which means that the sediments of the Tarut Island are largely contaminated with Hg. Enrichment factor (EF) results (average = 1.76) suggested that, the coastal sediments of the Tarut Island are considered to entirely originate from the crustal materials or natural processes. The studied sediments show lower values (Igeo<0) indicating that the sediments are unpolluted. These sediments according to contamination factor (Cf) are considered contaminated with Hg (1 < CF < 3). The Hg concentration in water samples (average = 30 μg/g) considered high. Comparison with Hg contents in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Hg. The suggested natural sources of Hg in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources are the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents exceeded in the study area and in Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  10. Periodontal treatment needs among Saudi Arabian adults and their relationship to the use of the Miswak.

    PubMed

    al-Khateeb, T L; O'Mullane, D M; Whelton, H; Sulaiman, M I

    1991-12-01

    The main aims of this study were, first, to estimate the need for periodontal care among adult residents of Saudi Arabia using the community periodontal index of treatment need (CPITN) and, second, to quantify the relationship between the frequency of using the 'Miswak' and the need for periodontal care. The Miswak is a stick made from the roots of the Arak tree (Salvadora persica) and is used for oral hygiene purposes by many cultures. A total sample of 480 adults aged 35 to 44 years and 65 years and older from the cities of Mecca and Jeddah was included in the study. The findings indicate that the level of need for periodontal care in the sample chosen is low when compared with the findings of similar studies undertaken in other countries. The frequent use of the 'Miswak' was associated with a lower need for treatment.

  11. Adverse health effects of spousal violence among women attending Saudi Arabian primary health-care clinics.

    PubMed

    Eldoseri, H M; Tufts, K A; Zhang, Q; Fish, J N

    2014-12-17

    This study aimed to investigate the frequency of spousal violence among Saudi women and document the related health effects and injuries, as well as their attitudes to gender and violence. Structured interviews were conducted with 200 ever-married women recruited from primary-care centres in Jeddah. Nearly half of the surveyed women (44.5%) reported ever experiencing physical violence from their spouse. Although 37 women (18.5%) had received violence-related injuries, only 6.5% had reported these injuries to a health-care provider. Victims of spousal violence had poor perceptions of their overall health, and reported pain or discomfort, antidepressant use and suicidal thoughts. Women mostly disagreed with the presented justifications for wife-beating. However, the association between gender attitudes and spousal violence was not significant. The results of this study support calls for integration of education about partner violence into health-care curricula to enhance the access and quality of services.

  12. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in effluent-dominated Saudi Arabian coastal waters of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aasim M; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Alarif, Walied; Kallenborn, Roland; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S

    2017-05-01

    The occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and the pesticide atrazine were investigated in seawater samples collected from stations located at effluent dominated sites in the Saudi Arabian coastal waters of the Red Sea. PPCPs were analysed using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A multi component method for the ultra-trace level quantification of 13 target PPCPs in Seawater was developed and validated for the here performed study. The method procedure is described in detail in the supplementary material section. 26 samples from 7 distinct locations (2 directly influenced by continuous sewage release) were chosen for the sampling of surface seawater. Based upon local sales information, 25 target substances (20 PPCPs, 4 pesticides and 1 stimulant) were chosen for the here reported method development. Thirteen PPCPs were detected and quantified in a total of 26 seawater samples. Metformin, diclofenac, acetaminophen, and caffeine were identified as the most abundant PPCPs, detected in maximum concentration higher than 3 μg/L (upper quantification limit for the here developed method). Concentrations were in the range of 7- >3000 (metformin), 3000 ng/L (caffeine). The contribution of direct sewage release on the PPCP levels detected was obvious, the target PPCPs were detected in the Al-Arbaeen and Al-Shabab coastal lagoons in high concentrations due to the low water exchange with the open sea and still ongoing sewage releases in the lagoons. Also, substantial amounts of antibiotics were detected in all samples. Levels and distribution profile of the detected PPCPs revealed high level release rates and give raise to concern on potential environmental risks associated with the here document long term exposure on the fragile coastal marine environment of the region but particularly in the nearby protected

  13. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-16

    forerunner of the Arabian American Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations...20 U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 21 Saudi Arabian National Guard... Saudi Arabia , FY2002-FY2009 ....................................................... 15 Table 3. U.S. Oil Consumption and Imports

  14. A lead isotope study of mineralization in the Saudi Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Doe, B.R.; Roberts, R.J.; Delevaux, M.H.; Gramlich, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    New lead isotope data are presented for some late Precambrian and early Paleozoic vein and massive sulfide deposits in the Arabian Shield. Using the Stacey Kramers (1975) model for lead isotope evolution, isochron model ages range between 720 m.y. and 420 m.y. Most of the massive sulfide deposits in the region formed before 680 m.y. ago, during evolution of the shield. Vein type mineralization of higher lead content occurred during the Pan African event about 550 m.y. ago and continued through the Najd period of extensive faulting in the shield that ended about 530 m.y. ago. Late post-tectonic metamorphism may have been responsible for vein deposits that have model ages less than 500 m.y. Alternatively some of these younger model ages may be too low due to the mineralizing fluids acquiring radiogenic lead from appreciably older local crustal rocks at the time of ore formation. The low207Pb/204Pb ratios found for the deposits in the main part of the shield and for those in north-eastern Egypt, indicate that the Arabian craton was formed in an oceanic crustal environment during the late Precambrian. Involvement of older, upper-crustal material in the formation of the ore deposits in this part of the shield is precluded by their low207Pb/204Pb and208Pb/204Pb characteristics. In the eastern part of the shield, east of longitude 44??20???E towards the Al Amar-Idsas fault region, lead data are quite different. They exhibit a linear207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb relationship together with distinctly higher208Pb/204Pb characteristics. These data imply the existence of lower crustal rocks of early Proterozoic age that apparently have underthrust the shield rocks from the east. If most of the samples we have analyzed from this easterly region were mineralized 530 m.y. ago, then the age of the older continental rocks is 2,100??300 m.y. (2??). The presence of upper crustal rocks, possibly also of early Proterozoic age, is indicated by galena data from Hailan in South Yemen and also

  15. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

  16. First Record of the Myrmicine Ant Genus Meranoplus Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Arabian Peninsula with Description of a New Species and Notes on the Zoogeography of Southwestern Kingdom Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Al Dhafer, Hathal M.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2014-01-01

    The ant genus Meranoplus is reported for the first time from the Arabian Peninsula (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) by the new species M. pulcher sp. n., based on the worker caste. Specimens were collected from Al Sarawat and Asir Mountains of southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using pitfall traps. Meranoplus pulcher sp. n. is included in the Afrotropical M. magretii-group, with greatest similarity to M. magrettii André from Sudan. A key to the Afrotropical species of the M. magretii-group is presented. A brief review of the ant taxa with Afrotropical affinities in southwestern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is given. PMID:25375104

  17. GSTM1 gene polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer in a Saudi Arabian population.

    PubMed

    Khabaz, M N; Nedjadi, T; Gari, M A; Al-Maghrabi, J A; Atta, H M; Bakarman, M; Gazzaz, Z J

    2016-01-29

    The enzyme glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) is encoded by the GSTM1 gene. Polymorphisms in GSTM1 affect the detoxifying function of the enzyme variants. This forms the basis of the debate about the impact of the GSTM1 null/present genotype on colorectal carcinoma risk. We tested the potential influence of GSTM1 polymorphisms on the development of colorectal cancer. DNA extracted from 83 samples taken from patients that were previously diagnosed as having colorectal carcinoma and from 35 control subjects who did not have colorectal carcinoma were amplified. GSTM1 genotypes were determined by DNA sequencing. The current study revealed that the majority (69/83, 83%) of colorectal cancer cases harbored the null genotype (GSTM1*0/*0), and the remaining 14 (17%) cases harbored either the GSTM1wt/wt or the GSTM1wt/*0 genotype. In contrast, among the control cases, 23 (65%) had the null genotype (GSTM1*0/*0) and 12 (35%) had either the GSTM1wt/wt or the GSTM1wt/*0 genotype. The current report emphasizes the impact of the GSTM1 null genotype on the increased risk of colorectal carcinoma in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Psychometric Properties of Creative Self-Efficacy Inventory Among Distinguished Students in Saudi Arabian Universities.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Khaled N

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of Abbott's Creative Self-Efficacy inventory. Saudi honors students (157 men vs. 163 women) participated. These students are undergraduates (M age = 19.5 year, SD = 1.9) who complete 30 credit hours with a grade point average of no less than 4.5 out of 5. The results showed that the internal consistency (α = .87) and the test-retest reliabilities (r = .73) were satisfactory. The study sample was separated into two subsamples. The data from the first subsample (n = 60) were used to conduct an exploratory factor analysis, whereas the data from the second subsample (n = 260) were used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis. The results of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that creative self-efficacy was not a unidimensional construct but consisted of two factors labeled "creative thinking self-efficacy" and "creative performance self-efficacy." As expected, this two-factor model fit the data adequately, supporting prior research that treated creative self-efficacy as multidimensional construct.

  19. Large Scale Patterns of Antimicrofouling Defenses in the Hard Coral Pocillopora verrucosa in an Environmental Gradient along the Saudi Arabian Coast of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Martin; Al Sofyani, Abdulmohsin; Saha, Mahasweta; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Large scale patterns of ecologically relevant traits may help identify drivers of their variability and conditions beneficial or adverse to the expression of these traits. Antimicrofouling defenses in scleractinian corals regulate the establishment of the associated biofilm as well as the risks of infection. The Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast features a pronounced thermal and nutritional gradient including regions and seasons with potentially stressful conditions to corals. Assessing the patterns of antimicrofouling defenses across the Red Sea may hint at the susceptibility of corals to global change. We investigated microfouling pressure as well as the relative strength of 2 alternative antimicrofouling defenses (chemical antisettlement activity, mucus release) along the pronounced environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast in 2 successive years. Microfouling pressure was exceptionally low along most of the coast but sharply increased at the southernmost sites. Mucus release correlated with temperature. Chemical defense tended to anti-correlate with mucus release. As a result, the combined action of mucus release and chemical antimicrofouling defense seemed to warrant sufficient defense against microbes along the entire coast. In the future, however, we expect enhanced energetic strain on corals when warming and/or eutrophication lead to higher bacterial fouling pressure and a shift towards putatively more costly defense by mucus release. PMID:25485603

  20. Large scale patterns of antimicrofouling defenses in the hard coral Pocillopora verrucosa in an environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Martin; Al Sofyani, Abdulmohsin; Saha, Mahasweta; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Large scale patterns of ecologically relevant traits may help identify drivers of their variability and conditions beneficial or adverse to the expression of these traits. Antimicrofouling defenses in scleractinian corals regulate the establishment of the associated biofilm as well as the risks of infection. The Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast features a pronounced thermal and nutritional gradient including regions and seasons with potentially stressful conditions to corals. Assessing the patterns of antimicrofouling defenses across the Red Sea may hint at the susceptibility of corals to global change. We investigated microfouling pressure as well as the relative strength of 2 alternative antimicrofouling defenses (chemical antisettlement activity, mucus release) along the pronounced environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast in 2 successive years. Microfouling pressure was exceptionally low along most of the coast but sharply increased at the southernmost sites. Mucus release correlated with temperature. Chemical defense tended to anti-correlate with mucus release. As a result, the combined action of mucus release and chemical antimicrofouling defense seemed to warrant sufficient defense against microbes along the entire coast. In the future, however, we expect enhanced energetic strain on corals when warming and/or eutrophication lead to higher bacterial fouling pressure and a shift towards putatively more costly defense by mucus release.

  1. Total petroleum systems of the Paleozoic and Jurassic, Greater Ghawar Uplift and adjoining provinces of central Saudi Arabia and northern Arabian-Persian Gulf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Oil of the Arabian Sub-Basin Tuwaiq/Hanifa-Arab TPS is sourced by organic-rich, marine carbonates of the Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain and Hanifa Formations. These source rocks were deposited in two of three intraplatform basins during the Jurassic and, where thermally mature, have generated a superfamily of oils with distinctive geochemical characteristics. Oils were generated and expelled from these source rocks beginning in the Cretaceous at about 75 Ma. Hydrocarbon production is from 3 cyclic carbonate-rock reservoirs of the Arab Formation that are sealed by overlying anhydrite. Several giant and supergiant fields, including the world's largest oil field at Ghawar, Saudi Arabia, produce mostly from the Arab carbonate-rock reservoirs. Two assessment units are also recognized in the Arabian Sub-Basin Tuwaiq/Hanifa-Arab TPS that are similarly related to structural trap style and presence of underlying Infracambrian salt: (1) an onshore Horst-Block Anticlinal Oil AU, and (2) a mostly offshore Salt-Involved Structural Oil AU. The mean total volume of undiscovered resource for the Arabian Sub-Basin Tuwaiq/Hanifa-Arab TPS is estimated at about 49 billion barrels of oil equivalent (42 billion barrels of oil, 34 trillion feet of gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural gas liquids).

  2. Root zone of the Late Proterozoic Salma Caldera, northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Karl S.

    1985-11-01

    The eroded root of the late Proterozoic Salma caldera crops out in a striking, roughly elliptical feature, about 27 km long and 22 km wide, near the northeastern edge of the Arabian Shield. The caldera is genetically part of an elongate alkalic granitic massif (Jabal Salma) that extends 35 km from the caldera to the southwest. Comenditic ash flow tuff and lava(?) of the caldera fill, probably more than 1 km thick, are the oldest recognized rocks of the caldera complex. These rocks were erupted during caldera collapse associated with the rapid evacuation of the upper, mildly peralkalic part of a zoned magma reservoir. Within the caldera fill, a massive, lithic-rich intracaldera rhyolite, probably a lava in excess of 1 km thick, is overlain by a layered ash flow sequence. Numerous megabreccia blocks, probably derived from the caldera wall, occur in the massive rhyolite. Open folds in the layered volcanic rocks may be due to high-temperature slumping of the rocks toward the center of the caldera following collapse. Later peralkalic granite that intruded the caldera ring fracture zone occurs in an arcuate pattern outside the area of exposed caldera fill. After caldera collapse, metaluminous to peraluminous magma rose beneath the caldera at approximately 580 Ma and solidified as biotite alkali granite, rim syenogranite, and late, high-level granophyre. Rare earth element abundances indicate that the layered rhyolite tuff, peralkalic granite, and granophyre are chemically more evolved than the biotite alkali granite and rim syenogranite. The granophyre intruded the caldera fill as a dome-shaped body composed of numerous sheetlike masses. Granophyric texture resulted from rapid pressure release and quenching accompanying the intrusion of each sheet. Maximum penetration of the granophyre into overlying rocks occurred in the central region and along the west side of the caldera, where the caldera fill volcanic rocks have been removed by erosion. No apparent structural

  3. The dilemma of revealing sensitive information on paternity status in Arabian social and cultural contexts: telling the truth about paternity in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Adlan, Abdallah A; ten Have, Henk A M J

    2012-12-01

    Telling the truth is one of the most respected virtues in medical history and one of the most emphasized in the code of medical ethics. Health care providers are frequently confronted with the dilemma as to whether or not to tell the truth. This dilemma deepens when both choices are critically vicious: The choice is no longer between "right and right" or "right and wrong," it is between "wrong and wrong." In the case presented and discussed in this paper, a research team in Saudi Arabia unintentionally uncovered information regarding misattributed paternity. In such a situation and in the context of a tribal cultural system, what should the team do with this information? This case analysis demonstrates the joint application of ethical resources originating from within and outside the Saudi Arabian context. The article analyses the case based on the moral problems involved, relevant medical application, and the impact of such information in the Saudi tribal and Islamic domains. The most pertinent relevant values and secular debates on similar matters are discussed. Finally, the article aims to provide an Islamic dimension of family, fatherhood, and adultery.

  4. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Jobran M.; Asaad, Ahmed M.; Awadalla, Nabil J.; Mahfouz, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5%) were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353) reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma). In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management. PMID:28036050

  5. Preschool Education in Saudi Arabia: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljabreen, Haifa Hassan; Lash, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Despite differences in specific teaching styles, nations around the world are united in the belief that early education is essential for preparing children for success throughout their school life and beyond. This tenet is as applicable to the Saudi Arabian early childhood education (ECE) system as it is anywhere else. Yet, little is actually…

  6. Mind Maps to Modify Lack of Attention among Saudi Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daghistan, Bulquees Ismail Abdul Majid

    2016-01-01

    This research study aims at investigating the impact of Mind Maps on modifying the lack of attention in Arabic language class among Saudi Kindergarten children. To achieve the goals of this study the researcher used an experimental design with a random sample from AlRae'd Kindergarten's children in Riyadh -Saudi Arabia for the academic year…

  7. The Impact of Word Walls on Improving the English Reading Fluency of Saudi Kindergarten's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif; AlSaleem, Basma Issa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Word Walls on improving the English reading fluency of Saudi kindergarten's children. The present study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English reading fluency test due to…

  8. GC and GC-MS characterization of crude oil transformation in sediments and microbial mat samples after the 1991 oil spill in the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast.

    PubMed

    Garcia de Oteyza, T; Grimalt, J O

    2006-02-01

    The massive oil discharge in the Saudi Arabian coast at the end of the 1991 Gulf War is used here as a natural experiment to study the ability of microbial mats to transform oil residues after major spills. The degree of oil transformation has been evaluated from the analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil-polluted microbial mat samples from coastal environments exhibited an intermediate degree of transformation between that observed in superficial and deep sediments. Evaporation, photo-oxidation and water-washing seemed to lead to more effective and rapid elimination of hydrocarbons than cyanobacteria and its associated microorganisms. Furthermore, comparison of some compounds (e.g. regular isoprenoid hydrocarbons or alkylnaphthalenes) in the oil collected in the area after the spill or in the mixtures retained by cyanobacterial growth gave rise to an apparent effect of hydrocarbon preservation in the microbial mat ecosystems.

  9. Novel Homozygous Missense Mutation in CAPN3 Gene Detected in a Saudi Arabian Family With Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2A.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Talal M; Abdulmanaʼ, Sameeh O; Dridi, Walid

    2016-12-01

    More than 300 mutations were identified in Calpainopathy (CAPN3) gene in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) patients. LGMD2A type is also known as Calpainopathy, which is characterized by selective atrophy and weakness of proximal limb muscles. We report a Saudi Arabian family with weakness in limb-girdle distribution: waddling gait, positive Gowers' sign, and marked muscle atrophy in the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles. We sequenced all exonic and intronic regions of the CAPN3 gene and identified c.1699 G>A variant as a novel variant not previously described in other patients. In silico predictions indicate that this is probably a disease-causing mutation. Here, for the first time, we report this c.1699 G>A new variant in the CAPN3 gene that can be considered as a robust genetics factor causing LGMD2A disease.

  10. Contrasting zircon morphology and UPb systematics in peralkaline and metaluminous post-orogenic granite complexes of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikof, J.N.; Stoeser, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Uzircon ages are reported for seven metaluminous-to-peralkaline post-orogenic granites from the Late Proterozoic Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia. Zircons from the metaluminous rocks are prismatic, with length-to-width ratios of ??? 2-4: 1 and small pyramidal terminations. In contrast, zircons from three of the four peralkaline complexes either lack well-developed prismatic faces (are pseudo-octahedral) or are anhedral. Some zircons from the peralkaline granites contain inherited radiogenic Pb and have very high common Pb contents (206Pb/204Pb < 150), making the UPb method poorly suited for determining the age of these rocks. Zircons in the metaluminous granites do not contain inheritance and yield well-defined concordia intercepts. The span of ages of the seven complexes (670-470 Ma) indicates that post-orogenic granitic magmatism was not a singular event in the Arabian Shield but rather occurred as multiple intrusive episodes from the Late Proterozoic to the Middle Ordovician. ?? 1989.

  11. Neoproterozoic diamictite in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and Northern Saudi Arabia: evidence of ~750 Ma glaciation in the Arabian-Nubian Shield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamal A.; Stern, Robert J.; Manton, William I.; Johnson, Peter R.; Mukherjee, Sumit K.

    2010-06-01

    The Neoproterozoic Atud diamictite in Wadi Kareim and Wadi Mobarak in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and the Nuwaybah formation in NW Saudi Arabia consist of poorly sorted, polymictic breccia, with clasts up to 1 m of granitoid, quartz porphyry, quartzite, basalt, greywacke, marble, arkose, and microconglomerate in fine-grained matrix. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the diamictite was deposited in a marine environment. Integrated field investigation, petrographic study and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages demonstrate that the Atud and Nuwaybah are correlative. The distribution of zircon ages indicate that ~750 Ma ages are dominant with a significant component of older materials, characterized by minor Mesoproterozoic and more abundant Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean ages. Some matrix and metasedimentary clast zircons yield ages that are a few 10s of Ma younger than the age of the youngest clast (754 ± 15 Ma), suggesting Atud/Nuwaybah diamictite deposition ~750 Ma or slightly later, broadly consistent with being deposited during the Sturtian glaciation (740-660 Ma). The Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean clasts have no source within the ensimatic Arabian-Nubian Shield. The distribution of the pre-Neoproterozoic ages are similar to the distribution of the pre-Neoproterozoic ages in Yemen and Saharan Metacraton, suggesting that these clasts have been transported hundreds of kilometers, maybe by ice-rafting. The Atud diamictite may represent important evidence for Cryogenian “Snowball Earth” in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  12. Petrogenesis of the Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complex in the Makkah quadrangle, western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtoor, Abdelmonem; Ahmed, Ahmed Hassan; Harbi, Hesham

    2016-10-01

    The Makkah quadrangle is a part of the Jeddah terrane in the Precambrian basement, Western Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia. Gabal Taftafan mafic-ultramafic complex lies within the central part of the Makkah quadrangle. The Taftafan mafic-ultramafic complex is a well-differentiated rock association which comprises of dunite core, hornblende- and plagioclase-bearing peridotites, troctolite, clinopyroxenite and marginal gabbro, in a distinctive zonal structure. The bulk-rock geochemistry of the Taftafan mafic-ultramafic rocks is characterized by a tholeiitic/sub-alkaline affinity with high Mg in the ultramafic core (0.84) and is systematically decreased towards the marginal gabbro (0.60). The patterns of trace elements show enrichment in the fluid-mobile elements (Sr, Ba) and a pronounced negative Nb anomaly which reflect a hydrous parental magma generated in a subduction tectonic setting. The mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Taftafan complex have low total rare earth elements (REE) displaying sub-parallel patterns leading to the assumption that these rocks are comagmatic and are formed by fractional crystallization from a common magma type. The platinum-group elements (PGE) content of all rock types in the Taftafan complex is very low, with ∑ PPGE > ∑ IPGE; displaying slightly positive slopes of the PGE distribution patterns. The chemistry of ferromagnesian minerals is characterized by a high forsterite (Fo) olivine with wide range (Fo91-67), from ultramafic core to the marginal gabbro, Ca-rich diopsidic clinopyroxene, and calcic hornblende. Orthopyroxene is almost absent from all rock types, or very rare when present. Hornblende and Ca-plagioclase possess the longest crystallization history since they are present in almost all rock types of the complex. Spinels in the dunite and hornblende-bearing peridotite core show homogeneous composition with intermediate Cr# (0.53-0.67). Plagioclase-bearing peridotite and troctolite have two exsolved types of spinel; Al

  13. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and oral parafunctions in urban Saudi arabian adolescents: a research report

    PubMed Central

    Feteih, Rabab M

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and oral parafunction habits among Saudi adolescents in the permanent dentition stage. Methods A total of 385 (230 females and 155 males) school children age 12–16, completed a questionnaire and were examined clinically. A stratified selection technique was used for schools allocation. Results The results showed that 21.3% of the subjects exhibited at least one sign of TMD and females were generally more affected than males. Joint sounds were the most prevalent sign (13.5%) followed by restricted opening (4.7%) and opening deviation (3.9%). The amplitude of mouth opening, overbite taken into consideration, was 46.5 mm and 50.2 mm in females and males respectively. TMJ pain and muscle tenderness were rare (0.5%). Reported symptoms were 33%, headache being the most frequent symptom 22%, followed by pain during chewing 14% and hearing TMJ noises 8.7%. Difficulty during jaw opening and jaw locking were rare. Lip/cheek biting was the most common parafunction habit (41%) with females significantly more than males, followed by nail biting (29%). Bruxism and thumb sucking were only 7.4% and 7.8% respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of TMD signs were 21.3% with joint sounds being the most prevalent sign. While TMD symptoms were found to be 33% as, with headache being the most prevalent. Among the oral parafunctions, lip/cheek biting was the most prevalent 41% followed by nail biting 29%. PMID:16914032

  14. Red cell parameters in infant and children from the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Mekaini, Lolowa A Al; Denic, Srdjan; Jabri, Omar N Al; Narchi, Hassib; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Al-Hammadi, Suleiman

    2015-01-01

    α+-Thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia are frequent causes of microcytosis and a common diagnostic challenge in Arabian children. In this study, their prevalences and effects on the red cell parameters were evaluated in 28,457 children aged one day to 6 years. α+-Thalassemia trait was considered to be present when mean cell volume (MCV) was <94 fL at birth and iron deficiency anemia when red cell distribution width (RDW) was >14.5%. The prevalence of α+-thalassemia trait was 15.7% (502/3,191), which was similar to previously reported values for adults (9-14%). Iron deficiency anemia peaked at 7 months (53%) and then declined at a rate of 8% per year. The nadirs of red blood cell count (RBC) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) occurred at two months of age (physiological anemia). Subsequently, Hb increased at a rate similar to that of MCV, demonstrating the two processes are coupled. The third percentile MCV in children older than 3 months was ≤64 fL, which was significantly lower than that in European children. The third percentile Hb, on the other hand, was similar to that in European children. Thus, α+-thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia are exceptionally frequent in Arabian children and their red cell indices are considerably different from European-based norms. Careful interpretation of red cell parameters is required for the evaluation of microcytic anemia in Arabian children.

  15. Ad Duwayhi, Saudi Arabia: Geology and geochronology of a neoproterozoic intrusion-related gold system in the Arabian shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Zahony, S.G.; Leavitt, J.D.; Portacio, J.S.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Fleck, Robert J.; Stein, Holly J.

    2004-01-01

    In light of our findings at Ad Duwayhi, a reassessment of similar intrusion-hosted deposits in the Arabian shield is warranted, and areas of late- to postorogenic plutonism, particularly in the Afif composite terrane, should be considered prospective for intrusion-related gold systems.

  16. Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia in three Saudi children

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mehaidib, Ali; Alnassar, Saleh; Alshamrani, Ali S.

    2009-01-01

    Angiodysplasia is a term used to describe distinct gastrointestinal mucosal ectasias that are not associated with cutaneous lesions, systemic vascular disease or a familial syndrome. Seventy-seven percent of angiodysplasia are located in the cecum and/or ascending colon. Fifteen percent are located in the jejunum and/or ileum and the remainder are distributed throughout the alimentary tract. Most commonly, the angiodysplastic lesions are typically seen in elderly patients of both genders, although gastric and duodenal lesions have been reported occasionally in subjects within the third decade of life. However, data on infants and children are scarce. We describe three cases (ages 7 days, 2 years, and 5 years) who presented to our unit with gastrointestinal bleeding. One of these patients developed moderate-to-severe symptoms and was blood-transfusion dependent. She was misdiagnosed as having inflammatory bowel disease and underwent a total colectomy and ileoanal anastomosis. The other two patients were managed conservatively for up to 5 years with no further bleeding. PMID:19448365

  17. Mineral chemistry as a tool for understanding the petrogenesis of Cryogenian (arc-related)-Ediacaran (post-collisional) gabbros in the western Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surour, Adel A.; Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Harbi, Hesham M.

    2016-07-01

    Metagabbros and gabbros in the Ablah-Shuwas belt (western Saudi Arabia) represent part of significant mafic magmatism in the Neoproterozoic Arabian Shield. The metagabbros are Cryogenian, occasionally stratified and bear calcic amphiboles (hornblende, magnesio-hornblende and actinolite) typical of calc-alkaline complexes. These amphiboles suggest low pressure ( 1-3 kbar), high f_{O2 } and crystallization temperature up to 727 °C, whereas it is 247-275 °C in the case of retrograde chlorite. Rutile and titanite in metagabbros are Fe-rich and replace Mn-bearing ilmenite precursors at high f_{O2} . On the other hand, younger gabbros are fresh, layered and comprised of olivine gabbro and olivine-hornblende gabbro with an uppermost layer of anorthositic gabbro. The fresh gabbros are biotite-bearing. They are characterized by secondary magnetite-orthopyroxene symplectitic intergrowth at the outer peripheries of olivine. The symplectite forms by deuteric alteration from residual pore fluids moving along olivine grain boundaries in the sub-solidus state. In fresh gabbros, ortho- and clinopyroxenes indicate crystallization at 1300-900 and 800-600 °C, respectively. Geochemically, the Cryogenian metagabbros ( 850-780 Ma) are tholeiitic to calc-alkaline in composition and interpreted as arc-related. Younger, fresh gabbros are calc-alkaline and post-collisional ( 620-590 Ma, i.e., Ediacaran), forming during the late stages of arc amalgamation in the southern Arabian Shield. The calc-alkaline metagabbros are related to a lithospheric mantle source previously modified by subduction. Younger, fresh gabbros were probably produced by partial melting of an enriched mantle source (e.g., garnet lherzolite).

  18. Rb-Sr isotopic studies of postorogenic granites from the eastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; Futa, Kiyoto

    1987-01-01

    Available data indicate that postorogenic granites tend to be older in the southern part of the Arabian Shield. This suggests that plutonism started in the south and progressed to the north. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values also form a regional pattern. These ratios tend to be higher in the eastern part of the Arabian Shield, and suggest one source of continental affinity to the east and one of oceanic affinity to the west. The distribution of initial strontium isotope ratios does not clearly discriminate between the various models for Shield evolution; however, a sedimentary source region of mixed end members seems more compatible with the data pattern than models based on discrete boundaries between unrelated accreted blocks.

  19. Geochemistry and preliminary assessment of resource potential for postorogenic granites of the southwestern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; VanTrump, George; Bush, C.A.; Vaughn, R.B.; Bartel, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Regional geochemical patterns are not consistent with the north-south trending microplate boundary that has been proposed by other workers. Correlation coefficients for trace-element data obtained during the current study also argue against sharp compositional breaks in the protolith for the postorogenic granites. Consideration of the data presented here and similar data for granitoids of the eastern Arabian Shield, suggest the existence of a compositionally gradational protolith of continental affinity to the east and oceanic affinity to the west.

  20. Change Detection Analysis of Costal Habitat Using Remote Sensing Technologies in the Western Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabian Coast) over a Thirty-Year Period.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Idris, N.; Johnson, S. H.; Qurban, M. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Many factors can severely affect the growth and abundance of the marine ecosystems. For example, due to anthropogenic and natural forces, benthic habitats including but not limited to mangroves, sea grass, salt marshes, macro algae, and coral reefs have been experiencing high levels of declination. Furthermore, aerosols and their propellants are suspected contributors to marine habitat degradation. Although several studies reveal that the Arabian Gulf habitats have suffered deleterious impacts after the Gulf War and the following six month off-shore oil spill, limited research exists to track the changes in benthic habitats over the past three decades using remote sensing. Document changes in costal habitats over the past thirty years were better observed with the use of multispectral remote sensors such as Landsat-5, Landsat-7, and Landsat8 (OLI). Change detection analysis was performed on the three Landsat images (Landsat-5 for the 1987 image, Landsat-7 for the 2000, and Landsat-8 for the 2013 image). The images were then modified, masked off from open water and land. An unsupervised classification was performed which cluster similar classes together. The supervised classification displayed the seven following classes: coral reefs, macro algae, sea grass, salt marshes, mangroves, water, and land. Compared to 1987 image to 2000 scene, there was a noticeable increase in the extensiveness of salt marsh and macro algae habitats. However, a significant decrease in salt marsh habitats were apparent in the 2013 scene.

  1. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-16

    Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 4 discovery in 1938 of substantial oil reserves...appropriated by the bill for assistance to Saudi Arabia , subject to national security waiver authority granted to the Secretary of State. This...21 U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 22 Saudi Arabian National Guard

  2. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-13

    Company [CASOC, the forerunner of the Arabian American Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background...high prices to fund national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion, and an Enduring (continued...) Saudi Arabia ...Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 20

  3. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice teachers toward teaching practices in science: The adequacy of preparation to use teaching strategies in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljabber, Jabber M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice science teachers (SPSTs) toward a variety of science teaching practices. An ultimate, essential goal of this study was to use generated information and findings to improve the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia and to develop better science teacher practices. The selected practices were posted by the National Research Council in 1999. These indicated that students learn science best through understanding of science rather than memorization of scientific facts and concepts, building new knowledge and understanding on what is already known and believed, formulating new knowledge by modifying and refining current concepts and by adding new concepts to what is already known, taking care of their own learning, social learning environments and interactions, and application of knowledge to novel situations. The study's sample consisted of all (147) SPSTs enrolled in the spring semester of 2003 in four Teachers' Colleges: Riyadh, Makkah, Taif, and Dammam. All participants were performing student teaching in secondary schools. This study used quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. Only three SPSTs were purposefully selected from each college for seven semi-structured interview questions, lasting an hour per interview. They were asked to complete a 58-item questionnaire survey and respond to four open-ended survey questions. To assess their attitudes toward the above science teaching practices, data was analyzed using the Rasch analysis model, other parametric tests (e.g., a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent-samples t-test), and non-parametric tests (e.g., a chi-square of independent test). Furthermore, qualitative procedures were also used to assess SPSTs' views of some specific aspects about science teaching and the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved through a careful

  4. Hydrogeochemical survey of groundwater for selected areas in the Arabian Shield and in cover rocks, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, John B.; Miller, W. Roger

    1989-01-01

    In the spring of 1984, a hydrogeochemical survey was conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to test ground water as a sampling medium in exploration for mineral deposits. Eighty-one water samples (mostly from wells) were collected. The samples were analysed for the presence and concentration of major cations and anions, as well as a suite of trace elements. Most of the water samples contained high concentrations of dissolved salts. The majority of the samples showed no significant amounts of the trace elements. A few well-water samples contained moderately anomalous concentrations of zinc, molybdenum, and uranium. These anomalies could be due to salinity effects, contamination, or the proximity of mineral sources. This survey has established some baseline water-chemistry data, especially for the trace metals, which to date have not been reported in ground water in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  5. The U.S. Footprint on the Arabian Peninsula: Can We Avoid a Repeat of the Pullout from Saudi Arabia?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Arabia? 6. AUTHOR( S ) David Paul Marone Jr. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey...CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING...was that U.S. troops had desecrated Saudi holy lands. American women driving automobiles, service members seen urinating in public, and shirts

  6. Zircon morphology and U-Pb geochronology of seven metaluminous and peralkaline post-orogenic granite complexes of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John Nicholas; Stoeser, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    The U-Pb zircon method was used to determine the ages of seven metaluminous-to-peralkaline post-orogenic granites located throughout the Late Proterozoic Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia. Zircons from the metaluminous rocks are prismatic, with length-to-width ratios of about 2-4:1 and small pyramidal terminations. In contrast, zircons from three of the four peralkaline complexes either lack well developed prismatic faces (are pseudo-octahedral) or are anhedral. Some of the zircons from the peralkaline granites contain inherited radiogenic lead. This complicates interpretation of the isotopic data and. in many cases, may make the U-Pb method unsuitable for determining the age of a peralkaline granite. Zircons in the metaluminous granites do not contain inheritance and thus, best-fit chords calculated through the data have upper concordia intercepts that indicate the age of intrusion, and lower intercepts that indicate simple episodic lead loss. The results show that these granites were emplaced during multiple intrusive episodes from 670 to 510 Ma (Late Proterozoic to Cambrian).

  7. Oxidation of aliphatic, branched chain, and aromatic hydrocarbons by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica isolated from oil-polluted sand samples collected in the Saudi Arabian Desert.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Nhi-Cong; Mikolasch, Annett; Awe, Susanne; Sheikhany, Halah; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Schauer, Frieder

    2010-06-01

    A soil bacterium isolated from oil-polluted sand samples collected in the Saudi Arabian Desert has been determined as Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, which has a high capacity of degrading and utilizing a broad range of hydrocarbons. The metabolic pathways of three classes of hydrocarbons were elucidated by identifying metabolites in cell-free extracts analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC/UV-Vis in comparison with standard compounds. During tetradecane oxidation, tetradecanol; tetradecanoic acid; dodecanoic acid; decanoic acid could be found as metabolites, indicating a monoterminal degradation pathway of n -alkanes. The oxidation of pristane resulted in the presence of pristanoic acid; 2-methylglutaric acid; 4,8-dimethylnonanoic acid; and 2,6-dimethylheptanoic acid, which give rise to a possible mono- and di-terminal oxidation. In case of sec -octylbenzene, eight metabolites were detected including 5-phenylhexanoic acid; 3-phenylbutyric acid; 2-phenylpropionic acid; beta -methylcinnamic acid; acetophenone; beta -hydroxy acetophenone; 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid and succinic acid. From these intermediates a new degradation pathway for sec -octylbenzene was investigated. Our results indicate that N. cyriacigeorgica has the ability to degrade aliphatic and branched chain alkanes as well as alkylbenzene effectively and, therefore, N. cyriacigeorgica is probably a suitable bacterium for biodegradation of oil or petroleum products in contaminated soils.

  8. Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced.

  9. Morphological and ultrastructural description of Pleistophora dammami sp. n. infecting the intestinal wall of Saurida undosquamis from the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, A S; Al-Quraishy, S; Al-Qahtani, H; Dkhil, M A; Azevedo, C

    2012-07-01

    Pleistophora dammami sp. n. is described from Saurida undosquamis from the Arabian Gulf in Saudi Arabia. Infection appeared as whitish cysts in the intestinal wall. Cysts ranged in size from 1 to 4 mm. The prevalence of the infection across both fish sexes was 17.5% (24/420). Two kinds of spores were recognized, microspores and macrospores, and each were ovoid in shape. The microspores measured ~2.5 × 2.0 μm in size, while the macrospores measured ~6.0 × 3.0 μm. Ultrastructurally, the parasite did not form xenoma but it formed cysts surrounded by thick cyst wall. All stages of development as meronts, sporonts, sporoblast and spores occurred in the cytoplasm of the host cells within sporophorous vesicles. The stages of development occurred asynchronously and thus all stages were randomly distributed within the cysts. Meronts were elliptical and multinucleated, with unpaired nuclei which constantly divided giving rise to new sporonts. During the transition to sporonts, the border of the meronts increased in thickness to form dense discontinuous cell coat. Later, the sporont divided into sporoblast cells which gradually differentiated the typical organelles of the spores. In mature spores, the polar filament was arranged in 20-24 coils in two rows either side of the posterior vacuole. All ultrastructural and morphological criteria indicate that the described species belongs to the genus Pleistophora.

  10. Human occupation of the Arabian Empty Quarter during MIS 5: evidence from Mundafan Al-Buhayrah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groucutt, Huw S.; White, Tom S.; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Parton, Ash; Crassard, Rémy; Shipton, Ceri; Jennings, Richard P.; Parker, Adrian G.; Breeze, Paul S.; Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    The Empty Quarter (or Rub' al Khali) of the Arabian Peninsula is the largest continuous sandy desert in the world. It has been known for several decades that Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, representing phases of wetter climate, are preserved there. These sequences have yielded palaeontological evidence in the form of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate fossils and have been dated using various radiometric techniques. However, evidence for human presence during these wetter phases has until now been ephemeral. Here, we report on the first stratified and dated archaeology from the Empty Quarter, recovered from the site of Mundafan Al-Buhayrah (MDF-61). Human occupation at the site, represented by stone tools, has been dated to the later part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 using multiple luminescence dating techniques (multigrain and single grain OSL, TT-OSL). The sequence consists primarily of lacustrine and palustrine sediments, from which evidence for changing local environmental conditions has been obtained through analysis of fossil assemblages (phytoliths and non-marine molluscs and ostracods). The discovery of securely-dated archaeological material at ∼100 to 80 ka in the Empty Quarter has important implications for hypotheses concerning the timing and routes of dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa, which have been much debated. Consequently, the data presented here fill a crucial gap in palaeoenvironmental and archaeological understanding of the southern Arabian interior. Fossils of H. sapiens in the Levant, also dated to MIS 5, together with Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites in Arabia and India are thought to represent the earliest dispersal of our species out of Africa. We suggest that the widespread occurrence of similar lithic technologies across southern Asia, coupled with a growing body of evidence for environmental amelioration across the Saharo-Arabian belt, indicates that occupation of the Levant by H. sapiens during MIS 5

  11. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  12. Interpretation of detailed aerial gamma-ray survey, Jabal Ashirah area, southeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey of the Jabal Ashirah area in the southeastern Arabian Shield has been analyzed using computer-classification algorithms. The analysis resulted in maps that show radiometric map units and gamma-ray anomalies indicating the presence of possible concentrations of potassium and uranium. The radiometric-unit map was interpreted to 'produce a simplified radiolithic map that was correlated with the mapped geology. The gamma-ray data show uranium anomalies that coincide with a tin-bearing granite, but known gold and nickel mineralization do not have any associated gamma-ray signatures.

  13. Introducing the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program for mechanically ventilated patients in Saudi Arabian Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Raymond M.; Aljuaid, Maha; Aqeel, Hanan; Aboudeif, Mohammed M.; Elatwey, Shaimaa; Shehab, Rajeh; Mandourah, Yasser; Maghrabi, Khalid; Hawa, Hassan; Khalid, Imran; Qushmaq, Ismael; Latif, Asad; Chang, Bickey; Berenholtz, Sean M.; Tayar, Sultan; Al-Harbi, Khloud; Yousef, Amin; Amr, Anas A.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, there have been major improvements to the care of mechanically ventilated patients (MVPs). Earlier initiatives used the concept of ventilator care bundles (sets of interventions), with a primary focus on reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, recent evidence has led to a more comprehensive approach: The ABCDE bundle (Awakening and Breathing trial Coordination, Delirium management and Early mobilization). The approach of the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) was developed by patient safety researchers at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and is supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to improve local safety cultures and to learn from defects by utilizing a validated structured framework. In August 2015, 17 Intensive Care Units (ICUs) (a total of 271 beds) in eight hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia joined the CUSP for MVPs (CUSP 4 MVP) that was conducted in 235 ICUs in 169 US hospitals and led by the Johns Hopkins Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality. The CUSP 4 MVP project will set the stage for cooperation between multiple hospitals and thus strives to create a countrywide plan for the management of all MVPs in Saudi Arabia. PMID:28197216

  14. Neoproterozoic structural evolution of the NE-trending Ad-Damm Shear Zone, Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Sawy, El-Sawy K.; El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Matsah, Mohamed; Shujoon, Abdulrahman; El-Shafei, Mohamed K.

    2014-11-01

    The Ad-Damm Shear Zone (AdSZ) is a major NE- (to NNE-) trending fault zone separating Jiddah and Asir tectonic terranes in the Neoproterozoic Juvenile Arabian Shield (AS). AdSZ is characterized by the development of dextral transcurrent shear-sense indicators and moderately to steeply NW plunging stretching lineations. It is mainly developed under high amphibolite-to greenschist-facies conditions and extends ∼380 km, with an average width ∼2-4 km, from the conspicuous Ruwah Fault Zone in the eastern shield to the Red Sea Coastal plain. It was believed to be one of the conjugate shears of the NW- to NNW-trending sinistral Najd Shear System. This assumption is, based on the noteworthy dextral shear criteria recorded within the 620 Ma mylonitic granite of No'man Complex. A total shear-zone strike length exceeding 117 km is carefully investigated during this study to reconstruct its structural evolution. Shear-sense indicators and other field observations including overprinting relations clearly demonstrate a complicated Neoproterozoic history of AdSZ, involving at least three phases of deformations (D1-D3). Both D1 and D2 phases were of contractional regime. During D1 phase a NW-SE compression led to the formation of NE-oriented low-angle thrusts and tight-overturned folds. D2 is represented by a NE-SW stress oriented that led to the development of an open folding. D3 is expressed by the NE-SW intensive dextral transcurrent brittle-ductile shearing. It is overprinting the early formed fabrics and played a significant role in the creation of AdSZ and the mega-scale related folds. Such deformation history reflects the same Neoproterozoic deformation regime recognized in the NE-trending shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS).

  15. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    PubMed Central

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  16. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce.

    PubMed

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10(-4). However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10(-4), slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  17. Confidentiality, informed consent and children's participation in the Saudi biobank governance: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Alahmad, G H; Dierickx, K

    2014-12-17

    The growth of research biobanks has created many new ethical challenges worldwide. This article outlines and discusses key issues in the governance of Saudi Biobank, a newly established national biobank in Saudi Arabia launched in 2014. The Saudi Biobank project includes human biological samples from participants aged 10-70 years and aims to conduct an extensive study on the influence of genes, environment and lifestyle in common diseases. We examined the strengths and weaknesses of Saudi Biobank's governance as well as the similarities and differences with 4 other biobanks (in the United Kingdom, Iceland, Estonia and Canada). Three different ethical issues are discussed in detail: confidentiality, informed consent and children's participation in research. We evaluated these issues in relation to international ethical guidelines and Islamic law. The insights gained may be useful in developing national biobanking regulations in other Islamic countries, particularly in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  18. Characteristics of the Home Context for the Nurturing of Gifted Children in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children's analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4-7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth order,…

  19. Sources of Stress among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…

  20. U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd-Hf-O isotopic systematics of the Neoproterozoic Hadb adh Dayheen ring complex, Central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamal A.; Jeon, Heejin; Andresen, Arild; Li, Shuang-Qing; Harbi, Hesham M.; Hegner, Ernst

    2014-10-01

    A combined study of single zircon U-Pb dating, Hf-O zircon isotopic analyses and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions was carried out to infer the magma sources of Neoproterozoic post-collisional A-type granitoids in Saudi Arabia. U-Pb zircon dating of magmatic zircons of two samples from the Hadb adh Dayheen ring complex yielded ages of 625 ± 11 Ma for a hornblende-biotite granite sample, and 613 ± 4 Ma for a monzogranite sample. The granitic rocks show initial εNd values of + 4.1 to + 5.3 and εHf of + 4.5 to + 8.4 that are lower than those of a model depleted mantle (εHf ~+ 14 and εNd ~+ 6.5) and consistent with melting of subduction-related crustal protoliths that were formed during the Neoproterozoic assembly of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Crustal-model ages (Hf-tNC) of 0.81 to 1.1 Ga are inconsistent with depleted-mantle Nd model ages of 0.71 to 0.81 Ga and indicate that the post-collisional Hadb adh Dayheen granites were derived mostly from juvenile crust formed in Neoproterozoic time. Single zircons data show a wide range in δ18O values from + 3.2‰ to + 6.4‰, possibly indicating crystallization of zircon from magma derived from magmatic rocks altered by meteoric water in a magma chamber-caldera system.

  1. An Analysis of Activities in Saudi Arabian Middle School Science Textbooks and Workbooks for the Inclusion of Essential Features of Inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldahmash, Abdulwali H.; Mansour, Nasser S.; Alshamrani, Saeed M.; Almohi, Saeed

    2016-12-01

    This study examines Saudi Arabian middle school science textbooks' coverage of the essential features of scientific inquiry. All activities in the middle school science textbooks and workbooks were analyzed by using the scientific inquiry `essential features' rubric. The results indicated that the essential features are included in about 59 % of the analyzed science activities. However, feature 2, `making learner give priority to evidence in responding to questions' and feature 3, `allowing learner to formulate explanations from evidence' appeared more frequently than the other three features (feature 1: engaging learner in scientifically oriented questions, feature 4: helping learner connect explanations to scientific knowledge, and feature 5: helping learner communicate and justify explanations to others), whether in the activities as a whole, or in the activities included in each of the four science domains (physical science, Earth science, life science and chemistry). These features are represented in almost all activities. This means that almost all activities in the middle school science textbooks and the workbooks include features 2 and 3. Meanwhile, the mean level of inclusion of the five essential features of scientific inquiry found in the middle school science textbooks and workbooks as a whole is 2.55. However, results found for features 1, 4, 5 and for in-level inclusion of the inquiry features in each of the science domains indicate that the inclusion of the essential inquiry features is teacher-centred. As a result, neither science textbooks nor workbooks provide students with the opportunity or encouragement to develop their inquiry skills. Consequently, the results suggest important directions for educational administrators and policy-makers in the preparation and use of science educational content.

  2. Anxiety, Depression, Hostility and General Psychopathology: An Arabian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Abdel-Sattar; Ibrahim, Radwa M.

    In Arabian cultures, the psychosocial characteristics of psychopathological trends, including depression, anxiety, and hostility remain largely unknown. Scales measuring depression, anxiety, and hostility were administered to a voluntary sample of 989 Saudi Arabian men and 1,024 Saudi women coming from different social, economical, and educational…

  3. Parents’ perception of children's obesity, in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly in Saudi Arabia, parents are unable to appreciate obesity in their child. The objective of the study was to identify the percentage of parents who misclassify the status of child's weight, and determine whether there is a difference between those parents whose children are overweight and obese and those with children of normal weight. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 601 children aged 6-10 years. The children were recruited from the primary schools located in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. The body mass index of the children was assessed in the school, and their parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire which contained questions on parental perception of the children's weight/obesity status. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Parents with overweight/obese children had significantly more misclassification than those with normal weight children. Ninety percent of parents of the 81 overweight children misclassified and reported that their child had normal weight, while 65% of parents of the 61 obese children, misclassified the child's weight status. Conclusions: The level of misclassification of children's weight status by parents is high. Saudi parents with overweight and obese children do not recognize their child's weight status. Parents’ awareness of childhood obesity and its negative health impact needs to be improved. PMID:27625586

  4. Application of kinematic vorticity techniques for mylonitized Rocks in Al Amar suture, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimi, Z.; Kassem, O. M. K.; El-Sabrouty, M. N.

    2015-09-01

    The rotation of rigid objects within a flowing viscous medium is a function of several factors including the degree of non-coaxiality. The relationship between the orientation of such objects and their aspect ratio can be used in vorticity analyses in a variety of geological settings. Method for estimation of vorticity analysis to quantitative of kinematic vorticity number (Wm) has been applied using rotated rigid objects, such as quartz and feldspar objects. The kinematic vorticity number determined for high temperature mylonitic Abt schist in Al Amar area, extreme eastern Arabian Shield, ranges from ˜0.8 to 0.9. Obtained results from vorticity and strain analyses indicate that deformation in the area deviated from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during an earlier thrusting event, probably by brittle imbrications. Ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure at high-pressure as revealed by a penetrative subhorizontal foliation that is developed subparallel to tectonic contacts versus the underlying and overlying nappes. Accumulation of ductile strain during underplating was not by simple shear but involved a component of vertical shortening, which caused the subhorizontal foliation in the Al Amar area. In most cases, this foliation was formed concurrently with thrust sheets imbrications, indicating that nappe stacking was associated with vertical shortening.

  5. Geochemical evaluation of felsic plutonic rocks in the eastern and southeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Bray, E.A.; Elliott, James E.; Stoeser, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    In a geochemical evaluation of the eastern and southeastern Arabian Shield, which included collection of 696 rock samples and 694 pan concentrate samples, a province of tin-anomalous granitoid plutons was defined. Pan concentrates collected in and around these plutons were enriched in tin and tungsten relative to the concentrate population. Rock samples of these leucocratic, muscovite-bearing, peraluminous granites contained anomalously high concentrations of lithium, fluorine, beryllium, lead, rubidium, niobium, yttrium, tin, bismuth, silver, and tungsten. Ten tin-anomalous plutons were located in the study area. The plutons are typically small, less than 10 km2 in areal extent, and circular to elliptical in plan view. The resource potential of these latest Proterozoic plutons has not been established; economically exploitable concentrations of tin, tungsten, molybdenum, or zinc may be present, and followup studies are warranted. Further, two of the plutons are characterized by higher than normal total-count radioactivity and have potential for uranium, thorium, or rare-earth element deposits.

  6. The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansour, Faris Abdullah

    The advantages of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are much more than the disadvantages, RES such as solar, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal, which can be used for generating distributed power but cannot directly replace the existing electric energy grid technologies. The latter are far too well established to abandon, while the new RES technologies are not sufficiently developed to meet the total energy demand. Therefore, it is sensible to gradually infuse RES into existing grids and transform the system over time Saudi Arabia (SA) is a semi-developed nation with a population of over twenty nine million people. It is the largest country in western Asia with an area of 2.225MKm2. SA's largest export is oil, owning 1/5 of the world's supply, and producing twelve million barrels a day. However, SA is far behind in developing a smart grid and RES. A lot of this is to do with lack of participation by both the government and the private business sector. Currently SA spends over $13B a year on generating electricity from oil. SA is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East, due to the high demand for transportation and electricity generation. According to the Saudi electrical company, the total amount of generated power in 2011 was 190.280GW. In addition, SA's electricity consumption is currently growing 8% a year. SA aims to generate 55GW of renewable energy by 2020, in order to free up fossil fuels for export. 41GW of the 55GW will be generated from solar energy. Smart grid technologies are also under consideration in SA; this will allow an efficient and reliable way to control the energy in the future. In addition, the potential for wind and geothermal energy is very high. In this thesis, there is a full exploration of RES components which are critical to manage carbon emission and the limitations of the current grid to the new RES technologies, which face barriers to full-scale deployment. A study in Dhahran, SA has been simulated on a installing a Dual

  7. Broadband Seismic Characterization of the Arabian Shield,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-14

    Mohammed Al- Suwaiyel, the Vice President for Research of the King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology ( KACST ), the government agency responsible...Geophysical Research, 96 (1991) 20179- 20185. Badri, M., Qp and velocity crustal structure of central Saudi Arabia, KACST project final report 09-006 (1989...Arabian Peninsula from surface waves, KACST project final report 10-48 (1992), 259 p. Mooney, W.D., M.E. Gettings, H.R. Blank, and J.H. Healy. Saudi Arabian

  8. Common Eye Diseases in Children in Saudi Arabia (Jazan)

    PubMed Central

    Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS We reviewed the files of 385 children, with a male/female ratio of 1.1:1.0. The group aged 0–6 years made up the largest group (P = 0.01), and the ratio is an expression to define the credibility of the study using a chi-squared test. Strabismus (36.9%), RE (26.5%), ocular trauma (7.5%), infection of cornea and conjunctiva (7.3%), and keratoconus (6.2%) were the most common conditions. There was no significant difference in presentation by age group and sex among children with REs and squint. Trauma was seen more commonly among males and in the group aged 12–18 years. CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, the focus was on the common childhood eye diseases that were considerably high

  9. Exhumation of Mid-Crustal Rocks in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Baladaya Complex of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees

    2013-04-01

    Upper amphibolite facies rocks from mid-crustal levels are exhumed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield as metamorphic complexes surrounded by low-grade rocks. These middle crustal level rocks were exhumed during the East- and West-Gondwana collision (Pan-African event) in a time interval of ca. 630 to 590 Ma. One of these metamorphic complexes (i.e. Baladaya complex) shows a complicated exhumation history. Four major rock types are found in the study area. They are: a) metamorphic rocks of upper-amphibolite facies which represent the core of the Baladaya complex. Angular unconformity separates the upper-amphibolite facies rocks away from other rock types in the complex, b) metamorphic rocks of greenschist-amphibolite facies transition. These rocks lie directly above the upper-amphibolite facies rocks (type: a) and below Thalbah molasse sediments (type: c). The lower section of the Thalbah sediments shows metamorphism in lower-greenschist facies. The types (a) and (b) were exhumed underneath the Thalbah sediments (type c) as a flower structure. This flower structure can be confirmed in the field by presence of granitic rocks (rock type: d) bounded by thrust planes. The thrust planes surround the Baladaya complex and dip toward the inner part of the complex while the Thalbah molasse sediments as a footwall to the thrust planes. This geological setting indicates that the complex was exhumed at least three times during the activity of the Pan-African event. The first exhumation was prior to the deposition of sediments, which metamorphosed later to be metamorphic rocks of greenschist-amphibolite facies transition (type: b). The second exhumation was prior the deposition of Thalbah molasse sediments. The third exhumation was by the formation of thrust planes and the regional flower structure of the Baladaya complex.

  10. The morphological and molecular characterization of Myxobolus khaliji n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) from the double bar seabream Acanthopagrus bifasciatus (Forsskål, 1775) in the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin Y; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2014-06-01

    Myxobolus khaliji n. sp., a new myxosporean, is described from the intestinal wall of the double bar seabream Acanthopagrus bifasciatus, collected from the Arabian Gulf off the coast of Saudi Arabia. It is characterized by the presence of ellipsoidal or round plasmodia of 2-4 mm in diameter. Mature spores were subspherical to elliptical in the frontal view, with a slightly pointed anterior end and a bluntly rounded posterior end, and measured 8.1 ± 0.4 (7.2-9.5) μm long, 6.3 ± 0.6 (5.1-7.4) μm wide, and 9.2 ± 0.7 (8.3-10.2) thick. Spore valves are relatively thin, sometimes with a prominent thick caudal appendage. Two equal elliptical polar capsules were situated in the plane of the suture line at the anterior end of the spores and occupied above half of the spore length. Polar capsules measured 5.5 ± 0.7 (4.1-6.1) μm long and 3.2 ± 0.2 (2.1-4.2) μm wide. Polar filaments, wound in three to four coils, were situated perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the polar capsules. Combining the morphological characteristics, host specificity and geographical distribution, tissue tropism, and the molecular analysis of the partial sequence of the SSU ribosomal DNA gene, it was concluded that M. khaliji n. sp. was distinct from all previously described Myxobolus species. Phylogenetic analysis placed the present Myxobolus species in a marine Henneguya clade, which is a sister group of marine Myxobolus species. This is the first Myxobolus species with Henneguya-like spores from the marine environment to be found in the Saudi Arabian coasts of the Arabian Gulf.

  11. User acceptance of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in a Saudi Arabian hospital radiology department

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Compared with the increasingly widespread use of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs), knowledge concerning users’ acceptance of such systems is limited. Knowledge of acceptance is needed given the large (and growing) financial investment associated with the implementation of PACSs, and because the level of user acceptance influences the degree to which the benefits of the systems for healthcare can be realized. Methods A Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used to assess the level of acceptance of the host PACS by staff in the radiology department at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire survey of 89 PACS users was employed to obtain data regarding user characteristics, perceived usefulness (PU) (6 items), perceived ease of use (PEU) (4 items), a change construct (4 items), and a behavior (acceptance) construct (9 items). Respondents graded each item in each construct using five-point likert scales. Results Surveyed users reported high levels of PU (4.33/5), PEU (4.15/5), change (4.26/5), and acceptance (3.86/5). The three constructs of PU, PEU, and change explained 41 % of the variation in PACS user acceptance. PU was the most important predictor, explaining 38 % of the variation on its own. The most important single item in the explanatory constructs was that users found PACS to have improved the quality of their work in providing better patient care. Technologists had lower acceptance ratings than did clinicians/radiologists, but no influence on acceptance level was found due to gender, age, or length of experience using the PACS. Although not directly measured, there appeared to be no cultural influence on either the level of acceptance or its determinants. Conclusions User acceptance must be considered when an organization implements a PACS, in order to enhance its successful adoption. Health organizations should adopt a PACS that offers all required functions and which is likely to

  12. Bored boys, graffiti, and YouTube - tracing recent groundwater level changes in a Saudi Arabian cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Nils; Dirks, Heiko; Schulz, Stephan; Kempe, Stephan; Schüth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The Dahl Hith cave is located approximately 30 km southeast of Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. In the past decades, the groundwater table exposed inside the cave became subject to appreciable changes. After a decline due to agricultural water abstraction for irrigation purposes, the water table exhibited a rapid rise in the last few years. Considering that most of the aquifers of the country show a depletion of the largely fossil groundwater, the mentioned rise is quite unusual. The area does not host an observation well, i.e., reliable data on the piezometric changes is hitherto not available. Hence, two uncommon data sources were used to reconstruct the water level changes: (1) YouTube videos and (2) graffiti inscriptions. (1) The cave is frequently visited by locals and expats from Riyadh and many visitors are willing to share their cave adventures on YouTube. Identifying certain reference points in the uploaded videos (e.g. specific boulders, cave graffiti) and estimating their position relative to the water table allows for an approximate reconstruction of the recent groundwater rise. Information on the observation time is derived from the uploading date. Occasionally, also the exact date of the visit is provided as part of the footage description. (2) Some people documented their visit by graffiti inscriptions. These do not only serve as a marker in the videos, but also contain genuine data on historic water levels: if written on parts of the cave wall, which are only accessible from the water, they indicate the water level at the time of their creation. Fortunately, some graffiti also feature the date of the visit. In order to improve the reliability of the water level estimations, measurements conducted in the course of own site visits in the past few years were considered for the evaluation. Also photographs taken during these surveys helped to improve the quality of the water level reconstruction. The described "Youtube Approach" could be interpreted

  13. Birth outcome measures and maternal exposure to heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) in Saudi Arabian population.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune; Mashhour, Abdullah; Rabah, Abdullah

    2014-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the association between exposure to heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) during pregnancy and birth outcomes in 1578 women aged 16-50 years who delivered in Al-Kharj hospital, Saudi Arabia, in 2005 and 2006. The levels of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in umbilical cord blood, maternal blood and the placenta. Outcome variables were anthropometric measures taken at birth, along with the risk of being small-for-gestational age (SGA). We selected the 10th percentile as the cutoff for dichotomizing measures of birth outcome. Cadmium, despite its partial passage through the placenta had the most prominent effect on several measures of birth outcome. After adjustment for potential confounders, logistic regression models revealed that crown-heel length (p=0.034), the Apgar 5-minute score (p=0.004), birth weight (p=0.015) and SGA (p=0.049) were influenced by cadmium in the umbilical cord blood. Significant decreases in crown-heel length (p=0.007) and placental thickness (p=0.022) were seen with higher levels of cadmium in maternal blood. As placental cadmium increased, cord length increased (p=0.012) and placental thickness decreased (p=0.032). Only lead levels in maternal blood influenced placental thickness (p=0.011). Mercury in both umbilical cord and maternal blood was marginally associated with placental thickness and placental weight, respectively. Conversely, placental mercury levels significantly influenced head circumference (p=0.017), the Apgar 5-minute score (p=0.01) and cord length (p=0.026). The predictions of these models were further assessed with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curves (ROCs), which were modest (larger than 0.5 and smaller than 0.7). The independence of gestational age or preterm births on the observed effect of metals on some measures of birth outcome, suggested detrimental effects of exposure on fetal development. The magnitude of the estimated effects

  14. Nature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Arabian Shield and genesis of Al-spinel micropods: Evidence from the mantle xenoliths of Harrat Kishb, Western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Moghazi, Abdel Kader M.; Moufti, Mohamed R.; Dawood, Yehia H.; Ali, Kamal A.

    2016-01-01

    The Harrat Kishb area of western Saudi Arabia is part of the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the western margin of the Arabian Shield. Numerous fresh ultramafic xenoliths are entrained in the basanite lava of Harrat Kishb, providing an opportunity to study the nature and petrogenetic processes involved in the evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Arabian Shield. Based on the petrological characteristics and mineralogical compositions, the majority of the mantle xenoliths ( 92%) are peridotites (lherzolites and pyroxene-bearing harzburgites); the remaining xenoliths ( 8%) are unusual spinel-rich wehrlites containing black Al-spinel micropods. The two types of mantle xenoliths display magmatic protogranular texture. The peridotite xenoliths have high bulk-rock Mg#, high forsterite (Fo90-Fo92) and NiO (0.24-0.46 wt.%) contents of olivine, high clinopyroxene Mg# (0.91-0.93), variable spinel Cr# (0.10-0.49, atomic ratio), and approximately flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns. These features indicate that the peridotite xenoliths represent residues after variable degrees of melt extraction from fertile mantle. The estimated P (9-16 kbar) and T (877-1227 °C) as well as the oxidation state (∆logfO2 = - 3.38 to - 0.22) under which these peridotite xenoliths originated are consistent with formation conditions similar to most sub-arc abyssal-type peridotites worldwide. The spinel-rich wehrlite xenoliths have an unusual amount ( 30 vol.%) of Al-spinel as peculiar micropods with very minor Cr2O3 content (< 1 wt.%). Olivines of the spinel-rich wehrlites have low-average Fo (Fo81) and NiO (0.18 wt.%) contents, low-average cpx Mg# (0.79), high average cpx Al2O3 content (8.46 wt.%), and very low-average spinel Cr# (0.01). These features characterize early mantle cumulates from a picritic melt fraction produced by low degrees of partial melting of a garnet-bearing mantle source. The relatively high Na2O and Al2O3 contents of cpx suggest that the spinel-rich wehrlites

  15. The Impact of Bilingualism on the Creative Capabilities of Kindergarten Children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Saud, Al Johara Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that encounter the issue of bilingualism due to the spread of private schools that offer programs in different languages. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of bilingualism on the creative capabilities (Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, Details) of kindergarten children in Riyadh. It aims at…

  16. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  17. Effect of physical activity and sun exposure on vitamin D status of Saudi children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East. In this context, we aimed to determine whether the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is related to degree of physical activity and sun exposure among apparently healthy Saudi children and adolescents, a little studied population. Methods A total of 331 Saudi children aged 6–17 years (153 boys and 178 girls) were included in this cross sectional study. Levels of physical activity and sun exposure were determined using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometry, serum calcium and 25-(OH) vitamin D were analyzed. Results All subjects were vitamin D deficient, the majority being moderately deficient (71.6%). Age was the single most significant predictor affecting 25 (OH) Vitamin D levels, explaining 21% of the variance perceived (p = 1.68 x 10-14). Age-matched comparisons revealed that for groups having the same amount of sun exposure, those with moderate or are physically active will have higher levels of vitamin D status, though levels in across groups remained deficient. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi children and adolescents, and is influenced by both sun exposure and physical activity. Promotion of an active outdoor lifestyle among Saudi children in both homes and schools may counteract the vitamin D deficiency epidemic in this vulnerable population. Vitamin D supplementation is suggested in all groups, including those with the highest sun exposure and physical activity. PMID:22759399

  18. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260

  19. The Identification of Issues Serving as Barriers to Positive Educational Experiences for Saudi Arabian Students Studying in the State of Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, V. Jean

    2009-01-01

    The United States has experienced unrivaled success in attracting international students for higher education studies. Saudi Arabia has sponsored students for study in the United States since 1950, with the number of students on scholarship varying according to the fluctuation in oil prices. The cultures of Saudi Arabia and the United States…

  20. Aetiology of chronic diarrhoea in children: experience at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, A M

    1994-01-01

    Forty-eight cases of chronic diarrhoea in children seen at King Khalid University Hospital over a 5-year period were analysed. The mean age at presentation was 1.8 years (range 0.08-10 years); 34 were boys and 14 girls. Forty-four patients were Saudi and four were non-Saudi Arabs. Most children presented with failure to thrive and pallor. The aetiological factors identified were: the post-gastro-enteritis syndrome with or without lactose intolerance in 16 (33%); coeliac disease in ten (21%); congenital chloride diarrhoea in five (10%); glucose-galactose malabsorption and acrodermatitis enteropathica, each in three (6%); ulcerative colitis, intestinal lymphangiectasia, cow's milk protein intolerance and ataxia telangiectasia, each in two (4%); and giardiasis, immune deficiency and cystic fibrosis, each in one (2%). Five children died.

  1. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations Congressional...production at high prices to fund national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion, and an Enduring Rivalry, USIP...U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 20 Saudi Arabian National Guard

  2. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s discovery in 1938 of substantial oil reserves in eastern Saudi Arabia and subsequent private and public... national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion, and an Enduring Rivalry, USIP, Special Report No. 157, January 2006, p...20 U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) . . . . . . . . 21 Saudi Arabian National Guard Modernization Program (PM

  3. The potential of Pleistocene volcanism for constraining the palaeo-environmental history of the Arabian peninsula: 40Ar/39Ar dating of Al Wahbah maar crater, Harrat Kishb, Saudi Arabia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Wahab, Antar; Stuart, Finlay M.; Abul Maaty, Mostafa; Awad, Hesham; Kafafy, Aziz

    2013-04-01

    The Arabian peninsula is a critical region for early human migration out of Africa. Pleistocene climatic conditions have fluctuated between wet and dry extremes several times and have had a profound effect on environment and, likely, the development of human populations in the region. However, absolute chronological constraints on regional environmental and climatic changes are poor. The western margin of the Arabian peninsula is covered by 180,000 km2 of Cenozoic to Recent lava flows and related volcanic rocks that record palaeo-climatic conditions. Precise dating of these volcanic rocks has the potential to refine the climatic- environmental evolution of the region. We report a detailed geological and geochronological study of Al Wahbah maar crater (~2.2 km diameter, ~250 m deep) in Harrat Kishb, Saudi Arabia. It formed during a phreatomagmatic explosion that dissected a scoria cone on the northern wall of the crater that exposes a dolerite plug that was intruded immediately prior to crater formation. Pillow lavas at the base of the cone demonstrate that the phreatomagmatic eruption occurred during interaction between magma and a shallow lake or river, rather than groundwater. The 40Ar/39Ar age of dolerite plug (1.147 ± 0.004 Ma) reflects the time that Al Wahbah maar crater formed. More importantly it puts a firm date on the presence of abundant surface water. This study provides constraints on the timing of humid climatic conditions in the region and suggests that the Quaternary basaltic volcanism that stretches the length of the western side of the Arabian peninsula may prove to be useful for establishing the timing of palaeoclimatic changes.

  4. iPads Enhance Social Interaction Skills among Hearing-Impaired Children of Low Income Families in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahatheg, Raja Omar

    2015-01-01

    This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…

  5. Citizenship among a Sample of Hearing and Hearing Impaired Kindergarten's Children in Al-Riyadh Saudi Arabia "Comparative Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkestani, Maryam Hafez; Bahatheg, Raja' Omar

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying statistically significant differences in citizenship between Saudi hearing and hearing impaired children. The study sample consisted of (167) hearing and (42) hearing impaired children at public kindergartens in Al-Riyadh city, (82) of whom were males and (127) were female children. Data was collected using…

  6. Characteristics of Pediatric Crohn's Disease in Saudi Children: A Multicenter National Study

    PubMed Central

    Saadah, Omar I.; El Mouzan, Mohammad; Al Mofarreh, Mohammad; Al Mehaidib, Ali; Al Edreesi, Mohammad; Hasosah, Mohammed; Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlSaleem, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Crohn's disease (CD) is an evolving disease in KSA. Little is known about its characteristics in the Saudi population. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of Saudi children with CD and to determine whether the characteristics of CD in KSA are different from those seen in Western countries. Methods. In this study, children younger than eighteen years of age diagnosed with CD between January 2003 and December 2012 were included. Results. Of 330 patients identified, 186 (56.4%) were males. The median age at diagnosis was 15.8 years. A positive family history for IBD in first-degree relatives occurred in 13.6% of patients. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (84.2%), weight loss (75.2%), and diarrhea (71.8%). The main disease location was ileocolonic (42.1%) and the main disease behavior was nonstricturing and nonpenetrating (63.6%). Perianal involvement was seen in 60 (18.2%) patients. Laboratory findings revealed anemia in 57.9% of patients, low albumin in 34.5%, and high CRP in 39.4%. Conclusions. Saudi children with CD have lower frequency of first-degree relatives with IBD, lower prevalence of early onset disease, longer diagnostic delay, higher prevalence of growth failure, and greater frequency of stricturing and penetrating disease behavior compared to Western patients. PMID:26858752

  7. Does size matter? Comparison of body temperature and activity of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica) in the Saudi desert.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-04-01

    Heterothermy, a variability in body temperature beyond the normal limits of homeothermy, is widely viewed as a key adaptation of arid-adapted ungulates. However, desert ungulates with a small body mass, i.e. a relatively large surface area-to-volume ratio and a small thermal inertia, are theoretically less likely to employ adaptive heterothermy than are larger ungulates. We measured body temperature and activity patterns, using implanted data loggers, in free-ranging Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx, ±70 kg) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica, ±15 kg) inhabiting the same Arabian desert environment, at the same time. Compared to oryx, sand gazelle had higher mean daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 47.3, P = 0.0005), higher minimum daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 42.6, P = 0.0006) and higher maximum daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 11.0, P = 0.02). Despite these differences, both species responded similarly to changes in environmental conditions. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, maximum daily body temperature increased (F(1,6) = 84.0, P < 0.0001), minimum daily body temperature decreased (F(1,6) = 92.2, P < 0.0001), and daily body temperature amplitude increased (F(1,6) = 97.6, P < 0.0001) as conditions got progressively hotter and drier. There were no species differences in activity levels, however, both gazelle and oryx showed a biphasic or crepuscular rhythm during the warm wet season but shifted to a more nocturnal rhythm during the hot dry season. Activity was attenuated during the heat of the day at times when both species selected cool microclimates. These two species of Arabian ungulates employ heterothermy, cathemerality and shade seeking very similarly to survive the extreme, arid conditions of Arabian deserts, despite their size difference.

  8. Patterns of knee osteoarthritis in Arabian and American knees.

    PubMed

    Hodge, W Andrew; Harman, Melinda K; Banks, Scott A

    2009-04-01

    This study illustrates differences in the cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritic knees in patients with more frequent hyperflexion activities of daily living compared with Western patients. Proximal tibial articular cartilage wear and cruciate ligament condition were assessed in Saudi Arabian and North American patients with varus osteoarthritis undergoing total knee arthroplasty. In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) intact knees, there were significant differences in wear location, with a clearly more anterior pattern in Saudi Arabian knees. Complete ACL deficiency occurred in 25% of North American knees but only 14% of Saudi Arabian knees. These ACL-deficient knees showed the most severe cartilage wear in both groups and posterior medial wear patterns. Biomechanical descriptions of knee flexion and axial rotation during kneeling or squatting are consistent with the more pronounced anteromedial and posterolateral cartilage wear patterns observed on the Saudi Arabian knees. These observations provide insight into altered knee mechanics in 2 culturally different populations with different demands on knee flexion.

  9. Socioeconomic Impacts of Gluten-Free Diet among Saudi Children with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Saeed, Elshazaly; Alanazi, Aziz; Alghamdi, Sharifa; Anil, Shirin; Assiri, Asaad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the socio-economic impact of gluten free diet (GFD) on Saudi children and their families. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in which an online questionnaire was sent to all families registered in the Saudi celiac patients support group. We included only children (age 18 years of age and younger) with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease (CD). Results A total of 113 children were included in the final analysis, the median age was 9.9 years; 62.8% were females. One hundred (88.5%) of the participating families reported that GFD food was not easily available in their areas, 17% of them reported that it was not available at all in their area. One hundred and six (93.8%) reported that the price of GFD food was very expensive and 70 (61.9%) families that the diet was heavily affecting their family budget. Significant social difficulties were reported among the participating families and their children including interference with the child's interaction with other children (49.6%), the families' ability to attend social gatherings (60.2%), the families' ability to eat in restaurants (73.5%), and the families' ability to travel (58.4%). Conclusion There is significant negative socio-economic impact of GFD on children with CD & their families. Health care providers should be aware of these psycho-social difficulties and be well trained to provide a proper education and psychological support for these patients and their families. PMID:27738597

  10. Head lice infestations (Anoplura: Pediculidae) in Saudi and non-Saudi school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bosely, Hanan Aboalkasem; El-Alfy, Nadia M

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence and human risk factors associated with head lice infestation was studied. A total of 860 children, 474 (55.1%) boys and 386 (44.9%) girls, with ages ranged from 6-13 years were critically examined. They were randomly selected from two schoolchildren (one for boys and one for girls) in Jazan Province. The children or their parents were subjected to questionnaire and physical examination by visual inspections of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphs, and/or eggs (nits). A total of 114 children (13.3%) were infested with head lice, 73 (18.9%) girls and 41 (8.6%) boys. The highest infestation rate was recorded in rural area (20.5%). Pediculosis had a negative association with father's education level and frequency of hair washing (p > 0.01). The results indicated that rural residence, sex, long hair, age- group 6- < 8 years old, positive history of previous infestation, sharing of beds and combs, uneducated mother and family overcrowding might be the risk factors for the head lice infestation.

  11. Preliminary assessment of the geochemistry and mineral favorability of the postorogenic granites of the southeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, John S.; VanTrump, G.; Christiansen, E.H.; Bush, C.A.; Bunker, C.M.; Bartel, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Further quantitative analysis is recommended to verify and accurately delineate anomalous concentrations of trace elements. Trend surface analysis of all available data for postorogenic granites from the eastern Arabian Shield is suggested as a method for testing regional variations in the protolith that might control locations of highly favorable areas of ore deposition.

  12. Parents' Perceptions of Early Interventions and Related Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alotaibi, Faihan; Almalki, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to examine parents' perceptions of early interventions and related services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Saudi Arabia. In this study a survey was distributed to a sample of 80 parents with children who have ASD. Parents also were asked open-ended questions to enable them to provide suggestions. The…

  13. Felsic plutonic rocks of the Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia—II. Pilot study in chemical classification of Arabian granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, Colin R.; Odell, John; Drysdall, Alan R.

    A universal classification scheme for felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield remains an important and elusive objective. The extensive data available for felsic plutonic rocks of the Midyan region, which have been assigned to intrusive suites of the alkali granite, alkali-feldspar granite, monzogranite, granodiorite and trondhjemite associations, provide material for a pilot study. Discriminant analysis of compositional data has yielded multivariate classification functions which successfully assign samples to their proper suites. Functions which use major-oxide values have a better success rate than those based on trace elements, but both are particularly effective in distinguishing samples of the two suites with important mineralizing potential. Test classification of data from another part of the Arabian Shield suggests that the technique and the classification functions are effective beyond the Midyan region. Multivariate discriminant analysis can therefore be used as an aid to mapping, correlating and/or assessing the mineral potential of felsic plutons, and may form the basis for an objective, sensitive and concise classification scheme for Arabian felsic plutonic rocks.

  14. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-30

    Oil Company [CASOC, the forerunner of the Arabian American Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi ...Assistance to Saudi Arabia , FY2002-FY2009 ....................................................... 15 Table 3. U.S. Oil Consumption and Imports...New York University Press, 2000. Saudi Arabia in Brief Population (2009): 28,686,633 (includes 5,576,076 non- nationals ) Growth rate: 1.85%

  15. Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali

    2006-01-01

    After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to…

  16. Empty Quarter, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the northeast end of the Saudi Arabian desert called the Rub-Al-Khali (Empty Quarter) (21.0N, 53.0E) is the great sand dune field known as the Ash Shaiba. Here, the dunes reach great heights and are held at the maximum angle of repose by the wind. Any disturbance of the base will cause a great cascade of sand burying an intruder like a great wave. The dunes are of a classic style known as 'Barcans'.

  17. Teaching College Computer Courses in Saudi Arabia (Issues Concerning the Classroom and the Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebhun, Herbert F.

    This report provides information concerning one teacher's experience in teaching college courses for Arkansas State University in the area of computer information systems to Saudi Arabian men employed by the Saudi Arabian Customs Automation Department. The students had spent approximately 2 years in Arkansas taking courses, and then went back to…

  18. Microstructural finite strain analysis and 40Ar/39Ar evidence for the origin of the Mizil gneiss dome, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, Ahmad M.; Kassem, Osama M. K.

    2012-07-01

    The Mizil antiform is a gneiss-cored culmination situated near the northern end of the Ar Rayn island arc terrane, which is the easternmost exposed tectonic unit of the Arabian Shield. This domal structure has a mantle of metamorphosed volcanosedimentary rocks belonging to the Al-Amar Group, and an igneous interior made up of foliated granodiorite-tonalite with adakitic affinity. The gneissic core has a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 689 ± 10 Ma making it the oldest rock unit in the Ar Rayn terrane. An adakite diapir, formed by the melting of the subducted crust of a young marginal basin, and rising through the volcanosedimentary succession of the Ar Rayn island arc is thought to have caused the observed doming. Relatively uniform strain throughout the dome combined with strong vertical shortening and the roughly radial pattern of stretching lineation is consistent with diapirism; the absence of strain localization rules out detachment faulting as a causative mechanism. Amphibolites from the metamorphic envelope have an 40Ar/39Ar age of 615 ± 2 Ma; the age gap between core and cover is thought to reflect the resetting of metamorphic ages during the final suturing event, a phenomenon that is often observed throughout the eastern shield. Aeromagnetic anomalies beneath the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover indicate the presence of a collage of accreted terranes east of the Ar Rayn terrane that were probably amalgamated onto the Arabian margin during the latest stages of the closure of the Mozambique ocean; culminant orogeny is believed to have taken place between 620 and 600 Ma as these terrane collided with a major continental mass to the east referred to here as the eastern Arabian block (EAB). The Mizil gneiss dome is therefore considered to have formed in a convergent contractional setting rather than being the outcome of extensional post-orogenic collapse.

  19. Upper mantle structure under western Saudi Arabia from Rayleigh wave tomography and the origin of Cenozoic uplift and volcanism on the Arabian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-11-09

    The shear velocity structure of the shallow upper mantle beneath the Arabian Shield has been modeled by inverting new Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 45 and 140 s together with previously published Rayleigh wave group velocity measurement between 10 and 45 s. For measuring phase velocities, we applied a modified array method that minimizes the distortion of raypaths by lateral heterogeneity. The new shear velocity model shows a broad low velocity region in the lithospheric mantle across the Shield and a low velocity region at depths {ge} 150 km localized along the Red Sea coast and Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. The velocity reduction in the upper mantle corresponds to a temperature anomaly of {approx}250-330 K. These finding, in particular the region of continuous low velocities along the Red Sea and MMN volcanic line, do not support interpretations for the origin of the Cenozoic plateau uplift and volcanism on the Shield invoking two separate plumes. When combined with images of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities beneath the southern part of the Arabian Shield, body wave tomographic models, a S-wave polarization analysis, and SKS splitting results, our new model supports an interpretation invoking a thermal upwelling of warm mantle rock originating in the lower mantle under Africa that crosses through the transition zone beneath Ethiopia and moves to the north and northwest under the eastern margin of the Red Sea and the Arabian Shield. In this interpretation, the difference in mean elevation between the Platform and Shield can be attributed to isostatic uplift caused by heating of the lithospheric mantle under the Shield, with significantly higher region along the Red Sea possibly resulting from a combination of lithosphere thinning and dynamic uplift.

  20. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Calcium Homeostasis in Saudi Children

    PubMed Central

    Al Shaikh, Adnan M.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa; Soliman, Ashraf; Kaddam, Ibrahim; Aseri, Khalid; Al Saleh, Yousef; Al Qarni, Ali; Al Shuaibi, Ahmed; Al Tamimi, Waleed; Mukhtar, Abdel Moniem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) are significant health problems all over the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of VDD and VDI in children and adolescents residing in 8 provinces in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to also investigate calcium homeostasis in these subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2110 participants aged between 6 and 15 years. Information on socio-demographic status, anthropometric measurements, knowledge about vitamin D, color of the skin, dietary intake, sun exposure experience, smoking, and physical activity were collected through a questionnaire given to the parents of all subjects. The subjects were divided into three groups as vitamin D deficient, vitamin D insufficient, and vitamin sufficient according to their blood level of vitamin D [VDD ≤25 nmol/L (25 hydroxy vitamin D), VDI >25-50 nmol/L, and VDS >50 nmol/L]. Results: VDD was highly prevalent in this group of children. 95.3 of the subjects had either VDD (45.5%) or VDI (49.9%). The prevalence rate of VDD combined with VDI was higher in females (97.8%) compared to males (92.8%) (p<0.001). Only 1.6% had significant hypocalcaemia. Children with dark skin had lower concentrations of vitamin D and higher concentrations of parathormone. A positive correlation was observed between 25 hydroxy vitamin D level and serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations. Conclusion: The results showed a high prevalence of VDD and VDI in Saudi children with significantly higher prevalence in girls. These findings necessitate the set-up of a national program for vitamin D supplementation and health education for this vulnerable group. PMID:27476528

  1. Acute viral respiratory infections among children in MERS-endemic Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Fagbo, Shamsudeen F; Garbati, Musa A; Hasan, Rami; AlShahrani, Dayel; Al-Shehri, Mohamed; AlFawaz, Tariq; Hakawi, Ahmed; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Skakni, Leila

    2017-02-01

    The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia has intensified focus on Acute Respiratory Infections [ARIs]. This study sought to identify respiratory viruses (RVs) associated with ARIs in children presenting at a tertiary hospital. Children (aged ≤13) presenting with ARI between January 2012 and December 2013 tested for 15 RVs using the Seeplex(R) RV15 kit were retrospectively included. Epidemiological data was retrieved from patient records. Of the 2235 children tested, 61.5% were ≤1 year with a male: female ratio of 3:2. Viruses were detected in 1364 (61.02%) children, 233 (10.4%) having dual infections: these viruses include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (24%), human rhinovirus (hRV) (19.7%), adenovirus (5.7%), influenza virus (5.3%), and parainfluenzavirus-3 (4.6%). Children, aged 9-11 months, were most infected (60.9%). Lower respiratory tract infections (55.4%) were significantly more than upper respiratory tract infection (45.3%) (P < 0.001). Seasonal variation of RV was directly and inversely proportional to relative humidity and temperature, respectively, for non MERS coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, and OC43). The study confirms community-acquired RV associated with ARI in children and suggests modulating roles for abiotic factors in RV epidemiology. However, community-based studies are needed to elucidate how these factors locally influence RV epidemiology. J. Med. Virol. 89:195-201, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [The weight of immigration in Saudi Arabia].

    PubMed

    De Klebnikoff, S

    1982-01-01

    The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force.

  3. Neoproterozoic Structural Evolution of the NE-trending 620-540 Ma Ad-Damm Shear Zone, Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimi, Z.; El-Sawy, E. K.; El-Fakharan, A. S.; Shujoon, A.; Matsah, M.; El-Shafei, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ad-Damm Shear Zone (ASZ) is a NE-trending fault zone separating Jeddah and Asir tectonostratigraphic terranes in the Neoproterozoic juvenile Arabian Shield. ASZ extends ~380 km, with an average width ~2-3 km, from the eye-catching Ruwah Fault Zone in the eastern shield to the Red Sea Coastal plain. It was believed to be one of the conjugate shears of the NW- to NNW- trending sinistral Najd Shear System based on noteworthy dextral shear criteria recorded within the 620 Ma sheared granites of Numan Complex, as well as right-lateral offsets within quartz veins and dikes transected by the shear zone. The present study is an integrated field-based structural analysis and remote sensing. We utilized the ASTER data for lithologic discrimination and automatic structural lineament extraction and analysis of the Neoproterozoic basement lithologies encountered along and within the vicinity of ASZ. Various false color composite images were generated and evaluated for lithological mapping and structural lineaments. The obtained map was analyzed using GIS techniques to interpret the behavior of the existing lineaments and their spatial distribution. Based on the results of the ASTER data, two significant areas; around Bir Ad-Damm and to the south of Wadi Numan, are selected for detailed field investigation. Shear-sense indicators and overprinting relations clearly show a complicated Neoproterozoic history of ASZ, involving at least three deformations: (1) an early attenuated NE-SW sinistral shearing; followed by (2) a SE-directed thrusting phase resulted in the formation SE-verging thrusts and associated thrust-related folds; and (3) late NE-SW intensive dextral transcurrent shearing played a significant role in the creation of mesoscopic shear-zone related folds, particularly in the area near Bir Ad-Damm. Such deformation history demonstrates the same episode of Neoproterozoic deformation exhibited in the NE-trending shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS).

  4. DISCRIMINATION OF GRANITOIDS AND MINERALIZED GRANITOIDS IN THE MIDYAN REGION, NORTHWESTERN ARABIAN SHIELD, SAUDI ARABIA, BY LANDSAT MSS DATA-ANALYSIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Grolier, Maurice J.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) band and band-ratio databases of two scenes covering the Midyan region of northwestern Saudi Arabia were examined quantitatively and qualitatively to determine which databases best discriminate the geologic units of this semi-arid and arid region. Unsupervised, linear-discriminant cluster-analysis was performed on these two band-ratio combinations and on the MSS bands for both scenes. The results for granitoid-rock discrimination indicated that the classification images using the MSS bands are superior to the band-ratio classification images for two reasons, discussed in the paper. Yet, the effects of topography and material type (including desert varnish) on the MSS-band data produced ambiguities in the MSS-band classification results. However, these ambiguities were clarified by using a simulated natural-color image in conjunction with the MSS-band classification image.

  5. Impact of MIF Gene Promoter Variations on Risk of Rheumatic Heart Disease and Its Age of Onset in Saudi Arabian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Atiyeh M.; Al-Mazroea, Abdulhadi H.; Al-Harbi, Waleed N.; Al-Harbi, Nabeeh A.; Eldardear, Amr E.; Almohammadi, Yousef; Al-Harbi, Khalid M.

    2016-01-01

    Although macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has consistently been shown to be an important immune modulator, data on the association between MIF promoter variations and the risk of developing rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remain inconclusive. RHD is an important complication of streptococcal infections in the Middle East, not least in Saudi Arabia, and identifying risk markers is an important priority. Therefore, we investigated the association between two functional MIF promoter variations and RHD susceptibility and severity in Saudi patients: the MIF-173G > C substitution (rs755622) and the MIF-794 CATT5–8 tetranucleotide repeat (rs5844572). Three hundred twenty-six individuals (124 RHD patients and 202 age-, sex-, and ethnically matched healthy controls) were genotyped using allelic discrimination and fragment analysis. Data were analyzed with respect to disease susceptibility, severity, sex, and age of onset. There was a significantly lower frequency of 173C allele carriage in RHD patients compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) = 0.47; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 0.28–0.77; p = 0.003]. Interestingly, the 173C allele was associated with late disease onset (p = 0.001). The 794 5-repeat allele was associated with decreased RHD risk (OR = 0.56; 95% CIs = 0.38–0.82; p = 0.003). In contrast, the 794 6-repeat allele was associated with increased risk of RHD (OR = 1.7; 95% CIs = 1.2–2.5; p = 0.002). MIF promoter variations appear to have a dual role in RHD, with 173C allele non-carriers at higher risk of developing RHD at a younger age. These results require further validation in larger multi-ethnic cohorts, and functional studies are necessary to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms driving the at-risk phenotype. PMID:27014277

  6. Learning and Teaching Vocabulary Acquisition: Analysing One Unit of a Textbook in the Saudi Arabia Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashrah, Hind Talal

    2013-01-01

    Saudi Arabian Ministry of Education is seeking for the best English language textbook to be taught in schools in order to develop the Saudi education in the future. To choose the most beneficial one, frameworks or tools were designed to analyze and to evaluate a unit of a textbook in Saudi Arabia based on standard criteria. These standard criteria…

  7. Arabian Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... sometimes results in copious phytoplankton production and oxygen depletion of the subsurface waters. Although red phytoplankton fluorescences have been associated with the low oxygen concentrations in the intermediate and deep waters of the Arabian Sea, ...

  8. U-Pb isotopic evidence for the accretion of a continental microplate in the Zalm region of the Saudi Arabian Shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Agar, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This area includes three of the main tectonic units of the Arabian Shield: the Afif continental terrain, the Nabitah suture with its associated mobile belt, and the Asir ensimatic arc terrain. U/Pb zircon data from a pelitic garnet-sillimanite gneiss show that the Kabib formation in the S of the Afif terrain may be as old as 1770 m.y. Pb and Rb/Sr isotopic data in the Zalm region reveal a change in the nature of the underlying crust, from continental basement in the NE to less radiogenic marginal arc rocks in the SW. Miogeosynclinal continental shelf facies of the Siham group lie unconformably over the Kabid formation. U/Pb zircon age determinations show that this 'Andean' continental margin developed before approx 720 m.y. and the emplacement of calc-alkaline plutonic rocks continued until approx 690 m.y. During the period 685-640 m.y. the continental Afif microplate collided with the Asir terrain as part of the Nabitah orogeny. At approx 640 m.y. age the Najd strike-slip faulting commenced, with a dextral phase that controlled emplacement of granite plutons as well as the development of large pull-apart grabens. Some of the latter were floored by new oceanic crust and filled with volcanosedimentary rocks of the Bani Ghayy group.-R.A.H.

  9. Evaluation of groundwater chemistry and its impact on drinking and irrigation water quality in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Ibrahim, Elkhedr

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of groundwater with respect to the main hydrological processes controlling its chemistry and its subsequent impact on groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system. Groundwater samples were collected from 73 bore wells tapping the Cretaceous Biyadh and Wasia sandstone aquifers. The main groundwater facies in the area belong to the mixed Casbnd Mgsbnd SO4/Cl type and the SO4sbnd Cl type. Prolonged rock water interaction has resulted in high TDS (average of 2131 mg/l) and high EC (average of 2725 μS/cm) of the groundwater. The average nitrate (56.38 mg/l) value in the area is higher than the WHO prescribed limits of 50 mg/l in drinking water and is attributed to agricultural activities. The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) shows that 33% of the water samples fall within the excellent to good category whereas the remaining samples fall in the poor to unsuitable for drinking category. In terms of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium percentage (Na %) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) the groundwater is suitable for irrigation however the high salinity values can adversely affect the plant physiology.

  10. Personal and Moral Adolescent Values in England and Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Cyril; Simmons, Christine

    1994-01-01

    Reports on surveys comparing personal and moral values of 89 Saudi Arabian and 96 British adolescents. Finds that Islam has a profound impact on the values of the Saudi students, whereas religious views have only a limited effect on the British students. Also finds that the British students place a higher value on friends and family. (ACM)

  11. Epidemiology of 11 respiratory RNA viruses in a cohort of hospitalized children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Amer, Haitham M; Alshaman, Mohamed S; Farrag, Mohamed A; Hamad, Moawia E; Alsaadi, Muslim M; Almajhdi, Fahad N

    2016-06-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a principal cause of illness and mortality in children worldwide and mostly caused by viruses. In this study, the epidemiology of 11 respiratory RNA viruses was investigated in a cohort of hospitalized children at a tertiary referral center in Riyadh from February 2008 to March 2009 using conventional and real-time monoplex RT-PCR assays. Among 174 nasopharyngeal aspirates, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was detected in 39 samples (22.41%), influenza A virus in 34 (19.54%), metapneumovirus (MPV) in 19 (10.92%), coronaviruses in 14 (8.05%), and parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) in 11 (6.32%). RSV, PIVs and coronaviruses were most prevalent in infants less than 6 months old, whereas MPV and influenza A virus were more prominent in children aged 7-24 and 25-60 months, respectively. The majority of the viruses were identified during winter with two peaks observed in March 2008 and January 2009. The presented data warrants further investigation to understand the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia on spatial and temporal basis.

  12. Late Proterozoic island-arc complexes and tectonic belts in the southern part of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, William R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two main subdivisions of layered rocks are recognized in the southern Arabian Shield south of lat 22? N. These are an older ensimatic-arc complex, which formed 1100-800 m.y. ago, and a younger marginal-arc complex, which formed 800-690 m.y. ago. The older ensimatic-arc complex, located in the southwestern part of the Shield, includes graywacke and mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the essentially contemporaneous Baish, Bahah, and Jiddah groups. Although the younger arc complex is also dominantly ensimatic in character, it is also partly superimposed over the older ensimaticarc complex. The superimposed portions of the younger arc complex are represented by the Ablah, Samran, and possibly the Ararat groups. The ensimatic portion of the younger arc group is represented by the Halaban group, which was deposited to the east and northeast of the older ensimatic-arc complex. The Halaban group includes andesitic and dacitic volcanic rocks and associated clastic sedimentary rocks. The layered rocks of both arc complexes are intruded by dioritic (quartz diorite, tonalite, trondhjemite) plutonic rocks. The southern Shield is also subdivided into a number of structurally bounded, north-trending tectonic belts. Within the older ensimatic complex, three belts are recognized. From west to east, these are the Lith, Bidah, and Tayyah belts. Within these three belts, progressive facies changes indicate a gradation from deep-water facies in the south to shallow-water or-terrestrial facies in the north. The distribution of dioritic batholiths, as well as the distribution of layered-rock facies, suggests a northwest-trending axis for the older ensimatic-arc complex. The younger arc complex is present within six belts, the Makkah source papers. In Fleck and others (1980), the term 'quartz diorite' includes both tonalite and quartz diorite as defined in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) system of plutonic rock classification (Streckeisen, 1973). Initial 87Sr/86

  13. Female second-year undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards research at the College of Medicine, Alfaisal University: a Saudi Arabian perspective.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alnajjar, Asma

    2014-01-01

    There is a rapidly increasing movement towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived attitudes of female second-year undergraduate medical students towards research at the College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Saudi Arabia, as well as to explore if any differences exist between students with and without previous research experiences. An online, anonymous, cross-sectional, self-rating survey was administered. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the mean 5-point Likert scale responses between students with and without previous research experiences. Sixty-one students (61/81) participated in the survey with a 75.3 % response rate. Nineteen participants (31.1 %) had previous research experiences. Overall, all students demonstrated positive attitudes towards undergraduate research. There were significant statistical differences in the means of attitudes towards undergraduate research between students with versus without previous research experiences in regards to the following statements: 'my adequate possession of research knowledge and skills promotes participation in future research activities' (3.4 vs. 2.9; p < 0.02), 'I will participate in scientific research activities throughout my undergraduate medical education' (3.7 vs. 3.1; p < 0.00), and 'I have no interest at all in scientific research' (1.6 vs. 2.4; p < 0.01). Previous exposure to scientific research experiences promotes more positive attitudes towards scientific research.

  14. The ant genus Carebara Westwood in the Arabian Peninsula (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The ant genus Carebara of the Arabian Peninsula is revised. Carebara abuhurayri Sharaf & Aldawood, 2011 is synonymized under Carebara arabica Collingwood & van Harten, 2001. Carebara arabica is redescribed and a Neotype is fixed based on a specimen collected from southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A new species, C. fayrouzae sp. n. is described from Saudi Arabia based on queens, major and minor workers. Keys to major and minor workers of the two Arabian Carebara species are given. PMID:24363580

  15. Haemophilus type B meningitis in Saudi children under 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y; Al-Jeffri, Mohamed H; Al-Haggar, Sami H; Musa, Elgeili K; Mohamed, Omer M; Abdalla, Mohamed N

    2004-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude of bacterial meningitis in general and Hib meningitis in particular among children below the age of 5 years. A population-based, prospective descriptive and analytical study was conducted in five regions, one each in northern, southern, eastern, western, and central parts of Saudi Arabia. Active surveillance for cases of bacterial meningitis among the study population, which comprised 171,818 children under 5 years of age, was implemented. A total of 208 cases of meningitis were identified, of which 141 (67.8 per cent) were identified with a definite causative organism. The remaining 67 cases (32 per cent) were labeled as aseptic meningitis. The overall incidence of meningitis was 60.53/10(5) in under-fives with a disease spectrum similar to that reported in studies conducted in other countries. The three leading causes of meningitis were Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), MCM (Neisseria menigitides) and SPN (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Hib meningitis constituted 28 per cent of cases with an incidence rate of 16.88/10(5) children. There was a marked regional variation in Hib incidence. MCM was the second leading cause (18 per cent) of meningitis with an incidence of 10.77/10(5) while SPN comprised 11 per cent of cases and its incidence was 9.69/10(5). Almost all MCM cases were related to meningitis outbreaks that occurred in Saudi Arabia during two successive Hajj seasons (2000-2001). Hib cases showed a bimodal seasonality, one peak during March-May, the other during September-November. The fact that this study is the first national base-line data on meningitis in general and Hib incidence in particular, has augmented further justification for introducing Hib vaccine within the national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Based on the experience gained during this study regarding surveillance of meningitis disease, optimal methods to strengthen meningitis surveillance were identified. A model of Meningitis

  16. Teleseismic P-wave Velocity Tomography Beneath The Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2004-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P-waves. The data came from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and three permanent stations (RAYN, EIL and MRNI). The KACST network consists of 38 stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period) spread throughout most of western Saudi Arabia. P wave travel time residuals were obtained for 131 earthquakes in the distance range from 30\\deg to 90\\deg, resulting in 1716 rays paths. We find a pronounced low velocity anomaly beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and southern Red Sea that likely represents a northward continuation of the Afar hotspot. We also image smaller low velocity anomalies beneath the Dead Sea Transform, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the northeastern corner of the Arabian Shield. The origin of these low velocity anomalies is uncertain.

  17. Conservation in the Arabian Gulf countries

    SciTech Connect

    Akkad, A.A.

    1990-05-01

    In the Arabian Gulf region in general, and in Saudi Arabia in particular, demand for water in the agricultural, domestic, and industrial sectors has increased dramatically as a result of rapid development, and improved standard of living, and diversification of economic activity in agriculture and industry. This article presents an overview of supply and demand situations prevailing in the Arabian Gulf region and discusses various conventional and unconventional alternatives for meeting the growing demand for water. It also describes conservation measures and their socioeconomic effects.

  18. A Comparison of Saudi and Canadian Children's Knowledge of the Causes of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felimban, Huda; Nowicki, Elizabeth A.; Dare, Lynn; Brown, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this comparative study, students from inclusive schools in Canada and Saudi Arabia shared their beliefs about factors associated with learning difficulties. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 36 Canadian and 62 Saudi elementary students in Grades 5 and 6. Thematic analysis uncovered six themes: lack of knowledge,…

  19. The Saudi Initiative for Asthma - 2016 update: Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Alhaider, Sami A.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Al Ghobain, Mohammed O.; Zeitouni, Mohammed O.; Al-Harbi, Adel S.; Yousef, Abdullah A.; Al-Matar, Hussain; Alorainy, Hassan S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    This is an updated guideline for the diagnosis and management of asthma, developed by the Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) group, a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society. The main objective of SINA is to have guidelines that are up to date, simple to understand and easy to use by nonasthma specialists, including primary care and general practice physicians. SINA approach is mainly based on symptom control and assessment of risk as it is the ultimate goal of treatment. The new SINA guidelines include updates of acute and chronic asthma management, with more emphasis on the use of asthma control in the management of asthma in adults and children, inclusion of a new medication appendix, and keeping consistency on the management at different age groups. The section on asthma in children is rewritten and expanded where the approach is stratified based on the age. The guidelines are constructed based on the available evidence, local literature, and the current situation in Saudi Arabia. There is also an emphasis on patient–doctor partnership in the management that also includes a self-management plan. PMID:26933455

  20. Symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders and oral parafunctions among Saudi children.

    PubMed

    Farsi, N M A

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to record the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and oral parafunctions among Saudi children. A questionnaire and a clinical examination of signs and symptoms of TMD were performed on 1940 stratified randomly selected schoolchildren. The sample was divided into three groups, 505 with primary, 737 with mixed and 734 with permanent dentition. The prevalence of TMD signs was found to be 20.7% and the most common sign of TMD was joint sounds (11.8%). The second most common sign was restricted mouth opening (5.3%). Muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain as well as deviation upon jaw opening appeared infrequently. TMJ sounds were significantly increasing with age (P < 0.05). TMD symptoms as reported by the parents were evident in 24.2% of the returned questionnaires (1113). The most common symptoms were headache (13.6%) and pain on chewing (11.1%). The incidence of headache was found to be significantly increasing from primary to permanent dentition (P < 0.01). No sex difference in the prevalence of any symptom was reported. Nail biting was the most common oral parafunction (27.7%) while bruxism was the least common (8.4%). All parafunctions except bruxism were significantly related to age. Cheek biting and thumb sucking were reported more in females than in males. The importance of a screening examination for symptoms and signs of TMD should not be overlooked in the clinical assessment of the pediatric patient.

  1. Profile of a Teacher of the Gifted in Riyadh. Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Jo Ann

    1985-01-01

    A typical week for an enrichment teacher at the Saudi Arabian International School of Riyadh begins on Saturday and includes emphasis on science inquiry, visual imagery techniques, evaluation, drama, poetry, and literature enrichment. (CL)

  2. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E.; Nizar, F. Sarah; Nahhas, Anwar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. Results: The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. Conclusion: An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined. PMID:27052287

  3. Prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity amongst Saudi school children, a study done by using three noninvasive methods

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Masood Ahmed; Al Sharaf, Fawazy; Shehzad, Khalid; Shoukat, Faiza; Naeem, Zahid; Al Harbi, Sultan; Almutairi, Ahmad Saeed; Al Ilaj, Muath Owaidh; Al Motairi, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become a global epidemic. It’s level in the Middle Eastern and Asian countries have reached to an alarming level. Rapid transition of life style and urbanization has not only affected adults but also the younger population. Objective This study records the trends of prevalence of obesity and over weight in the school children of both genders of Al Qassim region by employing three different non-invasive methods and recorded their differences. Subjects and methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on Saudi students of secondary and intermediate levels between 12–14 years of age. The total number of the students who participated in the study was 242, 129 males and 113 females. A self-administered pre-coded questionnaire was used. Body mass index, skin fold thickness and bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA) readings were recorded. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 11. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Chi square test with a P value <0.05, was used to compare the prevalence rates. Results Prevalence of obesity and over-weight recorded were higher in the boys but the rates recorded by three methods have shown a wide variation. Several factors, such as change in dietary habits, socioeconomic status and the family history of obesity have shown association but physical inactivity and father’s obesity were found significant contributory factors. There is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control obesity and its consequences amongst children in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27610061

  4. The Influence of the September 11, 2001 Attacks and Related Events Years Later on the Expectations and Experiences of Saudi Undergraduate Students Studying in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaleb, Sarah Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether or not undergraduate Saudi Arabian students currently studying in the United States still expect and experience negativity more than a decade after the events related to September 11, 2001. The study target population is all undergraduate Saudi students currently studying through the Saudi Arabian…

  5. Computer Based Instruction in Saudi Education: A Survey of Commercially Produced Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Bader A.; Al-Debassi, Saleh M.

    This study addressed the status quo of instructional software produced by national Saudi Arabian software companies as well as the utilization of commercially produced software at selected 1-12 private schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Descriptive data from a survey of general managers of four major software producers are reported, as well as from…

  6. A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project

    SciTech Connect

    Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

  7. Tectonic synthesis of the northern Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Stasxkowski, R.J.; Loyd, S.P.; Tabbutt, V.M. ); Dolan, P.; Stein, A. ); Scott, J. )

    1990-05-01

    The creation and destruction of Tethys oceans from the early Mesozoic to the present has created a complex suture zone along the Zagros/Bitlus trend. The fundamental interactions are between the Arabian and Euasian plates, but several microplates trapped between the major plates further complicate the tectonic fabric of the region. On the west, the Arabian plate slides past the African plate and the Sinai microplate along the Levant fault. The Palmyrides are related to a bend in this plate boundary and are not an offset extension of the Syrian arc. As Arabia penetrates Eurasia the Anatolian block is escaping to the west along the northern (right-lateral) and eastern (left-lateral) faults. Convergence of the Eurasian and Arabian plates resulted in ophiolite abduction (Late Cretaceous), followed by continent-continent collision (Miocene to present). The zone of collision is marked by the Bitlis-Zagrosa suture. Structural features associated with the collision include overthrusting, impactogens, and complexly folded and faulted mountain systems. Intensity and complexity of structuring decreases southward into open long-wavelength folds on the Arabian Platform. The fortuitous combination of rich source rocks, abundant reservoir rocks with primary and fracture porosity, and numerous trapping structures make this an extraordinary prolific hydrocarbon province. A structural and lithologic interpretation of 53 contiguous Landsat Multispectral Scanner scenes covering all of Syria, Iraq, and Kuwait, and portions of Turkey, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia has provided insights into the tectonic history of this area and its hydrocarbon accumulation.

  8. Application of SIR-B data for groundwater exploration in the Arabian shield and sand-drift monitoring in the AN Nafud and Al Jafurah fringe areas, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlin, G. L.; Tarabzouni, M. A.; Munshi, Z. M. N.; Chavez, P. S., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objectives of the investigation are to determine fully the utility of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) images for providing valuable surface indicators for ground-water prospecting in the Arabian shield and to identify and assess defining characteristics of sand sheets, sand streaks, and sand dunes in the fringe areas of An Nafud and Al Jafurah. Specific objectives include the determination of the incremental contribution of incidence angle to the total information that can be extracted from SIR-B standard and digitally-enhanced images in the AL Jafurah fringe area; the determination of the incremental contribution of digitally-registered multisensor images; and the development of a groundwater exploration plan for the Ha'il test area in the Arabian Shield.

  9. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Saudi Arabia: results of a national iodine nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dakheel, M H; Haridi, H K; Al-Bashir, B M; Al-Shingiti, A; Al-Shehri, S; Gassem, M A; Hussein, I

    2016-08-18

    This study aimed at establishing updated data on iodine nutrition among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional cluster survey among schoolchildren aged 8-10 years was conducted during February-April 2012. Children were clinically examined for goitre, urine and household salt samples were collected to estimate urinary iodine concenteration (UIC) and iodine content in salt. The overall goitre prevalence at the national level among 4 016 children was 4.2%. The prevalence was < 5% in all regions of the country except southern region with a prevalence of 12.7%. The median UIC of 2224 samples was 133 μg/L, with 74.3% of the surveyed children with UIC ≥ 100 μg/L. Analysis of salt samples (n = 4242) revealed that 69.8% of households were consuming adequately iodized salt. The findings suggest iodine sufficiency at the national level, however southern region still has a goitre prevalence of mild degree severity and the proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt is still below recommendations.

  10. Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamjoom, Mounira I.

    2010-01-01

    This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

  11. Tomographic Imaging of Upper Mantle P- and S-wave Velocity Heterogeneity Beneath the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2005-08-30

    We report the estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Peninsula estimated from travel time delay tomography. We have completed travel time measurements and inversion of a partial data set provided by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). This study builds on previous work by Benoit et al. (2003) following the methods of VanDecar and Crosson (1990) and VanDecar (1991). Data were collected from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by KACST. The network consists of 38 stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment. This study shows the inverted P- and S-wave models computed with the combined data with all three different seismic networks (KASCST, IRIS, and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL experiment) with best coverage beneath the Arabian Shield. Tomographic images reveal low velocity features in the upper mantle along a north-south line from the southern Asir region to the northeastern portion of the Arabian Shield.

  12. Seasonal concentrations of lead in outdoor and indoor dust and blood of children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Gaber E; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Habila, Mohamed; Giesy, John P

    2014-06-01

    Because detrimental effects of exposure to lead (Pb) on human health have been observed, we previously investigated concentrations of Pb in water supplies and blood of adult residents of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) examine seasonal rates of deposition of Pb in dust in several areas of Riyadh city, (2) measure concentrations of Pb in both outdoor and indoor dust, (3) compare concentrations of Pb in dust in Riyadh with those reported for other cities, and (4) quantify Pb in blood of children living in Riyadh. Mean, monthly deposition of PB in outdoor dust was 4.7 × 10(1) ± 3.6 tons km(-2), with a mean Pb concentration of 2.4 × 10(2) ± 4.4 × 10(1) μg/g. Mean, monthly deposition of Pb in indoor dust was 2.7 ± 0.70 tons km(-2), with a mean concentration of 2.9 × 10(1) ± 1.5 × 10(1) μg Pb/g. There was a significant (P < 0.01) correlation between concentrations of Pb in outdoor and indoor dust. There was no correlation between concentrations of Pb in indoor dust and that in blood of children of Riyadh, whereas there was a weakly significant (P < 0.05) correlation between concentrations of Pb in outdoor dust and that in blood of children. The mean (±SD) concentration of Pb in blood of children in Riyadh was 5.2 ± 1.7, with a range of 1.7-1.6 × 10(1) μg/dl. Concentrations of Pb in blood of 17.8 % of children in Riyadh were greater than 10 μg/dl, which is the CDC's level of concern.

  13. The Political, Socio-Economic and Sociocultural Impacts of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP) on Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilal, Kholoud T.; Scott, Safiyyah; Maadad, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, Saudi Arabian politicians, economists and sociologists have had to consider the implications of their country's King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP). Because Saudi Arabia has certain religious traditions and economic practices that are sensitive, international scholars are examining from different perspectives the outcomes and…

  14. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  15. Implementing Quality Assurance in Saudi Arabia: A Comparison between the MESO and the MICRO Levels at PSU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaqami, Saud

    2015-01-01

    Quality assurance in higher education remains to be one of the most prominent fields of research at the present. In the Saudi Arabian higher education institutions (HEIs), quality assurance is a relatively new concept and Saudi universities seem not to effectively implement quality assurance caused by the certain obstacles. As such, there are two…

  16. Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency. Clinical course of three Saudi children with a severe phenotype.

    PubMed

    Al-Sannaa, Nouriya A; Cheriyan, George M

    2010-08-01

    Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency (McKusick 212138) is a rare life threatening disorder characterized by hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy hepatopathy, and myopathy. Here, we present a detailed clinical course of 3 Saudi siblings with a severe phenotype. The third patient was described in more detail. Early medical intervention in the form of 25% dextrose intravenous infusion and carnitine supplement followed by a gradual introduction of a high carbohydrate low fat special formula resulted in a good clinical and biochemical response to the treatment in our patient. However, early nephrocalcinosis, severe hypotonia, and subsequently intravascular cerebral accident could not be prevented. He died at 18 months of age as a result of metabolic decompensation. This suggests that CACT deficiency is still a lethal disorder even with an early and aggressive medical intervention.

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder in school-aged children in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M J

    2010-09-01

    The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The study collected data from both teachers and parents for 708 primary school pupils attending grades 1-3 (7-9 years old), using DSM-IV criteria of ADHD. The result showed that the overall rate of ADHD was 2.7%, and in particular, the rate of attention types, 2.0%; hyperactive/impulsivity type, 1.4% and combined type, 0.7%. Teachers reported ADHD in a higher frequency than parents. However, applying a combination of reports from teachers and parents, screening of ADHD is likely to be more accurate. These findings highlight the importance of detecting ADHD in pupils at an early age and to develop a specific set of psychological clinical interventions for helping them.

  18. Regional joint sets in the Arabian platform as indicators of intraplate processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, P.L.; Sha'At, N.A.; Al Kadhi, A.

    1984-02-01

    The eastern part of the Saudi Arabian craton is a platform underlain by gently tilted and horizontal Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The platform contains several laterally extensive, but subdued, structures and lineaments. New microtectonic observations of dominant sets of extension and conjugate hybrid joints permit regionally significant extension directions to be inferred and the origin of the macrostructures to be assessed. The central Arabian arch developed during the Late Cretaceous to Eocene when the basin inverted as a consequence of the emplacement of ophiolite-bearing nappes on the Zagros and Oman margins. During arching, there was strike-parallel elongation of beds. At the same time as the arch amplified, the central Arabian graben system evolved as a result of the northward displacement of an East Arabian block. An important Neogene response in the Arabian platform to northeast-southwest shortening in the Zagros ranges was the formation of a swarm of northeast-striking master joints and lineaments. 41 references.

  19. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, C.R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Drysdall, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance. ?? 1986.

  20. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, C. R.; Stoeser, D. B.; Drysdall, A. R.

    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance.

  1. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Arabian horse populations.

    PubMed

    Khanshour, Anas; Conant, Eleanore; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian horse ignites imagination throughout the world. Populations of this breed exist in many countries, and recent genetic work has examined the diversity and ancestry of a few of these populations in isolation. Here, we explore 7 different populations of Arabians represented by 682 horses. Three of these are Middle Eastern populations from near the historical origin of the breed, including Syrian, Persian, and Saudi Arabian. The remaining Western populations are found in Europe (the Shagya Arabian and Polish Arabian) and in America (American Arabian). Analysis of genetic structure was carried out using 15 microsatellite loci. Genetic distances, analysis of molecular variance, factorial correspondence analysis, and a Bayesian method were applied. The results consistently show higher level of diversity within the Middle Eastern populations than the Western populations. The Western Arabian populations were the main source among population variation. Genetic differentiation was not strong among all Middle Eastern populations, but all American Arabians showed differentiation from Middle Eastern populations and were somewhat uniform among themselves. Here, we explore the diversities of many different populations of Arabian horses and find that populations not from the Middle East have noticeably lower levels of diversity, which may adversely affect the health of these populations.

  2. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  3. The association of exposure to the 2009 south war with the physical, psychological, and family well-being of Saudi children

    PubMed Central

    Hatw, Mohamed M. El; Taher, Aly A. El; Hamidi, Ahmed El; Alturkait, Fawziyah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the nutritional, psychological, behavioral, family adjustment, and psychiatric assessment of Saudi children exposed to the 2009-2010 Jazan war. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Saudi Arabia in July 2010. One hundred and eighty-six children exposed to the South war in Jazan, and 157 unexposed children in King Khaled Military City, Hafr Al Batin were studied for evidence of malnutrition using physical measures, evaluating psychological problems using the Child Behavior Inventory, behavioral problems using the Rutter Scale A2, family adjustment using the McMaster Family adjustment device, and for psychiatric disorders. The association of different socioeconomic variables with the psychological outcome of the exposed group was also studied. Results: The exposed children were well nourished, had more anxiety (p=0.044), better adaptation (p<0.001), less aggression (p=0.025), less deviant behavior (p=0.007), better family adjustment and had more post traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety, nightmares, and grief reaction. In the exposed children, females had more anxiety (p=0.006), and males had more antisocial behavior (p=0.02). Older children had less deviant behavior (p=0.005), better adaptation (p=0.007) and better planful behavior (p<0.001). Children of elder mothers had better planful behavior (p=0.039). Children from bigger families were less aggressive (p=0.049), and had less antisocial behavior (p=0.04). Conclusion: This study found that children exposed to the Jazan war had more anxiety. Unexpectedly they were well nourished and had higher adaptation, lower antisocial behavior, and better family adjustment. The socioeconomic status was associated with the psychological outcome. PMID:25630008

  4. Gender inequities in health: an exploratory qualitative study of Saudi women's perceptions.

    PubMed

    Alyaemni, Asmaa; Theobald, Sally; Faragher, Brian; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Saudi Arabian women's perceptions of how gendered social structures affect their health by understanding their perceptions of these influences on their health relative to those on men's health. Qualitative methods, including focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth individual interviews (IDIs) were conducted with 66 married women in Riyadh, the capital city. Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation, including consideration of socio-economic status, age, educational level, health status and the use of healthcare. The majority of women perceived their health to be worse than men's and attributed this to their childbearing, domestic and care-giving roles, restrictions on their mobility, poverty and psychological stress related to their responsibilities for children, and marital conflict. A minority of participants felt that men's health was worse than women's and related this to their gendered roles as "breadwinners," greater mobility and masculine norms and identities. Gender equity should be a health policy priority to improve women's health.

  5. Correlation between obesity and emotional, social, and behavioral problems associated with physical limitation among children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E.; Al-Ghamdi, Rahma A.; Halabi, Shaimaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on limitation of physical activity and the associated effect on behavioral, school, and social problems among obese children in Western Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional obesity survey was conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected between August 2014 and February 2015 from 281 obese children aged between 2-18 (girls: 130, boys: 151). Participants were selected randomly to represent different economic status, level of education, and family structure. Results: The mean age of participants was 10.5 years for girls and 10.6 years for boys. Higher BMI was associated with physical activity problems in walking (50.6%), running (55.8%), and exercise (44.3%), with school problems in attention (37.4%) and follow-up duties fade (31.3%), and with social problems in doing things other children could do (42.8%), playing with others (46%), and continuing play (33.4%). There was no significant relationship between BMI and emotional problems and school attendance. Conclusion: Higher BMI significantly increased physical limitation, problems maintaining attention in school, and social problems among obese children. However, emotional problems and school attendance did not show a significant correlation with BMI. PMID:26837399

  6. From barriers to bridges: An investigation on Saudi student mobility (2006-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

    2011-08-01

    Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.

  7. Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The country of Saudi Arabia contains 830,000 square miles, mostly desert with mountains in the southwest. It has population of 11 million and an annual growth rate of 3.5%. The population is 90% Arab and the rest Afro-Asian; the religion is Islam, and the language is Arabic. There is an 80% literacy rate, an infant mortality rate of 78/1000, and life expectancy of 60 years. There is a 4.8 million person work force, of which 25% is Saudi and 75% foreign. Until recently most of the people were nomadic and seminomadic; but with rapid economic growth, urbanization has progressed quickly and 90% are now settled, with some cities having high population densities (2,000/square mile). The country is very conservative due to the adherence to strict Islamic law. Oil was discovered in 1903 but large production was not introduced until after World War II. The country is now the world's largest oil exporter and 50% of the governments funds come from it. The country has developed rapidly in the 1970's and 1980's and present plans are for consolidation of the country's defenses, more government efficiency. Greater private sector employment is sought for Saudis, with reduction of foreign workers and more regional development The US and Saudis have mutual interest is stability in the region and have worked closely for peaceful development.

  8. Upper Mantle Structure Beneath The Arabian Peninsula From body and Surface Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P- and S-waves and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. The data came from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). The P- and S wave models were inverted from 401 earthquakes resulting in 3416 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals, and 1602 ray paths with S- and SKS-wave arrivals came from 201 earthquakes, respectively. The P and S wave models yield consistent results. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the mid-eastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield does not extend north of 21°N and dips to south. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. Surface wave tomography is being performed using fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities measured across the SANDSN. Preliminary phase velocity maps will be provided and compared to the body wave tomographic results.

  9. Perceptions of Teachers Using Social Stories for Children with Autism at Special Schools in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alotaibi, Faihan; Dimitriadi, Yota; Kempe, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Social Stories™ have been found to be an effective intervention in supporting the improvement of social capabilities for children with autism. However, there are no studies that discuss the possible cultural implications in their implementation and classroom use. For instance, there has been little discussion on the cultural connotations presented…

  10. Social Shyness among Mothers of Children with Disabilities Based on Some Variables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allala, Saeb; Alzubairi, Sharefa

    2016-01-01

    The current study is an attempt to identify social shyness among mothers of children with disabilities based on (Disability type, mother's academic qualification, and family's economic level) in Riyadh. Thus, Social Shyness Scale was prepared of (28) paragraphs according to five-point Likert Scale. The reliability coefficient of the scale rated…

  11. Involving Children with ADHD and Their Parents in Research in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned

    2014-01-01

    ADHD is the term that has been afforded to those children who seem to have problems in the areas of Attention and Hyperactivity. This paper offers a number of different considerations surrounding the formation and development of the socio-political context of studies in the Educational domain. This paper also centres on local, national,…

  12. Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development.

  13. Method for the fast determination of bromate, nitrate and nitrite by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and their monitoring in Saudi Arabian drinking water with chemometric data treatment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Busquets, Rosa; Naushad, Mu

    2016-05-15

    A rapid, sensitive and precise method for the determination of bromate (BrO3(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in drinking water was developed with Ultra performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MS). The elution of BrO3(-), NO3(-) and NO2(-) was attained in less than two minutes in a reverse phase column. Quality parameters of the method were established; run-to-run and day-to-day precisions were <3% when analysing standards at 10 µg L(-1). The limit of detection was 0.04 µg NO2(-) L(-1) and 0.03 µg L(-1) for both NO3(-)and BrO3(-). The developed UPLC-ESI/MS method was used to quantify these anions in metropolitan water from Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Dammam and Riyadh areas) and commercial bottled water (from well or unknown source) after mere filtration steps. The quantified levels of NO3(-) were not found to pose a risk. In contrast, BrO3(-) was found above the maximum contaminant level established by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 25% and 33% of the bottled and metropolitan waters, respectively. NO2(-) was found at higher concentrations than the aforementioned limits in 70% and 92% of the bottled and metropolitan water samples, respectively. Therefore, remediation measures or improvements in the disinfection treatments are required. The concentrations of BrO3(-), NO3(-) and NO2(-) were mapped with Principal Component analysis (PCA), which differentiated metropolitan water from bottled water through the concentrations of BrO3(-) and NO3(-) mainly. Furthermore, it was possible to discriminate between well water; blend of well water and desalinated water; and desalinated water. The point or source (region) was found to not be distinctive.

  14. Preparative mass-spectrometry profiling of bioactive metabolites in Saudi-Arabian propolis fractionated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography and off-line atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass-spectrometry injection.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Elnakady, Yasser A; Braun, André; Jäckel, Kristin; Sasse, Florenz; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Omar, Mohamed O M; Winterhalter, Peter

    2014-06-20

    Propolis is a glue material collected by honeybees which is used to seal cracks in beehives and to protect the bee population from infections. Propolis resins have a long history in medicinal use as a natural remedy. The multiple biological properties are related to variations in their chemical compositions. Geographical settings and availability of plant sources are important factors for the occurrence of specific natural products in propolis. A propolis ethylacetate extract (800mg) from Saudi Arabia (Al-Baha region) was separated by preparative scale high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) using a non-aqueous solvent system n-hexane-ACN (1:1, v/v). For multiple metabolite detection, the resulting HSCCC-fractions were sequentially injected off-line into an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass-spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) device, and a reconstituted mass spectrometry profile of the preparative run was visualized by selected ion traces. Best ion-intensities for detected compounds were obtained in the negative APCI mode and monitored occurring co-elution effects. HSCCC and successive purification steps resulted in the isolation and characterization of various bioactive natural products such as (12E)- and (12Z)-communic acid, sandaracopimaric acid, (+)-ferruginol, (+)-totarol, and 3β-acetoxy-19(29)-taraxasten-20a-ol using EI-, APCI-MS and 1D/2D-NMR. Cycloartenol-derivatives and triterpene acetates were isolated in mixtures and elucidated by EI-MS and 1D-NMR. Free fatty acids, and two labdane fatty acid esters were identified by APCI-MS/MS. In total 19 metabolites have been identified. The novel combination of HSCCC fractionation, and APCI-MS-target-guided molecular mass profiling improve efficiency of lead-structure identification.

  15. The dilemma of development in the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Osama, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    With the current of Arab oil revenues it is appropriate to review the experience of the Arab oil producers in social, economic and political development over the last decade. This book, by one of Saudi Arabia's most distinguished academics, concentrates on the six oil producers of the Arabian Peninsula. (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain). The book suggests that in many respects the oil revenues have obstructed serious development because they have made the economies totally dependent on one expendable resource and this has made all the Arabian countries too vulnerable to external pressures and interests. Futhermore, the oil revenues have encouraged fantasy and wishful thinking which have skewed the development process and stimulated pseudo-development. The book makes clear that until the petro-bureaucracy adopts a realistic approach to development there can be no prospect of real development in the Arabian Peninsula. Contents: acknowledgment, preface, introduction, theoretical framework for development administration, development and planning, development of bureaucracy, the appropriate model for development administration, manpower development, the allocation of financial resources for development, conclusion. Bibliography. Index.

  16. Saudi Aramco describes crisis oil flow hike

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-02

    On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco).

  17. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-27

    to revert to a pattern of competition that characterized intra-family relations in the mid- 20th century . Rather, the monarchy’s ability to... 20th century , an Al Saud chieftain named Abd al Aziz ibn Abd al Rahman Al Saud (commonly referred to as Ibn Saud) used force to unify much of the...modern kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the third state established in the Arabian peninsula since the end of the eighteenth century based on the hereditary

  18. Association between temporo mandibular disorders and oral parafunctions in Saudi children.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Najat; Alamoudi, Najlaa; Feteih, Rabab; El-Kateb, Moaa

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the relationship between oral parafunctions and the development of temporomandibualr disorders (TMD). A group of 1,976 children aged 3-15 years old, were randomly selected and underwent an examination that consisted of palpation and assessment of the temporomandibular joints and associated muscles for tenderness and joint sounds. Maximum vertical opening and deviation during jaw opening were also recorded. The parents were requested to complete a questionnaire contained questions regarding symptoms of TMD and history of oral parafunctions. Results showed significant correlations between cheek biting, nail biting, bruxism, thumb sucking and most of TMD signs and symptoms. The results of the study support the concept that oral parafunctions have a significant role in the aetiology of TMD and should be tackled by the paediatric dentists to minimise their effects on the stomatological system.

  19. Technological Leadership Behavior of High School Headteachers in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkrdem, Mofareh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the technological leadership behaviors of Saudi Arabian high school regarding the supply and use of educational technologies based on the educational technology standards developed and approved for school headteachers in many countries. The study was carried out with 135 high school headteachers. In the…

  20. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.

    PubMed

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  1. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    PubMed Central

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

  2. Changes in the levels of cytokines in both diabetic/non-diabetic type I children living in a moderate altitude area in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Allam, Gamal; Alsulaimani, Adnan A; Alghamdi, Hamed; Alswat, Hameed; Edrees, Burhan M; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Nasr, Amre

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of living in moderate altitude area on pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines profile (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-4) among type I diabetic (T1D) and non- T1D children compared with those living at sea level area. A prospective clinical study was carried out at pediatric outpatient endocrine clinics in Taif City, which is a moderate altitude area in Saudi Arabia, that stands about 1800-2000 meters above sea-level; and in Mecca City, which is a sea level area, that lies in the middle west of Saudi Arabia. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) percentage was estimated and cytokine measurements were performed in sera by flow cytometry using Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) technology. In this study we included 600 children who were consecutively enrolled (sex and age were matched). The HbA1c was statistically significantly higher in children living in moderate altitude compared to those living at sea level (overall p<0.001). Furthermore, T1D patients had higher values of serum cytokine levels (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10) in comparison to non-T1D control group (overall p<0.001). In conclusion, the data of the present study clearly showed that in both T1D and non-T1D children, moderate altitude-natives expressed high HbA1c and both pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Type I diabetic children living in moderate altitude or at sea level showed elevated levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10 than control subjects. Glycemic control in non-diabetic children was affected by living in moderate altitude, however, HbA1c significantly increased in diabetic children living in moderate altitude.

  3. Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25951871

  4. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Mai, P. Martin

    2016-04-01

    We are utilizing receiver function and surface wave dispersion data to investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia. The Arabian plate consists of the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of several Proterozoic terrains, separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (so-called harrats). The Arabian platform is covered by thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. To understand the geo-dynamics and present-day geology in western Saudi Arabia, the origin and activity of the harrats needs to be investigated: are they controlled primarily by a local mantle plume underneath western Saudi Arabia or by lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps) Jordan hotspots? In our study, we first estimate Vp/Vs ratios by applying the H-κ stacking technique and construct local shear-wave velocity-depth profiles by jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). Our results reveal significant lateral variations in crustal thickness, S-velocity, and bulk Vp/Vs ratio. The Arabian shield has, on average a ~34 km thick crust with Vs ~3.72 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.73. Thinner crust (~25 - 32 km thick) with strong lateral variations is present along the Red Sea coast. In contrast, the Arabian platform reveals a ~41 km thick crust with Vs ~3.52 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.77. We find anomalously high Vp/Vs ratios at Harrat Lunayyir, interpreted as solidified magma intrusions. Slow shear-velocities in the upper-mantle lid throughout the southernmost and northernmost Arabian shield suggest lateral heating from hot mantle upwellings centered beneath Afar and (perhaps) Jordan. Our findings on crustal S-velocity structures, Vp/Vs ratios, and upper-mantle lid velocities support the hypothesis of lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps

  5. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Gautret, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11,069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007-2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  6. New Faults Map Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.

  7. Structure of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Across the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Amri, A; Rodgers, A

    2007-01-05

    Analysis of modern broadband (BB) waveform data allows for the inference of seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle using a variety of techniques. This presentation will report inferences of seismic structure of the Arabian Plate using BB data from various networks. Most data were recorded by the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) which consists of 38 (26 BB, 11 SP) stations, mostly located on the Arabian Shield. Additional data were taken from the 1995-7 Saudi Arabian IRIS-PASSCAL Deployment (9 BB stations) and other stations across the Peninsula. Crustal structure, inferred from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, reveals thicker crust in the Arabian Platform (40-45 km) and the interior of the Arabian Shield (35-40 km) and thinner crust along the Red Sea coast. Lithospheric thickness inferred from teleseismic S-wave receiver functions reveals very thin lithosphere (40-80 km) along the Red Sea coast which thickens rapidly toward the interior of the Arabian Shield (100-120 km). We also observe a step of 20-40 km in lithospheric thickness across the Shield-Platform boundary. Seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle inferred from teleseismic P- and S-wave travel time tomography reveals large differences between the Shield and Platform, with the Shield being underlain by slower velocities, {+-}3% for P-waves and {+-}6% for S-waves. Seismic anisotropy was inferred from shear-wave splitting, using teleseismic SKS waveforms. Results reveal a splitting time of approximately 1.4 seconds, with the fast axis slightly east of north. The shear-wave splitting results are consistent across the Peninsula, with a slight clockwise rotation parallel for stations near the Gulf of Aqaba. In summary, these results allow us to make several conclusions about the tectonic evolution and current state of the Arabian Plate. Lithospheric thickness implies that thinning near the Red Sea has accompanied the rupturing of the Arabian

  8. An overview of wetlands of Saudi Arabia: Values, threats, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaid, Sami; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Thomas, Jacob; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Schneider, Wolfgang; O'Connell, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The wetlands of Saudi Arabia are located in a water-stressed region that is highly vulnerable to climate and other global changes. Sebkhas, mudflats, mangroves, and wadis are the dominant wetlands in the arid regions of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. These unique wetlands are recognized as a sanctuary for biodiversity and for their economic services generated from mineral extraction, agriculture, and grazing. Despite their ecological values and societal services, the long-term permanence of Saudi Arabia's wetlands faces strong challenges resulting from human activities associated with sustained population growth, habitat degradation, and coastal development. This paper consolidates a literature review of Saudi Arabia's wetlands from local to global importance, highlights their biodiversity, and identifies threats and evolution of these vulnerable ecosystems in the arid Arabian Peninsula by focusing on the status of key freshwater taxa (Odonata, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and waterbirds) and documenting changes affecting important wetlands.

  9. Body and Surface wave tomography for the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the three-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula using teleseismic P- and S-waves and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. The data for this study come from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the SANDSN data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). For the P-wave model 3416 ray paths from P- and PKP-waves and 1602 ray paths from S- and SKS-waves for the S-wave model were used. For the Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography, we included data from the Ethiopian Broadband Seismic Experiment and obtained the maximum 1606 rays with the best coverage between periods of 44 and 140 s. The body and surface wave models yield consistent results, although the surface wave tomography shows poor horizontal resolution. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the northeastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield is separated structure from the low velocity zone beneath the northeastern edge of the Arabian Shield and dips to the south in the body wave models. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. The origin of the low velocity anomaly beneath the northeastern part of the Shield is uncertain.

  10. Growth Profile and Its Association with Nutrient Intake and Dietary Patterns among Children and Adolescents in Hail Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alshammari, Eyad; Suneetha, Epuru; Khan, Saif; Alazzeh, Awfa

    2017-01-01

    Hail region of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the highest adult obesity rates in the entire kingdom and limited information is available about the prevalence and patterns of growth markers. Therefore, it is important to monitor the growth trends to implement effective public health preventive strategies for the region. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of growth profile patterns (stunting, wasting, underweight, and overweight) and its associations with nutrient intake and dietary patterns among children and adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 1420 children and adolescents (2–18 years), selected using a multistage stratified random-sampling technique representing both female and male schools from Hail region, KSA. Growth profile z-scores were generated using 2006 and 2007 WHO growth standards. The overall prevalence of 4.73% moderate and 1.54% severe underweight; 6.65% moderate and 2.59% severe stunting; 6.34% moderate and 2.55% severe wasting was present in the study population. Stunting decreased as age progressed with concurrent increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There was a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (18.55% versus 23.05%; P < 0.001) and obesity (8.7% versus 13.85%; P < 0.001) in adolescents than in school-age children with higher prevalence in females as compared to males. Both stunted and overweight/obesity groups had significantly lower mean intakes for critical micronutrients necessary for growth as compared to normal children. PMID:28316981

  11. National surveillance for type 1, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among children and adolescents: a population-based study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among youth. The Saudi Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes Impact Study (SAUDI-DM) was used to assess the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among children and adolescents. Methods Sociodemographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected through a nationwide household randomly selected 23 523 children and adolescents aged ≤18 years. Known participants with diabetes were classified according to their diabetes type, while participants without diabetes were subjected to fasting plasma glucose assessment and patients with diabetes were identified using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. All the studied participants were tested for lipid parameters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess different risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes was 10.84%, of which 0.45% were known type 1 and type 2 patients with diabetes and 10.39% were either newly identified cases of diabetes (4.27%) or IFG (6.12%) with more than 90% of the participants with diabetes being unaware of their disease. The prevalence of known type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as the newly identified cases was higher than what has been reported internationally. Age, male gender, obesity, urban residency, high family income and presence of dyslipidaemia were found to be significant risk factors for diabetes and IFG. Conclusions Diabetes and IFG are highly prevalent in this society with the majority of the patients being unaware of their disease, which warrants urgent adoption of early detection, treatment and prevention programmes. PMID:26085648

  12. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Zahran, Hani; Mai, P. Martin

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  13. The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

  14. Demographic perspectives on Saudi Arabia's development.

    PubMed

    Looney, R E

    1985-06-01

    Demographic movements likely to be taking place in Saudi Arabia were hypothesized on the basis of general knowledge. The discussion reports on population size, general Arab demographic patterns, general determinants of fertility, Arab fertility patterns, Saudi fertility patterns, mortality in general, mortality in the Middle East, mortality in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian population growth, immigration, the changing composition of the work force, and third plan targets. Some doubt exists as to the size of Saudi Arabia's population, but there is little question that the total is growing rapidly. This expansion is taking place through stepped up immigration and a relatively high natural growth of indigenous Saudis, but statistics on population size, structure, and on the number of births and deaths leaves the magnitude of a number of important demographic trends in doubt. Yet, considerable evidence exists that several of the Arab countries in the region with fairly good demographic data are likely to have similar demographic patterns. In depth analysis of the demographic dynamics of these countries, particularly Jordan and Kuwait, identified several common elements bearing on several key parameters. Using what Saudi data is available and making comparisons with these neighboring countries, one can, based on expected levels of birth and death rates, indirectly infer the natural growth of Saudi Arabia's population. With several notable exceptions, Saudi Arabia's demographic patterns show a marked similarity to those experienced in the region as a whole. The average rate of population growth in both Saudi Arabia and the Arab region is about 3% a year and in both instances fertility rates are high. The demographic structure of these countries is characterized by the youthfulness of the population. In most of the Arab countries, the population aged 15 years or under accounts for over 48% of the population. The rate of the economically active population is low, ranging from

  15. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Klemme, H.D.; Coury, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels); 72,337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub'al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil. 5 references, 16 figures, 3 tables.

  16. High-dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Stem Cell Rescue in Saudi Children Less Than 3 Years of Age With Embryonal Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Musa; Al-Dandan, Sadeq; Bayoumi, Yasser; Alharbi, Talal; Alsudairy, Reem; Alomari, Ali; Aljamaan, Khalid; Musleh, Othman; Alharbi, Qasim; Jarrar, Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDC/ASCR) has been used in children under the age of 3 years with embryonal brain tumors to avoid or delay the use of radiation. We reviewed the medical records of 10 Saudi children less than 3 years of age with embryonal brain tumors who underwent HDC/ASCR. All 10 patients underwent surgical resection followed by 3 to 5 cycles of induction chemotherapy and 1 to 3 cycles of HDC/ASCR using carboplatin and thiotepa. Isotretinoin was used as a maintenance therapy in 4 patients. Five patients had medulloblastoma, 3 had atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, 1 had an embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes, and 1 had pineoblastoma. The median age of the patients was 1.9 years. A total of 19 HDC/ASCR procedures were performed. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered to 5 patients after HDC/ASCR and as a salvage therapy in 1 patient. The progression-free survival rate was 50% at 1 year and at 2 years, with a median follow-up of 24 months. All 5 patients with medulloblastoma are still alive without evidence of disease, but the other patients died secondary to tumor progression. This experience suggests that strategies combining myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue appear to be feasible for children with embryonal brain tumors in the Middle East.

  17. Tomographic Imaging of Upper Mantle P- and S-wave Velocity Heterogeneity Beneath the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Peninsula estimated from teleseismic travel time delay tomography. We have completed travel time measurements and inversion of a data set provided by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST: 21 broadband stations and 4 short-period stations). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment (9 broadband stations). We used 401 earthquakes resulting in 3416 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals for the P-wave tomography, and 1602 ray paths with S- and SKS-wave arrivals came from 201 earthquakes for the S-wave tomography. Although the total number of rays for the S-wave model is a half of the rays for the P-wave model, the event distribution shows better azimuthal coverage. The P and S wave models yield consistent results. The models show strong low velocity regions beneath the southeastern Arabian Shield and the mid-eastern edge of Arabian Shield. The low velocity anomaly in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield does not extend north of 21°N and dips to south. It likely represents the northeastern edge of the Afar hotspot. The origin of the low velocity region under the eastern edge of the Arabian Shield is uncertain.

  18. Peptic ulcer disease in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    El Mouzan, Mohammad Issa; Abdullah, Asaad Mohammad

    2004-12-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been reported to occur in children worldwide, but no information is available for our community. The aim of the study was to report our experience on the pattern of this condition in Saudi Arabian children. The records of all children below 18 years of age who were diagnosed by endoscopy to have PUD over a period of 10 years were analysed. From 1993 to 2002, 24 children out of 521(5 per cent) who presented with upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) symptoms were diagnosed by endoscopy to have PUD. All but one (96 per cent) were Saudi nationals, the average age was 15 years (range 5-18 years), and the male to female ratio was 7:1. The commonest presentation was chronic abdominal pain in 15/24 (63 per cent) of the children, followed by vomiting associated with abdominal pain in four (17 per cent). Hematemesis and melena occurred in three (13 per cent), and two children (8 per cent), respectively. There were 20 duodenal (92 per cent) and four gastric ulcers. The primary type was the most common, occurring in 19 (79 per cent) of the children. Histopathology results of antral biopsies were available for 15 children; all of them had antral gastritis. Helicobacter pylori organisms were present in 13/15 (87 per cent) of the antral biopsy specimens. In Saudi children, peptic ulcer disease occurs more commonly in boys. It is a rare cause of upper GIT symptoms, but highly associated with H. pylori antral gastritis. This study documents a pattern similar to descriptions from other countries.

  19. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and

  20. A new species of the leafhopper genus Naevus Knight, 1970 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Opsiini), from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Sonbati, Saad A; Wilson, Michael R; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2015-12-22

    The genus Naevus Knight, 1970 is recorded from the mountains of southwestern Saudi Arabia, the first record from the Arabian Peninsula. A new species, Naevus hathali El-Sonbati & Wilson sp. n. is described here, which appears to have an asymmetric aedeagus. An illustrated key to Naevus species is presented to facilitate identification.

  1. The surface heat flow of the Arabian Shield in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Masarweh, R.; Masri, A.; Tarawneh, K.; Desert Group

    2007-04-01

    Surface heat flow in southern Jordan (western part of the Arabian Plate) was determined in a dense cluster of five, up to 900-m-deep boreholes that have encountered sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic (Ordovician and Silurian) age. These rocks are underlain by an igneous and metamorphic basement, which has been studied for its radiogenic heat production, along the eastern margin of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system. The heat flow, calculated from continuous temperature logs and laboratory-measured thermal conductivity of drillcores and surface samples, averages to 60.3 ± 3.4 mW m -2 and contrasts the common view of the late Proterozoic-consolidated Arabian Shield constituting a low heat-flow province of ⩽45 mW m -2. Although only characterizing an area of about 300 km 2, this average is unlikely representing a positive local anomaly caused by voluminous HHP granites/rhyolites at shallow depths. Instead, a heat flow of 60 mW m -2 is considered a robust estimate of the Phanerozoic conductive surface heat flow not only for Jordan, but for the Arabian Shield in areas unaffected by younger reactivation. The large variation in conductive heat flow (36-88 mW m -2) previously observed in Jordan, southern Syria, and Saudi Arabia is irreconcilable with their broad similarity in lithosphere structure and composition and rather reflects a combination of factors including low-quality temperature data and insufficient knowledge on thermal rock properties.

  2. An Overview of the Saudi Arabian Telecommunications System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    p. 49-50). And in 1895, Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio where telegraph and telephone wireless transmissions were possible. In January 1927, a...when long-wave and medium-wave transmitters were imported from Marconi Company. Two six-kilowatt transmitters were installed in Mecca and Riyadh, being

  3. An Analysis of Learning Barriers: The Saudi Arabian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Intakhab A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning and teaching are quite interrelated. Teaching can't take place unless the target students learn. Thus, teaching is a bi-polar activity. Learning barriers or causes of learning difficulties are quite common in an educational setting. But, when it comes to a very adverse effect it becomes crucial and unavoidable. There are different kinds…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time.

  5. Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, J; Yousuf, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally This paper describes the application of primary health care principles in the Islamic Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It arose from a doctoral supervisory experience on a joint programme for women students, operating between a British and Saudi Arabian University. The research looked at nutritional advice given by diploma-level nurses to pregnant women attending primary health care centres in Saudi Arabia. The supervisor supported research that drew on internationally recognized trends in nursing research (the reflexive learner) whilst attending to local requirements and conventions of the culture. The student was encouraged explicitly to site the research within the framework of Islamic teaching and Saudi culture. The Qur'an was used as an overarching framework within which the tenets of primary health care were explored. This was seen to be crucial in addressing World Health Organisation and the International Council of Nurses' views on contextualizing nursing for the greatest benefit of the population. This was of particular relevance in Saudi Arabia where research carried out in the community by women is novel, and as yet there are no nurse theorists from within Saudi culture.

  6. Two newly recognized species of Hemidactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Smíd, Jiří; Moravec, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Gvoždík, Václav; Nasher, Abdul Karim; Busais, Salem M; Wilms, Thomas; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A recent molecular phylogeny of the Arid clade of the genus Hemidactylus revealed that the recently described H. saba and two unnamed Hemidactylus species from Sinai, Saudi Arabia and Yemen form a well-supported monophyletic group within the Arabian radiation of the genus. The name 'Hemidactylus saba species group' is suggested for this clade. According to the results of morphological comparisons and the molecular analyses using two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (cmos, mc1r, rag1, rag2) genes, the name Hemidactylus granosus Heyden, 1827 is resurrected from the synonymy of H. turcicus for the Sinai and Saudi Arabian species. The third species of this group from Yemen is described formally as a new species H. ulii sp. n. The phylogenetic relationships of the members of 'Hemidactylus saba species group' are evaluated and the distribution and ecology of individual species are discussed.

  7. Information Assurance in Saudi Organizations - An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Syed Irfan; Mirza, Abdulrahman A.; Alghathbar, Khaled

    This paper presents selective results of a survey conducted to find out the much needed insight into the status of information security in Saudi Arabian organizations. The purpose of this research is to give the state of information assurance in the Kingdom and to better understand the prevalent ground realities. The survey covered technical aspects of information security, risk management and information assurance management. The results provide deep insights in to the existing level of information assurance in various sectors that can be helpful in better understanding the intricate details of the prevalent information security in the Kingdom. Also, the results can be very useful for information assurance policy makers in the government as well as private sector organizations. There are few empirical studies on information assurance governance available in literature, especially about the Middle East and Saudi Arabia, therefore, the results are invaluable for information security researchers in improving the understanding of information assurance in this region and the Kingdom.

  8. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

  9. Spatial autocorrelation of cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2013-12-16

    Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran's I and Anselin's local Moran's I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran's I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin's local Moran's I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin's disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin's disease (r² = 0.49-0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52-0.68 using GWR) and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR) in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  10. Broadband Seismic Station Deployment at Hadabat Al-Marhi, Halban, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Lewis, J P; Al-Amri, A

    2002-02-11

    A broadband three-component seismic station was deployed on the Arabian Shield near the town of Halban in central Saudi Arabia. This site is near the proposed site of a primary seismic array (PS38) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The purpose of this deployment was to collect calibration data for the primary array to be deployed in the future.

  11. Improving the Level of Seismic Hazard Parameters in Saudi Arabia Using Earthquake Location and Magnitude Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amri, A. M.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2004-05-01

    Saudi Arabia is an area, which is characterized very poorly seismically and for which little existing data is available. While for the most parts, particularly, Arabian Shield and Arabian Platform are aseismic, the area is ringed with regional seismic sources in the tectonically active areas of Iran and Turkey to the northeast, the Red Sea Rift bordering the Shield to the southwest, and the Dead Sea Transform fault zone to the north. Therefore, this paper aims to improve the level of seismic hazard parameters by improving earthquake location and magnitude estimates with the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN). We analyzed earthquake data, travel times and seismic waveform data from the SANDSN. KACST operates the 38 station SANDSN, consisting of 27 broadband and 11 short-period stations. The SANDSN has good signal detection capabilities because the sites are relatively quiet. Noise surveys at a few stations indicate that seismic noise levels at SANDSN stations are quite low for frequencies between 0.1 and 1.0 Hz, however cultural noise appears to affect some stations at frequencies above 1.0 Hz. Locations of regional earthquakes estimated by KACST were compared with locations from global bulletins. Large differences between KACST and global catalog locations are likely the result of inadequacies of the global average earth model (iasp91) used by the KACST system. While this model is probably adequate for locating distant (teleseismic) events in continental regions, it leads to large location errors, as much as 50-100 km, for regional events. We present detailed analysis of some events and Dead Sea explosions where we found gross errors in estimated locations. Velocity models are presented that should improve estimated locations of regional events in three specific regions: 1. Gulf of Aqabah - Dead Sea region 2. Arabian Shield and 3. Arabian Platform. Recently, these models are applied to the SANDSN to improve local and teleseismic event locations

  12. California and Saudi Arabia: geologic contrasts

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.G. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    Assessing hydrocarbon futures in unexplored basins involves geology by analogy. Through 1978, approximately 265 fields were discovered in California containing 22 billion bbl of oil, 53% being in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 0.6 to 2.4 billion bbl. Through 1978, about 50 fields were found in Saudi Arabia containing 206 billion bbl of oil, 78% in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 7 to 83 billion bbl. The contrasts in field size distribution and in the total amount of oil present are explained by the dramatically different geology and geologic histories. California's surface geology is characterized by rare Precambrian, isolated Paleozoic, and widespread Mesozoic accreted terranes and intrusions, and by highly uplifted and depressed Tertiary sedimentary prisms bounded by widespread high-angle thrusting and strike-slip and normal faulting. Numerous families of medium to small anticlines and fault traps, commonly involving moderately dipping to overturned beds, have resulted from Tertiary tectonism, which segmented California dramatically. Saudi Arabia is characterized by a broad Precambrian shield area, flanked on the east by very long, gently dipping cuestas of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments, with an upper thin veneer of nearly flat Tertiary strata. Most structures involving the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are large, but gentle and unfaulted, representing a passive reaction of the sediments to underlying mild basement distortion and/or movement of Cambrian salt, all occurring while the arabian plate continued to subside and tip to the northeast. The contrasts between California and Saudi Arabia oil field and geology result from contrasting plate-tectonic settings and history.

  13. SEISMIC DATA FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING IN THE ARABIAN PENINSULA

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2004-07-08

    We report results from the third and final year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We are working with King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology to collect data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consists of 38 digital three-component stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We have an ongoing collaboration with the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, which runs the eight station Kuwait National Seismic Network. We installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). In this paper we present a summary of data collected under these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of souce parameters and earth structure.

  14. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  15. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joseph B.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (Ta) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in Ta as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because Tas are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3–5 °C in Ta over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher Ta, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high Ta. This report examines how increases in Ta might affect body temperature (Tb) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which Ta often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When Ta exceeds Tb, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their Tb; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases Tb is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their Tb to increase as Ta increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in Ta. The data presented should serve as base-line information on Tb of animals in the Kingdom for

  16. Historical, cultural, and contemporary influences on the status of women in nursing in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Miller-Rosser, Kolleen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2006-07-19

    Global nursing shortages have necessitated closer scrutiny of recruitment and retention initiatives of nurses both locally and internationally. For many decades the nursing workforce of Saudi Arabia has relied on international expatriates to be the backbone of the industry. In recent years however, Saudi women have been recruited into nursing preparation courses conducted at degree level. The many twists and turns of providing a local Saudi Arabian nursing workforce has paralleled Saudi's own history and this paper follows that journey. Our research has enabled us to provide some insights into nursing pre and post the enlightenment that accompanied the Prophet Mohammed's influence. We emphasize the influences of women leaders who emerged in Mohammed's time and bring lasting authority to the development of nursing in Saudi Arabia. The cultural issues that bind women in this society are explicated and related to recruitment and retention issues in nursing. Education matters, both past and present, are highlighted emphasizing the gains that nursing as a distinct occupation has made. Finally the paper concludes with a summation of contemporary achievements in Saudi Arabia moving nursing towards the much needed professional status and parity with other careers in health care.

  17. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  18. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, O A; Phillips, M R; Williams, A T; Gheith, A M; Bantan, R A; Rasul, N M

    2012-04-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ=-0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r=0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t=2.898; df=18; p<0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean.

  19. Timing of uplift peripheral to the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.; Zimmermann, R.A.; Bohannon, R.G.; Schmidt, D.L.; ,

    1990-01-01

    A Prominent escarpment is found along the western margin of the Arabian Shield. Elevations along this escarpment are up to 3200 m above the Red Sea. Between the Red Sea and the crest of the escarpment is a relatively featureless coastal plane that is ??? 50 km across. The coastal plane abruptly gives way to the steep mountainous terrain, the elevation of which increases abruptly towards the high crest. The elevation slowly decreases to the east of the high crest. Forty-four apatite fission-track ages have been determined on rocks from the Proterozoic Arabian Shield in southwestern Saudi Arabia. These ages range from 13.8 to 568 Ma. In general, the youngest ages are found at low elevations along the base of the escarpment near the eastern edge of the coastal plane. The oldest ages are from along and to the east of the crest. The fission-track data from Saudi Arabia show that there was a period of minor uplift and cooling during the Cretaceous. This was followed by a relatively stable period which lasted until the Mid to Upper Miocene. The latest uplift and erosion began slightly younger than 13.8 Ma. This latest episode resulted in a minimum uplift of 3 km and is related to the Red Sea Rift. Samples totally annealed prior to this latest episode of uplift and cooling have not yet reached the surface.

  20. Viral hemorrhagic fevers in the Tihamah region of the western Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Zakham, Fathiah; Al-Habal, Mohammed; Taher, Rola; Alaoui, Altaf; El Mzibri, Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) refers to a group of diseases characterized by an acute febrile syndrome with hemorrhagic manifestations and high mortality rates caused by several families of viruses that affect humans and animals. These diseases are typically endemic in certain geographical regions and sometimes cause major outbreaks. The history of hemorrhagic fever in the Arabian Peninsula refers to the 19th century and most outbreaks were reported in the Tihamah region-the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula in the west and southwest of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Herein, we describe the agents that cause VHFs and their epidemiology in Tihamah, the history of the diseases, transmission, species affected, and clinical signs. Finally, we address challenges in the diagnosis and control of VHFs in this region.

  1. Selective brain cooling in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx): a physiological mechanism for coping with aridity?

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Strauss, W Maartin; Fick, Linda G; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea; Shobrak, Mohammed; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-11-15

    Selective brain cooling is a thermoregulatory effector proposed to conserve body water and, as such, may help artiodactyls cope with aridity. We measured brain and carotid blood temperature, using implanted data loggers, in five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the desert of Saudi Arabia. On average, brain temperature was 0.24±0.05°C lower than carotid blood temperature for four oryx in April. Selective brain cooling was enhanced in our Arabian oryx compared with another species from the same genus (gemsbok Oryx gazella gazella) exposed to similar ambient temperatures but less aridity. Arabian oryx displayed a lower threshold (37.8±0.1°C vs 39.8±0.4°C), a higher frequency (87±6% vs 15±15%) and a higher maximum magnitude (1.2±0.2°C vs 0.5±0.3°C) of selective brain cooling than did gemsbok. The dominant male oryx displayed less selective brain cooling than did any of the other oryx, but selective brain cooling was enhanced in this oryx as conditions became hotter and drier. Enhanced selective brain cooling in Arabian oryx supports the hypothesis that selective brain cooling would bestow survival advantages for artiodactyl species inhabiting hot hyper-arid environments.

  2. Data Collection in the Arabian Peninsula for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; Al-Amri, A M S

    2003-07-11

    We report results from the second year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We have a temporary broadband seismic station operating near the IMS primary array site (PS38) in central Saudi Arabia. We recently installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). We are working with King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology to collect and analyze data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consist of 37 digital three-component stations (26 broadband and 11 short-period). We are collaborating with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) to analyze data from their 8 station national seismic network. We participated in the Workshop on Reference Events odnear the Dead Sea Rift held in Paris, France in October 2002. In this paper we present results of these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of event locations and source parameters and inference of earth structure.

  3. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: Major Challenges and Possible Solutions.

    PubMed

    Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz; Braham, Rim; Musallam, Maha Ali; Al Hayek, Ayman Abdullah; Al Kahtany, Nasser Hazza

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has ranked Saudi Arabia as having the second highest rate of diabetes in the Middle East (7th highest in the world) with an estimated population of 7 million living with diabetes and more than 3 million with pre-diabetes. This presents a pressing public health problem. Several challenges in diabetes management need to be tackled in Saudi Arabia, including the growing prevalence (chiefly among children and young adults), micro-and macrovascular complications, lifestyle changes, late diagnosis, poor awareness and high treatment costs. Over the last two decades, the Saudi population saw an increase in the expenses in healthcare and treatment of diabetes by more than 500%. In 2014, the health care budget was 180 billion (Saudi Riyal) of which 17 billion was spent on all Saudis, with an approximate 25 billion on the entire Saudi diabetic population. This implies that the direct expense of diabetes is costing Saudi Arabia around 13.9% of the total health expenditure. Therefore, unless a comprehensive epidemic control program/ multidisciplinary approach is stringently enforced, the diabetes mellitus burden on Saudi Arabia will probably increase to very serious levels. It is crucial to implement improved health and health-related quality of life of to those with diabetes, thus minimizing the social and personal expenses for diabetes care in Saudi Arabia. In this study we discuss the significant and major threats posed by diabetes mellitus to the Saudi population and recommend essential possible solutions to delay/ prevent this formidable issue.

  4. Use of a hospital-based accident and emergency unit by children (0-12 years) in Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Saima; Ogbeide, Danny O

    2002-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out in order to define the extent and nature of inappropriate use of the accident and emergency (ER) unit in our community. Data were collected for all children aged < or = 12 years who attended the ER from 1 January to 31 March 1999. A total of 3329 children (2010 boys and 1339 girls) attended the ER during the study period. Respiratory tract infection was the most common presenting complaint (33.5%), followed by trauma (15.3%), bronchial asthma (13.7%) and gastro-intestinal problems (6.6%). Using the triage criteria of Alkharj Military Hospital, most of the boys (57%) and 32.6% of the girls were considered to be simple, primary care cases. The rate of referral to specialist clinics was 9.5% and only 4.7% were actually admitted. Attendance at night (53.5% boys, 59.8% girls) was significantly greater (p < 0.00001) than during the morning (0700-1500) and afternoon shifts (1500-2300 hours). This study shows that a large number of children attend the ER with non-urgent complaints.

  5. Comparative sequence analysis of domain I of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 from Saudi Arabia and worldwide isolates.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Bin Dajem, Saad M; AlSheikh, Adel Ali H; Bohol, Marie Fe F; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2016-04-01

    The apical membrane antigen 1 of Plasmodium falciparum (PfAMA1) plays a crucial role in erythrocyte invasion and is a target of protective antibodies. Although domain I of PfAMA1 has been considered a promising vaccine component, extensive sequence diversity in this domain could compromise an effective vaccine design. To explore the extent of sequence diversity in domain I of PfAMA1, P. falciparum-infected blood samples from Saudi Arabia collected between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed and compared with those from worldwide parasite populations. Forty-six haplotypes and a novel codon change (M190V) were found among Saudi Arabian isolates. The haplotype diversity (0.948±0.004) and nucleotide diversity (0.0191±0.0008) were comparable to those from African hyperendemic countries. Positive selection in domain I of PfAMA1 among Saudi Arabian parasite population was observed because nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions per nonsynonymous site (dN) significantly exceeded synonymous nucleotide substitutions per synonymous site (dS) and Tajima's D and its related statistics significantly deviated from neutrality in the positive direction. Despite a relatively low prevalence of malaria in Saudi Arabia, a minimum of 17 recombination events occurred in domain I. Genetic differentiation was significant between P. falciparum in Saudi Arabia and parasites from other geographic origins. Several shared or closely related haplotypes were found among parasites from different geographic areas, suggesting that vaccine derived from multiple shared epitopes could be effective across endemic countries.

  6. Ants of the Genus Solenopsis Westwood 1840 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula with Description of a New Species, Solenopsis elhawagryi

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2012-01-01

    Ants of the genus Solenopsis Westwood in the Arabian Peninsula are revised. Six species are treated: Solenopsis elhawagryi Sharaf & Aldawood sp. n., S. geminata (Fabricius, 1804), S. omana Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, S. saudiensis Sharaf & Aldawood, 2011, S. sumara Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, and S. zingibara Collingwood & Agosti, 1996. Solenopsis elhawagryi is described from Beljorashi Governorate, Al Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, based on worker castes and the queen with notes on this species biology and ecology. Solenopsis sumara workers are redescribed and illustrated for the first time and a lectotype is designated. An identification key to the Arabian and Egyptian species is provided with scanning electron micrographs to facilitate species recognition. PMID:23226211

  7. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of Arabian-Iranian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Klemme, H.D.; Coury, A.B.; Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Undiscovered, conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin are estimated at probability levels of 95%, 5%, and statistical mean. Estimates for oil are 72, 337, and 174 billion bbl; for gas, they are 299, 1, 792, and 849 tcf. Petroleum occurrences can be accounted for in five definitive geologic settings of plays. Undiscovered resource potential is assessed, assuming that new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays. The five plays listed in sequence are: (1) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (2) Lower and middle Cretaceous sandstone, (3) Lower and middle Cretaceous limestone, (4) Jurassic, and (5) Permian. The Permian play is located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extends northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub'al Khali in Saudi Arabia. It accounts for more than four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil. The Lower and middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the heat of the Arabian Gulf, with significant potential extending northwest into Iraq. This play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil. The Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros foldbelt of Iran and Iraq, and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil.

  9. Geochronologic and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-05-01

    The authors report zircon U-Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr data from sample Z-103, a fine-grained granodiorite from the Jabal Khida region of the Saudi Arabian Shield (lat 21/sup 0/19'N; long 44/sup 0/50'W). The measurements yield conclusive evidence for continental crust of early Proterozoic age (approx.1630 Ma) at that locality. Furthermore, lead-isotope data indicate an even earlier, perhaps Archean, crustal history for the source of the lower Proterozoic rocks. 17 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  11. The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae).

    PubMed

    Hannan, Mohammed A; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille) occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) aestuans (Linnaeus) and Xylocopa (Ctenoxylocopa) sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central Saudi Arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. Females and males of both species are figured and biological notes provided for Xylocopa sulcatipes. Notes on the nesting biology and ecology of Xylocopa sulcatipes are appended. As in studies for this species from elsewhere, nests were found in dried stems of Calotropis procera (Aiton) (Asclepiadaceae) and Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae).

  12. Shear-Wave Splitting Beneath the Arabian Shield and Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. E.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Red Sea Rift zone is composed of distinct geologic provinces in close proximity to one another resulting from the rifting and rotation of the African plate relative to the Arabian plate. Since the rift zone is a prototype of a newly formed oceanic basin, understanding of its geodynamic framework will provide important constraints on how seafloor spreading initiates and how continental rifting evolves. Our goal is to extend previous studies of this complex tectonic environment to generate a more complete characterization of the lithospheric structure in the Red Sea region. As part of this work, shear-wave splitting analysis, following the method of Silver and Chan (1991), has been employed to measure seismic anisotropy near the Red Sea Rift. This allows us to compare the anisotropic signature obtained with different candidate models of continental rifting to investigate mantle deformation and rifting mechanics. Data for our study comes from both the eight stations of the PASSCAL Saudi Arabia Broadband Array, which operated from November 1995 to March 1997, as well as the 25 broadband stations of the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN). Data from the SANDSN are uniquely available to us through collaboration with the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. Splitting parameters, including fast polarization directions and delay times, have been determined for S, SKS, and other core refracted phases recorded at the Saudi Arabian stations. Stations along the eastern margin of the Red Sea display little variation with back azimuth and generally indicate a rift-parallel fast polarization direction. This is consistent with a single anisotropic layer model with hexagonal symmetry and a horizontally oriented fast axis. However, stations extending into the central region of the Arabian Peninsula display more pronounced back azimuth dependence. This may be associated with either lateral variations across the study area or with more complicated

  13. Communicating with Parents of Children with Special Needs in Saudi Arabia: Parents' and Teachers' Perceptions of Using Email for Regular and Ongoing Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubis, Snaa; Bernadowski, Carianne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study, by Snaa Dubis from Salman Bin Abdu Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, and Robert Morris University, USA, and Carianne Bernadowski from Robert Morris University, was to investigate parents' and special education teachers' perceptions of using email as a component of parental involvement in the academic and/or behavioural…

  14. Aging in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Nancy J.; Weil, Joyce; Felmban, Wejdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes. PMID:28138483

  15. New Seismicity Map for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.

  16. "Arabian Tales": Standards of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    Virginia Standards of Learning for K-5 are listed in this paper with student activities related to observation of live theatre performances of "Arabian Tales" written and performed by the high school theater touring company, Organized Chaos. This play toured in Virginia in the academic year of 2000-2001. The play runs about 45 minutes.…

  17. Summary of Tertiary investigations in western Saudi Arabia, current work by the U.S. Geological Survey and recommended future studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadley, Donald G.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Coleman, Robert Griffin

    1983-01-01

    In 1936, geologic work related to the Tertiary System in western Saudi Arabia began with a study of the Umm Gerad barite deposit by K. S. Twitchell. In 1944, a study focusing specifically on Tertiary rocks was conducted by Steineke and others near Jiddah. Small-scale mapping of Tertiary sequences began in 1950 in southwestern Saudi Arabia and later in northern 3audi Arabia as part of the Kingdom's early mapping program. These studies were part of a larger program being directed by the Government of Saudi Arabia in connection with mineral resource investigations. In the mid- to late-1960's, the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres discovered mineralized Tertiary rocks al Jabal Dhaylan and began a study, which continues to the present, of both the Tertiary rocks and the mineralization. Following a number of early local studies, in 1973 the U.S. Geological Survey began detailed study of the Tertiary layered rocks along the Red Sea coastal plain south of Jiddah. More recently, Riofinex and Seltrust have been exploring for selected commodities in Tertiary sequences of northwestern Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea coastal plain. Results of these studies, including work by the Saudi Arabian Directorate General of Mineral Resources and the Saudi government agency preceding it, are summarized in this report. Characteristics of the Tertiary rocks south of lat 23? N. and the Tertiary mineral deposits of western Saudi Arabia are also summarized. Recommendations are made for future geologic studies and mineral assessment of the Tertiary rocks of western Saudi Arabia.

  18. Buying success, Saudi style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    Oil - it is what has made Saudi Arabia rich. Without this black gold, none of the country's shopping malls, luxury hotels, six-lane highways or the airconditioned comfort that keeps the terrible heat at bay would be possible. From the first deposits harvested in the early 1950s, Saudi Arabia is now the world's leading exporter of petroleum, which accounts for nearly three-quarters of government revenue. And without the wealth from oil, the huge new King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), built on hard, desert soil in less than two years, would have been impossible.

  19. Comparison of Arabian plate motion using satellite laser ranging and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, A. O.; Fernandes, R. M.; Schillak, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Two different space based observations have been used to estimate the velocity of the Arabian plate motion. The first set of observations is using the Saudi Arabia Laser Ranging Observatory (SALRO - 7832), which is situated in the middle of Arabian tectonic plate. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observations of about 20 global SLR stations to LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites collected for 14 years (1996-2009) have been used to determine Riyadh SLR station positions. The NASA Godard's GEODYN-II orbital software has been used to perform orbit determination of these two satellites. The velocities of SALRO were computed in reference to the ITRF2008 terrestrial reference frame. The second set of observations consists of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations of 15 GPS stations acquired in campaign and continuous mode for the period 2003 to 2009 (having at least 3 years' data span). Multi-year processing of stations having at least 3 years' time span and excluding stations within the deformation zone of Red Sea Ridge, such that they are distributed evenly within the rigid (interior) part of the Arabian plate. The Bernese 5.0/ADNEQ2 and GIPSY/OASIS 6.1 software packages were used to compute the daily solutions of coordinate time series applying the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) strategy. The velocities were estimated with respect to ITRF2008 and four estimates of the angular velocities for the Arabian plate have been computed using different datasets: independent Bernese and GIPSY solutions, combination of the GPS solutions only, and including the SLR solution. We present direct comparison between all different solutions showing that the Arabian tectonic plate motion determined from Riyadh SLR data and GPS data are in a good agreement with recent estimates, in particular with the global geodetic model GEODVEL and the geophysical MORVEL model.

  20. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-07-12

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  1. The prevalence of specific dental anomalies in a group of Saudi cleft lip and palate patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kharboush, Ghada H.; Al-Balkhi, Khalid M.; Al-Moammar, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a group of Saudi subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP), to examine potential sex-based associations of these anomalies, and to compare dental anomalies in Saudi subjects with CLP with published data from other population groups. Design This retrospective study involved the examination of pre-treatment records obtained from three CLP centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in February and March 2010. The pre-treatment records of 184 subjects with cleft lip and palate were identified and included in this study. Pre-treatment maxillary occlusal radiographs of the cleft region, panoramic radiographs, and orthodontic study models of subjects with CLP were analyzed for dental anomalies. Results Orthopantomographs and occlusal radiographs may not be reliable for the accurate evaluation of root malformation anomalies. A total of 265 dental anomalies were observed in the 184 study subjects. Hypodontia was observed most commonly (66.8%), followed by microdontia (45.6%), intra-oral ectopic eruption (12.5%), supernumerary teeth (12.5%), intra-nasal ectopic eruption (3.2), and macrodontia (3.2%). No gender difference in the prevalence of these anomalies was observed. Conclusions Dental anomalies were common in Saudi subjects with CLP type. This will complicate the health care required for the CL/P subjects. This study was conducted to epidemiologically explore the prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi Arabian subjects with CLP. PMID:26082573

  2. Prevalence and characters of Entamoeba histolytica infection in Saudi infants and children admitted with diarrhea at 2 main hospitals at South Jeddah: a re-emerging serious infection with unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Moustafa Abdelaal; Patel, Tabarek Ahmed; El-Deek, Basem Salama

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Entamoeba histolytica had high prevalence and unusual presentation by affecting high proportion of infants under 1 year; severe clinical manifestations, and laboratory findings that were known to be usually encountered in invasive amebiasis as significant leukocytosis for age, neutrophilic leukocytosis for age, and positive C-reactive protein were found among more than 50% of admitted Saudi infants and children with E. histolytica infection in our locality. E. histolytica can be a re-emerging serious infection when it finds favorable environmental conditions and host factors which are mainly attributed to inadequate breastfeeding in this study. This may occur in any other area of the world with the same risk factors, so we must be ready to tackle it with effective and more powerful preventive measures.

  3. Update: Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Joy; Nydell, Margaret

    A guide for persons planning on living in or relocating to Saudi Arabia for extended periods of time, this book features information on such topics as entry requirements, transportation, money matters, housing, schools, and insurance. The guide's contents include the following sections: (1) an overview; (2) before leaving; (3) on arrival; (4)…

  4. Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Glen F.

    1972-01-01

    This tectonic map of the Arabian peninsula, prepared for the Audi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resource, is the first of a series of peninsular maps that attempt to show regional features. Much recent information resulting from detailed geologic mapping notably within the Arabian craton, from geophysical surveys, both airborne and oceanographic in adjacent seas, from deep exploratory drilling, and from photography from the Gemini and Apollo space programs, has been used in the tectonic evaluation.

  5. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A; Thomas, Jacob; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Mayandy, Sivadasan; Hennekens, Stephan M; Schaminėe, Joop H J; Mucina, Ladislav; Alansari, Abdulla M

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations) agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd) of Saudi Arabia - the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD). The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés) collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment), and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés) have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds), agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  6. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR) and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR) in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations. PMID:24351742

  7. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; McCausland, W.A.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Lu, Zhiming; Zahran, H.M.; El, Hadidy S.; Aburukbah, A.; Stewart, I.C.F.; Lundgren, P.R.; White, R.A.; Moufti, M.R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees.

  8. Factors Associated with Diarrhoea Prevalence in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Khan, Moslem U.; Aziz, Khwaja M.S.; Farid, Samir M.

    1995-01-01

    The weather of Saudi Arabia is hot and dry for most of the year. The country is devoid of surface water which often help the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. Nevertheless, this country is not free from diarrhoeal diseases. The role of such factors as crowding, patterns of water use, sanitation, quality of housing, feeding practices and region of residence have not been adequately studied. The 1987 National Child Health Survey data were used to earmark the roles of the aforementioned determinants of diarrhoea in Saudi children aged below six. A stratified and representative sample of 8,566 married women living in rural and urban areas were interviewed by 120 female nurses. There were about two episodes of diarrhoea per child per year. Children aged 6 to 23 months had nearly double the prevalence rate of the older children. Children from rural areas and the southern region had higher rates than children from other areas. Children who were both breast and bottle fed, children of 1-4 member families and of families with 3 or more persons per room had higher prevalence rates. Children of families whose homes had earthen floors, those who used well water and those without toilet facilities who used open fields for defecation had significantly higher rates. In spite of adverse climate and little use of surface water these factors were significantly associated with higher prevalence rates of diarrhoea in Saudi children under six years of age. PMID:23012207

  9. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  10. Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Fayad, N.M.; El-Mubarak, A.H.; Edora, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through (1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food, (2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination of some species, and (3) deterioration of recreation areas. Moreover, the problem of oil spill may be more severe in this part of the world. This is mainly because the source of drinking water in various Gulf states depends largely on sea water from which desalinated water is produced. Contamination of sea water with crude oil may adversely affect the quality of desalinated water and may badly damage desalination plants. During the last twelve years, the Arabian Gulf has been affected by two major oil spills. The first spill occurred on February 4, 1983 during the Iraq-Iran War, and the second major oil spill occured during the 1991 Gulf War. There is limited information about the level of oil hydrocarbons in edible fish, but two studies were carried out after both spills. This paper summarized the results of both studies carried out to assess the extent of contamination of various fish species of commercial value from the Arabian Gulf with oil hydrocarbons.

  11. Heavy metals in cooler waters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Khan, Mujahid A

    2009-10-01

    Water samples were collected from 400 coolers in Riyadh area. From each cooler, one feed and one cooled water samples were collected. These samples were analyzed for trace metals like Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectrophotometer equipped with ultrasonic nebulizer. Out of 400 coolers, water from 382 (95.50%) were found to meet World Health Organization (WHO), Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO), and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water standards whereas water from 18 coolers (4.50%) were found to have elevated levels of Fe, Pb, and Ni metals. In one cooler, water was allowed to stand for 12 h and a 1 L sample collected every 2 h. All the metals mentioned above with the exception of Pb were found to increase due to standing time.

  12. Dental visit patterns and periodontal treatment needs among Saudi students.

    PubMed

    Farsi, J M A

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to report on dental visit patterns and their association with periodontal health among young Saudi Arabian students. A representative sample of 3090 students was randomly selected. The students' dental visit patterns were assessed with a questionnaire. Clinical examinations were carried out using the community periodontal index of treatment needs. Age, sex and education level were significantly associated with the periodontal health. The prevalence of periodontal disease was significantly lower among subjects who were taught the right way to brush their teeth by the dentist. The highest occurrence of healthy periodontium (23.9%) and the lowest need for complex treatment (0%) were found among students who had annual reminders for check-ups (only 2.8% of the students).

  13. The beetle fauna (Insecta, Coleoptera) of the Rawdhat Khorim National Park, Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Fad, Hassan H.; El-Torkey, Ashraf M.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Aldryhim, Yousif N.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ansi, Amin N. Al; Aldhafer, Hathal M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted as a part of a comprehensive baseline survey of insect biodiversity of Rawdhat Khorim National Park (RKNP), Central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). During this study a total of 262 Coleoptera species belong to 182 genera in 35 families were identified, of which 247 are named at a species level. Fifteen species (6.0%) are apparently endemic to KSA. Thirty-eight species are new to the known beetle fauna of KSA, including 25 species reported from the Arabian Peninsula for the first time. The families Tenebrionidae (45 species), Scarabaeidae (34 species), and Carabidae (27 species) were the most species rich families. About 37% of the beetle abundance was represented by species of Scarabaeidae, especially Aphodius ictericus ghardimaouensis Balthasar. Karumia inaequalis Pic (Dascillidae) was also an abundant species. Approximately 43.5% of beetle species collected during this study are considered very rare taxa in RKNP. The RKNP beetle fauna shows more affinity to Sahro-Arabian (36.4%), Afrotropical-Sahro-Arabian (17.4%) and Palaearctic-Sahro-Arabian (10.5%). Twenty-three species (9.3%) are considered cosmopolitan or subcosmopolitan. The data on month of collection, method of collection, and abundance status within RKNP, together with the distribution within KSA and the general distribution (zoogeography) of each species are presented. PMID:28331393

  14. Infections in travellers returning to Turkey from the Arabian peninsula: a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Erdem, H; Ak, O; Elaldi, N; Demirdal, T; Hargreaves, S; Nemli, S A; Cag, Y; Ulug, M; Naz, H; Gunal, O; Sirmatel, F; Sipahi, O R; Alpat, S N; Ertem-Tuncer, G; Sozen, H; Evlice, O; Meric-Koc, M; Dogru, A; Koksaldi-Motor, V; Tekin, R; Ozdemir, D; Ozturk-Engin, D; Savasci, U; Karagoz, E; Cekli, Y; Inan, A

    2016-06-01

    Mass gatherings pooling people from different parts of the world-the largest of which is to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, for Hajj-may impose risks for acquisition and dissemination of infectious diseases. A substantial number of pilgrims to Hajj and Umrah are Turkish citizens (456,000 in 2014) but data are lacking on scale of the problem. We did a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study in Turkey to explore the range of infections among inpatients who had recently returned from the Arabian Peninsula. Our inclusion criteria were patients who had acquired an infection during their trip to an Arabian Peninsula country, or who became symptomatic within 1 week of their return. The data were collected retrospectively for January 1, 2013 and March 1, 2015. 185 Turkish patients were recruited to the study across 15 referral centers with travel associated infectious diseases after returning from Arabian Peninsula countries (predominantly Saudi Arabia 163 [88.1 %] for religious purposes 162 [87.5 %]). Seventy four (40.0 %) of them were ≥ 65 years old with numerous comorbidities including diabetes (24.3 %) and COPD (14.1 %). The most common clinical diagnosis was respiratory tract infections (169 [91.5 %]), followed by diarrheal diseases (13 [7 %]), and there was one case of MERS-CoV. Patients spent a median of 5 (3-7) days as hospital inpatients and overall mortality was 1.1 %. Returning travellers from the Arabian Peninsula present as inpatients with a broad range of infectious diseases similar to common community acquired infections frequently seen in daily medical practices in Turkey.

  15. Women's Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsuwaida, Nouf

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical, political, ideological (value), and government policies of women's education in Saudi Arabia implicated within teaching and learning, how women's higher education has changed over time in the realm of Saudi cultural traditions and religious norms. It also highlights the golden era of women's higher education.…

  16. Health Education in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashem, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the evolution of health education in Saudi Arabia. It outlines milestones in the development of the health education profession and traces the roles of various health sectors and their achievements in the health education field. Additionally, this review seeks to describe the status of health education professionals in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27606106

  17. STS-65 Earth observation of center-pivot irrigation in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of center-pivot irrigation in North Central Saudi Arabia. This 250mm color photograph shows a small section of desert land where center-pivot irrigation is used for crop production. This particular area is representative of a much larger area within Saudi Arabia where this agricultural practice is being applied. The water is being extracted from subsurface reserves that infiltrated deep aquifers over the Central Arabian Arch during previous geological periods, when the climate was much wetter than present. This view is an example of the use of abundant fossil water to achieve self sufficiency in food production. Note OV-102's vertical stabilizer and tail cap are visible in the view.

  18. Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A.

    2013-01-01

    We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder’s Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea. PMID:24955009

  19. Coral reefs in Saudi Arabia: 3.5 years after the Gulf War oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, I. P.

    1995-11-01

    As a consequence of the 1991 Gulf War, 6-8 million barrels of oil were released into the marine environment and a total of 1.12 billion barrels were burned in the Kuwaiti oil fields. In order to detect delayed effects of the Gulf War pollution, six permanent transect lines were placed on Saudi Arabian offshore and inshore reefs. A comparison of three sets of video recordings taken between 1992 and 1994 indicated a significant increase in live coral cover. Therefore, it has been concluded that corals in Saudi Arabia survived the largest oil spill on record remarkably unscathed, with no visible signs of immediate or late effects up to 3.5 years after the Gulf War.

  20. Indoor-outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations at four sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.R.; Al-Dhowalia, K.H.; Mansour, M.E. )

    1989-08-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the major outdoor anthropogenic source of carbon monoxide (CO) is the 4,280,986 cars registered in the Kingdom last year. Of these vehicles, approximately 1,300,000 are registered in the Riyadh area. The major sources of indoor CO in Riyadh are gas cooking facilities, kerosene heaters, charcoal burners, hubble bubble pipes (water pipes), and tobacco smoking. The current Saudi Arabian Ambient Air Quality Standards (SAAQS) for CO are 10 mg/m{sup 3} (9 ppm) maximum for 8-hour average exposure, and 40 mg/m{sup 3} (35 ppm) for 1-hour average exposure. The allowable exceedance is twice per month. These standards are the same for the United States except no exceedance is allowed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CO levels indoors and outdoors at four sites in Riyadh. Continuous sampling was conducted at four sites with Ecolyzer Series 200 Monitors, together with Rustrak Recorders Model 288.

  1. Micro-seismic Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2005-05-01

    Having experience with monitoring Earthquakes plus the fact that Riyadh is yconstantly subjected to Micro-earthquakes through out the year. Riyadh city and ycentral part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a yrelativity stable platform. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at yKing Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed 9 earthquake portable ystations in central part of Saudi Arabia to record micro-seismicty that caused by local yfaults and natural artificial. We recorded many events in study area mostly theses yevents were not felt. We used digital digitizer recorders ( RefTek 72A) in collecting ythe data and SAISAN software for analyses. The main objective of this study is to ydefine the active faults in Riyadh city and surrounded area that can affect the city. y

  2. Zoonoses in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Wernery, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The human population is rising and will soon reach 9 billion people. In parallel, the demand for animal protein is increasing and with it is the threat of zoonotic diseases. We must therefore be on our guard. The close association of people with animals promotes the opportunity for zoonotic infections and real danger may arise when animals are imported with no health background. Therefore, it is essential to implement strict import controls, and establish efficient quarantine facilities. Many viral, bacterial, and zoonotic diseases have been diagnosed on the Arabian Peninsula, either by isolating the pathogens or through serological surveys. Most of them are briefly discussed in this paper. PMID:25491209

  3. Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.R.; Stewart, I.C.F.

    1995-01-01

    A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield and are interpreted as delineating extensions of shield-type rocks down-dip beneath Phanerozoic cover. These rocks constitute terranes making up part of a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt that underlies Northeast Africa and western Arabia and it is proposed that their magnetically indicated easternmost extent marks the concealed eastern edge of the orogenic belt in central Arabia. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector, not entirely accounted for as an effect of deep burial, may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that, according to some tectonic models of the region, collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion.

  4. Use of social media in education among medical students in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Social media (SM), a virtual place where people can share, exchange, and communicate their ideas and knowledge, has become the new trend in communication and learning. This study aims to explore Saudi Arabian medical students’ usage of SM and to discover the most common resources used in medical education. Furthermore, it aims to illustrate students’ belief about the influence of SM on their learning. Methods This cross-sectional study administered validated questionnaires to medical students from different universities in Saudi Arabia, via emails, Twitter, Facebook, and short message service. A non-probability sampling technique was utilized and a sample size of 381 students was arrived at, using 95% confidence interval and 5% margin of error, since the total number of medical students in Saudi Arabia is approximately 36,000. The total respondents were 657 students from 23 different Saudi Arabian medical schools (females: 60.5%, n=397; males: 39.5%, n=260). Results The questionnaires of 21% of the students (n=139) were excluded from the analysis since they were incomplete. The most common website used by both genders was YouTube (42.3%, n=185); however, males preferred using Twitter and Wikis (p=0.001). With regard to utilizing SM for learning, 95.8% (n=419) of the students believed that it is beneficial. Females stated that SM helps them link basic and clinical science (p=0.003). Conclusion Medical schools need to improve the utilization of SM by their faculty and students by developing activities and encouraging the usage of SM in education. PMID:27907981

  5. Saudi Arabia: A future regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2015-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula, blessed with significant natural resources, including oil, gas and minerals. Saudi Arabia has recognised the importance of education in social and economic transformation, and has established a large number of universities, research and advanced technical institutes which have broken the metropolitan boundaries and have been extended to the far-flung areas of the country. There are 68 universities and degree-awarding institutes. The educational budget reached its highest-ever level of $56.56 billion for the year 2014. About 124,000 Saudi students are pursuing higher education in about 500 universities around the world. Saudi Arabia produced 177826 research papers in Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database and in the year 2014 alone, 26168 research papers were published in indexed science journals with a rising h-index of 144. The country is turning into a regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology while swiftly shifting from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy.

  6. Work-related health disorders among Saudi computer users.

    PubMed

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ≤ 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators.

  7. Work-Related Health Disorders among Saudi Computer Users

    PubMed Central

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ≤ 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators. PMID:25383379

  8. Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

    2013-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

  9. Pubertal characteristics among schoolgirls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Felimban, Naila; Jawdat, Dunia; Al-Twaijri, Yasmin; Al-Mutair, Angham; Tamimi, Waleed; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamim, Hani; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Puberty is the gradual transition period between childhood and adulthood. Many factors may contribute to the onset of puberty. The objective of the study was to determine the age of onset of secondary pubertal characteristics among Saudi Arabian girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a cluster sample design. Seven hundred and twenty-five schoolgirls between the ages of 6 and 16 years from diverse socioeconomic levels were included. During physical examinations, the height and weight of the girls were recorded, and the stages of breast and pubic hair development were determined according to Tanner stages; axillary hair development was determined according to modified stages. The median age at Tanner stage 2 for breast and pubic hair development was 10 years. The median age at stage 2 in modified scales for axillary hair development was 12 years. In conclusion, the median age of the onset of breast development at Tanner stage 2 for Saudi girls in Riyadh is lower than what has been reported in some countries in Europe, South Africa, Turkey and India but similar to girls in Hong Kong, China and white girls in the USA, which may support secular trends of an earlier onset of puberty.

  10. Calculation of sky turbidity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mostafa, Z. A.

    The atmospheric turbidity has been calculated and averaged for 29 places around the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using a nine years solar radiation data covering the period from 1971 to 1980. The turbidity values were found to range from 0.1 to 0.4, and the overall average of the turbidity was 0.281±0.056. The minimum value was in Sirr-Lasan (0.168±0.028) and the maximum value was 0.474±0.090 in Riyadh. The low value of the turbidity indicates that the sky of Sirr-Lasan (2100 meter above sea level) may be the clearest sky in the country if the turbidity is taken to be the main factor in preliminary site selection for astronomical observatory. Correlations between the turbidity and geographical coordinates have been investigated and have shown a weak relation between them. Also, seasonal variations studies have shown no significant distribution, which means that each station has its own trend. The low values of the turbidity indicate that the Saudi Arabian sky has relatively small disturbance in the atmosphere.

  11. Saudi National Security. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayed, I.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to focus on Saudi National Security. The author highlights geographic and historic factors that impact on threats to Saudi Arabia, and the objectives for providing security. He discusses how to achieve these objectives, including military readiness and cooperation with other countries to guarantee Saudi security. This is to ensure interests which are vital to the industrial world as the result of a continued flow of oil with a reasonable price. Given is the author`s opinion about U.S. political strategy in the region to achieve stability in the Gulf Region.

  12. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Peste des petits ruminants in Arabian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kinne, J; Kreutzer, R; Kreutzer, M; Wernery, U; Wohlsein, P

    2010-08-01

    Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants.

  14. Association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus with leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Yasir, Muhammad; El-Kafrawy, Sherif Ali; Abbas, Ayman T; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Bakhashwain, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl Sudan virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites. Here we report the association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The complete genome sequence analysis showed highest (99.9 %) identity with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease in Arabian Peninsula. In phylogenetic relationships analysis, the identified virus formed closest cluster with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. Findings of this study strongly supports the associated virus is a variant of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing disease in Sudan, Yemen and Arabian Peninsula. The betasatellites sequence analysis showed highest identity (99.8 %) with tomato leaf curl betasatellites-Amaranthus-Jeddah. The phylogenetic analysis result based on betasatellites formed closed cluster with tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites. The importance of these findings and occurrence of begomovirus in new geographic regions causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are discussed.

  15. Arabian peninsula: zone of ferment

    SciTech Connect

    Stookey, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is an area which must be approached in terms of its own values and traditions. The different states, however, present difficulties for even the most well-informed policymaker because the region is not homogeneous. Some of the states are tenuous congeries of tribal and sectarian communities that do not necessarily share the aims of the ruling group. The authors of these six essays consider (1) the economic position of the states, (2) how oil exports affect the economies of the exporting states, (3) how traditional tribal and religious societies react to change, (4) whether their social values are conducive to modernization, and (5) what factors lead to the development of dissent, and how they affect the expression of dissent. Separate abstracts were prepared for two of the essays selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 23 tables.

  16. Combined plate motion and density driven flow in the asthenosphere beneath Saudi Arabia: Evidence from shear-wave splitting and seismic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S; Schwartz, S

    2006-02-08

    A comprehensive study of mantle anisotropy along the Red Sea and across Saudi Arabia was performed by analyzing shear-wave splitting recorded by stations from three different seismic networks: the largest, most widely distributed array of stations examined across Saudi Arabia to date. Stations near the Gulf of Aqaba display fast orientations that are aligned parallel to the Dead Sea Transform Fault, most likely related to the strike-slip motion between Africa and Arabia. However, most of our observations across Saudi Arabia are statistically the same, showing a consistent pattern of north-south oriented fast directions with delay times averaging about 1.4 s. Fossilized anisotropy related to the Proterozoic assembly of the Arabian Shield may contribute to the pattern but is not sufficient to fully explain the observations. We feel that the uniform anisotropic signature across Saudi Arabia is best explained by a combination of plate and density driven flow in the asthenosphere. By combining the northeast oriented flow associated with absolute plate motion with the northwest oriented flow associated with the channelized Afar plume along the Red Sea, we obtain a north-south oriented resultant that matches our splitting observations and supports models of active rifting processes. This explains why the north-south orientation of the fast polarization direction is so pervasive across the vast Arabian Plate.

  17. Early Precambrian gneiss terranes and Pan-African island arcs in Yemen: Crustal accretion of the eastern Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windley, Brian F.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Ba-Bttat, Mahfood A. O.

    1996-02-01

    Within the Precambrian of Yemen, we have identified four gneiss terranes and two island-arc terranes on the basis of existing literature, mapping, and our own field observations, together with new Sm-Nd isotopic data. The two western gneiss terranes can be correlated with well-documented terranes (Asir and Afif) in Saudi Arabia. To the east of these, the Abas and Al-Mahfid gneiss terranes yield Sm-Nd model ages (tDM) of 1.7 2.3 Ga and 1.3 2.7 Ga, respectively, and cannot be correlated with any documented terranes in Saudi Arabia. These two terranes are separated by a Pan-African island-arc terrane that has been obducted onto one or both of the gneiss terranes, and a second arc bounds the Al-Mahfid gneiss terrane to the east. Our discovery of extensive Proterozoic to late Archean gneisses in Yemen provides important constraints upon the much-discussed tectonic framework of northeast Gondwana and the rate of Pan-African crustal growth. The terranes in Yemen may be correlated with comparable terranes on the eastern margin of the Arabian Shield and in northern Somalia. Thus Yemen provides a link between the arc collage of the Arabian Shield and the gneissic Mozambique belt of East Africa.

  18. Effect of oil pollution on euendolithic cyanobacteria of the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Thukair, Assad A

    2002-02-01

    Microbial euendoliths (true borer) cyanobacteria are carbonate-boring microorganisms found in modern and ancient marine environments. Modern euendoliths include a wide range of prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes, which have been reported world-wide. The importance of euendolithic cyanobacteria concerns their role in bio-erosion of calcium carbonate substrates and as ecological indicators of shallow, tropical and subtropical marine environments. Arabian Gulf ooids from four sites along the east coast of Saudi Arabia have been bored and inhabited by several species of euendolithic cyanobacteria. This assemblage of different species exists simultaneously within the same ooid grain. Comparisons of 1989 and 1992 data reveal a drastic reduction in active euendoliths, and the average numbers of colonies in these ooids. This study reveals the harmful effect of the 1991 oil spill on these unique microorganisms residing in these ooids.

  19. Undiscovered oil and gas resources of Lower Silurian Qusaiba-Paleozoic total petroleum systems, Arabian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas potential of 128 of the world’s petroleum provinces (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000). In each province, the USGS defined Total Petroleum Systems, and Assessment Units in each Total Petroleum System, and then quantitatively estimated the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources. Of the eight global regions studied by the USGS, the Arabian Peninsula portion of the Middle East region was estimated to contain the greatest volumes of undiscovered oil and gas. The Lower Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation is the source rock for some of the most important Total Petroleum Systems of the Middle East region. For example, the sources of the gas in the supergiant North field of Qatar and Iran and recent giant light oil discoveries in central Saudi Arabia were largely organic-rich, Qusaiba marine mudstones.

  20. For You and Your Baby (4YYB): Adapting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Text4Baby Program for Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor birth outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) have been found to be partially due to missed prenatal appointments as well as lack of knowledge of healthy pregnancy behaviors. Objective The objectives are to summarize birth outcomes and the antenatal care system in KSA, summarize research related to the US Text4Baby mobile health program, and outline the development of an Arabic version of the Text4baby app, For You and Your Baby (4YYB). Methods First, birth outcomes, health care access, and smartphone usage among Saudi Arabian women are reviewed. Next, the current evidence behind Text4Baby is described. Finally, a plan to develop and test 4YYB is proposed. In the plan, studies will need to be conducted to determine the effectiveness of 4YYB in educating pregnant Saudi women on healthy knowledge and behaviors. This will create an evidence base behind 4YYB before it is launched as a full-scale public health effort in KSA. Results The KSA offers public medical services but remaining challenges include poor birth outcomes and health care access barriers. An estimated 73% to 84% of Saudi women of child-bearing age use smartphone social media apps. A total of 13 published articles on Text4Baby were identified and reviewed. Due to design limitations, the studies provide only limited evidence about the effectiveness of the program in increasing healthy pregnancy knowledge and behaviors. To be useful for Saudi women, the educational messages in 4YYB will need to be translated from English to Arabic and tailored for cultural norms. Conclusions Developing the 4YYB Arabic-language app for use by pregnant Saudi Arabian women based on Text4Baby is a viable approach, but a rigorous study design is needed to determine its effectiveness in improving healthy pregnancy knowledge and behaviors. PMID:28246065

  1. Post occupancy evaluation of primary schools in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Omari, Sana; Woodcock, Andree

    2012-01-01

    The physical school environment has been shown to be important in helping children fulfill their academic potential and in providing appropriate working conditions for staff. However, few tools have been developed that enable multi stakeholder consultation which takes into account the opinions of young students. In Saudi Arabia there has been widespread investment in schools, but few guidelines have been provided to assist design or continuous evaluation. A Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) method was developed and used to evaluate three international primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The methods identified weaknesses in the three schools and differences in responses from the three groups consulted (children, teachers and parents). Conclusions drawn from the study are that greater efforts need to be made to draw together research about how school facilities can support teaching and learning, increase effectiveness and levels of satisfaction. POE, when used in conjunction with checklists could be used as a means of driving up standards of educational facilities.

  2. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  3. The Malaria Transition on the Arabian Peninsula: Progress toward a Malaria-Free Region between 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Robert W.; Amratia, Punam; Zamani, Ghasem; Mundia, Clara W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Memish, Ziad A.; Al Zahrani, Mohammad H.; Al Jasari, Adel; Fikri, Mahmoud; Atta, Hoda

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of malaria across the Arabian Peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. It is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. Here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. From as early as the 1940s, attempts were made to eliminate malaria on the peninsula but were met with varying degrees of success through to the 1970s; however, these did result in a shrinking of the margins of malaria transmission across the peninsula. Epidemics in the 1990s galvanised national malaria control programmes to reinvigorate control efforts. Before the launch of the recent global ambition for malaria eradication, countries on the Arabian Peninsula launched a collaborative malaria-free initiative in 2005. This initiative led a further shrinking of the malaria risk map and today locally acquired clinical cases of malaria are reported only in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, with the latter contributing to over 98% of the clinical burden. PMID:23548086

  4. On the development of a seismic source zonation model for seismic hazard assessment in western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahran, Hani M.; Sokolov, Vladimir; Roobol, M. John; Stewart, Ian C. F.; El-Hadidy Youssef, Salah; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    A new seismic source model has been developed for the western part of the Arabian Peninsula, which has experienced considerable earthquake activity in the historical past and in recent times. The data used for the model include an up-to-date seismic catalog, results of recent studies of Cenozoic faulting in the area, aeromagnetic anomaly and gravity maps, geological maps, and miscellaneous information on volcanic activity. The model includes 18 zones ranging along the Red Sea and the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba and the Dead Sea in the north to the Gulf of Aden in the south. The seismic source model developed in this study may be considered as one of the basic branches in a logic tree approach for seismic hazard assessment in Saudi Arabia and adjacent territories.

  5. Unayzah Formation: a new Permian-Carboniferous unit in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The sandstones, shales, and thin beds of argillaceous limestone previously included as the basal part of the Permian Khuff Formation were described as the Unayzah Formation by al-Laboun in 1982 and 1986. The type locality (stratotype.) of this formation is in the town of Unayzah, and a reference section was established in the Qusayba area, al-Qasim district, Saudi Arabia. Fossil flora collected from outcrops and palynomorphs obtained from boreholes support a Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age for these strata. The Unayzah Formation is conformably overlain by the massive carbonates of the Khuff Formation, whereas its basal contact is marked by a regional angular unconformity with various older units. The Unayzah Formation is widespread in the Greater Arabian basin. The formation represents cyclic transgressive and regressive deposits preceding the Permian regional marine transgression, during which the massive carbonates of the Khuff Formation were deposited. This Permian transgression marked a major change in the Sedimentation and evolution of the Greater Arabian basin. The porous sandstones of the Unayzah Formation are important exploration targets because several fields in the eastern and southeastern parts of the Greater Arabian basin produce hydrocarbons from the Unayzah. 11 figures, 1 table.

  6. A field experiment to assess impact of chemically dispersed oil on Arabian Gulf corals

    SciTech Connect

    Le Gore, R.S.; Cuddeback, J.E.; Hofmann, J.E.; Marszalek, D.S.

    1983-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted on a coral reef at Jurayd Island (Saudi Arabia) in the Arabian Gulf to study the effects of chemically dispersed oil on local corals. Portions of the reef were exposed to predetermined concentrations of oil alone, dispersant alone, and oil-plus-dispersant mixtures. Areas of the reef not exposed to any of the toxicants were used as controls. Arabian Light Crude and Corexit 9527 dispersant were the test toxicants. Two series of experiments were conducted beginning in September 1981, one with a 24-hour exposure period and the other with a 5-day (120-hour) exposure period. Corals were stained for growth rate studies and extensively photographed to document any observed effects. Corals were examined for biological impacts immediately after the exposures, and then at 3-month intervals for 1 year. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and hydrocarbon content were recorded during the exposure periods. Coral growth appeared unaffected by exposure to the toxicants. Some Acropora species corals exposed to dispersed oil for 5 days exhibited delayed effects, which became apparent during the relatively cold winter season.

  7. Rapid late Pleistocene/Holocene uplift and coastal evolution of the southern Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren W.; Bailey, Richard M.; Hampton, Brian A.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Lu, Zhong; Clark, David W.; James, Rhodri H. R.; Al Ramadan, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The coastline along the southern Arabian Gulf between Al Jubail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Dubai, UAE, appears to have risen at least 125 m in the last 18,000 years. Dating and topographic surveying of paleo-dunes (43-53 ka), paleo-marine terraces (17-30 ka), and paleo-marine shorelines (3.3-5.5 ka) document a rapid, > 1 mm/a subsidence, followed by a 6 mm/a uplift that is decreasing with time. The mechanism causing this movement remains elusive but may be related to the translation of the coastal area through the backbasin to forebulge hinge line movement of the Arabian plate or, alternatively, by movement of the underlying Infracambrian-age Hormuz salt in response to sea-level changes associated with continental glaciation. Independent of the mechanism, rapid and episodic uplift may impact the design of engineering projects such as nuclear power plants, airports, and artificial islands as well as the interpretation of sedimentation and archeology of the area.

  8. Two-phase diagenesis of Quaternary carbonates, Arabian Gulf: Insights from {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O data

    SciTech Connect

    Chafetz, H.S.; Rush, P.F.

    1995-04-03

    Diagenesis of the top 25 m of Quaternary sediment and rock samples from the shallow subsurface under the nearshore part of the Arabian Gulf is the primary subject of this study. During the last forty years, since this area was recognized as a site of extensive carbonate deposition, the origin, distribution, and dolomitization of modern sediments in the Arabian Gulf region have been intensively studied. However, few geoscientists have studied the Quaternary deposits below the top few meters of accumulation. As a complement to previous work, this study is primarily concerned with the diagenesis of aragonitic and high-magnesium calcitic sediments to sediments composing a low-magnesium calcitic facies. The samples studied, intercalated carbonate and siliciclastic sediments and rocks, were collected from a series of borings offshore of Al Jubayl, Saudi Arabia. The lowermost part of the section is predominantly Pleistocene dolomite. The middle part is composed of intercalated low-magnesium calcite and siliciclastics and is herein interpreted as Pleistocene.

  9. Validation of the 6-Month GRACE Score in Predicting 1-Year Mortality of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Admitted to the Arabian Gulf Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Thalib, Lukman; Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; AlHabib, Khalid F; Alfaleh, Hussam F; AlShamiri, Mostafa Q; Amin, Haitham; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Almahmeed, Wael; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Doi, Suhail A R

    2017-03-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are the most common cardiovascular diseases and are associated with a significant risk of mortality and morbidity. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score postdischarge is a widely used ACS prediction model for risk of mortality (low, intermediate, and high); however, it has not yet been validated in patients from the Arabian Gulf. This prospective multicenter study (second Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events) provides detailed information of the GRACE risk score postdischarge in patients from the Arabian Gulf. Its prognostic utility was validated at 1-year follow-up in over 5000 patients with ACS from 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries (Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen). Overall, the goodness of fit (Hosmer and Lemeshow statistic P value = .826), calibration, and discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.695; 95% confidence interval: 0.668-0.722) were good. The GRACE risk score postdischarge can be used to stratify 1 year mortality risk in the Arabian Gulf population; it does not require further calibration and has a good discriminatory ability.

  10. Mortality of shallow reef corals in the western Arabian Gulf following aerial exposure in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlallah, Y. H.; Allen, K. W.; Estudillo, R. A.

    1995-05-01

    Aerial exposure of patch reef corals occurred in Tarut Bay, western Arabian Gulf, (Saudi Arabia) between December 1991 and May 1992, and coincided with extreme low spring tides (below the predicted lowest astronomical tide-LAT). Colonies of Acropora and Stylophora occurring at the highest levels on the tops of patch reef platforms were most affected by the low tides. Corals fully exposed to air suffered total mortality, whereas those not fully exposed suffered tissue damage to their upper parts. Exposure occurred during winter months when air and water temperatures are at their lowest in the gulf. Coupling of extremely low spring tides with wind-induced negative surges (below LAT) are not regular events but are not infrequent. Cold temperatures and exposure may act in concert to produce disproportionate mortalities of reef flat corals in the shallow coastal areas of eastern Saudi Arabia. It is highly unlikely that the Gulf War oil spill played any role in the observed damage to reef corals in the Gulf in 1992.

  11. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  12. Metallic-mineral assessment of the Aban Al Ahmar quadrangle, sheet 25F, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamilli, Robert J.; Arnold, Mark A.; Cole, James C.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Lee, Keenan; Miller, William R.; Raines, Gary L.; ,; ,

    1990-01-01

    Comprehensive detailed interdisciplinary study assesses the metallic-mineral-resource potential in the Aban Al Ahmar Quadrangle of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, located in the eastern margin of the northeastern Arabian Shield, utilizing techniques of geophysics, geologic mapping, remote sensing and geochemistry. The landscape of the study area is characterized by isolated mountain groups, inselbergs, and local tracts of dissected hills separated by broad, low-relief peneplain. Topics covered include mining and exploration history; geological setting; interpretation of geophysical anomalies; limonitic hydrothermally altered and mineralized rocks; geochemical interpretation; mineral resource potential; skarn deposiits associated with intermediate igneous rocks; gold deposits; tin/tungsten skarn deposits; etc. 

  13. Northern Arabian Sea Circulation Autonomous Research (NASCar) DRI: A Study of Vertical Mixing Processes in the Northern Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Northern Arabian Sea Circulation – Autonomous Research...NASCar) DRI: A Study of Vertical Mixing Processes in the Northern Arabian Sea Ramsey R. Harcourt Applied Physics Laboratory University of...barrier layers and surface mixed layers in the N. Arabian Sea • The penetration of radiative and atmospheric fluxes into the ocean interior

  14. Earliest Phanerozoic or latest Proterozoic fossils from the Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.; Awramik, S.M.; Morrison, K.; Hadley, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    We report here the first biologically definable fossils from pre-Saq (pre-Middle Cambrian) rocks of the Arabian Shield. They include the distinctive helically coiled tubular filaments of the oscillatorialean blue-green alga Obruchevella parva as well as two size classes of spheroidal unicells of uncertain affinity. Also present is the conical stromatolite Conophyton and unidentified stromatolites. All occur in cherty limestones of the Jubaylah Group, northern Saudi Arabia, a nonmarine to locally marine taphrogeosynclinal sequence that fills depressions along the northwest-trending Najd faults. Conophyton has heretofore been found only in strata older than about 680 Ma (except for puzzling records in modern hot springs) while Obruchevella is so far known only from rocks between about 680 and 470 Ma old. Thus it appears that the Jubaylah Group is close to the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition. The simple spheroidal nanno-fossils are not diagnostic as to age. Their relationships within what appears to be early diagenetic chert suggest a classical algal-mat association. The brecciated and microchanneled appearance of much of the fossiliferous rock, its locally dolomitic nature, and the prevalence of cryptalgalaminate favors a very shallow, locally turbulent, and perhaps episodically exposed marine or marginal marine setting. The Jubaylah Group lies unconformably beneath the Siq Sandstone (basal member of the Saq Sandstone) of medial Cambrian age, rests nonconformably on crystalline basement, and has yielded a K-Ar whole-rock age (on andesitic basalt) of ???540 Ma. To judge from the fossils, however, that age may be as much as 100 Ma or more too young. ?? 1979.

  15. Deposition Rates and Characterization of Arabian Mineral Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Engelbrecht, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne mineral dust directly and indirectly impacts on global climate, continental and marine biochemistry, human and animal health, agriculture, equipment, and visibility. Annual global dust emissions are poorly known with estimates differing by a factor of at least two. Local dust emission and deposition rates are even less quantified. Dust deposition rate is a key parameter, which helps to constrain the modeled dust budget of the atmosphere. However, dust deposition remains poorly known, due to the limited number of reliable measurements. Simulations and satellite observations suggest that coastal dusts contribute substantially to the total deposition flux into the Red Sea. Starting December 2014, deposition samplers, both the "frisbee" type, and passive samplers for individual particle scanning electron microscopy were deployed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), along the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. Sampling periods of one month were adopted. The deposition rates range from 3 g m-2 month-1 for fair weather conditions to 23 g m-2 month-1 for high dust events. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of deposited dust samples show mineralogical compositions different from any of the parent soils, the former consisting mainly of gypsum, calcite, and smaller amounts of albite, montmorillonite, chlorite, quartz and biotite. The deposited dust samples on the other hand contain more gypsum and less quartz than the previously collected soil samples. This presentation discusses the results from XRD, chemical analysis and SEM-based individual particle analysis of the soils and the deposited dust samples. The monthly dust accumulation rates and their seasonal and spatial variability are compared with the regional model predictions. Data from this study provide an observational basis for validating the regional dust mass balance along the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain.

  16. Attitudes and Practices of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Abahussain, Nada A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females) aged 15–19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatment, with significant differences between genders, except in the use of dietary supplements, black cumin, and acupuncture therapies. Females were more likely to use CAM for treating abdominal pains, cold and flu, and cough than males (P < 0.000). Family members and friends (67.7%) were the main source of CAM usage, followed by television (10%), and Internet (8%). Religious and medicinal herb healers were the CAM healers most commonly visited by adolescents. Nearly 21–43% of adolescents had positive attitudes toward CAM, with some significant differences between males and females. It can be concluded that CAM is widely used by Saudi adolescents, but caution should be exercised for the safe usage of some CAM treatments. CAM should not be ignored; however there is an urgent need to establish regulations for CAM usage. PMID:25560362

  17. Soil Ciliates from Saudi Arabia, Including Descriptions of Two New Genera and Six New Species

    PubMed Central

    FOISSNER, Wilhelm; QUINTELA-ALONSO, Pablo; AL-RASHEID, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Summary Six soil samples from natural and cultivated sites of Saudi Arabia were investigated for ciliate diversity, using the non-flooded Petri dish culture method, live observation, and silver impregnation. We identified 135 species, all new for the fauna of Saudi Arabia, of which seven were undescribed: Spathidium alqasabi nov. spec.; Enchelyodon alqasabi nov. spec.; Metauroleptus arabicus nov. gen., nov. spec.; Pseudohemisincirra arabica nov. gen., nov. spec.; Saudithrix terricola​ Berger, Al-Rasheid and Foissner, 2006; Oxytricha arabica nov. spec.; and Erimophrya monostyla nov. spec. Based on Spathidium alqasabi, S. seppelti foissneri​ Vd’ačný et al., 2006 and S. seppelti etoschense​ Foissner et al., 2002 are raised to species rank; for the latter, a new name is required to avoid homonymy: Spathidium fraterculum nov. nom. The new genus Metauroleptus, which possesses two long and two to three short ventral cirral rows, generates all dorsal kineties intrakinetally and produces caudal cirri exclusively in dorsal kinety 1. Metauroleptus belongs to the hypotrichs, while family classification remains doubtful. The same applies to the new hypotrich genus Pseudohemisincirra, which has frontoventral and transverse cirri, while buccal cirri and caudal cirri are absent. The number of species contained in Saudi Arabian soils, including sand dunes, is in the range reported from other regions of the earth, suggesting that ciliates are well adapted to dry habitats, possibly mainly by their ability to produce very resistant resting cysts, most surviving for a long time due to reduced metazoan predation. PMID:20890459

  18. A Country on the Verge of Malaria Elimination – The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Michael; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed H.; Coleman, Marlize; Hemingway, Janet; Omar, Abdiasiis; Stanton, Michelle C.; Thomsen, Eddie K.; Alsheikh, Adel A.; Alhakeem, Raafat F.; McCall, Phillip J.; Rabeeah, Abdullah A. Al; Memish, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Significant headway has been made in the global fight against malaria in the past decade and as more countries enter the elimination phase, attention is now focused on identifying effective strategies to shrink the malaria map. Saudi Arabia experienced an outbreak of malaria in 1998, but is now on the brink of malaria elimination, with just 82 autochthonous cases reported in 2012. A review of published and grey literature was performed to identify the control strategies that have contributed to this achievement. The number of autochthonous malaria cases in Saudi Arabia decreased by 99.8% between 1998 and 2012. The initial steep decline in malaria cases coincided with a rapid scaling up of vector control measures. Incidence continued to be reported at low levels (between 0.01 and 0.1 per 1,000 of the population) until the adoption of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment and the establishment of a regional partnership for a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula, both of which occurred in 2007. Since 2007, incidence has decreased by nearly an order of magnitude. Malaria incidence is now very low, but a high proportion of imported cases, continued potential for autochthonous transmission, and an increased proportion of cases attributable to Plasmodium vivax all present challenges to Saudi Arabia as they work toward elimination by 2015. PMID:25250619

  19. New host/parasite record for very rare chewing louse Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay, 1938) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) on endemic mountain partridges of Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Mohamed Gamal El-Den; Alahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    The endemic avifauna of Arabia is unique and characteristic through the whole region. Little is known about these birds and their ectoparasites. The Arabian partridge Alectoris melanocephala (Rüppell, 1835) and Philby's partridge Alectoris philbyi Lowe, 1934 are two endemic species which are distributed through the Sarawat Mountains in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Captive breeding population of these birds were examined for chewing lice at the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) near Ta'if. Only one rare species of louse, Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay 1938), was found to infest these birds. The occurrence of such species is considered a first record of the genus Cuculotogaster from Saudi Arabia, and the association of C. arabicus with Philby's partridge is considered a new host/parasite association. The clear diagnostic characters, high definition photos, and drawing of male genitalia are available through this paper.

  20. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Aljefree, Najlaa M.; Lee, Patricia; Alsaqqaf, Jamal M.; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD). Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL) was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively). The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7–15, p < 0.001). The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults. PMID:27763496

  1. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Aljefree, Najlaa M; Lee, Patricia; Alsaqqaf, Jamal M; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-10-17

    Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD). Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL) was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively). The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7-15, p < 0.001). The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults.

  2. Organ Transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Faissal A M

    2016-07-01

    Organ transplantation started in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 1979 with a kidney transplanted from a live donor. The Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation has been established in 1985 as a governmental agency that supervises all national transplant activities in the KSA. Organ transplantation in the KSA has made great strides since 1985. Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation is playing a central role in all aspects of transplantation including education on all levels, allocation, coordination and procurement. A new initiative has started an ambitious program in 2014 to improve the identification and reporting of organ donors aiming at an annual rate of 15 donors per million populations within 3 years in the KSA.

  3. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  4. Mineral exploration, Mahd adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worl, Ronald G.

    1978-01-01

    Mahd adh Dhahab is the largest of numerous ancient gold mines scattered through the Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia and the only one with recent production. During the period 1939-54, 765,768 fine ounces of gold and 1,002,029 ounces of silver were produced from the mines by the Saudi Arabian Mining Syndicate. Ore minerals at Mahd adh Dhahab include free gold and silver, tellurides, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in and associated with a system of north-trending quartz veins and quartz veinlet stockworks. Pyrite is a common sulfide gangue mineral. Country rocks are a north dipping sequence of pyroclastic and transported pyroclastic rocks of the Hulayfah Group that are locally highly silicified and potassium-feldspathized. The prime target for this exploration program was a north-trending zone of quartz veins and breccias, faults, alteration, and metalization approximately 400 m wide and 1000 m long. The ancient and recent mine workings are located in the northern part of this zone. Although the quartz veins and alteration cut all lithologies, the major metalization is confined to the intersection of veins and agglomerate. Ten holes were diamond drilled to explore geochemical, geological, and geophysical targets in the area. A significant new zone of metalization was discovered 700 m south of the ancient and recent mine workings and within the same major zone of quartz veins, alteration, and faults. Metalization in this southern mineralized zone is at the intersection of the quartz veins and a distinctive and highly altered agglomerate. The total zone of vein and agglomerate intercept is potentially metalized and comprises a block of ground 40 m thick and 400 m wide along the strike of the agglomerate and projected downdip 250 m. Tonnage of this block is 17.2 million tons. The explored zone, approximately 25 percent of the potentially metalized rock, has a potential resource of 1.1 million tons containing 27 g/t gold and 73 g/t silver.

  5. Perceived outcomes and satisfaction of Saudi parents and their children following dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia: A 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    El Batawi, Hisham Yehia; Panigrahi, Priyankar; Awad, Manal A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the perceived clinical outcome and parents’ satisfaction after dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia over a follow-up period of 2 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of questionnaire data obtained from 352 pediatric patients before and after treatment of early childhood caries with full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Questionnaires focused on oral symptoms, functional limitations, and emotional and social well-being before and after dental treatment. Cases were followed up for 2 years postoperatively. Results: A dramatic disappearance of symptoms was reported from parents’ perspective. There was a high satisfaction rate (99.14%) also among parents of the children included in the study. Conclusion: Children with early childhood caries do not necessarily express it verbally as pain. The disease has a lot of other expressions affecting children's behavior and habits, including the ability to sleep, thrive, and socialize. This study contributes to the existing literature that full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia [dental general anesthesia (DGA)] has an immediate positive impact on the physical and social quality of life of children suffering from early childhood caries as well as on their families. Postoperative preventive care, early diagnosis, and treatment of recurrent caries are key factors to maintain postoperative outcome of DGA. PMID:25625072

  6. Mandibular degloving injury in an Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Tatz, Amos; Kelmer, Gal

    2013-06-01

    A 6-month-old Arabian filly escaped its handler while being led and slipped on pavement. The referring veterinarian recognized severe, soft tissue damage to the filly's lower jaw and referred the filly to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for surgical management.

  7. Abetalipoproteinemia in a Saudi infant.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Muhammad; Zia, Shumaila

    2011-02-01

    Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare genetic disorder. A 5-month-old Saudi boy presented with chronic diarrhoea and failure to thrive since 3 months of age. He was cachectic. His peripheral blood picture showed many acanthocytes and he had very low lipid profile. He improved on medium chain triglyceride (MCT) formula and administration of fat soluble vitamins.

  8. Optometric Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuaid, Robert D.; Kusztyk, George M.

    1990-01-01

    The first attempt at optometric education in the Middle East, a program developed at King Saud University (Saudi Arabia), is described. The university's second class of optometrists is being trained in the College of Applied Medical Sciences. Professional identity, limited faculty, and development of resources have been problems. (MSE)

  9. Precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula: Global Forcing and Tele-connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, NIranjan; Abouelmagd, Abdou A.; McCabe, Matthew F.; Molini, Annalisa

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the spatio-temporal variability of precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula, its relationships with large-scale climate indices and atmospheric circulation patterns, and its possible connection with the dynamics of sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and in the Mediterranean. Whether El Niño-Southern Oscillation has been shown to be one of the primary drivers of precipitation inter-annual variability over this region, the role of North Atlantic Oscillation in shaping the extremely intermittent hydro-climatology of the Arabian Peninsula has been scarcely explored in the literature. Using a composite analysis of Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation data for winter months (DJFM), we observed that during El Niño years when the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) persist in a negative phase, the Arabian Peninsula receives more rainfall while precipitation drastically decreases during La Niña years and when NAO is in its positive phase. Also, El Niño winters are more conducive to a negative NAO phase. Basing on NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, we also found a distinct shift in phase of Rossby wave patterns during El Niño and La Niña years, most likely mediated by the winter sub-tropical stream. Rossby waves are known to have an equivalent barotropic structure that projects to the lower troposphere. Our analysis highlighted how the jet stream position is shifted towards low latitudes during El Niño years. Since the subtropical jet stream is also affecting precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula - being the core of the subtropical jet stronger during the winter over this region - we conjecture that the combined effect of the shift in the position of the jet stream and the change of phase of Rossby waves (with associated low level vorticity anomalies) during El Niño years could result in an increase of onshore moisture advection from neighboring oceans.This could be the cause of increased precipitation in particular

  10. Allelic variation of melanocortin-1 receptor locus in Saudi indigenous sheep exhibiting different color coats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed H.; Mashaly, Ashraf M.; Rady, Ahmed M.; Al-Anazi, Khalid M.; Saleh, Amgad A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to characterize the DNA polymorphisms of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene in indigenous Saudi Arabian sheep breeds exhibiting different color coats, along with individuals of the Sawaknee breed, an exotic sheep imported from Sudan. Methods The complete coding region of MC1R gene including parts of 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions was amplified and sequenced from three the indigenous Saudi sheep; Najdi (generally black, n = 41), Naeimi (generally white with brown faces, n = 36) and Herri (generally white, n = 18), in addition to 13 Sawaknee sheep. Results Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the MC1R gene: two led to nonsynonymous mutations (c.218 T>A, p.73 Met>Lys and c.361 G>A, p.121 Asp>Asn) and three led to synonymous mutations (c.429 C>T, p.143 Tyr>Tyr; c.600 T>G, p.200 Leu>Leu, and c.735 C>T, p.245 Ile>Ile). Based on these five SNPs, eight haplotypes representing MC1R Ed and E+ alleles were identified among the studied sheep breeds. The most common haplotype (H3) of the dominant Ed allele was associated with either black or brown coat color in Najdi and Sawaknee sheep, respectively. Two other haplotypes (H6 and H7) of Ed allele, with only the nonsynonymous mutation A218T, were detected for the first time in Saudi indigenous sheep. Conclusion In addition to investigating the MC1R allelic variation in Saudi indigenous sheep populations, the present study supports the assumption that the two independent nonsynonymous Met73Lys and Asp121Asn mutations in MC1R gene are associated with black or red coat colors in sheep breeds. PMID:27492350

  11. The optimal currency-peg for an oil exporting country: The case of Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Almasbahi, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In a world of generalized floating exchange rates, it is not enough to solve the problem of exchange rate policy by determining whether to peg or float the currency under consideration. It is also necessary to choose to what major currency to peg. The main purpose of this study is to investigate and determine empirically the optimum currency peg for the Saudi riyal. To accomplish this goal, a simple conventional trade model, that includes variables found in many other studies of import and export demand, was used. In addition, an exchange rate term was added as a separate independent variable in the import and export demand equations in order to assess the effect of exchange rate on the trade flows. The criteria for the optimal currency peg in this study were based on two factors. First, the error statistics for projected imports and exports using alternative exchange rate regimes. Second, variances of projected imports, exports and trade balance using alternative exchange rate regimes. The exchange rate has a significant impact on the Saudia Arabian trade flows which implies that changes in the riyals value affect the Saudi trade deficit. Moreover, the exchange rate has a more powerful effect on its aggregate imports than on the world demand for its exports. There is also a strong support for the hypothesis that the exchange rate affects the value of the Saudi bilateral trade with its five major trade partners. On the aggregate level, the SDR peg seems to be the best currency peg for the Saudi riyal since it provides the best prediction errors and the lowest variance for the trade balance. Finally, on the disaggregate level, the US dollar provides the best performance and yields the best results among all the six currency pegs considered in this study.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou Shady, Hala M; Bakr, Alaa Eldin A; Hashad, Mahmoud E; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL(+) isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence.

  13. Rubidium-strontium geochronology and plate-tectonic evolution of the southern part of the Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Robert J.; Greenwood, W.R.; Hadley, D.G.; Anderson, R.E.; Schmidt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium studies of Precambrian volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield document an early development of the Arabian craton between 900 and 680 m.y. (million years) ago. Geologic studies indicate an island-arc environment characterized by andesitic (dioritic) magmas, volcaniclastic sedimentation, rapid deposition, and contemporaneous deformation along north or northwest-trending axes. Magmatic trends show consistent variation in both composition and geographic location as a function of age. The oldest units belong to an assemblage of basaltic strata exposed in western Saudi Arabia that yield an age of 1165:!:110 m.y. The oldest andesitic strata studied yield an age of 912:!:76 m.y. The earliest plutonic units are diorite to trondhjemite batholiths that range from 800 to 9,00 m.y. in age and ,occur along the western and southern parts of Saudi Arabia. Younger plutonic units, 680 to 750 m.y. in age, range from quartz diorite to granodiodte and become more abundant in the central and northeastern parts of the Arabian Shield. Initial 'Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for both dioritic groups range from 0.7023 to 0.7030 and average 0.7027. The absence of sialic detritus in sedimentary units and the evidence for an island-arc environment suggest the early development of the Arabian craton at a convergent plate margin between plates of oceanic lithosphere. Active subduction apparently extended from at least 900 m.y. to about 680 m.y. Subsequent to this subduction-related magmatism and tectonism, called the Hijaz tectonic cycle, the Arabian craton was sutured to the late Precambrian African plate in a collisional event. This period of orogeny, represented in Arabia and eastern Africa by the Mozambiquian or Pan-African event, extended from some time before 650 m.y. to at least 540 m.y. and perhaps 520 m.y. B.P. Although the tectonic processes of subduction and continental collision during the 900+ to 500-m.y. period require similar directions of plate convergence, the

  14. Monitoring temporal variations in water resources across the Arabian Peninsula and identification of their controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Othman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment, monitoring, and development of the fresh water resources in the Arabian Peninsula (AP) are critical for the sustenance of the AP's growing population and water consumption. Monthly (01/2003-12/2013) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data along with other relevant climatic, geologic, hydrogeologic, and remote sensing datasets were used to monitor the spatiotemporal variability in the AP's water resources and to investigate the causes of those variations. Four regions were selected; in our selection, we tried to cover major aquifers, follow political boundaries, and exceed GRACE footprint (~0.20×106 km2) to minimize uncertainties. The selected regions are: (1) Northern Saudi Arabia and Jordan (area: 0.53×106 km2), (2) Southern Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emiratis (area: 0.97×106 km2), (3) Yemen (area: 0.45×106 km2), and (4) Oman (area: 0.32×106 km2). Results indicate: (1) Northern Saudi Arabia and Jordan area is experiencing large depletions (-8.76±0.94 mm/yr; -4.68±0.50 km3/yr) in GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) that is largely related to groundwater extraction as well as decrease in rainfall rates throughout the investigated period compared to the preceding period (average annual rainfall [AAR]: 2003-2013: 58 mm; 1979-2002: 103 mm), (2) Southern Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emiratis area is experiencing a moderate depletion (-2.73±1.0 mm/yr; -2.63±0.96 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related to groundwater/oil extraction as well as a moderate decrease in rainfall rates (AAR: 2003-2013: 61 mm; 1979-2002: 82 mm), (3) Yemen is experiencing a slight depletion (-0.82±0.30 mm/yr; -0.36±0.13 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related groundwater extraction, and (4) Oman is experiencing slight increase (+0.78±0.30 mm/yr; +0.25±0.09 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related an increase in rainfall rates. Our preliminary results are being further examined by: (1) extracting temporal variations in groundwater storage by

  15. Prevalence of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Northern Border Region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alenazi, Shehab A; Abdalla, Sawsan H; Mohamed, Hassan T; Balla, Amer A; Abukanna, Abdelrahman M

    2017-02-15

    This retrospective study was done to assess the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism among children born in Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during years 2008 to 2014. Data were collected from newborns registry in Central hospital. The prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism was 2.6 per 10,000 live births with no gender difference.

  16. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  17. Tectonic history of the northern Nabitah fault zone, Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quick, J.E.; Bosch, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    Based on the presence of similar lithologies, similar structure, and analogous tectonic setting, the Mother Lode District in California is reviewed as a model for gold occurrences near the Nabitah fault zone in this report.

  18. Tectonic configuration of the western Arabian continental margin, southern Red Sea, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    A tectonic reconstruction of pre-Red Sea Afro/Arabia suggests that the early rift was narrow with intense extension confined to an axial belt 20 to 40 km wide. Steep Moho slopes probably developed during rift formation as indicated by published gravity data, two published seismic interpretations and the surface geology.

  19. Distribution of paratyphoids on Saudi Arabian poultry farms and pathogenicity studies of predominant serotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, E.K.; Nabbut, N.H.; Hinners, S.W.

    1983-07-01

    A total of 412 feed samples and 632 litter samples from 15 poultry farms (2 breeding farms and 13 rearing farms) were examined for Salmonella. Twelve of these farms had Salmonella in litter, five farms had Salmonella in the feed and four had Salmonella in both feed and litter. Seventeen feed samples (4.13%) and 121 litter samples (19.15%) were contaminated with Salmonella. Sixteen Salmonella serotypes were encountered, of which six were found in both feed and litter. Salmonella concord and S. livingstone were present in the litter of one breeding farm and its progeny farms. The five most frequently isolated Salmonella serotypes in feed and litter were S. concord (17.39%), S. coeln (15.94%), S. livingstone (15.22%), S. manhattan (11.59%), and S. paratyphi B var. java (8.69%). The pathogenicities of those serotypes were determined by calculating their median lethal doses (LD50) 24 and 48 hr postinjection of 1,050 one-day-old broiler chicks via the navel into the yolk sac. The composite 48-hr LD50s (viable cells) were: S. concord, less than 8.8 X 10(3); S. livingstone, 1.1 X 10(5); S. manhattan, 3.5 X 10(5); S. coeln, 1.25 X 10(7); and S. paratyphi B var. java, 1.73 X 10(7).

  20. Cultural Factors in Managing an FMS Case Program: Saudi Arabian Army Ordnance Corps (SOCP) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    8217 ORDNANCE CORPS (SOCP) PROGRAM 6. PERFORMING ORG . REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) JOSEPH H. MAYTON, Jr. 9. PERFORMING...oriented to; iaras machinery,,, and they do not nlhays intuitively accept a cpune - effect relationship for thiar-s mechanical. A narticular caution wan often

  1. The Impact Assessment of Demographic Factors on Faculty Commitment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Adnan; Kokash, Husam A.; Al-Oun, Salem

    2011-01-01

    Organizational commitment is perceived as an attitude of association to the organization by an employee, which leads to particular job-related behaviors such as work absenteeism, job satisfaction and turnover intensions. Turnover is the ratio of the number of workers that had to be replaced in a given time period to the average number of workers.…

  2. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula; shield area of western Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Glen F.; Schmidt, Dwight L.; Huffman, A. Curtis

    1989-01-01

    A second stage of sea-floor spreading about 4-5 m.y. produced the Red Sea axial trough, consisting of oceanic crust, as well as renewed uplift and tilting of the three tectonic provinces in response to compression from counterclockwise rotation against the Dead Sea Rift. This late movement caused widespread major stream capture, especially along the wadis that formerly drained southwesterly or northwesterly, the channels turning westward through narrow gorges to the coastal plain and the Red Sea.

  3. A Model for an Information Security Risk Management (ISRM) Framework for Saudi Arabian Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshareef, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Countries in the Gulf represent thriving, globally important commercial centres. They have embraced technology and modern management methods, often originating in the western countries. In adapting to quite different cultures these do not always operate as successfully. The adoption and practices of the Information Security Risk Management (ISRM)…

  4. The chemistry of Saudi Arabian sand: A deposition problem on helicopter turbine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Recent operations in the Persian Gulf have exposed military helicopter turbines to excessive amounts of ingested sand. Fine particles, less than 10 microns, are able to bypass the particle separators and enter the cooling and combustion systems. The initial sand chemistry varies by location, but is made up of a calcium aluminum silicate glass, SiO2 low quartz (Ca,Mg) CO3 dolomite, CaCO3 calcite, and occasionally CaCl rocksalt. The sand reacts in the hot combustion gases and deposits onto the turbine vanes as CaSO4, glass, and various crystalline silicates. Deposits up to 0.25 in. thick have been collected. Although cooling hole plugging is a considerable problem, excessive corrosion is not commonly observed due to the high melting point of GaSO4.

  5. The chemistry of Saudi Arabian sand - A deposition problem on helicopter turbine airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smialek, James L.; Archer, Frances A.; Garlick, Ralph G.

    Operations in the Persian Gulf have exposed military helicopter turbines to excessive amounts of ingested sand. Fine particles, less than 10 microns, are able to bypass the particle separators and enter the cooling and combustion systems. The initial sand chemistry varies by location, but is made up of a calcium aluminum silicate glass, SiO2 low quartz, (Ca,Mg)CO3 dolomite, CaCO3 calcite, and occasionally NaCl rocksalt. The sand reacts in the hot combustion gases and deposits onto the turbine vanes as CaSO4, glass, and various crystalline silicates. Deposits up to 5 mm thick have been collected. Although cooling hole plugging is a considerable problem, excessive corrosion is not commonly observed due to the high melting point of CaSO4.

  6. The Salma Caldera complex, northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The upper Proterozoic Salma caldera is genetically part of an elongate alkali granitic massif, Jabal Salma. Comenditic ash-flow tuffs, the oldest recognized rocks of the caldera complex, were erupted during caldera collapse associated with the rapid evacuation of the upper, mildly peralkaline part of a zoned magma reservoir. Within the tuff sequence, a massive, lithic-rich intracaldera tuff containing megabreccia blocks is overlain by a layered ash-flow sequence. Later peralkaline granite intruded the caldera ring fracture zone. Metaluminous to peraluminous magma rose beneath the caldera approximately 580 Ma ago and solidified as biotite alkali-feldspar granite, syenogranite, and granophyre. No apparent structural doming of the exposed volcanic rocks along the east side of the caldera took place, and post- emplacement deformation and metamorphism of the caldera are minimal.

  7. Website Interface Design: Similarity and Differences between Saudi Arabian and United States University Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyahya, Dalia Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of the Internet and online learning around the globe makes it more important to understand the differences in website design among cultures. Furthermore, the members of educational institutions around the world rely on the Internet more than ever before in a variety of aspects. Also, web design differs from culture to culture. Saudi…

  8. Characterization of CONUS and Saudi Arabian Fine-Grained Soil Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    mesh sieve. As defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 2487-90, "Standard Test Method for Classification of Soils for...thin-film detector window. Each sample was prepared as a loose powder in a disposable sample cup with a prolene film, and standard comparisons were

  9. Use and Attitude towards Learning Management Systems (LMS) in Saudi Arabian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, Saleh Ramadhan; Bayaga, Anass

    2016-01-01

    This paper was designed to establish the relationships between faculty members' use and attitude towards Learning Management Systems (LMSs). LMSs have been adopted in various educational institutions due to their numerous applications and functionalities to improve pedagogy. As a result, faculty members are urged to utilise them for enhancing…

  10. Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activity of Few Saudi Arabian Snake Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Abbasmanthiri, Rajamohamed; Abdo Osman, Nasreddien M.; Siddiqui, Yunus; Al-Bannah, Faisal Ahmed; Al-Rawi, Abdulgadir M.; Al-Asmari, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Venoms of two cobras, four vipers, a standard antibiotic and an antimycotic, were evaluated comparatively, as antimicrobials. Methods: Six venom concentrations and three of the standard antibiotic and the antimycotic were run in micro-dilution and diffusion plates against the microorganisms. RESULTS: Echis pyramidum, Echis coloratus and Cerastes cerastes gasperettii highest venom concentrations gave significant growth inhibition zones (GIZ) with respect to a negative control, except Bitis arietans, whose concentrations were significant. The cobra Walterinnesia aegyptia had significant venom concentrations more than Naja haje arabica. The Staphylococcus aureus Methicillin Resistant (MRSA) bacterium was the most susceptible, with a highly (P < 0.001) significant GIZ mean difference followed by the Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, (P < 0.001), Escherichia coli (P < 0.001), Enterococcus faecalis (P < 0.001) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which, had the least significance (P < 0.05). The fungus Candida albicans was resistant to both viper and cobra venoms (P > 0.05). The antibiotic Vancomycin was more effective than snake venoms though, they were more efficient in inhibiting growth of the resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This antibiotic was also inactive against the fungus, whilst its specific antifungal Fungizone was highly efficient with no antibacterial activity. Conclusions: These findings showed that snake venoms had antibacterial activity comparable to antibiotics, with a directly proportional relationship of venom concentration and GIZ, though, they were more efficient in combatting resistant types of bacteria. Both venoms and the standard antibiotic, showed no antifungal benefits. PMID:26668657

  11. Cultural knowledge of non-Muslim nurses working in Saudi Arabian obstetric units.

    PubMed

    Sidumo, E M; Ehlers, V J; Hattingh, S P

    2010-09-01

    Culture defines how persons behave towards each other. When nurses and patients belong to different cultures, culture-based misunderstandings could influence the nurse-patient relationships and interactions adversely. The purpose of the study was to determine non-Muslim nurses' knowledge about Muslim traditions pertaining to obstetric units in a Muslim country. A quantitative descriptive research design was adopted. The population comprised 67 nurses, but the accessible population consisted of 52 nurses who were working in the participating hospital's gynaecological wards during the data collection phase. However, only 50 nurses completed questionnaires as two nurses did not want to participate in the study. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 11.5) was used to analyse the data. The research results indicate that non-Muslim nurses lacked knowledge about Muslim practices concerning breastfeeding, Ko'hl, the "evil eye", modesty, medicine and food taboos. If these aspects could be addressed during the recruitment and in-service education of non-Muslim nurses working in Muslim countries, this could enhance the quality of culture-competent nursing care.

  12. Saudi Arabian National Data Bases and Use of GULFNET/BITNET at KFUPM Library, Dhahran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qureshy, Jamil Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    Traces the establishment and functions of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, the development of national databases including GULFNET, the services offered by KFUPM (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals), the development of BITNET in the United States, and future possibilities of Internet use. (Author/LRW)

  13. Trace-element contents of postorogenic granites of the eastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; Vaughn, R.B.; VanTrump, George

    1986-01-01

    The regional trends for the chemical data and geochemical correlations over the large area sampled, suggest that the postorogenic granites were derived from a single protolith that formed by the mixing of oceanic sediments from the west, continental sediments from the east.

  14. Saudi Arabian Science Teachers and Supervisors' Views of Professional Development Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Nasser; Alshamrani, Saeed M.; Aldahmash, Abdulwali H.; Alqudah, Basil M.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Teacher professional development is a prominent feature in the educational landscapes of both developed and developing countries. Teacher development can be conceptualised as a mechanism for driving change in educational systems and/or as a strategy for empowering teachers to improve their professional knowledge and pedagogy. To…

  15. Distributing the Future Evenly: English as the Lingua Franca in the Saudi Arabian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsman, Andrys

    2012-01-01

    The dichotomous interpretation of the assumed growth and normalisation of English as the lingua franca (ELF) of the international academy is most often polarised into a marginalisation of non-native speakers by the hegemony of native speakers on the one hand and the empowerment and upward mobility created by its potential to afford access to the…

  16. Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Alhaj, Omar Amin; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (AAs) in edible fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) AAs and amino components are scarce. With emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, HPLC employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and GC-MS of total hydrolysates using the chiral stationary phases Chirasil(®)-L-Val and Lipodex(®) E. Besides common proteinogenic AAs, relatively large amounts of the following non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected: (2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid (1.4-4.0 g/kg dry matter, DM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (1.3-2.6 g/kg DM), γ-amino-n-butyric acid (0.5-1.2 g/kg DM), (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (130-230 mg/kg DM), L-pipecolic acid (40-140 mg/kg DM), and 2-aminoethanol (40-160 mg/kg DM) as well as low or trace amounts (<70 mg/kg DM) of L-ornithine, 5-hydroxylysine, β-alanine, and in some samples (<20 mg/kg DM) of (S)-β-aminoisobutyric acid and (<10 mg/kg DM) L-allo-isoleucine. In one date fruit, traces of α-aminoadipic acid could be determined. Enantiomeric analysis of 6 M DCl/D2O hydrolysates of AAs using chiral capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of very low amounts of D-Ala, D-Asp, D-Glu, D-Ser and D-Phe (1.2-0.4%, relative to the corresponding L-enantiomers), besides traces (0.2-1%) of other D-AAs. The possible relevance of non-proteinogenic amino acids in date fruits is briefly addressed.

  17. Acculturation and Perceived Social Distance among Arabs and Saudi Arabians in an ESL Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qahtani, Abdulkhaleq A.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the perceived social distance among a small Arab community residing in a college town in the Midwest of the USA. The study examines its possible impact on the process of learning/acquiring English as a second language (ESL). It draws on the findings and contentions of the acculturation model as…

  18. The Chemistry of Saudi Arabian Sand - A Deposition Problem on Helicopter Turbine Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Archer, Frances A.; Garlick, Ralph G.

    1992-01-01

    Operations in the Persian Gulf have exposed military helicopter turbines to excessive amounts of ingested sand. Fine particles, less than 10 microns, are able to bypass the particle separators and enter the cooling and combustion systems. The initial sand chemistry varies by location, but is made up of a calcium aluminum silicate glass, SiO2 low quartz, (Ca,Mg)CO3 dolomite, CaCO3 calcite, and occasionally NaCl rocksalt. The sand reacts in the hot combustion gases and deposits onto the turbine vanes as CaSO4, glass, and various crystalline silicates. Deposits up to 5 mm thick have been collected. Although cooling hole plugging is a considerable problem, excessive corrosion is not commonly observed due to the high melting point of CaSO4.

  19. The Saudi Thoracic Society pneumococcal vaccination guidelines-2016

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, N. S.; Al-Barrak, A. M.; Al-Moamary, M. S.; Zeitouni, M. O.; Idrees, M. M.; Al-Ghobain, M. O.; Al-Shimemeri, A. A.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Saudi Arabia is a host to millions of pilgrims who travel annually from all over the world for Umrah and the Hajj pilgrimages and are at risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia or invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). There is also the risk of transmission of S. pneumoniae including antibiotic resistant strains between pilgrims and their potential global spread upon their return. The country also has unique challenges posed by susceptible population to IPD due to people with hemoglobinopathies, younger age groups with chronic conditions, and growing problem of antibiotic resistance. Since the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease is constantly changing, with an increase in nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes, vaccination policies on the effectiveness and usefulness of vaccines require regular revision. As part of the Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) commitment to promote the best practices in the field of respiratory diseases, we conducted a review of S. pneumoniae infections and the best evidence base available in the literature. The aim of the present study is to develop the STS pneumococcal vaccination guidelines for healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. We recommend vaccination against pneumococcal infections for all children <5 years old, adults ≥50 years old, and people ≥6 years old with certain risk factors. These recommendations are based on the presence of a large number of comorbidities in Saudi Arabia population <50 years of age, many of whom have risk factors for contracting pneumococcal infections. A section for pneumococcal vaccination before the Umrah and Hajj pilgrimages is included as well. PMID:27168856

  20. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liddicoat, W.K.; Ramsay, C.R.; Hedge, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al2O3, Na2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U{single bond}Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ?? 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region. ?? 1986.

  1. Solar energy water desalination in the United States and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luft, W.; William, J.

    1981-01-01

    Five solar energy water desalination systems were designed to deliver 6000 cubic m/day of desalted water from either seawater or brackish water. Two systems will be selected for pilot plant construction. The pilot plants will have capacities in the range of 100 to 400 m/day. Goals of the Project Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Solar Energy, under the auspices of the United States-Saudi Arabian Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation, are to: (1) cooperate in the field of solar energy technology for the mutual benefit of the two countries, including the development and stimulation of solar industries within the two countries; (2) advance the development of solar energy technology in the two countries; and (3) facilitate the transfer between the two countries of technology developed under this agreement.

  2. Ecology of the Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari in Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Al-Otaibi, Fahed S

    2014-11-01

    The ecology, feeding habits and sexual dimorphism in Arabian Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari from the Central region of Saudi Arabia, were studied. In this study the E. jayakari was recorded for the first time from several sites. Significant differences were noted in total length of body and tail, and body diameter of male and female. The females were of larger size. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudal for both sexes were not significantly different. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventral body scales and subcaudal scales for the females was 43, 169 and 18 scales which were not significantly different from respectively ones in males 42, 168 and 18 scales. Frequent prey consumed were lizards (50%), rodents (25%) and arthropods (12.5%).

  3. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  4. Solar energy water desalination in the United States and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luft, W.; William, J.

    1981-05-01

    Five solar energy water desalination systems were designed to deliver 6000 cubic m/day of desalted water from either seawater or brackish water. Two systems will be selected for pilot plant construction. The pilot plants will have capacities in the range of 100 to 400 m/day. Goals of the Project Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Solar Energy, under the auspices of the United States-Saudi Arabian Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation, are to: (1) cooperate in the field of solar energy technology for the mutual benefit of the two countries, including the development and stimulation of solar industries within the two countries; (2) advance the development of solar energy technology in the two countries; and (3) facilitate the transfer between the two countries of technology developed under this agreement.

  5. On the evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the largest shear zone on the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. M.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Stuewe, K.; Meyer, S.; Passchier, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Najd Fault System is known to be the largest pre-Mesozoic shear zone on the Earth. It developed in the context of the Pan African orogeny during the closure of the Mozambique Ocean and the subsequent collision between East- and West-Gondwanaland. The fault system crosses the entire Arabian Nubain Shield of northern Africa from northwest to southeast. During its activity, middle crustal level rocks were exhumed as a series of metamorphic complexes that are located in the Proterozoic rocks of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. It is now known that some of these complexes were exhumed as classical core complexes in extension regime. However, recent studies have shown that others (i.e those of Sinai) exhumed in oblique compression regime. Recent published age-dating data showed that this difference in exhumation mechanism is not only in a tectonic context but in the exhumation's age: Exhumation of the metamorphic complexes of the eastern part of the shield is much older than the exhumation of the western part. One way to test this new concept is to study the mid-crustal rocks of Saudi Arabia (eastern part of the shield). Preliminary work shows that all the metamorphic complexes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield exhumed due to the activity of the Najd Fault System over an interval of some tens of millions years (≈ 690 - 530 Ma). Early metamorphic complexes were exhumed in compression regime due to the collision between East- and West-Gondwanaland, while the later ones exhumed in extension setting due to the relaxation that follows the collision.

  6. Heat-flow measurements at shot points along the 1978 Saudi Arabia seismic deep-refraction line; Part I, Results of the measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Showail, Abdullah

    1982-01-01

    Heat-flow measurements were made at five onland shot points of the 1978 Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction line, which sample major tectonic elements of the Arabian Shield along a profile from Ar Riyad to the Farasan Islands. Because of the pattern drilling at each shot point, several holes (60 m deep) could be logged for temperature at each site and thus allow a better estimate of the geothermal gradient. Each site was mapped and sampled in detail, and modal and. chemical analyses of representative specimens were made in the laboratory. Thermal conductivities were computed from the modal analyses and single-mineral conductivity data. The resulting heat-flow values, combined with published values for the Red Sea and coastal plain, indicate a three-level pattern, with a heat flow of about 4.5 heat-flow unit (HFU) over the Red Sea axial trough, about 3.0 HFU over the shelf and coastal plain, and an essentially constant 1.0 HFU over the Arabian Shield at points well away from the suture zone with the oceanic crust. At three sites where the rocks are granitic, gamma-ray spectrometry techniques were employed to estimate thorium, potassium, and uranium concentrations. The resulting plot of heat generation versus heat flow suggests that in the Arabian Shield the relationship between heat flow and heat production is not linear. More heat-flow data are essential to establish or reject this conclusion.

  7. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-14

    Turki Al Faisal, were entitled to foreign sovereign immunity for their official acts. [Burnett v. Al Baraka Inv. and Development Corp., 292 F.Supp.2d 9...the Palestinian Authority (PA), donations to charitable organizations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and by means of direct assistance to over...killing others by means of suicide bombings, and Saudi religious leaders have condemned the taking of innocent lives.” See [http://www.saudiembassy.net

  8. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Turki, were entitled to foreign sovereign immunity for their official acts. [Burnett v. Al Baraka Inv. and Development Corp., 292 F.Supp.2d 9 (D.D.C...Palestinian Authority (PA), donations to charitable organizations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and by means of direct assistance to over 35,000 needy...often referred to as martyrs. Nevertheless, the Saudi government does not condone the act of killing oneself and killing others by means of suicide

  9. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-08

    foreign sovereign immunity for their official acts. [Burnett v. Al Baraka Inv. and Development Corp., 292 F.Supp.2d 9 (D.D.C. 2003)]12 Linde v. Arab...and by means of direct assistance to over 35,000 needy Palestinian individuals. In addition to financial assistance, the Al Quds Intifada Committee...oneself and killing others by means of suicide bombings, and Saudi religious leaders have condemned the taking of innocent lives.” See [http

  10. Geochemical signature variation of pre-, syn-, and post-shearing intrusives within the Najd Fault System of western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Hauzenberger, C.; Stüwe, K.

    2016-10-01

    Late Precambrian intrusive rocks in the Arabian-Nubian Shield emplaced within and around the Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia feature a great compositional diversity and a variety of degrees of deformation (i.e. pre-shearing deformed, sheared mylonitized, and post-shearing undeformed) that allows placing them into a relative time order. It is shown here that the degree of deformation is related to compositional variations where early, usually pre-shearing deformed rocks are of dioritic, tonalitic to granodioritic, and later, mainly post-shearing undeformed rocks are mostly of granitic composition. Correlation of the geochemical signature and time of emplacement is interpreted in terms of changes in the source region of the produced melts due to the change of the stress regime during the tectonic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The magma of the pre-shearing rocks has tholeiitic and calc-alkaline affinity indicating island arc or continental arc affinity. In contrast, the syn- and post-shearing rocks are mainly potassium rich peraluminous granites which are typically associated with post-orogenic uplift and collapse. This variation in geochemical signature is interpreted to reflect the change of the tectonic regime from a compressional volcanic arc nature to extensional within-plate setting of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Within the context of published geochronological data, this change is likely to have occurred around 605-580 Ma.

  11. First Dinosaur Tracks from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Schulp, Anne S.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula is virtually unknown. Despite vast exposures of rocky outcrops, only a handful of fossils have yet been described from the region. Here we report a multi-taxon dinosaur track assemblage near Madar village, 47 km north of Sana'a, Republic of Yemen. This represents the first dinosaur tracksite from the Arabian Peninsula, and the only multi-taxon dinosaur ichnosite in the Middle East. Methodology/Findings Measurements were taken directly from trackway impressions, following standard ichnological conventions. The presence of bipedal trackmakers is evidenced by a long series of pes imprints preserving smoothly rounded posterior margins, no evidence of a hallux, bluntly rounded digit tips and digital divarication angles characteristic of ornithopod dinosaurs. Nearby, eleven parallel quadrupedal trackways document a sauropod herd that included large and small individuals traveling together. Based on the morphology of manus impressions along with a narrow-gauged stance, the quadrupedal trackways were made by non-titanosauriform neosauropods. Additional isolated tracks and trackways of sauropod and ornithopod dinosaurs are preserved nearby. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these discoveries present the most evocative window to date into the evolutionary history of dinosaurs of the Arabian Peninsula. Given the limited Mesozoic terrestrial record from the region, this discovery is of both temporal and geographic significance, and massive exposures of similarly-aged outcrops nearby offer great promise for future discoveries. PMID:18493306

  12. Is Saudi Arabia a Nuclear Threat?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    States has provided for the external security of the oil Kingdom through informal security agreements, but a deterioration in U.S.-Saudi relations...replace their aging missile force with a nuclear-tipped inventory. The United States has provided for the external security of the oil Kingdom...48 1. Construction of Saudi Armed Forces...................................................48 2. The 1973 Oil Embargo

  13. Toward a Constructivist Approach in Saudi Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsulami, Sumayyah

    2016-01-01

    In the way to develop the educational system in Saudi Arabia, the emphasis was only on the materials with no more attention for the role of the learner and the teacher in the learning process or even the external factors around them. However, there are many theories and approaches that may help the Saudi students in different levels to understand…

  14. Innovations in Industrial Training for Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    1980-01-01

    To develop a more diversified economic base in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs implemented the Development Plan for the Vocational Training and Manpower Division, which intends to train a large number of Saudis in employable trades. Methods include building modern training facilities, developing competency based learning…

  15. Partial Immersion Program for Saudi Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsulami, Sumayyah Qaed

    2017-01-01

    English is taught as a foreign language in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Although the government tries gradually to integrate teaching English in all grades: secondary, intermediate and elementary, learning English is still limited and need more developing. This essay is a brief review about bilingualism in Saudi education. This essay will be divided…

  16. Career Choices Among Saudi Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Faris, Eiad; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 253 final-year students at the four Saudi medical schools found the most frequently-chosen specialties were internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology. Over one-fourth were unsure of career choice. Gender differences were found. Most common locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia and Canada, and a…

  17. Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

  18. Assessment of the Climate Vulnerabilities of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, T.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula (AP), like many places around the world, is apparently witnessing the impacts (amount, patterns, and frequency of precipitation) of global warming. Precipitation over the AP is largely controlled by two main wind regimes, the winter (October to March) northerlies or northwesterlies, hereafter referred to as westerlies, and the summer (April to September) monsoonal wind regimes. The global monthly Climate Prediction Centers (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data (spatial resolution: 2.5° × 2.5°; temporal resolution: monthly; operational period: January 1979 to November 2011) was used to investigate the nature and magnitude of precipitation variations over the AP throughout 1979 - 2010. Trends in CMAP-derived precipitation patterns were examined over the winter and summer seasons throughout Periods I (1979-1995) and II (1996-2010). Reversals in precipitation patterns were observed in Periods I and II, where areas witnessing an increase in precipitation in Period I showed a decrease in precipitation throughout Period II, and vice versa for the remaining areas. Our findings suggest: (1) an increase in precipitation during Period I over the southeastern and southwestern coastal areas of AP (e.g., Muscat, Sanaa, and Jeddah) that is probably related to the intensification of the monsoons at the expense of the westerlies, (2) an increase in precipitation during Period II over the northwestern and southeastern of AP (e.g., northwestern Saudi Arabia, Empty Quarter, western and southwestern Oman, and eastern Yemen) is here attributed to intensification of the westerlies, and 3) the general similarity of annual trend patterns to the summer trend (Period I) and to winter trend (Period II) suggest that the annual trends are largely controlled by monsoonal wind regimes in Period I and by the westerlies in Period II. Outputs (i.e., precipitation) of climatic models (CCSM4.0) over the AP are being extracted (for upcoming 100 years) , downscaled

  19. Mastritherium (Artiodactyla, Anthracotheriidae) from Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia; an earliest Miocene age for continental rift-valley volcanic deposits of the Red Sea margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madden, Gary T.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Whitmore, Frank C.

    1983-01-01

    A lower jaw fragment with its last molar (M/3) from the Baid formation in Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia, represents the first recorded occurrence in the Arabian Peninsula of an anthracotheriid artiodactyl (hippo-like, even-toed ungulate). This fossil is identified as a primitive species of Masritherium, a North and East African genus restricted, previously to the later early Miocene. This identification indicates that the age of the Baid formation, long problematical, is early Miocene and, moreover, shows that the age of the fossil site is earliest Miocene (from 25 to 21Ma). The Wadi Sabya anthracothere is the first species of fossil mammal recorded from western Saudi Arabia, and more important, it indicates an early Miocene age for the volcanic deposits of a continental rift-valley that preceded the initial sea-floor spreading of the Red Sea.

  20. First record of the myrmicine ant genus Carebara Westwood, 1840 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Saudi Arabia with description of a new species, C. abuhurayri sp. n.

    PubMed

    Aldawood, Abdulrahman S; Sharaf, Mostafa R; Taylor, Brian

    2011-04-28

    The myrmicine ant genus Carebara is recorded for the first time in Saudi Arabia from the Arabian Peninsula as a whole. A new species Carebara abuhurayrisp. n. is described based on workers collected from Al Bahah region. One of the smallest ant species known to occur in Arabia, Carebara abuhurayri is found in an area inhabited by many ant species including Tetramorium sericeiventre Emery, 1877, Pheidole minuscula Bernard, 1952, Pheidole sp., Monomorium destructor (Jerdon, 1851), Monomorium exiguum (Forel, 1894) and Monomorium sp. and Crematogaster sp.

  1. First record of the myrmicine ant genus Carebara Westwood, 1840 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Saudi Arabia with description of a new species, C. abuhurayri sp. n.

    PubMed Central

    Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.; Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Taylor, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The myrmicine ant genus Carebara is recorded for the first time in Saudi Arabia from the Arabian Peninsula as a whole. A new species Carebara abuhurayri sp. n. is described based on workers collected from Al Bahah region. One of the smallest ant species known to occur in Arabia, Carebara abuhurayri is found in an area inhabited by many ant species including Tetramorium sericeiventre Emery, 1877, Pheidole minuscula Bernard, 1952, Pheidole sp., Monomorium destructor (Jerdon, 1851), Monomorium exiguum (Forel, 1894) and Monomorium sp. and Crematogaster sp. PMID:21594112

  2. Lithospheric Structure in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Plate from Joint Inversion of Surface Wave Dispersion Data and Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugda, M. T.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.; Julia, J.

    2006-12-01

    Lithospheric structure beneath Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti) and the Arabian Shield and Platform has been investigated using a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements from 10 to 175 s. Our models help to constrain the extent of modification made to the lithosphere in the region by hotspot tectonism. Most of the data for this study come from three major sources: the Ethiopia and Kenya Broadband Seismic Experiments which were carried out between 2000-2002 and 2001-2002, respectively, and data from the Saudi Arabia National Digital Seismic Network (KACST). We find that there is little or no seismic lid under the Main Ethiopian Rift and Afar. The results for the Ethiopian Plateau show that there has been thinning of the lithosphere by about ~30 40 km from typical Mozambique Belt lithosphere under Tanzania, which was reported to be up to 120 km thick, and that there has been a reduction in maximum shear wave velocity of the lid by about 7%. Replacement of the bottom of the former Mozambique Belt lithosphere by warm plume material with a partial erosion of the lithosphere can explain both the thinning of the lithosphere and the reduction of maximum velocity. Preliminary results suggest similar lithospheric structure beneath the Arabian Shield. The results from Kenya are similar to that of the results for the Mozambique Belt Lithosphere in Tanzania, showing 100-120 km thick lithosphere.

  3. Comparison of incubation period distribution of human infections with MERS-CoV in South Korea and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Virlogeux, Victor; Fang, Vicky J.; Park, Minah; Wu, Joseph T.; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    The incubation period is an important epidemiologic distribution, it is often incorporated in case definitions, used to determine appropriate quarantine periods, and is an input to mathematical modeling studies. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS) is an emerging infectious disease in the Arabian Peninsula. There was a large outbreak of MERS in South Korea in 2015. We examined the incubation period distribution of MERS coronavirus infection for cases in South Korea and in Saudi Arabia. Using parametric and nonparametric methods, we estimated a mean incubation period of 6.9 days (95% credibility interval: 6.3–7.5) for cases in South Korea and 5.0 days (95% credibility interval: 4.0–6.6) among cases in Saudi Arabia. In a log-linear regression model, the mean incubation period was 1.42 times longer (95% credibility interval: 1.18–1.71) among cases in South Korea compared to Saudi Arabia. The variation that we identified in the incubation period distribution between locations could be associated with differences in ascertainment or reporting of exposure dates and illness onset dates, differences in the source or mode of infection, or environmental differences. PMID:27775012

  4. An up close and personal look at Saudi Arabia (Jeddah and Riyadh): history, culture, and health care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2005-01-01

    Saudi Arabia was one of the greatest travel destinations that I have had the opportunity to experience. I made this pilgrimage to Jeddah and Riyadh, and was truly welcomed into the kingdom. After almost three years of caring for those precious gems (the five surviving babies of the famous Saudi Arabian Septuplets) born July 2001 in the Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, I was issued a visa and asked to serve as the Nurse Escort in taking these babies home. Through a detailed glimpse of everyday life, I was privileged to enter an arena of not only forming lifelong friendships, but exploring how a country so difficult to gain entry, is also a land of astonishing natural beauty. A visit to that famous King Faisal Hospital made me a believer that Saudi Arabia has one of the best medical facilities in the Middle East, with well-trained nurses and physicians, who many are from other countries, including the United States. Observing health care professionals providing competent nursing and medical care in that environment was unique, because it evolved a culture based on an amalgam of religion and politics.

  5. Cardiovascular risk profiles of adults with type-2 diabetes treated at urban hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Slail, Fatima Y; Abid, Omer; Assiri, Abdullah M; Memish, Ziad A; Ali, Mohammed K

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus substantially increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Among Saudi Arabian citizens with diabetes, little is known about the prevalence and control of other CVD risk factors. We extracted data from medical records of a random selection of 422 patients seen between 2008 and 2012 at two diabetic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We calculated the proportion of patients who had additional CVD risk factors: obesity (body mass index ⩾ 30 kg/m(2)), hypertension (BP ⩾ 140/90 mmHg), elevated cholesterol fractions, and multiple risk factors). Further, we calculated the proportion of patients meeting the American Diabetes Association's recommended care targets for each risk factor. Of 422 patients (mean age, 52 years), half were women, 56% were obese, 45% had hypertension, and 77% had elevated LDL concentrations. In addition to diabetes, 70% had two or more CVD risk factors. Although 9% met both target HbA1c and BP values, only 3.5% had optimum HbA1c, BP, and lipid values. In Saudi Arabia's best diabetes clinics, most patients have poor control of their disease. This huge disease burden and related care gaps have important health and financial implications for the country.

  6. Arabian Shield magmatic cycles and their relationship with Gondwana assembly: Insights from zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, F. A.; Foden, J. D.; Collins, A. S.; Payne, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Shield preserves a protracted magmatic record of amalgamated juvenile terranes that host a diverse range of early Neoproterozoic to Cambrian granitoids intruding volcanosedimentary basin assemblages that have corollaries in other parts of the East African Orogen. New zircon U-Pb geochronology of 19 granitoids intruding eight Arabian Shield terranes, define four discrete magmatic events: island arc (∼845 Ma), syncollisional (∼710 Ma), post-tectonic (∼620 Ma) and anorogenic (∼525 Ma). Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic analyses indicate that all studied granitoids are juvenile with typical εHf values of >+5 to +10 and Stenian-Tonian (∼1100-900 Ma) model ages, regardless of their precise intrusive ages or spatial relationship. Subtle changes in isotopic signatures between ∼850 and 600 Ma, suggest the result from changes in granite source materials brought about by; basaltic underplating, limited crustal interaction with Palaeoproterozoic basement and a change to lithospheric delamination/subduction roll-back processes driving juvenile ANS crustal growth. The cycle of granite intrusion reflects accretionary cycles initiated during Mozambique Ocean closure and during Gondwana amalgamation and final assembly. Post-tectonic magmatism is divided into a ∼636-600 Ma phase and post 600 Ma event that reflects first subduction and then within-plate related processes. The identification of magmatism at ∼525 Ma is now the youngest granitoid identified so far in the Saudi Arabian Shield and may change the identified age of the regional, basal Palaeozoic unconformity. This late magmatism may be generated by the Najd Fault reactivation correlating with the Malagasy/Kunnga Orogeny that marked the final stages of Gondwana assembly.

  7. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-25

    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.

  8. Chemostratigraphic and sedimentologic evolution of Wajid Group (Wajid Sandstone): An outcrop analog study from the Cambrian to Permian, SW Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassin, Mohamed A.; Abdullatif, Osman M.

    2017-02-01

    The Paleozoic age succession in Saudi Arabia represents one of the most prolific petroleum producing systems in the Arabian Peninsula. This succession is also considered important for unconventional tight gas and shale gas reservoirs. The Wajid Group (Wajid Sandstone) in SW Saudi Arabia consists of four formations, namely, Dibsiyah (Lower and Upper), Sanamah, Khusayyayn and Juwayl from bottom to top. This study investigates the major oxides, trace and rare earth elements for the Wajid Group formations in southwestern Saudi Arabia. We characterize and compare the sandstone types, provenance, tectonic setting, and climate. Moreover, we applied the chemostratigraphic technique for stratigraphic differentiation. Concentrations of certain elements indicate that Wajid Group was deposited in a passive continental margin. The geochemical analysis reveals that Wajid Group sediments were likely derived from the upper and bulk continental crust and mafic igneous provenance. The elemental geochemical data has been applied in this study to improve the stratigraphic subdivision and correlation. Using selected elements, geochemical vertical profiles, binary, and ternary diagrams allow clearly distinguishing between Wajid Group formations. Thus supports the established formation boundaries that constructed using lithostratigraphy and sedimentology. The geochemical elements variation between formations can be related to differences in rock-forming minerals, facies change, climate, and provenance. The results of this study may help in constraining and correlating complex facies strata and can be used as a guide for stratigraphic correlations in the subsurface within the Wajid basin and other equivalent stratigraphic successions within Saudi Arabia.

  9. Family profile of victims of child abuse and neglect in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha A.; Alghamdi, Linah A.; Saleheen, Hassan N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients’ files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. Results: The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (<6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. Conclusions: The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors. PMID:27464866

  10. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulation period samples the meteorological conditions that determine the climatology of mineral dust aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula. The modeled Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has been compared against ground-based observations of three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations that are distributed over the Arabian Peninsula and daily space based observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Moderate resolution Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The large scale atmospheric circulation and the land surface response that lead to dust uplifting have been analyzed. While the modeled AOD shows that the dust season extends from March to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in March with AOD equal to 0.4 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.7, the observations show that the dust season extends from April to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in April with AOD equal to 0.5 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.5. In spring a high pressure dominates the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for advecting dust from southern and western part of the Arabian Peninsula to northern and eastern part of the Peninsula. Also, fast developed cyclones in northern Arabian Peninsula are responsible for producing strong dust storms over Iraq and Kuwait. However, in summer the main driver of the surface dust emission is the strong northerly wind ("Shamal") that transport dust from the northern Arabian Peninsula toward south parallel to the

  11. Role of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes in juvenile idiopathic epilepsy in Arabian foals.

    PubMed

    Lichter-Peled, Anat; Polani, Sagi; Stanyon, Roscoe; Rocchi, Mariano; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila

    2013-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic epilepsy (JIE) in Arabian foals resembles benign-familial neonatal convulsion (BFNC) syndrome, a rare idiopathic epilepsy of new-born humans. BFNC syndrome exhibits genetic heterogeneity, as has been hypothesised to occur in Arabian foals, and is known to be caused by mutations in the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes. The close phenotypic characteristics of both Arabian foals and children suggest these epileptic syndromes are caused by the same genetic disorder. In horses, the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes are located on the terminal region of chromosomes 22 and 9, respectively, essentially homologous to their location on chromosomes 20q13.3 and 8q24 in humans. Gene trees for the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes between horses and other mammals, particularly humans and mice, were constructed and compared to widely accepted mammalian phylogenetic trees. The KCNQ2 gene tree exhibited close clustering between horses and humans, relative to horses and mice, in contrast to the evolutionary trees of other mammals. Distance values between the horse and human groups were lower as opposed to those found between the horse and mouse groups. The similarity between the horse and the human, especially for the KCNQ2 gene, where the majority of mutations causing BFNC have been found, supports the hypothesis of similar heritable and genetic patterns of the disease in both species and suggests that contrary to the classic mouse-model concept, humans may be a more suitable model for the study of JIE in Arabian foals.

  12. Exome-Wide Association Analysis of Coronary Artery Disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Population

    PubMed Central

    de Kovel, Carolien G.; Mulder, Flip; van Setten, Jessica; van ‘t Slot, Ruben; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah; Alshehri, Abdullah M.; Al Faraidy, Khalid; Al-Ali, Abdullah; Al-Madan, Mohammed; Al Aqaili, Issa; Larbi, Emmanuel; Al-Ali, Rudaynah; Alzahrani, Alhusain; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Al-Ali, Amein

    2016-01-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Mortality rates associated with CAD have shown an exceptional increase particularly in fast developing economies like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Over the past twenty years, CAD has become the leading cause of death in KSA and has reached epidemic proportions. This rise is undoubtedly caused by fast urbanization that is associated with a life-style that promotes CAD. However, the question remains whether genetics play a significant role and whether genetic susceptibility is increased in KSA compared to the well-studied Western European populations. Therefore, we performed an Exome-wide association study (EWAS) in 832 patients and 1,076 controls of Saudi Arabian origin to test whether population specific, strong genetic risk factors for CAD exist, or whether the polygenic risk score for known genetic risk factors for CAD, lipids, and Type 2 Diabetes show evidence for an enriched genetic burden. Our results do not show significant associations for a single genetic locus. However, the heritability estimate for CAD for this population was high (h2 = 0.53, S.E. = 0.1, p = 4e-12) and we observed a significant association of the polygenic risk score for CAD that demonstrates that the population of KSA, at least in part, shares the genetic risk associated to CAD in Western populations. PMID:26849363

  13. Reproductive biology of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadoon, M.K.; Kandeal, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii, in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia was investigated over a period of one year. Study of reproductive cycle of male and female C. c. gasperettii revealed that the breeding season is relatively short (April and May). Thereafter females laid eggs by mid of July and hatching probably had taken place by the end of September. No activity was observed during winter, this may indicate just a single clutch per year. Relative testis weight to body weight was drastically increased (X¯ = 0.88%) during the peak of reproductive activity (May) where maximal expansion of seminiferous tubules was also attained during April and May (X¯ = 209 μm and 191 μm, respectively). Likewise, the ovarian activity was the highest during May where ovarian parameters were greater in terms of relative ovarian weight to body weight and ova diameter being 0.46% and 2.29 mm, respectively. Fat body weight was increased drastically just before the peak of reproductive activity then started to decline during June. It could be concluded that the harsh desert conditions and similar environments certainly affect reproductive activity of Saudi Arabian reptiles including snakes. PMID:25972758

  14. Lower Silurian-Upper Ordovician subsurface glacial outwash deposits, northern Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.B. )

    1991-08-01

    Recently acquired seismic data reinterpreted well information in northwest Saudi Arabia extends outcropping Lower Silurian to Upper Ordovician Zarqa/Sarah glacial and periglacial deposits into the subsurface. These deposits range from northeast-trending outwash-filled channels deeply incised into the underlying Ordovician Qasim and the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation in the east. A southwest source for these sediments is implied by this new data. This supports previously interpreted source directions mapped from outcrop. It also correlates with the position of the Arabian plate relative to known Gonwanaland ice caps during the Early Silurian-Late Ordovician. The recognition of glacial outwash sediments in the subsurface provides new insight into the continuity and environments of deposition of the Qasim Formation members in northwest Saudi Arabia. The hydrocarbon-prone Lower Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation overlies the Zarqa/Sarah Formations. The Qusaiba represents a rapid transgression of the Paleo-Tethys Sea during the final melting of the Gondwanaland ice caps. The seal-source characteristics of the Qusaiba Member, combined with the good porosity and permeability of the underlying outwash deposits, suggest a prospective hydrocarbon exploration play. Gas is produced from this reservoir in the Risha field of eastern Jordan.

  15. Demands and challenges for patients with sickle-cell disease requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Jastaniah, Wasil; Al Afghani, Sameera; Al Bagshi, Muneer H; Nasserullah, Zaki; Al-Suliman, Ahmed M; Alabdulaali, Mohammed K

    2016-09-01

    Allogeneic HSCT is the only curative treatment for SCD. In this study, we estimated the number of Saudi patients with SCD who are candidates for HSCT. We used the presence of overt stroke, recurrent ACS, and frequent severe pain crisis as indications for HSCT. We calculated the frequencies of these complications among a Saudi SCD cohort of 376 patients with SCD, 250 from SW and 126 from Eastern (E) provinces. We found that 59 (23.6%) of SW patients were transplant candidates compared to 22 (17.4%) from E province. It is estimated that about 61 000 patients with SCD live in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the projected number of Saudi patients with SCD who are candidates for HSCT is 10 536 patients. Of those, 2148 are children. The burden of SCD on HSCT centers in Saudi Arabia is substantial and is difficult currently to meet the demand. We recommend recruiting/training more transplant physicians and nurses, expand current capacity of centers if feasible, and open new transplant centers to make HSCT a practical therapeutic option for patients with severe SCD in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Notes on the ant genus Cataglyphis Foerster, 1850 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species and a key to species of the C. pallida-group

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Collingwood, Cedric A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cataglyphis fisheri sp. n. is described and illustrated from the United Arab Emirates, Oman and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia based on the worker caste. It belongs to the Cataglyphis pallida-group which is recorded for the first time from the Arabian Peninsula. Cataglyphis fisheri sp. n. is similar to Cataglyphis pallida Mayr, 1877 from Kazakhstan. Differential diagnosis between these two species is given and a key to the species of the Cataglyphis pallida-group is presented. Cataglyphis laylae Collingwood, 2011 is treated as a junior synonym of Cataglyphis saharae Santschi, 1929. Cataglyphis flavobrunnea Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 is redescribed and a lectotype for this species is designated. PMID:26798297

  17. The predictors of poor quality of life in a sample of Saudi women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Anwar E; Alharbi, Abdulrahman G; Alsadhan, Mohannad A; Almuzaini, Alaa S; Almuzaini, Hanin S; Ali, Yosra Z; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Background The protocols for treatment, along with many adverse effects, can strongly affect cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL). As there is limited research on the QoL of Saudi Arabian women being treated for breast cancer, the purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of poor QoL in a sample of Saudi women with breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 145 Saudi women with breast cancer who attended the Oncology Outpatient Clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh for routine follow-up. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected for each patient, and a Medical Outcome Study Health Survey 36-Item Short Form (SF-36) instrument was used to assess QoL. Results Of 145 breast cancer patients studied, 42.1% had a family history of cancer and 52.4% were newly diagnosed cancer patients (first-year-after-cancer diagnosis). According to linear regression analyses, cancer patients with metastasis tended to have pain, along with poor physical function, little vitality, and poor general health (a decrease in SF-36 scores of 22.9, 15.0, 19.4, and 16.9, respectively). Regular exercise was a positive predictor of poor general health (an increase in the SF-36 score of 8.2). Patients with first-year-after-cancer diagnoses tended to have poor emotional well-being (a decrease in the SF-36 score of 8.5). Conclusion In breast cancer patients, regular exercise was a significant positive predictor of better general health. Breast cancer patients with multiple tumors, metastasis, or fever tended to experience significantly poor QoL in several SF-36 domains. Clearly, a routine assessment of QoL in breast cancer patients is important. PMID:28223845

  18. Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

  19. Sediment sound velocities from sonobuoys: Arabian fan

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, R.T.; Hamilton, E.L.

    1980-02-10

    Eight variable-angle seismic reflection stations in the Arabian Fan, Northwestern Indian Ocean, provided 40 determinations of sound velocity in sediment and sedimentary rock. Sound velocity in the homogeneous, largely terrigenous fan increases smoothly with depth. Regression analysis yielded the velocity-time relationship V (km/s)=1.510+1.863t, where V is instantaneous velocity and t is one-way travel time below the sea floor to 1 s. The velocity-depth function is V (km/s)=1.510+1.200h-0.253h/sup 2/+ 0.034h/sup 3/, where h is subbottom depth in km.

  20. Arabian plate hydrocarbon geology and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Beydoun, Z.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a thought-provoking, succinct presentation of the geologic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the world's most prolific petroleum province. The fascinating subjects discussed and documented include: What are the unique geologic factors that make the Middle East such a prolific province Where are the future Mesozoic and Tertiary plays What is the virtually untapped potential of the Paleozoic section What are the play potentials for underexplored areas such as Jordan, Syria, Yemen How are deeper drilling results shaping and modifying concepts of the Arabian plate history and pointing the way to future hydrocarbon targets

  1. Strike-slip accommodated core complexes in the Najd fault system, Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S. E.; Passchier, C. W.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Stuewe, K.

    2013-12-01

    Metamorphic core complexes are usually developed as extensional features during crustal thinning in a continental collision zone, such as the Basin and Range and the Aegean Terrane. The Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia is a 2000 km-long and 400 km-wide complex network of crustal-scale strike-slip shear zones in a Neoproterozoic collision zone. Locally, the anastomosing shear zones lead to exhumation of lower crustal segments and represent a new kinematic model for the development of core complexes. We report on two such dome structures: the Qazaz complex in Saudi Arabia and the Hafafit complex in Egypt. The 15-km-wide Qazaz complex is a triangular dome of gently dipping mylonitic foliations within the 140-km-long sinistral strike-slip Qazaz mylonite zone. The gneissic dome consists of high-grade rocks, surrounded by low-grade metasediments and metavolcanics. The main SE trending strike-slip Qazaz shear zone splits southwards into two branches around the gneiss dome: the western branch is continuous with the shallow dipping mylonites of the dome core, without overprinting, and curves by more than 90 degrees eastwards from a NS trending strike slip zone to an EW trending 40 degree south dipping detachment that bounds the gneiss dome to the south. The eastern SE trending sinistral strike slip shear zone branch is slightly younger and transects the central dome fabrics. The gneiss dome appears to have formed along a jog in the strike slip shear zone during 40 km of strike slip motion, which caused local exhumation of lower crustal rocks by 25 km along the detachment. The eastern shear zone branch formed late during exhumation, transacted the gneiss dome and offset the two parts by another 70 km. The Hafafit core complex in Egypt is of similar shape and size to the Qazaz structure, but forms the northern termination of a sinistral strike-slip zone that is at least 100 km in length. This zone may continue into Saudi Arabia as the Ajjaj shear zone for another 100 km. The

  2. Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders among Secondary School Saudi Female Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Zuhair, Shatha Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to estimate prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal pain disorders among secondary school Saudi female teachers in Al-Khobar area and the psychodemographic and psychosocial factors that may affect them. Material and Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using sample of secondary schools teachers (governmental and private school) in Al-Khobar area, Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Result. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain disorders was 79.17%. Main sites of pain were lower back (63.8%) followed by shoulder (45.4%), neck (42.1%), leg (40.0%), wrist (16.2%), and elbow joint (10.0%). Factors that showed significant relationship were type of school (p value 0.038), age (p value 0.002), weight (p value 0.007), number of children (p value 0.006), shoe type (p value 0.000), teaching years (p value 0.003), and working daily hours (p value 0.027). Conclusion. Secondary school female teachers showed high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain disorders in most anatomic sites, namely, the back, shoulder, neck, legs, wrist, and elbow joint. Risk factors associated with significant pain were type of school, age, weight, number of children, and number of teaching years. PMID:23970968

  3. Serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx Pallas, 1776).

    PubMed

    Greth, A; Calvez, D; Vassart, M; Lefèvre, P C

    1992-12-01

    Tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (Taif, Riyadh and Mahazat as Said, Saudi Arabia; San Diego, United States of America [USA]; Shaumari, Jordan; Qatar; and Bahrain). No antibodies to Pasteurella multocida type E or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. Antibodies to Brucella abortus, P. multocida type B, P. multocida type D, lumpy skin disease virus and Akabane virus were detected in 2, 1, 5, 2 and 1 animals, respectively. Evidence of P. multocida type A, Coxiella burnetti, Chlamydia psittaci and parainfluenza 3 virus was found in 3 herds (prevalence in the main herd [n = 78]: 8%), 3 herds (8%), 6 herds (7%) and 5 herds (15%), respectively. Evidence of antibodies against bluetongue virus was found in five oryx from the USA and in one oryx from the Taif herd. Antibody vaccinal titres against rinderpest virus (and the virus of peste des petits ruminants, due to cross-reactions) were found in almost all the herds. This is the first report of antibodies against B. abortus, C. burnetti, C. psittaci, parainfluenza 3 virus and Akabane virus in the genus Oryx.

  4. Phylogeography of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Hall, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever is an acute zoonotic viral disease caused by Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) that affects ruminants and humans in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. We used phylogenetic analyses to understand the demographic history of RVFV populations, using sequence data from the three minigenomic segments of the virus. We used phylogeographic approaches to infer RVFV historical movement patterns across its geographic range, and to reconstruct transitions among host species. Results revealed broad circulation of the virus in East Africa, with many lineages originating in Kenya. Arrival of RVFV in Madagascar resulted from three major waves of virus introduction: the first from Zimbabwe, and the second and third from Kenya. The two major outbreaks in Egypt since 1977 possibly resulted from a long-distance introduction from Zimbabwe during the 1970s, and a single introduction took RVFV from Kenya to Saudi Arabia. Movement of the virus between Kenya and Sudan, and CAR and Zimbabwe, was in both directions. Viral populations in West Africa appear to have resulted from a single introduction from Central African Republic. The overall picture of RVFV history is thus one of considerable mobility, and dynamic evolution and biogeography, emphasizing its invasive potential, potentially more broadly than its current distributional limits. PMID:28068340

  5. Wave Clouds over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Like a massive, ethereal bird gliding into the Persian Gulf, a large cluster of wave clouds spans the Arabian Sea from Oman to India. This cloud formation is likely an undular bore, which is created in the interaction between the cool, dry air in a low-pressure system with a stable layer of warm, moist air. In this case, a low-pressure system probably sits over the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf of Oman, and Iran and Pakistan. The strong winds generated by the low-pressure system are kicking up clouds of dust from Iran and Pakistan, and, to a lesser degree, Oman. The low-pressure system is also pushing air south-southeast, and this south-moving wave of displaced air pushes ahead of the low-pressure system like a mound of water moving ahead of a boat in calm water. The wave of cool, dry air pushes forward until it meets the wall of warm, moist air that blankets the Arabian Sea. When the two air masses clash, the cool air pushes the warm air up. The warm air rises, cools at the peak of the wave, falls again, and then rises to a slightly lower peak, and so forth, until the wave dissipates. Clouds form at the high-altitude peaks of the waves, with the most defined cloud at the front of the group, where the initial wave formed, followed by increasingly less-defined lines of cloud. The air that moves in front of the low-pressure system does not push forward in a uniform wall; instead it pushes forward in a ragged band, with one part racing ahead of another, like a line of crew racers on a river. Because the air is not uniform, there are small, interacting arcs of waves within the larger band of clouds. Undular bores are rare and hard to predict. This particular undular bore formed over the Arabian Sea on May 8, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image. Typical undular bore patterns might display one or two rows of clouds. With more than thirty waves of clouds, this cloud pattern is unusually

  6. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-18

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

  7. Stratigraphy and sedimentation of the Unayzah reservoir, central Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Senalp, M.; Abdulaziz, A.

    1995-08-01

    Significant reserves of Arabian super light oil, condensate, and associated gas occur in the various genetically different sandstone bodies of the upper Permian Unayzah and Khuff Formations in Central Saudi Arabia. The Unayzah Formation which rests unconformably on the older formations is composed of red colored, poorly sorted conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, caliche and nodular anhydrite. Facies changes occur due to the presence of various subenvironments and possible faulting and structural growth in the basin during deposition. However, the entire Unayzah Formation shows an overall fining and thinning-upward sequence. It was deposited as coalescing alluvial fans dominated by braided streams which graded into meandering stream and playa lakes under and to semi-arid conditions. Eolian processes were also inferred. A marked unconformity which is indicated by the occurrence of thick caliche and soil horizons separate the Unayzah and the overlying Khuff Formation. The Khuff Formation consists primarily of marine shale, marl, and fine- to very coarse-grained sandstones in the lower parts; shale, limestone, dolomite, and amhydrite in the upper parts. The sandstones were deposited as incised channel fills and their associated low stand deltaic sediments as a result of fluctuating sea level during the deposition of the Khuff Formation. The base of the incised channels represent a sequence boundary. Red colored and rooted paleosols were formed on the underlying marine sediments. During relative sea level rise, good quality reservoir sands were deposited by aggradation within the incised channels. Sand deposition within the channels terminated at the same time, and the area was covered by shallow marine limestones, shales and marls during maximum sea level highstand. Although the Unayzah reservoir occurs in both the Unayzah and the Khuff Formations because of their different geometry, continuity, and reservoir quality, they have been studied separately.

  8. The Failure of Jihad in Saudi Arabia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    high organizational capability of returnees from Afghanistan, and the weakness of the Saudi intelligence apparatus. That gap has since been closed...slowly and discreetly to build the organization that would become AQAP. While the attention of U.S. and Saudi intelligence was focused on al-Nashiri... intelligence agencies allegedly intercepted messages indicative of a fierce debate within al-Qa’ida over the wisdom of launching the May 2003

  9. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and ¹³⁷Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan Island, southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrany, A A; Farouk, M A; Al-Yousef, A A

    2012-11-01

    The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and man-made radionuclides such as (137)Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg(-1), respectively.

  10. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  11. Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William

    2006-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

  12. Empowering Saudi patients: how do Saudi health websites compare to international health websites?

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alsughayar, Abdulrahman; Al-Mutairi, Maha

    2013-01-01

    Little information is known about how Saudi health websites compare internationally. The purpose of this paper is to compare two leading Saudi health websites with leading international health websites. The study was conducted as a convenience sample at a graduate health college in Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 students participated in the study. The study found that, in general, English websites have higher levels of performance with regard to quality of information, authority and objectivity, coverage and currency, and design. However, the respondents considered Saudi health websites to be superior with regard to maintaining privacy and security. The results indicate that much more work is needed in designing Saudi Health to make them more trustworthy and credible. The limitations of this work and future research directions are also discussed.

  13. Seismic Tomography Imaging beneath the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khrepy, Sami; Koulakov, Ivan; Burov, Evgeniy; Cloetingh, Sierd; Al-arifi, Nassir; Bushenkova, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Seismic tomography model of the body waves velocity in the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula, Red Sea and surrounding regions is presented. This model is computed using the P-and S-waves travel times provided by the earthquake catalogue of the International Seismological Center (ISC) 1980-2011. The Red Sea is clearly associated with higher P-velocity anomaly which may testify to the passive character of rifting. Thick lithosphere of the Arabian Platform is imaged as high-velocity anomaly down to 200-250 km depth. Below this plate we observe low-velocity which is interpreted as a mantle plume. Based on the tomography results we propose that this plume played the major role in origin of Cenozoic basaltic fields in western Arabia. In the NE side of the Arabian Plate, we clearly observe the subduction zone beneath Zagros and Makran. Key words: seismic tomography, Arabian Plate, Red Sea, Cenozoic volcanism, Passive rifting

  14. First record of three African trichodinids (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia with re-evaluation of their host specificity.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh; Al Ghamdi, Ali; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2017-02-18

    Saudi Arabia has a developing aquaculture industry that farms primarily tilapia. Although trichodinids are presumably the most usually encountered protozoan parasites in these cultured fish, they have rarely been studied in this context, and there is no data on the species that might infect cultured tilapia in Saudi Arabia. The present study was therefore carried out as a general survey to investigate the occurrence and identify the species of trichodinids that can infect cultured tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia. A total of 500 tilapia fish were collected from fish farms in Riyadh city and examined in order to determine the species of trichodinids present in the positive specimens. Three species of trichodinids (Trichodina maritinkae, T. centrostrigeata and T. frenata) were isolated and described as new records in Saudi Arabia. These trichodinids were found simultaneously in the same fish with overall prevalence of 20% (100/500). The identification and characterization of these three species are documented based on Riyadh specimens, for the first time. Additionally, the present paper confirms the existence of T. frenata for the second time globally and establishes this trichodinid as a new parasite for O. niloticus. T. maritinkae is highly specific to clariids, and previously, it has not been reported from any fish species other than clariids. The present work also confirmed that T. centrostrigeata can also infest cichlid fish. The list of host records of these species is expanded and their host specificity re-evaluated based on the results of this study in addition to the previously published data. We conclude that there is a need for further study of the impacts of these Trichodina spp. on Saudi Arabian fishery sector.

  15. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-09

    Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations...of the Iraqi need for maximum production at high prices to fund national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion... Saudi Arabia in Brief Population (2009): 28,686,633 (includes 5,576,076 non- nationals ) Growth rate: 1.85% Area: 1,960,582 sq.km. (756,985

  16. Middle palaeolithic and neolithic occupations around Mundafan Palaeolake, Saudi Arabia: implications for climate change and human dispersals.

    PubMed

    Crassard, Rémy; Petraglia, Michael D; Drake, Nick A; Breeze, Paul; Gratuze, Bernard; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Arbach, Mounir; Groucutt, Huw S; Khalidi, Lamya; Michelsen, Nils; Robin, Christian J; Schiettecatte, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is a key region for understanding climate change and human occupation history in a marginal environment. The Mundafan palaeolake is situated in southern Saudi Arabia, in the Rub' al-Khali (the 'Empty Quarter'), the world's largest sand desert. Here we report the first discoveries of Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic archaeological sites in association with the palaeolake. We associate the human occupations with new geochronological data, and suggest the archaeological sites date to the wet periods of Marine Isotope Stage 5 and the Early Holocene. The archaeological sites indicate that humans repeatedly penetrated the ameliorated environments of the Rub' al-Khali. The sites probably represent short-term occupations, with the Neolithic sites focused on hunting, as indicated by points and weaponry. Middle Palaeolithic assemblages at Mundafan support a lacustrine adaptive focus in Arabia. Provenancing of obsidian artifacts indicates that Neolithic groups at Mundafan had a wide wandering range, with transport of artifacts from distant sources.

  17. A Comparison between Saudi and American School Principal Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altuwaijri, Anas

    2016-01-01

    Saudi educators are increasingly concerned over whether principal preparation programs in Saudi Arabia are accomplishing their goal of developing qualified leaders who are prepared to take on the tasks of school principals. Thus, Saudi researchers recommend that the school principal preparation programs undergo evaluation. This study examines…

  18. Optimization of the Acetic Acid method for microfossil extraction from lithified carbonate rocks: Examples from the Jurassic and Miocene of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Septriandi; Malik, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Babalola, Lamidi

    2016-04-01

    We report the first ever use of the acetic acid processing method for the extraction of microfossils from indurated limestones in Saudi Arabia. Two different limestone samples from Middle Jurassic and Middle Miocene formation in Saudi Arabia were tested under different concentrations of acid from 50% to 100% and with processing times from 2 hours to 10 hours, in an attempt to optimize the processing methodology. The recovery of acid residues shows a similar trend for both Jurassic and Miocene samples. The weight percentage of residue particle size > 1 mm decreases as acid concentration increases, especially in the 50 to 80% acid concentration range, and the weight percentage of the smallest size particles >0.063 mm increases as acid concentration increases. The small fraction of residue between 0.50 - 0.063 mm was split into 3 g subsamples and picked for microfossils in order to assess their preservation. All concentrations of acetic acid tested show promising results for both the Jurassic Dhruma and Miocene Dam formation carbonates. Higher acid concentrations with longer reaction times yield better recovery than higher concentrations with less reaction time. Based on our experiment, we recommended a 60% concentration of acetic acid to be the optimal concentration for use on routine micropaleontological samples of Saudi Arabian carbonate rocks. By lowering the concentration of acetic acid from 80% to 60%, the consumption of acid is reduced without compromising the recovery of microfossils, and the sample can be processed in a more environmentally friendly manner.

  19. Samarium-neodymium data on two late Proterozoic ophiolites of Saudi Arabia and implications for crustal and mantle evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claesson, S.; Pallister, J.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-01-01

    Whole-rock and mineral samples from the Jabal al Wask and Jabal Ess ophiolites, northwestern Saudi Arabia, yield Sm-Nd isochron ages of 743+24 Ma and 782??38 Ma, respectively. These formation ages, which provide maximum limits for possible obduction ages, are in broad but not precise agreement with the previously known geologic history of the Arabian Shield. They indicate that the ophiolitic rocks are roughly coeval with nearby volcanic and plutonic rocks, supporting a back-arc origin for the two ophiolites. We suggest that the Jabal al Wask and Jabal Ess ophiolites were parts of the same northeast-southwest trending ophiolite belt, now offset along the Najd fault system. Initial e{open}Nd values range from +6.6 to+ 7.6, indicating derivation from a mantle source that has been LIL-depleted for at least 2 Ga. Reported e{open}Nd values from the Arabian Shield that are lower than this suggest the presence of older, reworked continental crust. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  1. Saudi Arabia's experience in solar energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huraib, Fahad S.

    The progress in solar energy research in Saudi Arabia is discussed with emphasis on the efforts of a government research entity - King Adbulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Three programs currently underway at KACST are considered: the continuation of activities initiated under the Solar Energy Research American/Saudi (SOLERAS) program, a Saudi/German program, and projects developed and conducted completely by KACST. The objectives, management structure, and program organization of SOLEARS are outlined, and attention is focused on urban, rural/agricultural, and industrial applications as well as resource development activities and accomplishments. Solar-hydrogen projects pursued together with Germany are reviewed, and their objectives, program management, and technical plans are covered. Domestic programs dealing with photovoltaic-powered lightning and hot-water systems are summarized.

  2. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  3. New records of species of Saemundssonia (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) infesting breeding terns in the Arabian Peninsula, with notes on their phylogeny and ecology.

    PubMed

    Shobrak, Mohammed; Alahmed, Azzam; Palma, Ricardo; Almalki, Mohammed; Nasser, Mohamed Gamal El-Den

    2015-07-01

    Six species of terns, which breed on the Arabian Peninsula, were examined for head chewing lice of the genus Saemundssonia in four different islands around the coasts of Saudi Arabia, both in the Red Sea and in the Arabian Gulf. Four louse species were collected: Saemundssonia laticaudata, Saemundssonia melanocephalus, Saemundssonia meridiana and Saemundssonia sternae, of which three are recorded for the first time from this region. Also, we record three new host-louse associations for the world-Saemundssonia laticaudata and Saemundssonia sternae from white-cheeked terns and Saemundssonia melanocephalus from Saunders's terns-including a host-switch event of Saemundssonia laticaudata on white-cheeked terns in the Karan Island population. Gene bank data for the COI gene from seven species of Saemundssonia that infest marine birds were used to propose evolutionary trees using two different statistical methods: maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbour joining (NJ). The result indicated that the tree which was produced by NJ is likely to be more accurate as it appeared more compatible with hosts' phylogeny. The trees indicate relationships between tern Saemundssonia and congeneric species from other marine birds, especially from gulls. An ANOVA was also conducted to test the mean parasite load for each tern species studied, and results indicate that there is a relation between louse loads and colonization behaviour of the hosts. Data from lice examined and illustrations of lice and their hosts are also included.

  4. Activity re-assignment and microclimate selection of free-living Arabian oryx: responses that could minimise the effects of climate change on homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Strauss, W Maartin; Fick, Linda G; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-12-01

    Predicting whether behaviour could buffer the effects of climate change on long-lived mammals requires a better understanding of the long-term behavioural responses of mammals to environmental stress. Using biologging, we measured locomotor activity and microclimate selection, over eight months, in five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) living free in a Saudi Arabian desert. The oryx displayed seasonal flexibility in activity patterns, shifting from a continuous 24-h activity pattern with crepuscular peaks in cooler months to a predominantly nocturnal activity pattern during the hottest months, without reducing the total 24-h activity level. The proportion of total 24-h activity that occurred during daylight hours was just 29±8% during the hottest months, versus 53±8% (mean±SD, n=5 oryx) in the other months. The attenuation in diurnal activity levels during the hot months was accompanied by the selection of cooler microclimates, presumably via shade seeking, during the heat of the day. Analysis of miniature black globe (miniglobe) temperature from a remote sensor on the collar of two female animals revealed that oryx selected microclimates cooler than the microclimates in direct sun at higher environmental heat loads across all periods, but with enhanced efficiency during the dry periods. We have quantified activity re-assignment and microclimate selection as responses to hot arid conditions in a free-living artiodactyl. Such flexible behavioural processes may act to buffer the adverse effects of the progressively hotter and drier conditions predicted to occur with climate change.

  5. Heavy metal contamination in sand and sediments near to disposal site of reject brine from desalination plant, Arabian Gulf: Assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Alshahri, Fatimh

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in environment may cause series potential risk in the living system. This study was carried out to investigate heavy metal contamination in sand samples and sediments along the beach near to disposal site of reject brine from Alkhobar desalination plant, which is one of the oldest and largest reverse osmosis desalination plants in eastern Saudi Arabia, Arabian Gulf. Fourteen heavy metals (U, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Sr, Rb, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, and Zr) were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX). The obtained data revealed that the concentrations of these metals were higher than the values in sediment and soil for other studies in Arabian Gulf. Furthermore, the mean values of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, As, Sr, and Zr concentrations in sand and sediments were higher than the geochemical background values in shale. The contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mCd) and pollution load index (PLI) were assessed. According to contamination factors (CF > 1), the results showed elevated levels of Cu, Cr, Mn, Zr, and As in all samples. The highest value of contamination factor was found for As. Based on PLI (PLI > 1), the values of all sampling sites indicate a localized pollution in the study area. Current study could be useful as baseline data for heavy metals in sand and sediments nearby a desalination plant.

  6. A Receiver Function Study of Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities beneath Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. H.; Mohamed, A. A.; Gao, S. S.; Elsheikh, A. A.; Yu, Y.; Fat-Helbary, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    The dramatic asymmetry in terms of surface elevation, Cenozoic volcanisms, and earthquake activity across the Red Sea is an enigmatic issue in global tectonics, partially due to the unavailability of broadband seismic data on the African plate adjacent to the Red Sea. Here we report the first results from a receiver function study of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities using data from the Egyptian National Seismic Network, and compare the resulting depths of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities (d410 and d660) with those observed on the Arabian side. Results using more than 6000 P-to-S receiver functions recorded at 49 broadband seismic stations in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and adjacent areas show that when the IASP91 Earth model is used for time-to-depth conversion, the resulting depth of the discontinuities increases systematically toward the axis of the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD) from both the west and east. Relative to the westernmost area, the maximum depression of the 410-km discontinuity is about 30 km, and that of the 660-km discontinuity is about 45 km. Highly correlated d410 and d660 depths suggest that the observed apparent depth variations are mostly caused by lateral velocity anomalies in the upper mantle, while the 15 km additional depression of the d660 relative to the d410 requires either a colder-than-normal MTZ or the presence of water in the MTZ. We tested several models involving upper mantle and MTZ velocity anomalies and undulations of the MTZ discontinuities due to temperature anomalies and water content, and found that the observed systematic variations can best be explained by a model involving a hydrated MTZ and an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the AAD (Mohamed et al., 2014, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu284). Models invoking one or more mantle plumes originated from the MTZ or the lower-mantle beneath the study area are not consistent with the observations.

  7. Epilepsy services in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alfayez, Saud M.; Aljafen, Bandar N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the epilepsy services and identify the challenges in hospitals without epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs). In addition, comparisons between governmental and private sectors, as well as between regions, are to be performed. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted using an online questionnaire distributed to the secondary and tertiary hospitals without EMUs throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study was conducted from September 2013 to September 2015 and regular updates from all respondents were constantly made. Items in the questionnaire included the region of the institution, the number of pediatric and adult neurologists and neurosurgeons along with their subspecialties, the number of beds in the Neurology Department, whether they provide educational services and have epilepsy clinics and if they refer patients to an EMU or intend to establish one in the future. Results: Forty-three institutions throughout the Kingdom responded, representing a response rate of 54%. The majority of hospitals (58.1%) had no adult epileptologists. A complete lack of pediatric epileptologists was observed in 72.1% of hospitals. Around 39.5% were utilizing beds from internal medicine. Hospitals with an epilepsy clinic represented 34.9% across all regions and sectors. Hospitals with no intention of establishing an EMU represented 53.5%. Hospitals that did not refer their epileptic patients to an EMU represented 30.2%. Conclusions: Epilepsy services in KSA hospitals without EMUs are underdeveloped. PMID:27744461

  8. Patient exposures in Saudi diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayad, M.; Melibary, Abdulrahman; Malabary, Tajuddin

    1994-07-01

    Diagnostic X-ray radiography patients exposures have been studied during 1412 (H) (1992) in the Riyadh area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Dose imparted as well as doses to the thyroid, breast, lung, bone marrow, ovary and testis have been calculated for many types of radiographic examinations, Collective doses have been calculated. The dose imparted corresponds to an annual absorbed dose to the Saudi population, in the Riyadh area, of about 280 μGy, and a genetically significant dose of 108.8 μGy per person per year due to diagnostic radiology.

  9. BREASTFEEDING PRACTICE IN DAMMAM AREA OF SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Mohammad H.; Al-Harfi, Ridah A.; Al-Gamdi, Mohammad A.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the breastfeeding status for children under 24 months and assess the causes of breastfeeding failure among those mothers who do not breastfeed their babies. Methodology: This study was conducted on a sampled population of 1185 children under 24 months of age, using breastfeeding indicators recommended by World Health Organization, for assessing breastfeeding practices within a recall period of 24 hours, in the Dammam area of Saudi Arabia. Results: The exclusive breastfeeding rate and predominantly breastfeeding rates were 33% and 11.5%, respectively, under 4 months of age among these children. The timely complementary feeding rate was 31.7% only. All the values were far behind those recommended. The reasons given in order of their frequencies by the mothers for failure to breastfeed were insufficient milk, advice and example of other mothers and formula milk advertisement. Conclusion: This study recognizes the low level of exclusive breastfeeding among children under 4 months of age and lays emphasis on changing the behavior of mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding. This can be achieved by special integrated community-based approaches among potential mothers by supporting them after delivery and proper follow-up, to prevent failure of milk formation and discontinuation of breastfeeding. PMID:23008584

  10. Nationwide community survey of tuberculosis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Kassimi, F A; Abdullah, A K; al-Hajjaj, M S; al-Orainey, I O; Bamgboye, E A; Chowdhury, M N

    1993-08-01

    In the first nationwide community-based survey of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia, 7721 subjects were screened in the 5 provinces (using an equal proportional allocation formula) for 2 parameters: (1) prevalence of positive Mantoux test in non BCG vaccinated subjects; (2) prevalence of bacillary cases on sputum culture. The prevalence of positive Mantoux reaction in children aged 5-14 years was 6% +/- 1.8; higher in urban areas (10%), and lower in rural areas (2%), thus classifying Saudi Arabia among the middle prevalence countries. These relatively good results (by Third World standards) could reflect the rise of the standard of living and wide availability of free treatment for active cases with a lowered risk of infection in the community. This view is supported by the fact that in our survey, only one subject grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum. However, there were foci of high prevalence of Mantoux reaction in the urban communities in the Western province (20% +/- 8.7 urban; 1% +/- 1.9 rural). The problem may be caused by the fact that the province receives every year over a million pilgrims, some of whom are known to settle illegally and escape the usual screening for tuberculosis imposed on foreign labourers. In conclusion, even in the absence of an enforceable national programme for the eradication of tuberculosis, the economic standard and wide availability of free treatment for active cases has resulted in relatively low rates of prevalence of tuberculin sensitivity in children. The foci of high prevalence in the Western Province require special screening arrangements.

  11. Arabian Sea ecosystem responses to the South Tropical Atlantic teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barimalala, Rondrotiana; Bracco, Annalisa; Kucharski, Fred; McCreary, Julian P.; Crise, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the Arabian Sea response to changes in the South Tropical Atlantic (STA) sea surface temperatures (SSTs). A series of recent studies have shown that the atmospheric circulation and SSTs in the Indian Ocean, and particularly in the Arabian Sea, are affected by STA SST anomalies via a simple Gill-Matsuno mechanism. Here, we use a regional ocean model coupled with a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model to analyze the impact of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies on the IO circulation and ecosystem variability. The STA teleconnection to the Indian Ocean develops as follows: Cold SST anomalies in the Gulf of Guinea during boreal summer cause strengthening of the Somali Jet, upwelling favorable winds, cold SST anomalies and a shallower than usual thermocline in the Arabian Sea. The enhanced upwelling in the Arabian Sea, in turn, causes an increase in phytoplankton concentrations. The opposite sequence is verified for warm SST anomalies in the STA region. For a 1 °C STA anomaly, the increase/decrease in productivity represents by September up to 19% of the surface phytoplankton climatological values in the model, and up to 13% in the observations. The STA teleconnection contributes to the interannual variability in the Arabian Sea in boreal summer as much as the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole.

  12. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  13. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  14. The sentinel behaviour of Arabian babbler floaters

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Aviad

    2017-01-01

    The sentinel behaviour of 38 Arabian babbler adult floaters, who lived alone within a territory belonging to a foreign group, was studied and compared with their own sentinel behaviour in the past, when they were group members. All floaters acted as sentinels and uttered ‘alarm calls’. This suggests that sentinel activity is due at least, in part, to selfish motives. Floaters sentinelled less than they did as group members, with the decrease in sentinel activity sharper for ex-dominants than for ex-subordinates. One possible explanation for these differences is that sentinel activity is aimed not only at detecting predators, but also at detecting foreign conspecifics. Within a group, the latter incentive is stronger for breeding dominants than for subordinates, whereas all floaters alike may be trying to detect the owners of the territory in which they were roaming but also to avoid being detected by them. Other possible explanations are that floaters have less time and energy for sentinel activity because they are weaker or because foraging is more difficult in a foreign territory. This may be especially so for dominants who used to enjoy privileged access to food in their group. No significant difference was found in the rate of sentinels' ‘alarm calls’ between floaters and group members, suggesting that their main purpose is predator–prey communication, of which warning groupmates may be a side benefit. PMID:28386429

  15. The Fate of Saudi Arabia: Regime Evolution in the Saudi Monarchy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    rapidly changing dynamic. Women have moved from being solely child bearers, to productive members in the economic sectors of society.19 In 2005 the...wholly nomadic.”66 The Bedouin value system remained in Saudi culture, but the nomadic lifestyle perished.67 The abolition of the nomadic way of...life was a necessary step in state-building in Saudi Arabia and the mutawwaa role in recruiting tribesman into a sedentary life style was crucial to

  16. Fetal haemoglobin production and the sickle gene in the oases of Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Pembrey, M E; Wood, W G; Weatherall, D J; Perrine, R P

    1978-11-01

    Fetal haemoglobin (HbF) levels have been measured in 137 normal (AA) subjects, 109 with the sickle-cell trait (AS) and 237 with sickle-cell anaemia (SS) from the oasis population of Eastern Saudi Arabia. In addition the proportion of F-cells has been estimated in 71 AA, 51 AS and 34 SS subjects. The mean HbF% (and the range of F-cells %) were: AA 0.77 (0.3--18), AS 1.38 (2.3--43) and SS 25.56 (33--98). The distribution of Hb F was always heterocellular. The influence of pregnancy accounts for most of the excess female subjects with sickle-cell trait showing raised Hb F and F-cells. Whilst the normal Arabs and those with sickle-cell trait did not differ from comparable groups of American blacks, both the % Hb F and % F-cells in Saudi Arabian patients with sickle-cell anaemia were much higher than in Blacks. The high Hb F levels in individuals with sickle-cell anaemia are not due to coexistent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency or alpha-thalassaemia trait, and the Hb F level showed an inverse correlation with the degree of haemolysis. These findings indicate that the unusually elevated levels of Hb F are not due to an associated high frequency of a gene for hetero-cellular hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin in the oasis population, but rather from a genetically determined absolute increase in Hb F production related in some way to the SS genotype.

  17. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  18. Temporal variations of LH and testosterone in arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ancrenaz, M; Blanvillain, C; Delhomme, A; Greth, A; Sempéré, A J

    1998-09-01

    To determine the onset of puberty in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), a longitudinal study was conducted in 5 captive males at the National Wildlife Research Centre, Taif (Saudi Arabia). From birth to 20 months of age, twice weekly, animals were weighed and blood was assayed for LH and testosterone. Four periods were defined by analysis of the hormonal profile. During the first 5 months (corresponding to prepuberty), mean LH concentrations increased significantly while testosterone remained basal. Testosterone increased significantly during the second period (from 6 to 7 months) while LH decreased significantly. The testosterone pattern suggests that the animals reached puberty at around 7 months old. Mean LH concentrations remained at a similar level before and after puberty and increased significantly between the 12th and 13th months of life. This increment correspond to the transition between two further periods. The third period (8-12 months) was characterized by testosterone peaks of 2.4 +/- 0.1 ng ml-1 which irregularly occurred over a period of 26.6 +/- 2.7 days and was followed by a fourth period, during which peaks were seen at 24.1 +/- 1.6-day intervals and reached 4.7 +/- 0.2 ng ml-1. This last period probably corresponds to the mature stage of puberty. The testosterone cyclicity in oryx, coinciding with the estrous cycle length of the female, would permit the male to be fertile throughout the year and could be an adaptive response to the opportunistic and aseasonal reproductive cycle of the female.

  19. Shear wave velocity structures of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Talal A.; Al-Saeed, Mohammed M.

    1994-02-01

    The shear velocity structures of the different tectonic provinces of the Arabian Peninsula has been studied using surface wave data recorded by the RYD (Riyadh) station. The inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities indicates that the Arabian shield can be modeled by two layers, each of which is 20 km thick with a shear velocity of 3.61 km/s in the upper crust and 3.88 km/s in the lower crust. The underlying upper mantle velocity is 4.61 km/s. Inversion of both Love and Rayleigh waves group velocities shows that the Arabian platform upper and lower crusts are comparable in their thicknesses to those of the shield, but with shear velocities of 3.4 and 4 km/s, respectively. The upper mantle velocity beneath the platform is 4.4 km/s and the average total thickness of the crust is 45 km.

  20. Diversity, distribution, and morphological deformities among living Foraminifera in hypersaline Salwa Bay, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalekan Amao, Abduljamiu; Kaminski, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf is considered a naturally stressed environment due to extremes of salinity and summer temperatures. Anthropogenic influences such as rapid urbanisation projects, maritime transport, and large numbers of desalination plants and oil-related activities compounds the problem. Foraminifera are known to be resilient under such stressful conditions. The purpose of our study is to document the foraminiferal diversity and abundance in the hypersaline Salwa Bay area, near the Saudi Arabian-Qatar Border. We expect the foraminiferal fauna in Salwa Bay to be adapted to extremes in salinity, and we wish to document any species that might be endemic or uniquely adapted to the area. Shannon-Wiener index, relative abundance, species richness, and the percentage of morphological deformities were determined for samples collected from the bay. Salwa Bay is the most saline extension of the Arabian Gulf with high salinity, water temperature and evaporation rate, which is attributed to slow flushing rates, coral reef barriers and higher residency time of the water. Environmental parameters measured at the time of collection were depth (10-110 cm), salinity (52.6-53.0) total dissolved solids (48.8-49.4 g/l), and temperature (27-27.6°C). The foraminiferal assemblages in Salwa Bay are dominated by porcelaneous foraminifera, which include Peneroplis pertusus, Peneroplis planatus, Coscinospira hemprichii and Coscinospira acicularis. The most common species across the sampled transect is Peneroplis pertusus. Hyaline species were also found, but agglutinated foraminifera are absent. Diversity in Salwa Bay is lower compared with localities that have "normal" salinity, and many of the foraminifera display conspicuous morphological deformities. Approximately 55% of the assemblage exhibits mild to severe deformities such as fusion of two adults or double tests, protuberance on the spiral side, abnormal arrangement of the chambers, abnormal shape of the proloculus and modification