Science.gov

Sample records for sawlogs

  1. Effect of moisture loss on red oak sawlog weight

    Treesearch

    Edward L. Adams

    1971-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effect of moisture loss on the weights of red oak sawlogs. The logs, ranging from 9 to 21 inches in scaling diameter and from 8 to 14 feet in length, were dried for a 12-week period. The 21-log sample lost 7.6 percent of the total green sawlog weight. The weight loss for individual logs ranged from 5.3 to 14.5 percent. In general, as...

  2. The Value Versus Volume Yield Problem for Live-Sawn Hardwood Sawlogs

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    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The potential conflict between value and volume maximization in sawing hardwood sawlogs by the live sawing method was analyzed. Twenty-four digitally described red oak sawlogs were sawn at the log orientation of highest value yield. Five opening face sawlines were iteratively placed in the sawlog a 1/4-inch intervals and lumber grades, volumes, and values from...

  3. Physical suitability of Appalachian hardwood sawlogs for sawed timbers

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    Lawrence D. Garrett

    1970-01-01

    A study of the physical suitability of Appalachian hardwood sawlogs for manufacture of sawed timbers revealed that: most grade 1 logs can be used to saw timbers as large as 8 by 9 inches, end dimension; most grade 2 logs are suited for manufacture of timbers 6 by 8 inches and smaller; and most grade 3 logs are suited for manufacture of timbers 5 by 7 inches and smaller...

  4. Relative price trends for hardwood stumpage, sawlogs, and lumber in Ohio

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    John E. Baumgras; William G. Luppold

    1993-01-01

    During the 1980's, the hardwood lumber industry experienced a rapidly changing domestic and international hardwood product market. These changes have significantly affected prices of hardwood lumber, and subsequently affected prices of hardwood sawlogs and stumpage. To illustrate these changes, this paper examines deflated prices and price trends for hardwood...

  5. Adjustments to forest inventory and analysis estimates of 2001 saw-log volumes for Kentucky

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    Stanley J. Zarnoch; Jeffery A. Turner

    2005-01-01

    The 2001 Kentucky Forest Inventory and Analysis survey overestimated hardwood saw-log volume in tree grade 1. This occurred because 2001 field crews classified too many trees as grade 1 trees. Data collected by quality assurance crews were used to generate two types of adjustments, one based on the proportion of trees misclassified and the other on the proportion of...

  6. Long-term effects of commercial sawlog harvest on soil cation concentrations

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    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    1997-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the effects of nutrient removal associated with various forest harvesting practices on long-term site productivity. The authors measured exchangeable soil cation concentration responses to a commercial clearcut sawlog harvest in mixed hardwoods on a 59-ha watershed in the Southern Appalachians. Soils were sampled 17 months prior to and...

  7. Lumber grade-yields for factory-grade northern red oak sawlogs

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    James G. Schroeder; Leland F. Hanks

    1967-01-01

    A report on results of sawing 556 northern red oak sawlogs at four sawmills in West Virginia and Virginia, and the distribution of grades for the standard factory lumber produced. Tabular data on actual yield and curved grade-yield percentages.

  8. Merchantable sawlog and bole-length equations for the Northeastern United States

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    Daniel A. Yaussy; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    A modified Richards growth model is used to develop species-specific coefficients for equations estimating the merchantable sawlog and bole lengths of trees from 25 species groups common to the Northeastern United States. These regression coefficients have been incorporated into the growth-and-yield simulation software, NE-TWIGS.

  9. The adjusting factor method for weight-scaling truckloads of mixed hardwood sawlogs

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    Edward L. Adams

    1976-01-01

    A new method of weight-scaling truckloads of mixed hardwood sawlogs systematically adjusts for changes in the weight/volume ratio of logs coming into a sawmill. It uses a conversion factor based on the running average of weight/volume ratios of randomly selected sample loads. A test of the method indicated that over a period of time the weight-scaled volume should...

  10. Fertilization Increases Growth of Sawlog-Size Yellow-Poplar and Red Oak in West Virginia

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    N. I. Lamson

    1978-01-01

    Sawlog-size even-aged hardwood stands in north-central West Virginia were fertilized with N, P, and K, singly and in combinations. Applications of N alone increased the annual basal area growth of yellow-poplar more than that of red oak during the first 7 years after fertilization, whereas P alone increased the annual basal area growth of red oak more than that of...

  11. Estimation of merchantable bole volume and biomass above sawlog top in the National Forest inventory of the United States

    Treesearch

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher M. Oswalt; Christopher W. Woodall; Jeffery A. Turner

    2013-01-01

    Emerging markets for small-diameter roundwood along with a renewed interest in forest biomass for energy have created a need for estimates of merchantable biomass above the minimum sawlog top diameter for timber species in the national forest inventory of the United States. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service recently adopted the...

  12. Barge loading facilities in conjunction with wood chipping and sawlog mill, Tennessee River Mile 145. 9R: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental consequences of approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request for barge loading facilities. These facilities would serve a proposed wood chipping and sawlog products operation at Tennessee River Mile (TRM) 145.9, right descending bank, (Kentucky Lake), in Perry County, Tennessee. The site is located between Short Creek and Peters Landing. The applicant is Southeastern Forest Products, L.P. (SFP), Box 73, Linden, Tennessee and the proposed facilities would be constructed on or adjacent to company owned land. Portions of the barge terminal would be constructed on land over which flood easement rights are held by the United States of America and administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) and TVA have regulatory control over the proposed barge terminal facilities since the action would involve construction in the Tennessee River which is a navigable water of the United States. The wood chipping and sawlog products facilities proposed on the upland property are not regulated by the CE or TVA. On the basis of the analysis which follows, it has been determined that a modified proposal (as described herein) would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment, and does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 8 refs.

  13. Sawlog weights for Appalachian hardwoods

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    Floyd G. Timson; Floyd G. Timson

    1972-01-01

    The tables are presented in this paper as reference material needed as a foundation for further work in the field of hardwood log weights. Such work may be undertaken by researchers, engineers, and equipment designers in the form of formal and informal studies, or by timbermen in the normal course of action to improve their operations.

  14. Computer-Integrated Breakdown of Hardwood Sawlogs

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    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes work in progress concerning the development of an integrated approach to hardwood processing. The motivation for this work, research direction, and research developments are presented.

  15. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

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    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  16. Iowa Saw-Log Production and Sawmill Industry, 1969

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    James E. Blyth

    1972-01-01

    Iowa loggers harvested nearly 47 million board feet of saw logs in 1969. Leading species were soft maple, elm, red oak, and cottonwood. Three-fifths of the wood residue generated at 63 Iowa sawmills was not used.

  17. Sawlog sizes: a comparison in two Appalachian areas

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    Curtis D. Goho; A. Jeff Martin

    1973-01-01

    Frequency distributions of log diameter and length were prepared for eight Appalachian hardwood species. Data obtained in Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, were compared with information collected previously from West Virginia and New England. With the exception of red oak, significant regional differences were found.

  18. Sawtimber by Prescription - The Sudden Sawlog Story Through Age 33

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    J.D. Burton

    1982-01-01

    Presents total and net yield, standing volume, volume harvested, and natural mortality, in cubic feet i.b. to a 3-inch top d.i.b., and in board feet Int. ¼ to an 8-inch and to a 6-inch top, together with dbh distribution at various ages.

  19. Appalachian hardwood stump sprouts are potential sawlog crop trees

    Treesearch

    Neil I. Lamson

    1976-01-01

    A survey of 8- and 12-year-old hardwood stump sprouts was made in north-central West Virginia. Species surveyed were yellow-poplar, black cherry, red oak, red maple, and basswood. Of the stumps cut 12 years ago, 66 percent produced at least one dominant or codominant sprout that originated at groundline and was free from forks in the lower 25 feet of the bole. The...

  20. Effect of logging wounds on diameter growth of sawlog-size Appalachian hardwood crop trees

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    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1988-01-01

    In previously thinned, even-aged Appalachian hardwood stands, 5-year diameter growth of 102 wounded and 102 unwounded codominant crop trees were compared. A wounded crop tre was defined as one with at least one exposed sapwood logging wound at least 100 inch2 in size. An unwounded crop tree of the same species and size was selected near each of the 102 wounded trees....

  1. Multivariate regression model for predicting yields of grade lumber from yellow birch sawlogs

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    Andrew F. Howard; Daniel A. Yaussy

    1986-01-01

    A multivariate regression model was developed to predict green board-foot yields for the common grades of factory lumber processed from yellow birch factory-grade logs. The model incorporates the standard log measurements of scaling diameter, length, proportion of scalable defects, and the assigned USDA Forest Service log grade. Differences in yields between band and...

  2. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization on Value in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

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    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Research based on applying volume-maximizing sawing solutions to idealized hardwood log forms has shown that average lumber yield can be increased by 6 percent. It is possible, however, that a lumber volume-maximizing solution may result in a decrease in lumber grade and a net reduction in total value of sawn lumber. The objective of this study was to determine the...

  3. Crown releasing of red maple poles to shorten high-quality sawlog rotations

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    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M., Jr. Peterson; Robert R. Orberg

    1985-01-01

    The effects of six crown-release treatments on growth and bole quality development of 54-year-old dominant, codominant, and intermediate red maples (Acer rubrum L.) were evaluated on a good red maple site (site index = 19.3 mat 50 years) in upper Michigan. Results showed that crown release stimulated the growth of dominants, codominants, and strong...

  4. SOLVE: a computer program for determining the maximum value of hardwood sawlogs

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    Edward L. Adams; Edward L. Adams

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the SOLVE system in detail as an aid to users who might want to make changes in the program. These changes might include: (1) adapting the program to a softwood sawmill; (2) consideration of products other than chips, lumber, and sawed timber; and (3) adapting the program to new data and procedures.

  5. Adjusting Quality index Log Values to Represent Local and Regional Commercial Sawlog Product Values

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    Orris D. McCauley; Joseph J. Mendel; Joseph J. Mendel

    1969-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is not only to report the results of a comparative analysis as to how well the Q.I. method predicts log product values when compared to commercial sawmill log output values, but also to develop a methodology which will facilitate the comparison and provide the adjustments needed by the sawmill operator.

  6. Multivariate regression model for predicting lumber grade volumes of northern red oak sawlogs

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Robert L. Brisbin

    1983-01-01

    A multivariate regression model was developed to predict green board-foot yields for the seven common factory lumber grades processed from northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) factory grade logs. The model uses the standard log measurements of grade, scaling diameter, length, and percent defect. It was validated with an independent data set. The model...

  7. Long- and short-term changes in nutrient availability following commercial sawlog harvest via cable logging

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Knoepp; Wayne Swank; Bruce L. Haines

    2014-01-01

    Soil nutrient availability often limits forest productivity and soils have considerable variation in their ability to supply nutrients. Most southern Appalachian forests are minimally managed with no fertilizer inputs or routine thinning regime. Nutrient availability is regulated by atmospheric inputs and the internal cycling of nutrients through such processes as...

  8. Volume of Saw-Log residues as calculated from log rule formulae

    Treesearch

    Frank A. Bennett; F. Thomas Lloyd

    1974-01-01

    Total utilization of our harvested timber is increasingly important. Residues which were once wasted and expensive to remove or destroy are now major sources of income. Slabs and edgings in the sawmill industry are an example. Although several studies have dealt with the volume of these residues, most, if not all, involved measurement of the outturn at the sawmill. An...

  9. Equations for total, wood, and saw-log volume for thirteen California hardwoods.

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    Norman H. Pillsbury; Michael L. Kirkley

    1984-01-01

    Volume equations for thirteen species of California hardwoods were developed from measurements of 766 sample trees from all parts of the state. The species included: bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh), Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh), giant chinkapin (Castanopsis chrysophylla (Dougl.) A. DC...

  10. Impacts of changing hardwood lumber consumption and price on stumpage and sawlog prices in Ohio

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    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner; T. Eric. McConnell

    2014-01-01

    In the early 2000s, increasing US furniture imports preceded declining US hardwood lumber demand and price. In the summer of 2002, however, hardwood lumber prices started to increase as demand by construction industries increased. By the mid-2000s, hardwood lumber prices hit all-time highs. Lumber prices hit all-time highs for red oak (Quercus spp...

  11. Kansas Saw-Log Production Jumps 38 Percent From 1964 to 1969

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    James E. Blyth; Leonard K. Gould

    1971-01-01

    About 23 million board feet of saw logs were harvested in Kansas during 1969. Volumewise, cottonwood, walnut, and elm were the most important species. Most of the wood residue generated at the 67 Kansas sawmills was not used.

  12. The effect of curve sawing two-sided cants from small diameter hardwood sawlogs on lumber and pallet part yields

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    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2006-01-01

    Curve sawing is a primary log breakdown process that incorporates gang-saw technology to allow two-sided cants from logs with sweep to be cut parallel to the log surface or log axis. Since curve-sawn logs with sweep are cut along the grain, the potential for producing high quality straight-grain lumber and cants increases, and strength, stiffness, and dimensional...

  13. Recycling Municipal Trees, A Guide for Marketing Sawlogs from Street Removals Municipalities, NA_TP_02_94

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    Edward Cesa; Edward Lempicki; Howard Knotts

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to make officials of municipalities aware of an alternative strategy for using their street tree removals; a "recycling" strategy which can potentially turn a cost-burden scenario into an income-generating opportunity. The strategy involves merchandising sawmill-size logs from street tree removals to sawmills or other companies...

  14. West Virginia timber products output: 1994

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    Richard H. Widmann; Eric H. Wharton; Edward C. Murriner; Edward C. Murriner

    1998-01-01

    The total industrial harvest in West Virginia in 1994 was more than 165 million cubic feet, a 38-percent increase since 1987. Sawlogs accounted for 75 percent of the total and pulpwood accounted for 28 percent. During this 7-year period sawlog production increased by 44 percent to 812 million board feet. Pulpwood production reached 348,000 cords of roundwood and 334,...

  15. Hardwoods are now being harvested at record levels

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    R.H. Widmann

    1991-01-01

    Recent canvasses by the USDA Forest Service of the sawmills and pulpmills in the central hardwood region show large increases in the harvests of hardwood species. In Kentucky, the production of hardwood sawlogs rose from 457 million board feet in 1974 to 775 million board feet in 1986, a 70 percent increase. In West Virginia, hardwood sawlog production also increased....

  16. Forest products harvested in Hawaii-1969

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Burgan; Jr. Wesley H.C. Wong

    1971-01-01

    Primary forest products harvested in Hawaii in 1969 were valued at $331,000-a $3,000 drop from the value of the harvest surveyed in 1967. Sawlogs and veneer logs were the most important products. Koa and robusta eucalyptus were the primary sawlog species. Albizia and robusta eucalyptus provided most of the veneer logs.

  17. Determining the economic feasibility of salvaging gypsy moth-killed hardwoods

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    Chris B. LeDoux

    1990-01-01

    Oak sawlog and pulpwood losses in stands defoliated by gypsy moths have become a critical problem for some forest landowners. The salvage of gypsy moth-killed hardwoods can become an important source of pulpwood and sawlogs. This study documents a methodology and provides guidelines to determine defoliated oak stands that are economically salvageable. Stand data from...

  18. Trends in economic scarcity of U.S. timber commodities

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    K. E. Skog; C. D. Risbrudt

    Prompted by continuing concern that timber-based commodities are becoming increasingly scarce, this paper presents information on changes in real prices (prices deflated by the general producer price index) of timber commodities as potential indicators of economic scarcity. Data updating previous studies are shown for sawlog stumpage, delivered sawlogs, and lumber;...

  19. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Special forest products do not include sawtimber, pulpwood, non-sawlog material removed in log form, cull logs, small roundwood, house logs, telephone poles, derrick poles, minerals, animals, animal...

  20. Predicted cubic-foot yields of sawmill products for black cherry trees

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks

    1980-01-01

    Equations and tables for estimating the cubic-foot volumes of lumber, sawdust, and sawmill residue for black cherry trees are presented. Also included are cubic-foot and board-foot predictions for the sawlog portion of the trees.

  1. Ohio timber products output - 1983

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Michael Long

    1986-01-01

    The total industrial harvest in Ohio was over 82 million cubic feet in 1983. This was up 17 percent since 1978. Sawlogs accounted for 57 percent of the total and pulpwood accounted for 36 percent. During this 5-year period, sawlog production was up 7 percent to 318.3 million board feet, and total pulpwood production was up 24 percent to 461.8 thousand cords....

  2. West Virginia timber products output--1987

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Edward C. Murriner; Edward C. Murriner

    1990-01-01

    The total industrial harvest in West Virginia was over 110 million cubic feet in 1987. This was a 24 percent increase since 1979. Sawlogs accounted for 70 percent of the total and pulpwood accounted for 21 percent. During this 8-year period, sawlog production was up by 35 percent to 563 million board feet. Pulpwood production reached 272,000 cords of roundwood and 286,...

  3. Utilizing hardwood logging residue: a case study in the Appalachians

    Treesearch

    E. Paul Craft

    1976-01-01

    An Appalachian hardwood timber stand that contained 6,700 board feet per acre of sawtimber was harvested by clearcutting. After the merchantable sawlogs were removed, this stand contained 69.3 tons per acre of green wood residue. Thirty-three and one-third tons of residue were from tops of merchantable sawtimber; 36 tons were from residual trees. Treetop residue...

  4. Joint production and substitution in timber supply: a panel data analysis

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    Torjus F Bolkesjo; Joseph Buongiorno; Birger Solberg

    2010-01-01

    Supply equations for sawlog and pulpwood were developed with a panel of data from 102 Norwegian municipalities, observed from 1980 to 2000. Static and dynamic models were estimated by cross-section, time-series andpanel data methods. A static model estimated by first differencing gavethe best overall results in terms of theoretical expectations, pattern ofresiduals,...

  5. Ecology and silviculture of poplar plantations

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    John A. Stanturf; Cees van Oosten; Daniel A. Netzer; Mark D. Coleman; C. Jeffrey Portwood

    2002-01-01

    Poplars are some of the fastest growing trees in North America and foresters have sought to capitalize on this potential since the 1940s. Interest in growing poplars has fluctuated, and objectives have shifted between producing sawlogs, pulp-wood, or more densely spaced "woodgrass" or biofuels. Currently, most poplar plantations are established for pulpwood...

  6. Lumber grade and value performance of young-growth ponderosa pine logs at the Challenge Experimental Forest

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    Carl A. Newport; Elliot L. Amidon

    1961-01-01

    Old-growth timber is still the main source of ponderosa pine sawlogs in California, but the proportion of the annual cut from young-growth sawtimber is expected to rise rapidly in the future. The increasing significance of the young-growth resource is particularly apparent in the westside Sierra subregion, where the Challenge Experimental Forest is located. In this...

  7. 76 FR 2878 - Six Rivers National Forest, Mad River Ranger District, CA; Buck Mountain Vegetation and Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... traveled roads and within isolated stands near private property. Treatment would consist of thinning trees... competition and improve growing space for residual trees. Commercially thinned plantations would consist of thinning trees greater than 8'' DBH. Plantations without a commercial saw-log component (TSI) would...

  8. Oklahoma forest industries, 1978

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    Victor A. Rudis; J. Greg Jones

    1978-01-01

    Oklahoma supplied 73 million cu ft of roundwood to forest industries in 1978, an increase of 13 percent since 1972, and 35 percent since 1975 (fig. 1). Pine made up four-fifths of the total. Sawlogs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 81 percent of the roundwood produced. Veneer logs accounted for 8 percent and the remainder was mostly posts.

  9. Live-sawing: a way to increase lumber grade yield and mill profits

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    Neil K. Huyler

    1974-01-01

    A study to compare live-sawing with conventional grade-sawing of factory-grade 3 red oak sawlogs revealed that live-sawing results in substantial increases in production rate, overrun, log value per thousand board feet, and significant reduction in size of the breakeven log diameter.

  10. Historical price trends of nonconiferous tropical logs and sawnwood imported to the United States, Europe, and Japan

    Treesearch

    C. Denise Ingram

    1993-01-01

    This report reviews historical price trends of nonconiferous and tropical sawlogs and tropical sawnwood imports to several major consuming regions of the world. Data on real prices for imports from Africa, Asia, and Latin America to the United States, Europe, and Japan are presented as a reference for policymakers interested in the relative price movements of tropical...

  11. Ultrafast CT scanning of an oak log for internal defects

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    Francis G. Wagner; Fred W. Taylor; Douglas S. Ladd; Charles W. McMillin; Fredrick L. Roder

    1989-01-01

    Detecting internal defects in sawlogs and veneer logs with computerized tomographic (CT) scanning is possible, but has been impractical due to the long scanning time required. This research investigated a new scanner able to acquire 34 cross-sectional log scans per second. This scanning rate translates to a linear log feed rate of 85 feet (25.91 m) per minute at one...

  12. A performance test of the log and tree grades for eastern white pine

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    Robert L. Brisbin

    1972-01-01

    The results of testing the Forest Service standard tree grades and sawlog grades for eastern white pine on an independent sample of 75 trees and 299 logs in southwestern Maine. The total predicted value of the 75 trees was 3 percent higher than the actual value. The total predicted value of the 299 logs was 2 percent higher than the actual value. The differences...

  13. Economics of Coharvesting Smallwood by Chainsaw and Skidder for Crop Tree Management in Missouri

    Treesearch

    Peter Becker; E.M.(Ted) Bilek; Terry Cunningham; Michael Bill; Marty Calvert; Jason Jensen; Michael Norris; Terry Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Forest improvement harvests using individual-tree and group selection were conducted in four oak or oak-hickory stands in the Missouri Ozarks with conventional equipment (chainsaw and skidder). Volumes (and revenues) for different timber classes (sawlogs and smallwood from topwood and small trees) and hours of machine use were recorded to calculate production rates....

  14. Utilization of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1978-01-01

    During the rest of the century, hardwood supplies will likely be sufficient for the nation's rising needs for paper and for structural and architectural products; but sawlogs will be in short supply. Therefore, the products mix will incorportate increasing quantities of reconstituted and composite products. Using hardwoods on sites better suited to pine--the South...

  15. Cradle-to-gate life cycle impacts of redwood forest resource harvesting in northern California

    Treesearch

    Han-Sup Han; Elaine Oneil; Richard D. Bergman; Ivan L. Eastin; Leonard R. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The first life cycle impact assessment for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forest management activities (i.e. a cradle-to-sawmill gate input) including the growing, harvesting, and hauling of redwood sawlogs to a sawmill was completed. In the stump-to-truck timber harvesting analysis, primary transport activities such as skidding and yarding consumed...

  16. Interactive Simulation of Hardwood Log Veneer Slicing Using CT Images

    Treesearch

    Daniel L Schmoldt; Pei Li; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    Veneer producers must make critical processing decisions based solely on external examination of logs. Unlike sawlog breakdown, however, little research has investigated ways in which veneer logs can best be flitched and sliced for increased value. This gap exists largely due to the variety of ways in which veneer is produced and used and the variety of buyers that...

  17. The effects of partial cutting practices on forest stand structure in Appalachian hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Shawn T. Grushecky

    1997-01-01

    Eastern hardwood forests originated after catastrophic disturbances around the turn of the century and are currently an even-aged, maturing resource. The increasing value of sawlogs, especially those of particular species and quality, has prompted many forest landowners to increase their harvesting efforts. Most harvesting appears to be economically driven, focusing on...

  18. The timber industries of Kentucky

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Chauncey J. Lohr

    1977-01-01

    The 1974 timber-industry survey in Kentucky showed that, since 1969: Total timber output has increased 1 percent to 98.1 million cubic feet. Sawlog production has declined less than ½ percent to 489 million board feet. Pulpwood production has increased 69 percent to 133 thousand cords. Veneer-log production has declined 10 percent to 6.3 million board feet....

  19. The timber industries of Ohio

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Robert B. Redett

    1976-01-01

    The 1973 timber-industry survey showed that, since the 1966 survey in Ohio: Total roundwood output has declined 14 percent to 83.2 million cubic feet. Sawlog production has declined 10 percent to 351 million board feet. The number of sawmills in Ohio has declined from 411 to 310. Total pulpwood production has declined 2 percent to 369 million cords. Veneer- and...

  20. Small-diameter timber utilization in Wisconsin: a case study of four counties

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Bowe; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    The state of Wisconsin has numerous forest ownership types. These include national, state, and county forests, as well as privately owned industrial and nonindustrial forests. In addition to sawlog markets, portions of the state also have substantial pulpwood markets associated with paper and panel mills. Combined, these attributes make Wisconsin a good location for...

  1. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Effect of Growth Acceleration on the Properties of Wood, Held 10-11 November 1971 at Madison, Wisconsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    douglas-fir fertilizer /thinning plots; Patterns of wood density distribution and growth rate in ponderosa pine; Influence of irrigation and...fertilization on growth and wood properties of quaking aspen; Effect of fertilizer on the growth rate and certain wood quality characteristics of sawlog red oak

  2. Montana Logging Utilization, 2002

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Michael T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    A study of logging utilization in Montana during 2002 provided logging and product utilization data for sawlog and veneer log harvests in Montana. Results of the study indicate a shift toward greater utilization of smaller diameter material, as 78 percent of the harvested volume in Montana during 2002 came from trees less than 17 inches diameter at breast height. The...

  3. Chip prices as a proxy for nonsawtimber prices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes

    1999-01-01

    The heavy focus on Pacific Northwest saw-log prices makes it difficult for land managers to develop price expectations for stands that contain both sawtimber and nonsawtimber logs. This raises the question: What is a reasonable proxy (or measure) for nonsawtimber prices in the Pacific Northwest? One such proxy is export chip prices, which serve as a reasonable measure...

  4. Geographic information system-based spatial analysis of sawmill wood procurement

    Treesearch

    Nathaniel M. Anderson; Rene H. Germain; Eddie Bevilacqua

    2011-01-01

    In the sawmill sector of the forest products industry, the clustering of mills and wide variation in forest stocking and ownership result in sawlog markets that are complex and spatially differentiated. Despite the inherent spatial attributes of markets for stumpage and logs, few studies have used geospatial methods to examine wood procurement in detail across...

  5. Forest products harvested in Hawaii - 1967

    Treesearch

    Herbert L. Wick

    1968-01-01

    A survey of the primary forest products harvested in Hawaii in 1967 showed a total value of $334,000, a 24 percent increase over the value in the 1958 survey. Compared with the earlier survey, the volume of sawlogs and treefern harvested has gone up while the volume of fuelwood and posts harvested has declined.

  6. Coast redwood live crown and sapwood

    Treesearch

    John-Pascal Berrill; Jesse L. Deffress; Jessica M. Engle

    2012-01-01

    Understanding crown rise and sapwood taper will help meet management objectives such as producing long branch-free boles for clear wood and old-growth restoration, or producing sawlogs with a high proportion of heartwood. Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) tree crown ratio data were collected 20 years after partial harvesting in a 65-year-old second growth stand....

  7. Analyzing Investments in Thin-Kerf Saws

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    The rising cost of hardwood sawlogs has increasd sawmill managers' interest in considering the installation of thin-kerf sawing machines in their sawmills. Replacement of circular headrigs by band headrigs and/or reducing resaw kerfs are the available options. Equipment replacement or modification to achieve thin-kerf sawing will require an investment. Sawmill...

  8. Ohio timber product output--1989

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Michael Long; Michael Long

    1992-01-01

    This periodic report contains 1989 information compiled from a canvass of all primary manufacturers that use roundwood harvested in Ohio. In 1989, 89 million cubic feet of roundwood was harvested in Ohio. Included in this figure is 382 million board feet of sawlogs and 361,500 cords of wood used for pulpwood.

  9. Stand dynamics of unthinned and thinned shortleaf pine plantations

    Treesearch

    Glendon W. Smalley

    1986-01-01

    Growth and yield information about unthinned and thinned shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) plantations established mostly on old-fields in the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau, and Highland Rim physiographic provinces is covered in this paper. The growth and yield pattern of shortleaf pine is more suited to the production of sawlogs at...

  10. Thinning Guidelines For Loblolly Pine Plantations in Eastern Texas Based on Alternative Management Criteria

    Treesearch

    Charles T. Stiff; William F. Stansfield

    2004-01-01

    Separate thinning guidelines were developed for maximizing land expectation value (LEV), present net worth (PNW), and total sawlog yield (TSY) of existing and future loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in eastern Texas. The guidelines were created using data from simulated stands which were thinned one time during their rotation using a...

  11. Arkansas forest industries, 1977

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1980-01-01

    Arkansas forests supplied more than 516 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1977. This is an increase of 15 percent since 1971 and an increase of 32 percent over the 1968 harvest. Softwoods, mainly pine, made up almost three-fourths of the total. Sawlogs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 88 percent of the harvest. Veneer logs...

  12. Strength and Stiffness Properties of Sweetgum and Yellow-poplar Structural Lumber

    Treesearch

    Timothy D. Faust; Robert H. McAlister; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1990-01-01

    The forest resource base in the Southeast is rapidly changing. Dwindling reserves of high quality pine sawlogs will provide incentives to utilize low-density hardwoods such as yellow-poplar and sweetgum for structural lumber. Inventories of sweetgum (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) are currently high and growth is exceeding removals. The mechanical propertiees of dimension...

  13. Yield and ultrasonic modulus of elasticity of red maple veneer

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Steven Verhey; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Brian K. Brashaw; Crystal L. Pilon; Xiping Wang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the potential for using red maple sawlogs to manufacture laminated veneer lumber (LVL). The primary objective was to determine the yield of ultrasonically graded veneer from red maple logs. A sample of 48 logs was obtained from six Eastern and Lake States in the United States. The logs were visually graded and shipped to a plywood...

  14. Impact of Early Pruning and Thinning on Lumber Grade Yield From Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Mike Strub; Larry R. Anderson; H. Gwynne Lloyd; Richard F. Daniels; James H. Scarborough

    2004-01-01

    The Sudden Sawlog Study was established in 1954 near Crossett, AR, in a 9-year-old loblolly pine plantation to test the hypothesis that loblolly plantations can produce sawtimber in 30 years. To stimulate diameter and height growth and clear wood production, study plots were heavily thinned, trees pruned to 33 feet by age 24 years, under-story mowed, and growth of...

  15. New Tree-Classification System Used by the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May; John S. Vissage; D. Vince Few

    1990-01-01

    Trees at USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis, sample locations are classified as growing stock or cull based on their ability to produce sawlogs. The old and new classification systems are compared, and the impacts of the new system on the reporting of tree volumes are illustrated with inventory data from north Alabama.

  16. Assessing the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington

    Treesearch

    Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The production structure of the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington was investigated using a translog cost function with capital. labor, and sawlog inputs. Analyses were performed with a panel data set of biennial observations from 1972 to 2002 on a cross section of 16 western Washington counties. Production structure was examined using Allen and...

  17. A form of two-phase sampling utilizing regression analysis

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Fiery; John R. Brooks

    2007-01-01

    A two-phase sampling technique was introduced and tested on several horizontal point sampling inventories of hardwood tracts located in northern West Virginia and western Maryland. In this sampling procedure species and dbh are recorded for all “in-trees” on all sample points. Sawlog merchantable height was recorded on a subsample of intensively measured (second phase...

  18. Predicted green lumber and residue yields from the merchantable stem of Yellow-Poplar

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Michael A. Taras; James G. Schroeder

    1974-01-01

    Because of increasing demands for timber and changing utilization practices, chippable residues are now marketable products. Timber appraisals, therefore, should consider not only volumes o f lumber anticpated but also amounts (weights) of chippable residue produced when processing sale trees. Some information is available on saw-log weight and amount of chippable...

  19. Diversity of the Eastern Hardwood Resource and How This Diversity Influences Timber Utilization

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Scott A. Pugh

    2016-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource is often associated with high-quality sawtimber used in the production of grade products, but this segment of the resource accounts for approximately 20 percent of the cubic volume of all live trees. By contrast, 17 percent of the hardwood timber volume is classified as cull trees, and an additional 14 percent is low-quality sawlog-size...

  20. Development of a rooted cutting propagation method for Prunus serotina

    Treesearch

    P.M. Pijut; A.C. Espinosa

    2005-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is the only native Prunus species (southeastern Canada and throughout the eastern United States) that is of high commercial value for timber and sawlog production. Black cherry wood is highly valued in North America for cabinets, furniture, fine veneer, and architectural woodwork. Hardwood lumber mills are constantly...

  1. Potential Utilization of Sweetgum for Structural Lumber

    Treesearch

    Timothy D. Faust; Robert H. McAlister; Peter J. Stewart; Frederick W. Cubbage; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    The forest resource base in the Southeast is rapidly changing. Dwindling reserves of high quality pine sawlogs will provide incentive to utilize low-density hardwoods such as yellow-poplar and sweetgum for structural lumber. Inventories of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua, L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera, L.) are currently high and growth is exceeding...

  2. Comparisons of two methods of harvesting biomass for energy

    Treesearch

    W.F. Watson; B.J. Stokes; I.W. Savelle

    1986-01-01

    Two harvesting methods for utilization of understory biomass were tested against a conventional harvesting method to determine relative costs. The conventional harvesting method tested removed all pine 6 inches diameter at breast height (DBH) and larger and hardwood sawlogs as tree length logs. The two intensive harvesting methods were a one-pass and a two-pass method...

  3. Value recovery from two mechanized bucking operations in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Kevin Boston; Glen. Murphy

    2003-01-01

    The value recovered from two mechanized bucking operations in the southeastern United States was compared with the optimal value computed using an individual-stem log optimization program, AVIS. The first operation recovered 94% of the optimal value. The main cause for the value loss was a failure to capture potential sawlog volume; logs were bucked to a larger average...

  4. Characteristics of factory-grade hardwood logs delivered to Appalachian sawmills

    Treesearch

    Curtis D. Goho; Paul S. Wysor; Paul S. Wysor

    1970-01-01

    Until now, information about the characteristics of sawlogs delivered to Appalachian sawmills has been generally unavailable. We know what the standing timber is like, from forest-survey data. But this paper covers a different spectrum: the frequency distributions-by size, grade, volume, and species group-of factory-grade logs actually harvested and delivered to the...

  5. Effects of forest management on soil carbon: results of some long-term resampling studies

    Treesearch

    D.W. Johnson; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank; J. Shan; L.A. Morris; David H. D.H. van Lear; P.R. Kapeluck

    2002-01-01

    The effects of harvest intensity (sawlog, SAW; whole tree, WTH; and complete tree, CTH) on biomass and soil carbon (C) were studied in four forested sites in the Southeastern United States: (mixed deciduous forests at Oak Ridge, TN and Coweeta, NC; Pinus taeda at Clemson, SC; and P. eliottii at Bradford, FL). In general, harvesting had no lasting...

  6. Converting among log scaling methods : Scriber, International, and Doyle versus cubic

    Treesearch

    Henry Spelter

    2004-01-01

    Sawlogs in the United States, whether scaled on the ground or cruised on the stump, have traditionally been measured in terms of their lumber yield. The three commonly used measurement rules generally underestimate true recoveries. Moreover, they do so inconsistently, complicating the comparisons of volumes obtained by different board foot rules as well as by the cubic...

  7. Adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting of Prunus serotina in vitro cultures

    Treesearch

    Ana Carolina Espinosa; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2006-01-01

    A complete regeneration protocol was developed for Prunus serotina Ehrh., an important hardwood species for timber and sawlog production in the central and eastern United States. Nodal sections were cultures on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.49 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA),...

  8. Potential Utilization of Sweetgum and Yellow-Poplar for Structural Lumber

    Treesearch

    Timothy D. Faust; Robert H. McAlister; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Christopher B. Stephens

    1991-01-01

    The forest resource base in the Southeast is rapidly changing. Dwindling reserves of high quality pine sawlogs will provide incentive to utilize low-density hardwoods such as yellow-poplar and sweetgum for structural lumber. Inventories of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua, L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera, L.) are currently high and growth is exceeding...

  9. Comparison of mechanized systems for thinning Ponderosa pine and mixed conifer stands

    Treesearch

    Bruce R. Hartsough; Joseph F. McNeel; Thomas A. Durston; Bryce J. Stokes

    1994-01-01

    Three systems for thinning pine plantations and naturally-regenerated stands were studied. All three produced small sawlogs and fuel chips. The whole-tree system consisted of a feller buncher, skidder, stroke processor, loader, and chipper. The cut-to-length system included a harvester, forwarder, loader, and chipper. A hybrid system combined a feller buncher,...

  10. Comparison of mechanized systems for thinning Ponderosa pine and mixed conifer stands

    Treesearch

    Bruce R. Hartsough; Joseph F. McNeel; Thomas A. Durston; Bryce J. Stokes

    1994-01-01

    We studied three systems for thinning pine plantations and naturally-regenerated stands on the Stanislaus National Forest, California. All three produced small sawlogs and fuel chips. The whole tree system consisted of a feller buncher, skidder, stroke processor, loader and chipper. The cut-to-length system included a harvester, forwarder, loader and chipper. A hybrid...

  11. Social versus biophysical availability of wood in the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Ma Zhao; David B. Kittredge; Paul. Catanzaro

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wood, be it harvested for sawlogs, pulpwood, biomass, or other products, is constrained by social and biophysical factors. Knowing the difference between social and biophysical availability is important for understanding what can realistically be extracted. This study focuses on the wood located in family forests across the northern United States....

  12. Imports and exports of roundwood in the upper Midwestern United States. Chapter 2.

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Perry; Mark D. Nelson; Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    Industrial roundwood is the raw material produced from harvested trees that is used to manufacture a wide range of wood products. Roundwood is harvested from the forest and is transported to primary manufacturing facilities to be processed into primary and secondary wood products. Roundwood includes sawlogs that are processed into...

  13. Anomalous dark growth rings in black cherry

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Long; David W. Trimpey; Michael C. Wiemann; Susan L. Stout

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous dark growth rings have been observed in black cherry (Prunus serotina) sawlogs from northwestern Pennsylvania making the logs unsuitable for veneer products. Thirty-six cross sections with dark rings, each traceable to one of ten stands, were obtained from a local mill and sections were dated and annual ring widths were measured. One or...

  14. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; James W. Whipple

    1997-01-01

    Industrial roundwood production rose from 357 million cubic feet in 1992 to 378 million cubic feet in 1994. Pulpwood accounted for 65% of total roundwood production in Wisconsin--3.1million cords in 1994. Aspen constituted 37% of the roundwood cut for pulpwood. Saw-log production rose from 588 million board feet in 1992 to 645 million board feet in 1994. Principal...

  15. Effects of harvest management practices on forest biomass and soil carbon in eucalypt forests in New South Wales, Australia: Simulations with the forest succession model LINKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Ranatunga, Kemachandra; Keenan, Rodney J.; Wullschleger, Stan D; Post, Wilfred M; Tharp, M Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Understanding long-term changes in forest ecosystem carbon stocks under forest management practices such as timber harvesting is important for assessing the contribution of forests to the global carbon cycle. Harvesting effects are complicated by the amount, type, and condition of residue left on-site, the decomposition rate of this residue, the incorporation of residue into soil organic matter and the rate of new detritus input to the forest floor from regrowing vegetation. In an attempt to address these complexities, the forest succession model LINKAGES was used to assess the production of aboveground biomass, detritus, and soil carbon stocks in native Eucalyptus forests as influenced by five harvest management practices in New South Wales, Australia. The original decomposition sub-routines of LINKAGES were modified by adding components of the Rothamsted (RothC) soil organic matter turnover model. Simulation results using the new model were compared to data from long-term forest inventory plots. Good agreement was observed between simulated and measured above-ground biomass, but mixed results were obtained for basal area. Harvesting operations examined included removing trees for quota sawlogs (QSL, DBH >80 cm), integrated sawlogs (ISL, DBH >20 cm) and whole-tree harvesting in integrated sawlogs (WTH). We also examined the impact of different cutting cycles (20, 50 or 80 years) and intensities (removing 20, 50 or 80 m{sup 3}). Generally medium and high intensities of shorter cutting cycles in sawlog harvesting systems produced considerably higher soil carbon values compared to no harvesting. On average, soil carbon was 2-9% lower in whole-tree harvest simulations whereas in sawlog harvest simulations soil carbon was 5-17% higher than in no harvesting.

  16. West Virginia timber product output, 2000

    Treesearch

    Bruce Hansen; Ed Murriner; Iris Baker; Melody Akers; Melody Akers

    2006-01-01

    Assesses primary wood-processing activities in West Virginia for 2000. West Virginia?s total wood harvest for industrial uses was 202 million cubic feet, up nearly 22 percent from 1994. Sawlog production totaled 803.5 million board feet, a decrease of 8.1 million board feet from 1994. There were 172 sawmills operating in the State in 2000, with only 10 percent...

  17. The timber industries of New Hampshire and Vermont

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Nicolas Engalichev; William G. Gove

    1974-01-01

    The 1972 timber-industry surveys showed that, since the 1959 survey in New Hampshire: Total roundwood output has declined 17 percent to 50.2 million cubic feet. Sawlog production has declined 22 percent to 182.0 million board feet. Pulpwood production has declined 7 percent to 200.7 thousand cords. Veneer-log production has declined 84 percent to 2.1 million board feet...

  18. The timber industries of West Virginia

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Ralph P., Jr. Glover

    1977-01-01

    The 1974 timber-industry survey in West Virginia showed that since 1965: Total roundwood output of industrial products has declined by 19 percent to 106.6 million cubic feet. Sawlog production has declined by 14 percent to 464 million board feet. Pulpwood production has declined by 33 percent to 214 thousand cords. Veneer-log production has declined by 38 percent to 3....

  19. Michigan timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; John Pilon

    1997-01-01

    Industrial roundwood production rose from 346.8 million cubic feet in 1992 to 386.9 million cubic feet in 1994. Pulpwood accounted for 62% of total roundwood production in Michigan in 1994--3.0 million cords. Saw-log production rose from 632 million board feet in 1992 to 658 million board feet in 1994. Logging residue generated in 1994 was estimated to be 4.8 million...

  20. Highlights from wood for structural and architectural purposes

    Treesearch

    Conor W. Boyd; Peter Koch; Herbert B. McKean; Charles R. Morchauser; Stephen B. Preston; Frederick F. Wangaard

    1977-01-01

    In 1970 the softwood and hardwood forests of the United States yielded 193 million tons (OD basis) of sawlogs, veneer logs, pulpwood, miscellaneous industrial wood, and fuel wood. By 1985, demand for such wood will likely bei n the range from 248 to 260 million tons, while supply will be about 260 million tons. By the year 2000, demand will probably be in the range...

  1. Highlights from wood for structural and architectural purposes

    Treesearch

    C.W. Boyd; P. Koch; H.B. McKean; C.R. Morschauser; S.B. Preston; F.F. Wangaard

    1977-01-01

    In 1970 the softwood and hardwood forests of the United States yielded 193 million tons (OD basis) of sawlogs, veneer logs, pulpwood, miscellaneous industrial wood, and fuel wood. By 1965, demand for such wood will likely be in the range from 248 to 260 million tons, while supply should be about 260 million tons. By the year 2000, demand will probably be in the range...

  2. Flexural properties of laminated veneer lumber manufactured from ultrasonically rated red maple veneer : a pilot study.

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Steven A. Verhey; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2003-01-01

    The study described in this report was conducted to examine the flexural properties of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) manufactured from red maple veneer. Ultrasonically rated veneer, which was peeled from low value red maple saw-logs, was fabricated into 1/2-in.-(1.3-cm-) and 2-in.-(5-cm-) thick LVL billets. The flexural properties of the billets and of corresponding...

  3. Logging Residue Available for Mine-Timber Production

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Timson

    1978-01-01

    Hardwood logging residue was examined as a source of raw material in the manufacture of sawn, split, and round timbers for use in underground coal mines. Forty-four percent of the total logging residue (residue !U 4 inches in diameter outside bark (dob), small end, and 4 feet long) from sawlog-only harvests was suitable for mine-timber production. Only 26 percent of...

  4. Three diameter-limit cuttings in West Virginia hardwoods a 5-year report

    Treesearch

    Russell J. Hutnik

    1958-01-01

    Mine timbers are a basic need of West Virginia's giant coal industry. The annual requirement of sawed mine timbers is roughly 250 million board feet. The mines also use a large volume of wood in rough form for props and lagging. Yet, compared to sawlogs and veneer logs, these mine timbers are low-value products. This means that they must be produced at low cost....

  5. Primary wood-product industries of Pennsylvania - 1969

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; John K., Jr. Sherwood

    1972-01-01

    The 1969 survey of the wood-product industry showed that, since the 1964 survey in Pennsylvania: Veneer log production was down 27 percent to 15 million board feet. Total roundwood output was down 1 percent to 148.9 million cubic feet. Cooperage log production was up 52 percent to nearly 10 million board feet. Sawlog production was down less than 0.5 percent to 543...

  6. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 07, August 13, 1931.

    Treesearch

    1931-01-01

    A recently completed study of the sawmill "waste" in the Douglas fir region of Oregon and Washington shows that in the production of 1929 cute of rough green, rough-sawn lumber (10,286,554,000 board feet), 1,552,865,251 cubic feet (solid measure) of sound wood in sawlog form were used. Of this 66.61 per cent (910,010,322 cu.ft.) was converted into rough-green...

  7. Better load-weight distribution is needed for tandem-axle logging trucks

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras

    1976-01-01

    To determine the GVW and axle weights of tandem-axle logging trucks hauling into two West Virginia sawmills, 543 truckloads of hardwood sawlogs were weighed. The results showed that less than 2 percent of the truckloads exceeded the 48,000 pound GVW limit. While 58 percent of the truckloads exceeded the 32,000 pound tandem-axle weight limit, the front-axle weights...

  8. System 6: making frame-quality blanks from white oak thinnings

    Treesearch

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Philip A. Araman

    1983-01-01

    Low-grade white oak timber removed during a timber stand improvement cut on the Jefferson National Forest in Virginia was made into sawlogs, poles, 6-foot bolts, 4-foot bolts, pulpwood, and firewood. The 6-foot bolts were sawed to two cants per bolt; cants were resawed to 4/4 System 6 boards; boards were dried to 6 percent moisture content and made into frame blanks...

  9. Effect of curve sawing on lumber recovery and warp of short cherry logs containing sweep

    Treesearch

    Brian H. Bond; Philip Araman

    2008-01-01

    It has been estimated that approximately one-third of hardwood sawlogs have a significant amount of sweep and that 7 to nearly 40 percent of the yield is lost from logs that have greater than 1 inch of sweep. While decreased yield is important, for hardwood logs the loss of lumber value is likely more significant. A method that produced lumber while accounting for log...

  10. Field testing of the FMC ft-180ca in appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Biller, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A new FMC steel-tracked skidder was used to haul pulpwood and sawlogs to landings in a clear-felled area in Virginia. An average skid of 363.6 m took 14.9 minutes, wtih an average volume of 2.9 cubic m. The main advantage of the skidder is its ability to operate on steep slopes (here with an uphill gradient of up to 44%) with minumium effect on the skid road. Analysis indicated an hourly cost of $49.58 ($5.93/cubic m).

  11. Utilization of Electrical Impedance Tomography to Detect Internal Anomalies in Southern Pine Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Philip; Cooper, Jerome

    2006-03-01

    A large body of research has shown that knowledge of internal defect location in logs prior to sawing has the potential to significantly increase lumber value yield. This paper describes a relatively low-capital log scanning technique based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to image anomalies interior to sawlogs. Static testing results showed that knots, juvenile and compression wood internal to logs can be detected. Although resolution is lower than that of CT and NMR technologies, the low cost of this EIT application should render it competitive.

  12. Multistage variable probability forest volume inventory. [the Defiance Unit of the Navajo Nation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    An inventory scheme based on the use of computer processed LANDSAT MSS data was developed. Output from the inventory scheme provides an estimate of the standing net saw timber volume of a major timber species on a selected forested area of the Navajo Nation. Such estimates are based on the values of parameters currently used for scaled sawlog conversion to mill output. The multistage variable probability sampling appears capable of producing estimates which compare favorably with those produced using conventional techniques. In addition, the reduction in time, manpower, and overall costs lend it to numerous applications.

  13. Ecology and silviculture of poplar plantations.

    SciTech Connect

    Stanturf, John A.; Van Oosten, Cees; Netzer, Daniel A.

    2002-07-01

    D.I.; Isebrands, J.G.; Eckenwalder, J.E.; Richardson, J., eds. Poplar culture in North America, part A, chapter 5. Ottawa: NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada: 153-206. ABSTRACT. Poplars are some of the fastest growing trees in North America and foresters have sought to capitalize on this potential since the 1940s. Interest in growing poplars has fluctuated, and objectives have shifted between producing sawlogs, pulp-wood, or more densely spaced "woodgrass" or biofuels. Currently, most poplar plantations are established for pulpwood or chip production on rotations of 10 years or less, but interest in sawlog production is increasing. Sid McKnight characterized cottonwood as a prima donna species: under ideal conditions, growth rates are just short of spectacular. Just as this can be applied to all poplars, it is equally true that all poplars are demanding of good sites and careful establishment. Growing poplars in plantations is challenging, and good establishment the first year is critical to long-term success. If a grower lacks the commitment or resources to provide needed treatments at critical times, then species other than poplars should be considered. Our objective in this chapter is to provide growers with current information for establishing and tending poplar plantations, as practiced in North America. Where we have sufficient information, differences between the poplar-growing regions of the United States and Canada will be noted. Mostly information is available on eastern and black cottonwood and their hybrids.

  14. Effect of rotation age on lumber grade, yield, and strength of unthinned loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; McAlister, R.H.; Saucier, J.R.; Reitter, K.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the effect of rotation age on the grade, yield, and strength of lumber produced from unthinned loblolly pine stands in the coastal plain of Georgia. Six stands representing 22-, 28-, and 40-year rotations were sampled. A stratified random sample of trees with diameters at breast height ranging from 8 to 16 inches was selected from each stand and processed into limber. The strength, yield, and grade of lumber produced increased with increasing rotation age. Based on study data, equations were developed to predict total lumber volume, lumber volume by lumber grade, sawlog stem weight, and cubic volume. Because the yeild of higher grade lumber increased in older trees, the value of lumber produced per cubic foot increased significantly with increasing age. A financial analysis of a simulated plantation harvested at ages ranging from 20 to 40 years illustrates the effects of increasing lumber value and rotation age on net present value of an unthinned loblolly pine stand.

  15. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Turhollow, Anthony; Perlack, Robert; Eaton, Laurence; ...

    2014-10-03

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the billion-ton study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. However, in looking at the major categories of feedstocks the forest residue biomass potential was determined to be less owing to tighter restrictions on forest residue supply including restrictions due to limited projected increase in traditional harvest for pulpwood and sawlogs. The crop residue potential was also determined to be less because of the consideration of soil carbon and not allowing residue removalmore » from conventionally tilled corn acres. The energy crop potential was estimated to be much greater largely because of land availability and modeling of competition among various competing uses of the land. Generally, the scenario assumptions in the updated assessment are much more plausible to show a billion-ton resource, which would be sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country s present petroleum consumption.« less

  16. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, Anthony; Perlack, Robert; Eaton, Laurence; Langholtz, Matthew; Brandt, Craig; Downing, Mark; Wright, Lynn; Skog, Kenneth; Hellwinckel, Chad; Stokes, Bryce; Lebow, Patricia

    2014-10-03

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the billion-ton study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. However, in looking at the major categories of feedstocks the forest residue biomass potential was determined to be less owing to tighter restrictions on forest residue supply including restrictions due to limited projected increase in traditional harvest for pulpwood and sawlogs. The crop residue potential was also determined to be less because of the consideration of soil carbon and not allowing residue removal from conventionally tilled corn acres. The energy crop potential was estimated to be much greater largely because of land availability and modeling of competition among various competing uses of the land. Generally, the scenario assumptions in the updated assessment are much more plausible to show a billion-ton resource, which would be sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country s present petroleum consumption.

  17. Cost and Productivity of Multi-Product Processing for Small Diameter Trees : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Michael B.; Howard, James O.; Hermann, Steven E.

    1987-09-01

    This project evolved from an effort by the land manager, the United States Forest Service, to economically deal with thousands of acres of thick (doghair) Douglas-fir and hemlock forests on Washington's Olympic Peninsula. These forests are very densely stocked and the trees are small. Until this effort, there has been no reasonable way to get enough product from the sites to justify managing them. And, even this project required some special agreements between the landowner and the investigator to be viable. This report describes the in-woods processing system now working in doghair stands on the Quilcene District. As whole trees arrive at the landing, they are sorted by a Cat 225 shovel-type loader. Sawlogs are trimmed, limbed, bucked, and decked for transportation on conventional log trucks. Chip grade trees are passed through a prototype, multi-stem debarker/delimber and then chipped by a Morbark 23'' Chiparvester. Clean chips are transported in regular highway chip vans. All other materials, not sold as logs or clean chips, are processed by a prototype shredder, and taken from the site as hogfuel. 7 ref., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Options in energy wood farming

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, W.V.

    1984-01-01

    A brief description is given of a study sponsored by the US Air Force (Huff, W.J.; Bronson, L.; McConnell, W.V.; Steadman, P.E. (1982) Report, National Technical Information Service No. FESA-T-2124. 26pp. Springfield, Virginia, USA). Five management options were examined for woody biomass production at Eglin Air Force Base (with over 400 000 acres of forest) to determine the feasibility of achieving self sufficiency in energy. Options were: (a) high energy subsidy, intensive crop management (broadleaves); (b) as (a) except that sewage effluent would be used for irrigation and fertilization; (c) low energy subsidy, single species (pine), modified conventional management - shortened rotations (40 years) dense stocking, artificial sowing (or natural regeneration), and an early thinning used for energy; (d) low energy subsidy, dual species management - widely spaced, genetically improved longleaf pine grown on a sawlog rotation (50 years) with multiple cropping of underplanted short rotation (10 years) Choctawhatchee sand pine (Pinus clausa var. immuginata); and (e) low energy subsidy, short rotation (10 years) P. clausa. Option (e) was preferred as the most productive of the low energy subsidy options.

  19. Recovery of above-ground woody biomass using operational modifications of conventional harvesting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Herschelman, J. W.; Domenech, D. W.

    1980-06-01

    Two harvesting systems were assembled during each of two summers to compare the operational efficiency of a whole tree harvesting system with a conventional harvesting system. Skidding of whole trees proved to be 27% more efficient than the skidding of primary stems because of operators habits of underutilizing skidder capacity. Although 5% more gals/hour were used by the whole tree system, there was a net gain of 21% more tons/gal. produced by this same system. A whole tree chipper was analyzed for its potential to process large hardwood trees for energy products. A comparison of five harvesting systems revealed that whole tree systems producing sawtimber, round pulpwood and energy chips proved most energy efficient and economically viable. A variety of machine/system factors were measured. It was determined that with certain modifications, whole tree chippers offer the best potential for processing logging residue for fuel. Forty-eight equations were developed predicting green and ovendry weights in summer and winter for whole tree weight, primary product weight, and the weight of limbs and tops for hardwood trees associated with the oak-hickory forest type in the Southern Appalachian Region based on diameter at breast height and whole tree length. Eight sawlog prediction equations were also developed based on log length, diameter small end outside bark and diameter large end outside bark. The energy efficiency of harvesting systems was studied by analyzing the equipment involved in manual and mechanized shortwood, longwood, and whole tree systems.

  20. Harvesting effects on long-term changes in nutrient pools of mixed oak forest

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W. |; Todd, D.E. Jr.

    1998-11-01

    The effects of sawlog harvesting (SAW) vs. whole-tree harvesting (WTH) on C and nutrient budgets of a mixed oak forest near Oak Ridge, TN, were assessed by sampling soils and vegetation just prior to and 15 yr after harvesting. Fifteen years after harvest, large woody residues in the SAW treatment lost >80% of their mass and nutrient content. Greater concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg were found in both foliage and soils in the SAW treatment than in the WTH treatment, but there were no signs of deficiency in these nutrients and no differences in growth due to treatment. There were no declines in exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} in the WTH treatment, and the increases in soil exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} pools in the SAW watersheds were approximately equal to the amount of Ca{sup 2+} released by decomposing residues. On the other hand, no treatment effects on soil C, vegetation biomass, species composition, vegetation N or P concentration, soil bulk density, or soil N were found 15 yr after treatment. Contrary to what has been speculated on regarding the basis of nutrient budgets, this study showed no detrimental effects of WTH on productivity or soil nutrient status (i.e., reductions from preharvest conditions). The results did show, however, that nutrients (especially Ca) from logging residues are largely retained in soils and reflected in elevated foliar nutrient concentrations.

  1. Peatland simulator connecting drainage, nutrient cycling, forest growth, economy and GHG efflux in boreal and tropical peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauren, Ari; Hökkä, Hannu; Launiainen, Samuli; Palviainen, Marjo; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    Forest growth in peatlands is nutrient limited; principal source of nutrients is the decomposition of organic matter. Excess water decreases O2 diffusion and slows down the nutrient release. Drainage increases organic matter decomposition, CO2 efflux, and nutrient supply, and enhances the growth of forest. Profitability depends on costs, gained extra yield and its allocation into timber assortments, and the rate of interest. We built peatland simulator Susi to define and parameterize these interrelations. We applied Susi-simulator to compute water and nutrient processes, forest growth, and CO2 efflux of forested drained peatland. The simulator computes daily water fluxes and storages in two dimensions for a peatland forest strip located between drainage ditches. The CO2 efflux is made proportional to peat bulk density, soil temperature and O2 availability. Nutrient (N, P, K) release depends on decomposition and peat nutrient content. Growth limiting nutrient is detected by comparing the need and supply of nutrients. Increased supply of growth limiting nutrient is used to quantify the forest growth response to improved drainage. The extra yield is allocated into pulpwood and sawlogs based on volume of growing stock. The net present values of ditch cleaning operation and the gained extra yield are computed under different rates of interest to assess the profitability of the ditch cleaning. The hydrological sub-models of Susi-simulator were first parameterized using daily water flux data from Hyytiälä SMEAR II-site, after which the predictions were tested against independent hydrologic data from two drained peatland forests in Southern Finland. After verification of the hydrologic model, the CO2 efflux, nutrient release and forest growth proportionality hypothesis was tested and model performance validated against long-term forest growth and groundwater level data from 69 forested peatland sample plots in Central Finland. The results showed a clear relation between

  2. Overview and forecast on forestry productions worldwide.

    PubMed

    Wenjun, Zhang

    2007-02-01

    Our world is largely dependent upon the forestry productions. Through the exploitation of forest reserves, we manufacture various industrial products, furniture, and obtain fuel and energy. Forestry productions should be conducted without large-scale deforestation and environmental degradation. In present study we perform a review and forecast analysis on forestry productions worldwide, with the objectives of providing an insight into the trend for several types of forestry productions in the future, and providing referential data for sustainable forestry productions and environmental management. Polynomial functions are used to fit trajectories of forestry productions since 1961 and forecasts during the coming 20 years are given in detail. If the past pattern continues, world fibreboard production would dramatically grow and reach 224,300,000 +/- 44,400,000 m(3) by the year 2020, an increase up to 240.7 to 408.9% as compared to the present level. Roundwood production of the world would change by -55.5 to 70.4% and reach 3,526,600,000 +/- 2,066,800,000 m(3) by 2020. In 2020 world production of sawlogs and veneer logs would change by -100 to 164.6% and reach 1,212,900,000 +/- 1,242,600,000 m(3). Global wood fuel production would change by -68.9 to 1.4% and reach 1,130,900,000 +/- 600,800,000 m(3) by 2020. Forestry productions in developed countries would largely surpass productions in developing countries in the near future. World forestry production grew since 1961 excluding wood fuel. Roundwood and wood fuel account for the critical proportions in the forestry productions. Wood fuel production has being declined and rapid growing of roundwood production has slowed in recent years. Widespread use of regenerative wood substitutes and worldwide afforestation against deforestation will be among the most effective ways to reduce deforestation and environment degradation associated with forestry productions.

  3. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Domke, Grant M; Woodall, Christopher W; Smith, James E

    2011-11-24

    Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C) pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated in 1998, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program (responsible for compiling the Nation's forest C estimates) began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees, which may now supplant previous purely model-based approaches to standing dead biomass and C stock estimation. A substantial hurdle to estimating standing dead tree biomass and C attributes is that traditional estimation procedures are based on merchantability paradigms that may not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to decomposition common in standing dead trees. The goal of this study was to incorporate standing dead tree adjustments into the current estimation procedures and assess how biomass and C stocks change at multiple spatial scales. Accounting for decay and structural loss in standing dead trees significantly decreased tree- and plot-level C stock estimates (and subsequent C stocks) by decay class and tree component. At a regional scale, incorporating adjustment factors decreased standing dead quaking aspen biomass estimates by almost 50 percent in the Lake States and Douglas-fir estimates by more than 36 percent in the Pacific Northwest. Substantial overestimates of standing dead tree biomass and C stocks occur when one does not account for density reductions or structural loss. Forest inventory estimation procedures that are descended from merchantability standards may need to be revised toward a more holistic approach to determining standing dead tree biomass and C attributes (i.e., attributes of tree biomass outside of sawlog portions). Incorporating density reductions and structural

  4. Space Radar Image of Lozere Department, Mende, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the central part of Lozere Departement situated south of the Massif Central in France. The image is 10 kilometers by 25 kilometers (6 miles by 15.5 miles) and is centered at approximately 44.3 degrees north latitude and 3 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994 and on October 6, 1994. The image channels have the following color assignments: red was acquired in April; green was acquired in October; and blue is the ratio of the two data sets combined. Seasonal differences in the vegetation are visible in pink, which are heaths growing in the spring. This research area features two large limestone plateaus cut by the famous Gorges du Tarn, standing in parallel with the granite mountain range known as the Cevennes Mountains nearby. Land-use consists mainly of grasslands, heaths and forests. Forest types seen in the images are Austrian pines,Scots pines, spruce, fir and beech trees. Most forests were planted at the end of the 19th century through a national reforestation program aimed at reducing the strong erosion risks in these areas. This program was so successful that today the forests are exploited for forest pulpwood and sawlogs, but also remain protected as conservation regions. The study being performed in this area will assess the potential of spaceborne radar remote sensing for temperate forest type mapping and forest resource monitoring. The combination of X-band SAR data with lower frequency data (such as the SIR-C L-band data) allows scientists to distinguish forest tree species and biomass, or areas of ground vegetation. The lessons learned from the radar images of these controlled forest regions can be applied to larger areas and naturally grown forests to help ecologists protect and maintain them. The SIR-C/X-SAR images will be investigated by scientists from the remote sensing laboratory

  5. Historical land-use changes and potential effects on stream disturbance in the Ozark Plateaus, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Primm, Alexander T.

    1997-01-01

    Land-use changes have been blamed for creating disturbance in the morphology of streams in the Ozark Plateaus, Missouri (hereafter referred to as the "Ozarks"). Historical evidence and stratigraphic observations document that streams have been aggraded by substantial quantities of gravel beginning sometime at or near the time of European settlement of the Ozarks. Before European settlement, streams were depositing a mixed sediment load of gravel bedload and silty overbank sediment. Observations of early explorers conspicuously lack descriptions of extensive gravel bars; observations of geologists working during the middle to late 1800's before significant landuse disturbance, however, include descriptions of large quantities of gravel in stream banks and beds.The first change in land cover as settlement progressed from the early 1800's to approximately 1880 was replacement of valley-bottom forest with cultivated fields and pastures. At the same time, suppression of wildfires in the uplands caused an increase of woodland with woody understory at the expense of grassland and oak savannah. Valley-bottom clearing probably initiated some direct disturbance of stream channels, but fire suppression would have decreased runoff and sediment yield from uplands.Beginning sometime from 1870 to 1880 and continuing until 1920, commercial timber companies began large operations in the Ozarks to harvest shortleaf pine for sawlogs and oak for railroad ties. Selective cutting of large timber, use of livestock for skidding logs from the forest, and avoidance of the steeper slopes minimized the effect of this phase of logging on runoff and sediment supply of uplands and valley-side slopes. Continued decreases in the erosional resistance of valley bottoms through clearing and road building and the incidence of extreme regional floods from 1895 to 1915 probably caused initiation of moderate stream disturbance. This hypothesis is supported by historical and oral-historical observations