Science.gov

Sample records for sawlogs

  1. Barge loading facilities in conjunction with wood chipping and sawlog mill, Tennessee River Mile 145. 9R: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental consequences of approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request for barge loading facilities. These facilities would serve a proposed wood chipping and sawlog products operation at Tennessee River Mile (TRM) 145.9, right descending bank, (Kentucky Lake), in Perry County, Tennessee. The site is located between Short Creek and Peters Landing. The applicant is Southeastern Forest Products, L.P. (SFP), Box 73, Linden, Tennessee and the proposed facilities would be constructed on or adjacent to company owned land. Portions of the barge terminal would be constructed on land over which flood easement rights are held by the United States of America and administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) and TVA have regulatory control over the proposed barge terminal facilities since the action would involve construction in the Tennessee River which is a navigable water of the United States. The wood chipping and sawlog products facilities proposed on the upland property are not regulated by the CE or TVA. On the basis of the analysis which follows, it has been determined that a modified proposal (as described herein) would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment, and does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 8 refs.

  2. Nest-Site Selection by black sparrowhawks Accipiter melanoleucus: implications for managing exotic pulpwood and sawlog forests in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malan, G; Robinson, E R

    2001-08-01

    This study provides timber growers with silvicultural guidelines for establishing and maintaining nest-tree habitat for native black sparrowhawks (Accipiter melanoleucus) in commercial planted forests in South Africa. In this country, exotic eucalypts and pines are planted principally for pulpwood and sawlog production. Nineteen nests were sampled in indigenous forests and 58 nests in exotic forests. Although mean nest heights differed between indigenous and exotic trees, in all trees, nests were positioned, on average, at 64% of tree height. Black sparrowhawks nested near stand edges, probably seeking a compromise between nesting adjacent to open hunting habitat and selecting an insulated tree from within the forest. Black sparrowhawks nested in tall trees ( X- = 18-33 m for different tree species classes) with a large diameter (>60 cm). Unfortunately, the South African pulpwood and sawlog industry employ short rotations (<16 years) and high tree densities (>700 trees/ha) that do not allow the trees to attain the characteristics suitable for black sparrowhawk nesting sites. Eucalypt and pine nest stands must be of 25 x 25 m minimum size and incorporate 10 trees at minimum heights of 21 and 18 m and diameters of 37 and 35 cm, respectively. If such nest-tree stands are set aside as islands in a sea of commercial forests, and black sparrowhawks and other forest raptors nest in them, timber growers will improve the tree-nesting raptor diversity of planted forests. If, however, these raptors prey upon species of conservation importance, the management recommendations could be reversed to limit the potential for predation.

  3. Transportation methods and costs for sawlogs, pulpwood bolts, and longwood

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Travel speeds, average load volumes, and costs per mile were determined for 15 different trucking methods. Equations were developed to predict rail and barge transportation costs. Several photographs are provided for user association and correlation with the study results.

  4. Transportation methods and costs for sawlogs, pulpwood bolts, and longwood. Technical Note B44

    SciTech Connect

    Koger, J.L.

    1981-02-01

    Travel speeds, average load volumes, and costs per mile have been determined for 15 different trucking methods. Equations have been developed to predict rail and barge transportation costs. Several photographs are provided for user association and correlation with the study results. The assumptions and methods used to compute the owning and operating costs for the 15 different trucking methods are given in the appendix.

  5. Effects of harvest management practices on forest biomass and soil carbon in eucalypt forests in New South Wales, Australia: Simulations with the forest succession model LINKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Ranatunga, Kemachandra; Keenan, Rodney J.; Wullschleger, Stan D; Post, Wilfred M; Tharp, M Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Understanding long-term changes in forest ecosystem carbon stocks under forest management practices such as timber harvesting is important for assessing the contribution of forests to the global carbon cycle. Harvesting effects are complicated by the amount, type, and condition of residue left on-site, the decomposition rate of this residue, the incorporation of residue into soil organic matter and the rate of new detritus input to the forest floor from regrowing vegetation. In an attempt to address these complexities, the forest succession model LINKAGES was used to assess the production of aboveground biomass, detritus, and soil carbon stocks in native Eucalyptus forests as influenced by five harvest management practices in New South Wales, Australia. The original decomposition sub-routines of LINKAGES were modified by adding components of the Rothamsted (RothC) soil organic matter turnover model. Simulation results using the new model were compared to data from long-term forest inventory plots. Good agreement was observed between simulated and measured above-ground biomass, but mixed results were obtained for basal area. Harvesting operations examined included removing trees for quota sawlogs (QSL, DBH >80 cm), integrated sawlogs (ISL, DBH >20 cm) and whole-tree harvesting in integrated sawlogs (WTH). We also examined the impact of different cutting cycles (20, 50 or 80 years) and intensities (removing 20, 50 or 80 m{sup 3}). Generally medium and high intensities of shorter cutting cycles in sawlog harvesting systems produced considerably higher soil carbon values compared to no harvesting. On average, soil carbon was 2-9% lower in whole-tree harvest simulations whereas in sawlog harvest simulations soil carbon was 5-17% higher than in no harvesting.

  6. Multistage variable probability forest volume inventory. [the Defiance Unit of the Navajo Nation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    An inventory scheme based on the use of computer processed LANDSAT MSS data was developed. Output from the inventory scheme provides an estimate of the standing net saw timber volume of a major timber species on a selected forested area of the Navajo Nation. Such estimates are based on the values of parameters currently used for scaled sawlog conversion to mill output. The multistage variable probability sampling appears capable of producing estimates which compare favorably with those produced using conventional techniques. In addition, the reduction in time, manpower, and overall costs lend it to numerous applications.

  7. Field testing of the FMC ft-180ca in appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Biller, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A new FMC steel-tracked skidder was used to haul pulpwood and sawlogs to landings in a clear-felled area in Virginia. An average skid of 363.6 m took 14.9 minutes, wtih an average volume of 2.9 cubic m. The main advantage of the skidder is its ability to operate on steep slopes (here with an uphill gradient of up to 44%) with minumium effect on the skid road. Analysis indicated an hourly cost of $49.58 ($5.93/cubic m).

  8. Forest statistics for Michigan`s northern lower peninsula unit, 1993. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherberry, E.C.

    1994-10-30

    Michigan`s Northern Lower Peninsula Unit (fig. 1) is comprised of 33 counties. This region of the State is rich with resources that support a network of social, economic, and ecological processes that are forest dependent. The forest resource of the Unit presently supports an industry that operates on a sustaining basis. In 1990 nearly half of Michigan`s saw-log production--297 million board feet--was harvest in the Unit. The forests of the Northern Lower Peninsula are vital to the region. The forest contains a variety of both deciduous and coniferous forest species, which results in regionally unique ecosystems that contribute to biodiversity.

  9. Stand density index applied to timber and goshawk habitat objectives in Douglas-fir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilieholm, Robert J.; Kessler, Winifred B.; Merrill, Karren

    1993-11-01

    Silvicultural guidelines are presented for the management of intermountain Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands for sawtimber production and goshawk ( Accipiter gentilis) nesting habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains. Data from 14 goshawk nest stands in Douglas-fir forests on the Targhee National Forest in Idaho (Patla 1991) were used to characterize the range of stand conditions considered suitable for goshawk nesting. A density management regime is presented using Reineke's stand density index that includes a technical rotation designed to produce sawlogs with a single commercial thinning. On average timber-growing sites, stands reach goshawk habitat suitability when site height is 25 m at age 75 and provide 65 years of goshawk nesting habitat until the final harvest at age 140. Approximately 1320 m3/ha are harvested over the rotation. On higher-quality sites, rotation length declines from 140 to 85 years, of which roughly 35 years are suitable for goshawk nesting.

  10. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, Anthony; Perlack, Robert; Eaton, Laurence; Langholtz, Matthew; Brandt, Craig; Downing, Mark; Wright, Lynn; Skog, Kenneth; Hellwinckel, Chad; Stokes, Bryce; Lebow, Patricia

    2014-10-03

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the billion-ton study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. However, in looking at the major categories of feedstocks the forest residue biomass potential was determined to be less owing to tighter restrictions on forest residue supply including restrictions due to limited projected increase in traditional harvest for pulpwood and sawlogs. The crop residue potential was also determined to be less because of the consideration of soil carbon and not allowing residue removal from conventionally tilled corn acres. The energy crop potential was estimated to be much greater largely because of land availability and modeling of competition among various competing uses of the land. Generally, the scenario assumptions in the updated assessment are much more plausible to show a billion-ton resource, which would be sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country s present petroleum consumption.

  11. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Turhollow, Anthony; Perlack, Robert; Eaton, Laurence; Langholtz, Matthew; Brandt, Craig; Downing, Mark; Wright, Lynn; Skog, Kenneth; Hellwinckel, Chad; Stokes, Bryce; et al

    2014-10-03

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the billion-ton study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. However, in looking at the major categories of feedstocks the forest residue biomass potential was determined to be less owing to tighter restrictions on forest residue supply including restrictions due to limited projected increase in traditional harvest for pulpwood and sawlogs. The crop residue potential was also determined to be less because of the consideration of soil carbon and not allowing residue removalmore » from conventionally tilled corn acres. The energy crop potential was estimated to be much greater largely because of land availability and modeling of competition among various competing uses of the land. Generally, the scenario assumptions in the updated assessment are much more plausible to show a billion-ton resource, which would be sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country s present petroleum consumption.« less

  12. Young children's learning of relational categories: multiple comparisons and their cognitive constraints

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Witt, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Relational categories are notoriously difficult to learn because they are not defined by intrinsic stable properties. We studied the impact of comparisons on relational concept learning with a novel word learning task in 42-month-old children. Capitalizing on Gentner et al. (2011), two, three or four pairs of stimuli were introduced with a novel relational word. In a given trial, the set of pairs was composed of either close or far pairs (e.g., close pair: knife1-watermelon, knife2-orange, knife3-slice of bread and knife4-meat; far pair: ax-evergreen tree, saw-log, cutter-cardboard, and knife-slice of bread, for the “cutter for” relation). Close pairs (2 vs. 3 vs. 4 pairs) led to random generalizations whereas comparisons with far pairs gave the expected relational generalization. The 3 pair case gave the best results. It is argued that far pairs promote deeper comparisons than close pairs. As shown by a control experiment, this was the case only when far pairs display well known associations. PMID:26042072

  13. Cost and Productivity of Multi-Product Processing for Small Diameter Trees : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Michael B.; Howard, James O.; Hermann, Steven E.

    1987-09-01

    This project evolved from an effort by the land manager, the United States Forest Service, to economically deal with thousands of acres of thick (doghair) Douglas-fir and hemlock forests on Washington's Olympic Peninsula. These forests are very densely stocked and the trees are small. Until this effort, there has been no reasonable way to get enough product from the sites to justify managing them. And, even this project required some special agreements between the landowner and the investigator to be viable. This report describes the in-woods processing system now working in doghair stands on the Quilcene District. As whole trees arrive at the landing, they are sorted by a Cat 225 shovel-type loader. Sawlogs are trimmed, limbed, bucked, and decked for transportation on conventional log trucks. Chip grade trees are passed through a prototype, multi-stem debarker/delimber and then chipped by a Morbark 23'' Chiparvester. Clean chips are transported in regular highway chip vans. All other materials, not sold as logs or clean chips, are processed by a prototype shredder, and taken from the site as hogfuel. 7 ref., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Peatland simulator connecting drainage, nutrient cycling, forest growth, economy and GHG efflux in boreal and tropical peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauren, Ari; Hökkä, Hannu; Launiainen, Samuli; Palviainen, Marjo; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    Forest growth in peatlands is nutrient limited; principal source of nutrients is the decomposition of organic matter. Excess water decreases O2 diffusion and slows down the nutrient release. Drainage increases organic matter decomposition, CO2 efflux, and nutrient supply, and enhances the growth of forest. Profitability depends on costs, gained extra yield and its allocation into timber assortments, and the rate of interest. We built peatland simulator Susi to define and parameterize these interrelations. We applied Susi-simulator to compute water and nutrient processes, forest growth, and CO2 efflux of forested drained peatland. The simulator computes daily water fluxes and storages in two dimensions for a peatland forest strip located between drainage ditches. The CO2 efflux is made proportional to peat bulk density, soil temperature and O2 availability. Nutrient (N, P, K) release depends on decomposition and peat nutrient content. Growth limiting nutrient is detected by comparing the need and supply of nutrients. Increased supply of growth limiting nutrient is used to quantify the forest growth response to improved drainage. The extra yield is allocated into pulpwood and sawlogs based on volume of growing stock. The net present values of ditch cleaning operation and the gained extra yield are computed under different rates of interest to assess the profitability of the ditch cleaning. The hydrological sub-models of Susi-simulator were first parameterized using daily water flux data from Hyytiälä SMEAR II-site, after which the predictions were tested against independent hydrologic data from two drained peatland forests in Southern Finland. After verification of the hydrologic model, the CO2 efflux, nutrient release and forest growth proportionality hypothesis was tested and model performance validated against long-term forest growth and groundwater level data from 69 forested peatland sample plots in Central Finland. The results showed a clear relation between

  15. Effects of forest management on soil carbon: results of some long-term resampling studies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Knoepp, J D; Swank, W T; Shan, J; Morris, L A; Van Lear, D H; Kapeluck, P R

    2002-01-01

    The effects of harvest intensity (sawlog, SAW; whole tree, WTH; and complete tree, CTH) on biomass and soil C were studied in four forested sites in the southeastern US (mixed deciduous forests at Oak Ridge, TN and Coweeta, NC; Pinus taeda at Clemson, SC: and P. eliottii at Bradford, FL). In general, harvesting had no lasting effects on soil C. However, intensive temporal sampling at the NC and SC sites revealed short-term changes in soil C during the first few years after harvesting, and large, long-term increases in soil C were noted at the TN site in all treatments. Thus, changes in soil C were found even though lasting effects of harvest treatment were not. There were substantial differences in growth and biomass C responses to harvest treatments among sites. At the TN site, there were no differences in biomass at 15 years after harvest. At the SC site, greater biomass was found in the SAW than in the WTH treatment 16 years after harvest, and this effect is attributed to be due to both the N left on site in foliar residues and to the enhancement of soil physical and chemical properties by residues. At the FL site, greater biomass was found in the CTH than in the WTH treatment 15 years after harvest, and this effect is attributed to be due to differences in understory competition. Biomass data were not reported for NC. The effects of harvest treatment on ecosystem C are expected to magnify over time at the SC and FL sites as live biomass increases, whereas the current differences in ecosystem C at the TN site (which are due to the presence of undecomposed residues) are expected to lessen with time.