Science.gov

Sample records for sber olevi kull

  1. The Kull IMC package

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, N A; Keen,N; Rathkopf, J

    1998-10-01

    We describe the Kull IMC package, and Implicit Monte Carlo Program written for use in A and X division radiation hydro codes. The Kull IMC has been extensively tested. Written in C++ and using genericity via the template feature to allow easy integration into different codes, the Kull IMC currently runs coupled radiation hydrodynamic problems in 2 different 3D codes. A stand-alone version also exists, which has been parallelized with mesh replication. This version has been run on up to 384 processors on ASCI Blue Pacific.

  2. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Plume Heights     View ... and stereo plume   Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano produced its second major ash plume of 2010 beginning on May 7. Unlike ...

  3. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Ash Plume Particle Properties     ... satellite flew over Iceland's erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano on April 19, 2010, its Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  4. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... Eyjafjallajökull Ash Continues to Disrupt Air Traffic     View Larger Image ... Terra spacecraft on May 16, 2010, once again disrupted air traffic over Europe with the closure of major airports in the United Kingdom ...

  5. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Ash from Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland Stretches over the North Atlantic ... began erupting again on April 14, 2010. The resulting ash plume rose to high altitudes and was subsequently carried across the North ... around the world. The particles contained in volcanic ash clouds can cause significant damage to jet engines and the outside of ...

  6. Response of Hofsjökull and southern Vatnajökull, Iceland, to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aã°Algeirsdóttir, G.; Jóhannesson, T.; BjöRnsson, H.; PáLsson, F.; Sigurã°Sson, O.

    2006-09-01

    (Possible changes in glacier mass balance are among the most important consequences of future climate change with both local and global implications, such as changes in the discharge of glacial rivers, changes in the vertical stratification in the upper layers of the Arctic Ocean, and a rise in global sea level. The response of the Hofsjökull and southern Vatnajökull ice caps in Iceland to climate change is analyzed with a vertically integrated, finite difference ice flow model coupled with a degree day mass balance model. Transient climate change simulations are forced with a climate change scenario for the Nordic countries, which for Iceland, specifies a warming rate of 0.15°C per decade in midsummer and 0.3°C per decade in midwinter, with a sinusoidal variation through the year starting from the baseline period 1981-2000. Precipitation is either held steady or is increased at 5% per °C of warming. Modeled ice volume is reduced by half within 100-150 years. About 2030, annual average runoff from the area that is presently covered by ice is projected to have increased by approximately 0.7 m yr-1 for Hofsjökull and by 1.4 m yr-1 for southern Vatnajökull. The sensitivity of the mass balance of the ice caps to climate change was found to be in the range 0.4-0.8 mw.e. yr-1 °C-1 for Hofsjökull and 0.8-1.3 mw.e. yr-1 °C-1 for southern Vatnajökull. The sensitivity remained within these ranges more than 150 years into the future.)

  7. KULL Simulations of OMEGA Radiation Flow Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, J.; MacLaren, S.; Baker, K.; Amala, P.; Lewis, K.; Zika, M.

    2012-10-01

    The problem of radiation flow in a right circular cylinder is of interest for the verification and validation of radiation codes, which utilize several mechanisms for determining radiation transport (diffusion, discrete ordinates, and Monte Carlo). This flow is analogous to free molecular flow in a similar geometry.footnotetextE. Garelis and T.E. Wainwright. Phys. Fluids. 16, 4 (1973) A series of experiments were conducted on the OMEGA laser in cases with a low-density heated cylindrical wall. The experiments consisted of a 1.6 mm diameter gold hohlraum containing an on-axis 700 μm diameter SiO2 cylinder contained in an 80 μm thick carbon foam tube. Five shots panning three test cases were used: the nominal geometry described above (heated wall), the carbon tube replaced with solid gold, and a gold cap placed on the laser end of the cylinder assembly to block axial radiation flow. Simulations of each experimental target type were run with the KULL radiation code, and were used to compare the different radiation transport packages in KULL by employing synthetic diagnostics to match the experimental DANTE cavity radiation temperature time history and soft x-ray images taken by a streak camera imaging the far end of the hohlraum.

  8. Eyjafjallajökull Ash Continues to Disrupt Air Traffic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-18

    Ash from Iceland Eyjafjallajökull volcano, viewed here in imagery from NASA Terra spacecraft on May 16, 2010, once again disrupted air traffic over Europe with the closure of major airports in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

  9. ASTER Images Iceland Eyjafyallajökull Volcano

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-05

    NASA Terra spacecraft captured this pair of images of Iceland Eyjafyallajökull volcano on May 3, 2010. On this day, Ireland closed its airspace for several hours due to presence of ash over the country.

  10. KULL: LLNL's ASCI Inertial Confinement Fusion Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rathkopf, J. A.; Miller, D. S.; Owen, J. M.; Zike, M. R.; Eltgroth, P. G.; Madsen, N. K.; McCandless, K. P.; Nowak, P. F.; Nemanic, M. K.; Gentile, N. A.; Stuart, L. M.; Keen, N. D.; Palmer, T. S.

    2000-01-10

    KULL is a three dimensional, time dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulation code under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), KULL's purpose is to simulate the physical processes in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets. The National Ignition Facility, where ICF experiments will be conducted, and ASCI are part of the experimental and computational components of DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. This paper provides an overview of ASCI and describes KULL, its hydrodynamic simulation capability and its three methods of simulating radiative transfer. Particular emphasis is given to the parallelization techniques essential to obtain the performance required of the Stockpile Stewardship Program and to exploit the massively parallel processor machines that ASCI is procuring.

  11. KULL Simulations of OMEGA Radiation Flow Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, J.; MacLaren, S.; Baker, K.; Brunner, T.; Lewis, K.; Zika, M.

    2013-10-01

    The problem of radiation flow in a right circular cylinder is of interest for the verification and validation of radiation codes since the flow is analytically analogous to diffusive free molecular flow in a similar geometry. Experiments were conducted on the OMEGA laser utilizing a low-density heated-cylindrical-wall target. The targets consisted of a 1.6 mm diameter gold hohlraum containing an on-axis 700 μm diameter SiO2 cylinder inside an 80 μm thick Ta2O5 aerogel tube. The FY13 targets also feature ``light-pipe'' diagnostics to measure the progression of the radiation front inside the foam. Simulations were run with the KULL multi-physics code, employing a new laser ray-tracing package. Comparisons of synthetic diagnostics derived from code results to x-ray measurements of drive temperature and heat front propagation provide a methodology to constrain simulation models. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Eyjafjallajökull Ash Plume Particle Properties

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-21

    As NASA Terra satellite flew over Iceland erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano, its Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer instrument acquired 36 near-simultaneous images of the ash plume, covering nine view angles in each of four wavelengths.

  13. Observation of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Rozwadowska, A.; Drozdowska, V.; Markowicz, K.; Malinowski, S.; Kardas, A.; Posyniak, M.; Jagodnicka, A. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Piskozub, J.

    2010-05-01

    The plume of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash has been identified over Poland using three instruments (two lidars and a ceilometer) stationed in two locations: Sopot in northern Poland and Warsaw in central-eastern Poland. The observations made it possible to establish the base of the ash layer. However ash concentration could not be determined.

  14. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Breiðamerkurjökull Glacier, Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In these false color Landsat images, vegetated land surfaces appear red. Snow and ice are white. The Vatnajökull glacier is the bright white area in the upper left. Outlet glaciers streak away from it toward the Atlantic Ocean in the lower right. Breiðamerkurjökull is the largest glacial tongue on Vatnajökull and is featured in the center of these images.

  15. NASA Satellite Observes Iceland Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Infrared

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-21

    The Advanced Land Imager onboard NASA Earth Observing-1 EO-1 spacecraft obtained this false-color infrared image of Iceland Eyjafjallajökull volcano on April 17, 2010. A strong thermal source is visible at the base of the Eyjafjallajökull plume.

  16. Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA Image acquired March 24, 2010 To learn more and to download a high res version of this image go here: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=43252 Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull Volcano burst into life for the first time in 190 years on March 20, 2010. A 500-meter- (2,000-foot) long fissure opened in the Fimmvörduháls pass to the west of the ice-covered summit of Eyjafjallajökull. Lava fountains erupted fluid magma, which quickly built several hills of bubble-filled lava rocks (scoria) along the vent. A lava flow spread northeast, spilling into Hrunagil Gully. This natural-color satellite image shows lava fountains, lava flows, a volcanic plume, and steam from vaporized snow. The image was acquired on March 24, 2010, by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. The lava fountains are orange-red, barely visible at the 10-meter (33-foot) resolution of the satellite. The scoria cones surrounding the fissure are black, as is the lava flow extending to the northeast. White volcanic gases escape from the vent and erupting lava, while a steam plume rises where the hot lava meets snow. (The bright green color along the edge of the lava flow is an artifact of the sensor.) The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was presaged by a series of earthquakes starting in early March. Over time, the earthquakes rose towards the surface, and land near the volcano rose at least 40 millimeters (2 inches)—both indications that magma was moving underneath the volcano. The eruption continued through at least March 26th, and may continue for several more months. Previous eruptions in the area have caused flooding due to the melting of glacial ice (a Jökulhlaup), but the current eruption is in an area covered by winter snow, not permanent ice. Although some past eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were followed by larger, explosive eruptions at nearby Katla Volcano, there is currently no sign of activity at Katla. NASA image by Robert Simmon, using

  17. Surges of outlet glaciers from the Drangajökull ice cap, northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Schomacker, Anders; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2016-09-01

    Surface elevation and volume changes of the Drangajökull surge-type glaciers, Reykjarfjarðarjökull and Leirufjarðarjökull, were studied by comparing digital elevation models that pre-date and post-date their most recent surges. Annual glacier-frontal measurements were used to estimate average ice velocities during the last surge of the glaciers. The observations show a distinct ice discharge, most of which was from the upper reservoir areas, down to the receiving areas during the surges. The surface draw-down in the reservoir areas was usually 10-30 m during the surges, while the thickening of the receiving areas was significantly more variable, on the order of 10-120 m. Despite a negative geodetic net mass balance derived from the digital elevation models, the reservoir areas have been gaining mass since the surge terminations. This surface thickening along with considerable ablation of the receiving areas will most likely return the glacier surface profiles to the pre-surge stage. Our results indicate that (a) greatest surface thinning in the upper reservoir areas of Drangajökull rather than proximal to the equilibrium line during Vatnajökull surges and (b) development of Drangajökull surges that resembles Svalbard surge-type glaciers rather than Vatnajökull surge-type glaciers. The contrasting surge characteristics could be explained by differences in glacier geometry, topography and substratum of the Drangajökull and Vatnajökull surge-type glaciers.

  18. Ash from Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland Stretches over the North Atlantic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-18

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows ash plumes from Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland stretching over the North Atlantic; the volcano erupted on April 14, 2010 bringing closure to major airports in Europe.

  19. Laser-driven Implosion Simulations with the Kull Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Thomas B.; Owen, J. Michael; Madsen, Niel K.

    1999-11-01

    We present results of two- and three-dimensional simulations of implosion of a gamma-law gas driven by absorption of energy from an external laser source. Laser light propagation and power deposition were modeled with a recently-developed package(T. B. Kaiser, J. L. Milovich, A. I. Shestakov, M. K. Prasad, Bulletin of the A.P.S. 43), paper R8Q 26 (1998). that uses geometrical optics and inverse-bremsstrahlung to model the relevant physical processes, while the hydrodynamics calculations used a finite-volume, staggered-grid ALE scheme, and electron heat transport was treated diffusively. The simulations were performed with Kull, an ASCI code currently being developed at LLNL to model ICF experiments and astrophysical phenomena.

  20. Low-frequency earthquakes at the Torfajökull volcano, south Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosalu, Heidi; Lippitsch, Regina; Einarsson, Páll

    2006-05-01

    Torfajökull is a large rhyolitic volcanic edifice with a 12-km-diameter caldera and abundant high-temperature geothermal activity. It is located in the neovolcanic zone in south Iceland, at the junction of the eastern rift zone and a transform zone with the intraplate volcanic flank zone of south Iceland. The latest eruption at Torfajökull occurred about 500 years ago. Torfajökull is a source of persistent small-scale seismicity, where two types of earthquakes occur. High-frequency events are concentrated in the western part of the caldera and low-frequency events cluster in the south. Small low-frequency earthquakes have been observed at Torfajökull since the installation of a local analogue seismograph station in 1985. They typically occur in swarms; up to 300 earthquakes per day have been observed. The low-frequency events have a frequency content of about 1-3 Hz, and are difficult to locate, because of the emergent nature of their phases. The 160 events located during the years 1994-2000 using the permanent Icelandic seismic network cluster in the southern part of the Torfajökull caldera. A closer study of low-frequency events was carried out between May and October 2002, with a dense network of twenty Güralp 6TD broadband seismometers in the Torfajökull area. No distinct swarm activity was observed during this period, but small low-frequency events occurred almost on a daily basis. About 330 low-frequency events were detected during the study period. They are located in the southern part of the caldera, between two small glaciers. Areas of intensive geothermal activity surround the cluster of low-frequency events. It is argued that these earthquakes are associated with active magma in the south part of the Torfajökull caldera, possibly a rising cryptodome.

  1. NAME predictions of ash dispersion from Eyjafjallajökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devenish, B.

    2010-12-01

    NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) is the Met Office's operational dispersion model. It is a Lagrangian model which follows fluid particles through realistic flow fields provided by the Met Office's numerical weather prediction model. NAME was initially developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. It has evolved considerably since its inception, continues to do so and is now in its third version. Its functionality includes parameterisations of the subgrid variability; a variety of source types including dust and sea salt; sedimentation of solid particles; wet and dry deposition; buoyant plume-rise; chemical reactions; and radioactive decay. Concentration statistics are calculated by averaging over specified grid boxes. NAME is widely used both by the Met Office and other licensed users both operationally and as a research tool for applications ranging from pollution dispersion to the airborne spread of viruses such as bluetongue and foot-and-mouth disease. The Met Office is the London VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre) with responsibility for the north-east Atlantic. As such, NAME was used to predict the evolution of the ash cloud from the recent eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland. In this presentation, NAME predictions are compared with a variety of observations including ground-based lidar measurements, aircraft measurements and satellite data. In addition, the results of a number of sensitivity studies will be presented including sensitivity to plume height, source strength, source shape, particle size and subgrid scale diffusion.

  2. New START, Eyjafjallajökull, and Nuclear Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2010-11-01

    On 8 April 2010, U.S. president Barack Obama and Russian president Dmitry Medvedev signed the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, committing the United States and Russia to reducing their nuclear arsenals to levels less than 5% of the maximum during the height of the cold war in the 1980s. This treaty is called “New START,” as it is a follow-on to the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START). On 14 April 2010 the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland began an explosive eruption phase that shut down air traffic in Europe for 6 days and continued to disrupt it for another month. What do these two events have in common? Nuclear weapons, when targeted at cities and industrial areas, would start fires, producing clouds of sooty smoke. Volcanic eruptions emit ash particles and sulfur dioxide (SO2), which forms sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere. Thus, both the use of nuclear weapons and volcanic eruptions produce particles that can be transported large distances from the source and can affect weather and climate.

  3. Heights of the Eyjafjallajökull Eruption Plume - April 19, 2010 Anaglyph

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-20

    NASA Terra satellite flew directly over Iceland on April 19, 2010, to capture this stereo anaglyph generated from the nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing cameras of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano and its erupting ash plume. 3D glasses are necessary to vie

  4. The Drangajökull ice cap, northwest Iceland, persisted into the early-mid Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, Anders; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Andreassen, Julie M.; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther Ruth; Olsen, Jesper; Odgaard, Bent V.; Håkansson, Lena; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Larsen, Nicolaj K.

    2016-09-01

    Most glaciers and ice caps in Iceland experienced rapid deglaciation in the early Holocene, reaching a minimum extent during the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Here we present evidence of the Holocene glacial history from lake sediment cores retrieved from seven threshold lakes around the Drangajökull ice cap in the Vestfirðir peninsula, NW Iceland. The sediment cores show on/off signals of glacial meltwater activity, as minerogenic material deposited from glacial meltwater alternates with organic-rich material (gyttja) deposited without glacial meltwater. We base the chronology of the sediment cores on 14C ages and geochemical identification of key tephra layers with known ages. A 25-cm thick layer of the Saksunarvatn tephra in Lake Skorarvatn indicates that the northern part of the ice cap had reached a similar size as today or was smaller already by 10.2 cal kyr BP. However, 14C ages of lake sediment cores from the highlands southeast of Drangajökull suggest that this part of the ice cap was larger than today until 7.8-7.2 cal kyr BP. Even today, the Drangajökull ice cap has a different behavior than the main ice caps in Iceland, characterized by a very low glaciation limit. Because palaeoclimatic proxies show an early-mid Holocene temperature optimum in this part of Iceland, we suggest that the persistence of Drangajökull into the early Holocene and, possibly, also the entire Holocene was due to high winter precipitation.

  5. Mapping the Variability of Winter Accumulation on the Hofsjökull Ice Cap, Central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsteinsson, Th.; Jóhannesson, T.; Einarsson, B.; Gunnarsson, A.; Kjartansson, V.; Sigurðsson, O.

    2016-09-01

    The poster presents results from the mapping of winter accumulation on the Hofsjökull ice cap, Central Iceland, using a ground penetrating radar. The data are used to correct biases in older mass-balance data with more limited spatial coverage.

  6. April-May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic fallout over Rimini, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, Paolo; Molinaroli, Emanuela; De Falco, Giovanni; Fiesoletti, Federica; Papa, Stefano; Pari, Elena; Renzulli, Alberto; Tentoni, Pierpaolo; Testoni, Alessio; Valentini, Laura; Matteucci, Gabriele

    2012-03-01

    Located at a distance of approximately 3200 km from Iceland, where the Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted, Italy was affected by volcanic ash transported by middle altitude air masses across Europe. Volcanic emissions from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 were detected in Rimini (44° 2' 28" N, 12° 34' 3" E) (Italy) by means of in-situ measurements (sampling of bulk depositions). Sampling was carried out during the period April-August 2010, and the following parameters were determined: grain size, TSP, mineralogy, particle morphology and chemical content in terms of Br -, Cl -, F -, SO42-, Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Tb, Te, Ti, Tl, U, V, Y, Zn and Zr. Information from the Hysplit-NOAA back trajectory helped to identify the origin of the air mass. The results obtained from the observations are in good agreement with similar studies carried out by other European scientists, confirming that the Eyjafjallajökull ash plume also had a surface impact in Italy. The findings of our study support observations made by researchers of the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory at the EARLINET station in Southern Italy and enlarge the geographical area known to have been affected by fallout from the April-May 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

  7. Early Holocene deglaciation of Drangajökull, Vestfirðir, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harning, David J.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Zalzal, Kate

    2016-12-01

    The status of Icelandic ice caps during the early Holocene provides important constraints on North Atlantic climate and the mechanisms behind natural climate variability. A recent study postulates that Drangajökull on Vestfirðir, Iceland, persisted through the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM, 7.9-5.5 ka) and may be a relic from the last glacial period. We test this hypothesis with a suite of sediment cores from threshold lakes both proximal and distal to the ice cap's modern margin. Distal lakes document rapid early Holocene deglaciation from the coast and across the highlands south of the glacier. Sediment from Skorarvatn, a lake to the north of Drangajökull, shows that the northern margin of the ice cap reached a size comparable to its contemporary limit by ∼10.3 ka. Two southeastern lakes with catchments extending well beneath modern Drangajökull confirm that by ∼9.2 ka, the ice cap was reduced to ∼20% of its current area. A continuous 10.3ka record of biological productivity from Skorarvatn's sediment indicates local peak warmth occurred between 9 and 6.9 ka. The combination of warm and dry summers on Vestfirðir suggests that Drangajökull very likely melted completely shortly after 9.2 ka, similar to most other Icelandic ice caps.

  8. Precise Hypocenter Relocation of Microearthquakes in the Torfajökull Volcanic System, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, R.; White, R. S.; Soosalu, H.

    2003-12-01

    The Torfajökull volcanic system is one of about 30 active volcanoes comprising the neovolcanic zones of Iceland. It is located at the rift-transform junction between the Eastern Volcanic Zone and the South Iceland Seismic Zone. The central volcanic part of the system is the largest silicic centre in Iceland with a caldera of about 12 km diameter. It's high-temperature geothermal system is one of the most powerful in Iceland. Torfajökull is the source of persistent seismicity, where both high- and low-frequency earthquakes occur. To study the microseismicity of the volcanic area in detail a temporary array of 20 broad-band seismic stations was deployed between May and November 2002. These temporary stations were embedded in the permanent South Iceland Lowland (SIL) network, and data from nine adjacent SIL-stations were included in the study. A 'minimum one-dimensional velocity model' with station corrections was computed for earthquake relocation by inverting manually picked P- and S- wave arrival times from events occurring in the Torfajökull volcanic centre, beneath Myrdalsjökull glacier south of the temporary array, and in the South Iceland Seismic Zone in the west. High-frequency earthquakes from the Torfajökull volcanic centre were then relocated using the program NonLinLoc, which calculates a non-linear, probabilistic solution to the earthquake location problem. From several hundred earthquakes in the Torfajökull area, 122 were well locatable (gap < 180 degrees, more than 10 observations). Subsequently, we correlated the waveforms of this sub-dataset (around 2000 obseravtions) to define linked events, calculated the relative travel time difference between event pairs, and solved for the hypocentral separation between these events with HypoDD. The resulting high-resolution pattern shows a tighter clustering in epicenter and focal depth when compared to original locations. All earthquakes are located beneath the caldera with hypocenters between 1 and 6 km

  9. The Morsárjökull rock avalanche in the southern part of the Vatnajökull glacier, south Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sæmundsson, Şorsteinn; Sigurősson, Ingvar A.; Pétursson, Halldór G.; Decaulne, Armelle; Jónsson, Helgi P.

    2010-05-01

    On the 20th of March 2007 a large rock avalanche fell on Morsárjökull, one of the outlet glaciers from the southern part of the Vatnajökull ice cap, in south Iceland. This is considered to be one of the largest rock avalanches which have occurred in Iceland during the last decades. It is believed that it fell in two separate stages, the main part fell on the 20th of March and the second and smaller one, on the 17th of April 2007. The Morsárjökull outlet glacier is about 4 km long and surrounded by up to 1000 m high valley slopes. The outlet glacier is fed by two ice falls which are partly disconnected to the main ice cap of Vatnajökull, which indicates that the glacier is mainly fed by ice avalanches. The rock avalanche fell on the eastern side of the uppermost part of the Morsárjökull outlet glacier and covered about 1/5 of the glacier surface, an area of about 720,000 m2. The scar of the rock avalanche is located on the north face of the headwall above the uppermost part of the glacier. It is around 330 m high, reaching from about 620 m up to 950 m, showing that the main part of the slope collapsed. It is estimated that about 4 million m3 of rock debris fell on the glacier, or about 10 million tons. The accumulation lobe is up to 1.6 km long, reaching from 520 m a.s.l., to about 350 m a.s.l. Its width is from 125 m to 650 m, or on average 480 m. The total area which the lobe covers is around 720.000 m2 and its mean thickness 5.5 m. The surface of the lobe shows longitudinal ridges and grooves and narrow flow-like lobes, indicating that the debris mass evolved down glacier as a mixture of a slide and debris flow. The debris mass is coarse grained and boulder rich. Blocks over 5 to 8 m in diameter are common on the edges of the lobe up to 1.6 km from the source. No indication was observed of any deformation of the glacier surface under the debris mass. The first glaciological measurements of Morsárjökull outlet glacier were carried out in the year 1896

  10. Reproducing mesoscale structures in flow over Hofsjökull during the FLOHOF campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonassen, M. O.; Ólafsson, H.; Reuder, J.

    2009-04-01

    Hofsjökull glacier rises to about 1800 meters above sea level and some 1000 meters above its surroundings in the central part of Iceland. The glacier is fairly circular and symmetric. During the summer of 2007, flow over and around Hofsjökull glacier in central Iceland was observed with a network of automatic weather stations, balloons and small unmanned aircrafts. The flow during the period has been simulated at high spatial resolution with the numerical model WRF, based on boundary conditions from the ECMWF. In general, the airflow is well reproduced. This accounts both for thermally driven circulations as well as flow patterns that arise as a consequence of the synoptic-scale flow impinging the glacier. A major characteristic of the summertime windstorm is upstream deceleration and downstream acceleration. These features are reproduced, but the amplitude of both the acceleration and the deceleration tends to be somewhat underestimated by the numerical model.

  11. Analyses of a surging outlet glacier of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ađalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Björnsson, Helgi; Pálsson, Finnur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur

    Many of the large outlet glaciers of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, have a history of regular surges. The mass transport during surges can be up to 25% of the total ice flux. This is a considerable amount that affects the whole ice cap, the location of the ice divides, the flow field and the size and shape of the ice cap. Data from the surging outlet Dyngjujökull, on the northern side of Vatnajökull, which surged during the period 1998-2000, are presented: surface elevation changes, displacement and total mass tr ansport. The total gain in ice volume in the receiving area, due to the surge, is considerably smaller than the loss in the reservoir area. The difference is mainly due to enhanced melting rates on the larger surface area of the crevassed glacier surface, and increased turbulent fluxes above the surface, but also due to increased frictional melting at the bed during the surge. A two-dimensional vertically integrated numerical flow model, of standard shallow-ice approximation type, is used to show that a modeled glacier that is similar in size to Dyngjujökull and subject to the same mass balance has three times higher velocities than the measured velocity during the quiescent phase. Adding surges in the numerical model, by periodically increasing the sliding velocity, causes the glacier to retreat and oscillate around a smaller state when subject to the same mass-balance regime. Lowering the equilibrium line by 50 m lets the modeled surging glacier oscillate around a size similar to that of the present glacier, indicating that surging is an efficient long-term ablation mechanism.

  12. The Eyjabakkajökull glacial landsystem, Iceland: Geomorphic impact of multiple surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, Anders; Benediktsson, Ívar Örn; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2014-08-01

    A new glacial geomorphological map of the Eyjabakkajökull forefield in Iceland is presented. The map covers c. 60 km2 and is based on high-resolution aerial photographs recorded in August 2008 as well as field checking. Landforms are manually registered in a geographical information system (ArcGIS) based on inspection of orthorectified imagery and digital elevation models of the area. We mapped subglacially streamlined landforms such as flutes and drumlins on the till plain, supraglacial landforms such as ice-cored moraine, pitted outwash, and concertina eskers, and ice-marginal landforms such as the large, multi-crested 1890 surge end moraine and smaller single-crested end moraines. The glaciofluvial landforms are represented by outwash plains, minor outwash fans, and sinuous eskers. Extramarginal sediments were also registered and consist mainly of old sediments in wetlands or locally weathered bedrock. Eyjabakkajökull has behaved as a surge-type glacier for 2200 years; hence, the mapped landforms originate from multiple surges. Landforms such as large glaciotectonic end moraines, hummocky moraine, long flutes, crevasse-fill ridges, and concertina eskers are characteristic for surge-type glaciers. The surging glacier landsystem of Eyjabakkajökull serves as a modern analog to the landsystems of terrestrial paleo-ice streams.

  13. A preliminary geomorphological map from the Múlajökull drumlin field, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, S. A.; Schomacker, A.; Benediktsson; Johnson, M.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2012-12-01

    The drumlin field in front of Múlajökull, a surge-type, outlet glacier from Hofsjökull in Iceland, is the only known active drumlin field (Johnson et al., 2010). The aim of this study is to further explore the distribution and formation of drumlins and drumlin fields in a modern glacial environment. We use data from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), aerial imagery and field mapping. Here we present a preliminary geomorphological map based on remote sensing and fieldwork in 2010 and 2011. Geomorphological mapping of the drumlin field both with DEMs and ground proofing has revealed over 100 drumlins and a number of drumlinized ridges. The drumlins furthest from the present ice margin are broader and have lower relief than those closer to the ice. We suggest that this reflects an evolution of the drumlin form during recurrent surging. The drumlins farther away from the ice have experienced fewer surges than those that have just been uncovered due to present retreat of the ice margin. During successive surges, the drumlins become narrower and develop a higher relief. Reference: Johnson, M.D., Schomacker, A., Benediktsson, Í. Ö., Geiger, A. J., Ferguson, A. and Ingólfsson, Ó. 2010, Active drumlin field revealed at the margin of Múlajökull, Iceland: A surge-type glacier: Geology v. 38, p. 943-946.

  14. The landscape architecture of the forefield of Eyjabakkajökull, a surge-type glacier in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, A.; Benediktsson

    2012-12-01

    A new geomorphological map of the forefield of the Eyjabakkajökull surge-type glacier in Iceland is presented. The map is based on field mapping and aerial photography from 2008 that covers c. 58 km2, including the Eyjabakkajökull glacier tongue and its entire forefield. When viewed in the context of glacial landsystems, the map identifies landforms that can be regarded as characteristic of glacier surging; in particular, crevasse-fill ridges, concertina eskers, long flutings, hummocky and ice-cored moraines, pitted outwash plains, and glaciotectonic end moraines. In addition, landforms that are common for many glacial environments but less typical of surging, were also identified and mapped; specifically, kames, sinuous eskers, sandar, braided channels, and outwash fans. Eyjabakkajökull has experienced surges every 21-40 years during the past 2200 years; hence, the large-scale landscape architecture is likely a result of dozens of surges. However, the glacial sediments and landforms presently identified in the forefield result from the most recent and historically known surges of Eyjabakkajökull in 1890, 1931, 1938 and 1972. The association of sediments and landforms in the Eyjabakkajökull forefield is diagnostic of glacier surging and may serve as a modern analogue in palaeoglaciological reconstructions.

  15. Albedo changes on Vatnajökull associated with dust events, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragosics, Monika; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Pálsson, Finnur

    2015-04-01

    Deposition of aerosols on the glacier surface changes the albedo, thus enhances melt rates and affects the glacier mass balance. There are extensive sources for particles in Iceland; volcanic sandy deserts and glacial outwash plains cover more than 22% of the country. (Arnalds et al., 2001) Particles from these sources get airborne and transported on to the ice caps in several dust storms in most years, causing changes in albedo and surface energy balance. Long-term observations of atmospheric dust over the last 60 years show a high frequency of dust events in Iceland, with more than 34 dust days per year (Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al., 2013). Volcanoes are sources of large quantities of particles during an eruption, and for some years (even decades or centuries) after, due to re-suspension. Volcanic eruptions are frequent in Iceland, often with subsequent deposition of volcanic tephra on glaciers. The most recent are the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn in 2010 and 2011. The evolution of surface albedo is measured with in-situ automatic weather stations (AWS), during summer, on a few locations on icelandic ice-caps. To detect dust events on Brúarjökull outlet (NE Vatnajökull ice-cap), drops in albedo are compared with energy balance results from the measured values of the AWSs, temperature, dust storm occurrence (recorded at manned weather stations in the lowlands), and visible changes on satellite observations (MODIS images) as in-situ samples. A dust deposition event is detected by comparing the MODIS images of 20 May and 28 May 2012 and explains a drop in albedo on 21 May, lasting to June 4 from 0.86 to 0.51. The in-situ samples are: snow surface samples from Vatnajökull with impurities collected in October 2013, representing the deposition of one summer over the ice cap; and two firn cores of about 8 meters depth from Brúarjökull, taken in June 2014. The firn cores were analysed to detect dust layers and to measure mass, volume, density of

  16. The geomorphology and ground penetrating radar survey results of the Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull surge-type glaciers, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karušs, Jānis; Lamsters, Kristaps; Běrziņš, Dāvids

    2015-04-01

    Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull are surge-type outlet glaciers of the Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland (Björnsson et al., 2003). The forefield of Múlajökull comprises the active drumlin field of more than 110 drumlins (Johnson et al., 2010; Jónsson et al., 2014) and therefore is an excellent area for studies of glacial geomorphology, subglacial topography and ice structures. This work describes preliminary results obtained during the expedition to Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull glaciers in August, 2014. In the research ground penetrating radar (GPR) Zond 12-e was used. GPR measurements were performed on both outlet glaciers using 38 MHz and 75 MHz antenna systems. During data acquisition 2000 ns time window was used, while length of profiles was determined using GPS device Garmin GPS-76. In total approximately 3 km of GPR profiles were recorded. GPR signals propagation speed in glacier ice was determined using reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In obtained radarogramms it was possible to trace reflections from the glacier bed till depth of approximately 144 m as well as numerous prominent reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In one of the obtained radarogramms possible subglacial channel below Múlajökull glacier was identified. Also feature of subglacial topography that resembles drumlin was identified. The area of abundant infiltrated water was distinguished close to the ice margin in the radarogramm obtained on Þjórsárjökull suggesting successive supraglacial meltwater infiltration towards glacier margin. During the field work numerous radial crevasses, supraglacial channels and moulins were observed in the marginal zone of Múlajökull. The forefield of Múlajökull mainly consist of subglacial landforms (drumlins, flutes and crevasse-fill ridges), end moraines and sandur plains. Flutes and crevasse-fill ridges were found superimposed on drumlins in places. Till macrofabric was measured close to the

  17. Active drumlin field revealed at the margin of Múlajökull, Iceland: a surge-type glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, A.; Johnson, M. D.; Benediktsson, I.; Ingolfsson, O.; Geiger, A. J.; Ferguson, A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent marginal retreat of Múlajökull, a surge-type, outlet glacier of the Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland, has revealed a drumlin field consisting of over 50 drumlins. The drumlins are 90-320 m long, 30-105 m wide, 5-10 m in relief, and composed of multiple beds of till deposited by lodgement and bed deformation. The youngest till layer truncates the older units with an erosion surface that parallels the drumlin form. Thus, the drumlins are built up and formed by a combination of subglacial depositional and erosional processes. Field evidence suggests each till bed to be associated with individual, recent surges. We consider the drumlin field to be active in the sense that the drumlins are shaped by the current glacial regime. The Múlajökull field is the only known active drumlin field and is, therefore, a unique analogue to Pleistocene drumlin fields.

  18. Coupling of Activity at Neighbouring Volcanoes in Iceland: Ground Deformation and Activity at the Bárðarbunga-Tungnafellsjökull and Eyjafjallajökull-Katla Volcano Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, M.; Heimisson, E. R.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Ofeigsson, B.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Arnadottir, T.; Dumont, S.; Drouin, V.; Bagnardi, M.; Spaans, K.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Friðriksdóttir, H. M.; Jonsdottir, K.; Guðmundsson, G.; Hensch, M.; Hjaltadottir, S.; Hjartardottir, A. R.; Einarsson, P.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hognadottir, T.; Lafemina, P.; Geirsson, H.; Sturkell, E.; Magnússon, E.

    2015-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques are used to generate a time series of high-resolution deformation measurements, in the vicinity of two pairs of closely spaced volcanoes in Iceland: Bárðarbunga and Tungnafellsjökull, as well as Eyjafjallajökull and Katla. Following the declaration of Icelandic Volcanoes as a Permanent Geohazard Supersite in 2013, a considerable amount of SAR data was made available for both past and future satellite acquisitions, including new X-band images and historic C-band images. InSAR time series have been formed using these data and compared to other geodetic and microseismic measurements to determine the most likely processes responsible for recently observed deformation and/or seismicity. A comprehensive network of seismometers and continuous GPS stations are already deployed at these volcanoes and a series of campaign GPS measurements have been undertaken since 2010. We present an overview of the temporal variation in InSAR observations and these complementary field based measurements at Bárðarbunga and Tungnafellsjökull from 2014-2015 (covering the recent eruption at Holuhraun and contemporaneous slow collapse of the Bárðarbunga caldera), and Eyjafjallajökull and Katla volcanoes from 2010 onwards, after the 2010 explosive eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. We undertake a joint InSAR-GPS inversion using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo approach. The best-fit source geometries responsible for both the inflation of a 50 km long dyke and simultaneous deflation of the Bárðarbunga central volcano during the 2014-2015 unrest and eruption are found. Using these we calculate the stress changes associated with the Bárðarbunga deformation events and compare our results to the location of earthquake swarms in the vicinity of neighbouring Tungnafellsjökull, where seismic activity increased significantly following the onset of unrest at Bárðarbunga in August 2014. We also determine the optimal source parameters for

  19. Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Guðmundsson, S.; Björnsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Jóhannesson, T.; Hannesdóttir, H.; Sigurðsson, S. Þ.; Berthier, E.

    2011-11-01

    The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of the ice cap Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeastern coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1989, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936-1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by kinematic and differential GPS surveys and correlation of SPOT5 images. The approximately 20% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895-2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios derived from 10 global and 3 regional climate model simulations using the A1B emission scenario. If the average climate of 2000-2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century. If the climate warms, as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios, the model projects this glacier to almost disappear by the end of the 21st century. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30-40 yr and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

  20. Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Guðmundsson, S.; Björnsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Jóhannesson, T.; Hannesdóttir, H.; Sigurðsson, S. Þ.; Berthier, E.

    2011-04-01

    The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeast coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1986, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936-1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by DGPS and correlation of SPOT5 images. The 21% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895-2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios from a study of the effect of climate change on energy production in the Nordic countries (the CES project). If the average climate of 2000-2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century, and the glacier will almost disappear if the climate warms as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30-40 years and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

  1. Charge Structure and Charging Mechanisms in the Plume of Eyjafjallajökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Edens, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    Three dimensional lightning mapping observations have been made of volcanic lightning during the magmatic phase of the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland. From this data the charge structure in the plume has been inferred, providing insight into the charging mechanisms. During the magmatic phase (3-20 May) lightning was only observed from 11-20 May, except for a scant amount detected on the 6th of May. The observations from this period showed temporal variations in the charge structure, but at times a dipolar structure (negative over positive) was observed. Nearly all lightning discharges initiated low in altitude, between the positive charge layer and ground, and some may have initiated at the vent of the volcano itself. Of interest in volcanic lightning studies is the degree to which silica-based and water-based charging mechanisms influence electrification in volcanic plumes. In the case of the magmatic phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption the two charging mechanisms appear to have been complementary. During this part of the eruption charging on silicate particles due to the eruption process is not expected to have been as strong as it was in previous studies of Augustine and Redoubt volcanoes and water-based charging mechanisms like those involved in thunderstorms may have enhanced the electrification. Observations of the temporal variation of the atmospheric temperature structure around Eyjafjallajökull showed that colder temperatures in the latter part of May could have been a key to turning on the lightning activity. A simple charge structure model has been constructed that shows how water-based charging mechanisms could intensify the existing electrification from silicate particles and still allow for discharges to initiate below the lower charge layer. Overall the observations indicate that silica-based charging may not have been enough to initiate lightning during the magmatic phase and water-based charging mechanisms could have provided

  2. Impact of dust deposition on the albedo of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Monika; Dorothea Groot Zwaaftink, Christine; Steffensen Schmidt, Louise; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Pálsson, Finnur; Arnalds, Olafur; Björnsson, Helgi; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Stohl, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Deposition of small amounts of airborne dust on glaciers causes positive radiative forcing and enhanced melting due to the reduction of surface albedo. To study the effects of dust deposition on the mass balance of Brúarjökull, an outlet glacier of the largest ice cap in Iceland, Vatnajökull, a study of dust deposition events in the year 2012 was carried out. The dust-mobilisation module FLEXDUST was used to calculate spatio-temporally resolved dust emissions from Iceland and the dispersion model FLEXPART was used to simulate atmospheric dust dispersion and deposition. We used albedo measurements at two automatic weather stations on Brúarjökull to evaluate the dust impacts. Both stations are situated in the accumulation area of the glacier, but the lower station is close to the equilibrium line. For this site ( ˜ 1210 m a.s.l.), the dispersion model produced 10 major dust deposition events and a total annual deposition of 20.5 g m-2. At the station located higher on the glacier ( ˜ 1525 m a.s.l.), the model produced nine dust events, with one single event causing ˜ 5 g m-2 of dust deposition and a total deposition of ˜ 10 g m-2 yr-1. The main dust source was found to be the Dyngjusandur floodplain north of Vatnajökull; northerly winds prevailed 80 % of the time at the lower station when dust events occurred. In all of the simulated dust events, a corresponding albedo drop was observed at the weather stations. The influence of the dust on the albedo was estimated using the regional climate model HIRHAM5 to simulate the albedo of a clean glacier surface without dust. By comparing the measured albedo to the modelled albedo, we determine the influence of dust events on the snow albedo and the surface energy balance. We estimate that the dust deposition caused an additional 1.1 m w.e. (water equivalent) of snowmelt (or 42 % of the 2.8 m w.e. total melt) compared to a hypothetical clean glacier surface at the lower station, and 0.6 m w.e. more melt (or 38 % of

  3. Kull ALE: I. Unstructured Mesh Advection, Interface Capturing, and Multiphase 2T RHD with Material Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, P

    2002-02-11

    Several advection algorithms are presented within the remap framework for unstructured mesh ALE codes. The methods discussed include a generic advection scheme based on a finite volume approach, and three groups of algorithms for the treatment of material boundary interfaces. The interface capturing algorithms belong to the Volume of Fluid (VoF) class of methods to approximate material interfaces from the local fractional volume of fluid distribution in arbitrary unstructured polyhedral meshes appropriate for the Kull code. Also presented are several schemes for extending single material radiation diffusion solvers to account for multi-material interfaces.

  4. Impact of the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud: A newspaper perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Gurioli, Lucia; Hughes, Elizabeth E.; Lagreulet, Sandra

    2012-09-01

    We carried out a content analysis of eight national newspapers published during a 10-day period spanning Eyjafjallajökull's 2010 air space closure. Our intent was to understand the amount and type of material published, and the contribution of volcanologists and emergency responders to this material. We selected the best selling broadsheets and tabloids from the UK, France, Italy and USA. A total area of 135,000 cm2 was devoted to Eyjafjallajökull. Of this, 33% dealt with social themes, followed by volcanological (24%), economic (17%), response (13%) and airline (8%) issues. If, however, we examine the sources providing information we find a very different situation. Altogether, 669 sources were cited as giving quotes, of which 33% were credited to the air industry, followed by public (22%), politicians (12%), volcanologists (9%), responders (8%) and economists (2%). We also recorded all word descriptors for the ash cloud and its effects, with a total of 5380 words being logged. Negative words were the most common, with stranded having the highest frequency (180); chaos appearing 57 times. Coverage, thus, tended to feature quotes from the air industry, and carry a negative air; at times being confusing and contradictory. This, coupled with the fact that volcanological pieces tended to be placed well down the reporting order, meant that the message was of a chaotic situation and response, the performance of those who could be ascribed blame, i.e., responsible government agencies, thus likely being perceived in a negative light.

  5. Microbial communities in the subglacial waters of the Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Marteinsson, Viggó Thór; Rúnarsson, Árni; Stefánsson, Andri; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Magnússon, Sveinn H; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Einarsson, Bergur; Wade, Nicole; Morrison, Hilary G; Gaidos, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Subglacial lakes beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap in Iceland host endemic communities of microorganisms adapted to cold, dark and nutrient-poor waters, but the mechanisms by which these microbes disseminate under the ice and colonize these lakes are unknown. We present new data on this subglacial microbiome generated from samples of two subglacial lakes, a subglacial flood and a lake that was formerly subglacial but now partly exposed to the atmosphere. These data include parallel 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries constructed using novel primers that span the v3-v5 and v4-v6 hypervariable regions. Archaea were not detected in either subglacial lake, and the communities are dominated by only five bacterial taxa. Our paired libraries are highly concordant for the most abundant taxa, but estimates of diversity (abundance-based coverage estimator) in the v4-v6 libraries are 3-8 times higher than in corresponding v3-v5 libraries. The dominant taxa are closely related to cultivated anaerobes and microaerobes, and may occupy unique metabolic niches in a chemoautolithotrophic ecosystem. The populations of the major taxa in the subglacial lakes are indistinguishable (>99% sequence identity), despite separation by 6 km and an ice divide; one taxon is ubiquitous in our Vatnajökull samples. We propose that the glacial bed is connected through an aquifer in the underlying permeable basalt, and these subglacial lakes are colonized from a deeper, subterranean microbiome.

  6. An extreme wind erosion event of the fresh Eyjafjallajökull 2010 volcanic ash

    PubMed Central

    Arnalds, Olafur; Thorarinsdottir, Elin Fjola; Thorsson, Johann; Waldhauserova, Pavla Dagsson; Agustsdottir, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can generate widespread deposits of ash that are subsequently subjected to erosive forces which causes detrimental effects on ecosystems. We measured wind erosion of the freshly deposited Eyjafjallajökull ash at a field site the first summer after the 2010 eruption. Over 30 wind erosion events occurred (June-October) at wind speeds > 10 m s−1 in each storm with gusts up to 38.7 m s−1. Surface transport over one m wide transect (surface to 150 cm height) reached > 11,800 kg m−1 during the most intense storm event with a rate of 1,440 kg m−1 hr−1 for about 6½ hrs. This storm is among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. The Eyjafjallajökull wind erosion storms caused dust emissions extending several hundred km from the volcano affecting both air quality and ecosystems showing how wind erosion of freshly deposited ash prolongs impacts of volcanic eruptions. PMID:23409248

  7. Generation of Icelandic rhyolites: silicic lavas from the Torfajökull central volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnarsson, Björn; Marsh, Bruce D.; Taylor, Hugh P.

    1998-07-01

    The Torfajökull central volcano in south-central Iceland contains the largest volume of exposed silicic extrusives in Iceland (˜225 km 3). Within SW-Torfajökull, postglacial mildly alkalic to peralkalic silicic lavas and lava domes (67-74 wt.% SiO 2) have erupted from a family of fissures 1-2.5 km apart within or just outside a large caldera (12×18 km). The silicic lavas show a fissure-dependent variation in composition, and form five chemically distinct units. The lavas are of low crystallinity (0-7 vol.%) and contain phenocrysts in the following order of decreasing abundance: plagioclase (An 10-40), Na-rich anorthoclase (kull, implying that the former can not be derived from the latter by simple fractional crystallization. FeTi-oxide geothermometry reveals temperatures as low as 750-800°C. To explain the fissure-dependent chemical variations, 18O depletions, low FeTi-oxide temperatures and pervasive crystal-melt disequilibrium, we propose the extraction and collection of small parcels of silicic melt from originally heterogeneous basaltic crustal rock through heterogeneous melting and wall rock collapse (solidification front instability, SFI). The original compositional heterogeneity of the source rock is due to (1) silicic segregations, in the form of pods and lenses characteristically formed in the upper parts of gabbroic intrusives

  8. GPR-derived architecture of jökulhlaup sediments, Gígjökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Devin; Ross, Neil; Russell, Andrew; Dunning, Stuart

    2017-04-01

    A warming global climate has implications for glacial retreat and meltwater generation. In Iceland, the potential frequency and magnitude of jökulhlaup (glacial outburst flood) hazards from ice-dammed and moraine-dammed lakes may be increased by: (i) increased glacial meltwater production; and (ii) the glacio-isostatic response of the mantle driven by deglaciation, which is hypothesised to increase volcanic activity. The high peak-discharges of volcanically-induced jökulhlaups in Iceland have the ability to deposit significant volumes of sediment, causing major geomorphic change and societal impacts. Understanding geomorphological process associated with jökulhlaups can assist in predicting and evaluating future jökulhlaup behaviour and impacts. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption produced multiple jökulhlaups resulting in major sediment deposition and proglacial aggradation. Observations of the timing, scale and hydraulic properties of these jökulhlaups during the eruption have provided a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of ice-rich meltwater flows on the proglacial environment. Using low-frequency (40 MHz) ground penetrating radar (GPR) and differential GPS (dGPS) surveys of the Gígjökull basin, this study has: (1) geophysically characterised the thick sequence of sedimentary deposits associated with the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, to test conceptual models of jökulhlaup deposition; and (2) quantified post-depositional (2010-2016) elevation change, to evaluate the role of buried ice on post-jökulhlaup landscape response and recovery. The jökulhlaup deposits are characterised by three prominent sediment sub-units, delimited by strong continuous reflectors, and displaying discontinuous undulating reflections (indicating the presence of dunes or anti-dunes). The structures within these sub-units provide insight into the fluvial processes associated with multiple high-magnitude flood events and their relation to the hydraulic properties and

  9. Sulfur Budget of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruption Derived From Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Wang, J.; Yang, K.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    We evaluate the sulfur budget of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption using satellite remote sensing observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and chemical-transport modeling (CTM). Daily, global ultraviolet (UV) measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite provide a unique insight into volcanic SO2 emissions owing to their sensitivity to lower tropospheric plumes. Thus, OMI was able to quantify SO2 burdens throughout the entire eruptive cycle at Eyjafjallajökull, beginning in March 2010 during the Fimmvörduháls basaltic fissure eruption, and continuing through the explosive, phreatomagmatic phase in mid-April to a period of continuous emissions that waned in late May. Simultaneous OMI measurements of SO2 and volcanic ash, the latter using the UV Aerosol Index (AI), indicate distinct emission regimes as the eruption progressed: (1) March 20 - mid-April: weak SO2 emissions without detectable ash at Fimmvörduháls; (2) April 15-19: low SO2 burdens (<5000 tons) and high ash concentrations in the phreatomagmatic Eyjafjallajökull eruption clouds that dispersed over mainland Europe; (3) April 20 - May 3: a period of generally increasing SO2 emissions with much reduced ash production (coinciding with the emplacement of a lava flow on the Gígjökull glacier); (4) May 4-18: an abrupt increase in SO2 emissions (>30 kilotons) and ash production in plumes that dispersed predominantly over the North Atlantic; (5) May 19-24: cessation of significant ash production and a decline in SO2 emissions. We interpret some of these variations in the proportion of SO2 and ash as a reflection of variable interaction between magma and glacial meltwater at the eruption vent, which sequestered SO2 and significantly reduced atmospheric SO2 loading during the phreatomagmatic phase below that expected from volatile-rich Icelandic magmas (also apparent during eruptions of Grimsvötn). The fate of the magmatic sulfur, e.g., dissolution of SO2 in

  10. Vatnajökull meltwater discharge variability: a Holocene climate sensor in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striberger, J.; Björck, S.; Ingólfsson, Ó.; Kjær, K.; Sandgren, P.; Snowball, I.

    2009-04-01

    The Holocene glacial history of Vatnajökull and its many outlet glaciers is rather poorly known, even though it is one of the largest ice caps outside Antarctica and Greenland. Vatnajökull is positioned in the centre of the Nordic Seas, the region for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and it is influenced by humid-bearing cyclone systems from the southwest. Thus, it can be regarded as a sensor for a combination of different climatic driven processes. Lake Lögurinn (53 km2, 20 m a.s.l), situated northeast of Vatnajökull, is part of the drainage system of Eyjabakkajökull, one of the most conspicuous surging outlet glaciers of the ice cap. In addition to glacial meltwater, the lake also receives discharge from rivers that drain non-glaciated catchments. The mix of glacial and non-glacial suspension makes the sediments suitable for analyses of how the fluvial regime has varied over time and how this relates to meltwater discharge, fluvial discharge and general changes in climate and hydrology. A total of 17.8 m of sediment was obtained from the central part of the northernmost sub-basin in Lake Lögurinn at water depths of 38 and 16 m, respectively. The sediments are laminated in most parts of the sequence. 137Cs analyses of the surface core have confirmed that the laminated couplets are varves. Tephra horizons have been used as time markers throughout the sediments, and X-ray fluorescence and X-ray analyses as well as visual observations have been used in order to identify varves in the uppermost 3.8 m of the sequence. This section covers the time period AD 1262-2005. The sediment contains 610 varves for the periods AD 1262-1476 and AD 1603-2005 (a total of 618 years). A significant change in sedimentation rate is observed between AD 1477-1602 (from 5.9 mm/yr to 1.2 mm/yr). For this period only 18 varves are found. This abrupt change is likely related to a lower discharge rate, or to more turbulent conditions in the lake. The sedimentation rate of the

  11. Will present day glacier retreat increase volcanic activity? Stress induced by recent glacier retreat and its effect on magmatism at the Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagli, Carolina; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2008-05-01

    Global warming causes retreat of ice caps and ice sheets. Can melting glaciers trigger increased volcanic activity? Since 1890 the largest ice cap of Iceland, Vatnajökull, with an area of ~8000 km2, has been continuously retreating losing about 10% of its mass during last century. Present-day uplift around the ice cap is as high as 25 mm/yr. We evaluate interactions between ongoing glacio-isostasy and current changes to mantle melting and crustal stresses at volcanoes underneath Vatnajökull. The modeling indicates that a substantial volume of new magma, ~0.014 km3/yr, is produced under Vatnajökull in response to current ice thinning. Ice retreat also induces significant stress changes in the elastic crust that may contribute to high seismicity, unusual focal mechanisms, and unusual magma movements in NW-Vatnajökull.

  12. Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Hauksdottir, Arna; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur Anna; Gíslason, Thorarinn; Einarsdottir, Gunnlaug; Runolfsson, Halldor; Briem, Haraldur; Finnbjornsdottir, Ragnhildur Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Sigurdur; Kolbeinsson, Thorir Björn; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Pétursdóttir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to determine whether exposure to a volcanic eruption was associated with increased prevalence of physical and/or mental symptoms. Design Cohort, with non-exposed control group. Setting Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5 weeks in spring 2010. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Participants Adult (18–80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). The participation rate was 72%. Main outcome measures Physical symptoms in the previous year (chronic), in the previous month (recent), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) measured psychological morbidity. Results The likelihood of having symptoms during the last month was higher in the exposed population, such as; tightness in the chest (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 5.8), cough (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.9), phlegm (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2), eye irritation (OR 2.9; 95% CI 2.0 to 4.1) and psychological morbidity symptoms (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7). Respiratory symptoms during the last 12 months were also more common in the exposed population; cough (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.9), dyspnoea (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), although the prevalence of underlying asthma and heart disease was similar. Twice as many in the exposed population had two or more symptoms from nose, eyes or upper-respiratory tract (24% vs 13%, p<0.001); these individuals were also more likely to experience psychological morbidity (OR 4.7; 95% CI 3.4 to 6.5) compared with individuals with no symptoms. Most symptoms exhibited a dose–response pattern within the exposed population, corresponding to low, medium and high exposure to the eruption. Conclusions 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull

  13. Glacio-isostatic adjustment around Vatnajökull icecap, Iceland, revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auriac, A.; Spaans, K.; Bernard, C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Temperatures have been rising significantly over the last decades, inducing increased melting of icecaps around the world. One of the consequences of this melting is the unloading of the Earth’s crust, resulting in glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA), which has been studied extensively through various geodetic methods. Studies of the GIA around Vatnajökull icecap (area of 8100 km2 and maximum thickness of 900 m), located in the south-eastern part of Iceland, have utilized GPS measurements to quantify the amount of rebound and infer the rheology of the crust. Here, we study the response of the crust to surface unloading using satellite-borne radar interferometry (InSAR). InSAR is a phase differencing technique, used extensively in crustal deformation studies to measure surface displacements. It gives a better spatial coverage than GPS data, which can only be collected at selected benchmarks. Although InSAR is only able to determine line-of-sight (LOS) displacement, its superior spatial coverage will greatly help constrain the deformation patterns resulting from GIA. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the rheology of the Icelandic crust around and below the icecap, by using InSAR results to constrain an improved finite element model of the area and the unloading process. We will test if there is a spatial variation in the properties of the crust from west to east, where it gradually varies from young, relatively thin and hot at the plate boundary to older, thicker and colder further east. We can also verify the radial extent of the GIA signal from the edges of the icecap. For that purpose, a collection of ERS 1/2 and ENVISAT images were processed, covering the whole icecap with both descending and ascending tracks. Only summer acquisitions can be used in the processing, as snow coverage in winter changes the scattering properties of the Earth’s surface, leading to a loss of coherence between images. Using InSAR, we produced time series of

  14. Using the Schur Complement to Reduce Runtime in KULL's Magnetic Diffusion Package

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, T A; Kolev, T V

    2010-12-15

    Recently a Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) package has been added to the KULL code. In order to be compatible with the underlying hydrodynamics algorithm, a new sub-zonal magnetics discretization was developed that supports arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral zones. This flexibility comes at the cost of many more unknowns per zone - approximately ten times more for a hexahedral mesh. We can eliminate some (or all, depending on the dimensionality) of the extra unknowns from the global matrix during assembly by using a Schur complement approach. This trades expensive global work for cache-friendly local work, while still allowing solution for the full system. Significant improvements in the solution time are observed for several test problems.

  15. The Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption from the MACC perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, Richard; Flemming, Johannes; Benedetti, Angela; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Simmons, Adrian; MACC Consortium

    2010-05-01

    The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on Iceland triggered a strong response from many modelling and observation groups around Europe. MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) is building the atmospheric component of Europe's GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) initiative and has used its pre-operational global assimilation and forecasting system to provide simulations of the development of the volcanic ash plume. Some basic assumptions were made about the height of the injection and the life time of the tracer. These simulations have been provided on a daily basis on the MACC web site. At the same time MACC has also tried to gather relevant observations on top of those that are already assimilated in the pre-operational system. This will allow validation of our plume forecasts as well as assessment of the potential of assimilating these additional observations. The main aim now is to further develop the MACC system to a stage where it can adequately respond to similar events in the future when GMES becomes operational. MACC will then be able to offer support to the official Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres in their task of advising the aviation authorities. In this presentation we will present our plume simulations as well as some initial validation. We will also present some preliminary data assimilation experiments to show the potential and difficulties of data assimilation in case of volcanic eruptions. Finally, we will try to make a first assessment of what is needed in the near future in terms of model development and observations to be fully prepared for events like the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull

  16. Chemical conversion of sulphur dioxide on Eyjafjallajökull's volcanic ash from the 2010 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupart, Yoan; Burel, Laurence; Delichere, Pierre; George, Christian; D'Anna, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions induce important climatic and weather modifications. When volcanic ashes are emitted into the atmosphere they can travel for several weeks according to their size distribution and altitude of the emission. Eyjafjallajökull eruption, between April 14th and May 23th, is considered as a medium-size eruption. The upper level winds advected ashes over the UK and continental Europe. During volcanic eruptions high amounts of SO2 were injected into the atmosphere (from 50 to 200 ppbv)[1]. Previous works showed that SO2 could be convert into sulfate on mineral dust surfaces under dark conditions[2]. However, no conversion has been studied with real volcanic ashes and under day conditions (light exposure). For this study, real Eyjafjallajökull's ashes samples, collected on the 2010.04.18 at Seljavellir, were used. The ashes were deposited on a horizontal cylindrical coated-wall flow tube reactor surrounded by 5 fluorescent lamps (340-420 nm). The kinetic studies revealed that the presence of UV-A irradiation enhanced the conversion of SO2 on ashes samples. Moreover chemical analyses as XPS, Ion Chromatography and SEM were performed on volcanic ashes before and after exposition to SO2. XPS and ion chromatography analyzes showed that the presence of light increase the SO2 uptake on ashes surfaces and convert it into ions sulphate. Beside SEM analyses disclosed that the conversion takes place systematically on an iron oxide site . By combining kinetics and chemical analysis we are able to propose a new mechanism for the SO2 conversion on mineral surfaces under light conditions. 1. Self, S., et al., Volatile fluxes during flood basalt eruptions and potential effects on the global environment: A Deccan perspective. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2006. 248(1-2): p. 518-532. 2. Zhang et al., Heterogeneous Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide on Typical Mineral Particles, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2006

  17. Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland May 2nd View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA satellite image acquired May 2, 2010 To view a detail of this image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/4584266734/ Ash and steam continued billowing from Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in early May 2010. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this natural-color image on May 2, 2010. The volcano’s summit is near the left edge of this image, capped by a dark plume. The plume is dull gray-brown, indicating that its principal visible component is volcanic ash. Ash from the plume blows toward the east-southeast, passing over a charcoal-colored ash field on the land surface. Just to the north of Eyjafjallajökull’s summit are white puffs of steam, likely from surface lava flows vaporizing snow and glacial ice. On May 4, 2010, the Icelandic Meteorological Office warned that Eyjafjallajökull showed no signs of ending its eruptive activity in the near future. The Met Office reported that ash from the volcano had reached a height of 5.8 to 6.0 kilometers (19,000 to 20,000 feet) above sea level, and had spread 65 to 80 kilometers (40 to 50 miles) east-southeast of the volcano, where it impeded visibility for local residents. The Met Office also reported that lava continued flowing down a steep hill north of the crater. NASA image by Robert Simmon, using ALI data from the EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: EO-1 – ALI To view other images from the Earth Observatory go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  18. Microbial communities in the subglacial waters of the Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thór Marteinsson, Viggó; Rúnarsson, Árni; Stefánsson, Andri; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Magnússon, Sveinn H; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Einarsson, Bergur; Wade, Nicole; Morrison, Hilary G; Gaidos, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Subglacial lakes beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap in Iceland host endemic communities of microorganisms adapted to cold, dark and nutrient-poor waters, but the mechanisms by which these microbes disseminate under the ice and colonize these lakes are unknown. We present new data on this subglacial microbiome generated from samples of two subglacial lakes, a subglacial flood and a lake that was formerly subglacial but now partly exposed to the atmosphere. These data include parallel 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries constructed using novel primers that span the v3–v5 and v4–v6 hypervariable regions. Archaea were not detected in either subglacial lake, and the communities are dominated by only five bacterial taxa. Our paired libraries are highly concordant for the most abundant taxa, but estimates of diversity (abundance-based coverage estimator) in the v4–v6 libraries are 3–8 times higher than in corresponding v3–v5 libraries. The dominant taxa are closely related to cultivated anaerobes and microaerobes, and may occupy unique metabolic niches in a chemoautolithotrophic ecosystem. The populations of the major taxa in the subglacial lakes are indistinguishable (>99% sequence identity), despite separation by 6 km and an ice divide; one taxon is ubiquitous in our Vatnajökull samples. We propose that the glacial bed is connected through an aquifer in the underlying permeable basalt, and these subglacial lakes are colonized from a deeper, subterranean microbiome. PMID:22975882

  19. Magnetic Fabrics and their Application to Basal Crevasse Fills, Flàajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, W. R., Jr.; Hooyer, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long, linear features consisting of sediment and ice, approximately 100 m long and 20 cm wide, run transverse to the margin of Flàajökull, an outlet glacier of Vatnajökull Ice Cap. These features, interpreted as basal crevasse fills, are thought to have formed by debris and water injected into a void under pure tension or a combination of tension and shear in response to an ice pressure drop at the bed. The debris content of these basal crevasse fills are between 5 to 10% by volume. The formation of these basal crevasse fills is uncertain, because direct observation is difficult. To study these basal crevasse fills, we used the orientation of magnetic grains using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to guide us in understanding their kinematics. The AMS technique is superior over other fabric methods because a three-dimensional susceptibility ellipsoid is used to determine strain. We sampled two basal crevasse fills and obtained 86 ice core samples for AMS analyses. We also cut nine blocks of ice to determine the magnetic mineralogy, grain size of the magnetic carrier and c-axis orientation of the ice. The AMS results demonstrate that at one fill, the fabric was most likely formed by a combination of pure shear and simple shear. At the second site the AMS results were not well clustered possibly due to insufficient strain. Hysteresis and high temperature susceptibility tests indicate a magnetite carrier that was silt-sized or smaller. Thin sections used to evaluate c-axis fabrics display several multi-maximums that suggested that the fabric developed through recrystallization during deformation. It is inferred that grain scale processes reveal deformation by grain-boundary migration and grain nucleation. Magnetic particles appear to have behaved as passive markers following the March model (1932). Given this data set, we argue that the crevasse fills were formed by multiple processes including injection of turbid waters followed by in situ-freezing and

  20. Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland May 2nd View [Detail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA satellite image acquired May 2, 2010 To see the full view of this image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/4584266582/ Ash and steam continued billowing from Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in early May 2010. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this natural-color image on May 2, 2010. The volcano’s summit is near the left edge of this image, capped by a dark plume. The plume is dull gray-brown, indicating that its principal visible component is volcanic ash. Ash from the plume blows toward the east-southeast, passing over a charcoal-colored ash field on the land surface. Just to the north of Eyjafjallajökull’s summit are white puffs of steam, likely from surface lava flows vaporizing snow and glacial ice. On May 4, 2010, the Icelandic Meteorological Office warned that Eyjafjallajökull showed no signs of ending its eruptive activity in the near future. The Met Office reported that ash from the volcano had reached a height of 5.8 to 6.0 kilometers (19,000 to 20,000 feet) above sea level, and had spread 65 to 80 kilometers (40 to 50 miles) east-southeast of the volcano, where it impeded visibility for local residents. The Met Office also reported that lava continued flowing down a steep hill north of the crater. NASA image by Robert Simmon, using ALI data from the EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: EO-1 – ALI To view other images from the Earth Observatory go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  1. Stratigraphy and Morphology of Drumlins within the Múlajökull Active Drumlin Field, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsson, I. O.; Jonsson, S. A.; Schomacker, A.; Johnson, M. D.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2014-12-01

    Our current understanding of drumlin formation is largely based on investigations of individual drumlins either within Pleistocene drumlin fields or within the forefields of contemporary glaciers, showing variable composition and structure resulting in different models for drumlin genesis. The stratigraphy and morphology of drumlins within the active drumlin field at the Múlajökull surge-type piedmont glacier, Iceland, have been studied in order to shed light on their formation. A total of 110 drumlins where mapped and measured and their internal stratigraphy and composition were documented in three exposures. The exposures all revealed several till units where the youngest till truncates the older ones on the flanks of the drumlins and at the proximal side. A geomorphological study shows that drumlins within the 1992 surge end moraine are relatively long and narrow whilst drumlins further away from the current ice margin are wider and slightly shorter. Three models are proposed to explain the stratigraphy and morphological evolution of the drumlins within the Múlajökull drumlin field. Firstly, we suggest that radial crevasses in the glacier terminus lead to spatial differences in normal pressure at the base so that deposition is favoured beneath and erosion in between the crevasses and, consequently, the crevasse pattern of the glacier controls the location of the drumlins. Secondly, sediment accumulating beneath the crevasses acts as an obstacle to the ice, which decreases the ice flow and facilitates sedimentation. Simultaneously and subsequently, the accumulation of sediments is shaped by the ice flow into a drumlin. Thirdly we conclude that the drumlins are evolving from being wide and low to in the distal part to narrow and high in the proximal part. The drumlins are then maintained and their relief increases as the glacier erodes the sides and the proximal end of the drumlin and drapes new till layer over the landform.

  2. Intrusion triggering of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull explosive eruption.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Hooper, Andrew; Arnadóttir, Thóra; Pedersen, Rikke; Roberts, Matthew J; Oskarsson, Níels; Auriac, Amandine; Decriem, Judicael; Einarsson, Páll; Geirsson, Halldór; Hensch, Martin; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G; Sturkell, Erik; Sveinbjörnsson, Hjörleifur; Feigl, Kurt L

    2010-11-18

    Gradual inflation of magma chambers often precedes eruptions at highly active volcanoes. During such eruptions, rapid deflation occurs as magma flows out and pressure is reduced. Less is known about the deformation style at moderately active volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, where an explosive summit eruption of trachyandesite beginning on 14 April 2010 caused exceptional disruption to air traffic, closing airspace over much of Europe for days. This eruption was preceded by an effusive flank eruption of basalt from 20 March to 12 April 2010. The 2010 eruptions are the culmination of 18 years of intermittent volcanic unrest. Here we show that deformation associated with the eruptions was unusual because it did not relate to pressure changes within a single magma chamber. Deformation was rapid before the first eruption (>5 mm per day after 4 March), but negligible during it. Lack of distinct co-eruptive deflation indicates that the net volume of magma drained from shallow depth during this eruption was small; rather, magma flowed from considerable depth. Before the eruption, a ∼0.05 km(3) magmatic intrusion grew over a period of three months, in a temporally and spatially complex manner, as revealed by GPS (Global Positioning System) geodetic measurements and interferometric analysis of satellite radar images. The second eruption occurred within the ice-capped caldera of the volcano, with explosivity amplified by magma-ice interaction. Gradual contraction of a source, distinct from the pre-eruptive inflation sources, is evident from geodetic data. Eyjafjallajökull's behaviour can be attributed to its off-rift setting with a 'cold' subsurface structure and limited magma at shallow depth, as may be typical for moderately active volcanoes. Clear signs of volcanic unrest signals over years to weeks may indicate reawakening of such volcanoes, whereas immediate short-term eruption precursors may be subtle and difficult to detect.

  3. Numerical modeling of Drangajökull Ice Cap, NW Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Leif S.; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Flowers, Gwenn E.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Pálsson, Finnur; Muñoz-Cobo Belart, Joaquín; Þorsteinsson, Þorsteinn; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Sigurðsson, Oddur; Harning, David; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug

    2016-04-01

    Over the past century the Arctic has warmed twice as fast as the global average. This discrepancy is likely due to feedbacks inherent to the Arctic climate system. These Arctic climate feedbacks are currently poorly quantified, but are essential to future climate predictions based on global circulation modeling. Constraining the magnitude and timing of past Arctic climate changes allows us to test climate feedback parameterizations at different times with different boundary conditions. Because Holocene Arctic summer temperature changes have been largest in the North Atlantic (Kaufman et al., 2004) we focus on constraining the paleoclimate of Iceland. Glaciers are highly sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation amount. This sensitivity allows for the estimation of paleoclimate using glacier models, modern glacier mass balance data, and past glacier extents. We apply our model to the Drangajökull ice cap (~150 sq. km) in NW Iceland. Our numerical model is resolved in two-dimensions, conserves mass, and applies the shallow-ice-approximation. The bed DEM used in the model runs was constructed from radio echo data surveyed in spring 2014. We constrain the modern surface mass balance of Drangajökull using: 1) ablation and accumulation stakes; 2) ice surface digital elevation models (DEMs) from satellite, airborne LiDAR, and aerial photographs; and 3) full-stokes model-derived vertical ice velocities. The modeled vertical ice velocities and ice surface DEMs are combined to estimate past surface mass balance. We constrain Holocene glacier geometries using moraines and trimlines (e.g., Brynjolfsson, etal, 2014), proglacial-lake cores, and radiocarbon-dated dead vegetation emerging from under the modern glacier. We present a sensitivity analysis of the model to changes in parameters and show the effect of step changes of temperature and precipitation on glacier extent. Our results are placed in context with local lacustrine and marine climate proxies as well

  4. An analysis of options available for developing a common laser ray tracing package for Ares and Kull code frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Weeratunga, S K

    2008-11-06

    Ares and Kull are mature code frameworks that support ALE hydrodynamics for a variety of HEDP applications at LLNL, using two widely different meshing approaches. While Ares is based on a 2-D/3-D block-structured mesh data base, Kull is designed to support unstructured, arbitrary polygonal/polyhedral meshes. In addition, both frameworks are capable of running applications on large, distributed-memory parallel machines. Currently, both these frameworks separately support assorted collections of physics packages related to HEDP, including one for the energy deposition by laser/ion-beam ray tracing. This study analyzes the options available for developing a common laser/ion-beam ray tracing package that can be easily shared between these two code frameworks and concludes with a set of recommendations for its development.

  5. Precise hypocentre relocation of microearthquakes in a high-temperature geothermal field: the Torfajökull central volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, Regina; White, Robert S.; Soosalu, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    The Torfajökull volcanic system is one of approximately 30 active volcanoes comprising the neovolcanic zones of Iceland. The central volcano of the system is the largest silicic centre in Iceland with a caldera of approximately 12 km diameter. Its high-temperature geothermal system is one of the most powerful in Iceland. Torfajökull is a source of persistent seismicity, where both high- and low-frequency earthquakes occur. To study this microseismicity in detail, a temporary array of 20 broad-band seismic stations was deployed between 2002 June and November. These temporary stations were embedded in the permanent South Iceland Lowland (SIL) network and data from nine adjacent SIL stations were included in this study. A minimum one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model with station corrections was computed for earthquake relocation by inverting manually picked P- and S-wave arrival times from events occurring in the Torfajökull volcanic centre and its surroundings. High-frequency earthquakes from the Torfajökull volcanic centre were then relocated calculating a non-linear, probabilistic solution to the earthquake location problem. Subsequently, we correlated the waveforms of these 121 events (~2000 observations) to define linked events, calculated the relative traveltime difference between event pairs and solved for the hypocentral separation between these events. The resulting high-resolution pattern shows a tighter clustering in epicentre and focal depth when compared with original locations. Earthquakes are mainly located beneath the caldera with hypocentres between 1 and 6 km depth and lie almost exclusively within the geothermal system. A sharp cut-off in seismicity at 3 km suggests either that there is a marked temperature increase or that this is a structural boundary. No seismic activity was observed in the fissure swarms to the northeast (NE) and southwest (SW) of the volcanic centre.

  6. Array observations of seasonal seismic noise variations induced by glacier-fed rapids near Vatnajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möllhoff, Martin; Eibl, Eva P. S.; Bean, Christopher J.; Vogfjörd, Kristin S.

    2016-04-01

    We analyse semi-continuous noise observed in seismic data from an array installed close to Lakagigar southwest of the Vatnajökull ice cap in Iceland. The noise appears in several distinct frequencies bands between 1 and 10 Hz. The bands have different spectral widths suggesting that several sources are acting simultaneously. The back azimuths obtained from array fk-analysis suggest that the observed noise originates mainly from rapids and waterfalls in Hverfisfljot, a glacial river originating from the glacial tongue Sidujökull in the southwest of Vatnajökull. This observation is supported by stream gauge measurements. The seismic noise is only observed between May and September when the water level exceeds a threshold value that lies above the relatively constant lower water level during the winter months. A more detailed analysis of noise back azimuth, noise slowness and the correlation between seismic noise and river level are expected to improve the understanding of water-flow induced seismic noise. This noise source has to be kept in mind when searching for suitable array locations as this overlaps the typical frequency band of e.g. volcanic or flood related tremor. Additionally the observations demonstrate that seismic array data can be useful to infer river states remotely.

  7. Observing the Calving Dynamics of Breiðamerkurjökull, Iceland, with Repeat UAV Aerial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Since the summer of 2014, a cost-effective, fixed-wing UAV platform is used to map changes at the calving front of Breiðamerkurjökull, one of the largest outlet-glaciers of Vatnajökull, Iceland. The utilized wide angle camera (21 mm equivalent) delivers aerial images with a ground pixel resolution of approximately 18 cm, which are subsequently combined to digital elevation models (DEMs) mapping the calving front. Ground control points in the study area, measured with L1 phase GNSS receivers, are used to geo-locate the produced DEMs and ensure high quality co-registration between subsequent data sets. The 2 m wing span UAV platform is capable of 40 - 60 minutes of autonomous flight, guided by an open-source, open-hardware autopilot system (pixhawk.org) and thus can map rather large areas of the calving glacier. I will present results from the 2014 field season during which the calving front of Breiðamerkurjökull has been mapped repeatedly with data acquisition intervals ranging from hours to weeks. A lidar dataset from 2011 of the study region is used to validate the acquired DEM data and accuracy/precision statistics will be presented. I will also detail the UAV platform design, including instrumentation and flight mission planning.

  8. The drumlin field and the geomorphology of the Múlajökull surge-type glacier, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsson, Sverrir Aðalsteinn; Schomacker, Anders; Benediktsson, Ívar Örn; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Johnson, Mark D.

    2014-02-01

    Here we present a new geomorphological map of the active drumlin field and the forefield of Múlajökull, a surge-type outlet glacier, Iceland. The map is based on aerial photographs taken in 1995 and LiDAR data recorded in 2008. Mapping was done using ArcGIS 10 software on orthorectified imagery, LiDAR data and digital elevation models. The mapped landforms were initially identified on the aerial imagery and LiDAR and then ground-checked in the field. We mapped subglacial, supraglacial, ice-marginal, periglacial, and glaciofluvial landforms. The geomorphology of the Múlajökull forefield is similar to that of the forefields of other surge-type glaciers in Iceland: with a highly streamlined forefield, crevasse-fill ridges, and series of glaciotectonic end moraines. However, the large number (i.e., 110) of drumlins forming the drumlin field is unique for modern Icelandic surge-type glaciers and, as yet, unique for contemporary glaciers in general. Also apparent is that the drumlins are wider and shorter in the distal part of the drumlin field and narrower and longer in the proximal part. Hence, the mapping reveals a development of the drumlins toward a more streamlined shape of the proximal landforms that have experienced more surges. The drumlins in the drumlin field are active, i.e., they form during the modern surges of Múlajökull.

  9. Volcanic ash particulate matter from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in dust deposition at Prague, central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Hladil, Jindřich; Strnad, Ladislav; Koptíková, Leona; Skála, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Particles originating from the last major Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in April 2010 were subsequently found in settled dust samples collected in a suburban area of Prague, Czech Republic. These dust samples contained predominantly non-volcanic particulate matter of super-regional but mainly local origin. The highest proportion of the Eyjafjallajökull material recorded in the Prague daily dust samples reached 12% of the total lithic component mass. Volcanogenic particles, mostly glasses, were concentrated in particle size classes from 2.5 to 25 μm, but rare fragments of volcanic glasses up to 50 μm in diameter were also found. The most effective method for detection and identification of the volcanic ash particles were morpho-textural observations combined with energy dispersive and wavelength dispersive analysis of individual grains and X-ray powder diffraction. Because of the low percentage of volcanic ash particles in the total samples, the geochemical signal was rather weak although detectable in terms of selected trace elements and REE distributions. The mineralogy, particle size distributions, and geochemical compositions of the Prague samples were compared with reference materials sampled near the Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

  10. The impacts of the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362 and climate change on cultural landscape dynamics in the province of Öræfi south of Vatnajökull glacier, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, F.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental changes can be attributed to both natural processes and human influences. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of volcanism and climate change on the development of land quality and cultural landscapes in the province of Öræfi in the Austur-Skaftafellssýsla district, south of Vatnajökull glacier, over the last 1100 years. Few areas in Iceland are as vulnerable to climate changes and volcanic eruptions as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region has been repeatedly affected by tephra fallout from explosive eruptions, most notably the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical and palaeoenvironmental data will be accumulated and stored in a database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. Preliminary results show that from the onset of the settlement in the late 9th century until AD 1362 Öræfi was a wealthy, densely populated farming society, with many large farm estates and large number of livestock (cattle and sheep) sustained by the natural vegetation. The farm estates were 40 by the mid 14th century and the churches were four. The first records of land ownership show that the Church had accumulated the most valuable holdings in Öræfi shortly before the Öræfajökull volcanic eruption in AD 1362. Out of the 40 farm estates 12 belonged to the Church and on a national scale the churches in Öræfi were richer in livestock, sacramentals and missals compared to churches in other parts of Iceland. The Öræfajökull volcanic eruption in AD 1362 had devastating long term impact on the settlement and terrestrial ecosystem in Öræfi. The area was abandoned following the eruption and in the early 15th century only eight out of the 40 farm estates prior to the eruption were settled. The values of the estates shrunk dramatically as did the arable land. The number of churches

  11. Structural dynamics and calving behaviour at Fjallsjökull, South-East Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell, Rebecca; Carr, Rachel; Russell, Andrew; Phillips, Emrys

    2017-04-01

    Ice loss from outlet glaciers poses an increasing threat to society, through sea-level rise and glacial hazards, making it important to understand the complex set of factors which determine a glacier's response to current climate warming. Icelandic outlet glaciers and ice caps have demonstrated a high level of sensitivity to climate warming, and have shrunk rapidly since the 1980s. This project therefore combines multiple remote sensing and field-based techniques to investigate the controls on calving behaviour at Fjallsjökull; a major outlet glacier of the Vatnajokull ice cap, South-East Iceland, which terminates in a pro-glacial lake. A combination of satellite and aerial imagery has been used to map glacier structure in 1982, 1994 and 2011, and changes in fracture density and orientation at the snout will be assessed in the next phase of the project. Furthermore, changes in glacier retreat rates and lake area will be determined from remotely sensed imagery at a multi-annual resolution, between the years 1973 and 2016, contingent on data availability. This imagery will also be used to determine glacier velocities and their evolution over time, using the feature tracking software COSI-CORR. Results from remotely sensed data will be combined with field observations, in order to determine the dominant controls on calving and ice loss. Preliminary results reveal the structural architecture at the glacier terminus to be dominated by a number of dextral strike-slip shear zones. These shear zones offset the ogive banding within the ice, providing evidence of differential flow speeds across the glacier, with the individual flow sets being separated by major flow-parallel strike-slip faults. Furthermore, the relative intensity of crevassing increases towards the glacier snout, and these fractures exert a partial control on calving activity. The style of calving is thought to be analogous to rotational slope failure and block toppling mechanisms as described by

  12. Iceland Volcano Puffs Ash as Lava Flow Cuts Through Eyjafjallajökull Icecap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-05

    Dramatic changes have been observed at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland by NASA's Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. On May 2, 2010, the Hyperion hyperspectral imager on EO-1 imaged Eyjafjallajökull and identified the extent of a lava flow extending northwards from the main eruption vent. This lava flow had been previously reported by volcanologists in Iceland, and is slowly carving its way north through the ice cap. The image on the left (Figure 1) is at visible wavelengths, and shows the persistent dark volcanic plume emanating from the main vent. This plume is still rich in ash, hence its brown coloration. This ash is still causing problems, threatening new airspace closures over parts of Europe. Large cracks at the edge of the crater are an indication of the extent of ice removal from the icecap during the eruption. To the north of this vent is another plume that is very white. This second plume is the result of ice being boiled off, generally non-explosively, by the heat from the silicate lava flow. As a result this plume is probably comprised mostly of water vapour. The black lava shows up clearly against the ice in the left-hand image. The image in the center (Figure 2) is a false-color image in the short-wavelength infrared. In this image, ice appears as blue and hot pixels appear as red. Very hot pixels appear as yellow and white. Red pixels, visible though the plume chart the extent of the lava flow, which has extended some 1.8 kilometers (1.1 miles) northwards from the area of the vent that is emitting the most energy. Total heat loss on May 2 was estimated to be at least 300 megawatts. The image on the right (Figure 3) shows the lava flow on May 4, 2010. The entire lava channel is now exposed, most of the overlying ice having been removed and the white plume has mostly disappeared. Without the plume obscuring heat loss from the lava flow, a better estimate of heat loss can be made. On May 4, the volcano was emitting at least 1,600 megawatts

  13. In-situ observations of Eyjafjallajökull ash particles by hot-air balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, T.; Laakso, L.; Grönholm, T.; Launiainen, S.; Evele-Peltoniemi, I.; Virkkula, A.; Leskinen, A.; Backman, J.; Manninen, H. E.; Sipilä, M.; Haapanala, S.; Hämeri, K.; Vanhala, E.; Tuomi, T.; Paatero, J.; Aurela, M.; Hakola, H.; Makkonen, U.; Hellén, H.; Hillamo, R.; Vira, J.; Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Laaksonen, A.; lehtinen, K. E. J.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2012-03-01

    The volcanic ash cloud from Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption seriously distracted aviation in Europe. Due to the flight ban, there were only few in-situ measurements of the properties and dispersion of the ash cloud. In this study we show in-situ observations onboard a hot air balloon conducted in Central Finland together with regional dispersion modelling with SILAM-model during the eruption. The modeled and measured mass concentrations were in a qualitative agreement but the exact elevation of the layer was slightly distorted. Some of this discrepancy can be attributed to the uncertainty in the initial emission height and strength. The observed maximum mass concentration varied between 12 and 18 μg m -3 assuming a density of 2 g m -3, whereas the gravimetric analysis of the integrated column showed a maximum of 45 μg m -3 during the first two descents through the ash plume. Ion chromatography data indicated that a large fraction of the mass was insoluble to water, which is in qualitative agreement with single particle X-ray analysis. A majority of the super-micron particles contained Si, Al, Fe, K, Na, Ca, Ti, S, Zn and Cr, which are indicative for basalt-type rock material. The number concentration profiles indicated that there was secondary production of particles possibly from volcano-emitted sulfur dioxide oxidized to sulfuric acid during the transport.

  14. Aerosol formation in basaltic lava fountaining: Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Martin, Robert S.; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2012-10-01

    A short-lived episode of basaltic lava fountaining at Eyjafjallajökull volcano (March - April 2010) produced a low-altitude, ash-poor plume. We measured the composition of aerosol particles (sampled using a cascade impactor and filter packs), gases (sampled using filter packs), and volatile species scavenged by scoria and external water in order to investigate the formation and speciation of near-source aerosol (<2 min from emission). Samples were analyzed for volatile species (S, Cl and F) and metals (Na, K, Ca and Mg). The aerosol mass showed two unusual features: the prevalent size mode was finer than typically found in volcanic plumes (˜0.2μm, compared to >0.4 μm), and its composition was dominated by chloride rather than sulfate. We used two thermodynamic equilibrium models (E-AIM and HSC Chemistry v5.1) to show that the formation of particulate Cl- by condensation of HCl gas is more responsive to changes in ambient temperature than the oxidation of SO2 to SO42-, so that a low SO42-/Cl- ratio in aerosol particles is characteristic of volcanic emissions in cold climates. Field measurements suggested that the efficiency of SO2 to SO42- conversion inside the vent increased with lower explosivity. Volatiles adsorbed on the surface of scoria had significantly higher SO42-/halogen molar ratios than the aerosol samples. Several potential explanations for these differences are discussed.

  15. The Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions: Correlation study of volcanic tremor and infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsdottir, K.; Bean, C.; Vogfjord, K.; Ripepe, M.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic far-field seismic tremor recorded at 7-20 km from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions is investigated. Over a two months period, two very different eruptions occurred separated by 9 km and two days; an effusive flank eruption and later a highly explosive summit eruption. We observed high amplitude seismic tremor during the explosive eruption while the flank eruption produced very low amplitude tremor. Infrasound data collected for a few days during the summit eruption, as well as other data including plume height is also compared to the seismic tremor amplitude. We find that tremor amplitude does not scale with the plume height. However, in line with similar studies, the infrasound data, characterized by pressure pulses from the volcanic explosions, is seen to correlate temporally (0.55-0.6) with the seismic tremor data, characterized by repeating low frequency events. A high correlation in amplitude (0.8) is also found between these datasets. The analysis reveals a time lag of 15-20 seconds, where seismic low frequency events are seen prior to the infrasound events. This is consistent with co-located seismic tremor and infrasound sources at the eruptive crater, and a surface wave velocity of 1350-1500 m/s. Singlestation three component analyses (undertaken for several stations) of the seismic low frequency events further confirms that they contain Rayleigh wave energy.

  16. Triggering of seismicity at Tungnafellsjökull volcano, during the 2014-2015 eruption within the neighbouring Bárdarbunga volcanic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Michelle; Rafn Heimisson, Elías; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Rut Hjartardóttir, Ásta; Einarsson, Páll; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Högnadóttir, Thórdis; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hensch, Martin; Bagnardi, Marco; Dumont, Stephanie; Drouin, Vincent; Spaans, Karsten; Ólafsdóttir, Rósa

    2017-04-01

    The 48 km dyke propagation and 65 m slow collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera, associated with the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, was accompanied by intense seismic activity, but also significantly increased seismicity at the neighbouring Tungnafellsjökull volcano, 25 km NW of Bárdarbunga caldera. Over 500 earthquakes above M1 occurred at Tungnafellsjökull, with a maximum size of M3.6, during the period of dyking and caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga. We investigate possible mechanisms for increased seismicity at Tungnafellsjökull during this major event, including new intrusive activity/a pressure increase beneath Tungnafellsjökull volcano and stress transfer related to the Bárdarbunga unrest and eruption. For that purpose we carry out new deformation and stress modelling utilising a wealth of diverse geodetic observations acquired during the 2014-2015 unrest and eruption within the Bárdarbunga volcanic system. These comprise a combination of InSAR, GPS, LiDAR, radar profiling and optical satellite measurements. We model six separate time periods throughout the course of the eruption and find a strong correlation between the locations of increased seismicity at nearby Tungnafellsjökull volcano and regions of increased tensile and Coulomb stress changes. Our results suggest that stress transfer during this major event has resulted in earthquake triggering at the neighbouring Tungnafellsjökull volcano by unclamping faults within the associated fissure swarm. This work has immediate application to volcano monitoring; to distinguish the difference between stress transfer and new intrusive activity.

  17. Tropospheric impacts of volcanic halogen emissions: first simulations of reactive halogen chemistry in the Eyjafjallajökull eruption plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Tjarda

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic plumes are regions of high chemical reactivity. Instrumented research aircraft that probed the 2010 Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull eruption plume identified in-plume ozone depletion and reactive halogens (Cl, BrO), the latter also detected by satellite. These measurements add to growing evidence that volcanic plumes support rapid reactive halogen chemistry, with predicted impacts including depletion of atmospheric oxidants and mercury deposition. However, attempts to simulate volcanic plume halogen chemistry and predict impacts are subject to considerable uncertainties. e.g. in rate constants for HOBr reactive uptake (see this session: EGU2013-6076), or in the high-temperature initialisation. Model studies attempting to replicate volcanic plume halogen chemistry are restricted by a paucity of field data that is required both for model tuning and verification, hence reported model 'solutions' are not necessarily unique. To this end, the aircraft, ground-based and satellite studies of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption provide a valuable combination of datasets for improving our understanding of plume chemistry and impacts. Here, PlumeChem simulations of Eyjafjallajökull plume reactive halogen chemistry and impacts are presented and verified by observations for the first time. Observed ozone loss, a function of plume strength and age, is quantitatively reproduced by the model. Magnitudinal agreement to reported downwind BrO and Cl is also shown. The model predicts multi-day impacts, with reactive bromine mainly as BrO, HOBr and BrONO2 during daytime, and Br2 and BrCl at night. BrO/SO2 is reduced in more dispersed plumes due to enhanced partitioning to HOBr, of potential interest to satellite studies of BrO downwind of volcanoes. Additional predicted impacts of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plume halogen chemistry include BrO-mediated depletion of HOx that reduces the rate of SO2 oxidation to H2SO4, hence the formation of sulphate aerosol. The model predicts NOx is

  18. THE 1890 SURGE END MORAINE AT EYJABAKKAJÖKULL, ICELAND: A RE-ASSESSMENT OF A CLASSIC GLACIOTECTONIC LOCALITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsson, I.; Schomacker, A.; Lokrantz, H.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2009-12-01

    This study reveals the glaciotectonic architecture and sequential evolution of the Eyjabakkajökull 1890 surge end moraines in Iceland. Based on morphological, geological and geophysical data from terrain cross-profiles, cross-sections and ground penetrating radar profiles, we demonstrate that three different models are required to explain the genesis of the Eyjabakkajökull moraines. Firstly, a narrow, single crested moraine ridge at the distal end of a marginal sediment wedge formed in response to decoupling of the subglacial sediment from the bedrock and associated downglacier sediment transport. Secondly, large lobate end-moraine ridges with multiple, closely spaced, narrow asymmetric crests formed by proglacial piggy-back thrusting. Thirdly, a new model shows that moraine ridges with different morphologies may reflect different members of an end-moraine continuum. This is true for the eastern and western parts of the Eyjabakkajökull moraines as they show similar morphological and structural styles which developed to different degrees. The former represents an intermediate member with décollement at 4-5 m depth and 27-33% shortening through multiple open anticlines that are reflected as moderately spaced symmetric crests on the surface. The latter represents an end member with décollement at about 27 m depth and 39% horizontal shortening through multiple high amplitude, overturned and overthrusted anticlines, appearing as broadly spaced symmetric crests. We propose that the opposite end member would be a moraine of multiple symmetric, wide open anticlinal crests of low amplitude. Our data suggest that the glacier coupled to the foreland to initiate the end-moraine formation when it had surged to within 70-190 m of its terminal position. This indicates a time frame of 2-6 days for the formation of the end moraines.

  19. Aircraft observations and model simulations of concentration and particle size distribution in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacre, H. F.; Grant, A. L. M.; Johnson, B. T.

    2013-02-01

    The Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland emitted a cloud of ash into the atmosphere during April and May 2010. Over the UK the ash cloud was observed by the FAAM BAe-146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft which was equipped with in-situ probes measuring the concentration of volcanic ash carried by particles of varying sizes. The UK Met Office Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) has been used to simulate the evolution of the ash cloud emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano during the period 4-18 May 2010. In the NAME simulations the processes controlling the evolution of the concentration and particle size distribution include sedimentation and deposition of particles, horizontal dispersion and vertical wind shear. For travel times between 24 and 72 h, a 1/t relationship describes the evolution of the concentration at the centre of the ash cloud and the particle size distribution remains fairly constant. Although NAME does not represent the effects of microphysical processes, it can capture the observed decrease in concentration with travel time in this period. This suggests that, for this eruption, microphysical processes play a small role in determining the evolution of the distal ash cloud. Quantitative comparison with observations shows that NAME can simulate the observed column-integrated mass if around 4% of the total emitted mass is assumed to be transported as far as the UK by small particles (< 30 μm diameter). NAME can also simulate the observed particle size distribution if a distal particle size distribution that contains a large fraction of < 10 μm diameter particles is used, consistent with the idea that phraetomagmatic volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, emit very fine particles.

  20. Aircraft observations and model simulations of concentration and particle size distribution in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacre, H. F.; Grant, A. L. M.; Johnson, B. T.

    2012-09-01

    The Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland emitted a cloud of ash into the atmosphere during April and May 2010. Over the UK the ash cloud was observed by the FAAM BAe-146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft which was equipped with in-situ probes measuring the concentration of volcanic ash carried by particles of varying sizes. The UK Met Office Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) has been used to simulate the evolution of the ash cloud emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano during the period 4-18 May 2010. In the NAME simulations the processes controlling the evolution of the concentration and particle size distribution include sedimentation and deposition of particles, horizontal dispersion and vertical wind shear. For travel times between 24 and 72 h a 1/t relationship describes the evolution of the concentration at the centre of the ash cloud and the particle size distribution remains fairly constant. Although NAME does not represent the effects of microphysical processes it can capture the observed decrease in concentration with travel time in this period. This suggests that, for this eruption, microphysical processes play a small role in determining the evolution of the distal ash cloud. Quantitative comparison with observations shows that NAME can simulate the observed column integrated mass if around 4% of the total emitted mass is assumed to be transported as far as the UK by small (<30 m diameter) particles. NAME can also simulate the observed particle size distribution if a distal particle size distribution that contains a large fraction of <10 m diameter particles is used, consistent with the idea that phraetomagmatic volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, emit very fine particles.

  1. The magmatic system beneath Torfajökull volcano, Iceland: A combination of radar and seismic interferometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, J.; Hooper, A. J.; Draganov, D.; Ruigrok, E.; Hanssen, R. F.; White, R. S.; Soosalu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Torfajökull is the largest silicic volcanic centre in Iceland; it erupts infrequently, with only two eruptions in the last 1200 years, the latest of which was over 5 centuries ago. However, ongoing seismicity, deformation and geothermal activity within its large caldera (18x12 km diameter) indicate the continued presence of a long-lasting magma chamber. Using radar interferometry (InSAR) time series we analyse the area covering Torfajökull volcano. In addition to displacements related to the tectonic spreading of the area, we detect a pattern of subsidence in the SW region of Torfajökull's caldera, on-going since at least 1993, at rates of up to ~13 mm yr-1. The data can be fit reasonably well using a model of a NE-SW oriented spheroidal body at ~5 km depth, undergoing a pressure decrease that is uniform in space and time. One potential interpretation for this deformation is therefore that it is due to the presence of a cooling magma chamber. The estimated surface displacements from InSAR can be used to constrain the pressure change. However, because the resolution of the inferred magma chamber is poor and the elastic/rheological properties are not known, we do not have a unique solution. More insight into the geometry and rock properties can be gained using seismic interferometry (SI); cross-correlation of natural signals can be used to generate seismic records that simulate active sources, allowing tomographic analysis. For the SI processing we use seismic data acquired during 2005 at 30 stations sparsely distributed around the Torfajökull area. We divide the ambient noise recorded at two stations in portions of 1h, cross-correlate the corresponding portions and then sum the correlated results. The result is a retrieved surface-wave part of the Green's function between the two stations. This is repeated between all pairs of stations. Careful assessment of the quality of the retrieved Green's functions for small time windows allows analysis of the microseism

  2. Dynamics of three outlet glaciers on the Vatnajökull ice cap reconstructed through landsystem analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclachlan, John; Lee, Rebecca; Eyles, Carolyn

    2016-04-01

    Landsystem analysis uses genetically related landform-sediment assemblages, known as landsystem tracts, as evidence in the reconstruction of the geomorphic evolution of a landscape and subsequently provides further insight into the morphogenetic record. When used in conjunction with sedimentological data, results from this methodology are used to inform models of the subglacial conditions through the movement characteristics of the overriding glacier. Ultimately landsystem analysis allows modern systems to be used as analogues for ancient systems, which in turn facilitates more accurate paleoenvironmental reconstruction of ancient glacial sediments. The proglacial till plains, consisting of subglacial, proglacial and supraglacial sediments and landforms of three outlet glaciers of the Vatnajökull Ice Cap in southeast Iceland were explored using a combination of remote sensing techniques, geospatial analysis and field investigations. The three glaciers selected for study (Svínafellsjökull, Skaftafellsjökull and Morsárjökull) are separated by small mountain ridges but lie within close spatial proximity, limiting climatic variability on their behavior but allowing for variability in local influences such as variability in valley morphology. Although the three glaciers are sourced by the same ice cap and are within close proximity there are wide variations in the type, distribution and scale of landforms in the proglacial region including the presence of streamlined features, the relative relief of the landforms, and sediment types. Initial mapping of the proglacial region of each glacier was performed using geospatial software to explore and analyze LiDAR data and aerial imagery obtained from the Icelandic Meteorological Office. A high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the proglacial region of each glacier was created from these remotely sensed data to illustrate the spatial distribution and scale of landforms. These features were ground-checked using

  3. On-land distribution and modes of deposition of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, G.; Thordarson, T.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Sverrisdottir, G.; Oddsson, B.; Oskarsson, B. V.; Jonsdottir, I.; Oladottir, B.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Hartley, M. E.; Meara, R.

    2010-12-01

    The 14 April-22 May 2010 eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, unexpectedly caused widespread disruption to aviation in Europe. The principal reason for this disruption was the large proportion of fine ash generated by the eruption coupled with the atmospheric conditions at the time. Although plume dispersal could be depicted by atmospheric dispersal models, modelling of ash concentration and grain size distribution in the plume was difficult due to poorly defined input (i.e. source) parameters and limited knowledge of atmospheric ash-removal rates. Mapping and sampling of the eruption products is an essential undertaking for quantitative determination of critical eruption parameters (e.g. erupted magma volume, magma discharge) and underpin other research on an eruption. Three main phases are distinguished during the 39 day-long 2010 summit eruption: a) an initial subglacial phase followed by subaerial explosive activity on April 14, lasting about four days and featuring semi-continuous phreatomagmatic explosions; b) a two-week-long (19 April-3 May) phase of weak magmatic explosions and lava emission; and c) a renewed moderately intense, sustained Vulcanian-type activity lasting 21 days. The erupted magma was trachy-andesite. In the initial phase fragmentation was intense, with about 50% of the tephra falling 20-55 km from the vents being ash finer than 63 µm in diameter. This near-field deposition of extremely fine ash was induced by ash aggregation and hail-formation within the plume. In the second phase the tephra fallout was minor, characterized by highly vesicular contorted platy pumices ranging in size from coarse ash to medium lapilli. Phase 3 was marked by renewed generation of extremely fine ash, although significantly less than in the initial phase. The heaviest tephra fall was limited to the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap where maximum measured thickness of the tephra blanket outside of the vent ramparts is close to seven metres. The lowlands

  4. Pressure and temperature estimates of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiding, J. K.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2010-12-01

    The Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, began erupting March 20 2010, following almost 200 years of quiescence. The eruption, which was preceded by 4 months of precursory activity, evolved from an initial phase of effusive activity at the pass of Fimmvörduháls through an explosive phase underneath the Eyjafjallajökull glacier, until the cessation of activity in late May. Eruptive products indicate pervasive magma mingling between two endmembers: An early mildly alkaline basalt and a late-stage trachyandesite with 46 wt% and approximately 60 wt% SiO2, respectively. Phenocryst compositions vary greatly with olivines ranging from Fo80 to Fo46, feldspars vary from An69 to An9, and Mg-number of clinopyroxene range from 72 down to 19. We examine mineral and co-existing melt compositions from tephra samples to place preliminary constraints on magma storage depths and crystallization temperatures during the eruption. P-T estimates were computed from the pyroxene + liquid and plagioclase + liquid thermobarometers of Putirka (2008). To avoid crystal-whole-rock pairs unlikely to yield valid P-T estimates, several data filters were employed. Preliminary results show that the early basaltic eruptions at Fimmvörduháls have magmatic temperatures of 1160 (± 25°C) and a narrow temperature range (< 30°C) at any given depth. In contrast, trachyandesite products crystallized at lower temperatures (1020-1060°C) deduced from the most primitive melt-mineral compositions ranging down to 950 °C (± 25°C) for the most evolved plagioclase compositions (An9). Pressure estimates based on clinopyroxene geobarometry (Putirka, 2008) yield an average pressure of 5.1 kbar (± 1.1 kbar) for the basaltic tephra and lower pressure (3.8 kbar) for the trachyandesite. However, the trachyandesite shows larger scatter in calculated pressures ranging down to 1 kbar. The maximum pressure calculated here from the basaltic tephra is consistent with MELTS modelling pointing towards pressures about or

  5. Interaction between volcanic plumes and wind during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, M. J.; Hogg, A. J.; Phillips, J. C.; Sparks, R. S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of volcanic source mass flux, currently deduced from observations of plume height, are crucial for ash dispersion models for aviation and population hazard. This study addresses the role of the atmospheric wind in determining the height at which volcanic plumes spread in the atmosphere and the relationship between source mass flux and plume height in a wind field. We present a predictive model of volcanic plumes that describes the bending over of the plume trajectory in a crosswind and show that model predictions are in accord with a dataset of historic eruptions if the profile of atmospheric wind shear is described. The wind restricts the rise height of volcanic plumes such that obtaining equivalent rise heights for a plume in a windy environment would require an order of magnitude increase in the source mass flux over a plume in a quiescent environment. Our model calculations are used to calibrate a semi-empirical relationship between the plume height and the source mass flux that explicitly includes the atmospheric wind speed. We demonstrate that the model can account for the variations in plume height observed during the first explosive phase of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption using independently measured wind speeds and show that changes in the observed plume height are better explained by changing meteorology than abrupt changes in the source mass flux. This study shows that unless the wind is properly accounted for, estimates of the source mass flux during an explosive eruption are likely to be very significant underpredictions of the volcanic source conditions.

  6. Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, Patrick; Bocquet, Marc; Royer, Philippe; Winiarek, Victor; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Labazuy, Philippe; Gouhier, Mathieu; Lardier, MéLody; Cariou, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Following the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull on the 14 April 2010, ground-based N2-Raman lidar (GBL) measurements were used to trace the temporal evolution of the ash plume from 16 to 20 April 2010 above the southwestern suburb of Paris. The nighttime overpass of the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization onboard Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite (CALIPSO/CALIOP) on 17 April 2010 was an opportunity to complement GBL observations. The plume shape retrieved from GBL has been used to assess the size range of the particles size. The lidar-derived aerosol mass concentrations (PM) have been compared with model-derived PM concentrations held in the Eulerian model Polair3D transport model, driven by a source term inferred from the SEVIRI sensor onboard Meteosat satellite. The consistency between model and ground-based wind lidar and CALIOP observations has been checked. The spatial and temporal structures of the ash plume as estimated by each instrument and by the Polair3D simulations are in agreement. The ash plume was associated with a mean aerosol optical thickness of 0.1 ± 0.06 and 0.055 ± 0.053 for GBL (355 nm) and CALIOP (532 nm), respectively. Such values correspond to ash mass concentrations of ˜400 ± 160 and ˜720 ± 670 μg m-3, respectively, within the ash plume, which was lower than 0.5 km in width. The relative uncertainty is ˜75% and mainly due to the assessment of the specific cross-section assuming an aerosol density of 2.6 g cm-3. The simulated ash plume is smoother leading to integrated mass of the same order of magnitude (between 50 and 250 mg m-2).

  7. Characterization of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash particles and a protocol for rapid risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, S. R.; Hassenkam, T.; Nedel, S.; Bovet, N.; Eiriksdottir, E. S.; Alfredsson, H. A.; Hem, C. P.; Balogh, Z. I.; Dideriksen, K.; Oskarsson, N.; Sigfusson, B.; Larsen, G.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2011-01-01

    On April 14, 2010, when meltwaters from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier mixed with hot magma, an explosive eruption sent unusually fine-grained ash into the jet stream. It quickly dispersed over Europe. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. Concerns also arose about health risks from fallout, because ash can transport acids as well as toxic compounds, such as fluoride, aluminum, and arsenic. Studies on ash are usually made on material collected far from the source, where it could have mixed with other atmospheric particles, or after exposure to water as rain or fog, which would alter surface composition. For this study, a unique set of dry ash samples was collected immediately after the explosive event and compared with fresh ash from a later, more typical eruption. Using nanotechniques, custom-designed for studying natural materials, we explored the physical and chemical nature of the ash to determine if fears about health and safety were justified and we developed a protocol that will serve for assessing risks during a future event. On single particles, we identified the composition of nanometer scale salt coatings and measured the mass of adsorbed salts with picogram resolution. The particles of explosive ash that reached Europe in the jet stream were especially sharp and abrasive over their entire size range, from submillimeter to tens of nanometers. Edges remained sharp even after a couple of weeks of abrasion in stirred water suspensions. PMID:21518890

  8. Atmospheric ice nuclei in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingemer, H.; Klein, H.; Ebert, M.; Haunold, W.; Bundke, U.; Herrmann, T.; Kandler, K.; Müller-Ebert, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Judt, A.; Wéber, A.; Nillius, B.; Ardon-Dryer, K.; Levin, Z.; Curtius, J.

    2012-01-01

    We have sampled atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) and aerosol in Germany and in Israel during spring 2010. IN were analyzed by the static vapor diffusion chamber FRIDGE, as well as by electron microscopy. During the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption of April 2010 we have measured the highest ice nucleus number concentrations (>600 l-1) in our record of 2 yr of daily IN measurements in central Germany. Even in Israel, located about 5000 km away from Iceland, IN were as high as otherwise only during desert dust storms. The fraction of aerosol activated as ice nuclei at -18 °C and 119% rhice and the corresponding area density of ice-active sites per aerosol surface were considerably higher than what we observed during an intense outbreak of Saharan dust over Europe in May 2008. Pure volcanic ash accounts for at least 53-68% of the 239 individual ice nucleating particles that we collected in aerosol samples from the event and analyzed by electron microscopy. Volcanic ash samples that had been collected close to the eruption site were aerosolized in the laboratory and measured by FRIDGE. Our analysis confirms the relatively poor ice nucleating efficiency (at -18 °C and 119% ice-saturation) of such "fresh" volcanic ash, as it had recently been found by other workers. We find that both the fraction of the aerosol that is active as ice nuclei as well as the density of ice-active sites on the aerosol surface are three orders of magnitude larger in the samples collected from ambient air during the volcanic peaks than in the aerosolized samples from the ash collected close to the eruption site. From this we conclude that the ice-nucleating properties of volcanic ash may be altered substantially by aging and processing during long-range transport in the atmosphere, and that global volcanism deserves further attention as a potential source of atmospheric ice nuclei.

  9. SEVIRI 4D-var assimilation analysing the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    We present first results of four dimensional variational (4D-var) data assimilation analysis applying SEVIRI observations to the Eulerian regional chemistry and aerosol transport model EURAD-IM (European Air Pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model). Optimising atmospheric dispersion models in terms of volcanic ash transport predictions by observations is especially essential for the aviation industry and associated interests. Remote sensing satellite observations are instrumental for ash detection and monitoring. We choose volcanic ash column retrievals of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) because as infrared instrument on the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation it delivers measurements with high temporal resolution during day and night. The retrieval method relies on the reverse absorption effect. In the framework of the national initiative ESKP (Earth System Knowledge Platform) and the European ACTRIS-2 (Aerosol, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure) project, we developed new modules (forward and adjoint) within the EURAD-IM, which are able to process SEVIRI ash column data as observational input to the 4D-var system. The focus of the 4D-var analysis is on initial value optimisation of the volcanic ash clouds that were emitted during the explosive Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. This eruption caused high public interest because of air traffic closures and it was particularly well observed from many different observation systems all over Europe. Considering multiple observation periods simultaneously in one assimilation window generates a continuous trajectory in the phase space and ensures that past observations are considered within their uncertainties. Results are validated mainly by lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) observations, both ground and satellite based.

  10. 3D-ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography of Snæfellsjökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Lupi, Matteo; Mordret, Aurélien; Jakobsdóttir, Steinunn S.; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-05-01

    From May to September 2013, 21 seismic stations were deployed around the Snæfellsjökull volcano, Iceland. We cross-correlate the five months of seismic noise and measure the Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves to gain more information about the geological structure of the Snæfellsjökull volcano. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of seismic wave anomalies in the first 6 km of crust. We regionalize the group velocity dispersion curves into 2-D velocity maps between 0.9 and 4.8 s. With a neighborhood algorithm we then locally invert the velocity maps to obtain accurate shear-velocity models down to 6 km depth. Our study highlights three seismic wave anomalies. The deepest, located between approximately 3.3 and 5.5 km depth, is a high velocity anomaly, possibly representing a solidified magma chamber. The second anomaly is also a high velocity anomaly east of the central volcano that starts at the surface and reaches approximately 2.5 km depth. It may represent a gabbroic intrusion or a dense swarm of inclined magmatic sheets (similar to the dike swarms found in the ophiolites), typical of Icelandic volcanic systems. The third anomaly is a low velocity anomaly extending up to 1.5 km depth. This anomaly, located directly below the volcanic edifice, may be interpreted either as a shallow magmatic reservoir (typical of Icelandic central volcanoes), or alternatively as a shallow hydrothermal system developed above the cooling magmatic reservoir.

  11. Smectites and zeolites in ash from the 2010 summit eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paque, M.; Detienne, M.; Maters, E. C.; Delmelle, P.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrothermal alteration minerals are often incorporated in volcanic ash from phreatic and phreatomagmatic activity. Here we assess the presence and abundance of such minerals in the ash materials produced during the April-May 2010 initial phreatomagmatic ( phase I) and subsequent magmatic ( phases II and III) eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland. The results of X-ray diffraction analyses reveal significant quantities of smectites (up to 4 wt%, mainly as saponite) and zeolites (up to 7 wt%) in ash from phase I. While a minor amount of smectites (<0.5 wt%) is present in ash from the subsequent weak explosive activity ( phase II), both smectites and zeolites are absent in phase III ash. This material was generated following abrupt rejuvenation of explosive activity in the absence of magma-ice/water interaction. Smectites and zeolites in phase I ash result primarily from scouring of altered volcanic rocks in the subsurface, although some may derive also from water-rock interaction within the summit ice cauldrons through which fragmented magma was injected. We show that incorporation of smectites and zeolites in phase I ash can explain its anomalously high specific surface area. Further, the presence of these minerals in ash may enhance its ability to act as ice nuclei as well as favour particle aggregation processes in the volcanic plume/cloud. Finally, the Eyjafjallajökull eruption represents another case in which ash fallout acted as an exogenic source of 2:1-type clay minerals in volcanic soils.

  12. Effects of Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Ash on Innate Immune System Responses and Bacterial Growth in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Powers, Linda S.; Borcherding, Jennifer A.; Caraballo, Juan C.; Mudunkotuwa, Imali; Peate, David W.; Walters, Katherine; Thompson, Jay M.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Comellas, Alejandro P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: On 20 March 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted for the first time in 190 years. Despite many epidemiological reports showing effects of volcanic ash on the respiratory system, there are limited data evaluating cellular mechanisms involved in the response to ash. Epidemiological studies have observed an increase in respiratory infections in subjects and populations exposed to volcanic eruptions. Methods: We physicochemically characterized volcanic ash, finding various sizes of particles, as well as the presence of several transition metals, including iron. We examined the effect of Eyjafjallajökull ash on primary rat alveolar epithelial cells and human airway epithelial cells (20–100 µg/cm2), primary rat and human alveolar macrophages (5–20 µg/cm2), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) growth (3 µg/104 bacteria). Results: Volcanic ash had minimal effect on alveolar and airway epithelial cell integrity. In alveolar macrophages, volcanic ash disrupted pathogen-killing and inflammatory responses. In in vitro bacterial growth models, volcanic ash increased bacterial replication and decreased bacterial killing by antimicrobial peptides. Conclusions: These results provide potential biological plausibility for epidemiological data that show an association between air pollution exposure and the development of respiratory infections. These data suggest that volcanic ash exposure, while not seriously compromising lung cell function, may be able to impair innate immunity responses in exposed individuals. PMID:23478268

  13. Glacier retreat and projected river regime changes in the hydrologically highly-coupled Virkisjökull catchment, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flett, Verity; Kirkbride, Martin; Black, Andrew; Everest, Jez; MacDonald, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Virkisjökull, an outlet glacier of the Oræfajökull icecap in SE Iceland, currently has 60% glacier cover, though this is reducing due to glacier retreat. Intensive monitoring over the last 4 years includes measurement of measuring ice ablation, proglacial discharge, dye-tracing of flow pathways, and deployment of three automatic weather stations at altitudes up to 880 m. These data calibrate a distributed hydrological model (WaSIM) to project potential river regime during stages of glacier retreat. Results show: (1) glacier hypsometry sensitises the catchment to a disproportionately rapid increase in runoff as the snowline rises onto a gentle ice cap resulting in in a potential annual increase in river discharge of up to 37% (2) a dominantly channelized glacial drainage system in all seasons with a rapid runoff response to melt: englacial flow of 0.58 m s-1 is comparable to the proglacial river velocity; and (3) longer-term, reduced glacier cover and snow storage will lead to a discharge regime dominated by short-term precipitation events in all seasons, and a reduced influence of the seasonal meltwater discharge peak. The study demonstrates the importance of glacier hypsometry above the present ELA as an influence on catchment hydrological response to potential climate warming.

  14. Episodic expansion of Drangajökull, Vestfirðir, Iceland, over the last 3 ka culminating in its maximum dimension during the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harning, David J.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Anderson, Leif

    2016-11-01

    Non-linear climate change is often linked to rapid changes in ocean circulation, especially around the North Atlantic. As the Polar Front fluctuated its latitudinal position during the Holocene, Iceland's climate was influenced by both the warm Atlantic currents and cool, sea ice-bearing Arctic currents. Drangajökull is Iceland's fifth largest ice cap. Climate proxies in lake sediment cores, dead vegetation emerging from beneath the ice cap, and moraine segments identified in a new DEM constrain the episodic expansion of the ice cap over the past 3 ka. Collectively, our data show that Drangajökull was advancing at ∼320 BCE, 180 CE, 560 CE, 950 CE and 1400 CE and in a state of recession at ∼450 CE, 1250 CE and after 1850 CE. The Late Holocene maximum extent of Drangajökull occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), occupying 262 km2, almost twice its area in 2011 CE and ∼20% larger than recent estimates of its LIA dimensions. Biological proxies from the sediment fill in a high- and low-elevation lake suggest limited vegetation and soil cover at high elevations proximal to the ice cap, whereas thick soil cover persisted until ∼750 CE at lower elevations near the coast. As Drangajökull expanded into the catchment of the high-elevation lake beginning at ∼950 CE, aquatic productivity diminished, following a trend of regional cooling supported by proxy records elsewhere in Iceland. Correlations between episodes of Drangajökull's advance and the documented occurrence of drift ice on the North Icelandic Shelf suggest export and local production of sea ice influenced the evolution of NW Iceland's Late Holocene climate.

  15. Geomorphology and the Little Ice Age extent of the Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland, with focus on its three surge-type outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Schomacker, Anders; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2014-05-01

    Detailed geomorphological maps from the forefields of three surging outlets of the Drangajökull ice cap, northwest Iceland, are presented. The maps are based on field studies in 2011-2013, high resolution orthorectified aerial photographs recorded in 2005-2006, and airborne LiDAR data from 2011. The maps cover an area of about 40-60 km2 each. Furthermore, we present an overview map that covers the area surrounding the Drangajökull ice cap. Landforms and sediments were manually registered in a geographic information system (ESRI ArcGIS 10). We mapped glacial landforms such as flutes, ice-sculpted bedrock, hummocky moraine, kame terraces, and moraines. Fluvial landforms include outwash plains/sandur, pitted sandur, and eskers. In addition raised beaches were mapped. The Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum extent of Drangajökull and its outlet glaciers are fingerprinted by surficial till deposits and freshly glacially scoured bedrock. Sediments distal to the LIA deposits were recorded and consist mainly of late Weichselian and early Holocene sediments and locally weathered bedrock. Periglacial activity is demonstrated by patterned ground, mainly occurring on the 500-700 m high plateaux, and three rock glaciers. At least 3-4 surge events are described from each of the outlet glaciers, occurring over the last three centuries. In contrast to most other surge-type outlets from Icelandic ice caps, the Drangajökull outlets are confined within valleys, which affect the forefield geomorphology. Glaciofluvial landforms, moraines, and a thin sheet of till with numerous boulders are characteristic for the forefields of the Drangajökull outlets.

  16. A 300 Year Surge History of the Drangajökull Ice Cap, Northwest Iceland: Surge Frequency and Little Ice Age Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, S.; Schomacker, A.; Ingolfsson, O.; Gudmundsdottir, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 300 years, each of the three surge-type outlet glaciers of the Drangajökull ice cap in north-west Iceland has surged 2-4 times. There is valuable historical information available on the surge frequencies since the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum because of the proximity of the surging outlets, Reykjarfjarðarjökull, Leirufjarðarjökull and Kaldalónsjökull to farms and pastures. We have reconstructed the surge history of the Drangajökull ice cap, based on geomorphological mapping, sedimentary studies and review of historical records. Geomorphological mapping of the glacier forefields revealed twice as many end-moraines than previously recognized. This indicates a higher surge frequency than previously perceived. A clear relationship between the surge frequency and climate cannot be established, however, surges were more frequent during the 19th century and the earliest 20th century compared to the cool 18th century and the warmer late part of the 20th century. We have estimated the magnitude of the LIA maximum surge events by reconstruction of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that can be compared with modern DEMs. As reference points for the digital elevation modelling we used the recently mapped lateral moraines and historical information on the exposure timing of nunataks. During the LIA maximum surge events the outlet glaciers extended 3-3.5 km further down-valley than at present. Their ice volumes were at least 2-2.5 km3 greater than after their most recent surges in the beginning of the 21st century.

  17. Weathering of the Öræfajökull 1362 and the Vatnaöldur 1477 tephra and their impact on soils south of Vatnajökull, SE-Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatotzky, Theresa; Ottner, Franz; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2015-04-01

    Icelandic soils are highly influenced by volcanic activity and most have developed from igneous rocks of basaltic composition. Volcanism has impacted the settlement south of Vatnajökull since the area was colonised in the late 9th century AD. The most devastating eruption occurred in Öræfajökull volcano in 1362. The eruption was explosive and produced large amounts of rhyolitic tephra, which at present can be found in soil profiles as a light coloured layer with thickness of up to tens of cm. Another important tephra layer preserved in the soils of this area is the basaltic tephra from a Vatnaöldur eruption in 1477, within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system. We investigated two wetland sites in Kálfafell (64°10,749'N, 15°53,236'W) and Reynivellir (64°7,731'N, 16°3,245'W) in the lowlands close to the sea, south of Vatnajökull in SE-Iceland. The predominant climate in the study area is humid and mild with cool summers and mild winters with a mean annual temperature of approximately 5°C and a lot of precipitation. The soils can be classified as Histosols with a large quantity of organic matter and show clearly formed tephra layers. This provides a unique opportunity to study not only the weathering of tephra, but also the formation and development of soils originated from these tephra layers. Tephra and soil samples were analysed concerning their chemical properties, mineralogy and a special focus on the clay content. Complementary studies regarding the soil organic matter (SOM) were done and entered into the question of how the organic carbon is bound in the soil. We present the results of the weathering of the two different tephra layers and their contrasting mineralogy. In addition, the weathering and transformation of the minerals in the soils are presented. This approach enables comparison between the weathering behaviour of tephra of different composition and their impact on soil.

  18. Reawakening of a volcano: Activity beneath Eyjafjallajökull volcano from 1991 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Slunga, Ragnar

    2015-10-01

    The ice-capped Eyjafjallajökull volcano, south Iceland, had been dormant for 170 years when the first signs of reawakening of the volcano were captured by seismic and geodetic measurements in 1994. These were the first clear observed signs of unrest followed by 16 years of intermittent magmatic unrest culminating in 2010 when two eruptions broke out on the flank and at the summit. We analyze seismic data from 1991 through 2008 and GPS data from 1992 to May 2009 to infer magma movements beneath the volcano. The relocated earthquakes reveal an overall pipe-like pattern northeast of the summit crater, sporadically mapping the pathway of magma from the base of the crust towards an intrusion in the upper crust. During the study period, three major seismic swarms were recorded. Two of them, in 1994 and 1999-2000, occurred in the upper and intermediate crust and accompanied crustal deformation centered at the southeastern flank. No uplift was detected during the 19- to 25-km-deep 1996 swarm, near the crust-mantle boundary, but the horizontal, ~ E-W oriented T-axes indicate a period of tension/opening, suggesting magma intruding up into the base of the crust. The GPS measured deformation during 1999-2000 can be modeled as intrusion of a horizontal, circular sill with volume of 0.030 ± 0.007 km3 at 5.0 ± 1.3 km depth. The less constrained 4.5- to 5-km-deep sill model for the 1994 episode indicates a three times smaller intruded volume (0.011 km3) than during 1999-2000. In the years between/following the intrusions, contraction was observed at the southeastern flank. The contraction from 2000.5 to 2009.3 can be fitted by a circular sill model with a volume contraction of - 0.0015 ± 0.0003 km3/year at 5.5 ± 2.0 km depth. The less well constrained model for 1994.7 to 1998.6 gives a volume contraction of -(0.0009-0.0010) km3 at a fixed depth of 5 km. The accumulated volume changes (~- 0.013 km3 for the second period, ~ 0.0037 km3 for the first period) are much larger than

  19. Seismogenic ';trapdoors' during magma intrusion at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. S.; Tarasewicz, J.; Brandsdottir, B.; Schonnman, C.

    2013-12-01

    Relocated earthquake hypocentres for >1000 microearthquakes that occurred prior to and during the 2010 fissure and summit eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland map out magma conduits from the upper mantle (30 km depth) to the surface. During the two weeks prior to the first, flank eruption, hypocentre locations lie predominantly in horizontally separated clusters at 3-4 km below sea level. They represent the filling with magma of an inflating sill beneath the eastern flank of the volcano, from which feeder dykes propagated laterally and vertically toward the flank eruption site three days prior to the eruption onset. The majority of events within some clusters of up to >100 earthquakes exhibit similar waveforms and identical patterns of P-wave first-motion polarities recorded across the monitoring network. In the clearest example, 104 out of 105 events in a single cluster appear to have the same source mechanism based on P-wave first-motion polarities and waveform similarity. These observations suggest that the clusters of similar events may comprise many earthquakes generated by source processes that have the same orientation of failure, perhaps even on the same rupture plane, in fixed locations that are repeatedly active. The epicentral clustering and similarity of source mechanisms suggest that much of the seismicity was generated at approximately static constrictions to magma flow in an inflating sill. These constrictions may act as a form of pressure valve or ';trapdoor' in the country rock, which ruptures when the melt pressure exceeds a critical level, then reseals after a pulse of melt has passed through. We infer that the magmatic intrusion causing the seismicity was likely to be a laterally inflating sill at 3-4 km depth, with seismogenic pinch-points occurring between aseismic compartments of the sill, or between adjacent magma lobes as they inflate. A second eruption followed from the summit, 8 km west of the first eruption site. During the

  20. Eyjafjallajökull2010 - The activity of the eruption plume during the first 2 weeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurősson, Árni; Pálmason, Bolli; Hlíőar Jensen, Esther; Petersen, Gudrun Nina; Björnsson, Halldór; Şorsteinsson, Hróbjartur; Arason, Şórőur

    2010-05-01

    On 14 April 2010 an eruption started in Eyjafjallajökull, in southern Iceland. This was an explosive eruption in the caldera, beneath the glacier. During the first two weeks the eruption went through two phases, an explosive phase with much tephra and ash production and a calmer phase with less productivity and some lava production. During the explosive phase 14-17 April, the plume altititude was about 5-7 km but occasionally increased up to 8 km height, there was lightning activity in the plume and the material produced was mainly ash and tephra. It is estimated that the production was peaked at about 750 tons/s. The local ash fall on 17 April was the worst by far for the local community to the south of the volcano as about a 1 km thick ash cloud flowed almost continuously from the volcano and over the region. During this phase the upper level winds over Iceland were strong, northwesterly 40-50 m/s, and the emitted ash was advected southeastward toward northwestern Europe. This caused major disruption in air traffic. During the second phase 18-29 April there was a reduced net output form the volcano, lava production was estimated as 10-30 tons/s and tephra and ash production of less than 10 tons/s. The height of the plume was estimated as 3-5 km. Local ash fall predictions were made for the areas within a 500 km radius from the eruption site and prediction maps published on the website of the Icelandic Met Office. Information on local ash fall were collected from synoptic weather stations but also from the general public and the media. An internet web registration form was made public and advertised. In 6 days 95 reports of ash fall were made. This information together with other ground observations and remote sense observations are important for validations of ash fall prediction, near field and far field, as well as ensuring that the impact of the volcanic eruption is well understood, in a geological, geophysical and biological sense but also the societal

  1. A theoretical model of drumlin formation based on observations at Múlajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Neal R.; McCracken, Reba; Zoet, Lucas; Benediktsson, Ívar; Schomacker, Anders; Johnson, Mark; Finlayson, Andrew; Phillips, Emrys; Everest, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Theoretical models of drumlin formation have generally been developed in isolation from observations in modern drumlin forming environments - a major limitation on the empiricism necessary to confidently formulate models and test them. Observations at a rare modern drumlin field exposed by the recession of the Icelandic surge-type glacier, Múlajökull, allow an empirically-grounded and physically-based model of drumlin formation to be formulated and tested. Till fabrics based on anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and clast orientations, along with stratigraphic observations and results of ground penetrating radar, indicate that drumlin relief results from basal till deposition on drumlins and erosion between them. These data also indicate that surges cause till deposition both on and between drumlins and provide no evidence of the longitudinally compressive or extensional strain in till that would be expected if flux divergence in a deforming bed were significant. Over 2000 measurements of till density, together with consolidation tests on the till, indicate that effective stresses on the bed were higher between drumlins than within them. This observation agrees with evidence that subglacial water drainage during normal flow of the glacier is through channels in low areas between drumlins and that crevasse swarms, which reduce total normal stresses on the bed, are coincident with drumlins. In the new model slip of ice over a bed with a sinusoidal perturbation, crevasse swarms, and flow of subglacial water toward R-channels that bound the bed undulation during periods of normal flow result in effective stresses that increase toward channels and decrease from the stoss to the lee sides of the undulation. This effective-stress pattern causes till entrainment and erosion by regelation infiltration (Rempel, 2008, JGR, 113) that peaks at the heads of incipient drumlins and near R-channels, while bed shear is inhibited by effective stresses too high to allow

  2. New land, new opportunitites. Vegetation succession and soil formation within the heterogenous moraines formed by the Skaftafellsjökull and Breiðamerkurjökull outlet glaciers in Southeast Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Lal, Rattan

    2016-04-01

    Retreating glaciers expose heterogenous landscapes where primary vegetation succession becomes active. These glacier forelands are excellent sites to study the effects of landscape on vegetation establishment and the commencing soil formation. Where the location of the glacier terminus is known in time, a chronosequence can be established, thus allowing for assessing the role of time on both vegetation succession and soil development. In Iceland, glaciers have been more or less retreating since the end of the Little Ice Age in ~1890, exposing thick moraines mostly composed of ground basaltic material of volcanic origin. In a research from southeast Iceland, soil formation was studied in front of two outlet glaciers, Skaftafellsjökull and Breiðamerkurjökull, and the developing soil properties analyzed with regards to the age of the surface, vegetation, avifauna and topography. At Skaftafellsjökull, soils were sampled along three moraines of known age. The vegetation was dominated by mosses but dwarf shrubs and shrubs (willows and birch) characterized the older moraines. Vegetation cover and plant group cover was affected by the profile position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, toeslope) and the shape of the topographic features (ridge, slope, depression). The cover was significantly greater in toeslopes and footslopes when compared to the backslopes and featured significantly more shrub cover. The vegetation cover was significantly denser in depressions than on ridges and slopes, predominantly comprising mosses and shrubs. On the other hand, macro-lichens predominated on ridges. The vegetation cover and soil properties showed the strongest relation between total vegetation cover, cover of mosses, macro-lichens and dwarf shrubs. The concentration of SOC, N and ammonium oxalate extractable Al increased significantly with increase in vegetation cover and showed similar trends of increase in the cover by mosses, macro-lichens and dwarf shrubs. Profile

  3. Retrieval of physical properties of volcanic ash using Meteosat: A case study from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Peter N.; Cooke, Michael C.; Saunders, Roger W.

    2012-10-01

    A robust method to detect volcanic ash, using data from the infrared channels of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager instrument mounted on-board Meteosat Second Generation, is presented. The simultaneous retrieval of quantitative volcanic ash physical properties using a one-dimensional variational analysis framework is also described. These methods are demonstrated using data from the Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010. Sensitivity experiments are presented which show that the retrieved quantities are strongly dependent on the choice of ash refractive index data used in the retrieval scheme's radiative transfer model. Validation of the retrieved properties is carried out against lidar data, which demonstrate that the retrievals are realistic, and which indicate the most suitable refractive index data sets to use for these cases.

  4. Using a two-step matrix solution to reduce the run time in KULL's magnetic diffusion package

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, T A; Kolev, T V

    2010-12-17

    Recently a Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) package has been added to the KULL code. In order to be compatible with the underlying hydrodynamics algorithm, a new sub-zonal magnetics discretization was developed that supports arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral zones. This flexibility comes at the cost of many more unknowns per zone - approximately ten times more for a hexahedral mesh. We can eliminate some (or all, depending on the dimensionality) of the extra unknowns from the global matrix during assembly by using a Schur complement approach. This trades expensive global work for cache-friendly local work, while still allowing solution for the full system. Significant improvements in the solution time are observed for several test problems.

  5. Fractionation and Mobility of Thallium in Volcanic Ashes after Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Karbowska, Bozena; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash contains thallium (Tl), which is highly toxic to the biosphere. The aim of this study was to determine the Tl concentration in fractions of volcanic ash samples originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. A sequential extraction scheme allowed for a study of element migration in the environment. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a flow measuring system was selected as the analytical method to determine Tl content. The highest average content of Tl in volcanic ash was determined in the fraction entrapped in the aluminosilicate matrix (0.329 µg g(-1)), followed by the oxidizable fraction (0.173 µg g(-1)). The lowest content of Tl was found in the water soluble fraction (0.001 µg g(-1)); however, this fraction is important due to the fact that Tl redistribution among all the fractions occurs through the aqueous phase.

  6. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic summit eruption: evidences from ash-leachates analysis and ground deposition fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Aiuppa, A.; Bertagnini, A.; Bonadonna, C.; Cioni, R.; Pedone, M.; Pistolesi, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption was an extraordinary event in that it led to widespread over Europe. Volcanic processes which lead to eruptions can be investigated by monitoring a variety of parameters, including the composition of ash leachates. Fine-grained tephra erupted from active vents, and transported through volcanic plumes, can adsorbs, and therefore rapidly scavenge, volatile elements such as S, halogens, and metal species in the form of soluble salts adhering to ash surfaces. Analysis of such water-soluble phases is a suitable complement for the remote sensing of volcanic gases at inaccessible volcanoes, like Eyjafjallajökull. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption developed in four main phases, whose difference in gas chemistry and products has been marked in ash-leachates data too. The recurrent ash fallout provided a unique opportunity to characterize the compositional features of ash leachates, and to identify their relation (if any) with the eruptive activity styles of the volcano. By these considerations, we report on the chemical composition of leachates of 20 volcanic ash samples deposited during the most explosive Eyjafjallajökull activities (from 14 April to 8 May) and during the lava fountaining event (on 26th March 2010). We found that ash-leachate solutions are dominated - among cations - by Na and Ca, while they display nearly equal S : Cl : F abundances (mean S/Cl and S/F molar ratios of 0.85 and 0.33, respectively), as characteristic of divergent-plate and within-plate volcanism. The strong correlations between leached Ca - F , Ca - SO4, and Na - Cl (r2 = 0.7 - 0.9), suggest that fluorite, anhydrite, and halite are the most likely soluble surface minerals formed in the plume (and therefore leached during our experiments), as also reported at many active volcanoes. Our data bring evidence for variations in S and halogens proportions, with samples from 5 - 8th May which show the highest S/Cl and lowest Cl/F ratios. By combining the

  7. Clastic injection dynamics during ice front oscillations: A case example from Sólheimajökull (Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravier, Edouard; Buoncristiani, Jean-François; Menzies, John; Guiraud, Michel; Portier, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures are being increasingly used as a tool for reconstructing palaeoenvironments and porewater pressure conditions in glacial settings. However, the potential of hydrofractures and clastic injections in the reconstruction of ice dynamics remains poorly constrained. This paper presents the results of a detailed study of a clastic injection network outcropping in the Sólheimajökull forefield (South Iceland). Sedimentological descriptions are combined with microscopic to macroscopic analyses of clastic injection geometries, sediment-fills, and cross-cutting relationships. The 250 m long and 20 m high exposure observed along the east flank of the proglacial braid plain displays alternating glaciofluvial sediments and subglacial tills, illustrating oscillations of the ice margins. These sediments are cross-cut by a dense network of injection composed of dykes propagating upward or downward, sills, and stepped sills. These clastic injections result from processes of hydrofracturing and the sediment-fills in these hydrofractures are generally laminated with an increase of grain-size towards the centre of the injections. These fracture-fill characteristics suggest multiple injection phases within the hydrofractures and an increase of porewater pressure over time. Five main generations of clastic injections showing different senses of propagation and dip directions are determined and are interpreted as forming in different environments. Per descensum clastic dykes dipping down ice demonstrate subglacial hydrofracturing underneath flowing-ice, while sills and per ascensum clastic dykes form in submarginal to marginal environments due to the decrease of ice overburden pressure. The integration of these results with the sedimentological characteristics allows the Holocene ice front oscillations of the Sólheimajökull to be reconstructed. This study demonstrates the importance of hydrofracture systems and their sediment-fills in the

  8. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grimsvötn ash plumes as seen by GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The injection of a volcanic plume introduces a dynamic, localized, short-term heterogeneity in the atmosphere. Satellite-imagery based remote sensing techniques provide good spatial coverage for the detection of such plumes, but slow satellite repeat times (>30 minutes) and cloud cover can delay, if not entirely prevent, the detection. GPS, in turn, provides excellent temporal coverage, but requires favorable satellite-station-geometry such that the signal propagates through the plume if it is to be used for plume detection and analysis. Two methods exist to detect / analyze ash plumes with GPS: (a) Ash-heavy plumes result in signal dispersion and hence a lowered signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A lowered SNR, recorded by some receivers, can provide useful information about the plume, such as location and velocity of ascent. These data can be evaluated directly as they are recorded by the receiver; without the need of solving for a receiver's position. (b) Wet plumes refract the GPS signals piercing the plume and hence induce a propagation delay. When solving for a receiver position GPS analysis tools do not model this localized phase delay effect and solutions for plume-piercing satellites do not fit the data well. This can be exploited for plume analysis such as the estimation of changes to the atmospheric refractivity index. We analyze GPS data of the ~2 month 2010 Eyafjallajökull erption and the week-long 2011 Grímsvötn eruption to infer a first order estimate of plume geometry and its progression. Using SNR and phase delay information, we evaluate the evolution of the partitioning of wet versus dry parts of the plume. During the GPS processing we iteratively solve for phase-delay and position and fix other parameters, hence reducing the mapping of least-squares misfit into position estimates and other parameters. Nearly continuous webcam imagery provides independent observations of first-order plume characteristics for the Eyafjallajökull event.

  9. Infrasonic propagation from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption: Investigating the influence of stratospheric solar tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. N.; Matoza, R. S.; Vergoz, J.; Le Pichon, A.

    2012-11-01

    The stratospheric infrasound duct, formed between Earth's surface and altitudes of ˜50 km, is sensitive to spatiotemporal variations in stratospheric wind speed and temperature. Infrasound recorded at long range from the 2010 summit eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, exhibits temporal variability correlated with diurnal stratospheric solar tidal wind speed variations. Between 18 and 28 April 2010, signal observations at stations BKNI, U.K. (range, 1745 km), and IS18, Greenland (range, 2285 km), exhibit prominent diurnal variations in infrasonic amplitude, bandwidth, back azimuth, and apparent speed, which we identify using the CLEAN spectral analysis algorithm for unevenly sampled time series. Results of 3-D acoustic ray tracing through operational atmospheric specifications indicate that tidal wind speed variations (with amplitudes of ˜20 m/s) can generate diurnal variations in the proportion of the acoustic wavefield propagating within the stratospheric acoustic duct. Range-dependent meteorology is required; propagation modeling using averaged meteorological profiles fails to predict the leakage of acoustic energy out of the stratospheric acoustic duct at times of low observed signal amplitudes. Ray tracing correctly predicts the phase of the observed signal amplitude and apparent speed variations. Diurnal variability in ducting, combined with diurnal variations in ambient noise at the sensors, can explain the observed signal bandwidth variations. Back azimuth variations (observed only along the Eyjafjallajökull to BKNI path) are not predicted by 3-D ray tracing. Tidal variations have implications for models of infrasound array network detection capability and for studies that utilize amplitude and bandwidth measurements to make inferences about the acoustic source.

  10. Time Scale of Gas Accumulation before the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruption (Iceland) from 210Po Radioactive Excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt was emitted during preceding flank eruption. Tephra of the first explosive phase are composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreite, and basalt. The early formed benmoreitic tephra (erupted on 15 and 17 April 2010) had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb [(210Po/210Pb)0= 1.88)] at the time of eruption, and possibly a small 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra. In contrast, the preceding flank eruption produced basalt with (210Po)0 = 0, upon eruption, and the final trachyte (end of May 2010) had lost most of its 210Po during open-system degassing. The 210Po excess in the first erupted benmoreites is interpreted to result from 210Po degassing of basaltic magma and the accumulation of 210Po-enriched gas, either in the upper part of the basaltic intrusion, below the rhyolite-basalt interface, on in the pre-existing residual rhyolitic magma chamber. A model of radon and polonium accumulation in the rhyolitic reservoir, allows calculating the ratio of mass of basalt magma degassing over mass of magma accumulating excess gas. This ratio decreased from 20 to 15 over 2 days, implying zoned magma reservoir, with the uppermost and gas-richest part erupted first. The duration of pre-eruptive gas accumulation in this model is approximately one year. This corresponds closely to the initiation of a seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull, early June 2009, which was the first pre-eruptive signal detected. The coincidence between initiation of gas accumulation at relatively shallow depth and deeper seismicity strongly suggests that the excess gas phase originated from a basalt magma batch intruded at depth, and that this gas phase reached the surface approximately a year later.

  11. Rhyolite volcanism at Öræfajökull Volcano, Iceland - geochemistry, field relations & 40Ar/39Ar geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Angela; Burgess, Ray; McGarvie, David; Smellie, John

    2010-05-01

    Öræfajökull is Iceland's largest stratovolcano, situated at the southern tip of Vatnajökull Glacier in the south east of the island. Its position away from the extensional tectonic forces of the rift zone has enabled the build-up of a substantial edifice 2110m in height. The majority of the volcanic edifice, including its 5km wide caldera is covered by glacial ice, leaving only the southern flanks of the volcano exposed. This area of South East Iceland has been completely glaciated at least 16 times in the last 5 million years (Helgason and Duncan, 2001) and evidence from previous field studies suggests that throughout periods in the geological past, Öræfajökull and the surrounding area were covered by ice to a much greater extent than we see today (Stevenson et al., 2006). The volcano has erupted twice since historical records began, in 1727 and 1362, the latter being one of Iceland's most explosive historical eruptive events producing over 6x109m3 of rhyolitic tephra (Selbekk and Trønnes, 2007). However, the abundance of hyaloclastite present across much of the exposed southern flank of the edifice suggests that Öræfajökull has been at its most active during glacial periods (Prestvik, 1979). The post-eruptive geomorphic evolution of volcanic deposits at Öræfajökull has been dominated by volcano-ice interaction and characteristic glaciovolcanic landforms are evident at many exposures. A multidisciplinary approach combining field observation, geochemistry and isotope geochronology is being utilised in order to establish the geological evolution of the Goðafjall area on the southern flanks of Öraefajökull and a record of regional minimum ice thicknesses during the development of the volcanic edifice throughout the varying climatic conditions of the mid to late Quaternary. Individual eruptive events have been identified in the field using a combination of traditional field mapping techniques and geochemistry, and the units are being dated using 40Ar

  12. Structural evolution triggers a dynamic reduction in active glacier length during rapid retreat: Evidence from Falljökull, SE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Emrys; Finlayson, Andrew; Bradwell, Tom; Everest, Jez; Jones, Lee

    2014-10-01

    Over the past two decades Iceland's glaciers have been undergoing a phase of accelerated retreat set against a backdrop of warmer summers and milder winters. This paper demonstrates how the dynamics of a steep outlet glacier in maritime SE Iceland have changed as it adjusts to recent significant changes in mass balance. Geomorphological evidence from Falljökull, a high-mass turnover temperate glacier, clearly shows that between 1990 and 2004 the ice front was undergoing active retreat resulting in seasonal oscillations of its margin. However, in 2004-2006 this glacier crossed an important dynamic threshold and effectively reduced its active length by abandoning its lower reaches to passive retreat processes. A combination of ice surface structural measurements with radar, lidar, and differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems data are used to show that the upper active section of Falljökull is still flowing forward but has become detached from and is being thrust over its stagnant lower section. The reduction in the active length of Falljökull over the last several years has allowed it to rapidly reequilibrate to regional snowline rise in SE Iceland over the past two decades. It is possible that other steep, mountain glaciers around the world may respond in a similar way to significant changes in their mass balance, rapidly adjusting their active length in response to recent atmospheric warming.

  13. Moment- and Stress-Tensor-Inversion of volcanic earthquakes: Constraining driving forces of the 2010 eruptions at Eyjajfallajökull (Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensch, M.; Brandsdottir, B.; Cesca, S.; Lund, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Eyjafjallajökull stratovolcano is located at the western border of the Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland, west of Mýrdalsjökull (Katla). Since the settlement in Iceland, three eruptions have been documented in Eyjafjallajökull before 2010, in 920, 1612 and 1821-1823. Following three episodes of persistent microearthquake activity in the 1990s, seismicity increased again in spring 2009 under the northeastern flank of Eyjafjallajökull. The activity raised throughout the year and culminated in an intense earthquake swarm in February-March 2010. Simultaneous inflation observed by GPS and InSAR data confirmed magmatic accumulation within the volcano which heralded the subsequent eruptions. In early March, the permanent seismic network around the volcano was augmented by additional stations to enhance hypocentral earthquake locations and to improve the liability of focal solutions. Earthquake locations revealed more than one accumulation zone at shallow (3-5 km) depth beneath the northeastern flank of the volcano throughout March 2010. The seismic clusters migrated eastwards during the week prior to the Fimmvörduháls flank eruption on 21. March. The 14. April summit eruption was preceded by a seismic cluster beneath the central part of the volcano. Focal mechanisms derived from P-wave polarity analysis indicate E-W striking reverse faulting for the February-March earthquake swarm, same as for an intrusion event in 1994. Normal faulting events were observed beneath the summit crater prior to the second eruption, indicating that magma was on its way to the surface. The scope of this study is to constrain driving forces of the intrusive activity beneath Eyjafjallajökull in detail by inverting focal mechanism data towards the stress tensor. This analysis reveals a significant change of the direction of maximum stress between the intrusion phase during the weeks before the eruptions and the final magma ascent prior to the summit eruption. Unstable T

  14. Tracking the seismicity preceding and during the March 2010 Fimmvörduháls fissure eruption and April 2010 summit eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasewicz, J.; Brandsdottir, B.; Hensch, M.; White, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    Using Coalescence Microseismic Mapping (CMM) we have located over 9,000 earthquakes in the period starting two weeks prior to the Fimmvörduháls fissure eruption at the northeastern margin of the Eyjafjallajökull stratovolcano, South Iceland. CMM is an automatic earthquake detection and location program developed at Cambridge University which performs a search in time and space for a best-fit earthquake location. This is done by migrating both P and S wave energy from each seismometer location back into the subsurface and finding an optimum event location where the back-projected energy coalesces within a specified search volume by fitting it to a grid for which P- and S-wave travel times have been calculated from each point in the grid to every seismometer. Following a prolonged period of escalating seismicity we deployed six temporary, three-component, broadband seismometers around the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on 5th March 2010. Data from these seismometers were augmented by data from the eight closest seismometers of the permanent network operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO). During March 2010, sustained seismic activity was concentrated primarily between 3-6 km depth under the northeastern flank of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. To first order, the seismicity migrated eastwards away from the Eyjafjallajökull caldera and towards the first eruption site at Fimmvörduháls during the two weeks prior to eruption. We attribute this to melt movement within the crust. However, clusters in three (or more) discrete locations on the northeastern flank are observed to have been active simultaneously, or with activity alternating between locations, suggesting that magma movement was more complex than a single dyke propagating towards the Fimmvörduháls eruption site. Seismic activity decreased markedly in the two days prior to the onset of the fissure eruption on March 20th. The fissure eruption continued until 12th April and was a pre-cursor to the

  15. Why do models predict such large ash clouds? An investigation using data from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, L. G.; Schwaiger, H.; Denlinger, R. P.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland caused unprecedented disruption of European air operations and a rethinking of current practices on avoidance of volcanic ash by aircraft. During eruptions, Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) are responsible for tracking and communicating ash-cloud location and movement to the aviation community. VAACs rely on numerical models to forecast ash-cloud movement, but models tend to predict larger ash clouds than are observed in satellite images, suggesting sometimes unnecessarily large areas of hazard. This discrepancy led to controversy during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption as pressure to open airspace increased and sporadic airborne measurements failed to find ash at some locations where models predicted it. We compare ash-cloud model simulations from our new Eulerian finite-volume model, Ash3d, with satellite, air, and ground-based measurements obtained by others during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Our objective is to examine the discrepancy between observed and modeled ash-cloud size and to consider possible causes. We used wind data from the NOAA Global Forecast System model, and modeled the period April 14-16 2010 using a plume height of 10 km, eruption rate of 2.5×10^4 kg/s, and a single grain size having fall velocity of 0.01 m/s. We did not calculate diffusion, meaning that all downwind widening of the plume occurred through wind advection and “numerical diffusion”, an artifact in which ash is smeared across cells in the model. Our model results are similar to others that have been publicly released. On April 16, satellite images show the migration of an east-west-oriented crescent-shaped, concave-northward cloud from southern Norway and Sweden southward toward Poland and Germany. By 1800UT, the cloud extended from near the German-Dutch border across the Czech Republic toward the northeast corner of Poland—an area of ~1×10^5 km^2 where ash load exceeded 0.1 T/km^2. In contrast, the modeled

  16. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions: Insights from GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdottir, S.; Sigmundsson, F.; Roberts, M.; Árnadóttir, P.; Ófeigsson, B.; Grapenthin, R.; Sturkell, E.; Villemin, T.; Bennett, R.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-04-01

    Both the Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption in 2010 and Grímsvötn eruption in 2011 resulted in significant disruption of aviation. Three historic (last 1100 years) eruptions are known in Eyjafjallajökull volcano prior to 2010 (in 920, 1612, and 1821-23). In contrast Grímsvötn volcano is Icelands most active volcano with the last three eruptions in 1983, 1998, and 2004. Both volcanoes have been monitored with continuous GPS measurements in the last few years, revealing different style of deformation leading up to and during the eruption. On March 20 2010 a 300 m long fissure opened up on the east flank of Eyjafjallajökull volcano. The eruption was preceded by three months of unrest with increased seismic activity and surface deformation. The deformation pattern leading up to the eruption was both spatially and temporally variable. In January and February 2010 inflation was observed at GPS sites on the flanks of the volcano indicating formations of sills. From February 20 more distant GPS stations showed a small but distinct change in horizontal velocity. Sites started moving in toward the volcano, suggesting deep pressure changes. In early March seismic activity intensified and rapid deformation leading up to the eruption suggested the upward migration of magma. During the flank eruption deformation almost ceased and the volcano remained at an inflated state. On April 14 2010, a more explosive eruption began at the ice-caped summit of the volcano. Rapid deformation toward the summit and subsidence was observed at GPS sites around the volcano during this eruption. In early May a small but significant inflation signal was observed at the GPS sites closest to the summit suggesting a renewed flux of magma from depth but was followed by a continued deformation toward the summit for a few weeks. Around 19 UTC on May 21, 2011 a phreatomagmatic eruption started at Grímsvötn volcano lasting until the May 28. The Grímsvötn volcano lies beneath the Vatnajökul icecap

  17. Using the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption as an example of citizen involvement in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemetti, E. W.

    2010-12-01

    With the dramatic increase in realtime data for volcano monitoring (and many other earth science data) available on the internet, the interest in data analysis and observation by untrained citizens is increasing rapidly. These volcanologic data sources include, but are not limited to, seismic information, webicorders, webcams, GPS, water and gas fluxes. The easy access to these data has allowed not only for the public to see the raw data that volcanologists use to assess and predict activity of a volcanic system, but also to actively participate in the process of volcano monitoring. This can be manifested in activities such observation of the changes in volcanic behavior via webcams to manipulation of seismic data to analyze for changes in the character of the seismicity. However, the biggest challenge for citizen analysis and participation in volcano monitoring is providing guidance and structure for these data as they are presented on the internet. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland provided an opportunity to observe and develop a community of “citizen scientists” interested in volcano monitoring on the internet. The readers of the volcano blog Eruptions followed the pre-, during and post-eruptive activity at Eyjafjallajökull while providing observations and data interpretations as time-stamped comments. During the eruption, the blog was viewed over 1,000,000 times and over 3,000 comments were left by readers. Many of these comments contained: (1) detailed descriptions of the current activity of the volcano as observed on the webcams; (2) observations on changes in seismicity as seen in realtime data provided by the Icelandic Meteorological Office and (3); reader-created compilations of various data in the form of images, tables of movies. By moderating the blog comments and providing corrections and insight to their observations, the readers felt that they were participating in an important way to the monitoring and recording of this historic

  18. Quantifying landscape change following the 1999 jökulhlaup at Sólheimajökull, southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staines, Kate E. H.

    2010-05-01

    landscape and its recovery potential. Factors controlling these include the recurrence interval and magnitude of past jökulhlaups, glacier surging, glacial advance and retreat cycles and fluctuations in glacier discharge. This study aims to quantify the immediate landscape change associated with a jökulhlaup and examine the response of the landscape in the years following the flood. The study site is the outwash plain (sandur) of Sólheimajökull, an outlet glacier of the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap in southern Iceland. The most recent jökulhlaup, triggered by the eruption of the subglacial volcano Katla, was in July 1999. Field surveys of a boulder fan deposited during the flood at the snout of Sólheimajökull will be used to reconstruct flow palaeocompetence, with cross-sections of the river channel used to calculate peak discharge. From orthorectified pre- and immediate post-flood aerial imagery, digital elevation models will be generated and used to quantify net elevation change (i.e. sediment loss or gain) across the flooded area. Geomorphological maps of the proglacial area from before and in the decade following the flood have been produced and will be used to quantify changes in the main river channel, in terms of braiding and sinuosity parameters.

  19. GIA around Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland: InSAR data and finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Spaans, K.; Hooper, A. J.; Schmidt, P.; Lund, B.

    2011-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements have been used to study Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) all around Vatnajökull ice cap in Iceland. It is the largest ice cap in Europe (area of 8100 km^2 and maximum thickness of 900 m) and has been retreating since the end of the Little Ice Age in 1890. Uplift due to this ongoing response to climate warming has induced significant rebound in the south-eastern Iceland. It has been mostly studied with GPS data in the past few years, which indicate an uplift of up to 20-25 mm/yr close to the edges of the ice cap. InSAR is a phase differencing technique with a good spatial coverage, providing in our case more data to retrieve information about the Earth structure and ice model. Deformation observed at the surface is in Line-Of-Sight (LOS) direction, meaning that the signal is a combination of vertical and horizontal movements. Because the angle of incidence is small (~23° for ERS and Envisat), the signal is mostly dominated by vertical motion. The aim of the project is to increase the knowledge on the rheology of the Earth beneath Iceland. For that purpose, 150 InSAR images from both ERS 1 and ERS 2 (spanning 1992 to 2002) and Envisat (2004 to 2009) satellites were processed and time series and LOS velocity plots obtained. The whole ice cap and its surroundings are covered using both ascending and descending tracks. Finite element method is then applied to model the GIA process and find a best-fitting model. The InSAR data reveal the full extent of the GIA pattern around the ice cap with greater details than observed before. The gained information close to the edge of Vatnajökull is valuable as it is where the numerical models are more sensitive to the Earth structure. We observe a significant difference in uplift velocities from neighboring outlet glaciers, attributed to a difference in melting rates, which couldn't be detected by other methods. The LOS velocity plots give uplift rates of ~13 mm

  20. Volcanic-Ash Hazards to Aviation—Changes and Challenges since the 2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, M.; Tupper, A.; Mastin, L. G.; Lechner, P.

    2012-12-01

    In response to the severe disruptions to civil aviation that resulted from atmospheric transport of ash from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in April and May 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) quickly formed the International Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF), charging it to support the accelerated development of a global risk-management framework for volcanic-ash hazards to aviation. Recognizing the need for scientifically based advice on best methods to detect ash in the atmosphere and depict zones of hazardous airspace, the IVATF sought input from the global scientific community, primarily by means of the Volcanic Ash Scientific Advisory Group which was established in May 2010 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics to serve as a scientific resource for ICAO. The IVATF finished its work in June 2012 (see http://www.icao.int/safety/meteorology/ivatf/Pages/default.aspx for a record of its results). A major science-based outcome is that production of charts depicting areas of airspace expected to have specific ash-concentration values (e.g. <0.2, 0.2-2, 2-4, >4 mg/cu. m) will not be required of the world's nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs). The VAACs are responsible for issuing warning information to the aviation sector regarding ash-cloud position and expected movement. Forecast concentrations in these charts are based primarily on dispersion models that have at least an order of magnitude in uncertainty in their output and therefore do not delineate hazardous airspace with the level of confidence needed by the aviation sector. The recommended approach to improving model-forecast accuracy is to assimilate diverse observations (e.g., satellite thermal-infrared measurements, lidar, radar, direct airborne sampling, visual sightings, etc.) into model simulations; doing that during an eruption in the demanding environment of aviation operations is a substantial

  1. The AD 1362 Öræfajökull eruption, S.E. Iceland: Physical volcanology and volatile release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Kirti; Self, Stephen; Blake, Stephen; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Larsen, Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    The explosive rhyolitic eruption of Öræfajökull volcano, Iceland, in AD 1362 is described and interpreted based on the sequence of pyroclastic fall and flow deposits at 10 proximal locations around the south side of the volcano. Öræfajökull is an ice-clad stratovolcano in south central Iceland which has an ice-filled caldera (4-5 km diameter) of uncertain origin. The main phase of the eruption took place over a few days in June and proceeded in three main phases that produced widely dispersed fallout deposits and a pyroclastic flow deposit. An initial phase of phreatomagmatic eruptive activity produced a volumetrically minor, coarse ash fall deposit (unit A) with a bi-lobate dispersal. This was followed by a second phreatomagmatic, possibly phreatoplinian, phase that deposited more fine ash beds (unit B), dispersed to the SSE. Phases A and B were followed by an intense, climactic Plinian phase that lasted ˜ 8-12 h and produced unit C, a coarse-lapilli, pumice-clast-dominated fall deposit in the proximal region. At the end of Plinian activity, pyroclastic flows formed a poorly-sorted deposit, unit D, presently of very limited thickness and exposed distribution. Much of Eastern Iceland is covered with a very fine distal ash layer, dispersed to the NE. This was probably deposited from an umbrella cloud and is the distal representation of the Plinian fallout. A total bulk fall deposit volume of ˜ 2.3 km 3 is calculated (˜ 1.2 km 3 DRE). Pyroclastic flow deposit volumes have been crudely estimated to be < 0.1 km 3. Maximum clast size data interpreted by 1-D models suggests an eruption column ˜ 30 km high and mass discharge rates of ˜ 10 8 kg s - 1 . Ash fall may have taken place from heights around 15 km, above the local tropopause (˜ 10 km), with coarser clasts dispersed below that under a different wind regime. Analyses of glass inclusions and matrix glasses suggest that the syn-eruptive SO 2 release was only ˜ 1 Mt. This result is supported by published

  2. Excess 210Po in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull tephra (Iceland): Evidence for pre-eruptive gas accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Condomines, Michel; Gauthier, Pierre-Jean

    2015-10-01

    Excess gas phase in magmas erupting explosively is well known worldwide. However, the origin of this gas phase, in excess of what can be dissolved in the erupting magma at depth, and the rate of gas accumulation is less well defined. The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt was emitted during preceding flank eruption. Tephra of the first explosive phase are composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreite, and basalt, which suggests that the basaltic magma intruded a pre-existing rhyolitic magma chamber, and ultimately triggered the eruption. The mixed benmoreitic tephra (erupted on 15 and 17 April 2010) had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb [(210Po /210Pb) 0 = 1.88 ] at the time of eruption, and possibly a small 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra. In contrast, the preceding flank eruption produced basalt with (210Po) 0 = 0, upon eruption, and the final trachyte had lost most of its 210Po during open-system degassing. The 210Po excess in the first erupted benmoreites is interpreted to result from 210Po degassing of basaltic magma and the accumulation of 210Po-enriched gas, either in the upper part of the basaltic intrusion, below the rhyolite-basalt interface, or in the pre-existing residual rhyolitic magma chamber. From a simple model of radon and polonium accumulation in the rhyolitic reservoir, the ratio of the mass of basalt magma degassing over the mass of magma accumulating the excess gas decreased from 20 to 15 over 2 days, implying zoned magma reservoir, with the uppermost and gas-richest part erupting first. The duration of pre-eruptive gas accumulation in this model is approximately one year. This corresponds closely to the initiation of a seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull, early June 2009, which was the first pre-eruptive signal detected. The coincidence between initiation of gas accumulation at relatively shallow depth and

  3. Influences of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plume on air quality in the northern Alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, K.; Thomas, W.; Peters, A.; Ries, L.; Obleitner, F.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Birmili, W.; Diemer, J.; Fricke, W.; Junkermann, W.; Pitz, M.; Emeis, S.; Forkel, R.; Suppan, P.; Flentje, H.; Gilge, S.; Wichmann, H. E.; Meinhardt, F.; Zimmermann, R.; Weinhold, K.; Soentgen, J.; Münkel, C.; Freuer, C.; Cyrys, J.

    2011-08-01

    A series of major eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland started on 14 April 2010 and continued until the end of May 2010. The volcanic emissions moved over nearly the whole of Europe and were observed first on 16 April 2010 in Southern Germany with different remote sensing systems from the ground and space. Enhanced PM10 and SO2 concentrations were detected on 17 April at mountain stations (Zugspitze/Schneefernerhaus and Schauinsland) as well as in Innsbruck by in situ measurement devices. On 19 April intensive vertical mixing and advection along with clear-sky conditions facilitated the entrainment of volcanic material down to the ground. The subsequent formation of a stably stratified lower atmosphere with limited mixing near the ground during the evening of 19 April led to an additional enhancement of near-surface particle concentrations. Consequently, on 19 April and 20 April exceedances of the daily threshold value for particulate matter (PM10) were reported at nearly all monitoring stations of the North Alpine foothills as well as at mountain and valley stations in the northern Alps. The chemical analyses of ambient PM10 at monitoring stations of the North Alpine foothills yielded elevated Titanium concentrations on 19/20 April which prove the presence of volcanic plume material. Following this result the PM10 threshold exceedances are also associated with the volcanic plume. The entrainment of the volcanic plume material mainly affected the concentrations of coarse particles (>1 μm) - interpreted as volcanic ash - and ultrafine particles (<100 nm), while the concentrations of accumulation mode aerosol (0.1-1 μm) were not changed significantly. With regard to the occurrence of ultrafine particles, it is concluded that their formation was triggered by high sulphuric acid concentrations which are necessarily generated by the photochemical processes in a plume rich in sulphur dioxide under high solar irradiance. It became evident that during

  4. Influences of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plume on air quality in the northern Alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, K.; Thomas, W.; Peters, A.; Ries, L.; Obleitner, F.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Birmili, W.; Diemer, J.; Fricke, W.; Junkermann, W.; Pitz, M.; Emeis, S.; Forkel, R.; Suppan, P.; Flentje, H.; Wichmann, H. E.; Gilge, S.; Meinhardt, F.; Zimmermann, R.; Weinhold, K.; Soentgen, J.; Münkel, C.; Freuer, C.; Cyrys, J.

    2011-03-01

    A series of major eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland started on 14 April 2010 and continued until the end of May 2010. The volcanic emissions moved over nearly the whole of Europe and were observed first on 16 April 2010 in Southern Germany with different remote sensing systems from the ground and space. Enhanced PM10 and SO2 concentrations were detected on 17 April at mountain stations (Zugspitze/Schneefernerhaus and Schauinsland) as well as in Innsbruck by in situ measurement devices. On 19 April intensive vertical mixing and advection along with clear sky-conditions facilitated the entrainment of volcanic material down to the ground. The subsequent formation of a stably stratified lower atmosphere with limited mixing near the ground during the evening of 19 April led to an additional enhancement of near-surface particle concentrations. Consequently, on 19 April and 20 April exceedances of the daily threshold value for particulate matter (PM10) were reported at nearly all monitoring stations of the North Alpine foothills as well as at mountain and valley stations in the northern Alps. The chemical analyses of ambient PM10 at monitoring stations of the North Alpine foothills yielded elevated Titanium concentrations on 19/20 April which prove the presence of volcanic plume material. Following this result the PM10 threshold exceedances are also associated with the volcanic plume. The entrainment of the volcanic plume material mainly affected the concentrations of coarse particles (>1 μm) - interpreted as volcanic ash - and ultrafine particles (<100 nm), while the concentrations of accumulation mode aerosol (0.1-1 μm) were not changed significantly. With regard to the occurrence of ultrafine particles, it is concluded that their formation was triggered by high sulphuric acid concentrations which are necessarily generated by the photochemical processes in a plume rich in sulphur dioxide under high solar irradiance. It became evident that during

  5. Separation of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, April-May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, H. E.; Prata, F.; Carn, S. A.; Clarisse, L.; Watson, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    The ash cloud produced by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland during April and May 2010 caused major disruption to European airspace. One of the most significant consequences of the eruption was the introduction of an ash threshold limit, below which ash concentrations are deemed safe for aircraft. If ash dissipates rapidly, and therefore cannot be detected in near real-time, then it becomes difficult to advise whether it is safe for aircraft to fly through an area. This makes it even more imperative that measurement techniques are able to accurately monitor and quantify ash in near real-time. Separation of ash and SO2 from volcanic eruptions reveals that the two species have been observed to travel in opposing directions and at different altitudes. In most cases, clouds of SO2 are accompanied by very fine ash at levels below current detection limits, which itself poses a threat to aircraft. Furthermore, SO2 also presents a risk, causing respiratory problems for those on board and also in corrosion of the airframe. Satellite-based instruments are currently able to detect both species, with varying threshold limits. Ash concentrations in excess of 5 mg m-3 (assuming a cloud thickness of 500 m) were measured by satellite-based instruments during the period April 14 - May 24, and initially low SO2 concentrations were seen to increase during early May up to values approaching 1.2 mg m-3. Here we use a number of satellite-based sensors with varying spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions in order to investigate the separation and differential transportation of products from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Ash and SO2 detection using thermal infrared channels between 10 and 12 µm from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) SEVIRI instrument, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), along with SO2 products from the ultraviolet Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2

  6. Origin of the active drumlin field at Múlajökull, Iceland: New insights from till shear and consolidation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, Reba G.; Iverson, Neal R.; Benediktsson, Ívar Ö.; Schomacker, Anders; Zoet, Lucas K.; Johnson, Mark D.; Hooyer, Thomas S.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2016-09-01

    Stratigraphic and morphologic data previously collected from the forefield of Múlajökull, Iceland, suggest that its recent surge cycles are responsible for the formation of drumlins there and that their relief reflects both deposition on drumlins and erosion between them. We have tested these ideas and aspects of leading models of drumlin formation by studying past patterns of bed deformation and effective stress in basal tills of the glacier's forefield. Patterns of till strain indicated by the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of ∼2300 intact till samples indicate that till was deposited during shear deformation, with shearing azimuths and planes that conform to the drumlin morphology. Thus, till deposition occurred as drumlins grew, in agreement with LiDAR data indicating that the degree of aggradation of the glacier forefield is largest in areas subjected to the most surges. Previously described unconformities on the drumlin flanks, however, indicate that drumlin relief at Múlajökull has resulted, in part, from erosion. Given that the last surge deposited a till layer both on and between drumlins, a reasonable hypothesis is that erosion between drumlins occurred during normal (quiescent) flow of the glacier between surges. Densities of till samples, analyzed in conjunction with laboratory consolidation tests, indicate that effective stresses on the bed during such periods were on the order of 100 kPa larger between drumlins than within them, an observation consistent with subglacial channels at low water pressure occupying interdrumlin areas. Transport of sediment by turbulent flow in these channels or high effective stress adjacent to them causing enhanced till entrainment in ice or increased depths of bed deformation would promote the sediment flux divergence necessary to erode areas between drumlins. The observation that effective stresses were higher between drumlins than within them is the opposite of that presumed in leading models of

  7. Public and Media Communication of Volcanic Hazard Before and During the 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gylfason, A. G.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Reynisson, V.

    2010-12-01

    The 39 day long explosive eruption in Eyjafjallajökull was the largest natural hazard event in Iceland for decades. It began with a small flank eruption in March, but the main event was the explosive summit eruption. The flooding that resulted from melting of ice at the eruption site posed considerable danger for the local population, fallout of ash made conditions south of the volcano difficult for several weeks, threatening the future of farming in this rural area, and lead to unprecedented disruption to air traffic in Europe and the North Atlantic. About 800 people were evacuated in a hurry three times during these events because of imminent flood hazard, but fortunately no dwellings were damaged and people could usually return to their homes the same day. These events called for extensive media coverage, both locally and internationally. Some staff at research institutes had for several days to devote their time exclusively to giving interviews to the international media. Scientific communication with the local population was mainly conducted through four channels: (1) the web pages of institutions, (2) the national media; (3) indirectly at meetings on the status of the eruption with local and national officials, and (4) public meetings in the affected areas. In addition the scientific community issued daily status reports to the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, these reports served both national and local Civil Protection officials when preparing their statements on the eruption and answer basic questions from the media. During media communication, it is important to stick to facts, avoid speculation and use plain language without scientific jargon. However, the most critical part of the communication occurred in the years before the eruption through meetings with the local inhabitants. At these meetings the results of a detailed hazard assessment on eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull and the neighboring ice-filled Katla caldera where

  8. In situ physical and chemical characterisation of the Eyjafjallajökull aerosol plume in the free troposphere over Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrini, S.; Giulianelli, L.; Decesari, S.; Fuzzi, S.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Canepari, S.; Perrino, C.; Facchini, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous measurements of physical and chemical properties at the Mt. Cimone (Italy) GAW-WMO (Global Atmosphere Watch, World Meteorological Organization) Global Station (2165 m a.s.l.) have allowed the detection of the volcanic aerosol plume resulting from the Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) eruption of spring 2010. The event affected the Mt. Cimone site after a transport over a distance of more than 3000 km. Two main transport episodes were detected during the eruption period, showing a volcanic fingerprint discernible against the free tropospheric background conditions typical of the site, the first from April 19 to 21 and the second from 18 to 20 May 2010. This paper reports the modification of aerosol characteristics observed during the two episodes, both characterised by an abrupt increase in fine and, especially, coarse mode particle number. Analysis of major, minor and trace elements by different analytical techniques (ionic chromatography, particle induced X-ray emission-particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIXE-PIGE) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) were performed on aerosols collected by ground-level discrete sampling. The resulting database allows the characterisation of aerosol chemical composition during the volcanic plume transport and in background conditions. During the passage of the volcanic plume, the fine fraction was dominated by sulphates, denoting the secondary origin of this mode, mainly resulting from in-plume oxidation of volcanic SO2. By contrast, the coarse fraction was characterised by increased concentration of numerous elements of crustal origin, such as Fe, Ti, Mn, Ca, Na, and Mg, which enter the composition of silicate minerals. Data analysis of selected elements (Ti, Al, Fe, Mn) allowed the estimation of the volcanic plume's contribution to total PM10, resulting in a local enhancement of up to 9.5 μg m-3, i.e. 40% of total PM10 on 18 May, which was the most intense of the two episodes. These results appear

  9. Exploring Structural Bond Energy Release (SBER) in Nanodiamonds Using Quantum Molecular Dynamics and Static High Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    estimated internal pressure of 50 GPa. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of hypervelocity collisions of NDs show that upon collision shock...experiments exploring potential SBE materials such as carbon, silicon, borides and nitrides [Al’tschuler, 1990 and 1991]. Reports generated by...Our results are in excellent agreement with EOS models published by others over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. Our results provide

  10. Ash generation and distribution from the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Höskuldsson, Armann; Larsen, Gudrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Prata, Fred J; Oddsson, Björn; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Hayward, Chris L; Stevenson, John A; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg

    2012-01-01

    The 39-day long eruption at the summit of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April-May 2010 was of modest size but ash was widely dispersed. By combining data from ground surveys and remote sensing we show that the erupted material was 4.8±1.2·10¹¹ kg (benmoreite and trachyte, dense rock equivalent volume 0.18±0.05 km³). About 20% was lava and water-transported tephra, 80% was airborne tephra (bulk volume 0.27 km³) transported by 3-10 km high plumes. The airborne tephra was mostly fine ash (diameter <1000 µm). At least 7·10¹⁰ kg (70 Tg) was very fine ash (<28 µm), several times more than previously estimated via satellite retrievals. About 50% of the tephra fell in Iceland with the remainder carried towards south and east, detected over ~7 million km² in Europe and the North Atlantic. Of order 10¹⁰ kg (2%) are considered to have been transported longer than 600-700 km with <10⁸ kg (<0.02%) reaching mainland Europe.

  11. Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11: The Impact of Large-Scale Disasters on Worldwide Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Grady, Daniel; Thiemann, Christian; Bagrow, James P.; Brockmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale disasters that interfere with globalized socio-technical infrastructure, such as mobility and transportation networks, trigger high socio-economic costs. Although the origin of such events is often geographically confined, their impact reverberates through entire networks in ways that are poorly understood, difficult to assess, and even more difficult to predict. We investigate how the eruption of volcano Eyjafjallajökull, the September 11th terrorist attacks, and geographical disruptions in general interfere with worldwide mobility. To do this we track changes in effective distance in the worldwide air transportation network from the perspective of individual airports. We find that universal features exist across these events: airport susceptibilities to regional disruptions follow similar, strongly heterogeneous distributions that lack a scale. On the other hand, airports are more uniformly susceptible to attacks that target the most important hubs in the network, exhibiting a well-defined scale. The statistical behavior of susceptibility can be characterized by a single scaling exponent. Using scaling arguments that capture the interplay between individual airport characteristics and the structural properties of routes we can recover the exponent for all types of disruption. We find that the same mechanisms responsible for efficient passenger flow may also keep the system in a vulnerable state. Our approach can be applied to understand the impact of large, correlated disruptions in financial systems, ecosystems and other systems with a complex interaction structure between heterogeneous components. PMID:23950904

  12. Untangling a crystal storm through time: how do 500 diffusion stopwatches inform our view of Eyjafjallajökull 2010?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, M. J.; Morgan, D. J.; Thordarson, T.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    A new database of 500+ olivine crystal timescales from samples that encompass the duration of the 2010 Fimmvörðuháls-Eyjafjallajökull eruption is presented. We also integrate new petrologic, thermometric and barometric data to read a 4D narrative of the magmatic processes within this volcanic plumbing system preceding­­- and during- eruption. Using this perspective we can identify and semi-quantify magmatic componentry, detect new magmatic inputs, and 'watch' those crystal chemical populations age. We find that major crystal-liquid disequilibrium events occurred up to several years preceding the eruptions, and inputs fed the plumbing system during the eruption window (days - hours). We place timeframes upon processes including magma-mixing, mush remobilization and erosion, and final-ascent quenching and eruption. Fe-Mg binary diffusion in olivine modelling conducted upon this scale was made possible using new advances -also presented here- in both the gathering and processing of raw data, and extraction of timescale information. We demonstrate that this streamlined workflow can now produce statistically robust timescale data within an integrated petrologic and geochemical context that may be resolved alongside independent geophysical and other remote sensing data into a common dimension - time. Transposing petrologic information (record of past process) and geophysical observation (phenomenological in the present) into a common language is designed to produce new understanding of both active and palaeo- volcanic systems, the implications of which we discuss here using our case study as an example.

  13. Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11: the impact of large-scale disasters on worldwide mobility.

    PubMed

    Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Grady, Daniel; Thiemann, Christian; Bagrow, James P; Brockmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale disasters that interfere with globalized socio-technical infrastructure, such as mobility and transportation networks, trigger high socio-economic costs. Although the origin of such events is often geographically confined, their impact reverberates through entire networks in ways that are poorly understood, difficult to assess, and even more difficult to predict. We investigate how the eruption of volcano Eyjafjallajökull, the September 11th terrorist attacks, and geographical disruptions in general interfere with worldwide mobility. To do this we track changes in effective distance in the worldwide air transportation network from the perspective of individual airports. We find that universal features exist across these events: airport susceptibilities to regional disruptions follow similar, strongly heterogeneous distributions that lack a scale. On the other hand, airports are more uniformly susceptible to attacks that target the most important hubs in the network, exhibiting a well-defined scale. The statistical behavior of susceptibility can be characterized by a single scaling exponent. Using scaling arguments that capture the interplay between individual airport characteristics and the structural properties of routes we can recover the exponent for all types of disruption. We find that the same mechanisms responsible for efficient passenger flow may also keep the system in a vulnerable state. Our approach can be applied to understand the impact of large, correlated disruptions in financial systems, ecosystems and other systems with a complex interaction structure between heterogeneous components.

  14. Pioneer microbial communities of the Fimmvörðuháls lava flow, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Laura C; Cockell, Charles S; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Marteinsson, Viggó; Stevenson, John

    2014-10-01

    Little is understood regarding the phylogeny and metabolic capabilities of the earliest colonists of volcanic rocks, yet these data are essential for understanding how life becomes established in and interacts with the planetary crust, ultimately contributing to critical zone processes and soil formation. Here, we report the use of molecular and culture-dependent methods to determine the composition of pioneer microbial communities colonising the basaltic Fimmvörðuháls lava flow at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, formed in 2010. Our data show that 3 to 5 months post eruption, the lava was colonised by a low-diversity microbial community dominated by Betaproteobacteria, primarily taxa related to non-phototrophic diazotrophs such as Herbaspirillum spp. and chemolithotrophs such as Thiobacillus. Although successfully cultured following enrichment, phototrophs were not abundant members of the Fimmvörðuháls communities, as revealed by molecular analysis, and phototrophy is therefore not likely to be a dominant biogeochemical process in these early successional basalt communities. These results contrast with older Icelandic lava of comparable mineralogy, in which phototrophs comprised a significant fraction of microbial communities, and the non-phototrophic community fractions were dominated by Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria.

  15. Ash generation and distribution from the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Prata, Fred J.; Oddsson, Björn; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Hayward, Chris L.; Stevenson, John A.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg

    2012-01-01

    The 39-day long eruption at the summit of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April–May 2010 was of modest size but ash was widely dispersed. By combining data from ground surveys and remote sensing we show that the erupted material was 4.8±1.2·1011 kg (benmoreite and trachyte, dense rock equivalent volume 0.18±0.05 km3). About 20% was lava and water-transported tephra, 80% was airborne tephra (bulk volume 0.27 km3) transported by 3–10 km high plumes. The airborne tephra was mostly fine ash (diameter <1000 µm). At least 7·1010 kg (70 Tg) was very fine ash (<28 µm), several times more than previously estimated via satellite retrievals. About 50% of the tephra fell in Iceland with the remainder carried towards south and east, detected over ~7 million km2 in Europe and the North Atlantic. Of order 1010 kg (2%) are considered to have been transported longer than 600–700 km with <108 kg (<0.02%) reaching mainland Europe. PMID:22893851

  16. Volcanic glass in surface sediments offshore southern Iceland: Can eruptions such as Eyjafjallajökull 2010 be traced in the marine archive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanati, Christina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Wehrmann, Heidi; Hoernle, Kaj

    2015-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions on Iceland even of small to intermediate magnitude can cause significant economic loss and health risk to humans in the North Atlantic region. This was strikingly revealed by the recent eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and Grímsvötn in 2011, disrupting European and intercontinental air traffic. We are using the North Atlantic marine archive to reconstruct the Icelandic eruption record with the aim to refine and improve the hazard assessment associated with explosive volcanism. Thirteen giant box corers were obtained during RV Poseidon Cruise 457 in August 2013, at < 100 to 1,600 m water depths and distances between 40 and 400 km southwest, south and east of Iceland. Volcanic glass shards from the uppermost 1 cm of the surface sediment were analysed by electron microprobe for their major element composition. Our analytical setup included a spatially systematic approach to facilitate the determination of modal proportions of the different shard populations in two size fractions, <32 µm and >32 µm. In total, ~900 tephra particles were analysed. More than 80 % have mafic compositions. Most of them are derived from the Katla and Veiðivötn-Bárðarbunga volcanic systems as well as Grímsvötn-Lakagígar, where the eruptions of Grímsvötn in 2011 and Laki 1783/84 are the only possible sources. A few particles of felsic to intermediate composition correlate with those of Hekla and Snæfellsjökull volcanoes. The occurrence of tephra particles from the historic rhyolitic eruptions of Askja 1875 and Öræfajökull 1362 displays that the record covers at least the past 650 years and yields information about the tephra distribution and dimension of these eruptions. Unexpectedly, we found only two particles that correlate with the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, sourced from its trachydacitic portion. According to simple sedimentation chronology, this most recent eruption should be well represented in the surface sediment. Its

  17. Near Ice Oceanographic Observations of the Breiðamerkurjökull Glacier Melt Plume in Jökulsárlón Lagoon, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, M. A.; Hodgkins, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Breiðamerkurjökull glacier flows down from the Vatnajökull ice cap and it has a marine terminus in a lagoon connected to the North Atlantic Ocean. The lagoon waters have characteristics determined by the Atlantic water, subglacial run-off and the local melting of ice calved from the glacier. The lagoon is not a fjordic environment, but many similar physical processes are operating. We conducted four hydrographic sections within the lagoon to determine the effects of the ocean on the glacier. Three of the sections across the lagoon allow us to determine the pathway of Atlantic water towards the glacial ice. One hydrographic section of 16 stations along the Breiðamerkurjökull glacier face was always within 3 to 30m from the ice face. This very near ice section showed both the warmest and coldest water sampled in the lagoon. The coldest water was close to the maximum depth of our measurements and was formed through contact with the ice. A heat and salt conservation model has enabled the relative contributions of the inflowing Atlantic derived saline water, the sub glacial fresh water run-off and the melt from the ice face to be determined. Overall the dominant freshwater contribution to the lagoon in the upper 20 m is from the sub-glacial freshwater. Beneath 20 m the dominant factor is modified North Atlantic water. The contribution from melting ice is observed below 10 m, and below 40 m depth this is in layers. Individual CTD measurements show that within the layers of higher ice melt there are strong peaks of increased melt, and so there is a 3 dimensional structure to the melt. The highest resolution data we obtained show that the water at these depths is in places statically unstable.

  18. Integrating Terrestrial Time-Lapse Photography with Laser Scanning to Distinguish the Drivers of Movement at Sólheimajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    How, P.; James, M. R.; Wynn, P.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier movement is attributed to a sensitive configuration of driving forces. Here, we present an approach designed to evaluate the drivers of movement at Sólheimajökull, an outlet glacier from the Myrdalsjökull ice cap, Iceland, through combining terrestrial time-lapse photography and laser scanning (TLS). A time-lapse camera (a dSLR with intervalometer and solar-recharged battery power supply) collected hourly data over the summer of 2013. The data are subject to all the difficulties that are usually present in long time-lapse sequences, such as highly variable illumination and visibility conditions, evolving surfaces, and camera instabilities. Feature-tracking software [1] was used to: 1) track regions of static topography (e.g. the skyline) from which camera alignment could be continuously updated throughout the sequence; and 2) track glacial surface features for velocity estimation. Absolute georeferencing of the image sequence was carried out by registering the camera to a TLS survey acquired at the beginning of the monitoring period. A second TLS survey (July 2013) provided an additional 3D surface. By assuming glacial features moved in approximately planimetrically straight lines between the two survey dates, combining the two TLS surfaces with the monoscopic feature tracking allows 3D feature tracks to be derived. Such tracks will enable contributions from different drivers (e.g. surface melting) to be extracted, even in imagery that is acquired not perpendicular to glacier motion. At Sólheimajökull, our aim is to elucidate any volcanic contribution to the observed movement.[1] http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/pointcatcher.htm

  19. Volcanic ash transport integrated in the WRF-Chem model: a description of the application and verification results from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, Martin; Webley, Peter; Grell, Georg; Freitas, Saulo; Kim, Chang Ki; Egan, Sean

    2013-04-01

    Regional volcanic ash dispersion models are usually offline decoupled from the numerical weather prediction model. Here we describe a new functionality using an integrated modeling system that allows simulating emission, transport, and sedimentation of pollutants released during volcanic activities. A volcanic preprocessor tool has been developed to initialize the Weather Research Forecasting model with coupled Chemistry (WRF-Chem) with volcanic ash and sulphur dioxide emissions. Volcanic ash variables were added into WRF-Chem, and the model was applied to study the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. We evaluate our results using WRF-Chem with available ash detection data from satellite and airborne sensors, and from ground based Lidar measurements made available through the AeroCom project. The volcanic ash was distributed into 10 different bins according to the particle size ranging from 2 mm to less than 3.9 μm; different particle size distributions derived from historic eruptions were tested. An umbrella shaped initial ash cloud and an empirical relationship between mass eruption rates and eruption heights were used to initialize WRF-Chem. We show WRF-Chem model verification for the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, which occurred during the months of April and May 2010. The volcanic ash plume dispersed extensively over Europe. Comparisons with satellite remote sensing volcanic ash retrievals showed good agreement during the events, also ground-based LIDAR compared well to the model simulations. The model sensitivity analysis of the Eyjafjallajökull event showed a considerable bias of ass mass concentrations afar from the volcano depending on initial ash size and eruption rate assumptions. However the WRF-Chem model initialized with reliable eruption source parameters produced good quality forecasts, and will be tested for operational volcanic ash transport predictions.

  20. Climatic implications of glacial evolution in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (northern Iceland) since the Little Ice Age maximum. The cases of the Gljúfurárjökull and Tungnahryggsjökull glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Fernández, José M.; Andrés, Nuria; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn; Palacios, David

    2017-04-01

    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in northern Iceland, between meridians 19°30'W and 18°10'W, jutting out into the North Atlantic to latitude 66°12'N and joining the central highlands to the south. About 150 glaciers located on the Tröllaskagi peninsula reached their Holocene maximum extent during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum at the end of the 19th century. The sudden warming at the turn of the 20th century triggered a continuous retreat from the LIA maximum positions, interrupted by a reversal trend during the mid-seventies and eighties in response to a brief period of climate cooling. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationships between glacial and climatic evolution since the LIA maximum. For this reason, we selected three small debris-free glaciers: Gljúfurárjökull, and western and eastern Tungnahryggsjökull, at the headwalls of Skíðadalur and Kolbeinsdalur, as their absence of debris cover makes them sensitive to climatic fluctuations. To achieve this purpose, we used ArcGIS to map the glacier extent during the LIA maximum and several dates over four georeferenced aerial photos (1946, 1985, 1994 and 2000), as well as a 2005 SPOT satellite image. Then, the Equilibrium-Line Altitude (ELA) was calculated by applying the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR) and Area Altitude Balance Ratio (AABR) approaches. Climatological data series from the nearby weather stations were used in order to analyze climate development and to estimate precipitation at the ELA with different numerical models. Our results show considerable changes of the three debris-free glaciers and demonstrates their sensitivity to climatic fluctuations. As a result of the abrupt climatic transition of the 20th century, the following warm 25-year period and the warming started in the late eighties, the three glaciers retreated by ca. 990-1330 m from the LIA maximum to 2005, supported by a 40-metre ELA rise and a reduction of their area and volume of 25% and 33% on average

  1. Field constraints for modeling the emplacement of the 2010 Gigjökull lava flow, southern Iceland: interplay between subaqueous, ice contact and subaerial lava emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, B.; Oddsson, B.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Rossi, R.

    2012-04-01

    One of the least accessible products of the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption is the trachyandesite lava that flowed north from the summit eruption site down through Gigjökull glacier. Based on numerous overflights during 2010, syn-eruption satellite imagery and two on-site investigations in 2011, we have developed a preliminary model to illustrate the progressive movement of the complex lava flow down through Gigjökull. Previous workers have documented the events surrounding the explosive summit eruptions, including the flow path for the majority of the water derived from melting ~0.1 cubic km of summit ice, which moved over, through and beneath Gigjökull producing a series of jokulhlaups during April and May 2010. Overflights in 2010 and 2011 show that most of the upper parts of the lava flow are surfaced by oxidized, blocky lava that appears very similar to what would be expected from an entirely subaerial lava flow. However, exposures at the lowest end of the flow preserve a record documenting lava emplacement in water and through ice tunnels. We describe 8 different components visible in this northernmost, lowest part of the lava flow, including: (1) upper subaerial levee-bounded lava flow, (2) subaerial blocky lava bench, (3) subaqueous/ice contact lava mounds, (4) subaqueous/ice contact sheet lava complex, (5) ponded, glaciolacustrine sediments, (6) subaerial slabby lava flow, (7) subaqueous pillow lava lobes, and (8) ice-tunnel confined lava flows. In combination these 8 components are consistent a model for lava emplacement through a valley glacier. We propose that the lava flow, which appears to have started moving down the glacier from a tephra cone immediately north of the main summit craters after the largest of the jokulhlaups, exploited newly formed and/or pre-existing sub-ice drainage systems along the base of Gigjökull. Initial meltwater from the eruption site created/enhanced basal ice drainage systems. Lava flows exploited these drainage systems

  2. Magma storage and transport in the Eyjafjallajökull magmatic system: the message from clinopyroxene megacrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Margarita; Woodland, Alan B.; Höskuldsson, Ármann

    2017-04-01

    The Eyjafjallajökull volcano is located in southern Iceland, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, and has a long eruption history dating back about 800,000 years. Magma transport, storage and concomitant geochemical modification might be expected to have changed as the plumbing system evolved with time. Megacrysts entrained in the lavas provide clues about these processes by assessing the depths and temperatures of crystallization, along with their geochemical signatures. We have undertaken a study of clinopyroxene (cpx) megacrysts (1 to 4.5 cm) collected from four units around Eyjafjallajökull that range in age from 20-30 Ta on the northern flank, close to the summit, to southern flank localities near the Katla volcano having ages of 100-300 Ta and ˜700 Ta (Loughlin, 1995). The samples were investigated by microprobe, LA-ICP-MS and Mössbauer spectroscopy (Fe3+/Fetot). The megacrysts are almost always quite homogeneous, but some contain inclusions of plagioclase, olivine, sulfides or magnetite. The northern flank samples exhibit a Mg# = ˜ 0.75 with FeO = ˜ 8.3 wt.%, while those from the southern flank are Mg-richer with Mg# = 0.82-0.87 (oldest unit) (FeO ˜ 5 wt. %) and 0.85-0.90 (younger unit) (FeO ˜ 4.3 wt. %). Samples with the highest Mg# numbers are from the basal horizon of an ankaramite flow. Megacrysts from this most primitive unit also have much lower Fe3+/Fetot = 0.13 compared to 0.25 (south) and 0.20-0.32 (north). Al contents vary from sample to sample and between localities. Trace element concentrations reveal the same trends. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show the typical shape for mantle-derived basalt, with the youngest samples from the north being the most enriched. Samples from the ankaramite display the least enrichment and have flatter patterns. Preliminary thermobarometry following Putirka (2008) indicates little difference in crystallization temperature for a given locality: northern flank = 1135 ± 30˚ , oldest southern flank = 1150

  3. Volcanic unrest primed by ice cap melting: A case study of Snæfellsjökull volcano, Western Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Richard; Lupi, Matteo; Frehner, Marcel; Berger, Julien; Fuchs, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The most dramatic effect of global warming is the water level rise due to rapid melting of ice sheets. In addition, recent studies suggest that accelerated glacial retreat and associated lithospheric relaxation may enhance upwelling of magmatic fluids through the crust. Here, we investigate whether, also at short geological timescales, shallow magmatic systems may be affected by rapid melting of ice caps. As a case study, we chose the Snæfellsjökull volcanic system in western Iceland, whose ice cap is rapidly melting with 1.25 m(w.e.)/year. To investigate the role of deglaciation in promoting volcanic unrest we use a cross-disciplinary approach integrating geophysical field data, laboratory rheological rock tests, and numerical finite-element analysis. Initial results from seismic data acquisition and interpretation in 2011 show seismic activity (occasionally in swarm sequences) at around a depth range of 8-13 km, indicating the presence of a magmatic reservoir in the crust. In addition, a temporary seismic network of 21 broad-band stations has been deployed in spring 2013 and continuously collected data for several months, which will help better constrain the subsurface geometry. During summer 2013 we collected samples of Tertiary basaltic bedrock from the flanks of Snæfellsjökull, which we assume to be representative for the subsurface volcanic system. Cores drilled from these samples were tri-axially deformed in a Paterson-type apparatus at a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1, a confining pressure of 50 MPa (i.e. ~2 km depth), and a temperature ranging from 200 °C to 1000 °C (i.e. various proximities to magma chamber). From the obtained stress-strain curves the static Young's modulus is calculated to be around 35 (±2) GPa, which is not significantly influenced by increasing temperatures up to 800 °C. Beyond the elastic domain, cataclastic shear bands develop, accommodating up to 7% strain before brittle failure. The subsurface geometrical constraints from

  4. Airborne lidar observations of volcanic ash during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Spring 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, F.; Johnson, B.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Newman, S.; Webster, H.; Cooke, M.; Dorsey, J.; Ricketts, H.; Clarisse, L.

    2012-04-01

    The London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), based at the Met Office, provided forecast guidance for the Civil Aviation Authority during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in April-May 2010. Besides providing daily forecasts using the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME), a series of observational activities were carried out by the Met Office, involving ground-based lidars, the exploitation of satellite data, and research flights using the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft (FAAM, www.faam.ac.uk), on which this talk is focused. Due to safety restrictions, aircraft sampling has only been performed in areas where ash concentrations where forecasted to be less than 2000 μg/m3. Volcanic ash layers were observed using an elastic backscatter lidar on-board the FAAM aircraft operating at 355 nm, which allowed detailed mapping of the plumes. A flight on 4 May overpassed the ground-based lidar in Aberystwyth a few times. This provided ground truth validation of the on-board lidar and of its data inversion procedure. The ash layer during this flight was found to be in patches of short horizontal extent, but despite the strong horizontal inhomogeneity the two lidars showed excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. Moreover, radiative transfer computations using the lidar-derived profiles of aerosol extinction led to a good reconstruction of observed radiance spectra with on-board spectrometers. Aircraft in situ measurements of the particle size-distribution permitted the evaluation of a coarse extinction fraction (ranging 0.5-1) and a coarse mode specific extinction (0.6-0.9 m2/g) for six research flights. These quantities were then used to convert the lidar-derived aerosol extinction to ash concentration (with an estimated uncertainty of a factor of two). The combination of lidar and in-situ sampling of aerosol properties has thus offered us the opportunity to compile a dataset of the airborne

  5. A case study of observations of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption: 1. In situ airborne observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Kate; Johnson, Ben; Marenco, Franco; Haywood, Jim; Minikin, Andreas; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Schlager, Hans; Schumann, Ulrich; Leadbetter, Susan; Woolley, Alan

    2012-10-01

    On 17 May 2010, the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft made remote and in situ measurements of the volcanic ash cloud from Eyjafjallajökull over the southern North Sea. The Falcon 20E aircraft operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) also sampled the ash cloud on the same day. While no "wingtip-to-wingtip" co-ordination was performed, the proximity of the two aircraft allows worthwhile comparisons. Despite the high degree of inhomogeneity (e.g., column ash loadings varied by a factor of three over ˜100 km) the range of ash mass concentrations and the ratios between volcanic ash mass and concentrations of SO2, O3 and CO were consistent between the two aircraft and within expected instrumental uncertainties. The data show strong correlations between ash mass, SO2concentration and aerosol scattering with the FAAM BAe-146 data providing a specific extinction coefficient of 0.6-0.8 m2 g-1. There were significant differences in the observed ash size distribution with FAAM BAe-146 data showing a peak in the mass at ˜3.5μm (volume-equivalent diameter) and DLR data peaking at ˜10μm. Differences could not be accounted for by refractive index and shape assumptions alone. The aircraft in situ and lidar data suggest peak ash concentrations of 500-800 μg m-3with a factor of two uncertainty. Comparing the location of ash observations with the ash dispersion model output highlights differences that demonstrate the difficulties in forecasting such events and the essential nature of validating models using high quality observational data from platforms such as the FAAM BAe-146 and the DLR Falcon.

  6. CALIOP observations of the transport of ash from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winker, D. M.; Liu, Z.; Omar, A.; Tackett, J.; Fairlie, D.

    2012-10-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) is an elastic backscatter lidar carried on the CALIPSO satellite. CALIOP observations between 15 and 20 April 2010 of volcanic ash plumes following the eruption of the Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull volcano are reported here. While CALIOP has limited spatial coverage due to nadir-only sampling, ash plumes were observed by CALIOP over a wide region - from the North Atlantic Ocean to eastern Europe - during both day and night. Due to its nadir-only view, however, CALIOP did not sample the densest ash plumes which were observed by passive satellite sensors and ground-based lidar. Lidar depolarization and spectral backscatter signatures are used to discriminate ash layers from clouds. Most ash was observed in thin layers of laminar appearance with thicknesses ranging from 0.4 km to a little more than 1 km and at relatively low altitudes, between 1 and 7 km. Most layers reported here produced strong lidar depolarization, indicating a predominance of ash over sulfate aerosol in the plumes. Estimates of lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratio allow the retrieval of profiles of ash optical properties. Layers were observed with mean optical extinction ranging from 0.03 km-1 to nearly 1 km-1. Combined with an estimate of mass extinction efficiency, mass concentration profiles can also be estimated. These observations of the three-dimensional dispersion of the plume are complementary to observations from passive satellite instruments and ground-based lidars, and can be useful for verification of dispersion models such as those used by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers.

  7. Ice-volcano interactions during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, as revealed by airborne imaging radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Roberts, M. J.; Sigurã°Sson, G.; HöSkuldsson, F.; Oddsson, B.

    2012-07-01

    During the eruption of the ice-covered Eyjafjallajökull volcano, a series of images from an airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) were obtained by the Icelandic Coast Guard. Cloud obscured the summit from view during the first three days of the eruption, making the weather-independent SAR a valuable monitoring resource. Radar images revealed the development of ice cauldrons in a 200 m thick ice cover within the summit caldera, as well as the formation of cauldrons to the immediate south of the caldera. Additionally, radar images were used to document the subglacial and supraglacial passage of floodwater to the north and south of the eruption site. The eruption breached the ice surface about four hours after its onset at about 01:30 UTC on 14 April 2010. The first SAR images, obtained between 08:55 and 10:42 UTC, show signs of limited supraglacial drainage from the eruption site. Floodwater began to drain from the ice cap almost 5.5 h after the beginning of the eruption, implying storage of meltwater at the eruption site due to initially constricted subglacial drainage from the caldera. Heat transfer rates from magma to ice during early stages of cauldron formation were about 1 MW m-2 in the radial direction and about 4 MW m-2 vertically. Meltwater release was characterized by accumulation and drainage with most of the volcanic material in the ice cauldrons being drained in hyperconcentrated floods. After the third day of the eruption, meltwater generation at the eruption site diminished due to an insulating lag of tephra.

  8. Tephra sedimentation during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland) from deposit, radar, and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonadonna, C.; Genco, R.; Gouhier, M.; Pistolesi, M.; Cioni, R.; Alfano, F.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Ripepe, M.

    2011-12-01

    The April-May 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) was characterized by a nearly continuous injection of tephra into the atmosphere that affected various economic sectors in Iceland and caused a global interruption of air traffic. Eruptive activity during 4-8 May 2010 was characterized based on short-duration physical parameters in order to capture transient eruptive behavior of a long-lasting eruption (i.e., total grain-size distribution, erupted mass, and mass eruption rate averaged over 30 min activity). The resulting 30 min total grain-size distribution based on both ground and Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (MSG-SEVIRI) satellite measurements is characterized by Mdphi of about 2 ϕ and a fine-ash content of about 30 wt %. The accumulation rate varied by 2 orders of magnitude with an exponential decay away from the vent, whereas Mdphi shows a linear increase until about 18 km from the vent, reaching a plateau of about 4.5 ϕ between 20 and 56 km. The associated mass eruption rate is between 0.6 and 1.2 × 105 kg s-1. In situ sampling showed how fine ash mainly fell as aggregates of various typologies. About 5 to 9 wt % of the erupted mass remained in the cloud up to 1000 km from the vent, suggesting that nearly half of the ash >7ϕ settled as aggregates within the first 60 km. Particle sphericity and shape factor varied between 0.4 and 1 with no clear correlation to the size and distance from vent. Our experiments also demonstrate how satellite retrievals and Doppler radar grain-size detection can provide a real-time description of the source term but for a limited particle-size range.

  9. Contrasting snow and ice albedos derived from MODIS, Landsat ETM+ and airborne data from Langjökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ed; Willis, Ian; Pope, Allen; Miles, Evan; Arnold, Neil; Rees, Gareth

    2015-04-01

    Surface albedo is a key parameter in the energy balance of glaciers and ice sheets because it controls the shortwave radiation budget, which is often the dominant term of a glacier's surface energy balance. Monitoring surface albedo is a key application of remote sensing and achieving consistency between instruments is crucial to accurate assessment of changing albedo. These measurements may then be used to quantify past reflectance, energy balance and melt characteristics. Here we compare near contemporaneous ETM+ (30 m), MODIS (250 m) and airborne multispectral imagery (ATM; 5 m) that were collected over Langjökull, Iceland's second largest ice cap (910 km2) in 2007. All three radiance datasets are converted to reflectance by applying commonly used atmospheric correction schemes: 6S and FLAASH. These are used to derive broadband albedos. We first compare the similarity of albedo values produced by the different atmospheric correction schemes for the same instrument, then contrast results from the different instruments. In this way we are able to evaluate the consistency of the available atmospheric correction algorithms and to consider the impacts of different spatial resolutions. Albedo is shown to be highly variable at small spatial scales. Different retrieval methods for surface albedo from the same instrument are shown to produce locally inconsistent measurements of surface albedo. Differences between the atmospheric correction schemes of 6S and FLAASH therefore produce significant contrasts in surface albedo. Comparison of the 6S corrected ATM dataset, a 6S corrected ETM+ dataset and an MCD43 dataset showed inconsistencies between the datasets associated with specific glacier facies. These differences result in contrasting stepped albedo maps which would imply spatially different melt regimes across the glacier surface. These inconsistencies are hypothesised to be the result of the certainty with which sub-pixel scale differences in albedo, Bi

  10. Combination of SAR remote sensing and GIS for monitoring subglacial volcanic activity - recent results from Vatnajökull ice cap (Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharrer, K.; Malservisi, R.; Mayer, Ch.; Spieler, O.; Münzer, U.

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents latest results from the combined use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) remote sensing and GIS providing detailed insights into recent volcanic activity under Vatnajökull ice cap (Iceland). Glaciers atop active volcanoes pose a constant potential danger to adjacent inhabited regions and infrastructure. Besides the usual volcanic hazards (lava flows, pyroclastic clouds, tephra falls, etc.), the volcano-ice interaction leads to enormous meltwater torrents (icelandic: jökulhlaup), devastating large areas in the surroundings of the affected glacier. The presented monitoring strategy addresses the three crucial questions: When will an eruption occur, where is the eruption site and which area is endangered by the accompanying jökulhlaup. Therefore, sufficient early-warning and hazard zonation for future subglacial volcanic eruptions becomes possible, as demonstrated for the Bardárbunga volcano under the northern parts of Vatnajökull. Seismic activity revealed unrest at the northern flanks of Bardárbunga caldera at the end of September 2006. The exact location of the corresponding active vent and therefore a potentially eruptive area could be detected by continuous ENVISAT-ASAR monitoring. With this knowledge a precise prediction of peri-glacial regions prone to a devastating outburst flood accompanying a possible future eruption is possible.

  11. Detailed subglacial topography and drumlins at the marginal zone of Múlajökull outlet glacier, central Iceland: Evidence from low frequency GPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsters, Kristaps; Karušs, Jānis; Rečs, Agnis; Běrziņš, Dāvids

    2016-12-01

    New ground penetrating radar (GPR) observations on the Múlajökull surge-type outlet glacier, central Iceland, are presented. Overall 10.5 km of GPR profile lines were recorded parallel to the glacier margin in August, 2015. Detailed GPR investigations combined with high-accuracy GPS measurements allowed to build a high-resolution model of the subglacial topography. We provide new evidence of streamlined ridges beneath Múlajökull's marginal zone interpreted as drumlins and show the location of the upper edge of the drumlin field. This discovery improves understanding of the location, morphology and development of drumlins as other geophysical observations of subglacial bedforms beneath modern outlet glaciers are quite rare. The location of drumlins corresponds with the position of the major sets of crevasses in the digital elevation model (2008) suggesting the presence of additional drumlins beneath such crevasses in the ice-marginal zone. We suggest this semi-circular pattern of crevasses to be formed due to the variable glacier strain rates created by the subglacial topography. Numerous hyperbolic diffractions representing reflections of englacial channels are found in radar profiles suggesting a well-developed channelized drainage system of a surge-type glacier in its quiescence phase. The calculated thinning of the ice surface in the investigated area (0.65 km2) is on average 17.9 m during 2008-2015.

  12. Improved detection of sulphur dioxide in volcanic plumes using satellite-based hyperspectral infrared measurements: Application to the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. C.; Carboni, E.; Dudhia, A.; Grainger, R. G.

    2012-10-01

    The explosive phase of the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland beginning on 14 April 2010 caused extensive disruption to aviation in Europe with serious social and economic consequences. Despite its impact, the explosive phase was modest in size and the amount of sulphur dioxide (SO2) released was low. The potential of hyperspectral thermal infrared measurements to discriminate emissions from similar events by measuring SO2 is examined using the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on board MetOp-A. The transported plume in the initial stages of the explosive phase contained low amounts of SO2 at low altitude which placed it at the detection limit of space-based sensors used to monitor the volcanic threat to aviation using current methods. A recently developed technique for the fast retrieval of SO2 from IASI is applied in the context of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption to show that IASI is easily capable of sensing the SO2 in the plume at this stage where existing methods fail. The fast SO2 retrieval is calibrated against a fully quantitative optimal estimation retrieval of SO2 total column amount and plume altitude to derive the detection limit for the plume on 15 April 2010. An estimate of the general detection limit for the instrument is placed conservatively at 0.3 Dobson Units (DU) which is an order of magnitude lower than previously thought.

  13. Reconstruction of the geometry of volcanic vents by trajectory tracking of fast ejecta - the case of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption (Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco

    2015-05-01

    Two methods are introduced to estimate the depth of origin of ejecta trajectories (depth to magma level in conduit) and the diameter of a conduit in an erupting crater, using analysis of videos from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption to evaluate their applicability. Both methods rely on the identification of straight, initial trajectories of fast ejecta, observed near the crater rims before they are appreciably bent by air drag and gravity. In the first method, through tracking these straight trajectories and identifying a cut-off angle, the inner diameter and the depth level of the vent can be constrained. In the second method, the intersection point of straight trajectories from individual pulses is used to determine the maximum possible depth from which the tracked ejecta originated and the width of the region from which the pulses emanated. The two methods give nearly identical results on the depth to magma level in the crater of Eyjafjallajökull on 8 to 10 May of 51 ± 7 m. The inner vent diameter, at the level of origin of the pulses and ejecta, is found to have been 8 to 15 m. These methods open up the possibility to feed (near) real-time monitoring systems with otherwise inaccessible information about vent geometry during an ongoing eruption and help defining important eruption source parameters.

  14. Complex circular subsidence structures in tephra deposited on large blocks of ice: Varða tuff cone, Öræfajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smellie, J. L.; Walker, A. J.; McGarvie, D. W.; Burgess, R.

    2016-08-01

    Several broadly circular structures up to 16 m in diameter, into which higher strata have sagged and locally collapsed, are present in a tephra outcrop on southwest Öræfajökull, southern Iceland. The tephra was sourced in a nearby basaltic tuff cone at Varða. The structures have not previously been described in tuff cones, and they probably formed by the melting out of large buried blocks of ice emplaced during a preceding jökulhlaup that may have been triggered by a subglacial eruption within the Öræfajökull ice cap. They are named ice-melt subsidence structures, and they are analogous to kettle holes that are commonly found in proglacial sandurs and some lahars sourced in ice-clad volcanoes. The internal structure is better exposed in the Varða examples because of an absence of fluvial infilling and reworking, and erosion of the outcrop to reveal the deeper geometry. The ice-melt subsidence structures at Varða are a proxy for buried ice. They are the only known evidence for a subglacial eruption and associated jökulhlaup that created the ice blocks. The recognition of such structures elsewhere will be useful in reconstructing more complete regional volcanic histories as well as for identifying ice-proximal settings during palaeoenvironmental investigations.

  15. 35 yr of stratospheric aerosol measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen: from Fuego to Eyjafjallajökull, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Giehl, H.; Jäger, H.; Vogelmann, H.

    2013-05-01

    Lidar measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) have almost continually delivered backscatter coefficients of stratospheric aerosol since 1976. The time series is dominated by signals from the particles injected into or formed in the stratosphere due to major volcanic eruptions, in particular those of El Chichon (Mexico, 1982) and Mt Pinatubo (Philippines, 1991). Here, we focus more on the long-lasting background period since the late 1990s and 2006, in view of processes maintaining a residual lower-stratospheric aerosol layer in absence of major eruptions, as well as the period of moderate volcanic impact afterwards. During the long background period the stratospheric backscatter coefficients reached a level even below that observed in the late 1970s. This suggests that the predicted potential influence of the strongly growing air traffic on the stratospheric aerosol loading is very low. Some correlation may be found with single strong forest-fire events, but the average influence of biomass burning seems to be quite limited. No positive trend in background aerosol can be resolved over a period as long as that observed by lidar at Mauna Loa. We conclude that the increase of our integrated backscatter coefficients starting in 2008 is mostly due to volcanic eruptions with explosivity index 4, penetrating strongly into the stratosphere. Most of them occurred in the mid-latitudes. A key observation for judging the role of eruptions just reaching the tropopause region was that of the plume from the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull above Garmisch-Partenkirchen (April 2010) due to the proximity of that source. The top altitude of the ash above the volcano was reported just as 9.3 km, but the lidar measurements revealed enhanced stratospheric aerosol up to 14.3 km. Our analysis suggests for two or three of the four measurement days the presence of a stratospheric contribution from Iceland related to quasi-horizontal transport, differing from the strong descent

  16. Science in Support of Aviation-Risk Management since the April 2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, M.; Mastin, L. G.; Schneider, D. J.; Tupper, A.

    2010-12-01

    The nearly week-long airspace closure over large parts of Europe and the North Atlantic in April 2010 that resulted from dispersion of ash from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull prompted a shift from the accepted global policy of strict avoidance by aircraft of ash-contaminated airspace to one of allowing flight through zones of dilute ash under some circumstances. This shift was made in a crisis environment of rapidly mounting economic losses and social disruptions extending well beyond the European region. To get the global air transportation system moving again, European aviation authorities and associated meteorological offices created a new type of advisory product depicting forecasted zones of low ash concentrations in Eyjafjallajökull’s clouds that could be transited with expectation of no or minimal risk of aircraft damage, under the condition of more frequent aircraft inspections and enhanced risk management by airlines. Preliminary data of the European Aviation Safety Agency indicate that transit through Eyjafjallajökull’s dilute ash clouds caused some wear (primarily abrasion) to a few aircraft, but not to the severity of degraded engine performance in flight; after inspections the aircraft were returned to service and continued to operate without problems. Following the crisis, recognizing that such a fundamental shift in risk management requires sound scientific and engineering bases, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) formed an International Volcanic Ash Task Force that, in conjunction with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), will incorporate advice and recommendations from scientific, aviation, and engineering experts worldwide about ways to improve (1) situational awareness to aviation users of impending volcanic eruptions, (2) characterization of critical eruption source parameters for incorporation in forecast modeling, (3) detection and characterization of volcanic clouds, (4) accuracy of volcanic ash transport

  17. Simulation of the dispersion of the Eyjafjallajökull plume over Europe with the German operational weather forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Heike; Förstner, Jochen; Vogel, Bernhard; Hanisch, Thomas; Mühr, Bernhard; Schättler, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    After resting for 187 years the vulcano Eyjafjallajökull, Island wake up again at March 20th, 2010. Starting at April 14th massive emissions of volcanic ash occurred and finally lead to a shut down of civil aviation over entire Europe. We transferred the comprehensive online coupled model system COSMO-ART (Vogel et al., 2009) so far used for research purposes into the operational forecast mode at Deutscher Wetter-dienst (German Weather Service, DWD). COSMO-ART is the extension of the operational weather forecast model of DWD. Six individual size distributions were simulated starting from 1 m up to 35 m. Deposition, sedimentation, and below cloud scavenging were taken into account. Source heights were taken as published by the volcanic ash advisory centre London (VAAC), UK that is responsible for making the official forecast of ash coming from volcanoes in Island according to international agreements. During the first days of the eruption volcanic ash was injected into the atmosphere up to 11 km. Therefore, it was transported rapidly at higher levels towards Europe. A comparison of the simulated ash-plume with the satellite pictures shows that the model captures the horizontal distribution of the ash-plume quite well. Even the volcanic ash that was located above a narrow band of clouds is nicely reproduced. The temporal development can be also compared to Lidar measurements at different sites. These comparisons will be also presented. Our simulation results show the capability of an operational weather forecast model that is extended by aerosol processes to simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic ash qualitatively. As the source strength was not know and will not be known during future eruption events only a combination of ground based and satellite born remote sensing instruments together with in-situ observations and model results facilitates the work of decision makers during future events. Vogel, B., Vogel H., Bäumer, D., Bangert, M

  18. 35 years of stratospheric aerosol measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen: from Fuego to Eyjafjallajökull, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Giehl, H.; Jäger, H.; Vogelmann, H.

    2012-09-01

    The powerful backscatter lidar at Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) has almost continually delivered backscatter coefficients of the stratospheric aerosol since 1976. The time series is dominated by signals from the particles injected into or formed in the stratosphere due to major volcanic eruptions, in particular those of El Chichon (Mexico, 1982) and Mt. Pinatubo (Philippines, 1991). The volcanic aerosol disappears within about five years, the removal from the stratosphere being modulated by the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation. Here, we focus more on the long-lasting background period since the late 1990s and 2006, in view of processes maintaining a residual lower-stratospheric aerosol layer in absence of major eruptions, as well as the period of moderate volcanic impact afterwards. During the long background period the stratospheric backscatter coefficients reached a level even below that observed in the late 1970s. This suggests that the predicted potential influence of the strongly growing air traffic on the stratospheric aerosol loading is very low. Some correlation may be found with single strong forest-fire events, but the average influence of biomass burning seems to be quite limited. No positive trend in background aerosol can be resolved over a period as long as that observed by lidar at Mauna Loa or Boulder. This suggests being careful with invoking Asian air pollution as the main source as found in the literature. Rather an impact of previously missed volcanic eruptions on the stratospheric aerosol must be taken into consideration. A key observation in this regard was that of the plume from the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull above Garmisch-Partenkirchen (April 2010) due to the proximity of that source. The top altitude of the ash next to the source was reported just as roughly 9.3 km, but the lidar measurements revealed enhanced stratospheric aerosol up to 14.5 km. Our analysis suggests for two, perhaps three, of the four measurement days

  19. Unraveling the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 plumbing system and magma chamber dynamics through high-resolution geochemical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laeger, Kathrin; Petrelli, Maurizio; Andronico, Daniele; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Cimarelli, Corrado; Misiti, Valeria; del Bello, Elisabetta; Perugini, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The April-May 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (EFJ, Iceland) was triggered by an intrusion of fresh magma coming from deeper portions of the crust migrating into shallower depth of 3-6 km in the magmatic system. Here, we present new EMPA and LA-ICP-MS analyses on groundmass glasses of ash particles erupted between 18 and 22 May 2010, the last days of the eruption. The glasses define two well separated groups. The first group is basaltic in composition with SiO2 ranging from 49.98 to 51.76 wt.% and a total alkali content (Na2O + K2O) in the range between 4.63 and 5.17 wt.%. The second group ranges between trachyandesitic and rhyolitic compositions with SiO2 ranging between 57.13 to 70.38 wt.% and a total alkali content from 7.21 to 10.90 wt.%. Least square modelling after Störmer and Nicholls (1978) discriminates best the origin of the basaltic glass by both fractional crystallization of a more primitive basalt or mixing of a basalt and a felsic magma. Furthermore, this model proves that the trachyandesitic range is the result of mixing of trachyandesite and trachyte magma. Magma mixing modeling after Langmuir (1978) and element concentration histograms indicate a probable incomplete magma mixing as the main process forming the great compositional variability observed in the erupted products. Finally, we estimated mixing end-members of intermediate (~59 wt.% SiO2) and felsic composition (~66-68 wt.% SiO2) with a felsic melt-proportion of 0.35-0.47. In the 90s, recorded seismicity and ground deformation indicated intrusions at shallow depth under the EFJ edifice probably forming separated sills. Therefore, the origin of the trachyandesite is presumably to find in a discrete magma batch that generated years before eruption. The rhyolite composition can be considered as the residual melt that remained in the plumbing system of EFJ since the last eruption in 1821-23. We suggest that these different magma batches formed the plumbing system of EFJ and have

  20. Duration of gas accumulation before the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption constrained by 210Po-210Pb-226Ra disequilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Gauthier, Pierre-Jean; Condomines, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Excess gas phase in magmas erupting explosively is well known world-wide. However, the origin of this gas phase, in excess of what can be dissolved in the erupting magma at depth, and the duration of gas accumulation, is less well defined. The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreiitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt (MgO > 8 %) was emitted during the preceding flank eruption. The silicic tephra of the first explosive phase is composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreiite, and evolved basalt (MgO < 5 %). The rhyolitic glass is indistinguishable from tephra glass composition emitted during the penultimate eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 1821-23 AD (Sigmarsson et al., 2011). Tephra from the first explosive phase, emitted on 15 and 17 April, had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb ((210Po/210Pb)0 as high as 2!) and a small, but significant, 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra ((210Pb/226Ra)0= 1.05 and 1.04, respectively). These excesses suggest rapid accumulation of Po and Rn together with the major gas species in the residual rhyolitic magma from the 1821-23 eruption. The gas most likely originates from the basalt recharge that eventually provoked the eruption. Basalts emitted a month earlier during the flank eruption at Fimmvörðuháls lost all their Po upon eruption and had (210Po/210Pb)0 equal to 0). From a simple model of radon and polonium degassing and accumulation, the mass of basalt magma degassing over the mass of silicic magma accumulating the excess gas can be calculated. Moreover, the duration of gas accumulation can be shown to be close to 300 days. This duration suggests that gas was liberated from the basaltic magma since June 2009, a month that corresponds to the initial seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull preceding the explosive eruption of 14 April 2010.

  1. Inferring source mass flux from heights for wind-blown volcanic plumes: implications for ash dispersal models and application to the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, M. J.; Hogg, A. J.; Phillips, J. C.; Sparks, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in April 2010 resulted in several weeks of disruption to aviation in Europe. Forecasting ash dispersion in the atmosphere require, as input, estimates of source parameters, in particular the mass flux of material from the volcano and the height at which ash is injected into the atmosphere. Typically the mass flux has been determined from empirical relations derived from a small dataset of historical eruptions where independent estimates of the height of the eruption column and the mass flux of material released from the volcano are available. For small explosive eruptions such as the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, atmospheric conditions can strongly effect the rise height of the plume and lead to inaccurate estimates of the mass flux of volcanic ash injected into the atmosphere. We formulate an integral model of volcanic eruption columns that includes a description of the thermodynamics of heat transfer between erupted solid pyroclasts, magmatic gases and the atmospheric air entrained by turbulent eddies, and describes the bending over of the plume trajectory in a cross-wind. We show that atmospheric winds strongly influence the rise of volcanic plumes, with the wind restricting the rise height such that obtaining equivalent rise heights for a plume in a windy environment would require an order of magnitude increase in the source mass flux over a plume in a quiescent environment. The model predictions are in accord with a dataset of historic eruptions if the profile of atmospheric wind shear is described, and our calculations are used to calibrate a semi-empirical relationship between the plume height and the source mass flux which explicitly includes the atmospheric wind speed. By employing observations of the local meteorology during the first explosive phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (14 to 18 April 2010) in the integral model, we demonstrate that varying atmospheric conditions can account for observed variations in

  2. The Effects of Vegetation Succession and Landscape on the Evolution of Soil Properties: A Chronosequence Study Along the Proglacial Area of Skaftafellsjökull Glacier, SE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmundardóttir, O. K.; Gísladóttir, G.; Lal, R.

    2014-12-01

    On young soils developing along the recessional path left by the Skaftafellsjökull glacier, SE-Iceland, we investigated the soil development, vegetation succession and landscape representing an age chronosequence of 120 years. In total, 54 sampling sites were distributed along three moraines representing surfaces exposed for 8, 65 and 120 years. For comparison, soil samples were collected from nearby birch woodlands, representing soils in a mature ecosystem likely to establish on the moraines in the future. The youngest moraines were sparsely vegetated with only 10% cover of mosses and grasses. The plant cover increased to 67% after 120 years, and was characterized by mosses (38%), dwarf shrubs (20%) and low growing birch (3.5%). Consequently, the soil formed over 120 years contained 1.1 kg C m-2 in the surface layer (0-10 cm), or about one third of the 3.2 kg C m-2 in soil under the woodlands. The N stock was estimated at 0.06 kg N m-2after 120 yrs, almost one fourth of that under the woodlands. The data suggest that landscape affects vegetation establishment and in turn, both landscape and vegetation affect soil development. Thus, concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC), N and noncrystalline oxalate extractable Al and Fe were higher within depressions than on ridges and slopes. The comparison of SOC stock in the moraine-derived soils with that under the birch woodlands showed that the young proglacial soils still have a large potential to accrete SOC within the developing pedosphere. With the observed accrual rate of 9.1 g C m-2 yr-1in the top 10 cm, it may take the moraine soils an additional 220 yrs to accrue SOC stocks comparable with those under the birch forest. Given the fact that all Icelandic glaciers are receding, assessing SOC sequestration in new soil formation may be important to off-setting some of anthropogenic emissions. The research is funded by the University of Iceland Doctoral Fund, the University of Iceland Trust Fund, the Landsvirkjun

  3. Monitoring glaciers and indications of subglacial volcanic activity using small-scale Top-Hat reflectors - An IsViews experiment on Myrdalsjökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minet, Christian; Duque Biarge, Sergi; Jaenicke, Julia; Münzer, Ulrich; Mayer, Christoph; Franke, Jonas; Guðmundsson, Águst; Parizzi, Alessandro; Fritz, Thomas; Eineder, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Subglacial volcanic eruptions often provide indications of activity some time before the actual catastrophic event. Surface undulations appear on top of the ice cap and meltwater torrents can occur at the glacier margin. Even large scale uplifts of ice caps have been observed. Within the project IsViews a processing chain, based on high spatially and temporally resolved remote sensing imagery, will be developed in order to automatically identify such early indications. The main data used for this analysis are acquired by the TerraSAR-X, TanDEM-X and RapidEye satellites. First investigations concerning the feasibility of the near real-time warning system and the general baseline conditions are carried out on two large plateau glaciers in southern Iceland, namely Mördalsjökull and Vatnajökull. Within the 2013 IsViews field work an experiment was started in order to test a new way of glacier monitoring. Two test sites were established on the Mördalsjökull ice cap (one at the equilibrium line and one below), each consisting of a permanent GPS station and two nearby RADAR reflectors. These RADAR reflectors are specially designed Top-Hat reflectors, which are cheap to manufacture, small (50 cm diameter) and lightweight and therefore easy to handle, transport and deploy. Their special design makes them visible in SAR images independent of orientation, so different acquisition geometries and even different sensors can be used. The drawback of the small, low reflecting Top-Hat can be overcome by using the newly implemented Staring Spotlight Mode of the German SAR Satellite TerraSAR-X, providing an unprecedented resolution of down to 20 cm in the azimuth direction. The reflectors, as point targets, allow absolute positioning within the cm-level in the TerraSAR-X data. Time series of SAR data can be used to derive position and altitude changes of the reflector itself and possibly even melting rates by exploiting the different signal paths. The visibility of the Top

  4. Production of mildly alkaline basalts at complex ocean ridge settings: Perspectives from basalts emitted during the 2010 eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viccaro, Marco; Nicotra, Eugenio; Urso, Salvatore

    2015-11-01

    The early phase of the 2010 eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) produced poorly evolved mildly alkaline basalts that have a signature more enriched with respect to the typically depleted basalts emitted at ocean ridges. The whole rock geochemistry of these basaltic magmas offers a great opportunity to investigate the mantle source characteristics and reasons leading to this enriched fingerprint in proximity of the ocean ridge system. Some basaltic products of Katla volcano, ∼25 km east of Eyjafjallajökull, have been chosen from the literature, as they display a similar mildly alkaline signature and can be therefore useful to explore the same target. Major and trace element variations of the whole rock suggest a very limited evolutionary degree for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull products and the selected Katla magmas, highlighting the minor role played by differentiation processes such as fractional crystallization. Nevertheless, effects of the limited fractionation have been erased through re-equilibration of the major and trace element abundances at primary conditions. Concentrations of Th after re-equilibration have been assumed as indexes of the partial melting degree, given the high incompatibility of the element, and enrichment ratios calculated for each trace element. Especially for LILE (Rb, Ba, K, Sr), the pattern of resulting enrichment ratios well matches that obtained from fractional melting of peridotite bearing hydrous phases (amphibole/phlogopite). This put forward the idea that magmas have been generated through partial melting of enriched mantle domains where hydrous minerals have been stabilized as a consequence of metasomatic processes. Refertilization of the mantle has been attributed to intrusion of hydrous silicate melts and fractional crystallization of hydrous cumulates. These refertilizing melts, inherited from an ancient subducted oceanic crust, intruded into a depleted oceanic lithosphere that remained stored for a long time

  5. The impact of the 1996 subglacial volcanic eruption in Vatnajökull on the river Jökulsá á Fjöllum, North Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna; Björnsson, Axel; Pálsson, Svanur; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árny E.

    1999-10-01

    A subglacial volcanic eruption took place in October 1996 beneath the Vatnajökull glacier, Iceland. The volcanic fissure erupted for some 14 days and it extended between two known subglacial central volcanoes. Most of the melt water drained to the south into the Grı´msvötn caldera from where it escaped a month later during a major jökulhlaup (extreme flood) into the glacial rivers flowing to the south from Vatnajökull. At the start of the eruption, the northernmost part of the volcanic fissure extended across the water divide beneath the glacier and into the river basin of Jökulsá á Fjöllum, flowing to the north. A few days later, signs of melt water from the volcanic site were detected in the glacial river Jökulsá á Fjöllum. Distinct changes in the chemical composition of the water were observed. Both discharge and turbidity of the river were somewhat higher than normal for the season, but there was no extreme flood (jökulhlaup). Total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductivity of the river water, as well as bicarbonate, were found to be higher than previously observed. Traces of sulphide and mercury were detected, which are never recorded at normal conditions. The stable isotope ratios, δD and δ 18O, the 14C apparent age and the δ 13C value were also found to be anomalous. In a few weeks the chemistry was back to normal. The chemical changes were most likely caused by a direct flow of melt water from the northernmost part of the main volcanic fissure or from small cauldrons created at the rim of the Bárdarbunga caldera. The flow of melt water to the north from the volcanic centre ebbed soon after or even just before the volcanic eruption in Vatnajökull ended. This experience shows clearly that simultaneous monitoring of chemical changes and flow rate in glacial rivers can deliver valuable data for following subglacial volcanic activity in space and time and may be used to give warning before a major catastrophic flood. Chemical study of glacial

  6. Applying 3D Dynamic Visualisation to (Palaeo) Geomorphic Reconstruction: Modelling a Tenth Century Jökulhlaup at Sólheimajökull Glacier, South Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Laura; Isaacs, John

    2014-05-01

    Jökulhlaup (glacial outburst floods) are caused by subglacial geothermal activity melting overlying ice, or by draining of ice-dammed lakes. They pose a recurring hazard along Iceland's south coast where volcano-glacial interactions create often unpredictable, high-magnitude floods. Gathering information about past floods is crucial for projecting findings to present day scenarios and developing future predictions for contemporary flood routes. Understanding the physical setting or surrounding environment is essential in palaeo-flood reconstruction as drainage routes are ultimately defined by local topography and changing ice cover. At Sólheimajökull glacier, which drains the southern portion of Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, field evidence has been collected of a Tenth Century flood, recorded in the Icelander's Landnámabók (Book of Settlements). It was an exceptional event in terms of generation, magnitude and geomorphic impact. Although now fragmented and piecemeal, many of its direct (and indirect) geomorphological and sedimentary markers are still relatively well preserved and have been identified, mapped and dated to unravel the sequence of events played out during this significant episode in the glacial history and complex regional flood chronology. VolcVis, an innovative, bespoke visualisation platform, is developed and applied for the first time in visualising volcanic jökulhlaup. The platform is created using the Microsoft XNA game development framework, which facilitates rapid game engine production by providing a set of tools utilising a managed runtime environment. VolcVis can render large amounts of data efficiently and still provide an extremely high level of interaction with the data being presented, including full freedom of motion. This enables synthesis and presentation of field results from Sólheimajökull in a novel way, creating an interactive, multi-perspective, three-dimensional (3D) prototype model. The platform combines Digital Elevation

  7. Governing the lithosphere: Insights from Eyjafjallajökull concerning the role of scientists in supporting decision-making on active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Amy; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2012-03-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, and the social consequences across the world, demonstrated some key issues in volcanological science and its application. Scientists in several nations were called upon to advise governments, to justify models and to give guidance about likely future activity. This is symptomatic of many other fields: scientists increasingly have a role in governance, and their work may be driven by questions that arise as a result. This article considers the role of scientists in different national contexts and the challenges faced in formulating scientific advice for policymakers. It concludes by assessing future challenges, and the key role that social scientific research can play. While this is a research paper and presents new data, it takes a commentary approach to elucidate some of the challenges involved in governing volcanic hazards.

  8. A survey of early health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption in Iceland: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Gislason, Thorarinn; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Kolbeinsson, Thorir Bjorn; Hauksdottir, Arna; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate physical and mental health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption on nearby residents. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted on 14 April 2010. The eruption lasted for about 6 weeks and was explosive, ejecting some 8 million tons of fine particles into the atmosphere. Due to prevailing winds, the ash spread mostly to the south and south-east, first over the rural region to the south, later over the Atlantic Ocean and Europe, closing European air space for several days. Participants Residents (n=207) of the most ash-exposed rural area south and east of the volcano. Methods The study period was from 31 May to 11 June 2010. Participants were examined by a physician. To ascertain respiratory health, standardised spirometry was performed before and after the use of a bronchodilator. All adult participants answered questionnaires about mental and physical health, their children's health and the use of protective equipment. Results Every other adult participant reported irritation in eyes and upper airway when exposed to volcanic ash. Adults (n=26) and children (n=5) with pre-existing asthma frequently reported worsening of their symptoms. No serious health problems requiring hospitalisation could be attributed to the eruption. The majority of the participants reported no abnormal physical or mental symptoms to the examining physician. Compared to an age- and gender-matched reference group, the ash-exposed participants reported lower smoking rates and were less likely to have ventilation impairment. Less than 10% of the participants reported symptoms of stress, anxiety or depression. Conclusions Short-term ash exposure was associated with upper airway irritation symptoms and exacerbation of pre-existing asthma but did not contribute to serious health problems. The exposure did not impair respiratory function compared to controls. Outdoor use of protective glasses and face masks was

  9. Correlating Ground-Based Lightning Measurements with Ash Cloud Satellite Data from the 2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, N. D.; Thomas, R. J.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Sieglaff, J.; Aster, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne volcanic ash is a major aviation hazard. For example, the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland resulted in the largest air-traffic shutdown since World War II. More than 100,000 flights were grounded, stranding passengers in Europe and across the globe, and producing a multi-billion dollar economic impact. Because of the high impact on aviation, sophisticated tools are needed to provide real-time alerts, tracking, and forecasting of volcanic clouds. In an attempt address the 5-minute volcanic cloud warning criteria established by the international aviation community, an automated volcanic cloud alert system for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R Series (GOES-R) built upon the automated ash cloud alert system for the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is in development. The new system will be capable of identifying ash and SO2 clouds with greater accuracy. One component of GOES-R will be a lightning mapper. To study the temporal, spatial, and physical relationships between ash clouds and lightning, and the utility of lightning detection in a real-time alert system, we analyze data collected by the Lightning Mapping Array, a ground-based lightning detection network, in conjunction with satellite data gathered by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument aboard Meteosat-9 during in the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano. We correlate lightning characteristics, intensity, and distribution with plume location, height, mass loading, and effective particle radius. Lightning mapping in volcanic ash clouds potentially will allow for better characterization of the ash cloud and aid in forecasting the distribution of ash and its effects on aviation.

  10. Subglacial lava propagation, ice melting and heat transfer during emplacement of an intermediate lava flow in the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddsson, Björn; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Edwards, Benjamin R.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Sigurðsson, Gunnar

    2016-07-01

    During the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in South Iceland, a 3.2-km-long benmoreite lava flow was emplaced subglacially during a 17-day effusive-explosive phase from April 18 to May 4. The lava flowed to the north out of the ice-filled summit caldera down the outlet glacier Gígjökull. The flow has a vertical drop of about 700 m, an area of ca. 0.55 km2, the total lava volume is ca. 2.5·107 m3 and it is estimated to have melted 10-13·107 m3 of ice. During the first 8 days, the lava advanced slowly (<100 m day-1), building up to a thickness of 80-100 m under ice that was initially 150-200 m thick. Faster advance (up to 500 m day-1) formed a thinner (10-20 m) lava flow on the slopes outside the caldera where the ice was 60-100 m thick. This subglacial lava flow was emplaced along meltwater tunnels under ice for the entire 3.2 km of the flow field length and constitutes 90 % of the total lava volume. The remaining 10 % belong to subaerial lava that was emplaced on top of the subglacial lava flow in an ice-free environment at the end of effusive activity, forming a 2.7 km long a'a lava field. About 45 % of the thermal energy of the subglacial lava was used for ice melting; 4 % was lost with hot water; about 1 % was released to the atmosphere as steam. Heat was mostly released by forced convection of fast-flowing meltwater with heat fluxes of 125-310 kWm-2.

  11. Dyke-path formation in relation to the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Bardarbunga-Holuhraun 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Dykes are extension fractures and form when the magmatic overpressure is high enough to rupture (break) the host rock. Their formation is entirely analogous to that of many joints and human-made hydraulic fractures, such as are used to increase permeability in reservoirs. When generating their paths, dykes use existing weaknesses (e.g., cooling joints) in the host rock. The maximum depth of large tension fractures below the surface of a rift zone, however, is mostly less than a few hundred metres. If the fractures extend to greater depths, they must change into closed normal faults which are generally not used as magma paths. There are thus no large tension fractures or wide-open faults at great depths ready to be filled with magma to form a dyke. While magma flow in dykes, as in other fluid-driven fractures, is at any point in various directions dyke segmentation may indicate the overall large-scale flow direction. Thus, dykes composed of large-spaced disconnected segments in lateral sections are primarily formed in vertical magma flow at segmentation depth whereas those composed of large-spaced disconnected segments in vertical sections are primarily formed in lateral magma flow. The far-field displacement and stress fields of segmented dykes are similar to those generated by single, continuous dykes of similar dimensions, particularly when the distances between the nearby tips of the segments become small in comparison with segment lengths. Most dykes become arrested and never supply magma to eruptions. Feeder-dykes normally reach the surface only along parts of their lengths (strike-dimensions). The volumetric flow or effusion rate of magma through a feeder-dyke or volcanic fissure depends on the aperture (opening) of the dyke or fissure in the 3rd power. All these theoretical and observational results are here applied to the dyke emplacements associated with the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Bardarbunga-Holuhraun 2014. The results make it possible to

  12. Deterministic non-linear source processes of volcanic tremor signals accompanying the 1996 Vatnajökull eruption, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, Konstantinos I.

    2002-03-01

    Observations and theoretical considerations have cast doubt on the suggestion that volcanic tremor source processes may be modelled by a linear oscillator that is set into resonance by a sustained disturbance. Volcanic tremor signals that accompanied the 1996 Vatnajökull subglacial eruption, central Iceland, have been analysed using methods from the discipline of non-linear dynamics in order to investigate the possibility that they originated from a non-linear source. The volcano-seismic phenomena associated with the eruption were recorded by a permanent network equipped with broad-band seismometers (HOTSPOT) using a sampling rate of 20 samples s-1 . The eruption was preceded by increased seismic activity for a period of 2 days, which also included a large earthquake with a moment magnitude of 5.6. The tremor during the first 2 days of the eruption has a high signal-to-noise ratio at the nearest station to the eruption site and starts as a continuous signal, later evolving to low-amplitude background tremor interrupted by high-amplitude, cigar-shaped bursts having an average duration of 250 s. The phase space, which describes the evolution of the behaviour of a non-linear system, was reconstructed from the original tremor seismograms using the delay embedding theorem suggested by Takens. The delay time used for the reconstruction was selected after examining the autocorrelation function, which showed a first zero crossing at a timelag of 4 samples and the average mutual information that showed no minimum, indicating that the tremor process may have been undersampled. Based also on phase space portraits for different delay times, a delay time of one sample interval (0.05 s) was used. The sufficient embedding dimension for phase space reconstruction was selected by applying the false nearest-neighbours method, which revealed complete unfolding of the tremor attractor at dimensions 7-8, implying upper bounds of its fractal dimension in the range 3.5-4.0. The phase

  13. Retrieval of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic aerosol optical and microphysical properties from POLDER/PARASOL measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waquet, F.; Peers, F.; Goloub, P.; Ducos, F.; Thieuleux, F.; Derimian, Y.; Riedi, J.; Tanré, D.

    2013-04-01

    Total and polarized radiances provided by the Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER) satellite sensor are used to retrieve the microphysical and optical properties of the volcanic plume observed during the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in 2010, over cloud-free and cloudy ocean scenes. We selected two plume conditions, fresh aerosols near the sources (three cases) and a downwind volcanic plume observed over the North Sea 30 h after its injection into the atmosphere (aged aerosols). In the near-source conditions, the aerosol properties depend on the distance to the plume. Within the plume, aerosols are mainly non-spherical and in the coarse mode with an effective radius equal to 1.50 (± 0.15) μm and an Ångström Exponent (AE) close to 0.0. Far from the plume, in addition to the coarse mode, there are smaller particles retrieved in the accumulation mode suggesting a mixture of sulfate aerosols and volcanic dust, resulting in an AE around 0.8. The properties of the aerosols also depend on whether the plume is fresh or aged. For the downwind (aged) plume, if non-spherical coarse particles as well as some fine mode particles are still retrieved, the AE is smaller, around ~ 0.4. In addition, the real refractive index (RR) values are larger for the downwind plume (1.42 < RR < 1.58) than for the near-source plume (1.38 < RR < 1.48). The mean Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) retrieved at 0.865 μm was estimated at 0.97 over some parts of the downwind and near-source plumes; despite the low accuracy of our retrievals, the derived SSA values suggest that the ash particles are rather absorbing. To consider the particle shape, a combination of spheroid models is used. Although the employed model enabled accurate modeling of the POLDER signal in case of non-spherical ash, our approach failed to model the signal over the optically thickest parts of the near-source plume. The most probable reason for this is speculated to be the presence of ice

  14. Soot on snow in Iceland: First results on black carbon and organic carbon in Iceland 2016 snow and ice samples, including the glacier Solheimajökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Gritsevich, Maria; Aurela, Minna; Arnalds, Olafur; Dragosics, Monika; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Kontu, Anna; Kivekäs, Niku; Leppäranta, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Laaksonen, Ari; Lihavainen, Heikki; Arslan, Ali N.; Paatero, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    New results on black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) on snow and ice in Iceland in 2016 will be presented in connection to our earlier results on BC and OC on Arctic seasonal snow surface, and in connection to our 2013 and 2016 experiments on effects of light absorbing impurities, including Icelandic dust, on snow albedo, melt and density. Our sampling included the glacier Solheimajökull in Iceland. The mass balance of this glacier is negative and it has been shrinking during the last 20 years by 900 meters from its southwestern corner. Icelandic snow and ice samples were not expected to contain high concentrations of BC, as power generation with domestic renewable water and geothermal power energy sources cover 80 % of the total energy consumption in Iceland. Our BC results on filters analyzed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC) confirm this assumption. Other potential soot sources in Iceland include agricultural burning, industry (aluminum and ferroalloy production and fishing industry), open burning, residential heating and transport (shipping, road traffic, aviation). On the contrary to low BC, we have found high concentrations of organic carbon in our Iceland 2016 samples. Some of the possible reasons for those will be discussed in this presentation. Earlier, we have measured and reported unexpectedly low snow albedo values of Arctic seasonally melting snow in Sodankylä, north of Arctic Circle. Our low albedo results of melting snow have been confirmed by three independent data sets. We have explained these low values to be due to: (i) large snow grain sizes up to 3 mm in diameter (seasonally melting snow); (ii) meltwater surrounding the grains and increasing the effective grain size; (iii) absorption caused by impurities in the snow, with concentration of elemental carbon (black carbon) in snow of 87 ppb, and organic carbon 2894 ppb. The high concentrations of carbon were due to air masses originating from the Kola Peninsula, Russia

  15. Validation of the FALL3D ash dispersion model using observations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Basart, S.

    2012-03-01

    During April-May 2010 volcanic ash clouds from the Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull volcano reached Europe causing an unprecedented disruption of the EUR/NAT region airspace. Civil aviation authorities banned all flight operations because of the threat posed by volcanic ash to modern turbine aircraft. New quantitative airborne ash mass concentration thresholds, still under discussion, were adopted for discerning regions contaminated by ash. This has implications for ash dispersal models routinely used to forecast the evolution of ash clouds. In this new context, quantitative model validation and assessment of the accuracies of current state-of-the-art models is of paramount importance. The passage of volcanic ash clouds over central Europe, a territory hosting a dense network of meteorological and air quality observatories, generated a quantity of observations unusual for volcanic clouds. From the ground, the cloud was observed by aerosol lidars, lidar ceilometers, sun photometers, other remote-sensing instruments and in-situ collectors. From the air, sondes and multiple aircraft measurements also took extremely valuable in-situ and remote-sensing measurements. These measurements constitute an excellent database for model validation. Here we validate the FALL3D ash dispersal model by comparing model results with ground and airplane-based measurements obtained during the initial 14-23 April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull explosive phase. We run the model at high spatial resolution using as input hourly-averaged observed heights of the eruption column and the total grain size distribution reconstructed from field observations. Model results are then compared against remote ground-based and in-situ aircraft-based measurements, including lidar ceilometers from the German Meteorological Service, aerosol lidars and sun photometers from EARLINET and AERONET networks, and flight missions of the German DLR Falcon aircraft. We find good quantitative agreement, with an error similar to

  16. The mass balance record and surge behavior of Drangajökull Ice Cap (Iceland) from 1946 to 2011 deduced from aerial photographs and LiDAR DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Cobo Belart, Joaquín; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Pálsson, Finnur

    2014-05-01

    High resolution and accuracy (e.g. based on LiDAR survey) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of glaciers and their close vicinity have significantly improved the methods for calculation of geodetic mass balance and study of changes in glacier dynamics. However additional data is needed to extend such studies back in time. Here we present a geodetically derived mass balance record for Drangajökull ice cap (NW-Iceland) since 1946 to present. The mass balance is calculated from a series of DEMs derived by photogrammetric processing of aerial photographs (years: 1946, 1975, 1985, 1994) and a LiDAR DEM (2011). All Ground Control Points (GCPs) used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs, used in the photogrammetric processing, are picked from the LiDAR derived DEM, thus eliminating the time consuming and expensive in situ survey of GCPs. The LiDAR DEM also helps to assess the accuracy of the photogrammetrically derived DEMs, by analyzing the residuals in elevation in ice-free areas. For the DEMs of 1975, 1985 and 1994 the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the residuals is less than 2 m, whereas the accuracy of the DEM of 1946 is worse, with RMSE of 5.5 m, caused by the deteriorated images. The geodetic mass balance yields a negative specific mass balance of ~-0.5 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1946-1975, followed by periods of positive mass balance: ~0.2 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1975-1985 and ~0.3 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1985-1994. Negative specific mass balance of ~-0.6 m w.e.a-¹ is derived for the period 1994-2011. High mass redistribution is observed during 1985-1994 and 1994-2011 on the three main outlets of the ice cap, related to surges. The derived orthophotographs allow tracking of stable features at individual locations on the northern part of Drangajökull, indicating an average velocity of 5-10 m a-¹ for the period 1946-1985 and speeding up in the last two periods due to a surge.

  17. Characterization of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plume over the Iberian Peninsula by lidar remote sensing and ground-level data collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revuelta, M. A.; Sastre, M.; Fernández, A. J.; Martín, L.; García, R.; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.; Artíñano, B.; Pujadas, M.; Molero, F.

    2012-03-01

    In April and May 2010 the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano disrupted air traffic across Europe. The vast economic impact of this event has stirred interest on accurate plume dispersion estimation and detailed ash characterization, in order to establish a more precise threshold for safe aircraft operation. In this work we study the physical and chemical properties of volcanogenic aerosol detected at ground level at several locations over the Iberian Peninsula, nearly 3000 km away from the Icelandic volcano. Between 4 and 14 May, the volcanogenic plume was detected at ground level, identified by an increase in sulfur dioxide, particle mass concentrations, and particulate sulfate concentration, at most EMEP stations as well as at the CIEMAT site (for the sulfate concentration in PM). At the CIEMAT site, the synergic use of Raman lidar and on-site instruments provided relevant information on the evolution and properties of the plume over the central part of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerosol extinction coefficient profiles provided by the lidar station show the presence of remarkable aerosol layers between 6 May and 15 May. Provenance studies using FLEXTRA backtrajectories confirmed that most of the aerosol layers originated in the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The large suite of semi-continuous instruments present in the latter site allowed a better characterization of the aerosol properties. Size distribution and chemical composition were continuously monitored during the event, revealing a large increase in the aerosol fine mode, in coincidence with increases in ambient sulfate concentration, while the coarse mode remained almost unaltered. These results show that the plume carried mainly fine particles, with sizes between 0.1 and 0.7 μm in diameter, in contrast with studies of the plume that affected Central Europe in April, where particles with diameters larger than 20 μm were present in the ash layers. A possible explanation for this can be related to the

  18. Unraveling the complex magma dynamics during the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption by high-resolution geochemistry of volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laeger, K.; Petrelli, M.; Andronico, D.; Misiti, V.; Scarlato, P.; Cimarelli, C.; Taddeucci, J.; Perugini, D.

    2016-12-01

    The April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) volcano was characterized by a change in eruptive style and a large compositional variability of erupted products. Lava deposits of the initial phase consist of evolved Fe-Ti-basalt ( 47 wt% SiO2), whereas fallout deposits of the explosive phases are characterized by a wider compositional spread. We present new EMPA and LA-ICP-MS analyses on groundmass glasses of ash particles erupted between May 18th and 22nd in 2010, i.e. the last days of the eruption. The glasses define two well-separated groups; a basalt composition ranging from 49.98 to 51.76wt% SiO2 and a second group of trachyandesitic and rhyolitic compositions between 57.13 and 70.38 wt% SiO2. Introduction of basalt to a resident silicic melt increased that compositional diversity in the chamber. The ash particles contain plagioclase (An81-10), clinopyroxene (Mg#=0.44-0.71), olivine (Fo83-42) and magnetite. Several plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystals exhibit resorbed cores and rims suggesting disequilibrium caused by recharge of a hotter magma. Additionally, certain clinopyroxene reveals reverse zoning (core: Mg# = 0.53-0.60, rim: Mg# = 0.59-0.71) what can be taken as evidence for mixing between a younger, less evolved magma, and one with a more evolved composition. Here, we unravel the genesis of the compositional variance using petrological, mineralogical and geochemical implications. Magma mixing modeling and element concentration frequency diagrams indicate that incomplete magma mixing between a trachyandesite magma and a trachyte-rhyolite component is the probable main process forming the great compositional variability observed in the erupted products. The rhyolite composition probably represents the residual melt of the AD 1821-23 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. We suggest that different magmas generated and emplaced separately prior to the eruption have been mobilized by a new intrusion in 2010, and have mingled and mixed with each other

  19. Long-term health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a prospective cohort study in 2010 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hlodversdottir, Heidrun; Petursdottir, Gudrun; Gislason, Thorarinn; Hauksdottir, Arna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the long-term development of physical and mental health following exposure to a volcanic eruption. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting In spring 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted. Data were collected at 2 time points: in 2010 and 2013. Participants Adult residents in areas close to the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (N=1096), divided according to exposure levels, and a non-exposed sample (n=475), with 80% participation rate in 2013. Main outcome measures Physical symptoms in the previous year (chronic) and previous month (recent), and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-12-item version, GHQ-12), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-4) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Primary Care PTSD, PC-PTSD). Results In the exposed group, certain symptoms were higher in 2013 than in 2010, for example, morning phlegm during winter (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.49 to 3.06), skin rash/eczema (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.76 to 4.65), back pain (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.05) and insomnia (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.30), in addition to a higher prevalence of regular use of certain medications (eg, for asthma (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1.01 to 7.77)). PTSD symptoms decreased between 2010 and 2013 (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.61), while the prevalence of psychological distress and perceived stress remained similar. In 2013, the exposed group showed a higher prevalence of various respiratory symptoms than did the non-exposed group, such as wheezing without a cold (high exposure OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.27 to 4.47) and phlegm (high exposure OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.48 to 5.55), some symptoms reflecting the degree of exposure (eg, nocturnal chest tightness (medium exposed OR 3.09; 95% CI 1.21 to 10.46; high exposed OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.30 to 11.79)). Conclusions The findings indicate that people exposed to a volcanic eruption, especially those most exposed, exhibit increased risk of certain symptoms 3–4 years after the eruption. PMID

  20. Optical properties and vertical extension of aged ash layers over the Eastern Mediterranean as observed by Raman lidars during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannis, A.; Mamouri, R. E.; Amiridis, V.; Giannakaki, E.; Veselovskii, I.; Kokkalis, P.; Tsaknakis, G.; Balis, D.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Korenskiy, M.; Allakhverdiev, K.; Huseyinoglu, M. F.; Baykara, T.

    2012-03-01

    The vertical extension and the optical properties of aged ash layers advected from the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption over the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece and Turkey) are presented for the period May 10-21, 2010. Raman lidar observations performed at three stations of EARLINET (Athens, Thessaloniki and Istanbul), provided clear ash signatures within certain layers, although ash was sometimes mixed with mineral dust advected from the Saharan region. AERONET columnar measurements did not indicate the presence of ash over the area for that period, although they did for the dust particles. This was further investigated and confirmed by simulations of the ash trajectories by the FLEXPART model and the BSC-DREAM8b dust model. Good agreement was found between simulated and observed geometrical characteristics of the ash and dust layers, respectively. Ash particles were observed over the lidar stations after 6-7-days transport from the volcanic source at height ranges between approximately 1.5 and 6 km. Mean ash particle layer thickness ranged between 1.5 and 2.5 km and the corresponding aerosol optical depth (AOD) was of the order of 0.12-0.06 at 355 nm and of 0.04-0.05 at 532 nm. Inside the ash layers, the lidar ratios (LR) ranged between 55 and 67 sr at 355 nm and 76-89 sr at 532 nm, while the particle linear depolarization ratio ranged between 10 and 25%.

  1. A case study of observations of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption: 2. Airborne and satellite radiative measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Stuart M.; Clarisse, Lieven; Hurtmans, Daniel; Marenco, Franco; Johnson, Ben; Turnbull, Kate; Havemann, Stephan; Baran, Anthony J.; O'Sullivan, Debbie; Haywood, Jim

    2012-10-01

    An extensive set of airborne and satellite observations of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic eruption are analyzed for a case study on 17 May 2010. Data collected from particle scattering probes and backscatter lidar on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe 146 aircraft allow estimates of ash concentration to be derived. Using radiative transfer simulations we show that airborne and satellite infrared radiances can be accurately modeled based on the in situ measured size distribution and a mineral dust refractive index. Furthermore, airborne irradiance measurements in the 0.3-1.7 μm range are well modeled with these properties. Retrievals of ash mass column loading using Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) observations are shown to be in accord with lidar-derived mass estimates, giving for the first time an independent verification of a hyperspectral ash variational retrieval method. The agreement of the observed and modeled solar and terrestrial irradiances suggests a reasonable degree of radiative closure implying that the physical and optical properties of volcanic ash can be relatively well constrained using data from state-of-the-science airborne platforms such as the FAAM BAe 146 aircraft. Comparisons with IASI measurements during recent Grímsvötn and Puyehue volcanic eruptions demonstrate the importance of accurately specifying the refractive index when modeling the observed spectra.

  2. Aerial infrared surveys of Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas, Oceland, with a section on cost of exploration surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pálmason, G.; Friedman, J.D.; Williams, R. S.; Jónsson, J.; Saemundsson, K.

    1970-01-01

    In 1966 and 1968 aerial infrared surveys were conducted over 10 of 13 high-temperature thermal areas in Iceland. The surveys were made with an airborne scanner system, utilizing radiation in the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength band.Supplementary ground geological studies were made in the Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas to interpret features depicted on the infrared imagery and to relate zones of high heat flux to tectonic structure. In the Reykjanes area in southwestern Iceland a shallow ground temperature map was prepared for temperatures at a depth of 0.5 meters; comparison of this map with the infrared imagery reveals some striking similarities.It appears that aerial infrared surveys outline the surface thermal patterns of high-temperature areas and aid in relating these patterns to possible geological structures controlling the upflow of hot water. Amplitude-slicing techniques applied to the magnetically taped airborne scanner data permit an estimate to be made of the natural heat output on the basis of size of area and specific radiance.In addition to their value in preliminary studies of high-temperature areas, infrared surveys conducted at regular intervals over thermal area under exploitation can provide valuable data on changes that occur in surface manifestations with time.

  3. Aerial infrared surveys of Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas, Iceland, with a section on cost of exploration surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pálmason, G.; Friedman, J.D.; Williams, R.S.; Jónsson, J.; Saemundsson, K.

    1970-01-01

    In 1966 and 1968 aerial infrared surveys were conducted over 10 of 13 high-temperature thermal areas in Iceland. The surveys were made with an airborne scanner system, utilizing radiation in the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength band. Supplementary ground geological studies were made in the Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas to interpret features depicted on the infrared imagery and to relate zones of high heat flux to tectonic structure. In the Reykjanes area in southwestern Iceland a shallow ground temperature map was prepared for temperatures at a depth of 0.5 meters; comparison of this map with the infrared imagery reveals some striking similarities. It appears that aerial infrared surveys outline the surface thermal patterns of high-temperature areas and aid in relating these patterns to possible geological structures controlling the upflow of hot water. Amplitude-slicing techniques applied to the magnetically taped airborne scanner data permit an estimate to be made of the natural heat output on the basis of size of area and specific radiance. In addition to their value in preliminary studies of high-temperature areas, infrared surveys conducted at regular intervals over thermal area under exploitation can provide valuable data on changes that occur in surface manifestations with time.

  4. The onset of an eruption: selective assimilation of hydrothermal minerals during pre-eruptive magma ascent of the 2010 summit eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistolesi, M.; Cioni, R.; Francalanci, L.; Bertagnini, A.; D'Oriano, C.; Braschi, E.; Höskuldsson, A.

    2016-11-01

    The complex processes occurring in the initial phases of an eruption are often recorded in the products of its opening stage, which are usually characterized by small volume and limited dispersal, and thus generally poorly studied. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) represents a unique opportunity for these investigations thanks to the good preservation of tephra deposits within the ice/snow pack. A detailed geochemical investigation on the glassy groundmass of single ash clasts disclosed a population of fragments with unusual high 87Sr/86Sr (up to 0.70668) for Icelandic magmatism, and anomalous elemental composition with respect to most of the juvenile material of the eruption. This suggests that during its rise, before intruding into the ice cover, magma at a dyke tip selectively assimilated hydrothermal minerals with seawater-related, high-Sr isotopic ratios (zeolites, silica phases, anhydrite) hosted in altered volcanic/epiclastic rocks. According to the observed precursory seismicity, only restricted to few hours before the onset of the eruption, this process could have accompanied subcritical aseismic fracture opening during the days before the eruption, possibly related to stress corrosion-cracking processes, which enhanced the partial dissolution/melting and subsequent selective assimilation of the host rocks.

  5. Data assimilation for volcanic ash plumes using a satellite observational operator: a case study on the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangliang; Prata, Fred; Lin, Hai Xiang; Heemink, Arnold; Segers, Arjo; Lu, Sha

    2017-01-01

    Using data assimilation (DA) to improve model forecast accuracy is a powerful approach that requires available observations. Infrared satellite measurements of volcanic ash mass loadings are often used as input observations for the assimilation scheme. However, because these primary satellite-retrieved data are often two-dimensional (2-D) and the ash plume is usually vertically located in a narrow band, directly assimilating the 2-D ash mass loadings in a three-dimensional (3-D) volcanic ash model (with an integral observational operator) can usually introduce large artificial/spurious vertical correlations.In this study, we look at an approach to avoid the artificial vertical correlations by not involving the integral operator. By integrating available data of ash mass loadings and cloud top heights, as well as data-based assumptions on thickness, we propose a satellite observational operator (SOO) that translates satellite-retrieved 2-D volcanic ash mass loadings to 3-D concentrations. The 3-D SOO makes the analysis step of assimilation comparable in the 3-D model space.Ensemble-based DA is used to assimilate the extracted measurements of ash concentrations. The results show that satellite DA with SOO can improve the estimate of volcanic ash state and the forecast. Comparison with both satellite-retrieved data and aircraft in situ measurements shows that the effective duration of the improved volcanic ash forecasts for the distal part of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano is about 6 h.

  6. Airborne measurements of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash plume over northwestern Germany with a light aircraft and an optical particle counter: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Konradin; Vogel, Andreas; Fischer, Christian; van Haren, Günther; Pohl, Tobias

    2010-10-01

    During the eruption phase of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April/May 2010 the University of Applied Sciences Duesseldorf has performed 14 measurement flights over north-western Germany in the time period of 23 April 2010 to 21 May 2010. Additionally 4 flights have been performed for visual observations, referencing and transfer. The measurement flights have been performed in situations, where the ash plume was present over north-western Germany as well as in situations, when there was no ash plume predicted. For the measurements a light aircraft (Flight Design CTSW Shortwing) was used, which was equipped with an optical particle counter (Grimm 1.107). Additionally the aircraft was equipped for one flight with an UV-DOAS system and a CO2-measurement system. The optical particle counter allowed in-situ measurements of the particle distribution between 250 nm and 32 μm and of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. The ash plume appeared during the measurements as inhomogeneous in structure. Layers or multilayers of one hundred meters to a few hundred meters vertical depth of ash plume could be identified. Sub-plumes with a horizontal extension of several kilometres to several tenths of kilometres could be found. The layers of the ash plume could be found in altitudes between 2500m and 4500m. The measured concentrations have been compared with the concentration and extension of the ash plume predicted by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

  7. Time-lagged ensemble simulations of the dispersion of the Eyjafjallajökull plume over Europe with COSMO-ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, H.; Förstner, J.; Vogel, B.; Hanisch, T.; Mühr, B.; Schättler, U.; Schad, T.

    2014-08-01

    An extended version of the German operational weather forecast model was used to simulate the ash dispersion during the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull. As an operational forecast was launched every 6 hours, a time-lagged ensemble was obtained. Sensitivity runs show the ability of the model to simulate thin ash layers when an increased vertical resolution is used. Calibration of the model results with measured data allows for a quantitative forecast of the ash concentration. After this calibration an independent comparison of the simulated number concentration of 3 μm particles and observations at Hohenpeißenberg gives a correlation coefficient of 0.79. However, this agreement could only be reached after additional modifications of the emissions. Based on the time lagged ensemble the conditional probability of violation of a certain threshold is calculated. Improving the ensemble technique used in our study such probabilities could become valuable information for the forecasters advising the organizations responsible for the closing of the airspace.

  8. The Impacts of Advancing Glaciers and Jökulhlaups on the 19th Century Farming Community in the Suðursveit District South of Vatnajökull Glacier, Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Few areas in Iceland were as vulnerable to climate changes during the 19th century as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region was repeatedly affected by glacier advance and jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) during the Little Ice Age AD 1300-1900 (LIA). The land area between the glacier and the coast was occupied by farming community. The aim of this research is to quantify and map the size of lost vegetated area in the 19th century during the glacial advance in the climax of the LIA and the impact these events had on the community, land-use, ownership, value of estates and livelihood. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical data and field observations will be collected and stored in a GIS database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. The first recorded impact on the settlement is from 1794 when the Breiðármerkurjökull outlet glacier advanced and devastated pastures and crofts belonging in west of the district. Seventy five years later, in 1868, the largest estate was completely destroyed by a jökulhlaup. In 1829 a farm site in the middle of the district was moved due to repeated jökulhlaup. The outlet glacier Brókarjökull initiated annual jökulhlaups during 1820 -1870, devastating pastures and hayfields and woodlands of a total of 3 prominent estates in the area (by 1200 ha), causing devaluation of 33-66% on these estates. In the eastern part extensive jökulhlaups changed the glacial river channel causing the river to flow over vast area devastating 80 % of the eastern most estate causing its abandonment in 1892. The climate change and accompanied hazards during the 19th century changed the landscape of the Suðursveit district significantly. By the turn of the 20thcentury the vegetated land in the district had been reduced by 35% and areas of sediments increased by 25% and glaciated area increased by 10%. These

  9. Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol.

    PubMed

    Horwell, C J; Baxter, P J; Hillman, S E; Calkins, J A; Damby, D E; Delmelle, P; Donaldson, K; Dunster, C; Fubini, B; Kelly, F J; Le Blond, J S; Livi, K J T; Murphy, F; Nattrass, C; Sweeney, S; Tetley, T D; Thordarson, T; Tomatis, M

    2013-11-01

    The six week eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 produced heavy ash fall in a sparsely populated area of southern and south eastern Iceland and disrupted European commercial flights for at least 6 days. We adopted a protocol for the rapid analysis of volcanic ash particles, for the purpose of informing respiratory health risk assessments. Ash collected from deposits underwent a multi-laboratory physicochemical and toxicological investigation of their mineralogical parameters associated with bio-reactivity, and selected in vitro toxicology assays related to pulmonary inflammatory responses. Ash from the eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland, in 2011 was also studied. The results were benchmarked against ash from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, which has been extensively studied since the onset of eruptive activity in 1995. For Eyjafjallajökull, the grain size distributions were variable: 2-13 vol% of the bulk samples were <4 µm, with the most explosive phases of the eruption generating abundant respirable particulate matter. In contrast, the Grímsvötn ash was almost uniformly coarse (<3.5 vol%<4 µm material). Surface area ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 m2 g(-1) for Eyjafjallajökull but was very low for Grímsvötn (<0.6 m2 g(-1)). There were few fibre-like particles (which were unrelated to asbestos) and the crystalline silica content was negligible in both eruptions, whereas Soufrière Hills ash was cristobalite-rich with a known potential to cause silicosis. All samples displayed a low ability to deplete lung antioxidant defences, showed little haemolysis and low acute cytotoxicity in human alveolar type-1 like epithelial cells (TT1). However, cell-free tests showed substantial hydroxyl radical generation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for Grímsvötn samples, as expected for basaltic, Fe-rich ash. Cellular mediators MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 showed chronic pro-inflammatory responses in Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn and Soufrière Hills samples

  10. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and lidar data - Case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Muñoz-Cobo Belart, J.; Pálsson, F.; Ágústsson, H.; Crochet, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe how recent high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) can be used to extract glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne lidar in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high-resolution lidar DEM. The lidar DEM was also used to estimate errors of the extracted photogrammetric DEMs in ice- and snow-free areas, at nunataks and outside the glacier margin. The derived errors of each DEM were used to constrain a spherical semivariogram model, which along with the derived errors in ice- and snow-free areas were used as inputs into 1000 sequential Gaussian simulations (SGSims). The simulations were used to estimate the possible bias in the entire glaciated part of the DEM and the 95 % confidence level of this bias. This results in bias correction varying in magnitude between 0.03 m (in 1975) and 1.66 m (in 1946) and uncertainty values between ±0.21 m (in 2005) and ±1.58 m (in 1946). Error estimation methods based on more simple proxies would typically yield 2-4 times larger error estimates. The aerial photographs used were acquired between late June and early October. An additional seasonal bias correction was therefore estimated using a degree-day model to obtain the volume change between the start of 2 glaciological years (1 October). This correction was largest for the 1960 DEM, corresponding to an average elevation change of -3.5 m or approx. three-quarters of the volume change between the 1960 and the 1975 DEMs. The total uncertainty of the derived mass balance record is dominated by uncertainty in the volume

  11. Validation of ash optical depth and layer height retrieved from passive satellite sensors using EARLINET and airborne lidar data: the case of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balis, Dimitris; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; Siomos, Nikolaos; Dimopoulos, Spyridon; Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Marenco, Franco; Clarisse, Lieven; Ventress, Lucy J.; Carboni, Elisa; Grainger, Roy G.; Wang, Ping; Tilstra, Gijsbert; van der A, Ronald; Theys, Nicolas; Zehner, Claus

    2016-05-01

    The vulnerability of the European airspace to volcanic eruptions was brought to the attention of the public and the scientific community by the 2010 eruptions of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull. As a consequence of this event, ash concentration thresholds replaced the "zero tolerance to ash" rule, drastically changing the requirements on satellite ash retrievals. In response to that, the ESA funded several projects aiming at creating an optimal end-to-end system for volcanic ash plume monitoring and prediction. Two of them, namely the SACS-2 and SMASH projects, developed and improved dedicated satellite-derived ash plume and sulfur dioxide level assessments. The validation of volcanic ash levels and height extracted from the GOME-2 and IASI instruments on board the MetOp-A satellite is presented in this work. EARLINET lidar measurements are compared to different satellite retrievals for two eruptive episodes in April and May 2010. Comparisons were also made between satellite retrievals and aircraft lidar data obtained with the UK's BAe-146-301 Atmospheric Research Aircraft (managed by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements, FAAM) over the United Kingdom and the surrounding regions. The validation results are promising for most satellite products and are within the estimated uncertainties of each of the comparative data sets, but more collocation scenes would be desirable to perform a comprehensive statistical analysis. The satellite estimates and the validation data sets are better correlated for high ash optical depth values, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.8. The IASI retrievals show a better agreement concerning the ash optical depth and ash layer height when compared with the ground-based and airborne lidar data.

  12. Ash-Plume Dynamics, Mass Discharge Rate and Atmosphere Interaction by Infrasound and Thermal Imagery: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepe, M.; Bonadonna, C.; Folch, A.; Delle Donne, D.; Lacanna, G.

    2012-04-01

    The long-lasting Eyjafjallajökull ash plume activity was recorded during 4-21 May 2010 using a 4-element small (100 m) infrasonic array located ~7km from the volcano. The array measured pressure perturbations with frequencies ranging from 0.1-4 Hz down to 1-2 mHz (typical of acoustic-gravity waves) and was able to provide the time history of the excess pressure, suggesting that the explosive emission of gas drove the plume dynamics. The combination of infrasound measurements and thermal camera imagery allows the infrasound source to be constrained and the plume exit velocity(45-124 m/s) to be estimated based on the acoustic signal. Exit velocities are converted into mass eruption rates using additional constraints on vent radius and mixture density, resulting in a discharge rate ranging from 106 kg/s during the high explosive phase of May 4-6 to 105 kg/s during the final stage of the eruption. Finally, mass eruption rate is used to estimate plume heights using field-based relationships and 1D radially averaged simulations of plume rise with and without the influence of the local wind field and using a reconstructed granulometry. Obtained heights are in good agreement with independent measurements (IMO radar). We conclude that the use of infrasonic monitoring may lead to important understanding of the plume dynamics and real-time determination of eruption source parameters (e.g., mixture exit velocity and mass eruption rate). This could improve substantially the forecast of volcano-related hazards, with important implications for civil aviation safety.

  13. An ice-contact rhythmite (turbidite) succession deposited during the November 1996 catastrophic outburst flood (jökulhlaup), Skeiðarárjökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Andrew J.; Knudsen, Óskar

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents new evidence of coarse-grained deposition from a turbulent suspension within a low-energy `slack-water' location during a recent well-documented, volcanically related, high-magnitude glacier outburst flood or jökulhlaup, Skeiðarárjökull, Iceland. This study uses established spatial and temporal constraints on processes observed during the November 1996 jökulhlaup to interpret resultant flood sediments. Coarse-grained sediments were deposited within flood slack-water conditions from suspension load by repeated turbulent flow pulses with durations of seconds-minutes. Depositional processes are thought to be analogous to turbidity currents. A minimum thickness of 15 m of rhythmites record suspended sediment dynamics at a conduit mouth during the late rising and early falling stages of the jökulhlaup. The morphology and sedimentology of deposits in a large ice-walled chamber are consistent with previous models proposed for bar deposition during cataclysmic floods. Flood flows within subglacial conduits and ice-walled open channels were sufficiently powerful to carry material up to boulder size in suspension. Macro-turbulent flows carried huge quantities of suspended sediment to high levels within the main outlet channel. High-frequency, short-duration flow pulses entering a complex ice-walled channel geometry generated highly unsteady and non-uniform flows capable of both erosional and depositional work. This study lends support to the deposition of multiple rhythmites per flood under main flow slack-water conditions. Identification of high-magnitude jökulhlaups in the ice-marginal sedimentary record will depend on the identification and correct interpretation of feeder channel and slack-water turbidite sediments. The results described here may also have application to rhythmic deposits formed by large turbulent flows in other environmental settings.

  14. MODIS-derived albedo changes of Vatnajökull (Iceland) due to tephra deposition from the 2004 Grímsvötn eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Rebecca; Möller, Marco; Björnsson, Helgi; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Pálsson, Finnur; Oddsson, Björn; Kukla, Peter A.; Schneider, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Occasionally, the surface albedo of glaciers may be abruptly altered by deposition of light-absorbing aerosols, which consequently has a sustained impact on their energy- and mass balance. Volcanic eruptions may spread tephra deposits over regional-scale glacierized areas. In November 2004, an explosive, phreatomagmatic eruption of the subglacial Grímsvötn volcano, located in the centre of the Icelandic ice cap Vatnajökull, produced ash fall covering an area of ∼1280 km2 in the northwestern part of the ice cap. This event affected the surface albedo of the glacier over several years after the eruption. We use MODIS surface-albedo data and an ash-dispersal dataset obtained from in situ measurements on the ice cap to develop a novel, empirically based modelling approach to describe the albedo decrease across the glacier surface caused by the deposited tephra. We present analyses of the temporal and spatial variability of the albedo pattern over the post-eruption period from November 2004 to December 2008. The tephra-induced albedo changes were largest and most widely distributed over the glacier surface during the summer season 2005. The observed albedo decrease reached 0.35 when compared to modelled, undisturbed conditions. In the low-lying ablation area, where strong surface melting takes place, the tephra influence on albedo diminished with time and completely faded out within four years after the eruption. In contrast, at the rim of the Grímsvötn caldera surrounding the eruption site the tephra influences on albedo considerably increased with time. Throughout the rest of the high-lying accumulation area, the influences were scattered in both space and time.

  15. High levels of particulate matter in Iceland due to direct ash emissions by the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and resuspension of deposited ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Jóhannsson, Thorsteinn; Stohl, Andreas; Kristiansen, Nina I.

    2012-09-01

    The dangers to people living near a volcano due to lava and pyroclastic flows, and, on glacier- or snow-covered volcanoes, jökulhlaups, are well known. The level of risk to human health due to high concentrations of ash from direct emission and resuspension from the ground is, however, not as well known. The eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, 14 April to 20 May 2010, produced abundant particulate matter due to its explosive eruption style. Even after the volcanic activity ceased, high particulate matter (PM) concentrations were still measured on several occasions, due to resuspended ash. The 24 hour mean concentration of PM10 in the small town of Vík, 38 km SE of the volcano, reached 1230 μg m-3, which is about 25 times the health limit, on 7 May 2010, with 10 min average values over 13,000 μg m-3. Even after the eruption ceased, values as high as 8000 μg m-3 (10 min), and 900 μg m-3 (24 h), were measured because of resuspension of freshly deposited fine ash. In Reykjavík, 125 km WNW of the volcano, the PM10 concentration reached over 2000 μg m-3 (10 min) during an ash storm on 4 June 2010, which should have warranted airport closure. Summarizing, our study reveals the importance of ash resuspension compared to direct volcanic ash emissions. This likely has implications for air quality but could also have detrimental effects on the quality of ash dispersion model predictions, which so far generally do not include this secondary source of volcanic ash.

  16. Dynamics of eruptive pulses - A case study of the second explosive phase of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnus; Karmann, Sven; Zimanowski, Bernd; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Rietze, Martin; Büttner, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Current ash plume models of long-lived eruptions usually consider sustained ash plumes to be a continuous steady emission of tephra at the volcanic vent. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, however, often displayed pulsating activity, where emissions from the vent occurred by frequent but discrete bursts (with pulses in the order of seconds) that merged at higher altitude in a sustained eruption column. High resolution near-field video recordings of the vents, taken from a distance of ~850 m during the second explosive phase from 8 - 10 May and supplemented by aerial observations, were used as a case study to describe the mechanism of such pulsating eruptions. The dynamics of discrete pressurized jets were characterized and their pressure history quantified between discharge from vent until they reached the height of transition at ~100 m, where the expanding regime turned into a convective buoyant one. It is suggested that during the analyzed initial expansion phase of eruption, a rapid decompression of the pulses caused a significant decrease in particle volumetric concentration within the jets, allowing and enhancing further-up air entrainment and buoyancy and leading to the establishment of dilute ash plumes that eventually merged and form the quasi-continuous eruption column. Based on the results and conclusions of our case study we examine how to link the eruption source parameters of multiple discrete expansive jets to the over-all mass eruption rate derived by 'classical' continuous ash plume models (being in the order of ~104 kg/s). Furthermore, the implications for real-time assessment by using near-field monitoring systems under pulsatory eruption conditions are discussed. Finally, the expansion dynamics of the analyzed pulses are compared to those of pulses generated in large-scale experiments designed for reproducing explosive magmatic eruptions, allowing us to evaluate the strengths and restrictions of using such experimental simulations

  17. Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, A.; Tesche, M.; Seifert, P.; Groß, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Apituley, A.; Wilson, K. M.; Serikov, I.; Linné, H.; Heinold, B.; Hiebsch, A.; Schnell, F.; Schmidt, J.; Mattis, I.; Wandinger, U.; Wiegner, M.

    2011-10-01

    A combined lidar-photometer method that permits the retrieval of vertical profiles of ash and non-ash (fine-mode) particle mass concentrations is presented. By using a polarization lidar, the contributions of non-ash and ash particles to total particle backscattering and extinction are separated. Sun photometer measurements of the ratio of particle volume concentration to particle optical thickness (AOT) for fine and coarse mode are then used to convert the non-ash and ash extinction coefficients into respective fine-mode and ash particle mass concentrations. The method is applied to European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer observations of volcanic aerosol layers at Cabauw, Netherlands, and Hamburg, Munich, and Leipzig, Germany, after the strong eruptions of the Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April and May 2010. A consistent picture in terms of photometer-derived fine- and coarse-mode AOTs and lidar-derived non-ash and ash extinction profiles is found. The good agreement between the fine- to coarse-mode AOT ratio and non-ash to ash AOT ratio (<10% difference) in several cases corroborates the usefulness of the new retrieval technique. The main phases of the evolution of the volcanic aerosol layers over central Europe from 16 April to 17 May 2010 are characterized in terms of optical properties and mass concentrations of fine fraction and ash particles. Maximum coarse-mode 500 nm AOTs were of the order of 1.0-1.2. Ash concentrations and column mass loads reached maximum values around 1500 μg/m3 and 1750 mg/m2, respectively, on 16-17 April 2010. In May 2010, the maximum ash loads were lower by at least 50%. A critical aspect of the entire retrieval scheme is the high uncertainty in the mass-to-extinction conversion for fresh volcanic plumes with an unknown concentration of particles with radii >15 μm.

  18. In-situ physical and chemical characterization of the Eyjafjallajökull aerosol plume in the free troposphere over Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrini, S.; Giulianelli, L.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Fuzzi, S.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Canepari, S.; Perrino, C.

    2013-08-01

    Continuous measurements of physical and chemical properties at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO Global Station (2165 m a.s.l.) allowed the detection of the volcanic aerosol plume resulting from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of spring 2010. The event affected the site after a transport over a distance of more than 3000 km. Two main transport episodes were detected during the eruption period, showing a volcanic fingerprint discernible against the free tropospheric background conditions typical of the site, the first from 19 to 21 April and the second from 18 to 20 May 2010. The paper reports the modification of aerosol characteristics observed during the two episodes, both characterized by an abrupt increase in fine and, especially, coarse mode particle number. Analysis of major, minor and trace elements by different analytical techniques (Ionic Chromatography, PIXE-PIGE and ICP-MS) were performed on aerosols collected by ground level discrete sampling. The resulting database allows the characterization of aerosol chemical composition during the volcanic plume transport and in background conditions. During the passage of the volcanic plume, the fine fraction was dominated by sulphates, denoting the secondary origin of this mode, mainly resulting from in-plume oxidation of volcanic SO2. By contrast, the coarse fraction was characterized by increased concentration of numerous elements of crustal origin, such as Fe, Ti, Mn, Ca, Na, and Mg, which enter the composition of silicate minerals. Data analysis of selected elements (Ti, Al, Fe, Mn) allowed the estimation of the volcanic plume's contribution to total PM10, resulting in a local enhancement of up to 9.5 μg m-3, i.e. 40% of total PM10, on 18 May, which was the most intense of the two episodes. These results appear significant, especially in the light of the huge distance of Mt. Cimone from the source, confirming the widespread diffusion of the Eyjafjallajokull ashes over Europe.

  19. Charge structure in volcanic plumes: a comparison of plume properties predicted by an integral plume model to observations of volcanic lightning during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Mark J; Behnke, Sonja A

    Observations of volcanic lightning made using a lightning mapping array during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull allow the trajectory and growth of the volcanic plume to be determined. The lightning observations are compared with predictions of an integral model of volcanic plumes that includes descriptions of the interaction with wind and the effects of moisture. We show that the trajectory predicted by the integral model closely matches the observational data and the model well describes the growth of the plume downwind of the vent. Analysis of the lightning signals reveals information on the dominant charge structure within the volcanic plume. During the Eyjafjallajökull eruption both monopole and dipole charge structures were observed in the plume. By using the integral plume model, we propose the varying charge structure is connected to the availability of condensed water and low temperatures at high altitudes in the plume, suggesting ice formation may have contributed to the generation of a dipole charge structure via thunderstorm-style ice-based charging mechanisms, though overall this charging mechanism is believed to have had only a weak influence on the production of lightning.

  20. Evolution of deformation and stress changes during the caldera collapse and dyking at Bárdarbunga, 2014-2015: Implication for triggering of seismicity at nearby Tungnafellsjökull volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Michelle Maree; Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Hjartardóttir, Ásta Rut; Einarsson, Páll; Gudmundsson, Magnús Tumi; Högnadóttir, Thórdis; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hensch, Martin; Bagnardi, Marco; Dumont, Stéphanie; Drouin, Vincent; Spaans, Karsten; Ólafsdóttir, Rósa

    2017-03-01

    Stress transfer associated with an earthquake, which may result in the seismic triggering of aftershocks (earthquake-earthquake interactions) and/or increased volcanic activity (earthquake-volcano interactions), is a well-documented phenomenon. However limited studies have been undertaken concerning volcanic triggering of activity at neighbouring volcanoes (volcano-volcano interactions). Here we present new deformation and stress modelling results utilising a wealth of diverse geodetic observations acquired during the 2014-2015 unrest and eruption within the Bárdarbunga volcanic system. These comprise a combination of InSAR, GPS, LiDAR, radar profiling and optical satellite measurements. We find a strong correlation between the locations of increased seismicity at nearby Tungnafellsjökull volcano and regions of increased tensile and Coulomb stress changes. Our results suggest that stress transfer during this major event has resulted in earthquake triggering at the neighbouring Tungnafellsjökull volcano by unclamping faults within the associated fissure swarm. This work has immediate application to volcano monitoring; to distinguish the difference between stress transfer and new intrusive activity.

  1. Hydro-morphodynamic modelling of a volcano-induced sediment-laden outburst flood at Sólheimajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, M.; Wright, N.; Sleigh, P. A.; Carrivick, J.; Staines, K.

    2013-12-01

    Outburst floods are one of the most catastrophic natural hazards for populations and infrastructure. Such high-magnitude sudden onset floods generally comprise of an advancing intense kinematic water wave that can induce considerable sediment transport. The exploration and investigation of sediment-laden outburst floods cannot be limited solely to water flow but must also include the flood-induced sediment transport. Understanding the complex flow-bed interaction process in large (field) scale outburst floods is still limited, not least due to a lack of well-constrained field data, but also because consensus on appropriate modelling schemes has yet to be decided. In recent years, attention has focussed on the numerical models capable of describing the process of erosion, transport and deposition in such flows and they are now at a point at which they provide useful quantitative data. Although the "exact" measure of bed change is still unattainable the numerical models enhance and improve insights into large outburst flood events. In this study, a volcano-induced jökulhlaup or glacial outburst flood (GLOF) at Sólheimajökull, Iceland is reproduced by novel 2D hydro-morphodynamic model that considers both bedload and suspended load based on shallow water theory. The simulation of sediment-laden outburst flood is shown to perform well, with further insights into the flow-bed interaction behaviour obtained from the modelling output. These results are beneficial to flood risk management and hazard prevention and mitigation. In summary, the modelling outputs show that (1) the quantity of bed erosion and deposition are sensitive to the sediment gain size, yet, the influences are not so significant when considering flow discharge; (2) finer resolution of topography increases the computational time significantly yet the results are not affected correspondingly; (3) the bed changes simulated by the present model achieves reasonably good agreement with those by the

  2. Analysis of the Eyjafjallajökull Eruption using the WRF-Chem Model compared to Satellite-Based Ash Retrieval Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, T. S.; Stuefer, M.; Webley, P.; Grell, G. A.; de Freitas, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    On April 14th, 2010, the long-dormant ice-capped volcano Eyjafjallajökull in southern Iceland exhibited a black ash-rich plume that quickly developed into an upper-tropospheric ash-cloud covering large parts of Europe grounding the majority of European air traffic for days. The emission of the ash-cloud continued for three days before the eruption turned more magmatic on April 18th. Due to a strong jet stream the plume initially drifted towards the United Kingdom and Norway with ash-fall occurring in many cities in both countries. Over the course of a week, most countries in Europe were affected by the dispersing cloud resulting in numbers of closed airports never seen before, grounded planes and confused passengers. This eruption, although small on the international scale, drew volcanic hazards into the public eye and called for better understanding of evolving volcanic plumes and their ash content. The Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) coupled with Chemistry (Chem) has been utilized to use wind fields and chemical compositions to forecast the drift and chemical alteration of dispersed substances such as forest fires and volcanic ash and, in this study, was used to simulate the developing plume in time, based on physical input parameters of the initial plume as well as the wind patterns over Europe during April 2010. The results of this model have been compared to satellite-based ash retrieval algorithms like the Reverse Absorption Method and the Principal Component Analysis using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. This comparison allows both, the ratification of the model as a forecasting tool and of the satellites as an in-situ measurement. Both parts are essential components to be able to predict and analyze airborne volcanic ash and to constantly improve the hazard assessment of ash cloud forecasting to minimize the burden on the aviation community while maximizing the

  3. Observing the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, Eruptions with NASA's Earth Observing-1 Spacecraft - Improving Data Flow In a Volcanic Crisis Through Use of Autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, S.; Davies, A. G.; Doubleday, J.; Tran, D. Q.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Jónsdóttir, I.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Thordarson, T.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Wright, R.

    2010-12-01

    Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, erupted from 20 March to 12 April 2010 (a flank eruption) and again from 14 April to 23 May 2010. The latter eruption heavily impacted air travel across much of northern Europe, and highlighted the need to monitor and quickly react to new eruptions. The NASA Earth Observing 1 spacecraft (EO-1), which is managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, obtained over 50 observation pairs with the Hyperion hyperspectral imager and ALI (Advanced Land Imager) multispectral camera. EO-1 is the remote-sensing asset of a globe-spanning Volcano Sensor Web [1], where low spatial resolution data (e.g., MODIS) or alerts of ongoing or possible volcanic activity are used to trigger requests for high resolution EO-1 data. Advanced resource management software, developed in part for flight onboard EO-1 as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft [2, 3] is now used to task EO-1. This system allowed rapid re-tasking of EO-1 to obtain both day and night data at high temporal resolution (on average every 2 days), unusual for such high spatial resolution imagers (Hyperion and ALI at 30 m/pixel, with an ALI panchromatic band at 10 m/pixel). About 50% of the data were impacted by cloud. Advances in data handling and communications during the last two years means that Hyperion and ALI data are typically on the ground and ready for analysis within a few hours of data acquisition. Automatic data processing systems at the NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory process Hyperion data to (1) correct for atmospheric adsorption; (2) remove the sunlight component in daytime data; (3) identify hot pixels; (4) fit unsaturated data to determine temperature and area of sub-pixel thermal sources; (5) calculate total thermal emission and, from this, an effusion rate; (6) generate geo-located data products. The entire process is autonomous. Data products, as well as images generated, were sent to volcanologists in the field to aid in eruption assessment. The JPL group is now

  4. Soil carbon accretion along an age chronosequence formed by the retreat of the Skaftafellsjökull glacier, SE-Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmundardóttir, O. K.; Gísladóttir, G.; Lal, R.

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming has led to glacial retreat worldwide, where surfaces exposed to the atmosphere are subjected to weathering, vegetation colonization and new soil formation. On young soils developing along the recessional path left by the Skaftafellsjökull glacier, SE-Iceland, we investigated the accretion of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N), representing an age chronosequence of 120 years. In total, 54 sampling sites were distributed along three moraines deposited in 1890, 1945, and 2003. For comparison, soil samples were collected from nearby birch woodlands (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), representing soils in a mature ecosystem likely to establish on the moraines in the future. Results show that the average SOC and N concentrations increase with time and at faster rates over the latter part of the chronosequence period investigated (1945-1890). After 120 yrs, the soil contains 1.1 kg C m- 2 in the surface layer (0-10 cm), which is still about one third of the 3.2 kg C m- 2 in soil under the birch woodlands. The N stock estimated at 0.06 kg N m- 2 after 120 yrs is almost one fourth of that under the woodlands. The data suggest that landscape affects vegetation establishment and in turn, both landscape and vegetation affect soil development. Thus, concentrations of SOC, N and noncrystalline oxalate extractable Al and Fe are higher within depressions in the proglacial landscape. The comparison of SOC stock in the moraine soils with that under the birch forest shows that the young proglacial soils still have a large potential to accrete SOC within the developing pedosphere. With the observed accrual rate of 9.1 g C m- 2 yr- 1 in the top at 10 cm, it may take the moraine soils an additional period of 220 yrs to accrue SOC stocks comparable with those under the birch forest. Given the fact that all Icelandic glaciers are receding, assessing SOC accretion in new soil formation may be important to off-setting the greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffensen Schmidt, Louise; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Langen, Peter L.; Pálsson, Finnur; Mottram, Ruth; Gascoin, Simon; Björnsson, Helgi

    2017-07-01

    A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980-2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB). This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs) from the period 2001-2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995-2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995-2014) shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981-2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes currently not accounted for in RCMs

  6. Variational assimilation of IASI SO2 plume height and total column retrievals in the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull using the SILAM v5.3 chemistry transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vira, Julius; Carboni, Elisa; Grainger, Roy G.; Sofiev, Mikhail

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on two new aspects of inverse modelling of volcanic emissions. First, we derive an observation operator for satellite retrievals of plume height, and second, we solve the inverse problem using an algorithm based on the 4D-Var data assimilation method. The approach is first tested in a twin experiment with simulated observations and further evaluated by assimilating IASI SO2 plume height and total column retrievals in a source term inversion for the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. The inversion resulted in temporal and vertical reconstruction of the SO2 emissions during 1-20 May 2010 with formal vertical and temporal resolutions of 500 m and 12 h.The plume height observation operator is based on simultaneous assimilation of the plume height and total column retrievals. The plume height is taken to represent the vertical centre of mass, which is transformed into the first moment of mass (centre of mass times total mass). This makes the observation operator linear and simple to implement. The necessary modifications to the observation error covariance matrix are derived.Regularization by truncated iteration is investigated as a simple and efficient regularization method for the 4D-Var-based inversion. In the twin experiments, the truncated iteration was found to perform similarly to the commonly used Tikhonov regularization, which in turn is equivalent to a Gaussian a priori source term. However, the truncated iteration allows the level of regularization to be determined a posteriori without repeating the inversion.In the twin experiments, assimilating the plume height retrievals resulted in a 5-20 % improvement in root mean squared error but simultaneously introduced a 10-20 % low bias on the total emission depending on assumed emission profile. The results are consistent with those obtained with real data. For Eyjafjallajökull, comparisons with observations showed that assimilating the plume height retrievals reduced the overestimation of

  7. PS-InSAR measurements at the most active volcanoes in Iceland: role of the GEO supersite initiative in deformation monitoring at Bárðarbunga, Askja, Hekla, Katla and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Michelle; Dumont, Stéphanie; Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Spaans, Karsten; Hooper, Andrew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Árnadóttir, Þóra; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Michalczewska, Karolina; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; María Friðriksdóttir, Hildur; Rut Hjartardóttir, Ásta; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hensch, Martin; Guðmundsson, Gunnar; Geirsson, Halldór; Sturkell, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of a time series of ground deformation measurements at active volcanoes can provide an improved understanding of sub-volcanic and sub-aerial processes; including those related to magmatic, hydrothermal and structural development. Interpreting a long time series may also help determine background behavior, and identify any deviations from this, including the migration of new melt. We use Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) techniques to generate a time series of high-resolution deformation measurements, in the vicinity of the most active volcanoes in Iceland: Bárðarbunga, Askja, Hekla, Katla and Eyjafjallajökull and compare these to other geodetic measurements. A comprehensive network of continuous GPS stations is already deployed at these volcanoes and a series of campaign GPS measurements are routinely undertaken each summer. InSAR observations are complementary to these field based measurements and their high spatial resolution assists in resolving the geometry of the deformation field hence gaining improved constraints on the inferred source. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites has recently declared Iceland a Permanent Geohazard Supersite, based on its propensity for relatively frequent eruptions and their potentially hazardous, long ranging effects. The recent Supersite award ensures a considerable amount of SAR data is made available for both past and future satellite acquisitions, including new X-band images (acquired by TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites), and historic C-band images from ERS and ENVISAT. We present a series of long-term deformation measurements for Hekla, Katla, Eyjafjallajökull and Askja volcanoes, derived using PS-InSAR techniques, and include recent interferograms spanning the 2014 unrest and eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system. InSAR and tilt measurements at Hekla indicate renewed melt supply to a sub-volcanic reservoir after the last eruption in 2000. Recent

  8. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: Evaluating the surface energy budget in a Regional Climate Model with automatic weather station observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffensen Schmidt, Louise; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Langen, Peter L.; Pálsson, Finnur; Mottram, Ruth; Gascoin, Simon; Björnsson, Helgi

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of the surface mass balance of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, from 1981 to the present day is estimated by using the Regional Climate Model HIRHAM5 to simulate the surface climate. A new albedo parametrization is used for the simulation, which describes the albedo with an exponential decay with time. In addition, it utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from MODIS data. The simulation is validated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) from 2001-2014, as well as mass balance measurements from 1995-2014. The modelled albedo is overestimated at the AWS sites in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and the model not accounting for dust and ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and annual mass balance for all Vatnajökull from 1995-2014 shows a good overall fit during the summer, with the model underestimating the balance by only 0.04 m w. eq. on average. The winter balance, on the other hand, is overestimated by 0.5 m w. eq. on average, mostly due to an overestimation of the precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at these points reduced the error to 0.15 m w. eq. The model captures the evolution of the specific mass balance well, for example it captures an observed shift in the balance in the mid-1990s, which gives us confidence in the results for the entire model run. Our results show the importance of bare ice albedo for modelled mass balance and that processes not currently accounted for in RCMs, such as dust storms, are an important source of uncertainty in estimates of the snow melt rate.

  9. Seismic tremor signals from Bárðarbunga, Grímsvötn and other glacier covered volcanoes in Iceland's Vatnajökull ice cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjörd, Kristin S.; Eibl, Eva; Bean, Chris; Roberts, Matthew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Jóhannesson, Tómas

    2016-04-01

    Many of Iceland's most active volcanoes, like Grímsvötn and Bárðarbunga are located under glaciers giving rise to a range of volcanic hazards having both local and cross-border effects on humans, infrastructures and aviation. Volcanic eruptions under ice can lead to explosive hydromagmatic volcanism and generate small to catastrophic subglacial floods that may take hours to days to emerge from the glacier edge. Unrest in subglacial hydrothermal systems and the draining of subglacial meltwater can also lead to flood hazards. These processes and magma-ice interactions in general, generate seismic tremor signals that are commonly observed on seismic systems during volcanic unrest and/or eruptions. The tremor signals exhibit certain characteristics in frequency content, amplitude and behavior with time, but their characteristics overlap. Ability to discriminate between the different processes in real-time or near-real time can support early eruption and flood warnings and help mitigate their detrimental effects. One of the goals set forth in the FUTUREVOLC volcano supersite project was in fact to understand and discriminate between the different types of seismic tremor recorded at subglacial volcanoes. In that pursuit, the seismic network was expanded into the Vatnajökull glacier with four permanent stations on rock and in the ice, in addition to three seismic arrays installed at the ice margin, to enable location and possible tracking of the tremor sources. To track subglacial floods with better resolution three GPS receivers were also installed on the ice, one in an ice cauldron above the Skaftárkatlar geothermal melting area and two down glacier, above the track of the expected subglacial flood. During FUTUREVOLC this infrastructure has recorded all the types of process expected: Magmatic dyke intrusion and propagation from Bárðarbunga, subaerial fissure eruption of that magma at Holuhraun, two subglacial floods, one small and one large, draining from the

  10. Physical and optical properties of 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption aerosol: ground-based, Lidar and airborne measurements in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervo, M.; Quennehen, B.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Boulon, J.; Stohl, A.; Fréville, P.; Pichon, J.-M.; Picard, D.; Labazuy, P.; Gouhier, M.; Roger, J.-C.; Colomb, A.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sellegri, K.

    2012-02-01

    During the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (14 April to 24 May 2010), the volcanic aerosol cloud was observed across Europe by several airborne in situ and ground-based remote-sensing instruments. On 18 and 19 May, layers of depolarizing particles (i.e. non-spherical particles) were detected in the free troposphere above the Puy de Dôme station, (PdD, France) with a Rayleigh-Mie LIDAR emitting at a wavelength of 355 nm, with parallel and crossed polarization channels. These layers in the free troposphere (FT) were also well captured by simulations with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, which furthermore showed that the ash was eventually entrained into the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Indeed, the ash cloud was then detected and characterized with a comprehensive set of in situ instruments at the Puy de Dôme station (PdD). In agreement with the FLEXPART simulation, up to 65 μg m-3 of particle mass and 2.2 ppb of SO2 were measured at PdD, corresponding to concentrations higher than the 95 percentile of 2 yr of measurements at PdD. Moreover, the number concentration of particles increased to 24 000 cm-3, mainly in the submicronic mode, but a supermicronic mode was also detected with a modal diameter of 2 μm. The resulting optical properties of the ash aerosol were characterized by a low scattering Ångström exponent (0.98), showing the presence of supermicronic particles. For the first time to our knowledge, the combination of in situ optical and physical characterization of the volcanic ash allowed the calculation of the mass-to-extinction ratio (η) with no assumptions on the aerosol density. The mass-to-extinction ratio was found to be significantly different from the background boundary layer aerosol (max: 1.57 g m-2 as opposed to 0.33 ± 0.03 g m-2). Using this ratio, ash mass concentration in the volcanic plume derived from LIDAR measurements was found to be 655 ± 23 μg m-3 when the plume was located in the FT (3000 m above the sea level

  11. Reply to the “Comment by Delmelle et al. (2013) on 'Scavenging of sulfur, halogens and trace metals by volcanic ash: The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption' by Bagnato et al. (2013)”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Aiuppa, A.; Bertagnini, A.; Bonadonna, C.; Cioni, R.; Pistolesi, M.; Pedone, M.; Hoskuldsson, A.

    2014-02-01

    With this short communication we address the principal issues raised by Delmelle et al. (2014) in relation to the work of Bagnato et al. (2013) concerning the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. The principal conclusions of the work of Bagnato et al. (2013) include the observation that protracted gas-aerosol interaction in the plume promotes selective leaching of cation species from ash, with alkalis and Ca (and, among trace elements, Zn and Cu) being more rapidly re-mobilized (and transferred to soluble surface salts) relative to more inert elements (Mg, Ti). They also observed that adsorption onto ash surfaces is a major atmospheric sink of volcanic acidic gases, with 282 tons of elemental sulfur and 605-691 tons of halogens being daily ground deposited via ash over Iceland in early May 2010. Acidic gas adsorption onto ash increases almost linearly with plume aging (e.g., upon increasing in-plume residence times of ash and gases), and is seen to proceed at about 3 time faster rates for HF than for SO2 and HCl. However, Delmelle et al. (2014) criticized our strategies for data acquisition, processing and interpretation. They also raised some objections concerning several key topics explored by Bagnato et al. (2013), with a special focus on the discussion of rates of interaction between ash particles and gases in a volcanic cloud, and the consequent formation of soluble salts on ash surfaces. They also considered incorrect the estimate of depositional fluxes and volatile budget for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. While we appreciate the in-depth analysis of Delmelle et al. (2014), we show that most of their criticisms derive from a partial and sometimes incorrect understanding of the work of Bagnato et al. (2013), which overall led to unsupported conclusions and misleading analysis of the original results. Here, we present a detailed response to the comments of Delmelle et al. (2014), accompanied by additional explicative material. The principal

  12. Magma flow, eruption column and magma pressure change during 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions, Iceland: Constraints from volcano geodesy on physical models of eruptive processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmundsson, F.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Hooper, A. J.; Grapenthin, R.; Heimisson, E. R.; Ofeigsson, B.; Sturkell, E. C.; Roberts, M. J.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Bjornsson, H.; Arason, P.; Parks, M.; Dumont, S.; Drouin, V.

    2014-12-01

    Ground deformation in relation to 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 1998, 2004 and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions in Iceland provide constraints on subsurface magma flow and pressure change. When compared with eruptive activity, eruption column and estimates of mass flow rate they can be used to constrain physical models of eruptive processes. The 1998 and 2004 Grímsvötn eruptions were captured by intermittent GPS observations but in 2011 the detailed temporal evolution of co-eruptive deformation was revealed by a kinematic 1 Hz solutions for the position of a single continuous GPS site on the volcano, supplemented with ground tilt observations. The observations can be explained by inflow of magma and pressure buildup between eruptions in a shallow chamber at about 1.7 km depth beneath the center of the Grímsvötn caldera complex, and pressure drop and magma outflow during eruptions. The rate of pressure change in the magma chamber correlates with the height of the volcanic plume over the course of the 2011 eruption. Peaks in activity relate to periods of rapid pressure drop in the chamber. GPS observations and interferometric analysis of satellite radar images from the TerraSAR-X satellite show that the explosive 2010 eruption at Eyjafjallajökull was on the other hand associated with gradual contraction of a source, distinct from pre-eruptive inflation sources at the volcano. For the initial 10-days of the summit eruption, a deflating sill source under the summit at about 5 km depth can explain the observed deformation, but then the source geometry appears to evolve. The rate of deflation was interrupted by inflow of new magma into the deflating source during the eruption in relation to peaks in explosive activity. The contrasting behavior of the two volcanoes is interpreted in terms of different magma plumbing systems of the volcanoes. In both cases, the erupted volume of magma is much larger than the inferred co-eruptive volume change, attributed to compressibility of

  13. Dynamics of Individual Eruptive Pulses and their Contribution to the Total Mass Flux - Case Study of the 2nd Explosive Phase of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruption (Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürig, T.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Karmann, S.; Zimanowski, B.; Dellino, P.; Rietze, M.; Büttner, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption was characterized by pulsating activity, where emissions from the vent occurred in frequent but discrete bursts with pulses in the order of seconds that then merged at higher altitude in a sustained eruption column. High resolution near-field video recordings of the vents, taken from a distance of ~850 m from 8 - 10 May (during the second explosive phase), were used as a case study to describe the mechanism of such pulsating eruptions and their contribution to the total mass flux of ash injection in the atmosphere. The dynamics of discrete overpressured jets were quantified during the intial gas thrust stage, i.e. between discharge and the height of transition into a convective buoyant regime (at ~100 m above the vent). By applying a straight-forward volumetrical calculation model, the volume and pressure history of eruptive pulses could be reconstructed. Then the mass flux of individual pulses was determined by exploiting the fact that the pressure at the transition height is known to be at ambient pressure. Based on our results we examine how to link the eruption source parameters of multiple discrete expansive jets to the overall mass eruption rate deduced by "classical" continuous ash plume models (being ~4*104 kg/s). In addition we discuss the implications for a real-time assessment of eruption source parameters by using near-field monitoring systems under pulsatory eruption conditions.

  14. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and LiDAR data - case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Belart, J. M. C.; Pálsson, F.; Ágústsson, H.; Crochet, P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we describe how recent high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can be used as constraints for extracting glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne LiDAR in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high resolution LiDAR DEM (2 m × 2 m cell size and vertical accuracy < 0.5 m). The LiDAR DEM was also used to estimate errors of the extracted photogrammetric DEMs in ice and snow free areas, at nunataks and outside the glacier margin. The derived errors of each DEM were used to constrain a spherical variogram model, which along with the derived errors in ice and snow free areas were used as inputs into 1000 Sequential Gaussian Simulations (SGSim). The simulations were used to estimate the possible bias in the entire glaciated part of the DEM. The derived bias correction, varying in magnitude between DEMs from 0.03 to 1.66 m (1946 DEM) was then applied. The simulation results were also used to calculate the 95 % confidence level of this bias, resulting in values between ±0.21 m (in 2005) and ±1.58 m (in 1946). Error estimation methods based on more simple proxies would typically yield 2-4 times larger error estimates. The aerial photographs used were acquired between late June and early October. An additional bias correction was therefore estimated using a degree day model to obtain the volume change between the start of two hydrological years (1 October). This correction corresponds to an average elevation change of ~ -3 m in the worst case for 1960, or about ~ 2/3 of volume change between the 1960 and the 1975 DEMs. The

  15. Airborne in-situ investigations of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash plume on Iceland and over north-western Germany with light aircrafts and optical particle counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, K.; Eliasson, J.; Vogel, A.; Fischer, C.; Pohl, T.; van Haren, G.; Meier, M.; Grobéty, B.; Dahmann, D.

    2012-03-01

    During the time period of the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April/May 2010 the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences has performed 14 research flights in situations with and without the volcanic ash plume over Germany. In parallel to the research flights in Germany three measurement flights have been performed by the University of Iceland in May 2010 over the western part of Iceland. During two of these flights the outskirts of the eruption plume were entered directly, delivering most direct measurements within the eruption plume during this eruptive event. For all the measurement flights reported here, light durable piston-motor driven aircrafts were used, which were equipped with optical particle counters for in-situ measurements. Real-time monitoring of the particle concentrations was possible during the flights. As different types of optical particle counters have been used in Iceland and Germany, the optical particle counters have been re-calibrated after the flights to the same standard using gravimetric reference methods and original Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash samples. In-situ measurement results with high spatial resolution, directly from the eruption plume in Iceland as well as from the dispersed and several days old plume over Germany, are therefore presented here for the first time. They are normalized to the same ash concentration calibration standard. Moreover, airborne particles could be sampled directly out of the eruption plume in Iceland as well as during the flights over Germany. During the research flights over Iceland from 9 May 2011 to 11 May 2011 the ash emitted from the vent of the volcano turned out to be concentrated in a narrow well-defined plume of about 10 km width at a distance of 45-60 km away from the vent. Outside this plume the airborne ash concentrations could be proved to be below 50 μg m -3 over western Iceland. However, by entering the outskirts of the plume directly the research aircraft could

  16. The influence of the direct- and semi-direct effect on the weather conditions in Europe caused by the volcanic ash plume of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption during April and May 2010 with WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Stuefer, Martin; Arias, Delia Arnold; Flandorfer, Claudia; Maurer, Christian; Natali, Stefano; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions, with gas and/or particle emissions, directly influence our environment, with special significance when they either occur near inhabited regions or are transported towards them. In addition to the well-known impact of air traffic, with large economic costs, the ground touching plumes can directly contaminate soil and water and lead to a decrease of air quality. Aerosols are also known to have an impact on weather and climate via their direct effect on radiation and via their impact on cloud formation. These feedbacks between atmospheric aerosol particles and meteorological processes were known for quite some time and have been implemented into several regional models. This study reveals first results obtained with the on-line coupled meteorological and chemical transport model WRF-Chem which is used to simulate the dispersion of the volcanic ash plume caused by the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010. The main emphasis is to determine the influence of feedback processes caused by aerosol-meteorology interactions which can be simulated with WRF-Chem. The model is used with different set-ups (e.g. direct-effect turned off/on) to quantify the influence of the ash plume on the meteorological conditions during the main episode from April until end of May 2010. This contribution focuses on the investigation/quantification of the direct- and semi-direct effects of the ash plume. The simulated changes caused by the presence of the ash cloud on radiation and other atmospheric parameters such as temperature and wind are presented. A comprehensive observation data set from in-situ and remote sensing instruments is used to evaluate the model simulations.

  17. Mass eruption rates in pulsating eruptions estimated from video analysis of the gas thrust-buoyancy transition—a case study of the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnús Tumi; Karmann, Sven; Zimanowski, Bernd; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Rietze, Martin; Büttner, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano was characterized by pulsating activity. Discrete ash bursts merged at higher altitude and formed a sustained quasi-continuous eruption column. High-resolution near-field videos were recorded on 8-10 May, during the second explosive phase of the eruption, and supplemented by contemporary aerial observations. In the observed period, pulses occurred at intervals of 0.8 to 23.4 s (average, 4.2 s). On the basis of video analysis, the pulse volume and the velocity of the reversely buoyant jets that initiated each pulse were determined. The expansion history of jets was tracked until the pulses reached the height of transition from a negatively buoyant jet to a convective buoyant plume about 100 m above the vent. Based on the assumption that the density of the gas-solid mixture making up the pulse approximates that of the surrounding air at the level of transition from the jet to the plume, a mass flux ranging between 2.2 and 3.5 · 104 kg/s was calculated. This mass eruption rate is in good agreement with results obtained with simple models relating plume height with mass discharge at the vent. Our findings indicate that near-field measurements of eruption source parameters in a pulsating eruption may prove to be an effective monitoring tool. A comparison of the observed pulses with those generated in calibrated large-scale experiments reveals very similar characteristics and suggests that the analysis of near-field sensors could in the future help to constrain the triggering mechanism of explosive eruptions.

  18. Importance of nanoparticles and colloids from volcanic ash for riverine transport of trace elements to the ocean: evidence from glacial-fed rivers after the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Volcanic ashes are often referenced as examples for natural nanoparticles, yet the particle size distribution <1000 nm is only rarely documented. We here report results of a geochemical study of glacial-fed rivers, glacial surface runoff, glacial base flow, and pure glacial meltwater from southern Iceland, that had been sampled 25 days after the explosive eruptions at Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. In addition to the dissolved concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the 450 nm-filtered waters, we also studied the respective filter residues (river particulates >450 nm) and volcanic ash. In spite of the low solubilities and high particle-reactivities of the elements studied, most water samples show high dissolved concentrations, such as up to 971 ng/kg of Ce and 501 ng/kg of Zr. Except for the pure glacial meltwater and glacial base flow, all waters display the same shale-normalized REE patterns with pronounced light and heavy REE depletion and positive Eu anomalies. While such patterns are unusual for river waters, they are similar to those of the respective river particulates and the volcanic ash, though at different concentration levels. The distribution of dissolved Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the waters also matches that of filter residues and ash. This strongly suggests that in all 450 nm-filtered river waters, the elements studied are associated with solid ash particles smaller than 450 nm. This reveals that volcanic ash-derived nanoparticles and colloids are present in these glacial-fed rivers and that such ultrafine particles control the trace element distribution in the surface runoff. Subsequent to explosive volcanic eruptions, these waters provide terrigenous input from landmasses to estuaries, that is characterized by a unique trace element signature and that subsequent to modification by estuarine processes delivers a pulse of nutrients to coastal seawater in regions not affected by plume fall-out.

  19. Optical, microphysical, mass and geometrical properties of aged volcanic particles observed over Athens, Greece, during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 through synergy of Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkalis, P.; Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Mamouri, R. E.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Mona, L.

    2013-02-01

    Vertical profiles of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and Ångström exponent), microphysical (mean effective radius, mean refractive index, mean number concentration) and geometrical properties, as well as of the mass concentration of volcanic particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were retrieved at selected heights over Athens, Greece using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system and inversion models, during 21-24 April 2010. Additionally, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) particulate columnar measurements indicated the presence of volcanic particles over our area. Simulations of the volcanic partilcles dispersion, done by the FLEXPART model, confirmed the presence of these particles over Athens. Our lidar data showed volcanic particles layers, in the form of filaments after 7-day transport from the source (approximately 4000 km away from our site) between from ground levels up to nearly 10 km. Over Athens the volcanic particles layers were found to be mixed with locally produced aerosols, inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). Mean hourly-averaged lidar signals indicated that the layer thickness of volcanic particles, ranged between 1.5 and 2.2 km. The corresponding aerosol optical depth (AOD) found to vary from 0.014 to 0.184 at 355 nm and from 0.017 up to 0.174 at 532 nm. Furthermore, the corresponding lidar ratios (LR) ranged between 59.7-79.6 sr (at 355 nm) and 43.9-88.3 sr (at 532 nm). Additionally, we calculated that the mean effective radius of the volcanic particles was 0.13-0.38 μm, while their refractive index ranged from 1.39+0.009i to 1.48+0.006i. Finally, our data also allowed us to quantitatively compare, for the first time, the volcanic ash concentrations simulated by FLEXPART with those calculated by the inversion code LIRIC, using data sets derived from coincident lidar-AERONET measurements. In general, good agreement was found between simulations and observations, concerning not only the geometrical

  20. Optical, microphysical, mass and geometrical properties of aged volcanic particles observed over Athens, Greece, during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 through synergy of Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkalis, P.; Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Mamouri, R. E.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Mona, L.

    2013-09-01

    Vertical profiles of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and Ångström exponent), microphysical (mean effective radius, mean refractive index, mean number concentration) and geometrical properties as well as the mass concentration of volcanic particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were retrieved at selected heights over Athens, Greece, using multi-wavelength Raman lidar measurements performed during the period 21-24 April 2010. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) particulate columnar measurements along with inversion schemes were initialized together with lidar observations to deliver the aforementioned products. The well-known FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) model used for volcanic dispersion simulations is initiated as well in order to estimate the horizontal and vertical distribution of volcanic particles. Compared with the lidar measurements within the planetary boundary layer over Athens, FLEXPART proved to be a useful tool for determining the state of mixing of ash with other, locally emitted aerosol types. The major findings presented in our work concern the identification of volcanic particles layers in the form of filaments after 7-day transport from the volcanic source (approximately 4000 km away from our site) from the surface and up to 10 km according to the lidar measurements. Mean hourly averaged lidar signals indicated that the layer thickness of volcanic particles ranged between 1.5 and 2.2 km. The corresponding aerosol optical depth was found to vary from 0.01 to 0.18 at 355 nm and from 0.02 up to 0.17 at 532 nm. Furthermore, the corresponding lidar ratios (S) ranged between 60 and 80 sr at 355 nm and 44 and 88 sr at 532 nm. The mean effective radius of the volcanic particles estimated by applying inversion scheme to the lidar data found to vary within the range 0.13-0.38 μm and the refractive index ranged from 1.39+0.009i to 1.48+0.006i. This high variability is most probably attributed to the

  1. Glacial and climatic evolution from the Little Ice Age last Maximum to the present in Tröllaskagi Peninsula (North Iceland): the case of Gljúlfurárjökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, Jose; Andres, Nuria; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier (65°42'48'' N, 18°39'13'' W; 980 m), located at the headwall of the Skiðadalur valley, on the Tröllaskagi peninsula (N. Iceland). This is one of many small glaciers situated on the bottom of the Tröllaskagi valleys. This glacier is one of the few "clean" glaciers, i.e. not covered with boulders, as is the case with most of the glaciers on this peninsula. This makes the glacier especially sensitive to climate change, and it has retreated and advanced many times since its last maximum during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum in the mid- 19th century (Caseldine and Stötter, 1993), leaving a large number of moraine ridges. This paper analyses the change in this glacier from the LIA up to the present day, with reference to the variations in the surface, ELA and volume. Lichenometry and geomorphological field analysis were used to establish the exact limits of the glacier during the LIA last maximum. An aerial photo from 1946 and two orthophotos from 2000 and 2013 were also used. Using photointerpretation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the aerial photos were georeferenced to delimit the glacier in different years, analyse the surface and volume variations, and calculate the ELA for each date. The ELA analysis was carried out using the method: Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR 0.67). The results obtained with this method are: Little Ice Age Maximum: 945 m a.s.l. (almost the same ELA proposed by Caseldine and Stötter, 1993) 1946: 970 m a.s.l. 2000: 980 m a.s.l. 2013: 990 m a.s.l. The ice volume lost from LIA to 2000 was: 111.68 hm3 Reference Caseldine, C., Stötter, J., 1993. "Little Ice Age" glaciation of Tröllaskagi Peninsula, northern Iceland: Climatic implications for reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Holocene 3: 357-366. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  2. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages reveal a 9.3 ka BP glacier advance and the Late Weichselian-Early Holocene glacial history of the Drangajökull region, northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Schomacker, Anders; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Keiding, Jakob K.

    2015-10-01

    We present twenty-four new cosmogenic isotope (36Cl) surface exposure ages from erratic boulders, moraine boulders and glacially eroded bedrock that constrain the late Weichselian to Holocene glacial history of the Drangajökull region, northwest Iceland. The results suggest a topographically controlled ice sheet over the Vestfirðir (Westfjords) peninsula during the last glaciation. Cold based non-erosive sectors of the ice sheet covered most of the mountains while fjords and valleys were occupied with erosive, warm-based ice. Old36Cl exposure ages from highlands and mountain plateaux (L8; 76.5 ka and H1; 41.6 ka) in combination with younger erratic boulders (L7; 26.2 and K1-K4; 15.0-13.8 ka) superimposed on such surfaces suggest the presence of non-erosive ice over uplands and plateaux in the Vestfirðir peninsula during the last glaciation. Glacially scoured terrain and erratic boulders yielding younger exposure ages (L1-L6; 11.3-9.1 ka and R1, R6-R7; 10.6-9.4 ka) in the lowland areas indicate that the valleys and fjords of the Vestfirðir peninsula were occupied by warm-based, dynamic ice during the last glaciation. The deglaciation of mountain Leirufjall by 26.2 ka BP suggests that ice thinning and deglaciation of some mountains and plateaux preceded any significant lateral retreat of the ice sheet. Subsequently this initial ice thinning was followed by break-up of the shelf based ice sheet off Vestfirðir about 15 ka BP. Hence, the new exposure ages suggest a stepwise asynchronous deglaciation on land, following the shelf break-up with some valleys and most of the highlands, ice free by 14-15 ka BP. The outermost moraine at the mouth of Leirufjörður is dated to 9.3 ka BP, and we suggest the moraine to be formed by a glacier re-advance in response to a cooler climate forced by the reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at around 9.3 ka BP. A system of moraines proximal to the 9.3 ka moraine in Leirufjörður as well as a 9.4 ka deglaciation age

  3. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... erroneous impression that they are below the land surface. A quantitative computer analysis is necessary to separate out wind and height. ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  4. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... of the plume features between camera views. A quantitative computer analysis is necessary to separate out wind and height (see  Volcano ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  5. Equation of State Scalings in Kull

    SciTech Connect

    Ulitsky, M S; Zimmerman, G; Renard, P; Tang, N A

    2007-12-10

    In this short report, we consider two types of equation of state (EOS) scalings, which will be referred to as type I (or density scaling) and type II (or Thomas-Fermi scaling). EOS scalings are used to correct for the fact that EOS tables are constructed with a fixed isotopic composition. Even if the isotopics in a computational zone are evolving through chemical or nuclear reactions, the EOS lookups for pressure and energy (and their derivatives with respect to density and temperature) aren't normally cognizant of this fact. The EOS scalings are an attempt to fix this shortcoming. They typically modify the incoming density and/or temperature based on ratios of isotopic quantities (like {sub table}/{sub zone}, {sub table}/{sub zone}), and then modify the table lookup values. In this way, the EOS can dynamically respond to the changing isotopics.

  6. Elevation Change and Surface Roughness of Vatnajökull, Langjökull and Hofsjökull, Iceland, Derived from Analysis of Airborne Lidar Altimeter Data and ICESat-2 Simulator Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld, U. C.; Markle, M. J.; Trantow, T.; Medley, G.; Johannesson, T.; Markus, T.; Neumann, T.

    2016-12-01

    Iceland's glaciers and ice caps are examples of many different glaciological and volcanic processes, which result in unique suite of ice-surface morphologies on several scales. As such, the Icelandic icecaps provide excellent test situations for analysis of lidar altimeter data collected in preparation of NASA's future ICESat-2 Mission (launch October 2017). In this paper we will explore the potential to derive ice-surface elevation changes and information on surface roughness of Icelandic glaciers and ice fields from data collected with the ICESat-2 simulator instrument MABEL (Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar). In addition, first results from this paper allow to analyze elevation changes in Iceland. For comparison, a base DEM derived from lidar observations collected with high-density coverage for all large ice caps by the Icelandic Meteorologic Office, Reykjavik, will be utilized. To determine ice-surface heights from MABEL data, the density-dimension algorithm is developed. The algorithm facilitates identification of the surface among intermittent cloud cover and in presence of crevasses. In addition to surface elevation change, surface roughness is determined as a means to characterize ice surface provinces. Dependent on coverage, the surface provinces provide examples of fast-moving outlet glaciers of the ice caps, volcanic eruptions, and the interior of the ice caps.

  7. Testing crevasse-depth models: a field study at Breiðamerkurjökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth H.; Benn, Douglas I.

    Interest in crevasses and associated ice-fracture processes has recently increased due to recognition of the importance of calving glaciers to the mass balance of the cryosphere, as well as the importance of fractures in glacier hydrology. Recently developed calving criteria make use of models which predict crevasse depth from surface strain rates, but these models have rarely been tested against observations. In this study, we present data on crevasse depth and surface strain rates, and compare the measured values with results of two crevasse-depth models: a simple function proposed by Nye and a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) model developed by Van der Veen. Our results indicate that both models predict crevasse depths within the correct order of magnitude. The LEFM model, incorporating measured values of crevasse spacing and tuned for fracture toughness, performs better in predicting crevasse depths, but where lack of input data precludes such tuning, the results are similar to Nye's model predictions. We conclude that both models may be used to calculate crevasse depths in calving models, although the Nye function is undoubtedly much simpler to implement within an ice-dynamics model.

  8. Eyjafjallajökull's iron-rich ash fertilized North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    In about a third of the global ocean, the abundance of life is limited by the amount of biologically available iron. When a region is depleted of this important nutrient, algal productivity can be stimulated by added iron, resulting in a temporary boom in biological activity. For much of the surface ocean, the wind-borne transport of iron-rich dust and the upwelling of nutrient-filled water are the major sources of iron. Another potentially important source is the deposition of the iron-rich ash produced by volcanic eruptions. Though satellite observations and modeling work suggest that volcanic ash could seed life in such a way, there have been only a limited number of direct observations of the effects of ash deposition on surface ocean waters.

  9. A Model of Drumlin Growth at Múlajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, N. R.; McCracken, R. G.; Zoet, L.; Schomacker, A.; Benediktsson, Í. Ö.; Johnson, M. D.; Hooyer, T.

    2015-12-01

    Observations at a rare, modern drumlin field—exposed by the recession of the Icelandic surge-type glacier, Múlajökull—allow a physically based model of drumlin formation to be formulated. These observations include the following: 1) drumlin relief resulted from basal till deposition on drumlins and erosion between them; 2) till deposition occurred during surges; 3) evidence of longitudinally compressive strain in till of the drumlins, as expected from negative flux divergence in a shearing bed, is absent; 4) during quiescent periods till was under higher effective normal stresses between drumlins than within them; 5) crevasse swarms are coincident with drumlins, and 6) water drainage at the glacier margin during the current quiescent state is through channels in low areas between drumlins. In the new model, basal sediment transport is controlled by patterns of effective stress that are different in the quiescent and surging states. During quiescent periods, slip of ice over a sinusoidally perturbed bed, crevasse formation, and flow of subglacial water toward R-channels that lie between drumlins result in effective stresses that increase toward channels and decrease from the stoss to the lee sides of drumlins. This effective-stress pattern causes till entrainment and erosion by regelation infiltration (Rempel, 2008, JGR, 113) that peaks at drumlin heads and near R-channels and is minimized on the lee sides of drumlins, while bed shear is inhibited by effective stresses too high to allow deformation. In contrast, during surges regelation infiltration cannot occur, and high rates of bed shear—assumed to be spatially uniform due to the lack of evidence for till flux divergence—cause basal melt rates sufficient to deposit, by lodgment, till layers of up to ~2.0 m in thickness during a single surge. With multiple surge cycles, drumlins grow in height and migrate downglacier, with resultant stratigraphy in broad agreement with field observations.

  10. Ice nucleating properties of volcanic ash particles from the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, G.; Zelenyuk, A.; Beranek, J.

    2011-12-01

    The volcanic ash from the volcanic emissions can significantly contribute to the natural source of aerosols in the atmosphere. In the vicinity and downwind of eruption site, the transported ash might have a stronger impact on the aviation industry, regional air quality, and climate. Despite the environmental significance of ash, our understanding of ash particles reacting with other volcanic plume constituents is rudimentary. In particular, the complex interactions between the water vapor and ash particles under different meteorological conditions that lead to cloud hydrometeors are poorly understood. To improve our understanding, we focus on investigating the ice formation properties of ash particles collected from the recent volcanic eruption. It was observed that the ash particles are less efficient ice nuclei compared to the natural dust particles in the deposition nucleation regime, but have similar efficiencies in the condensation freezing mode. The ice nucleated ash particles are separated from the interstitial particles, and further evaporated to understand the elemental composition, size, shape and morphology of the ice residue using the single particle mass spectrometer. The elemental composition reveals that majority of the elements are also present in the natural dust particles, but subtle differences are observed. This suggests that particle properties play an important role in the ice nucleation process.

  11. French airborne lidar measurements for Eyjafjallajökull ash plume survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Dabas, A.; Sanak, J.; Lardier, M.; Royer, P.

    2012-03-01

    An Ultra-Violet Rayleigh-Mie lidar has been integrated aboard the French research aircraft Falcon 20 in order to monitor the ash plume emitted by the Eyjafjallajökul volcano in April-May 2010. Three operational flights were carried out on 21 April, 12 and 16 May 2010 inside French, Spanish and British air spaces, respectively. The original purpose of the flights was to provide the French civil aviation authorities with objective information on the presence and location of the ash plume. The present paper presents the results of detailed analyses elaborated after the volcano crisis. They bear on the structure of the ash clouds and their optical properties such as ash extinction coefficient and lidar ratio. Lidar ratios were measured in the range of 33 to 48 sr, in good agreement with the ratios derived from ground-based lidar measurements performed near Paris (France) in April 2010 (∼47 sr). The ash signature in terms of particulate depolarization was consistent around 45 ± 7% during all flights. Such a value seems to be a good identification parameter for ash. Using specific cross-sections between 0.29 and 1.1 m2 g-1, the minimum (maximal) mass concentrations in the ash plumes are derived for the flights on 12 and 16 May. They were 190 (2300) and 270 (1600) μg m-3, respectively. It may be rather less than, or of the order of the critical level of damage (2 mg m-3) for the aircraft engines, but well above the 200 μg m-3 warning level.

  12. French airborne lidar measurements for Eyjafjallajökull ash plume survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Dabas, A.; Sanak, J.; Lardier, M.; Royer, P.

    2012-08-01

    An Ultra-Violet Rayleigh-Mie lidar has been integrated aboard the French research aircraft Falcon20 in order to monitor the ash plume emitted by the Eyjafjallajökul volcano in April-May 2010. Three operational flights were carried out on 21 April, 12 and 16 May 2010 inside French, Spanish and British air spaces, respectively. The original purpose of the flights was to provide the French civil aviation authorities with objective information on the presence and location of the ash plume. The present paper presents the results of detailed analyses elaborated after the volcano crisis. They bear on the structure of the ash clouds and their optical properties such as the extinction coefficient and the lidar ratio. Lidar ratios were measured in the range of 43 to 50 sr, in good agreement with the ratios derived from ground-based lidar near Paris (France) in April 2010 (~48 sr). The ash signature in terms of particulate depolarization was consistent during all flights (between 34 ± 3 % and 38 ± 3%). Such a value seems to be a good identification parameter for volcanic ash. Using specific cross-sections between 0.19 and 1.1 m2 g-1, the minimum (maximal) mass concentrations in the ash plumes derived for the flights on 12 and 16 May were 140 (2300) and 250 (1500) μg m-3, respectively. It may be rather less than, or of the order of the critical level of damage (2 mg m-3) for the aircraft engines, but well above the 200 μg m-3 warning level.

  13. Implications of Common Core State Standards on the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William B., III.

    2014-01-01

    Social studies teachers have often been on the outside looking in during much of the era billed as the standards-based educational reform (SBER), but with the adoption and implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), social studies teachers seem to have been invited back inside. Yet, how will the standards impact social studies…

  14. Implications of Common Core State Standards on the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William B., III.

    2014-01-01

    Social studies teachers have often been on the outside looking in during much of the era billed as the standards-based educational reform (SBER), but with the adoption and implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), social studies teachers seem to have been invited back inside. Yet, how will the standards impact social studies…

  15. Optical properties and radiative forcing of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash layer observed over Lille, France, in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derimian, Y.; Dubovik, O.; Tanre, D.; Goloub, P.; Lapyonok, T.; Mortier, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this work we characterize optical properties and assess the direct radiative effect of an ash plume observed on April 17, 2010 by AERONET, lidar and broadband solar flux measurements collocated on the roof of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics in Lille, northern France. These measurements allowed experimental evaluation of ash radiative impact and validation of simulations. The derived aerosol model of ash is characterized by a bi-modal size distribution dominated by coarse mode centered at a radius of 1.5 μm and by relatively strong absorption at short wavelengths (single scattering albedo of 0.81 ± 0.02 at 440 nm as opposed to 0.92 ± 0.02 at 670, 870 and 1020 nm). Due to relatively low aerosol optical thickness during the ash plume transport (˜0.26 at 440 nm), which is unfavorable for AERONET retrievals, the uncertainties in derived ash aerosol model were additionally evaluated. The complex refractive index of ash was derived assuming that effective refractive index retrieved by AERONET for externally mixed bi-component aerosol can be approximated as an average of refractive indices of two components weighted by their volume concentrations. Evaluation of the accuracy of this approximation showed acceptably small errors in simulations of single scattering albedo and aerosol phase function over the range of scattering angles observed by the AERONET almucantar. Daily average radiative forcing efficiency of ash calculated for a land surface reflectance representing Lille was about -93 ± 12 Wm-2 τ550-1 and -31 ± 2 Wm-2 τ550-1 at the bottom and top of the atmosphere; the values for an ocean surface reflectance are also provided.

  16. Physical characteristics of drumlins, with implications for their formation, at an active drumlin field, Múlajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, R. G.; Iverson, N. R.; Benediktsson, Í. Ö.; Schomacker, A.; Johnson, M. D.; Zoet, L.; Hooyer, T.

    2015-12-01

    The forefield of Múlajökull—a warm-based, surge-type glacier in central Iceland—comprises the only known active drumlin field, with drumlins of similar morphometry to their Pleistocene counterparts but formed under better-known glaciological conditions. Study of till magnetic and till fabrics, till densities and preconsolidation stresses, and drumlin stratigraphy indicates that drumlin relief reflects both erosion and deposition: 1) the package of basal tills that constitutes the drumlins thickens where the forefield has experienced more surging, but uniformities are common on drumlin flanks, 2) attitudes of till layers and patterns of deformation within them indicate till deposition occurred on drumlin slopes rather than prior to drumlinization, and 3) past effective stresses during quiescent periods were highest in interdrumlin areas. These data suggest that erosion occurred during quiescence, rather than during surging, with erosion rates that increased under increasing effective stress. Stratigraphic evidence connecting specific till layers to surge moraines (Johnson et al., 2010, Geology 38, 943-6), on the other hand, indicates that deposition occurred during surges. Such deposition could have resulted from negative flux divergence in a shearing bed, but till fabrics provide no evidence for longitudinally compressive strain. A more likely origin for the basal till is that rapid, uniform bed shear during surging—consistent with the low and relatively uniform effective stresses expected during such periods—generated basal melt rates sufficient to release debris from ice and lodge it onto the bed. This conceptual model of alternating erosion and deposition implies drumlins formed by slow flowing ice elsewhere will be dominantly erosional, whereas drumlins with evidence of deposition may have experienced fast ice flow.

  17. "Kull wahad la haalu": Feelings of isolation and distress among Yemeni immigrant women in San Francisco's Tenderloin.

    PubMed

    Volk, Lucia

    2009-12-01

    Recently arrived Yemeni immigrant women in San Francisco's Tenderloin neighborhood face a series of challenges as they go about living their everyday lives in a poor and crime-ridden neighborhood. They experience feelings of isolation and distress because of their limited English skills, their conservative Islamic dress that draws comments and unfriendly looks, and their household chores as mothers of often large families, which keep them busy at home. Despite living in close proximity to other Yemeni immigrants, these women feel profoundly lonely. In this study, based on interviews with 15 recently arrived Yemeni women, I show different "idioms of distress" that connect the women's emotional states to experiences of physical space and the body. I also raise methodological and epistemological questions about conducting anthropological work in communities whose members experience profound isolation.

  18. Iceland Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-23

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, Volcano Ash Cloud     View larger ... Europe and captured this image of the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano ash cloud as it continued to drift over the continent. Unlike other ...

  19. Dispersion and evolution of the Eyjafjallajökull ash plume over Europe: vertically resolved measurements with the European LIDAR network EARLINET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Mattis, Ina

    2010-05-01

    EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork, established in 2000 is the first coordinated lidar network for tropospheric aerosol study on continental scale. The network activity is based on scheduled measurements, a rigorous quality assurance program addressing both instruments and evaluation algorithms, and a standardised data exchange format. At present, the network includes 26 lidar stations distributed over Europe. EARLINET has been closely monitoring the cloud of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajoekull volcano in Iceland since it started erupting on 15 April. EARLINET is providing data about the presence, altitude and layering of the plume, together with optical information all over Europe. Updated measurement reports and more information about EARLINET can be found at www.earlinet.org. The financial support for EARLINET by the European Commission under grant RICA-025991 is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. In situ observations of volcanic ash clouds from the FAAM aircraft during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ben; Turnbull, Kate; Brown, Phil; Burgess, Rachel; Dorsey, James; Baran, Anthony J.; Webster, Helen; Haywood, Jim; Cotton, Richard; Ulanowski, Z.; Hesse, Evelyn; Woolley, Alan; Rosenberg, Philip

    2012-10-01

    During April-May 2010 the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft flew 12 flights targeting volcanic ash clouds around the UK. The aircraft observed ash layers between altitudes of 2-8 km with peak mass concentrations typically between 200-2000μg/m3, as estimated from a Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS). A peak value of 2000-5000 μg/m3 was observed over Scotland on 14 May 2010, although with considerable uncertainty due to the possible contamination by ice. Aerosol size distributions within ash clouds showed a fine mode (0.1-0.6 μm) associated with sulphuric acid and/or sulphate, and a coarse mode (0.6-35 μm) associated with ash. The ash mass was dominated by particles in the size range 1-10 μm (volume-equivalent diameter), with a peak typically around 3-5μm. Electron-microscope images and scattering patterns from the SID-2H (Small Ice Detector) probe showed the highly irregular shape of the ash particles. Ash clouds were also accompanied by elevated levels of SO2 (10-100 ppbv), strong aerosol scattering (50-500 × 10-6 m-1), and low Ångstrom exponents (-0.5 to 0.4) from the 3-wavelength nephelometer. Coarse-mode mass specific aerosol extinction coefficients (kext), based on the CAS size distribution varied from 0.45-1.06 m2/g. A representative value of 0.6 m2/g is suggested for distal ash clouds (˜1000 km downwind) from this eruption.

  1. Bacterial 16S diversity of basal ice, sediment, and the forefront of Svínafellsjökull glacier via isolation chips and classical culturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toubes-Rodrigo, Mario; Cook, Simon; Elliott, David; Sen, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Sub-glacial microbes are receiving increased attention due to their central roles in storage and release of greenhouse gases, such as methane and CO2. Climate change driven warming and resulting glacier retreat exposes bedrock that can contribute to soil formation in which subglacial-released microorganisms may play a crucial role. Basal ice, which forms in the lowermost part of glaciers in the absence of light is characterised by a high debris concentration that can be regarded as a glacier niche that must be sustained by the utilisation of overridden organic matter or primary production based on chemolithotrophic metabolism. Compared to other glacial ecosystems, subglacial microbial ecology remains poorly understood, due to limited accessibility and difficulties associated with low microbial occupancy. In this study, different defined types of basal ice (cryofacies) were targeted, namely stratified cryofacies (highest sediment content, fine-grained), debris bands (intermediate debris content, coarse-grained) and dispersed cryofacies (low sediment content, polymodal). Debris bands have been suggested to form by the entrainment of sediment due to shearing forces near the bedrock. Internal glacial processes proceed to modify debris bands leading to the formation of dispersed cryofacies. Stratified cryofacies, result from a range of processes that confers high debris content with a characteristically layered appearance. Basal ice is involved in the creation of subglacial tills and therefore in moraine formation. Elemental analysis, using a portable X-ray fluorescence portable analyser (Olympus Delta), confirmed that debris bands and dispersed cryofacies were highly similar, and distinct from stratified cryofacies, which support the dispersed cryofacies formation hypothesis. Bacteria from basal ice, sediment and forefront soil were cultured via inserted isolation chips (ichips) and traditional extraction/dilution plating. Isolated bacteria were subsequently identified following 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetics. Basal ice communities comprised a mix of soil and glacial bacteria, with higher proportion of ice-related bacteria in dispersed cryofacies (Polaromonas sp, Flavobacterium xinjiangense) and a water (Arthrobacter agilis) and soil-related microorganisms (Pseudomonas sp) in the debris bands, similar to sub-glacial sediment. During debris band formation, microorganisms from bedrock and overridden soils can be entrained into the ice matrix and those which have adapted to icy conditions can proliferate, explaining the higher viable bacterial counts on dispersed ice as well as higher proportions of glacial isolated-related microorganisms. Once the subglacial sediment and basal ice are released from the glacier and as soil age increases, increased representation of soil-related microbiota (Arthrobacter alpinus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) were identified. The results in this study suggest cultivable communities shift in two directions: firstly, within the basal ice layer from subglacial sediment, dominated by soil and water communities towards dispersed ice with a high proportion of glacial communities. The other shift occurs when subglacial sediment is released into the forefront, where the composition changes towards a soil-like microbiota with increase in soil age.

  2. Design and construction of a testbed for the application of real volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull and Grimsvötn eruptions to microgas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Konradin; Fischer, Christian; Lange, Martin; Schulz, Uwe; Naraparaju, Ravisankar; Kramer, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that volcanic ash clouds emitted from erupting volcanoes pose a considerable threat to the aviation. The volcanic ash particles can damage the turbine blades and their thermal barrier coatings as well as the bearings of the turbine. For a detailed investigation of this damaging effect a testbed was designed and constructed, which allowed to study the damaging effects of real volcanic ash to an especially for these investigations modified microgas turbine. The use of this microgas turbine had the advantage that it delivers near reality conditions, using kerosene and operating at similar temperatures as big turbines, but at a very cost effective level. The testbed consisted out of a disperser for the real volcanic ash and all the equipment needed to control the micro gas turbine. Moreover, in front and behind the microgas turbine the concentration and the distribution of the volcanic ash were measured online by optical particle counters (OPCs). The particle concentration and size distribution of the volcanic ash particles in the intake in front of the microgas turbine was measured by an optical particle counter (OPC) combined with an isokinetic intake. Behind the microgas turbine in the exhaust gas additionally to the measurement with a second OPC ash particles were caught with an impactor, in order to enable the later analysis with an electron microscope concerning the morphology to verify possible melting processes of the ash particles. This testbed is of high importance as it allows detailed investigations of the impact of volcanic ash to jet turbines and appropriate countermeasures.

  3. Geodetic observations of deep re-equilibration of magmatic systems accompanying the Hekla 2000 and Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, Halldor; LaFemina, Peter; Sturkell, Erik; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Arnadottir, Thora; Hreinsdottir, Sigrun; Hjaltadottir, Sigurlaug; Hooper, Andy; Lund, Bjorn; Schmidt, Peter; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Linde, Alan; Sacks, Selwyn

    2015-04-01

    Volcano geodesy most easily displays deformation from shallow deformation sources. However, with the expansion of geodetic networks and observations systems, there is growing evidence for far-field deformation at some volcanoes, indicating deeper processes within theses magmatic systems. We reflect here on crustal deformation from two recent eruptions in Iceland, the Hekla 2000 and Eyjafjallajokull 2010, which show signs of pressure changes at various crustal depths accompanying the eruptions. These eruptions were of similar eruptive volumes, approximately 0.2 km3, and were accompanied by crustal deformation relating to shallow dike and sill emplacements, in addition to more subtle and widespread crustal deformation caused by magma withdrawal. The crustal deformation associated with the Hekla 2000 eruption was captured by various geodetic methods, including continuous and episodic GPS, dry-tilt (i.e., short leveling lines), borehole strain, and InSAR. Continuous GPS data show deformation at >50 km from Hekla. We derive new deformation estimates from the episodic GPS network, and model the GPS displacements with previously published dry-tilt, InSAR, and borehole strain measurements in a formal joint inversion. While most of our data indicate a deep source of magma withdrawal (~20 km depth for a spherical source, or a pipe-like structure that reaches up to shallower depths), data from the borehole strain station closest to Hekla cannot be readily explained with a deep source. The borehole strain data at Hekla has good short-term resolution but poor long-term resolution, while the GPS, tilt, and InSAR measurements span a longer time interval. Therefore, we suggest the geodetic data from the Hekla 2000 eruption can best be interpreted with spatio-temporal progression of pressure changes in the magmatic system such that the co-eruptive signal was from a shallower (~10 km) source, which was followed by magma transport from deep to shallower depths before, during and after the eruption. For the Eyjafjallajokull 2010 eruption, we observe a wide-spread (>60 km from Eyjafjallajokull) deformation field with motion towards the volcano from an extensive network of episodic and continuous GPS stations. The distant continuous GPS stations clearly show that the time of deformation exceeds the eruptive period by several months, indicating that these stations are recording deep re-equilibration of the magmatic system under Eyjafjallajokull. Both volcanoes indicate a certain time-progression of deformation, where the deeper (>10 km) parts of the magmatic systems re-equilibrate in response to the shallower co-eruptive pressure decrease.

  4. 78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... for the Proposed Modification of the Bayonne Bridge Across the Kill Van Kull Between Bayonne, Hudson... the proposed modification of the historic Bayonne Bridge across the Kill Van Kull between Bayonne, New... Bridge across the Kill Van Kull. ADDRESSES: We have provided a copy of the Final EA and FONSI in...

  5. A comparison of the lichenometric and Schmidt hammer dating techniques based on data from the proglacial areas of some Icelandic glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. J. A.; Archer, S.; Wilson, D. J. H.

    Measurements of Rhizocarpon section and Schmidt hammer R-values are reported from the proglacial geomorphic features on the forelands of the Icelandic glaciers of Kvı´árjökull, Hólárjökull and Heinabergsjökull (Öræfi and south Vatnajökull), Sandfellsjökull and Öldufellsjökull (east Mýrdalsjökull), and Brúárjökull, Eyjabakkajökull and west Snæfell (north Vatnajökull). These data are used in reconstructions of patterns of glacier recession since the Little Ice Age maximum, and the geomorphic signals of climatic versus non-climatic events are discussed. Age control was obtained from various dated substrates by utilizing historical accounts, aerial photographs and grave stones. Three lichen growth rates are calculated: (a) 0.51 mm a -1 (corrected to 0.50 mm a -1) with a colonization lag time of <16 yr for the arid forelands of north Vatnajökull; (b) 0.56 mm a -1 with a colonization lag time of 5 yr for the Icelandic southeast coast; and (c) 0.80 mm a -1 with a colonization lag time of 6.5 yr for the south Vatnajökull and east Mýrdalsjökull forelands. These compare favourably with a previously published growth rate of 0.44 mm a -1 for the arid north of Iceland. This regional coverage of data allows a comparison between annual precipitation totals and lichen growth rates and the construction of a growth rate prediction curve for Iceland. The success of the Schmidt hammer in differentiating moraines based upon age varied according to the geomorphological setting. Reasonable R-value/lichen size correlations were obtained on the east Mýrdalsjökull and Heinabergsjökull forelands where unrestricted glacier advance into lowlands allows for a higher degree of debris surface freshening by direct glacial processes. Weak correlations were obtained at Kvı´árjökull, where the glacier was restricted by a precursor latero-frontal moraine loop and therefore the debris comprising the Little Ice Age recessional moraines was diluted with material of

  6. OMI Observations of Bromine Monoxide Emissions from Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze bromine monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for emissions from various volcanoes. We use OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from Galapagos, Kasatochi and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Elevated signatures of BrO daily averages were found over Eyjafjallajökull. SO2 cross sections are updated in the operational BrO algorithm and their effect on the volcanic BrO signature is studied. Comparison between two different sets of SO2 cross sections is made and results still show BrO enhancement over the Eyjafjallajökull region.

  7. Estimating fugitive bioaerosol releases from static compost windrows: feasibility of a portable wind tunnel approach.

    PubMed

    Taha, M P M; Pollard, S J T; Sarkar, U; Longhurst, P

    2005-01-01

    An assessment of the fugitive release of bioaerosols from static compost piles was conducted at a green waste composting facility in South East England; this representing the initial stage of a programme of research into the influence of process parameters on bioaerosol emission flux. Wind tunnel experiments conducted on the surface of static windrows generated specific bioaerosol emission rates (SBER2s) at ground level of between 13 and 22 x 10(3) cfu/m2/s for mesophilic actinomycetes and between 8 and 11 x 10(3)cfu/m2/s for Aspergillus fumigatus. Air dispersion modelling of these emissions using the SCREEN3 air dispersion model in area source term mode was used to generate source depletion curves downwind of the facility for comparative purposes.

  8. Trend recognition and failure prediction of the attitude determination and control system of the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kyle S.; Hadden, George D.

    An approach to automated trend recognition and failure prediction in the health parameter data of spacecraft is described. The approach, State-Based Feature Recognition (SBER), combines intelligent data filtering with state machines to detect the presence of features (trends and impending failures) in the health parameter data of spacecraft. SBFR, when implemented in a space-based or ground-based monitoring system, can increase spacecraft autonomy and decrease technician workload. An implemented, prototype Space Station Freedom (SSF) Maintenance and Diagnostic System (SSFMDS) that demonstrates the applicability of SBFR to trend detection and failure prediction will be described. SBFR allows features to be tracked, using specialized state machines, as they develop in a time-independent manner, allowing both short term and long term features to be detected. Each state machine operates independently of the other machines, making simultaneous feature tracking possible.

  9. NASA Satellite Eyes Iceland Volcano Cauldron

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-18

    On Saturday, April 17, 2010, NASA Earth Observing-1 EO-1 spacecraft obtained this pair of images of the continuing eruption of Iceland Eyjafjallajökull volcano. On the left, new black ash deposits are visible on the ground.

  10. NASA Satellite Images Provide Insights Into Iceland Volcanic Plume

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-16

    On April 15, 2010, NASA Terra spacecraft captured these images of the ongoing eruption of Iceland Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, which continues to spew ash into the atmosphere and impact air travel worldwide.

  11. BAYONNE BRIDGE LOOKING EAST, BAYONNE TO THE LEFT (CONTACT PRINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BAYONNE BRIDGE LOOKING EAST, BAYONNE TO THE LEFT (CONTACT PRINT MADE FROM 5 1/4" X 4 1/2" NEGATIVE) - Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Island, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ

  12. SPRINGING OF THE ARCH, SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, STATEN ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPRINGING OF THE ARCH, SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, STATEN ISLAND SIDE (CONTACT PRINT MADE FROM 5 1/4" X 4 1/2" NEGATIVE) - Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Island, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ

  13. NASA Satellite Tracks Continued Eruption of Iceland Volcano

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-19

    On Monday, April 19, 2010, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTER instrument onboard NASA Terra spacecraft obtained this image of the continuing eruption of Iceland Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

  14. Comparison of satellite-derived with ground-based measurements of the fluctuations of the margins of Vatnajokull, Iceland, 1973-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S.; Hall, D.K.; Sigurbsson, O.; Chien, J.Y.L.

    1997-01-01

    Vatnajo??kull, Iceland, is the Earth's most studied ice cap and represents a classical glaciological field site on the basis of S. Pa??lsson's seminal glaciological field research in the late 18th century. Since the 19th century, Vatnajo??kull has been the focus of an array of glaciological studies by scientists from many nations, including many remotesensing investigations since 1951. Landsat-derived positions of the termini of 11 outlet glaciers of Vatnajo??kull were compared with frontal positions of six of these 11 outlet glaciers determined by field observations during the period 1973-92. The largest changes during the 19 year period (1973-92) occurred in the large lobate, surge-type outlet glaciers along the southwestern, western, and northern margins of Vatnajo??kull. Tungnaa??rjo??kull receded - 1413 ?? 112 m (-1380 ?? l m from ground observations), and Bru??arjo??kull receded -1975 ?? 191 m (-2096 ?? 5 m from extrapolated ground observations) between 1973 and 1992. Satellite images can be used to delineate glacier margin changes on a time-lapse basis, if the glacier margin can be spectrally discriminated from terminal moraines and sandur deposits and if the advance/recession is larger than maximum image pixel size. "Local knowledge" of glaciers is critically important, however, in the accurate delineation of glacier margins on Landsat images.

  15. Surging glaciers in Iceland - research status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingolfsson, Olafur

    2013-04-01

    Twenty six Icelandic outlet glaciers, ranging from 0.5-1.500 km2, are known to surge, with terminal advances ranging from of few tens of meters to about 10 km. The geomorphic signatures of surges vary, from large-scale folded and thrusted end moraine systems, extensive dead-ice fields and drumlinized forefields to drift sheets where fast ice-flow indicators are largely missing. Case studies from the forefields of Brúarjökull, Eyjabakkajökull and Múlajökull surging glaciers will be presented. At Brúarjökull, extremely rapid ice flow during surge was sustained by overpressurized water causing decoupling beneath a thick sediment sequence that was coupled to the glacier. The ice-marginal position of the 1890 surge is marked by a sedimentary wedge formed within five days and a large moraine ridge that formed in about one day ("instantaneous end-moraine"). Three different qualitative and conceptual models are required to explain the genesis of the Eyjabakkajökull moraines: a narrow, single-crested moraine ridge at the distal end of a marginal sediment wedge formed in response to decoupling of the subglacial sediment from the bedrock and associated downglacier sediment transport; large lobate end moraine ridges with multiple, closely spaced, asymmetric crests formed by proglacial piggy-back thrusting; moraine ridges with different morphologies may reflect different members of an end moraine continuum. A parallel study highlighting the surge history of Eyjabakkajökull over the last 4400 years suggests climate control on surge frequencies. The Múlajökull studies concern an active drumlin field (>100 drumlins) that is being exposed as the glacier retreats. The drumlins form through repeated surges, where each surge causes deposition of till bed onto the drumlin while similtaneously eroding the sides. Finally, a new landsystem model for surging North Iceland cirque glaciers will be introduced. References Benediktsson,I. Ö., Schomacker, A., Lokrantz, H. & Ing

  16. Colonization of maritime glacier ice by bdelloid Rotifera.

    PubMed

    Shain, Daniel H; Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Pálsson, Finnur; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Gunnarsson, Andri; Jónsson, Þorsteinn; Lang, Shirley A; Pálsson, Hlynur Skagfjörð; Steinþórssson, Sveinbjörn; Arnason, Einar

    2016-05-01

    Very few animal taxa are known to reside permanently in glacier ice/snow. Here we report the widespread colonization of Icelandic glaciers and ice fields by species of bdelloid Rotifera. Specimens were collected within the accumulation zones of Langjökull and Vatnajökull ice caps, among the largest European ice masses. Rotifers reached densities up to ∼100 individuals per liter-equivalent of glacier ice/snow, and were freeze-tolerant. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that glacier rotifers are polyphyletic, with independent ancestries occurring within the Pleistocene. Collectively, these data identify a previously undescribed environmental niche for bdelloid rotifers and suggest their presence in comparable habitats worldwide.

  17. Formaldehyde - An Assessment of its Health Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    edema of the cornea and conjunctiva and iritis, graded 8 on a scale of 1-10 (Carpenter and Smyth, 1946). Exposure of rabbits and guinea pigs to airborne...Wilmington, Del. Kulle, T.J., and Cooper G.P. 1975. Effects of formaldehyde and ozone on the trigeminal nasal sensory system. Arch. Environ. Health 30

  18. 47 CFR 90.303 - Availability of frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...)(2)(ii) of this section, base stations shall be limited to a maximum effective radiated power (ERP... Kull, and Arthur Kill, the maximum ERP and antenna height shall be limited to the entries specified in....0″ W). (iii) Mobile stations shall be limited to 100 watts ERP in areas of operation...

  19. Iceland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... (visible in the lower right), and to several other lakes and geothermal areas. Hofsjökull (the Temple Glacier; 1760 meters) is the third ... the city, the "Bay of Smokes", is testimony to the region's geothermal activity. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ...

  20. 47 CFR 90.303 - Availability of frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...)(2)(ii) of this section, base stations shall be limited to a maximum effective radiated power (ERP... Kull, and Arthur Kill, the maximum ERP and antenna height shall be limited to the entries specified in....0″ W). (iii) Mobile stations shall be limited to 100 watts ERP in areas of operation...

  1. A Bird Strike Handbook for Base-Level Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    In same cases they may attract birds and even hypnotize them (Kull, 1984). A better recommnendation is to use strobe lights if available and not to...short title is 56 TTW BASH Plan. 2. The overall classification of this docuuent is UNCLASSIFIED. 3. Reproduction of this document in whole or in part

  2. Modelling the Response of two Ice Caps in Iceland to Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adalgeirsdottir, G.; Johannesson, T.; Bjornsson, H.

    2004-05-01

    The response of two ice caps in Iceland to climate changes is analysed with a finite difference ice flow model coupled with a degree-day mass balance model. The degree-day mass balance model is calibrated against mass balance observations from numerous locations on both ice caps, from the period 1988--2002 and 1993--2002 for Hofsjökull and Vatnajökull, respectively, using daily meteorological data from meteorological stations close to the ice caps. The dynamic computations are forced by a climate change scenario for the Nordic countries which was defined as a part of the Climate, Water and Energy (CWE) project. It specifies a warming rate of 0.015° C per year in mid summer and 0.03° C per year in mid winter, with a sinusoidal variation through the year. Precipitation is either held constant during the computation or increased by 5% per ° C of warming. The model runs predict the ice volume of Hofsjökull to be reduced by half within about 100 years. The volume reduction is slow during the first decades but speeds up during the following decades, given that the warming rate remains the same. Runoff from the area that is presently covered by the glacier is predicted to have increased by approximately 0.5 m a-1 30 years from now due to reduction in the volume of the glacier. The response of Vatnajökull is more complicated as some of the outlet glaciers are far from balance with the present climate and some of the largest ones are surge-type glaciers. Under present climate conditions, most of the the outlet glaciers of Vatnajökull are receding and a warmer climate causes the recession to accelerate. Future surges may, however, cause irregular temporary advances of some of the outlets in spite of a generally warming climate.

  3. Seismicity revealed in the Snaefellsnes Volcanic Zone, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Lupi, M.; Jakobsdóttir, S. S.; Thordarson, T.; Miller, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    The intense volcanic and seismic activity of Iceland is driven by the interaction of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Icelandic Plume. The Snaefellsnes Volcanic Zone (SNVZ) in Western Iceland is considered a paleo-ridge and it is characterized by volcanic centers distributed in an en echelon structure with the inferred faults striking approximately NNE-SSW. The Snaefellsjökull volcano is located in the westernmost part of the peninsula and is the only central volcano of this region. A right-lateral E-W oriented transform zone is believed to exist along the SNVZ. We performed a three-months seismic survey on the Snaefellsnes to shed light on seismic activity across the peninsula - in particular around the Snaefellsjökull volcano - and determine how seismic events are distributed (i.e. aligned along the en echelon structure, the transform fault or volcanic complexes). Five broadband seismometers have been deployed in the Snaefellsnes area in the summer of 2011. Four broadband stations were distributed in the vicinity of the Snaefellsjökull volcano and one was deployed approximately 20 km NW of Ljósufjöll, which is the volcanic center that last erupted in the SNVZ in 960 AD. First results reveal formerly unknown seismic activity in the SNVZ and across the fjord between the Snaefellsnes and the Reykjanes peninsula. Measured events show Richter magnitudes spanning from 0.5 to 1.5 and originate from hypocentral depths ranging from 9 km to about 26 km. They are located in an area that stretches from right underneath the Snaefellsjökull volcano up to 15 km S-SE and generally show frequencies ranging from 1-10 Hz centered around 4-5 Hz. However, seismicity around the Snaefellsjökull volcano does not show up on the records of the station near Ljósufjöll, and viceversa. The recorded events indicate the occurrence of seismic activity underneath the Snaefellsjökull volcano, mainly located in the southern part of the volcanic complex. In addition, our data points out the

  4. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) - A Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Robb Aldrich; Lois Arena; Dianne Griffiths; Srikanth Puttagunta; David Springer

    2010-12-31

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) (http://www.carb-swa.com/), one of the 'Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership' Industry Teams, for the period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The Building America Program (BAP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program (BTP). The long term goal of the BAP is to develop cost effective, production ready systems in five major climate zones that will result in zero energy homes (ZEH) that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis by 2020. CARB is led by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. with Davis Energy Group, Inc. (DEG), MaGrann Associates, and Johnson Research, LLC as team members. In partnership with our numerous builders and industry partners, work was performed in three primary areas - advanced systems research, prototype home development, and technical support for communities of high performance homes. Our advanced systems research work focuses on developing a better understanding of the installed performance of advanced technology systems when integrated in a whole-house scenario. Technology systems researched included: - High-R Wall Assemblies - Non-Ducted Air-Source Heat Pumps - Low-Load HVAC Systems - Solar Thermal Water Heating - Ventilation Systems - Cold-Climate Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps - Hot/Dry Climate Air-to-Water Heat Pump - Condensing Boilers - Evaporative condensers - Water Heating CARB continued to support several prototype home projects in the design and specification phase. These projects are located in all five program climate regions and most are targeting greater than 50% source energy savings over the Building America Benchmark home. CARB provided technical support and developed builder project case studies to be included in near-term Joule Milestone reports for the following community scale projects: - SBER Overlook at Clipper

  5. Ozone depletion in tropospheric volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Alan; McGonigle, Andrew J. S.; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Stith, Jeffrey L.; Turnbull, Kate; von Glasow, Roland

    2010-11-01

    We measured ozone (O3) concentrations in the atmospheric plumes of the volcanoes St. Augustine (1976), Mt. Etna (2004, 2009) and Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and found O3 to be strongly depleted compared to the background at each volcano. At Mt. Etna O3 was depleted within tens of seconds from the crater, the age of the St. Augustine plumes was on the order of hours, whereas the O3 destruction in the plume of Eyjafjallajökull was maintained in 1-9 day old plumes. The most likely cause for this O3 destruction are catalytic bromine reactions as suggested by a model that manages to reproduce the very early destruction of O3 but also shows that O3 destruction is ongoing for several days. Given the observed rapid and sustained destruction of O3, heterogeneous loss of O3 on ash is unlikely to be important.

  6. Iceland's Grímsvötn volcano erupts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    About 13 months after Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano began erupting on 14 April 2010, which led to extensive air traffic closures over Europe, Grímsvötn volcano in southeastern took its turn. Iceland's most active volcano, which last erupted in 2004 and lies largely beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, began its eruption activity on 21 May, with the ash plume initially reaching about 20 kilometers in altitude, according to the Icelandic Meteorological Office. Volcanic ash from Grímsvötn has cancelled hundreds of airplane flights and prompted U.S. president Barack Obama to cut short his visit to Ireland. As Eos went to press, activity at the volcano was beginning to subside.

  7. Zircon from historic eruptions in Iceland: Reconstructing storage and evolution of silicic magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carley, T.L.; Miller, C.F.; Wooden, J.L.; Bindeman, I.N.; Barth, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Zoning patterns, U-Th disequilibria ages, and elemental compositions of zircon from eruptions of Askja (1875 AD), Hekla (1158 AD), ??r??faj??kull (1362 AD) and Torfaj??kull (1477 AD, 871 AD, 3100 BP, 7500 BP) provide insights into the complex, extended, histories of silicic magmatic systems in Iceland. Zircon compositions, which are correlated with proximity to the main axial rift, are distinct from those of mid-ocean ridge environments and fall at the low-Hf edge of the range of continental zircon. Morphology, zoning patterns, compositions, and U-Th ages all indicate growth and storage in subvolcanic silicic mushes or recently solidified rock at temperatures above the solidus but lower than that of the erupting magma. The eruptive products were likely ascending magmas that entrained a zircon "cargo" that formed thousands to tens of thousands of years prior to the eruptions. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Investigating Disruptions to Channel Missions - What’s the Breaking Point?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    number of reasons. Some are the result of natural disasters such as the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption. The initial eruption occurred on...be closed from April 15 until April 20, 2010 ( Volcano Facts, 2010). The disruption that impacted Air Mobility Command as a result of this event...Changes - October 2013. CBS News. (2010, April 15). Iceland Volcano Ash Grounds European Air Travel. Retrieved December 19, 2013, from CBS News: http

  9. Unstructured Polyhedral Mesh Thermal Radiation Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, T.S.; Zika, M.R.; Madsen, N.K.

    2000-07-27

    Unstructured mesh particle transport and diffusion methods are gaining wider acceptance as mesh generation, scientific visualization and linear solvers improve. This paper describes an algorithm that is currently being used in the KULL code at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to solve the radiative transfer equations. The algorithm employs a point-centered diffusion discretization on arbitrary polyhedral meshes in 3D. We present the results of a few test problems to illustrate the capabilities of the radiation diffusion module.

  10. Characteristics of recessional moraines at a temperate glacier in SE Iceland: Insights into patterns, rates and drivers of glacier retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Benjamin M. P.; Evans, David J. A.; Roberts, David H.

    2016-03-01

    Icelandic glaciers are sensitive to climate variability on short-term timescales owing to their North Atlantic maritime setting, and have been undergoing ice-marginal retreat since the mid-1990s. Recent patterns, rates and drivers of ice-frontal retreat at Skálafellsjökull, SE Iceland, are examined using small-scale recessional moraines as a geomorphological proxy. These small-scale recessional moraines exhibit distinctive sawtooth planform geometries, and are constructed by a range of genetic processes associated with minor ice-margin re-advance, including (i) combined push/squeeze mechanisms, (ii) bulldozing of pre-existing proglacial material, and (iii) submarginal freeze-on. Remote-sensing investigations and lichenometric dating highlight sequences of annually-formed recessional moraines on the northern and central parts of the foreland. Conversely, moraines are forming on a sub-annual timescale at the southeastern Skálafellsjökull margin. Using annual moraine spacing as a proxy for annual ice-margin retreat rates (IMRRs), we demonstrate that prominent periods of glacier retreat at Skálafellsjökull are coincident with those at other Icelandic outlet glaciers, as well as those identified at Greenlandic outlet glaciers. Analysis of IMRRs and climate data suggests summer air temperature, sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation have an influence on IMRRs at Skálafellsjökull, with the glacier appearing to be most sensitive to summer air temperature. On the basis of further climate data analyses, we hypothesise that sea surface temperature may drive air temperature changes in the North Atlantic region, which in turn forces IMRRs. The increase in sea surface temperature over recent decades may link to atmospheric-driven variations in North Atlantic subpolar gyre dynamics.

  11. Navigation study on improvements to existing federal navigation channels Arthur Kill Channel, Howland Hook Marine Terminal, Staten Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    Improvements to the Arthur Kill Channel from the confluence of the Kill Van Kull Channel, the Arthur Kill Channel, and Newark Bay, along the Arthur Kill to the vicinity of Howland Hook Marine Terminal on Staten Island, New York are proposed. In addition, the study area was extended south from Howland Hook Terminal for approximately one mile in order to serve two oil terminals. The recommended improvements would include deepening to various depths down to 45 feet mean low water (MLW), widening the channel for unrestricted two-way traffic, and the creation of a turning basin. Specifically, a 41-foot MLW deep channel would be dredged in the previously authorized 35-foot MLW project in the Arthur Kill Channel from its confluence with the Newark Bay and Kill Van Kull channels to the Howland Hook Marine Terminal for a distance of approximately 2.1 miles. Also recommended are selected widenings and realignments of the channel at a depth of 41 feet in the interest of navigational safety. Additionally, a 40-foot MLW channel is proposed in the previously authorized 35-foot MLW project in the Arthur Kill Channel from the Howland Hook Marine Terminal to the Exxon Bayway and Gulfport facilities for a distance of approximately one mile. The channel would be selectively realigned to a 40-foot depth for navigational safety. No final determination has been made regarding the disposal of dredged material due to the uncertainty of available upland sites at this time. The turning basin would lie in the Kill Van Kull Channel at Bergen Point, where vessels turn from Kill Van Kull into Arthur Kill and Newark Bay. Total cost of the recommended plan is $49.4 million; the benefit-cost ratio is 4.35. The plan would take 4 years for completion and would have a projected life of 50 years.

  12. Wind-blown volcanic ash off Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On September 16, 2013 the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite passed over the southern tip of Iceland and captured a remarkable image dust plumes blowing hundreds of kilometers over the Atlantic Ocean. The westernmost plume is dark tan in color and so thick that the blue ocean waters are obscured from view near Iceland's coast. The eastern plume appears broader, thinner and light gray in color. According to the Icelandic Met Office, near the Mýrdalsjökull and Vatnajökull ice-caps there are vast glacial outwash plains which stretch from the glacial margins to the sea. These plains, formed by melt water from glaciers, are known as sandur. Strong northerly winds frequently blow dust from the sandur plains far from the shore. This particular dust plume originates to the east of the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. The Katla volcano, one of the largest in Iceland, lies under the Mýrdalsjökull glacier and in the general region of the westernmost plume. Katla has a history of large, violent eruptions occurring on an average of every 50-100 years. The volcano has been increasingly restless since 1999, with increased seismicity in recent years. In 2011 a very small eruption was reported, with minimal damage. Because of the increasing restlessness and the dangerous nature of historic eruptions, the volcano is currently carefully monitored. None of the monitoring agencies reported eruption at Katla in mid-September of this year. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Past environmental changes and volcanic activity in the south-central highlands of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jákup Korsgaard, Niels; Örn Benediktsson, Ívar; Guðmundsdóttir, Esther Ruth

    2017-04-01

    This project aims to shed light on explosive volcanic activity and environmental dynamics in the southern central highlands of Iceland. The project relies on tephrostratigraphy and -chronology involving the documentation of core stratigraphy as well as sampling and chemical analysis of tephra layers supplemented with radiocarbon dating and pollen analysis for environmental reconstruction. Here, we focus on a 205 cm long sediment core from Lake Arnarfellsvatn located south of the Múlajökull glacier, a southern outlet of the Hofsjökull ice cap. At present, the lake receives meltwater from Innri-Múlakvísl River, which drains Múlajökull, through a side channel. The lake core record extends back to 4200 cal. yr BP determined by the presence of the Hekla 4 tephra marker at the bottom of the core. Minerogenic sediments entered the lake at about 3800 cal. yr BP , which we tentatively interpret as the onset of the Neoglaciation in Central Iceland, and organic-rich sediments reappeared before 1300 cal. yr BP. Tephra from 16 explosive eruptions have been identified in the lake sediments and preliminary results based on geochemistry indicate that tephra from the source volcanic systems Hekla, Katla, Bárðarbunga and Grímsvötn are present. All tephras except those originating from Hekla are basaltic.

  14. Eyjabakkajokull Glacial Landsystem, Iceland: Geomorphic Impact of Multiple Surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingolfsson, O.; Schomacker, A.; Benediktsson, I.

    2013-12-01

    A new glacial geomorphological map of the Eyjabakkajökull forefield in Iceland is presented. The map covers c. 60 km2 and is based on high-resolution aerial photographs recorded in August 2008 as well as field checking. Landforms are manually registered in a geographical information system (ArcGIS) based on inspection of orthorectified imagery and digital elevation models of the area. We mapped subglacially streamlined landforms such as flutes and drumlins on the till plain, supraglacial landforms such as ice-cored moraine, pitted outwash, and concertina eskers, and ice-marginal landforms such as the large, multi-crested 1890 surge end moraine and smaller single-crested end moraines. The glaciofluvial landforms are represented by outwash plains, minor outwash fans, and sinuous eskers. Extramarginal sediments were also registered and consist mainly of old sediments in wetlands or locally weathered bedrock. Eyjabakkajökull has behaved as a surge-type glacier for 2200 years; hence, the mapped landforms originate from multiple surges. Landforms such as large glaciotectonic end moraines, hummocky moraine, long flutes, crevasse-fill ridges, and concertina eskers are characteristic for surge-type glaciers. The surging glacier landsystem of Eyjabakkajökull serves as a modern analog to the landsystems of terrestrial paleo-ice streams.

  15. InSAR Observations and Finite Element Modeling of Crustal Deformation Around a Surging Glacier, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaans, K.; Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Icelandic ice caps, covering ~11% of the country, are known to be surging glaciers. Such process implies an important local crustal subsidence due to the large ice mass being transported to the ice edge during the surge in a few months only. In 1993-1995, a glacial surge occurred at four neighboring outlet glaciers in the southwestern part of Vatnajökull ice cap, the largest ice cap in Iceland. We estimated that ~16±1 km3 of ice have been moved during this event while the fronts of some of the outlet glaciers advanced by ~1 km.Surface deformation associated with this surge has been surveyed using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) acquisitions from 1992-2002, providing high resolution ground observations of the study area. The data show about 75 mm subsidence at the ice edge of the outlet glaciers following the transport of the large volume of ice during the surge (Fig. 1). The long time span covered by the InSAR images enabled us to remove ~12 mm/yr of uplift occurring in this area due to glacial isostatic adjustment from the retreat of Vatnajökull ice cap since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland. We then used finite element modeling to investigate the elastic Earth response to the surge, as well as confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. A statistical approach based on Bayes' rule was used to compare the models to the observations and obtain an estimate of the Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (v) in Iceland. The best-fitting models are those using a one-kilometer thick top layer with v=0.17 and E between 12.9-15.3 GPa underlain by a layer with v=0.25 and E from 67.3 to 81.9 GPa. Results demonstrate that InSAR data and finite element models can be used successfully to reproduce crustal deformation induced by ice mass variations at Icelandic ice caps.Fig. 1: Interferograms spanning 1993 July 31 to 1995 June 19, showing the surge at Tungnaárjökull (Tu.), Skaftárjökull (Sk.) and Síðujökull

  16. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  17. Infrasound network implementation in Iceland - examples of volcano monitoring in an extreme environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Ripepe, Maurizio; Barsotti, Sara; Björnsson, Halldór; Del Donne, Dario; Vogfjörð, Kristín

    2015-04-01

    The installation of a network of infrasound arrays for volcano monitoring has been initiated in Iceland. In collaboration with the University of Florence (UNIFI), The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) has been operating infrasound arrays since the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010. An important support came through the 26 partner FP7 FUTUREVOLC project which runs from 2012 - 2016. This project which is relevant to the EU "Supersite concept" for long term monitoring in geologically active regions of Europe, is led by the University of Iceland together with IMO which leads long-term monitoring of geohazards in Iceland and is responsible for maintaining instrument networks for this purpose. As a part of the ground based FUTUREVOLC network, infrasound arrays, are used to monitor volcanic eruptive activity. The arrays are composed of 4 elements with a triangular geometry and an aperture of 120 m where each element has a differential pressure transducer with a sensitivity of 25 mV/Pa in the frequency band 0.001-50 Hz and a noise level of 10-2 Pa. Infrasound is recorded on site at 100 Hz and 24 bits and transmitted via Internet link both to the IMO and UNIFI. Three arrays are installed in South Iceland, one in Gunnarsholt, one in Þjórsárdalur and one in Kirkjubæjarklaustur. These places were chosen with the aim to optimize wind noice reduction (onsite bushes and trees) and close proximity to volcanoes such as Hekla, Katla, Torfajökull, Eyjafjallajökull, Vestmannaeyjar and the Vatnajökull ice cap which covers four central volcanoes known for explosive eruptions. In September 2014, the fourth array was installed a few km north of Vatnajökull glacier, just north of the large effusive eruption in Holuhraun which started on 29 August 2014 and is still ongoing in January 2015. The eruption is associated with the ongoing Bárðarbunga volcanic unrest and caldera collapse which is being monitored closely by the IMO and FUTUREVOLC partners. The new array has the

  18. Element variations in rhyolitic magma resulting from gas transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlo, K.; Tuffen, H.; Smith, V. C.; Castro, J. M.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.; Geraki, K.

    2013-11-01

    Tuffisite veins are glass-filled fractures formed when magma fragments during degassing within the conduit. These veins form transient channels through which exsolved gases can escape from magma. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which chemical heterogeneity within the melt results from gas transport, and assess how this can be used to study magma degassing. Two tuffisite veins from contrasting rhyolitic eruptions at Torfajökull (Iceland) and Chaitén (Chile) were studied in detail. The tuffisite vein from Torfajökull is from a shallow dissected conduit (∼70 ka) that fed a degassed lava flow, while the sample from Chaitén was a bomb ejected during the waning phases of Plinian activity in May 2008. The results of detailed in situ chemical analyses (synchrotron XRF, FTIR, LA-ICP-MS) show that in both veins larger vesiculated fragments are enriched in volatile elements (Torfajökull: H, Li, Cl; Chaitén: Li, Cl, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, Sb) compared to the host, while the surrounding smaller particles are depleted in the Torfajökull vein (Li, Cl, Zn, Br, Rb, Pb), but enriched in the Chaitén vein (K, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sb, Pb). The lifespans of both veins and the fluxes of gas and particles through them can be estimated using diffusion profiles and enrichment factors. The Torfajökull vein had a longer lifespan (∼a day) and low particle velocities (∼cm/s), while the Chaitén vein was shorter lived (<1 h) with a high gas velocity (∼m/s). These differences are consistent with the contrasting eruption mechanisms (effusive vs. explosive). The amount of magma that degassed through the Chaitén vein is more than ten times the volume of the vein itself, requiring the vein to tap into pre-exsolved gas pockets. This study highlights that tuffisite veins are highly efficient gas pathways and thereby impart chemical diversity in volatile elements on the melt.

  19. Climate, Ice, and Mud: investigating the relationship between glacier activity and sediment flux using varved lake sediments, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. J.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.; Flowers, G. E.; Bjornsson, H.

    2012-12-01

    The worldwide retreat of many glaciers during the 21st century is expected to have profound impacts on local and regional hydrologic cycles. Associated with the forecasted reductions in global ice volume are changes in meltwater runoff and sediment transport in glacially fed drainage systems. Alpine glaciers and small ice caps are particularly sensitive to climate change because their dimensions can respond quickly to changes in glacier mass balance. Records of past glacier fluctuations are important sources of paleoclimate data and also provide a context for current and future changes to glacier hydrologic systems. Annually laminated (varved) sediments from proglacial lake Hvítárvatn, central Iceland, offer a continuous archive of Langjökull ice cap (~925 km2) activity through the late Holocene. A multi-proxy record from this site indicates that Langjökull's size was more variable during the past millennium than during any other multi-centennial interval of the Holocene. Ice growth culminated in the Little Ice Age (LIA), when Langjökull advanced into Hvítárvatn and reached its maximum aerial extent of the past 10 ka. At present, roughly one-third of the ice cap's discharge flows into the lake catchment, constituting ~70% of the total inflow, and lake sedimentation rates are governed by the production and delivery of glacially eroded clastic material transported to the lake by four primary meltwater streams. Glacier fluctuations of the past 1 ka are reconstructed from physical proxies contained in sediment cores retrieved from six locations throughout the main basin. Total sediment yield and distribution during this period are calculated from sediment accumulation rates and from > 100 km of seismic reflection profiles. A tephra-constrained varve chronology provides high chronologic control, with a maximum age uncertainty of ± 10 years. Low and constant sedimentation rates characterize the 11th and 12th centuries, reflecting minimal glacier activity during

  20. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the melt water of Icelandic glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifflard, Peter; Reiss, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Recently, glaciers have been recognized as unique ecosystems with potential effects on the global carbon cycle. Among other transport processes organic carbon stored in glacier ecosystems is released from the glaciers through melt at the glaciers surface that discharges into proglacial streams and finally into the ocean. Nevertheless, the potential role of glaciers in the carbon cycle remains poorly understood (Hood et al. 2015). One particular problem in this respect is that there is a lack in regional and global analysis of the total amount of organic carbon released from glaciers. Although, the release of organic carbon has been investigated in proglacial streams in Alaska, the European Alps and Greenland, to our knowledge, there is no information available for Icelandic proglacial streams. Thus, the aims of this study are: 1) to develop a first base information about the concentration of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) in several Icelandic proglacial streams and 2) to detect the variability of DOC and POC along a proglacial stream from the glacier source to the mouth into the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, a field trip was conducted between 23 and 31 July 2016, whereby, 25 water samples were taken. The sampling points cover melt water from the following Icelandic glaciers Vatnajökull, Langjökull, Hofsjökull, Myrdalsjökull and Tungnafellsjökull. Further water samples were taken along the river Hvitá starting at the glacier Langjökull and ending at the mouth into the Atlantic ocean in the southwest of Iceland. At every sample point electrical conductivity, water temperate and the pH-value were measured in situ using a calibrated portable water quality meter (Hanna Combo HI98129). The water samples (130 ml) were filtered using pre-combusted GF/F filters (Whatman, pore sizes 0.7 µm) and stored in a cooling box until the shipment to the laboratory of the Department for Geography, Philipps-University of Marburg. The DOC concentrations in

  1. Experimental studies of heat transfer at the dynamic magma ice/water interface: Application to subglacially emplaced lava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddsson, Björn; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Sonder, Ingo; Zimanowski, Bernd; Schmid, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Experiments simulating processes operating in volcano-ice interactions were carried out to explain and quantify lava thermal properties and processes of heat transfer from pure lava melt to water and ice and from hot crystalline lava to water. The samples used (70-200 g) were obtained from an intermediate lava flow (benmoreite-trachyte) that was emplaced under and within the outlet glacier Gígjökull in the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Experiments involved settings with direct contact between ice and lava, and settings where melt and ice were separated by a few centimeters. Direct contact involved melt being emplaced on ice and ice placed on melt. The direct contact experiments provided initial heat flux of up to 900 kW m-2 at an initially lava melt surface temperature of 1100°C, declining to <100 kW m-2 at 200-300°C within 1-2 min, while the experiments without melt-ice contact yielded an initial maximum of 100-180 kW m-2 dropping to 50-80 kW m-2 in 2-3 min. In other experiments, where cubes of hot crystalline lava were subjected to forced convection of water at initial temperature of 20-30°C, initial heat fluxes of 400-770 kW m-2 were followed by fast decline to <100 kW m-2 in 15-35 s, the rate depending on cube size. The hot rock experiments provided thermal conductivity values of 1.2-1.7 W m-1K-1 and diffusivity of about 9 × 10-7 m2s-1. Values for heat flux obtained in these experiments are in the same range as those obtained from field observations of the lava emplacement in the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption.

  2. The impact of volcanic tephra on weathering and soil development of Icelandic Histosols, SE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatotzky, Theresa; Ottner, Franz; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2017-04-01

    A mixture of poorly decomposed plant remains, crystalline volcanic material and intense aeolian deposition sets Icelandic Histosols apart from other Histosols in the northern hemisphere. They exhibit a unique combination of histic (organic) and andic soil characteristics. Allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite are common minerals in Icelandic soils while layer silicates are rare. The volcanically active area south of Vatnajökull has received numerous tephra deposits of varying thickness during Holocene. Two distinct tephra layers, the light coloured rhyolitic tephra from the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362 and a black basaltic tephra from a Veiðivötn fissure eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system in AD 1477, are well preserved in the soils. This provides a unique opportunity to study weathering behaviour of tephra deposits of different composition and to examine their contrasting mineralogy and impact on soils south of Vatnajökull glacier. The investigated soils can be classified as Histosols with plant residues as parent material and influenced by volcanic ejecta (tephra) and aeolian material. Low pH (H2O) and high organic matter (OM) content are the two dominating factors influencing their weathering behaviour. The soil organic carbon (SOC) content was found to between 16 - 31%. As OM inhibits the formation of amorphous secondary minerals, the clay content in Icelandic soils is generally low while Al-humus complexes are predominant. The soil horizons developed from rhyolitic and basaltic tephra both show differences. Investigations of the mineralogy show small evidence of weathering in the basaltic V1477 tephra, whereas the rhyolitic volcanic ejecta has hardly altered since its formation.

  3. Real time retrieval of volcanic cloud particles and SO2 by satellite using an improved simplified approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugnaghi, Sergio; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic plume removal (VPR) is a procedure developed to retrieve the ash optical depth, effective radius and mass, and sulfur dioxide mass contained in a volcanic cloud from the thermal radiance at 8.7, 11, and 12 µm. It is based on an estimation of a virtual image representing what the sensor would have seen in a multispectral thermal image if the volcanic cloud were not present. Ash and sulfur dioxide were retrieved by the first version of the VPR using a very simple atmospheric model that ignored the layer above the volcanic cloud. This new version takes into account the layer of atmosphere above the cloud as well as thermal radiance scattering along the line of sight of the sensor. In addition to improved results, the new version also offers an easier and faster preliminary preparation and includes other types of volcanic particles (andesite, obsidian, pumice, ice crystals, and water droplets). As in the previous version, a set of parameters regarding the volcanic area, particle types, and sensor is required to run the procedure. However, in the new version, only the mean plume temperature is required as input data. In this work, a set of parameters to compute the volcanic cloud transmittance in the three quoted bands, for all the aforementioned particles, for both Mt. Etna (Italy) and Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) volcanoes, and for the Terra and Aqua MODIS instruments is presented. Three types of tests are carried out to verify the results of the improved VPR. The first uses all the radiative transfer simulations performed to estimate the above mentioned parameters. The second one makes use of two synthetic images, one for Mt. Etna and one for Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. The third one compares VPR and Look-Up Table (LUT) retrievals analyzing the true image of Eyjafjallajökull volcano acquired by MODIS aboard the Aqua satellite on 11 May 2010 at 14:05 GMT.

  4. Ambient Noise Surface Wave Tomography of the volcanic systems of eastern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. G.; Priestley, K. F.; White, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Vatnajökull region of central-east Iceland lies above the head of the Iceland mantle plume where the crust is thickest due to enhanced melt supply. As a result the region contains a high density of volcanic rift systems, with six large subglacial central volcanoes. Due to the ice cover, the geological structure of the area and the location of past eruptions are poorly known. Imaging of the crustal velocity heterogeneities beneath the ice sheet aims to reveal much in terms of the structure of these volcanic plumbing systems. Mapping of significant velocity changes through time may also be indicative of movement of melt around the central volcanoes; one of which (Bárðarbunga) experienced a major rifting event in August 2014 (Sigmundsson et al. Nature 2015, Green et al. Nature Geosci. 2015). We present results from tomographic imaging of the volcanic systems in the region, using continuous data from a local broadband seismic network in central-east Iceland which provides excellent ray path coverage of the volcanic systems. This is supplemented by data from the HOTSPOT and ICEMELT experiments and the permanent monitoring stations of the Icelandic Meteorological Office. We process the continuous data following Benson et al. 2007 and automatic frequency-time analysis (FTAN) routines are used to extract more than 9000 dispersion measurements. We then generate Rayleigh wave group velocity maps which we present here. We find low velocity regions beneath the Vatnajökull icecap which are bounded by the surface expression of the volcanic rift systems. The lower velocities also extend north-west to the volcanic system under the Hofsjökull ice cap, and northwards towards Askja and the volcanic systems of the northern volcanic zone. We also produce locations and focal mechanisms of earthquakes caused by magmatic and hydrothermal activity to correlate structure with the activity of the volcanic systems.

  5. U-Pb Zircon Provenance of Metasedimentary Basement of the Northwestern Terrane, Svalbard: A central East Greenland correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petterssen, C.; Frei, D.; Pease, V.

    2007-12-01

    Svalbard's Caledonian and older bedrock consists of three main exotic terranes separated by north-south trending strike-slip faults. Early in the 19-century Kulling (1930, 1934) noted the striking similarity between the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks from East Greenland and Svalbard's Eastern Terrane. After this pioneering work Harland et al. (1969) documented their remarkable similarities through detailed stratigraphic correlation of Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. Recent work in the Northwestern and the eastern part of the Eastern terrane shows that this metasedimentary basement has a strong resemblance to the Krummedal and Smallefjord sequences of central East Greenland, with Grenville age (sensu lato) granitoid intrusion followed by Caledonian migmatization and granite genesis. We present the first LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon provenance study on quartzites and mica schists from the Kongsfjorden Group of the Northwestern Terrane of Svalbard. These results indicate a strong correlation with the Krummedal of central East Greenland and help to constrain paleogeographic reconstructions of the Northwestern Terrane. References: Kulling, O. 1930. Stratigraphic studies of the geology of Northeast Greenland. Meddelelser on Gronland, 74, 317- 346. Kulling, O. 1934. Scientific results of the Swedish-Norwegian Arctic Expedition in the summer of 1931. Part XI, The "Hecla Hoek Formation" round Hinlopenstredet. Geografiska Annaler, 16, 161-254. Gee, D. G. and Tebenkov, A. M., 2004. Svalbard: a fragment of the Laurentian margin.? In: Gee, D. G. and Pease, V. (eds) The Neoproterozoic Timanide Orogen of eastern Baltica. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 30, 191- 206. Harland, W. B. 1969. Contribution of Spitsbergen to understanding of tectonic evolution of North Atlantic region. North Atlantic Geology and Continental Drift. Memoirs of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 12, 817-851.

  6. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anja; Witham, Claire S.; Theys, Nicolas; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Szpek, Kate; Feng, Wuhu; Hort, Matthew C.; Woolley, Alan M.; Jones, Andrew R.; Redington, Alison L.; Johnson, Ben T.; Hayward, Chris L.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We have used the United Kingdom Met Office's NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) model to simulate SO2 mass concentrations that could occur in European and North Atlantic airspace for a range of hypothetical explosive eruptions in Iceland with a probability to occur about once every 3 to 5 years. Model performance was evaluated for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption against SO2 vertical column density retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and in situ measurements from the United Kingdom Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft. We show that at no time during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption did SO2 mass concentrations at flight altitudes violate European air quality standards. In contrast, during a hypothetical short-duration explosive eruption similar to Hekla in 2000 (emitting 0.2 Tg of SO2 within 2 h, or an average SO2 release rate 250 times that of Eyjafjallajökull 2010), simulated SO2 concentrations are greater than 1063 µg/m3 for about 48 h in a small area of European and North Atlantic airspace. By calculating the occurrence of aircraft encounters with the volcanic plume of a short-duration eruption, we show that a 15 min or longer exposure of aircraft and passengers to concentrations ≥500 µg/m3 has a probability of about 0.1%. Although exposure of humans to such concentrations may lead to irritations to the eyes, nose and, throat and cause increased airway resistance even in healthy individuals

  7. Investigating La Réunion Hot Spot From Crust to Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barruol, Guilhem; Sigloch, Karin

    2013-06-01

    Whether volcanic intraplate hot spots are underlain by deep mantle plumes continues to be debated 40 years after the hypothesis was proposed by Morgan [1972]. Arrivals of buoyant plume heads may have been among the most disruptive agents in Earth's history, initiating continental breakup, altering global climate, and triggering mass extinctions. Further, with the temporary shutdown of European air traffic in 2010 caused by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, a geologically routine eruption in the tail end of the presumed Iceland plume, the world witnessed an intrusion of hot spot activity into modern-day life.

  8. Frequency, triggering factors and possible consequences of mass movements on outlet glaciers in Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Margeirsson, Guðbjörn

    2016-04-01

    During the last 15 years several mass movements of various size and origin, e.g. rock avalanches, rock slides and debris slides have been observed to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland. This should not come as a surprise in this type of glacial environment, but in a way it does. When looking at the history only few mass movements are recorded to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland, during the decades before the year 2000 or since 1960. This "lack of mass movements" can be explained by the fact that fewer observations and monitoring were done in the past, but is it so or are we seeing increasing activity? Looking at the distribution of the known mass movements, two activity periods cam be identified. The former one around 1970 and the second one starting around 2000 and is still ongoing. Both of these periods are characterized by warmer climate leading to retreating phases of glaciers. Two larger mass movements are known from these two retreating periods. The former one occurred in January 1967. Then a large rockslide fell on the snout and into the glacial lake of the Steinholtsjökull outlet glacier in the northern side of the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. The rockslide broke up the snout of the glacier and caused large floodwave bursting down the Steinholtsdalur valley transporting large volume of sediments down its path. The later one occurred in 2007, when a large rockavalanche fell on the Morsárjökull outlet glacier, in the southern side of the Vatnajökull ice cap. The avalanche debris covered around 1/5 of the glacier surface. Today the retreat and thinning of glaciers in Iceland are extremely rapid. The consequences of such a rapid retreat are e.g. unstable valley slopes surrounding the outlet glaciers, both in loose sediments and bedrock, thawing of mountain permafrost and not least formation of glacial lakes in front of the rapid retreating ice margins. Such conditions can become extremely hazardous, as seen by the above mentioned examples, both

  9. Discovery of the Largest Historic Silicic Submarine Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Rebecca J.; Wysoczanski, Richard; Wunderman, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin

    2014-05-01

    It was likely twice the size of the renowned Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 and perhaps more than 10 times bigger than the more recent 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland. However, unlike those two events, which dominated world news headlines, in 2012 the daylong submarine silicic eruption at Havre volcano in the Kermadec Arc, New Zealand (Figure 1a; ~800 kilometers north of Auckland, New Zealand), passed without fanfare. In fact, for a while no one even knew it had occurred.

  10. Types of habitat in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2014-04-01

    From a biological point of view, all environments in the Universe can be categorized into one of three types: uninhabitable, uninhabited habitat or inhabited habitat. This paper describes and defines different habitat types in the Universe with a special focus on environments not usually encountered on the Earth, but which might be common on other planetary bodies. They include uninhabited habitats, subtypes of which are sterile habitats and organic-free habitats. Examples of the different types of environments are provided with reference to the Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. These habitat types are used to identify testable hypotheses on the abundance of different habitats and the distribution of life in the Universe.

  11. Quantification of Sediment Transport During Glacier Surges and its Impact on Landform Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjaer, K. H.; Schomacker, A.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Benediktsson, I. O.

    2008-12-01

    Multi-temporal DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) of glaciers and ice streams have successfully been used for extraction of changes in ice volume over time. In this study, we analysed DEMs of the Brúarjökull glacier forefield (Iceland) for 1945, prior to the last surge in 1964, and for 2003 in order to assess the effect of the surge on the sediment architecture in the forefield. The pre- and post-surge DEMs allow direct quantification of the sediment volumes that were re-distributed in the forefield by the surging ice mass in 1964. The surge-type glacier Brúarjökull has experienced six surges during the last four centuries; these are the largest surges known to have occurred in Iceland. During the most recent surge in 1963-64, the glacier advanced 8 km over a period of c. 3 months with a maximum ice flow velocity of 5 m/hr, and 700 km3 of ice were moved downglacier. The continued recession of Brúarjökull since the 1963-64 surge reveals a young landscape consisting of widely spaced and elongated bedrock hills interspaced with shallow sedimentary basins. The majority of the forefield is covered with a basal till sheet or glaciofluvial outwash fans. Mapping of the sediment thickness in the glacier forefield shows higher accumulation along ice marginal positions related to wedge formation during extremely rapid ice flow. Fast flow was sustained by overpressurized water causing sediment-bedrock decoupling beneath a thick sediment sequence that was coupled to the glacier. Elevation differences between the terrain surface in 1945 and 2003 confirm this scenario as huge quantities of sediment was eroded, deformed and transported during the last surge event. On the scale of individual landforms, it appears for a drumlin surface that is has been lowered 20 m from 1945-2003. Dead-ice melting can explain roughly 8 m of this lowering. Thus, the drumlin must have experienced 12 m of subglacial erosion during the 1964 surge. The imprint of at least four landform generations is

  12. Laboratory tests for diagnosis of food allergy: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G; Frémont, S

    2003-04-01

    Numerous biological tests point to the diagnosis of food sensitization: detection of specific IgEs by Rast techniques, multi-detection assays, immunoblotting, screening of basophil activation (BAT or FAST), assays for leukotriene LTC4 release (CAST), measurement of plasma histamine, serum tryptase, serum ECP, urinary EDN, completed by mannitol-lactulose test evaluating intestinal permeability, assay of fecal IgEs, Rast for specific IgG4. Primary screening for anti-food IgEs by multi-detection assays seeks justification from insufficient clinical data and false positive tests are common in patients sensitized to pollens or latex, on account of in vitro cross reactivities (CR). Multiple CR explain positive Rast to vegetal food allergens in such patients. Biological tests should not be performed as the first line of diagnosis. In vivo sensitisation is assessed by positive prick-tests, demonstrating the bivalence of allergens, as well as the affinity of specific IgEs, two conditions necessary to bridge membrane bound specific IgEs, leading to the release of mediators. Prick-tests are closer to clinical symptoms than biological tests. However, the diagnosis of food allergy is based on standardised oral challenges. Exceptions are high levels of specific IgEs to egg (> 6 kUl/l), peanut (> 15 kUl/l), fish (> 20 kUl/l) and milk (> 32 kUl/l), reaching a 95% predictive positive value. Rast inhibition tests are useful to identify masked allergens in foods. Research developments will have impact on the development of new diagnostic tools: allergen mixes reinforcing a food extract by associated recombinant major allergens, multiple combination of recombinant allergens (chips) or tests with synthetic epitopes aimed a the prediction of recovery. Laboratory tests take place in the decision free for the diagnosis for the food allergy and the follow-up of the levels specific IgEs is a tool to assess outcome and contributes to predict recovery or persistent allergy. Up to now the

  13. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Griffin, William L.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The magmatic activity (0–16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland—and especially the Öræfajökull volcano—is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr–Nd–Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2–6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  14. Downslope windstorm in Iceland - WRF/MM5 model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rögnvaldsson, Ó.; Bao, J.-W.; Ágústsson, H.; Ólafsson, H.

    2011-01-01

    A severe windstorm downstream of Mt. Öræfajökull in Southeast Iceland is simulated on a grid of 1 km horizontal resolution by using the PSU/NCAR MM5 model and the Advanced Research WRF model. Both models are run with a new, two equation planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme as well as the ETA/MYJ PBL schemes. The storm is also simulated using six different micro-physics schemes in combination with the MYJ PBL scheme in WRF, as well as one "dry" run. Output from a 3 km MM5 domain simulation is used to initialise and drive both the 1 km MM5 and WRF simulations. Both models capture gravity-wave breaking over Mt. Öræfajökull, while the vertical structure of the lee wave differs between the two models and the PBL schemes. The WRF simulated downslope winds, using both the MYJ and 2EQ PBL schemes, are in good agreement with the strength of the observed downslope windstorm. The MM5 simulated surface winds, with the new two equation model, are in better agreement to observations than when using the ETA scheme. Micro-physics processes are shown to play an important role in the formation of downslope windstorms and a correctly simulated moisture distribution is decisive for a successful windstorm prediction. Of the micro-physics schemes tested, only the Thompson scheme captures the downslope windstorm.

  15. Geophysical Tracking of a Subglacial Flood in Near Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Eva P. S.; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G.; Roberts, Matthew J.; Bean, Christopher J.; Vogfjörd, Kristin S.; Jones, Morgan T.; Pfeffer, Melissa A.; Bergsson, Baldur; Pálsson, Finnur

    2017-04-01

    Subglacial lakes and volcanoes in Iceland pose a risk to people, livestock and infrastructure when water drains in subglacial floods. Many of these floods occur every year and efforts are made to forecast them and evacuate in time. The two Skaftá cauldrons are located at the southwestern part of Vatnajökull glacier and usually drain once every two years. However, following drainage in 2010, the eastern cauldron did not drain before October 2015. While water accumulated over these five years, scientists - within the EU-funded project FutureVolc - improved the monitoring network around southwest Vatnajökull in order to record the flood in great detail. The network finally comprised two seismic arrays, a GPS instrument on top of the cauldron, two GPS instruments above the flood path, gas measurements at the glaciers' edge, hydrological measurements at river gauges and osmotic sampler data. We present how the GPS, gas and hydrological instruments allow us to detect the start of and subglacial propagation of the flood. The derived timing is consistent with the approximate time of rupturing of the ice close to the glacier edge and the source movement observed in the seismic signals. The subglacial flow of water is accompanied by seismic tremor, whose source location moves downslope with the flood front. This tremor is followed by about 24 hours of stronger tremor bursts from the direction of the empty cauldron.

  16. Contrasting conditions of rift and off-rift silicic magma origin on Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattel, Nadine; Portnyagin, Maxim; Golowin, Roman; Hoernle, Kaj; Bindeman, Ilya

    2014-08-01

    Factors controlling the origin of silicic magmas on Iceland are poorly constrained. Here we present new data on H2O content, pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and oxygen isotope composition of rhyolites from Askja, Öræfajökull, and Hekla volcanoes. All these parameters correlate with tectonic (rift and off-rift) setting of the volcanoes. Askja rift rhyolites originate through extensive assimilation of high-temperature hydrothermally altered crust (δ18O < 2‰) at shallow depths (≥1.8 km). These rhyolites are hot (935-1008°C), relatively dry (H2O < 2.7 wt%), and oxidized (QFM = +1.4). Cooler (874-902°C), wet (H2O = 4-6.3 wt%), and non-oxidized (~QFM to QFM-1) off-rift rhyolites (Öræfajökull, Hekla) originate through differentiation deeper in the crust (≥4 km) with almost no or little assimilation of high-T, altered crust, as reflected by slightly lower to normal δ18O values (5.2-6‰). Although off-rift rhyolites predominate during the Holocene, older silicic rocks on Iceland primarily formed in a rift setting possibly analogous to the oldest continental crust on Earth.

  17. Evaluation of remote-sensing techniques to measure decadal-scale changes of Hofsjokull ice cap, Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S.; Barton, J.S.; Sigurdsson, O.; Smith, L.C.; Garvin, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic surficial changes and changes in the position of the firn line and the areal extent of Hofsjökull ice cap, Iceland, were studied through analysis of a time series (1973–98) of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat data. A digital elevation model of Hofsjökull, which was constructed using SAR interferometry, was used to plot the SAR backscatter coefficient (σ°) vs elevation and air temperature along transects across the ice cap. Seasonal and daily σ° patterns are caused by freezing or thawing of the ice-cap surface, and abrupt changes in σ° are noted when the air temperature ranges from ∼−5° to 0°C. Late-summer 1997 σ° (SAR) and reflectance (Landsat) boundaries agree and appear to be coincident with the firn line and a SAR σ° boundary that can be seen in the January 1998 SAR image. In January 1994 through 1998, the elevation of this σ° boundary on the ice capwas quite stable, ranging from 1000 to 1300 m, while the equilibrium-line altitude, as measured on the ground, varied considerably. Thus the equilibrium line may be obscured by firn from previous years. Techniques are established to measure long-term changes in the elevation of the firn line and changes in the position of the ice margin.

  18. Monitoring presence and streaming patterns of Icelandic volcanic ash during its arrival to Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Stanič, S.; Bergant, K.; Bolte, T.; Coren, F.; He, T.-Y.; Hrabar, A.; Jerma, J.; Mladenovič, A.; Turšič, J.; Veberič, D.

    2011-04-01

    The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano starting on 14 April 2010 resulted in the spreading of volcanic ash over most parts of Europe. In Slovenia, the presence of volcanic ash was monitored using ground-based in-situ measurements, lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements. Volcanic origin of the detected aerosols was confirmed by subsequent spectral and chemical analysis of the collected samples. The initial arrival of volcanic ash to Slovenia was detected at ground level using in-situ measurements during the night of 17 April 2010, but was not observed via lidar-based remote sensing due to the presence of clouds at lower altitudes while the streaming height of ash-loaded air masses was above 5 km a.s.l. The second arrival of volcanic ash on 20 April 2010 was detected by both lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurement, revealing two or more elevated atmospheric aerosol layers above Slovenia. Identification of samples from ground-based in-situ and airborne in-situ measurements based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that a fraction of particles was volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. We performed simulations of airflow trajectories to explain the arrival of the air masses containing volcanic ash to Slovenia.

  19. Monitoring presence and streaming patterns of Icelandic volcanic ash during its arrival to Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Stanič, S.; Bergant, K.; Bolte, T.; Coren, F.; He, T.-Y.; Hrabar, A.; Jerman, J.; Mladenovič, A.; Turšič, J.; Veberič, D.; Iršič Žibert, M.

    2011-08-01

    The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano starting on 14 April 2010 resulted in the spreading of volcanic ash over most parts of Europe. In Slovenia, the presence of volcanic ash was monitored using ground-based in-situ measurements, lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements. Volcanic origin of the detected aerosols was confirmed by subsequent spectral and chemical analysis of the collected samples. The initial arrival of volcanic ash to Slovenia was first detected through the analysis of precipitation, which occurred on 17 April 2010 at 01:00 UTC and confirmed by satellite-based remote sensing. At this time, the presence of low clouds and occasional precipitation prevented ash monitoring using lidar-based remote sensing. The second arrival of volcanic ash on 20 April 2010 was detected by both lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements, revealing two or more elevated atmospheric aerosol layers. The ash was not seen in satellite images due to lower concentrations. The identification of aerosol samples from ground-based and airborne in-situ measurements based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that a fraction of particles were volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. To explain the history of the air masses bringing volcanic ash to Slovenia, we analyzed airflow trajectories using ECMWF and HYSPLIT models.

  20. The Interaction of Volcanic Ash with Water and its Impact on Volcanic Plume Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, A.; Lathem, T. L.; Kumar, P.; Dufek, J.; Sokolik, I. N.; Raymond, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are long known to have profound impacts on the Earth System and society, which result from the atmospheric emissions and transport of volcanic ash. Yet, limited observational data exists on the physical interactions between water vapor with ash particles which are thought to strongly impact the coagulation efficiency and microphysical evolution of volcanic ash. In this study, we investigate the water uptake properties of fine volcanic ash (less than 125 micro-meter diameter) from a diverse set of eruptions: Mount St. Helens (1980), Tungurahua (2006), Chaiten (2008), Redoubt (2009), and Eyjafjallajökull (2010). The hydrophilicity of the ash particles is quantified by their ability to nucleate cloud droplets under controlled levels of water vapor supersaturation. From this information, we deduce the source of particle hydrophilicity (being absorption from deliquescent soluble material present in the ash or adsorption onto its surface), and, determine their equilibrium water uptake curve. This information is then introduced into a computational fluid dynamic simulation of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and assess the effects of ash water uptake on the volcanic plume evolution.

  1. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-04-14

    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume.

  2. Multi-year observations of a glacier in southeastern Iceland with Terrestrial Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytenko, D.; Dixon, T. H.; Howat, I. M.; Gourmelen, N.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial Radar Interferometry (TRI) allows us to measure glacial surface velocities every few minutes with a portable ground-based radar. TRI is complementary to space-based remote sensing methods as it is designed for short-term deployments requiring dense spatial and temporal coverage, making it a useful tool for imaging fast-moving glaciers. The TRI can also be used to generate DEMs of the ice surface. Breidamerkurjökull is a fast-moving marine-terminating glacier located in southeastern Iceland. The glacier terminates at Jökulsárlón, a small lagoon with a narrow outlet to the Atlantic Ocean. We deployed the TRI at Breidamerkurjökull in 2011 and 2012 to look at the ice velocity distribution in the vicinity of the calving front. Our results show velocity time series for selected points on the glacier along with the year-to-year changes in the ice surface and in the velocity field distribution. Our results also suggest that the dynamics of the glacier may be impacted by strong currents within Jökulsárlón.

  3. Meteorological Forcing of the Kills in New York / New Jersey Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, K. L.; Chant, R. J.; Bruno, M. S.; Glenn, S.

    2002-12-01

    Hydrographic surveys of the New York / New Jersey Harbor complex were conducted in Newark Bay, the Arthur Kill, and Kill Van Kull as part of the "Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program" to characterize salient physical processes in this estuarine system. Data collected for the study included shipboard and moored observations of currents, salinity, temperature and turbidity, with the aim of setting a dynamical context in which to interpret chemical data by providing insights into the mechanisms driving the transport pathways of dissolved and suspended contaminated material within the estuary. Analysis of collected data and former studies of the region indicate that the Kills system responds to a complex combination of forcing influences, including tide, wind, basin geometry and freshwater inflow. These influences are responsible for dramatic variations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport characteristics, including, for example, the direction and magnitude of the net, residual flow within the Newark Bay/Kills system. Here we sought to describe the relationship between the sub-tidal currents and the sea surface slope with meteorological forcing (wind/storm events) in the estuary. Measurements being made during the study included three (3) fixed bottom platform stations each equipped with a 1500kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADP) to measure the vertical profile of horizontal currents. We also measured sea surface elevation data with three acoustic radiometric gauges that were deployed at the head of Newark Bay, at the mouth of the Arthur Kill, and at Constable Hook, in the Hudson River. Additional tide data at the Bayonne Bridge were provided by NOAA. Wind data from the Newark International Airport meteorological station (40o 40 57 N, 74o 10 10 W) were supplied by the Northeast Regional Climate Center. Sub-Tidal Motion: Current velocity data from the ADP was averaged over 30-minute intervals and low-pass filtered to remove the tidal component of the

  4. Changes in shear-wave splitting before volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sha; Crampin, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    We have shown that observations of shear-wave splitting (SWS) monitor stress-accumulation and stress-relaxation before earthquakes which allows the time, magnitude, and in some circumstances fault-plane of impending earthquakes to be stress-forecast. (We call this procedure stress-forecasting rather than predicting or forecasting to emphasise the different formalism.) We have stress-forecast these parameters successfully three-days before a 1988 M5 earthquake in SW Iceland, and identified characteristic anomalies retrospectively before ~16 other earthquakes in Iceland and elsewhere. SWS monitors microcrack geometry and shows that microcracks are so closely spaced that they verge on fracturing and earthquakes. Phenomena verging on failure in this way are critical-systems with 'butterfly wings' sensitivity. Such critical-systems are very common. The Earth is an archetypal complex heterogeneous interactive phenomenon and must be expected to be a critical-system. We claim this critical system as a New Geophysics of a critically-microcracked rock mass. Such critical systems impose a range of fundamentally-new properties on conventional sub-critical physics/geophysics, one of which is universality. Consequently it is expected that we observe similar stress-accumulation and stress-relaxation before volcanic eruptions to those before earthquakes. There are three eruptions where appropriate changes in SWS have been observed similar to those observed before earthquakes. These are: the 1996 Gjálp fissure eruption, Vatnajökull, Iceland; a 2001 flank eruption on Mount Etna, Sicily (reported by Francesca Bianco, INGV, Naples); and the 2010 Eyjafjajökull ash-cloud eruption, SW Iceland. These will be presented in the same normalised format as is used before earthquakes. The 1996 Gjálp eruption showed a 2½-month stress-accumulation, and a ~1-year stress-relaxation (attributed to the North Atlantic Ridge adjusting to the magma injection beneath the Vatnajökull Ice Cap). The

  5. Reconstructing Magma Degassing in the Katla 1918 Eruption through Vesicle Textures and Dissolved Volatile Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, J.; Tuffen, H.; Coats, B.

    2014-12-01

    Iceland's Katla volcano frequently produces explosive eruptions (VEI 3-5) that generate large quantities of ash and powerful glacial floods (jökulhlaups). Its last eruption (VEI 4, basalt) was in 1918, but another may be imminent, given recent unrest and historic correlation with activity at Eyjafjallajökull, which erupted in 2010. Investigations of eruption products at nearby Torfajökull [1,2] have shown that volatiles are the primary control on the eruptive behaviour of subglacial rhyolite, rather than ice thickness. Explosive events are characterised by high pre-eruptive H2O contents (up to ~5 wt. %) and more closed system degassing, demonstrated by H2O-Cl ratios, microlite contents and vesiculation modelling. We have continued to develop the use of volatile degassing as an sensitive indicator of syn-eruptive pressure conditions [3,4]. We are now applying similar approaches to the basaltic Katla 1918 event, to determine the relative influence of volatiles and meltwater on eruption mechanisms. Sampling has included air-fall tephra from Mýrdalsjökull and jökulhlaup deposits from Múlakvísl. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data reveals that airfall tephra have degassed to atmospheric conditions (0.07 wt % H2O), whereas jökulhlaup-carried juvenile clasts have elevated H2O contents (0.18 to 0.32 wt % H2O), consistent with quenching beneath a load of ice, water or tephra. Ongoing quantification of vesicle and crystal size distributions, together with experimental vesicle growth rates using hotstage microscopy, will help constrain rates and amounts of magma decompression, degassing and interactions with meltwater. We also aim to investigate chamber-to-surface degassing through analysis of volatile concentrations in melt inclusions. [1] Owen et al. 2013a Geology 41: 251-254 [2] Owen et al. 2013b J Volcanol Geoth Res 258: 143-162 [3] Tuffen et al. 2010 Earth Sci Rev 99: 1-18 [4] Owen et al. 2012 Bull Volcanol 74: 1355-1378

  6. Non-linear Holocene climate evolution in the North Atlantic: a high-resolution, multi-proxy record of glacier activity and environmental change from Hvítárvatn, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Ólafsdóttir, Sædís

    2012-04-01

    Iceland is well situated to monitor North Atlantic Holocene climate variability. Terrestrial sites there offer the potential for well-dated, high-resolution, continuous records of environmental change and/or glacier activity. Laminated sediments from the proglacial lake Hvítárvatn provide a continuous record of environmental change and the development of the adjacent Langjökull ice cap for the past 10.2 ka. Replicate lake sediment cores, collected from multiple locations in the basin, are placed in a secure geochronology by splicing a varve chronology for the past 3 ka with a tephra-constrained, paleomagnetic secular variation derived chronology for older sediments. Multiple proxies, including sedimentation rate, bulk density, ice-rafted debris, sediment organic matter, biogenic silica, and diatom abundance, allow annual to multi-decadal resolution and reveal a dynamic Holocene terrestrial climate. Following regional deglaciation of the main Iceland Ice Sheet, summer temperatures were high enough that mountain ice caps had already melted, or were contributing insignificant sediment to the lake. Pronounced increases in sedimentation rate, sediment density, and the influx of terrestrial organic matter, between 8.7 and 7.9 ka suggest early Holocene warmth was interrupted by two distinct pulses of cold summers leading to widespread landscape destabilization and possibly glacier growth. The Holocene thermal maximum (HTM; 7.9 to 5.5 ka) was characterized by high within-lake productivity and ice-free conditions in the watershed. Neoglaciation is recorded as a non-linear transition toward cooler summers, landscape destabilization, and the inception and expansion of Langjökull beginning ca 5.5 ka, with notable increases in ice cap size and landscape instability at 4.2 and 3.0 ka. The past two millennia are characterized by the abrupt onset of sustained cold periods at ca 550 and 1250 AD, separated by an interval of relative warmth from ca 950 to 1150 AD. The greatest

  7. Application of a Two-Scale Turbulence Transport Model to Mixing by Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov Instabilities*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliason, Donald; Cabot, William; Zhou, Ye; Rubinstein, Robert

    2002-11-01

    Turbulent mixing of the fluids in a multi-component system is of interest in situations such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and core-collapse supernovae [1]. We report results of a project to include a model of turbulent mixing in a multi-component hydrodynamics and physics model called KULL, which is used for ICF. Because KULL is a complex, multi-dimensional model, we have developed a simplified, one-dimensional version called sKULL to speed-up the development of the turbulent mixing model. Of primary interest in the development of a turbulent mixing model for a multi-component fluid is the question of whether it is necessary to allow each component of the fluid to retain its own velocity. Generally a multi-component, multi-velocity turbulent mixing model should allow separate velocities for each component of the fluid[2]. However, the necessity to carry separate velocities for each component of the fluid greatly increases the memory requirements and complexity of the computer implementation. In contrast, we present a new two-scale formulation of the K-epsilon turbulent mixing model, with production terms based on a recent scaling analysis, which treats all components of the fluid as if they had the same velocity. We also show that our new method for the initial conditions of the uncoupled two-scale K-epsilon model yields asymptotic growth, and that the growth of the inferred turbulence length scale is consistent with measured mix width growth from Rayleigh-Taylor experiments. Further comparisons will be made of results from the turbulent mixing model with Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov experiments. *This study was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48. [1] Remington, B. A., D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers, Science, 284, 1488 (1999). [2] Youngs, D. L., Numerical simulation of

  8. Impact of Subglacial Geothermal Activity on Meltwater Quality in the JÖKULSÁ Á SÓLHEIMASANDI System, Southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, D. M.; Björnsson, H.; Dolan, M.

    1996-04-01

    The influence of subglacial geothermal activity on the hydrochemistry of the Jökulsá á Sólheimasandi glacial meltwater river, south Iceland, is discussed. A radio echosounding and Global Positioning System survey of south-west Myrdalsjökull, the parent ice-cap of the valley glacier Sólheimajökull, establishes the geometry and position of a subglacial caldera. A cauldron in the ice-cap surface at the basin head is also defined, signifying one location of geothermally driven ablation processes. Background H2S concentrations for the Jökulsá meltwaters in summer 1989 show that leakage of geothermal fluids into the glacial drainage network takes place throughout the melt season. Chemical geothermometry (Na+/K+ ratio) applied to the bulk meltwaters tentatively suggests that the subglacial geothermal area is a high-temperature field with a reservoir temperature of 289-304°C. A major event of enhanced geothermal fluid injection was also detected. Against a background of an apparently warming geothermal reservoir, the event began on Julian day 205 (24 July) with a burst of subglacial seismic activity. Meltwater hydrochemical perturbations followed on day 209 and peaked on day 213, finally leading to a sudden and significant increase in flow on day 214. The hydrochemical excursions were characterized by strong peaks in meltwater H2S, SO2-4 and total carbonate concentrations, transient decreases in pH, small increases in Ca2+ and Mg2+ and sustained increases in electrical conductivity. The event may relate to temporary invigoration of the subglacial convective hydrothermal circulation, seismic disturbance of patterns of groundwater flow and geothermal fluid recruitment to the subglacial drainage network, or a cyclic sweeping out of the geothermal zone by the annual wave of descending groundwater. Time lags between seismic events and meltwater electrical conductivity responses suggest mean and maximum intraglacial throughflow velocities of 0.032-0.132 m s-1

  9. Influence of ice load variations on shallow magma storage zones: Application to Katla volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, F.; Pinel, V.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2009-12-01

    As a consequence of climate warming, many volcanoes are currently located under retreating ice caps. The resulting unloading can modify the eruptive activity as proven by observed correlation between deglaciation periods and eruptive activity in the past. Unloading can modify melt generation in the mantle, or modify magma storage conditions at shallow depth. Here we investigate how ice load variations at the Earth's surface act on shallow magma chambers. Numerical calculations are carried out in axisymmetric geometry for an elliptical chamber embedded in an elastic medium, taking magma compressibility into account. For variable chamber shape, size and depth, we quantify how unloading events induce magmatic pressure change as well as variation of the threshold pressure required for dyke initiation at the chamber wall. Influence on eruption likelihood is determined by the interplay between these two parameters. We evaluate the triggering effect of these surface events on onset of eruptions and find it depends strongly on the surface load location and magnitude, and the shape, depth and size of the magma chamber. We apply this model to Katla volcano, Iceland, which is covered by the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. Ice load variations include long term thinning, as well as an annual load cycle, with up to 6 meters change in snow thickness from winter to summer. As the seasonal snow load is reduced, a pressure decrease of the same order of magnitude as the load is induced within the magma storage zone. The threshold pressure for failure is modified at the same time. Our model predicts that, in case of a spherical or horizontally elongated magma chamber, eruptions are more likely when the seasonal snow cover is smallest. This triggering effect is small, around few kPa, but appears consistent with the fact that all the nine last major historical eruptions at Katla occurred during the summer period. A long-term ice thinning due to global warming is also occurring, mainly at the

  10. Optical, microphysical and compositional properties of volcanic ash samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha Lima, A.; Martins, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Tabacniks, M.; Artaxo, P.; Schumann, U.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanoes are one of the most important sources of aerosols in the atmosphere and the chemical and physical properties of these particles are of fundamental importance for better understanding of Earth's climate and weather patterns. One of the main parameters missing in current aerosol models is the complex refractive index of aerosol particles from the UV to the short wave infrared (SWIR) wavelengths. The main objective of this research was to perform a detailed characterization of important optical, microphysical and compositional properties of aerosol particles of the volcanic sample from Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland). Ash from this volcano was collected in the vicinity of the eruption in Iceland. The sample was brought to our laboratory and it was initially sieved to retain particles smaller than 45 um, de-agglomerated, re-suspended and carried out by a flow of air through the use of a Fluidized Bed Aerosol Generator (FBAG). This experimental setup allows us to separate particles into PM10, PM2.5, or PM1.0. Particles were collected on Nuclepore filters and analyzed by different techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for determination of size distribution and shape, spectral reflectance for determination of the optical absorption properties as a function of the wavelength, mass concentration, material density, and X-Ray fluorescence for the elemental composition. The spectral imaginary part of refractive index (from 300 to 2500nm) was derived empirically from the measurements of the mass absorption coefficient, size distribution and density of the material. In this work we are going to show the inter comparison of the microphysical properties between Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic volcano and other volcanoes. Volcanic ash from Eyjafjallajökull shows strong absorption and consequently high imaginary refractive index for UV and visible wavelengths. Also, microphysical optical properties and compositional differences were observed between coarse and

  11. InSAR observations and models of crustal deformation due to a glacial surge in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A.; Spaans, K. H.; Björnsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.

    2014-09-01

    Surges are common at all the major ice caps in Iceland. Ice masses of gigatons may shift from the upper part of the outlet glacier towards the terminus in a few months, advancing the glacier front by up to several kilometres. The advancing ice front may be up to 100 m thick, increasing the load on crustal rocks correspondingly. We use the observed change in crustal loading during a surge of the western part of the Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, during 1993-1995 and the corresponding elastic crustal deformation, surveyed with interferometric synthetic aperture radar, to investigate the material properties of the solid Earth in this region. Crustal subsidence due to the surge reaches ˜75 mm at the edge of the Síðujökull outlet glacier. This signal is mixed with a broad uplift signal of ˜12 mm yr-1, relative to our reference area, caused by the ongoing retreat of Vatnajökull in response to climate change. We disentangle the two signals by linear inversion. Finite element modelling is used to investigate the elastic Earth response of the surge, as well as to confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. The modelling leads to estimates of the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the underlying Earth. Comparison between the observed and modelled deformation fields is made using a Bayesian approach that yields the estimate of a probability distribution for each of the free parameters. Residuals indicate a good agreement between models and observations. One-layer elastic models result in a Young's modulus of 43.2-49.7 GPa (95 per cent confidence) and Poisson's ratio of 0-0.27, after removal of outliers. Our preferred model, with two elastic layers, provides a better fit to the whole surge signal. This model consists of a 1-km-thick upper layer with an average Young's modulus of 12.9-15.3 GPa and Poisson's ratio of 0.17, overlying a layer with an average Young's modulus of 67.3-81.9 GPa and Poisson's ratio of 0.25.

  12. Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On August 22, 2014 the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured a true-color image of a sunny summer day in Iceland. While most of the winter snow has melted to reveal green vegetation, the rugged northern peaks retain a snow cap. Further south bright white marks the location of glaciers. Situated in the southeast is Vatnajökull – the largest glacier in Europe and the site of Iceland’s highest mountain, Hvannadalshnjúkur. On August 20, scientists from the Icelandic Met Office closed all roads into the north of Vatnajökull Glacier due to increase seismic activity from the Bardarbunga volcano which lies under the ice cap in this area. On August 23, a small eruption was detected in Bardarbunga and the airspace near the activity was closed as a precautionary measure. Further study of the data suggested that no eruption had in fact occurred and airspace was opened under a code orange alert. Seismic activity remained high. On August 29, an eruption occurred north of Vatnajökull Glacier when a fissure, close to 1 km in length, opened up, and emitted lava at a slow pace. The eruption was short-lived, but on August 31 an eruption was confirmed in the same remote, uninhabited area. The Icelandic Meteorological Office reported that as of September 11 that eruption continued unabated. There has been no significant explosive activity, but lava flow has been the primary feature. High concentrations of sulfuric gases from the volcanic activity accompany the eruption, and are the primary health concern. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on

  13. A-Train Satellite Observations of Recent Explosive Eruptions in Iceland and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Yang, K.; Prata, A. J.

    2012-04-01

    The past few years have seen remarkable levels of explosive volcanic activity in Iceland and Chile, with four significant eruptions at Chaitén (May 2008), Eyjafjallajökull (April 2010), Grimsvötn (May 2011) and Cordón Caulle (June 2011 - ongoing). The tremendous disruption and economic impact of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption is well known, but each of these events had a significant impact on aviation, sometimes at great distances from the volcano. As of late 2011, volcanic ash from Cordón Caulle was still affecting airports in southern South America, highlighting the potential for extended disruption during long-lived eruptions. Serendipitously, this period of elevated volcanic activity has coincided with an era of unprecedented availability of satellite remote sensing data pertinent to volcanic cloud studies. In particular, NASA's A-Train satellite constellation (including the Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, and Aura satellites) has been flying in formation since 2006, providing synergistic, multi- and hyper-spectral, passive and active observations. Measurements made by A-Train sensors include total column sulfur dioxide (SO2) by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, upper tropospheric and stratospheric (UTLS) SO2 column by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura, ash mass loading from AIRS and the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua, UTLS HCl columns and ice water content (IWC) from MLS, aerosol vertical profiles from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument aboard CALIPSO, and hydrometeor profiles from the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) on CloudSat. The active vertical profiling capability of CALIPSO, CloudSat and MLS sychronized with synoptic passive sensing of trace gases and aerosols by OMI, AIRS and MODIS provides a unique perspective on the structure and composition of volcanic clouds. A-Train observations during the first hours of atmospheric

  14. Summary Report for ASC L2 Milestone #4782: Assess Newly Emerging Programming and Memory Models for Advanced Architectures on Integrated Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, J. R.; Hornung, R.; Black, A.; Robinson, P.

    2014-09-29

    This document serves as a detailed companion to the powerpoint slides presented as part of the ASC L2 milestone review for Integrated Codes milestone #4782 titled “Assess Newly Emerging Programming and Memory Models for Advanced Architectures on Integrated Codes”, due on 9/30/2014, and presented for formal program review on 9/12/2014. The program review committee is represented by Mike Zika (A Program Project Lead for Kull), Brian Pudliner (B Program Project Lead for Ares), Scott Futral (DEG Group Lead in LC), and Mike Glass (Sierra Project Lead at Sandia). This document, along with the presentation materials, and a letter of completion signed by the review committee will act as proof of completion for this milestone.

  15. Volcanic ash hazards and aviation risk: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, Marianne C.; Tupper, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The risks to safe and efficient air travel from volcanic-ash hazards are well documented and widely recognized. Under the aegis of the International Civil Aviation Organization, globally coordinated mitigation procedures are in place to report explosive eruptions, detect airborne ash clouds and forecast their expected movement, and issue specialized messages to warn aircraft away from hazardous airspace. This mitigation framework is based on the integration of scientific and technical capabilities worldwide in volcanology, meteorology, and atmospheric physics and chemistry. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, which led to a nearly week-long shutdown of air travel into and out of Europe, has prompted the aviation industry, regulators, and scientists to work more closely together to improve how hazardous airspace is defined and communicated. Volcanic ash will continue to threaten aviation and scientific research will continue to influence the risk-mitigation framework.

  16. 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Angela E

    2010-08-01

    The 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology was notable, not only for its golden anniversary, but also because it coincided with the eruption of the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, and the ensuing travel chaos. In total, 28 speakers from overseas were unable to reach Edinburgh, including a significant number of British speakers who were stranded. However, owing to the superb efforts of the conference organisers and Edinburgh International Conference Centre staff, teleconferencing equipment was installed and all speakers were contacted and able to give their talks on time. The program, consisting of simultaneous sessions and plenary lectures, covered not only recent advances in clinical and laboratory hematology, but also reflected on the contribution of British hematology to the international arena over the past 50 years.

  17. Anthropogenic radionuclides in atmospheric air over Switzerland during the last few decades.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, J A Corcho; Steinmann, P; Estier, S; Bochud, F; Haldimann, M; Froidevaux, P

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the burn-up of the SNAP-9A satellite led to large injections of radionuclides into the stratosphere. It is generally accepted that current levels of plutonium and caesium radionuclides in the stratosphere are negligible. Here we show that those radionuclides are present in the stratosphere at higher levels than in the troposphere. The lower content in the troposphere reveals that dry and wet deposition efficiently removes radionuclides within a period of a few weeks to months. Since the stratosphere is thermally stratified and separated from the troposphere by the tropopause, radioactive aerosols remain longer. We estimate a mean residence time for plutonium and caesium radionuclides in the stratosphere of 2.5-5 years. Our results also reveal that strong volcanic eruptions like Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 have an important role in redistributing anthropogenic radionuclides from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

  18. From Operational Ceilometer Network to Operational Lidar Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Mariana; Turp, Myles; Horseman, Andrew; Ordóñez, Carlos; Buxmann, Joelle; Sugier, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    During the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, the Met Office ceilometers (Laser Cloud Based Recorders - LCBR) provided reasonable information about volcanic ash plumes over the United Kingdom [1]. This capability triggered the development of an operational system to provide quick looks of the range corrected signals (RCS) in near-real-time (NRT). Moreover, the Met Office acquired eleven Jenoptik ceilometers to supplement the operational ceilometer network. The combined network became operational in 2012 and currently comprises a total of 43 ceilometers reporting backscatter profiles in NRT. In 2013, Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the Department for transport (DfT) sponsored the acquisition of 9 fixed lidars and one mobile unit (each accompanied by a sunphotometer), to further improve the quantitative monitoring of volcanic ash. The current status of both ceilometer and lidar/sun-photometer networks is discussed and further developments are proposed.

  19. LATIS3D: The Goal Standard for Laser-Tissue-Interaction Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, R. A.; Makarewicz, A. M.; Kim, B. M.; Gentile, N. A.; Yang, T. Y. B.

    2000-03-01

    The goal of this LDRD project has been to create LATIS3D-the world's premier computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling. The development was based on recent experience with the 2D LATIS code and the ASCI code, KULL. With LATIS3D, important applications in laser medical therapy were researched including dynamical calculations of tissue emulsification and ablation, photothermal therapy, and photon transport for photodynamic therapy. This project also enhanced LLNL's core competency in laser-matter interactions and high-energy-density physics by pushing simulation codes into new parameter regimes and by attracting external expertise. This will benefit both existing LLNL programs such as ICF and SBSS and emerging programs in medical technology and other laser applications. The purpose of this project was to develop and apply a computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling to aid in the development of new instruments and procedures in laser medicine.

  20. Chemistry and fluxes of magmatic gases powering the explosive trachyandesitic phase of Eyjafjallajokull 2010 eruption: constraints on degassing magma volumes and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, P.; Burton, M. R.; Oskarsson, N.; Michel, A.; Polacci, M.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption developed in two distinct phases, with initial lateral effusion of alkali basalt since March 20, followed by highly explosive extrusion of a quite homogenous and crystal-poor trachyandesitic magma [1] through the central volcano ice cap between April 14 and May 24. As usual, magmatic volatiles played a key role in the eruption dynamics. Here we report on the chemical composition and the mass output of magmatic gases powering intense explosive activity during the second eruptive phase in early May. On May 8 we could measure the composition of magmatic gases directly issuing from the eruptive vents, by using OP-FTIR spectroscopy from the crater rim (~900 m distance) and molten lava blocks as IR radiation source. FTIR spectra reveal a variable mixture between two gas components equally rich in H2O (91.3 mol%) and CO2 (8%) but differing in their SO2/HCl ratio (up to 3.5 for the main one and 0.5 for the Cl-richer second one). Analysis of S-Cl-F in ash leachates and in ash and lava bomb samples (pyrohydrolysis) show that this second component was generated by greater chlorine loss during extensive magma fragmentation into fine ash. S/Cl and Cl/F ratios from both these analyses and solar occultation FTIR plume sensing indicate a modest fluorine content in emitted gas and its preferential adsorption onto solid particles during plume transport. DOAS traverses under the volcanic plume (4-6 km height), though hampered by dense ash load, gave most reliable SO2 fluxes of 4500-6600 tons d-1 on May 9, consistent with OMI satellite data [2]. These imply the daily co-emission of 7.2x105 tons of H2O, 1.5x105 tons of CO2, 2000 tons of HCl and ≤200 tons of HF. Eyjafjallajökull thus produced more hydrous and relatively CO2-poorer gas, in much greater quantities, during that stage than during its first basaltic phase [3]. Linear variations of dissolved S with TiO2/FeO ratio in nearby Katla alkali magmas [4] suggest possible pre-eruptive S contents

  1. Composition and evolution of volcanic aerosol following three eruptions in 2008 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, S. M.; Martinsson, B. G.; Friberg, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Hermann, M.; Heue, K. P.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Zahn, A.

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of atmospheric aerosols by the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) platform following the Kasatochi (Alaska), Sarychev (Russia) and Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) eruptions in the period 2008-2010 are presented. The CARIBIC platform operates on a Lufthansa passenger aircraft usually on monthly inter-continental flights, measuring the atmospheric composition in the UT/LS at 8-12 km altitude (Brenninkmeijer et al., 2007). After the eruption of Kasatochi, analyses of the stratospheric aerosol composition showed enhanced concentrations of sulfur and carbon for several months. On the other hand the ash component, clearly seen in a sample seven days after the eruption, was not detected a month later (Martinsson et al., 2009). To further investigate the composition of the volcanic aerosol three flights trough the volcanic plume of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were carried out on April 20, May 16 and May 19, 2010. Aerosol sampling was performed by an impaction technique with a cut-off diameter of 2 μm (Nguyen et al., 2006). Collected samples were analyzed by quantitative multi-elemental analysis by PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission), to obtain concentrations of elements with atomic number larger than 13, and PESA (Particle Elastic Scattering Analysis) for concentrations of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (Nguyen and Martinsson, 2007). Three samples taken during the special flights to study the Eyjafjallajökull eruption contained unusually high concentrations of elements pointing to crustal origin. The composition of these samples was compared to ash from a fall out sample (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). The ratio of detected elements to iron in both sample types showed good agreement for most of the elements for all three aerosol samples. Volcanically influenced aerosol following the eruptions of Sarychev and Kasatochi were identified by high concentrations of sulfur and by using air mass

  2. The Latest on Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2013-08-01

    What was the largest volcanic eruption on Earth since the historic Mount Pinatubo eruption on 15 June 1991? Was the Toba super­eruption 74,000 years ago—the largest in the past 100,000 years—responsible for a human genetic bottleneck or a 1000-year-long glacial advance? What role did small volcanic eruptions play in the reduced global warming of the past decade? What caused the Little Ice Age? Was the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland important for climate change? What do volcanic eruptions teach us about new ideas on geoengineering and nuclear winter? These are some of the questions that have been answered since the review article by Robock [2000]. Reviews by Forster et al. [2007] and Timmreck [2012] go into some of these topics in much greater detail.

  3. Remote Sensing of Volcanic ASH at the Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, F.; Kent, J.; Adam, M.; Buxmann, J.; Francis, P.; Haywood, J.

    2016-06-01

    The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 has triggered the rapid development of volcanic ash remote sensing activities at the Met Office. Volcanic ash qualitative and quantitative mapping have been achieved using lidar on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) research aircraft, and using improved satellite retrieval algorithms. After the eruption, a new aircraft facility, the Met Office Civil Contingencies Aircraft (MOCCA), has been set up to enable a rapid response, and a network of ground-based remote sensing sites with lidars and sunphotometers is currently being developed. Thanks to these efforts, the United Kingdom (UK) will be much better equipped to deal with such a crisis, should it happen in the future.

  4. Spain as an emergency air traffic hub during volcanic air fall events? Evidence of past volcanic ash air fall over Europe during the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardiman, Mark; Lane, Christine; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Moreno, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Ortiz, José E.; Torres, Trino; Lowe, John J.; Menzies, Martin A.

    2010-05-01

    Past volcanic eruptions often leave visible ash layers in the geological record, for example in marine or lake sedimentary sequences. Recent developments, however, have shown that non-visible volcanic ash layers are also commonly preserved in sedimentary deposits. These augment the record of past volcanic events by demonstrating that past ash dispersals have been more numerous and widely disseminated in Europe than previously appreciated. The dispersal ‘footprints' of some large late Pleistocene European eruptions are examined here in the light of the recent Eyjafjallajökull eruption. For example, the Vedde Ash which was erupted from Iceland around 12 thousand years ago, delivered distal (and non-visible) glass deposits as far south as Switzerland and as far east as the Ural Mountains in Russia, with an overall European distribution remarkably similar to the dominant tracks of the recent Eyjafjallajökull plumes. The Eyjafjallajökull eruption has demonstrated that relatively small amounts of distal volcanic ash in the atmosphere can seriously disrupt aviation activity, with attendant economic and other consequences. It has raised fundamental questions about the likelihood of larger or more prolonged volcanic activity in the near future, and the possibility of even more serious consequences than those experienced recently. Given that there are several other volcanic centres that could cause such disruption in Europe (e.g. Campania and other volcanic centres in Italy; Aegean volcanoes), a key question is whether there are parts of Europe less prone to ash plumes and which could therefore operate as emergency air traffic hubs during times of ash dispersal. Although not generated to answer this question, the recent geological record might provide a basis for seeking the answer. For example, four palaeo-records covering the time frame of 8 - 40 Ka BP that are geographically distributed across Spain have been examined for non-visible distal ash content. All four have

  5. Risk, interest groups and the definition of crisis: the case of volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Bridget M; Lloyd-Bostock, Sally

    2013-09-01

    This paper considers a key aspect of the 'risk society' thesis: the belief that we should be able to manage risks and control the world around us. In particular it focuses on the interface between risk and risk events as socially constructed and the insights that 'critical situations' give us into 'the routine and mundane', the otherwise taken for granted assumptions underlying risk regulation. It does this with reference to the events precipitated by the April 2010 volcanic eruption in the Eyjafjallajökull area of Iceland. The resulting cloud of volcanic ash spread across Europe and much of Europe's airspace was closed to civil aviation for six days, with far reaching consequences including huge financial losses for airlines. The social processes of defining and reacting to risk and crisis both reveal and generate dilemmas and challenges in regulation. This paper examines the role of different interest groups in defining risk expectations and thereby redefining the ash crisis as a regulatory crisis.

  6. Electrical Properties Of Volcanic Ash Samples From Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, I. M.; Aplin, K. L.; Nicoll, K. A.; Green, O.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    performed with pumice (a much more homogeneous material than ash) and compared to the results obtained with the volcanic ash samples. Arason P, Bennett A J and Burgin L E 2011 Charge mechanism of volcanic lightning revealed during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, J. Geophys. Res. 116 B00C03 Bennett A J, Odams P, Edwards D and Arason P 2010 Monitoring of lightning from the April-May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption using a very low frequency lightning location network, Environ. Res. Lett. 5 044013 Harrison R G, Nicoll K A, Ulanowksi Z and Mather T A 2010 Self-charging of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash plume Environ. Res. Lett. 5 024004 James M R, Wilson L, Lane S J , Gilbert J S, Mather T A, Harrison R G and Martin R S 2008 Electrical charging of volcanic plumes, Space Science Reviews 137 399-418 Lacks D J and Levandovsky A, 2007, Effect of particle size distribution on the polarity of triboelectric charging in granular insulator systems, J. Electrostatics, 65, 107-112 Mather T A and Harrison R G 2006 Electrification of volcanic plumes, Surveys in Geophysics 27 4 387-432 Piper I M, Aplin K L and Nicoll K A 2012 Electrical properties of volcanic ash samples from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn, Proceedings of Annual Aerosol Society Conference 2012, arXiv 1207.6733

  7. Recent advances in SAR interferometry time series analysis for measuring crustal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Andrew; Bekaert, David; Spaans, Karsten; Arıkan, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is a technique that permits remote detection of deformation at the Earth's surface, and has been used extensively to measure displacements associated with earthquakes, volcanic activity and many other crustal deformation phenomena. Analysis of a time series of SAR images extends the area where interferometry can be successfully applied, and also allows detection of smaller displacements, through the reduction of error sources. Here, we review recent advances in time series SAR interferometry methods that further improve accuracy. This is particularly important when constraining displacements due to processes with low strain rates, such as interseismic deformation. We include examples of improved algorithms applied to image deformation associated with the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, slow slip on the Guerrero subduction zone in Mexico, and tectonic deformation in western Anatolia, Turkey.

  8. LATIS3D: The Gold Standard for Laser-Tissue-Interaction Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    London, R.A.; Makarewicz, A.M.; Kim, B.M.; Gentile, N.A.; Yang, Y.B.; Brlik, M.; Vincent, L.

    2000-02-29

    The goal of this LDRD project has been to create LATIS3D--the world's premier computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling. The development was based on recent experience with the 2D LATIS code and the ASCI code, KULL. With LATIS3D, important applications in laser medical therapy were researched including dynamical calculations of tissue emulsification and ablation, photothermal therapy, and photon transport for photodynamic therapy. This project also enhanced LLNL's core competency in laser-matter interactions and high-energy-density physics by pushing simulation codes into new parameter regimes and by attracting external expertise. This will benefit both existing LLNL programs such as ICF and SBSS and emerging programs in medical technology and other laser applications.

  9. Magma types and mantle sources of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldórsson, Sæmundur; Rubin, Ken; Sverrisdóttir, Guðrún; Sigurðsson, Gylfi

    2015-04-01

    The Bárðarbunga volcanic system (BVS) represents one of the largest volcanic systems in Iceland, extending ~190 km from the northern boundary of Torfajökull in the south to Dyngjufjöll Ytri in the north, and intersecting the largely ice-covered Bárðarbunga volcano. The extensive length of the BVS thus allows sampling of an unusually large section of the mantle underlying Iceland's Eastern rift zone. Perhaps surprisingly, the degree of mantle source heterogeneity beneath the BVS remains poorly known. We have recently undertaken a detailed study of the BVS because such data are fundamental for understanding the magmatic history and magma delivery system beneath of the BVS, including those that led to recent volcanism north of Dyngjujökull. Here, we present major and trace element analyses, as well as high-precision Pb isotope analyses, of several Holocene lava flows from the Dyngjuháls area and from rocks representing the basement, flanks and nunataks of the ice-free part of the Bárðarbunga volcano. We compare these data to those on a suite of recently collected fissure basalts from the Veiðivötn fissure swarm in the south and the new lava north of Dyngjujökull in order to study the geochemical characteristics of the BVS as a whole. The BVS has generated fairly primitive tholeiites (MgO ~6-9 wt.%) throughout the Holocene. Evolved basaltic compositions (MgO ≤6 wt.%) that are often associated with large and mature caldera systems in Iceland (e.g., Krafla and Askja), appear to be notably absent in the BVS within our current sample set (although might still exist in the largely ice-covered Bárðarbunga volcano). Significantly, no highly evolved rocks (dacite, rhyolite) have been associated with the BVS. It is therefore unlikely that a long-lived and relatively shallow (<5 km) magma chamber has existed beneath Bárðarbunga throughout the Holocene, and possibly longer. In Pb-Pb isotope plots, the three sections of the BVS form distinct trends. Notably

  10. Preservation potential of subtle glacial landforms based on detailed mapping of recently exposed proglacial areas: application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and structure-from-motion (SfM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Evans, David; Roberts, David; Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing glacier retreat results in the continuous exposure of proglacial areas. Such areas contain invaluable information about glacial process-form relationships manifest in specific landform assemblages. However, preservation potential of freshly exposed glacial landforms is very low, as proglacial terrains are one of the most dynamic parts of the landscape. Therefore, rapid mapping and geomorphological characterisation of such areas is important from a glaciological and geomorphological point of view for proper understanding and reconstruction of glacier-landform dynamics and chronology of glacial events. Annual patterns of recession and relatively small areas exposed every year, mean that the performing of regular aerial or satellite survey is expensive and therefore impractical. Recent advances in technology enables the development of low-cost alternatives for traditional aerial surveys. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used to acquire high-resolution (several cm) low-altitude photographs. The UAV-based photographs can be subsequently processed through the structure-from-motion process to generate detailed orthophotomaps and digital elevation models. In this study we present case studies from the forelands of various glaciers on Iceland and Svalbard representing different types of proglacial landscapes: Fláajökull (annual push moraines); Hofellsjökul (bedrock bedforms and push moraines); Fjallsjökull (marginal drainage network); Rieperbreen (crevasse squeeze ridges and longitudinal debris stripes); Ayerbreen (transverse debris ridges); Foxfonna (longitudinal debris stripes);Hørbyebreen (geometric ridge network); Nordenskiöldbreen (fluted till surface); Ebbabreen (controlled moraine complex). UAV campaigns were conducted using a low-cost quadcopter platform. Resultant orthophotos and DEMs enabled mapping and assessment of recent glacial landscape development in different types of glacial landsystems. Results of our study indicate that

  11. Sensitivity of dispersion model forecasts of volcanic ash clouds to the physical characteristics of the particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, F. M.; Witham, C. S.; Hort, M. C.; Stevenson, J. A.; Bonadonna, C.; Millington, S. C.

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of atmospheric dispersion model forecasts of volcanic ash clouds to the physical characteristics assigned to the particles. We show that the particle size distribution (PSD) used to initialise a dispersion model has a significant impact on the forecast of the mass loading of the ash particles in the atmosphere. This is because the modeled fall velocity of the particles is sensitive to the particle diameter. Forecasts of the long-range transport of the ash cloud consider particles with diameters between 0.1 μm and 100 μm. The fall velocity of particles with diameter 100 μm is over 5 orders of magnitude greater than a particle with diameter 0.1 μm, and 30 μm particles fall 88% slower and travel up to 5× further than a 100 μm particle. Identifying the PSD of the ash cloud at the source, which is required to initialise a model, is difficult. Further, aggregation processes are currently not explicitly modeled in operational dispersion models due to the high computational costs associated with aggregation schemes. We show that using a modified total grain size distribution (TGSD) that effectively accounts for aggregation processes improves the modeled PSD of the ash cloud and deposits from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. Knowledge of the TGSD of an eruption is therefore critical for reducing uncertainty in quantitative forecasts of ash cloud dispersion. The density and shape assigned to the model particles have a lesser but still significant impact on the calculated fall velocity. Accounting for the density distribution and sphericity of ash from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, modeled particles can travel up to 84% further than particles with default particle characteristics that assume the particles are spherical and have a fixed density.

  12. Artificial cloud test confirms volcanic ash detection using infrared spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Prata, A J; Dezitter, F; Davies, I; Weber, K; Birnfeld, M; Moriano, D; Bernardo, C; Vogel, A; Prata, G S; Mather, T A; Thomas, H E; Cammas, J; Weber, M

    2016-05-09

    Airborne volcanic ash particles are a known hazard to aviation. Currently, there are no means available to detect ash in flight as the particles are too fine (radii < 30 μm) for on-board radar detection and, even in good visibility, ash clouds are difficult or impossible to detect by eye. The economic cost and societal impact of the April/May 2010 Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull generated renewed interest in finding ways to identify airborne volcanic ash in order to keep airspace open and avoid aircraft groundings. We have designed and built a bi-spectral, fast-sampling, uncooled infrared camera device (AVOID) to examine its ability to detect volcanic ash from commercial jet aircraft at distances of more than 50 km ahead. Here we report results of an experiment conducted over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of France, confirming the ability of the device to detect and quantify volcanic ash in an artificial ash cloud created by dispersal of volcanic ash from a second aircraft. A third aircraft was used to measure the ash in situ using optical particle counters. The cloud was composed of very fine ash (mean radii ~10 μm) collected from Iceland immediately after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and had a vertical thickness of ~200 m, a width of ~2 km and length of between 2 and 12 km. Concentrations of ~200 μg m(-3) were identified by AVOID at distances from ~20 km to ~70 km. For the first time, airborne remote detection of volcanic ash has been successfully demonstrated from a long-range flight test aircraft.

  13. Artificial cloud test confirms volcanic ash detection using infrared spectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Prata, A. J.; Dezitter, F.; Davies, I.; Weber, K.; Birnfeld, M.; Moriano, D.; Bernardo, C.; Vogel, A.; Prata, G. S.; Mather, T. A.; Thomas, H. E.; Cammas, J.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne volcanic ash particles are a known hazard to aviation. Currently, there are no means available to detect ash in flight as the particles are too fine (radii < 30 μm) for on-board radar detection and, even in good visibility, ash clouds are difficult or impossible to detect by eye. The economic cost and societal impact of the April/May 2010 Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull generated renewed interest in finding ways to identify airborne volcanic ash in order to keep airspace open and avoid aircraft groundings. We have designed and built a bi-spectral, fast-sampling, uncooled infrared camera device (AVOID) to examine its ability to detect volcanic ash from commercial jet aircraft at distances of more than 50 km ahead. Here we report results of an experiment conducted over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of France, confirming the ability of the device to detect and quantify volcanic ash in an artificial ash cloud created by dispersal of volcanic ash from a second aircraft. A third aircraft was used to measure the ash in situ using optical particle counters. The cloud was composed of very fine ash (mean radii ~10 μm) collected from Iceland immediately after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and had a vertical thickness of ~200 m, a width of ~2 km and length of between 2 and 12 km. Concentrations of ~200 μg m−3 were identified by AVOID at distances from ~20 km to ~70 km. For the first time, airborne remote detection of volcanic ash has been successfully demonstrated from a long-range flight test aircraft. PMID:27156701

  14. Geodetic investigation of plate spreading along a propagating ridge: the Eastern Volcanic Zone, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber-Enslin, Stephanie E.; Lafemina, Peter C.; Sturkell, Erik; Hooper, Andrew J.; Webb, Susan J.

    2011-12-01

    Hotspot-ridge interactions lead to the dynamic evolution of divergent plate boundaries, including propagating and overlapping ridge segments. In southern Iceland, the Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) formed approximately 2-3 Ma ago during the last eastward ridge jump from the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ), and is propagating to the southwest into the Tertiary lithosphere of the Eastern Volcanic Flank Zone. North America-Eurasia relative plate motion is partitioned between the Eastern and WVZs. We utilize new terrestrial (dry-tilt) and space (GPS and InSAR) geodetic data to investigate the nature of plate spreading and magma-tectonic interaction at the southern terminus of this propagating ridge system. We present a new GPS derived horizontal velocity field covering the period 1994-2006, new InSAR analyses for the periods 1993-2000 and 2003-2007, and models of plate spreading across this region. The velocity field indicates horizontal surface deformation consistent with plate spreading across and the propagation of the EVZ. The dry-tilt and InSAR data show transient deformation signals associated with magmatic processes. The velocity field is corrected for these transient deformation sources in order to investigate the nature of secular plate motion. Our model results indicate a decrease in spreading rate from northeast (15 mm yr-1) to southwest (9 mm yr-1) across the Torfajökull caldera and the intersection of the South Iceland Seismic Zone and EVZ, consistent with the propagating ridge model. Plate spreading south of the intersection demonstrates that spreading must be partitioned with the Reykjanes Peninsula to the west at this latitude. Our results also constrain the minimum flux (0.05 km3 km-1 kyr-1) of magma to this segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and indicate that the Hekla magmatic system strains the Torfajökull caldera during pre- and co-eruptive periods.

  15. Post-glacial landforms dating by lichenometry in Iceland - the accuracy of relative results and conversely

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decaulne, Armelle

    2014-05-01

    Lichenometry studies are carried out in Iceland since 1970 all over the country, using various techniques to solve a range of geomorphologic issues, from moraine dating and glacial advances, outwash timing, proglacial river incision, soil erosion, rock-glacier development, climate variations, to debris-flow occurrence and extreme snow-avalanche frequency. Most users have sought to date proglacial landforms in two main areas, around the southern ice-caps of Vatnajökull and Myrdalsjökull; and in Tröllaskagi in northern Iceland. Based on the results of over thirty five published studies, lichenometry is deemed to be successful dating tool in Iceland, and seems to approach an absolute dating technique at least over the last hundred years, under well constrained environmental conditions at local scale. With an increasing awareness of the methodological limitations of the technique, together with more sophisticated data treatments, predicted lichenometric 'ages' are supposedly gaining in robustness and in precision. However, comparisons between regions, and even between studies in the same area, are hindered by the use of different measurement techniques and data processing. These issues are exacerbated in Iceland by rapid environmental changes across short distances and, more generally, by the common problems surrounding lichen species mis-identification in the field; not mentioning the age discrepancy offered by other dating tools, such as tephrochronology. Some authors claim lichenometry can help to a precise reconstruction of landforms and geomorphic processes in Iceland, proposing yearly dating, others includes margin errors in their reconstructions, while some limit its use to generation identifications, refusing to overpass the nature of the gathered data and further interpretation. Finally, can lichenometry be a relatively accurate dating technique or rather an accurate relative dating tool in Iceland?

  16. Ash dispersal dynamics: state of the art and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulpizio, R.

    2013-05-01

    Volcanic ash, during dispersal and deposition, is among the major hazards from explosive eruptions. Volcanic ash fallout can disrupt communities downwind, interrupt surface transportation networks and lead to closure of airports. Airborne ash seriously threatens modern jet aircraft in flight. In several documented cases, encounters between aircraft and volcanic clouds have resulted in engine flameout and near crashes, so there is a need to accurately predict the trajectory of volcanic ash clouds in order to improve aviation safety and reduce economic losses. The ash clouds affect aviation even in distal regions, as demonstrated by several eruptions with far-range dispersal. Recent examples include Crater Peak 1992, Tungurahua 1999-2001, Mount Cleveland 2001, Chaitén 2008, Eyjafjallajökull 2010, Grimsvötn 2011, and Cordón-Caulle 2011. Amongst these, the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland provoked the largest civil aviation breakdown. Accumulation of tephra can produce roof collapse, interruption of lifelines (roads, railways, etc.), disruption to airport operations, and damage to communications and electrical power lines. Deposition of ash decreases soil permeability, increases surface runoff, and promotes floods. Ash leaching can result in the pollution of water resources, damage to agriculture, pastures, and livestock, impinge on aquatic ecosystems, and alteration of the geochemical environment on the seafloor. Despite the potential big impact, the dispersal dynamics of volcanic ash is still an unsolved problem for volcanologists, which claims for fiture high level research. Here, a critical overview about models (field, experimental and numerical) for inversion of field data to gain insights on physics of dispersal of volcanic ash is proposed. A special focus is devoted to some physical parameters that are far from a satisfactory inversion (e.g. reconstruction of total grain size distribution), and clues for future research are suggested.

  17. The vertical distribution of volcanic SO2 plumes measured by IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, Elisa; Grainger, Roy G.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; Siddans, Richard; Smith, Andrew J. A.; Dudhia, Anu; Koukouli, Mariliza E.; Balis, Dimitrios

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important atmospheric constituent that plays a crucial role in many atmospheric processes. Volcanic eruptions are a significant source of atmospheric SO2 and its effects and lifetime depend on the SO2 injection altitude. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the METOP satellite can be used to study volcanic emission of SO2 using high-spectral resolution measurements from 1000 to 1200 and from 1300 to 1410 cm-1 (the 7.3 and 8.7 µm SO2 bands) returning both SO2 amount and altitude data. The scheme described in Carboni et al. (2012) has been applied to measure volcanic SO2 amount and altitude for 14 explosive eruptions from 2008 to 2012. The work includes a comparison with the following independent measurements: (i) the SO2 column amounts from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull plumes have been compared with Brewer ground measurements over Europe; (ii) the SO2 plumes heights, for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grimsvötn eruptions, have been compared with CALIPSO backscatter profiles. The results of the comparisons show that IASI SO2 measurements are not affected by underlying cloud and are consistent (within the retrieved errors) with the other measurements. The series of analysed eruptions (2008 to 2012) show that the biggest emitter of volcanic SO2 was Nabro, followed by Kasatochi and Grímsvötn. Our observations also show a tendency for volcanic SO2 to reach the level of the tropopause during many of the moderately explosive eruptions observed. For the eruptions observed, this tendency was independent of the maximum amount of SO2 (e.g. 0.2 Tg for Dalafilla compared with 1.6 Tg for Nabro) and of the volcanic explosive index (between 3 and 5).

  18. Climate effects on volcanism: Influence of ice load variations on magma storage zones with application to Icelandic volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, F.; Pinel, V.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2011-12-01

    Correlations between deglaciation periods and eruptive activity in the past have been strongly suggested, especially in Iceland, where the end of the last glaciation was characterised by a large pulse in volcanic production. Present-day reduction in ice load on subglacial volcanoes due to global warming is modifying pressure conditions in magmatic systems with a potential to influence magma production as well as shallow storage. Here, we model stress induced by variation in surface loads and evaluate how the resulting pressure conditions can modulate magmatic activity. We focus on the effect on shallow storage zones and show that ice loading can modify their failure conditions in a manner that depends critically on ice retreat timing and spatial distribution, the shape and depth of magma chambers as well the compressibility of the magma. We study in particular two subglacial volcanoes in Iceland: the Katla volcano under the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap and Grímsvötn at the Vatnajökull ice cap. Numerical calculations have been carried out in axisymmetric geometry for elliptical magma chambers. An elastic model is first used to evaluate the effects of the annual load cycle, due to seasonal variation of ice mass, which indicates an annual modulation of failure conditions on magma chambers at subglacial volcanoes. Our model predicts that, in case of a spherical or horizontally elongated magma chamber, eruptions are more likely when the seasonal snow cover is smallest. This triggering effect is small, around few kPa, but appears consistent with the fact that all the nine last major historical eruptions of Katla volcano occurred in period from May - October when the annual snow load is minimum. Viscous effects are then introduced to evaluate the influence of long term ice thinning on the shallow magma storage zones.

  19. Eruption rates in explosive eruptions: Ground truth and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Durig, Tobias; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Larsen, Gudrún; Óladóttir, Bergrún A.; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Oddsson, Björn; Björnsson, Halldór; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther R.

    2015-04-01

    Estimations of eruption rates in explosive eruptions are difficult and error margins are invariably high. In small to moderate sized eruptions effects of wind on plume height can be large and in larger eruptions observations are often difficult due to masking of source by low cloud, pyroclastic density currents and monitoring system saturation. Several medium-sized explosive eruptions in recent years have been an important in sparking off intense research on e.g. atmosphere-plume interaction and associated effects of wind on plume height. Other methods that do not rely on plume height are e.g. infrared satellite monitoring of atmospheric loading of fine tephra, infrasound, analysis of video recordings from vents, and it has been suggested that co-eruptive tilt-meter deformation data can predict eruption intensity. The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and Grímsvötn in 2011 provided a wealth of data that potentially can be of use in developing constraints of eruption rates in explosive eruptions. A key parameter in all such comparisons between models and data is as detailed knowledge as possible on tephra fallout. For both Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn intensive field efforts took place to map out the deposits during and immediately after the eruptions. The resulting maps cover both individual phases as well as total fallout. Comparison of these data with plume-based and other models of mass discharge rates is presently work in progress. A desirable future aim is near real time estimates of mass eruption rates based several of the parameters mentioned above. This type of work is currently ongoing within the framework of the EU-funded supersite project FUTUREVOLC.

  20. The chemistry and element fluxes of the July 2011 Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl glacial floods, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeczka, Iwona; Oelkers, Eric H.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the chemical composition and fluxes of two ~ 2000 m3/s glacial floods which emerged from the Icelandic Mýrdalsjökull and Vatnajökull glaciers into the Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl rivers in July 2011. Water samples collected during both floods had neutral to alkaline pH and conductivity from 100 to 900 μS/cm. The total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), present mostly as HCO3-, was ~ 9 mmol/kg during the flood peak in the Múlakvísl but stabilized at around 1 mmol/kg; a similar behaviour was observed in the Kaldakvísl. Up to 1.5 μmol/kg of H2S was detected. Concentrations of most of the dissolved constituents in the flood waters were comparable to those commonly observed in these rivers. In contrast, the particulate suspended material concentration increased dramatically during the floods and dominated chemical transport during these events. Waters were supersaturated with respect to a number of clays, zeolites, carbonates, and Fe hydroxides. The most soluble elements were Na, Ca, K, Sr, Mn, and Mg, whereas the least soluble were Ti, Al, and REE. This is consistent with the compositions of typical surface waters in basaltic terrains and the compositions of global rivers in general. The toxic metal concentrations were below drinking water limits, suggesting that there was no detrimental effect of flood waters chemistry on the environment. Increased concentration of DOC, formate, and acetate in the flood waters suggests substantial subglacial microbiological activity in the melt water prior to the floods. Reaction path modelling of the flood water chemical evolution suggests that it experienced subglacial water-rock interaction for at least a year in the presence of limited amounts of acid gases (e.g. SO2, HCl and HF). This suggests that the heat source for glacier melting was geothermal rather than volcanic.

  1. Artificial cloud test confirms volcanic ash detection using infrared spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, A. J.; Dezitter, F.; Davies, I.; Weber, K.; Birnfeld, M.; Moriano, D.; Bernardo, C.; Vogel, A.; Prata, G. S.; Mather, T. A.; Thomas, H. E.; Cammas, J.; Weber, M.

    2016-05-01

    Airborne volcanic ash particles are a known hazard to aviation. Currently, there are no means available to detect ash in flight as the particles are too fine (radii < 30 μm) for on-board radar detection and, even in good visibility, ash clouds are difficult or impossible to detect by eye. The economic cost and societal impact of the April/May 2010 Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull generated renewed interest in finding ways to identify airborne volcanic ash in order to keep airspace open and avoid aircraft groundings. We have designed and built a bi-spectral, fast-sampling, uncooled infrared camera device (AVOID) to examine its ability to detect volcanic ash from commercial jet aircraft at distances of more than 50 km ahead. Here we report results of an experiment conducted over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of France, confirming the ability of the device to detect and quantify volcanic ash in an artificial ash cloud created by dispersal of volcanic ash from a second aircraft. A third aircraft was used to measure the ash in situ using optical particle counters. The cloud was composed of very fine ash (mean radii ~10 μm) collected from Iceland immediately after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and had a vertical thickness of ~200 m, a width of ~2 km and length of between 2 and 12 km. Concentrations of ~200 μg m‑3 were identified by AVOID at distances from ~20 km to ~70 km. For the first time, airborne remote detection of volcanic ash has been successfully demonstrated from a long-range flight test aircraft.

  2. Subglacial volcanic activity above a lateral dyke path during the 2014-2015 Bárdarbunga-Holuhraun rifting episode, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Hannah I.; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Pálsson, Finnur

    2017-06-01

    The rifting episode associated with the Bárdarbunga-Holuhraun eruption in 2014-2015 included the first observations of major dyke propagation under ice. Three shallow ice depressions (ice cauldrons) with volumes ranging from 1 to 18 million m3 formed in Dyngjujökull glacier above the 48-km-long lateral path of the magma, at 4, 7 and 12 km from the northern glacier edge. Aircraft-based radar altimetry profiling was used to map the evolution of the cauldrons and construct a time series of the heat transfer rates. Out of the three scenarios explored: (1) onset or increase of hydrothermal activity, (2) convection within vertical fissures filled with water overlying intruded magma and (3) subglacial eruptions, the last option emerges as the only plausible mechanism to explain the rapid heat transfer observed in a location far from known geothermal areas. The thermal signals at two of the cauldrons are consistent with effusive subglacial eruptions. The formation of the northernmost cauldron was more rapid, indicating faster heat transfer rates. Radio-echo sounding data indicate that in contrast to the other two cauldrons, an intrusion of eruptive products occurred into the glacier, reaching 50-60 m above bedrock with the increased magma-ice contact explaining the more rapid heat transfer. We propose that the 2-m widening associated with graben formation increased the groundwater storage capacity of the bedrock, creating space for the meltwater to be stored, explaining the absence of meltwater pulses draining from Dyngjujökull.

  3. Geomorphic change detection in proglacial areas using repetitive unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Evans, David; Roberts, David; Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Glacial forelands exposed due to the glacier recession are one of the most dynamically transformed landscapes in Polar and mountainous areas. These areas are supposed to be intensively changed by various geomorphological processes related to the glacial retreat and meltwater activity, as well as paraglacial adjustment of topography. This study deals with landscape transformation in an annual time-scale in the foreland of Hørbyebreen and Rieperbreen (Svalbard) and Fjallsjökull and Kviárjökull (Iceland) to assess landscape changes in 2014-2016 period. The main aim of this study is to map and quantify landforms development in detailed spatial scale to provide an insight into geomorphological processes which occurred shortly after the retreat of the ice margin. Low-altitude aerial photographs were taken using small quadcopter equipped with 12 MP camera. Images were acquired at an elevation between 40 and 60 m above the ground level. The images were subsequently processed using structure-from-motion approach to produce orthomosaics ( 3 cm cell size) and digital elevation models (DEMs) with 5-10 cm cell size. Subtracting DEMs from subsequent time periods created DEMs of Differences — which enabled us to calculate the amount of material loss or deposition. Accuracy of the orthophotos and DEMs was improved using ground control points measured with dGPS. Over the 2014-2016 period repetitive UAV-based surveys revealed and quantify changes in landscape including: (1) glacier thinning; (2) ice-cored moraines degradation; (3) development of terminoglacial and supraglacial lakes; (4) debris flow activity. Short-time dynamics of different components showed very high variability over time and space illustrating relative importance of ice backwasting and downwasting as well as glacifluvial processes for studied forelands The research was founded by Polish National Science Centre (project granted by decision number DEC-2011/01/D/ST10/06494).

  4. Long-period seismic events with strikingly regular temporal patterns on Katla volcano's south flank (Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgattoni, Giulia; Jeddi, Zeinab; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Einarsson, Páll; Tryggvason, Ari; Lund, Björn; Lucchi, Federico

    2016-09-01

    Katla is a threatening volcano in Iceland, partly covered by the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. The volcano has a large caldera with several active geothermal areas. A peculiar cluster of long-period seismic events started on Katla's south flank in July 2011, during an unrest episode in the caldera that culminated in a glacier outburst. The seismic events were tightly clustered at shallow depth in the Gvendarfell area, 4 km south of the caldera, under a small glacier stream at the southern margin of Mýrdalsjökull. No seismic events were known to have occurred in this area before. The most striking feature of this seismic cluster is its temporal pattern, characterized by regular intervals between repeating seismic events, modulated by a seasonal variation. Remarkable is also the stability of both the time and waveform features over a long time period, around 3.5 years. We have not found any comparable examples in the literature. Both volcanic and glacial processes can produce similar waveforms and therefore have to be considered as potential seismic sources. Discerning between these two causes is critical for monitoring glacier-clad volcanoes and has been controversial at Katla. For this new seismic cluster on the south flank, we regard volcano-related processes as more likely than glacial ones for the following reasons: 1) the seismic activity started during an unrest episode involving sudden melting of the glacier and a jökulhlaup; 2) the glacier stream is small and stagnant; 3) the seismicity remains regular and stable for years; 4) there is no apparent correlation with short-term weather changes, such as rainstorms. We suggest that a small, shallow hydrothermal system was activated on Katla's south flank in 2011, either by a minor magmatic injection or by changes of permeability in a local crack system.

  5. Time needed for first lichen colonization of terminal moraines in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (North Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Nuria; Palacios, David; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn

    2015-04-01

    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in Central North Iceland. The peninsula belong to the Tertiary basaltic areas in Iceland and is characterised by numerous glacially eroded valleys and fjords. The altitude ranges from sea level to 1500 m. Around 150 glaciers, debris covered glaciers and clean glaciers exist in the cirques of the Tröllaskagi peninsula. Lichenometric techniques were applied to date moraines formed by some of these glaciers, especially from 1970-90, establishing growth rates for some species, e.g. 0.5 mm/year for Rizocarpon geographicum. However there is no information available on how long the lichens take to colonize the boulders in a moraine once it has become detached from the retreating glacier. The aim of this paper is to observe how long it takes for the boulders on the moraines to be colonized by lichens in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, where the separation date of a moraine from the retreating glacier tongue is known. Two case studies were used. The first was the surging glacier Búrfellsjökull, in the Búrfelllsdalur valley, an affluent of the Svarfaðardalur valley. The Búrfellsjökull glacier surged in 2001-2004 and the glacial terminus advanced 150-240 m, overrunnig a moraine formed around 1955 and formed a new moraine. About 2-3 years after the surge termination in 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had left the moraine isolated (Brynjólfsson et al. 2012). The other case is the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier, in the Gljúlfurárdalur valley, an affluent of the Skíðadalur valley. It can be seen from the series of aerial photographs that the glacier terminus advanced during the 1990s until the year 2000. In 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had separated from a small moraine formed during the previous advance. Thus, two different glaciers halted and formed one moraine each which they separated from almost similar time. During the detailed field work carried out in August 2014 on both moraines

  6. Detection and estimation of volcanic eruption onset and mass flow rate using weather radar and infrasonic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzano, Frank S.; Mereu, Luigi; Montopoli, Mario; Picciotti, Errico; Di Fabio, Saverio; Bonadonna, Costanza; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    The explosive eruption of sub-glacial Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 was of modest size, but ash was widely dispersed over Iceland and Europe. The Eyjafjallajökull pulsating explosive activity started on April 14 and ended on May 22. The combination of a prolonged and sustained ejection of volcanic ash and persistent northwesterly winds resulted in dispersal the volcanic cloud over a large part of Europe. Tephra dispersal from an explosive eruption is a function of multiple factors, including magma mass flow rate (MFR), degree of magma fragmentation, vent geometry, plume height, particle size distribution (PSD) and wind velocity. One of the most important geophysical parameters, derivable from the analysis of tephra deposits, is the erupted mass, which is essential for the source characterization and assessment of the associated hazards. MFR can then be derived by dividing the erupted mass by the eruption duration (if known) or based on empirical and analytical relations with plume height. Microwave weather radars at C and X band can provide plume height, ash concentration and loading, and, to some extent, PSD and MFR. Radar technology is well established and can nowadays provide fast three-dimensional (3D) scanning antennas together with Doppler and dual polarization capabilities. However, some factors can limit the detection and the accuracy of the radar products aforementioned. For example, the sensitivity of microwave radar measurements depends on the distance between the radar antenna and the target, the transmitter central wavelength, receiver minimum detachable power and the resolution volume. In addition, radar measurements are sensitive to particle sizes larger than few tens of microns thus limiting the radar-based quantitative estimates to the larger portion of the PSD. Volcanic activity produces infrasonic waves (i.e., acoustic waves below 20 Hz), which can propagate in the atmosphere useful for the remote monitoring of volcanic activity. Infrasound

  7. Investigating the use of the Saharan dust index as a tool for the detection of volcanic ash in SEVIRI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Isabelle; Mackie, Shona; Watson, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Despite the similar spectral signatures of ash and desert dust, relatively little has been done to explore the application of dust detection techniques to the problem of volcanic ash detection. The Saharan dust index (SDI) is routinely implemented for dust monitoring at some centres and could be utilised for volcanic ash detection with little computational expense, thereby providing a product that forecasters already have some familiarity with to complement the suite of existing ash detection tools. We illustrate one way in which the index could be implemented for the purpose of ash detection by applying it to three scenes containing volcanic ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland and the 2011 eruption of Puyehue, Chile. It was also applied to an image acquired over Etna in January 2011, where a volcanic plume is clearly visible but is unlikely to contain any ash. These examples demonstrate the potential of the SDI as a tool for ash monitoring under different environmental and atmospheric conditions. In addition to presenting a valuable qualitative product to aid monitoring, this work includes a quantitative assessment of the detection skill using a manually constructed expert ash mask. The optimum implementation of any technique is likely to be dependent on both atmospheric conditions and on the properties of the imaged ash (which is often unknown in a real-time situation). Here we take advantage of access to a 'truth' rarely available in a real-time situation and calculate an ash mask based on the optimum threshold for the specific scene, which is then used to demonstrate the potential of the SDI. The SDI mask is compared to masks calculated from a simplistic implementation of the more traditional split window method, again exploiting our access to the 'truth' to set the most appropriate threshold for each scene, and to a probabilistic method that is implemented without reference to the 'truth' and which provides useful insights into the likely

  8. Lidar-radar synergy for characterizing properties of ultragiant volcanic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, F.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Giunta, A.; Mona, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2011-12-01

    The atmospheric aerosol has a relevant effect on our life influencing climate, aviation safety, air quality and natural hazards. The identification of aerosol layers through inspection of continuous measurements is strongly recommended for quantifying their contribution to natural hazards and air quality and to establish suitable alerting systems. In particular, the study of ultragiant aerosols may improve the knowledge of physical-chemical processes underlying the aerosol-cloud interactions and the effect of giant nuclei as a potential element to expedite the warm-rain process. Moreover, the identification and the characterization of ultragiant aerosols may strongly contribute to quantify their impact on human health and their role in airplane engine damages or in visibility problems, especially in case of extreme events as explosive volcanic eruptions. During spring 2010, volcanic aerosol layers coming from Eyjafjallajökull volcano were observed over most of the European countries, using lidar technique. From 19 April to 19 May 2010, they were also observed at CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO) with the multi-wavelength Raman lidar systems of the Potenza EARLINET station (40.60N, 15.72E, 760 m a.s.l), Southern Italy. During this period, ultragiant aerosol were also observed at CIAO using a co-located Ka-band MIRA-36 Doppler microwave radar operating at 8.45 mm (35.5 GHz). The Ka-band radar observed in four separate days (19 April, 7, 10, 13 May) signatures consistent with the observations of non-spherical ultragiant aerosol characterized by anomalous values of linear depolarization ratio higher than -4 dB, probably related to the occurrence of multiple effects as particle alignment and presence of an ice coating. 7-days backward trajectory analysis shows that the air masses corresponding to the ultragiant aerosol observed by the radar were coming from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano area. Only in one case the trajectories do not come directly from Iceland

  9. Detailed geomorphological mapping of debris-covered and rock glaciers in the Hólar area, Tröllaskagi Peninsula (northern Iceland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanarro, Luis M.; Palacios, David; Zamorano, Jose J.; Andres, Nuria

    2017-04-01

    Most studies conducted on rock and debris-covered glaciers only include simplified geomorphological maps representing main units (ridges, furrows, front, and thermokarst depressions). The aim of this study is to develop a detailed geomorphological mapping of the Hóladalsjökull debris-covered glacier (65°42' N; 18°57' W) and the Fremri-Grjótárdalur rock glacier (65°43' N 19° W), located near Hólar, a village in the central area of the Trolläskagi peninsula (northern Iceland). The mapping process has been conducted using standard stereo-photointerpretation of aerial photographs and stereo-plotting of a topographic map at 1:2000 scale. Also, landforms have been represented in different transects. Lastly, the geomorphological map has been designed using the elevation digital model, and a 3D pdf file has been generated, allowing for better viewing and understanding the different units and their modelling. The geomorphological mapping of the Hóladalsjökull debris-covered glacier and the Fremri-Grjótárdalur rock glacier represents the prominent walls of their valley heads and their summits, which form a flat highland at 1,200-1,330 metres above sea level, covered by blockfield and patterned ground features. Rockfall and slide landforms are common processes at the foot of these 100-170 metre-high cirque-walls. Debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers are born right under these walls, building up a spoon-shaped hollow around glacial ice, surrounded by young moraine ridges at their fronts. The dominant features in the Hóladalsjökull debris-covered glacier are large longitudinal ridges and furrows, stretching over 1.5 km in length in the central and western areas. Medium-sized thermokarst depressions (between 15-40 metres in diameter), often running parallel to the furrows, dot the surface of the debris-covered glacier. Parallel alternate ridges and furrows can be seen near the snout. Ridges are rugged and fall around 30-40 metres, with over 30 degree slopes

  10. Thermal Stability of Volcanic Ash versus Turbine Ingestion Test Sands: an Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimarelli, C.; Kueppers, U.; Hess, K.; Dingwell, D. B.; Rickerby, D. S.; Madden, P. C.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. The range of eruptive styles is large and short term fluctuations of explosivity or vent position pose a large risk not necessarily confined to the immediate vicinity of a volcano. Explosive eruptions rather may also affect aviation, infrastructure and climate, regionally as well as globally. The recent eruption of Eyjafjallajökull drastically brought into common awareness how volcanic activity can affect every day’s life and disrupt air traffic. The presence of solid particles in the air ingested in jet turbines may cause harm as it 1) may deposit on surfaces upon being heated up and 2) abrade upon impact. Particles suspended in the atmosphere may have different origins, including volcanic ash, aeolian sand, or incineration residues, each of them having different chemical and physical characteristics. To date, aircraft turbine operability has been investigated - amongst other tests - through the ingestion of sands whose grains have different mineralogical nature. Due to high cooling rates, volcanic ash is usually made up of glass, i.e. an amorphous phase lacking crystallographic order. Glass and crystal behave very differently to heating up. Glass will soften - and accordingly change shape or stick to surfaces - at temperatures as low as 700 °C, depending on the chemical composition. Crystals however need higher melting temperatures; quartz for example has a melting point at around 1700 °C. Accordingly, the effect of ash on the operational reliability of aircraft turbines may not be judged solely based on knowledge commonly derived from mineral sand ingestion testing. In order to investigate the behaviour upon heating, we performed a series of experiments at ten temperature steps between 700 and 1600 °C. We used three different samples: 1) Ash from the explosive phase of Eyjafjallajökull; 2) MIL E-5007C test sand (MTS), and 3) Arizona Test Dust (ATD). MTS and ATD are commonly used for aircraft turbine

  11. Snow-ice-tephra-lava interactions during the 2010 Fimmvorduhals eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklar, J.; Edwards, B. R.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    On March 20th a small basaltic fissure opened at the northern edge of Fimmvorduhals, a popular hiking pass between Eyjafjallajökull, to the west, and Myrdalsjökull, to the east. Immediately prior to the eruption, the vent area was covered with typically 1-3 meters of snow and locally snow-covered, isolated remnants of glacial ice. Fieldwork conducted during June and July documented evidence for a variety of different types of interactions between volcanism (tephra and lava) and snow/ice, including direct contact (e.g. ash-covered snow, lava blocks on snow/ice, lava flows on ash-covered snow), indirect melting (e.g. arcuate snow/ice melting patterns at lava flow fronts, partly collapsed sheet lava flows), and the formation of small bomb-cored mounds via post-depositional snow melting. Many of these features are likely ephemeral, and may leave no trace in the geological record; however under certain circumstances they may leave subtle clues that could aide in identifying the presence of snow during eruptions. The field relationships documented are consistent with varied mechanisms of heat transfer during the eruption to the surrounding environment. The arcuate-shaped snow and ice-banks at the edges of flows appear to closely mimic the shape of the adjacent lava lobes. The geometric relationships are consistent with snow/ice melting several meters in front of the advancing flows by radiant heat from the front of the lava lobes. Also, in at least two areas we observed features that are consistent with snow melting beneath lava, possibly by slower heat conduction. One example is a small cave beneath the lava at the lava-snow contact. The other is a ~1 m thick sheet flow that has partly collapsed, forming a fracture that appears to have been controlled by incipient polygonal jointing; melting of underlying snow may have undermined part of the sheet flow based and facilitated its collapse. However, under at least two separate types of conditions lava seems to have

  12. Temporal Development of Repeated Intrusive Events in a South Iceland Volcanic System, Inferred From InSAR Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, R.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2002-12-01

    We present measurements of volcano deformation from a series of 18 interferograms spanning the years 1993-2000. The detected deformation originates from repeated intrusions in the Eyjafjallaj”kull system, an icecap covered stratovolcano situated in, what is considered to be, a propagating rift zone in southern Iceland. The volcano erupts infrequently, with only two known eruptions in historic time (last 1100 years). The eruptive products are alkaline in composition, with only small volumes produced in recent eruptions. In spite of the apparent silence of this system two intrusive episodes have been detected within the last decade, causing major concern in the local community. In 1994, and again in 1999, seismic unrest associated with magmatic intrusions occurred in the system. Crustal deformation associated with the events was detected by dry-tilt, GPS and interferometry. During the 1994 episode, the center of deformation was situated underneath the icecap, and the area experiencing maximum uplift was therefore within the zone of decorrelation. The deformation shows an oval fringe pattern, which reaches well beyond the icecap, covering more than 300 km2 in total. Up to 15 cm of LOS ("line of sight") displacement is observed. The temporal resolution of the InSAR images during the 1999 intrusive episode is better and it is possible to follow the development of the intrusive event through time. The center of deformation does not coincide with the center from the 1994 event, but is situated just south of the icecap. The deformation during this event amounts to about 20 cm of LOS. Several of the interferograms cover the whole time-span of the 1999 intrusion, but three interferograms cover different periods of the intrusive event. The data set enables us to follow the temporal development of the crustal deformation created by the intrusion, and hence the growth of the intrusion itself through time. A previous study based on forward modeling of GPS and tilt data

  13. A 3000-year varved record of glacier activity and climate change from the proglacial lake Hvítárvatn, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2011-09-01

    A suite of environmental proxies in annually laminated sediments from Hvítárvatn, a proglacial lake in the central highlands of Iceland, are used to reconstruct regional climate variability and glacial activity for the past 3000 years. Sedimentological analysis is supported by tephrostratigraphy to confirm the continuous, annual nature of the laminae, and a master varve chronology places proxies from multiple lake cores in a secure geochronology. Varve thickness is controlled by the rate of glacial erosion and efficiency of subglacial discharge from the adjacent Langjökull ice cap. The continuous presence of glacially derived clastic varves in the sediment fill confirms that the ice cap has occupied the lake catchment for the duration of the record. Varve thickness, varve thickness variance, ice-rafted debris, total organic carbon (mass flux and bulk concentration), and C:N of sedimentary organic matter, reveal a dynamic late Holocene climate with abrupt and large-scale changes in ice-cap size and landscape stability. A first-order trend toward cooler summers and ice-cap expansion is punctuated by notable periods of rapid ice cap growth and/or landscape instability at ca 1000 BC, 600 BC, 550 AD and 1250 AD. The largest perturbation began ca 1250 AD, signaling the onset of the Little Ice Age and the termination of three centuries of relative warmth during Medieval times. Consistent deposition of ice-rafted debris in Hvítárvatn is restricted to the last 250 years, demonstrating that Langjökull only advanced into Hvítárvatn during the coldest centuries of the Little Ice Age, beginning in the mid eighteenth century. This advance represents the glacial maximum for at least the last 3 ka, and likely since regional deglaciation 10 ka. The multi-centennial response of biological proxies to the Hekla 3 tephra deposition illustrates the significant impact of large explosive eruptions on local environments, and catchment sensitivity to perturbations.

  14. Hazard assessment of far-range volcanic ash dispersal from a violent Strombolian eruption at Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Naples, Italy: implications on civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulpizio, Roberto; Folch, Arnau; Costa, Antonio; Scaini, Chiara; Dellino, Pierfrancesco

    2012-11-01

    Long-range dispersal of volcanic ash can disrupt civil aviation over large areas, as occurred during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland. Here we assess the hazard for civil aviation posed by volcanic ash from a potential violent Strombolian eruption of Somma-Vesuvius, the most likely scenario if eruptive activity resumed at this volcano. A Somma-Vesuvius eruption is of concern for two main reasons: (1) there is a high probability (38 %) that the eruption will be violent Strombolian, as this activity has been common in the most recent period of activity (between AD 1631 and 1944); and (2) violent Strombolian eruptions typically last longer than higher-magnitude events (from 3 to 7 days for the climactic phases) and, consequently, are likely to cause prolonged air traffic disruption (even at large distances if a substantial amount of fine ash is produced such as is typical during Vesuvius eruptions). We compute probabilistic hazard maps for airborne ash concentration at relevant flight levels using the FALL3D ash dispersal model and a statistically representative set of meteorological conditions. Probabilistic hazard maps are computed for two different ash concentration thresholds, 2 and 0.2 mg/m3, which correspond, respectively, to the no-fly and enhanced procedure conditions defined in Europe during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The seasonal influence of ash dispersal is also analysed by computing seasonal maps. We define the persistence of ash in the atmosphere as the time that a concentration threshold is exceeded divided by the total duration of the eruption (here the eruption phase producing a sustained eruption column). The maps of averaged persistence give additional information on the expected duration of the conditions leading to flight disruption at a given location. We assess the impact that a violent Strombolian eruption would have on the main airports and aerial corridors of the Central Mediterranean area, and this assessment

  15. Estimating volcanic ash emissions by a chemical "Sequential Importance Resampling Smoother"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Philipp; Elbern, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    The 2010 eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull instigated interest in the ability to increase the forecast skills of ash concentrations, which is of special interest for air traffic control, amongst others. To date, it is not possible for forecast models to make quantitative predictions of ash concentrations. The objective of this work is to develop a novel method to significantly reduce this problem by improving the emission parameters of volcanic eruptions. The method generalizes the Sequential Importance Resampling Filter algorithm to a smoother method to deal with time reversed observation-emission-relationships. For this reason, the EURAD-IM model is extended to an ensemble system. To handle the large requirements of computer power, this ensemble system is implemented on the JUQUEEN supercomputer at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The algorithm spawns the ensemble members according to their weights, which are proportional to the conditional probability of the observations given the model state. The smoother property is realized by adjoint integration back to the volcanic source and serves to combine multiple observations. The Sequential Importance Resampling Smoother was tested for April 14, 2010, which is the first eruption day of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull. The test was performed with artificial observations, which were arranged according to the CALIPSO satellite, in an identical twin context. The system proofs to perform remarkably well. For the biased test case, which uses different emission heights as were used for the nature run, the RMSE of the weighted ensemble mean as well as the ensemble spread were reduced by 60 % and 95 %, respectively. The total emitted mass concentration of the a posteriori run differs slightly from the emitted mass concentrations of the nature run. The rank histograms of the a posteriori estimate show a flattened shape compared to a priori estimate, which indicates a reliable system for the test case. By

  16. Estimating volcanic ash hazard in European airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingwell, Adam; Rutgersson, Anna

    2014-10-01

    The widespread disruption of European air traffic in late April 2010, during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, showed the importance of early assessment of volcanic hazard from explosive eruptions. In this study, we focus on the short-term hazard of airborne ash from a climatological perspective, focusing on eruptions on Iceland. By studying eruptions of different intensity and frequency, we estimate the overall probability that ash concentration levels considered hazardous to aviation are exceeded over different parts of Europe. The method involves setting up a range of eruption scenarios based on the eruptive history of Icelandic volcanoes, and repeated simulation of these scenarios for 2 years' worth of meteorological data. Simulations are conducted using meteorological data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis set, which is downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The weather data are then used to drive the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF for each of the eruption scenarios. A set of threshold values, commonly used in Volcanic Ash Advisories, are used to analyze concentration data from the dispersion model. We see that the dispersion of ash is highly dominated by the mid-latitude westerlies and mainly affect northern UK and the Scandinavian peninsula. The occurrence of high ash levels from Icelandic volcanoes is lower over continental Europe but should not be neglected for eruptions when the release rate of fine ash (< 16μ m) is in the order of 107 kg s - 1 or higher. There is a clear seasonal variation in the ash hazard. During the summer months, the dominating dispersion direction is less distinct with some plumes extending to the northwest and Greenland. In contrast, during the winter months, the strong westerly winds tend to transport most of the emissions eastwards. The affected area of a winter-time eruption is likely to be larger as high concentrations can be found at a further distance downwind from the volcano

  17. Melting of the glacier base during a small-volume subglacial rhyolite eruption: evidence from Bláhnúkur, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuffen, H.; Pinkerton, H.; McGarvie, D. W.; Gilbert, J. S.

    2002-05-01

    Although observations of recent volcanic eruptions beneath Vatnajökull, Iceland have improved the understanding of ice deformation and meltwater drainage, little is known about the processes that occur at the glacier base. We present observations of the products of a small-volume, effusive subglacial rhyolite eruption at Bláhnúkur, Torfajökull, Iceland. Lava bodies, typically 7 m long, have unusual conical morphologies and columnar joint orientations that suggest emplacement within cavities melted into the base of a glacier. Cavities appear to have been steep-walled and randomly distributed. These features can be explained by a simple model of conductive heat loss during the ascent of a lava body to the glacier base. The released heat melts a cavity in the overlying ice. The development of vapour-escape pipes in the waterlogged, permeable breccias surrounding the lava allows rapid heat transfer between lava and ice. The formed meltwater percolates into the breccias, recharging the cooling system and leaving a steam-filled cavity. The slow ascent rates of intrusive rhyolitic magma bodies provide ample time for a cavity to be melted in the ice above, even during the final 10 m of ascent to the glacier base. An equilibrium cavity size is calculated at which melting is balanced by creep closure. This is dependent upon the heat input and the difference between glaciostatic and cavity pressure. The cavity sizes inferred from Bláhnúkur are consistent with a pressure differential of 2-4 MPa, suggesting that the ice was at least 200 m thick. This is consistent with the volcanic stratigraphy, which indicates that the ice exceeded 350 m in thickness. Although this is the first time that a subglacial cavity system of this type has been reconstructed from an ancient volcanic sequence, it shares many characteristics with the modern firn cave system formed by fumarolic melting within the summit crater of Mount Rainier, Washington. At both localities, it appears that

  18. Extending Icelandic volcanological network operations into the ice caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjord, Kristin; Bean, Chris; Roberts, Matthew; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Guralp Systems Ltd.

    2013-04-01

    Many of Iceland's most active volcanoes are located under glaciers, with limited access for monitoring equipment. In the warming climate however, a few rock outcrops (nunataks) have emerged from the ice permitting some access improvement, but to properly monitor seismic signals from volcanoes deep inside the ice caps, instruments placed in the ice itself are needed. Continuous, real-time operation of monitoring equipment in harsh climate, heavy snow accumulation and icing conditions on a glacier is a considerable challenge. The FP7 project FUTUREVOLC, which focusses on Icelandic volcanoes, aims for the development of a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. One of the new developments in the project involves strengthening the existing real-time seismic monitoring and analysis systems by extending the permanent network into the Vatnajökull ice cap. The goal is to improve detection and location of seismic signals, such as microseismicity, LP events, ice-quakes and continuous tremor due to volcanic eruptions at the volcanoes under the ice cap. Real-time processing and discrimination of these signals could give early warnings of an imminent eruption. At subglacial volcanoes however, other processes, such as subglacial floods (jökulhlaup) and subglacial hydrothermal systems - boiling due to sudden drainage -also generate continuous tremor and can therefore lead to false eruption alarms. To minimise the number of false alarms, the network and processing will need to discriminate between the different tremor sources by determining their characteristics and track the temporal evolution and location of the source. For this purpose broad-band instruments will be placed on nunataks as well as in the ice and two short-period arrays will be located at the margin of Vatnajökull, close to subglacial flood paths from the Skaftár ice cauldrons. To record ice movements associated with the jökulhlaups, GPS receivers will be placed on outlet glaciers during

  19. Testing exposure of a jet engine to a dilute volcanic-ash cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, M.; Mastin, L. G.; Schneider, D. J.; Holliday, C. R.; Murray, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    An experiment to test the effects of volcanic-ash ingestion by a jet engine is being planned for 2014 by a consortium of U.S. Government agencies and engine manufacturers, under the auspices of NASA's Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Program. The experiment, using a 757-type engine, will be an on-ground, on-wing test carried out at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The experiment will involve the use of advanced jet-engine sensor technology for detecting and diagnosing engine health. A primary test objective is to determine the effect on the engine of many hours of exposure to ash concentrations (1 and 10 mg/cu m) representative of ash clouds many 100's to >1000 km from a volcanic source, an aviation environment of great interest since the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, eruption. A natural volcanic ash will be used; candidate sources are being evaluated. Data from previous ash/aircraft encounters, as well as published airborne measurements of the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud, suggest the ash used should be composed primarily of glassy particles of andesitic to rhyolitic composition (SiO2 of 57-77%), with some mineral crystals, and a few tens of microns in size. Collected ash will be commercially processed less than 63 microns in size with the expectation that the ash particles will be further pulverized to smaller sizes in the engine during the test. For a nominally planned 80 hour test at multiple ash-concentration levels, the test will require roughly 500 kg of processed (appropriately sized) ash to be introduced into the engine core. Although volcanic ash clouds commonly contain volcanic gases such as sulfur dioxide, testing will not include volcanic gas or aerosol interactions as these present complex processes beyond the scope of the planned experiment. The viscous behavior of ash particles in the engine is a key issue in the experiment. The small glassy ash particles are expected to soften in the engine's hot combustion chamber, then stick to cooler

  20. Subglacial melting associated with activity at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, explored using numerical reservoir simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Hannah I.; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Högnadóttir, Thórdís

    2015-04-01

    Increased seismic activity was observed within the caldera of Bárdarbunga, a central volcano beneath Vatnajökull glacier, on 16 August 2014. The seismicity traced the path of a lateral dyke, initially propagating to the south east of the volcano, before changing course and continuing beyond the northern extent of the glacier. A short fissure eruption occurred at the site of the Holuhraun lavas on 29 August, lasting for approximately 5 hours and producing less than 1 million cubic meters of lava, before recommencing in earnest on 31 August with the large effusive eruption, which is still ongoing at the time of writing. The glacier surface has been monitored aerially since the onset of heightened seismic activity, and the caldera and dyke propagation path surveyed using radar profiling. Ice cauldrons are shallow depressions which form on the glacier surface due to basal melting, as a manifestation of heat flux from below; the melting ice acts as a calorimeter, allowing estimations of heat flux magnitude to be made. Several cauldrons were observed outside the caldera, two to the south east of Bárdarbunga, and three located above the path of the dyke under the Dyngjujökull outlet glacier. The cauldrons range in volume from approximately 0.001 km3 to 0.02 km3. We present time series data of the development and evolution of these cauldrons, with estimates of the heat flux magnitudes involved. The nature of the heat source required to generate the aforementioned cauldrons is not obvious and two scenarios are explored: 1) small subglacial eruptions; or 2) increased geothermal activity induced by the dyke intrusion. We investigate these scenarios using analytical and finite element modelling, considering the surface heat flux produced, and timescales and spatial extent of associated surface anomalies. A range of permeabilities has been explored. It is found that an intrusion of a dyke or sill into rocks where the groundwater is near or at the boiling point curve can

  1. Photogrammetric Retrieval of Etna's Plume Height from SEVIRI and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaksek, K.; Ganci, G.; Hort, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Even remote volcanoes can impact the modern society due to volcanic ash dispersion in the atmosphere. A lot of research is currently dedicated to minimizing the impact of volcanic ash on air traffic. But the ash transport in the atmosphere and its deposition on land and in the oceans may also significantly influence the climate through modifications of atmospheric CO2. The emphasis of this contribution is the retrieval of volcanic ash plume height. This is important information for air traffic, to predict ash transport and to estimate the mass flux of the ejected material. The best way to monitor volcanic ash cloud top height (ACTH) on the global level is using satellite remote sensing. The most commonly used method for satellite ACTH compares brightness temperature of the cloud with the atmospheric temperature profile. Because of well-known uncertainties of this method we propose photogrammetric methods based on the parallax between data retrieved from geostationary (SEVIRI, HRV band; 1000 m spatial resolution) and polar orbiting satellites (MODIS, band 1; 250 m spatial resolution). The procedure works well if the data from both satellites are retrieved nearly simultaneously butMODIS does not retrieve the data at exactly the same time as SEVIRI. To compensate for advection in the atmosphere we use two sequential SEVIRI images (one before and one after the MODIS retrieval) and interpolate the cloud position from SEVIRI data to the time of MODIS retrieval. ACTH is then estimated by intersection of corresponding lines-of-view from MODIS and interpolated SEVIRI data. The proposed method has already been tested for the case of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. This case study had almost perfect conditions as the plume was vast and stretching over a homogeneous background - ocean. Here we show results of ACTH estimation during lava fountaining activity of Mount Etna in years 2011-2013. This activity resulted in volcanic ash plumes that are much smaller than

  2. Testing hypotheses for the use of Icelandic volcanic ashes as low cost, natural fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, W.; Edwards, B.

    2012-04-01

    Andisols are soils derived from tephra/volcanic bedrock and are generally considered to be fertile for plant growth (cf. University of Hawaii at Manoa, CTAHR). However, few studies have been published examining the immediate effects of the addition of volcanic ash to soils immediately after an eruption. Our research is motivated by unpublished accounts from Icelandic farmers that the growing season following the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption ended with unusually high yields in areas that were covered by ash from the eruption early in the spring. To test the hypothesis that addition of volcanic ash to soil would have no immediate effect on plant growth, we conducted a ~6 week growth experiment in at controlled environment at the Dickinson College Farm. The experiment used relatively fast growing grain seeds as a test crop, controlled watering, known quantities of peat as an organic base, and the following general experimental design: peat was mixed in known but systematically differing proportions with 1) commercial quartz sand, 2) basaltic ash from the 2004 Grimsvötn eruption, and 3) trachyandesite ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. For all experiments, the seeds growing in the simulated soil created with the two different composition volcanic ash had higher germination rates, higher growth rates, and produced plants that were healthier in appearance than the soil made from peat mixed with quartz sand. Some differences were also noted between the germination and grow rates between the basaltic and trachyandesitic ash experiments as well. Working hypotheses to explain these results include (1) shard shapes and vesicles from volcanic ash provide better water retention than quartz, allowing water to be stored longer and increasing average soil moisture, and (2) chemical nutrients from the ash facilitate germination and growth of plants. Documenting the potential benefits of fresh volcanic ash as a fertilizer is important as use of fresh ash fertlizer

  3. Modelling of Subglacial Volcanic and Geothermal Activity, during the 2014-15 Bárdarbunga-Holuhraun Eruption and Caldera Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, H. I.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hognadottir, T.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic unrest was observed within the subglacial caldera of Bárdarbunga on 16 August 2014, followed by seismicity tracing the path of a lateral dyke extending underneath the Vatnajökull glacier out to 45 km to the north east of the volcano. A short subaerial fissure eruption occurred at the site of the Holuhraun lavas, just north of the glacier edge on 29 August, before recommencing in earnest on 31 August with a large effusive eruption and accompanying slow caldera collapse, which lasted for approximately 6 months. The glacier surface around Bárdarbunga was monitored using aerial altimeter profiling. Several shallow depressions, known as ice cauldrons, formed around the caldera rim and on Dyngjujökull glacier above the dyke propagation path. The cauldrons range in volume from approximately 0.0003 km3 to 0.02 km3. Two types of melting were observed: high initial heat flux over a period of days which gradually disappears; and slower but more sustained melting rates. We present time series data of the development and evolution of these cauldrons, with estimates of the heat flux magnitudes involved.The nature of the heat source required to generate these cauldrons is not obvious. Two scenarios are explored: 1) small subglacial eruptions; or 2) increased geothermal activity induced by the dyke intrusion. We investigate these scenarios using numerical modelling, considering the surface heat flux produced, and timescales and spatial extent of associated surface anomalies. It is found that a magmatic intrusion into rocks where the groundwater is near the boiling point curve can cause rapid increase in geothermal activity, but even a shallow intrusion into a cold groundwater reservoir will have a muted thermal response. Thus, our results indicate that minor subglacial eruptions are the most plausible explanation for the observed rapid melting far from known geothermal areas. These results have implications for the interpretation of thermal signals observed at ice

  4. Volcanic Ash -Aircraft Encounter Damages: in Volcanological Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydar, Erkan; Aladaǧ, Çaǧdaş Hakan; Menteş, Turhan

    2017-04-01

    The jet era or age began at 1930 and 40's in aviation sector, with the production of first jet engine for the aircrafts. Since 1950's, the commercial aviation with regular flights were established. Civil aviation and air-transport drastically increased due to intensive demand, and declared at least 10 fold since 1970 by IATA report. Parallelly to technological and economical developpement, the commercial jets became more comfortable, secure and rapid, bringing the world smaller, the countries closer. On the other hand, according to Global Volcanism Program Catalogues of Smithsonian Institute, about 1,500 volcanoes have erupted in the Holocene, 550 of them have had historical eruptions and considered as active. Besides an average of 55-60 volcanoes erupt each year, and about 8-10 of these eruptions produce ash clouds that reach aircraft flight altitudes (Salinas and Watt, 2004). Volcanic ash can be expected to be in air routes at altitudes greater than 9 km (30,000 ft) for roughly 20 days per year worldwide (Miller &Casadeval, 2000). A precious compilation of incidents due to encounters of aircrafts with volcanic ash clouds covering the years between 1953 and 2009 was used in this work (Guffanti et al., 2010-USGS Report) with an additional information on Eyfjallajökull-2010 eruption. According to this compilation,129 incidents happened within the concerned time interval. The damages, in general, fall in second and third class of Severity index, indicating the damages are limited on airframe of the planes, or some abrasions in jet engine, windblast etc.. We focused on fourth class of severity index involving the damages on jet engine of aircraft (engine fail) due to ingestion of volcanic ash and investigate eruption style and caused damage relationships. During the eruptive sequences of Mts Saint Helen (USA), Galunggung (Indonesia, 2 incidents), Redoubt (USA), Pinatubo (Philipinnes), Unzen (Japan), Manam (Papua New Guinea), Soufriere Hills (Lesser Antilles), Chaiten

  5. Simulating the propagation of sulphur dioxide emissions from the fissure eruption in the Holuhraun lava field (Iceland) with the EURAD-IM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, Luise; Franke, Philipp; Friese, Elmar; Haas, Sarah; Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    In the emergency case of a volcano eruption accurate forecasts of the transport of ash and gas emissions are crucial for health protection and aviation safety. In the frame of Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) near real-time forecasts of ash and SO2 dispersion emitted by active volcanoes are simulated by the European Air pollution Dispersion Inverse Model (EURAD-IM). The model is driven by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and includes detailed gas phase and particle dynamics modules, which allow for quantitative estimates of measured volcano releases. Former simulations, for example related to the Eyjafjallajökull outbreak in 2010, were in good agreement with measurement records of particle number and SO2 at several European stations. At the end of August 2014 an fissure eruption has begun on Iceland in the Holuhraun lava field to the north-east of the Bardarbunga volcano system. In contrast to the explosive eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, the Holuhraun eruption is rather effusive with a large and continuous flow of lava and a significant release of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the lower troposphere, while ash emissions are insignificant. Since the Holuhraun fissure eruption has started, daily forecasts of SO2 dispersion are produced for the European region (15 km horizontal resolution grid) and published on our website (http://apps.fz-juelich.de/iek-8/RIU/vorhersage_node.php). To simulate the transport of volcanic emissions, realistic source terms like mass release rates of ash and SO2 or plume heights are required. Since no representative measurements are currently available for the simulations, rough qualitative assumptions, based on reports from the Icelandic Met Office (IMO), are used. However, frequent comparisons with satellite observations show that the actual propagation of the volcanic emissions is generally well reflected by the model. In the middle of September 2014 several European measurement sides recorded extremely high

  6. A new natural hazards data-base for volcanic ash and SO2 from global satellite remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebel, Kerstin; Prata, Fred; Theys, Nicolas; Tampellini, Lucia; Kamstra, Martijn; Zehner, Claus

    2014-05-01

    Over the last few years there has been a recognition of the utility of satellite measurements to identify and track volcanic emissions that present a natural hazard to human populations. Mitigation of the volcanic hazard to life and the environment requires understanding of the properties of volcanic emissions, identifying the hazard in near real-time and being able to provide timely and accurate forecasts to affected areas. Amongst the many ways to measure volcanic emissions, satellite remote sensing is capable of providing global quantitative retrievals of important microphysical parameters such as ash mass loading, ash particle effective radius, infrared optical depth, SO2 partial and total column abundance, plume altitude, aerosol optical depth and aerosol absorbing index. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in April May, 2010 led to increased research and measurement programs to better characterize properties of volcanic ash and the need to establish a data-base in which to store and access these data was confirmed. The European Space Agency (ESA) has recognized the importance of having a quality controlled data-base of satellite retrievals and has funded an activity called Volcanic Ash Strategic Initiative Team VAST (vast.nilu.no) to develop novel remote sensing retrieval schemes and a data-base, initially focused on several recent hazardous volcanic eruptions. In addition, the data-base will host satellite and validation data sets provided from the ESA projects Support to Aviation Control Service SACS (sacs.aeronomie.be) and Study on an end-to-end system for volcanic ash plume monitoring and prediction SMASH. Starting with data for the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn, and Kasatochi, satellite retrievals for Puyhue-Cordon Caulle, Nabro, Merapi, Okmok, Kasatochi and Sarychev Peak will eventually be ingested. Dispersion model simulations are also being included in the data-base. Several atmospheric dispersion models (FLEXPART, SILAM and WRF-Chem) are

  7. 30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Nevzorov, Aleksei V.; Pravdin, Vladimir L.; Savelieva, Ekaterina S.; Gerasimov, Vladislav V.

    2017-02-01

    There are only four lidar stations in the world which have almost continuously performed observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) state over the last 30 years. The longest time series of the SAL lidar measurements have been accumulated at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) since 1973, the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia) since 1974, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) since 1976. The fourth lidar station we present started to perform routine observations of the SAL parameters in Tomsk (56.48° N, 85.05° E, Western Siberia, Russia) in 1986. In this paper, we mainly focus on and discuss the stratospheric background period from 2000 to 2005 and the causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk in the 2006-2015 period. During the last decade, volcanic aerosol plumes from tropical Mt. Manam, Soufrière Hills, Rabaul, Merapi, Nabro, and Kelut and extratropical (northern) Mt. Okmok, Kasatochi, Redoubt, Sarychev Peak, Eyjafjallajökull, and Grímsvötn were detected in the stratosphere over Tomsk. When it was possible, we used the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model to assign aerosol layers observed over Tomsk to the corresponding volcanic eruptions. The trajectory analysis highlighted some surprising results. For example, in the cases of the Okmok, Kasatochi, and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, the HYSPLIT air mass backward trajectories, started from altitudes of aerosol layers detected over Tomsk with a lidar, passed over these volcanoes on their eruption days at altitudes higher than the maximum plume altitudes given by the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. An explanation of these facts is suggested. The role of both tropical and northern volcanic eruptions in volcanogenic aerosol loading of the midlatitude stratosphere is also discussed. In addition to volcanoes, we considered other possible causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk, i.e., the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events and smoke plumes from strong forest fires. At least

  8. Geomicrobiology of basal ice in a temperate glacier: implications for primary microbial production and export, elemental cycling and soil formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toubes-Rodrigo, Mario; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Sen, Robin; Elliott, David R.; Cook, Simon J.

    2017-04-01

    Basal ice is a significant sub-glacial component of glaciers and ice sheets that arises from ice-bedrock/substrate interaction. As a result, basal ice of a glacier retains a distinctive physical and chemical signature characterised by a high sediment- and low bubble-content and selective ionic enrichment. Previous research concluded that sediment entrapped in the basal ice matrix originates from the bedrock/substrate, and harbours an active microbial community. However, the nature and significance of the microbial community inhabiting basal ice facies remains poorly characterised. This paper reports on an integrated chemical, mineralogical, and microbial community analysis of basal ice in the subglacial environment at Svínafellsjökull, in south-east Iceland. Basal ice sediment supported 10E7 cells g^-1 and, based on glacier velocity and sediment flux, an estimated 10E17 cells a^-1 are exported to the glacier foreland. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene analysis highlighted a glacier basal ice bacterial community dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi. Sequences ascribed to chemolithotrophic-related species (Thiobacillus, Syderoxidans) were highly abundant. Minerological analyses of basal ice sediment confirmed dominant silicates and iron-containing minerals that represent susceptible substrates open to oxidation by the aforementioned chemolithotrophs. Previous studies have suggested that basal ice could constitute a good analogue for astrobiology. Svínafellsjökull and Mars geology are similar - volcanically derived rocks with a high abundance of silicates and iron-rich minerals, reinforcing this idea. Understanding where the limits of life in extreme environments, such as debris-rich basal ice, could help to unravel how life on other planets could succeed, and could help to identify which markers to use in order to find it. In dark and isolated basal ice niches, the dominating chemolithotrophic bacterial community are likely to act

  9. Glacier discharge and climate variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, M. Carmen; Rodriguez-Puebla, Concepcion; Encinas, Ascension H.; Visus, Isabel; Eraso, Adolfo

    2010-05-01

    Different studies account for the warming in the polar regions that consequently would affect Glacier Discharge (GD). Since changes in GD may cause large changes in sensible and latent heat fluxes, we ask about the relationships between GD and climate anomalies, which have not been quantified yet. In this study we apply different statistical methods such as correlation, Singular Spectral Analysis and Wavelet to compare the behaviour of GD data in two Experimental Pilot Catchments (CPE), one (CPE-KG-62°S) in the Antarctica and the other (CPE-KVIA-64°N) in the Arctic regions. Both CPE's are measuring sub- and endo-glacier drainage for recording of glacier melt water run-off. The CPE-KG-62°S is providing hourly GD time series since January 2002 in Collins glacier of the Maxwell Bay in King George Island (62°S, 58°W). The second one, CPE-KVIA-64°N, is providing hourly GD time series since September 2003 in the Kviarjökull glacier of the Vatnajökull ice cap in Iceland (64°N, 16°W). The soundings for these measurements are pressure sensors installed in the river of the selected catchments for the ice cap (CPE-KG-62°S) and in the river of the glacier for (CPE-KVIA-64°N). In each CPE, the calibration function between level and discharge has been adjusted, getting a very high correlation coefficient (0.99 for the first one and 0.95 for the second one), which let us devise a precise discharge law for the glacier. We obtained relationships between GD with atmospheric variables such as radiation, temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and precipitation. We also found a negative response of GD to El Niño teleconnection index. The results are of great interest due to the GD impact on the climate system and in particular for sea level rise.

  10. Deformation derived from GPS geodesy associated with Bárðabunga 2014 rifting event in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofeigsson, B.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Parks, M.; Friðriksdóttir, H. M.; Sigmundsson, F.; Dumont, S.; Arnadottir, T.; Hooper, A. J.; Roberts, M. J.; Grapenthin, R.; Tung, S.; Guðmundsson, G.; Geirsson, H.; Jonsson, S.; Sturkell, E.; Lafemina, P.; Bennett, R. A.; Barsotti, S.; Jonsdottir, K.; Masterlark, T.

    2015-12-01

    On August 16, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the eastern part of Bárðarbunga caldera in the north-western corner of Vatnajökull ice-cap, Iceland. This marked the onset of the first rifting event in Iceland since the Krafla fires (1975-1982). The migration of the seismicity was corroborated by ground deformation suggesting lateral injection of magma, from the Bárðarbunga system, into a dyke. The seismicity migrated out of the caldera forming a dyke with roughly three segments, changing direction each time until August 28 when the migration stopped around 10 km south of Askja Volcano, eventually leading to a short lived eruption in Holuhraun north of Dyngjujökull. On the morning of August 31 a fissure eruption started in Holuhraun which lasted for roughly 6 months until February 27. Prior to the onset of the activity on August 16, at least since May 2014, subtle signs of inflation where observed on continuous GPS sites around the volcano indicating a volume increase in the roots of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system. When the activity started on August 16, the deformation pattern indicated a deflation centered within the caldera simultaneously with the lateral growth of the dyke also reflected in the migration of seismicity, along segments of variable strike. A maximum widening of 1.3 m occurred between stations on the opposite site of the dyke spaced 25 km apart. Displacements indicated the fastest rate of widening at any time in the most distal segment of the dyke throughout its evolution. After the dyke stopped propagating, the inflation continued decaying gradually. On September 4, five days into the second fissure eruption, the movements associated with the dyke where no longer detectable. As the fissure eruption continued the slowly decaying contraction was observed around the Bárðarbunga central volcano both in the piston like subsidence of the caldera floor, observed with a GPS instrument located on the ice surface within the caldera, as

  11. Assimilating Aircraft-based measurements to improve the State of Distal Volcanic Ash Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangliang; Lin, Hai Xiang; Heemink, Arnold; Segers, Arjo; Lu, Sha; Palsson, Thorgeir

    2015-04-01

    The sudden eruption at the 1666 m high, ice-capped Eyjafjallajökull volcano, in south Iceland during 14 April to 23 May 2010, had caused an unprecedented closure of the European and North Atlantic airspace resulting in global economic losses of US5 billion. This has initiated a lot of research on how to improve aviation advice after eruption onset. Good estimation of both the state of volcanic ash cloud and the emission of volcano are crucial for providing a successful aviation advice. Currently most of the approaches, employing satellite-based and ground-based measurements, are in the focus of improving the definition of Eruption Source Parameters (ESPs) such as plume height and mass eruption rate, which are certainly very important for estimating volcano emission and state of volcanic ash cloud near to the volcano. However, for ash cloud state in a far field, these approaches can hardly make improvements. This is mainly because the influence of ESPs on the ash plume becomes weaker as the distance to the volcano is getting farther, thus for a distal plume the information of ESPs will have little influence. This study aims to find an efficient way to improve the state of distal volcanic ash cloud. We use real-life aircraft-based observations, measured along Dutch border between Borken and Twist during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an data assimilation system combining with a transport model to identify the potential benefit of this kind of observations and the influence on the ash state around Dutch border. We show that assimilating aircraft-based measurements can significantly improve the state of distal ash clouds, and further provide an improved aviation advice on distal ash plume. We compare the performances of different sequential data assimilation methods. The results show standard Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) works better than others, which is because of the strong nonlinearity of the dynamics and the EnKF's resampling Gaussianity nature

  12. A two-way-tracking localized ensemble Kalman filter for assimilating aircraft in situ volcanic ash measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangliang; Lin, Hai Xiang; Heemink, Arnold; Segers, Arjo; Verlaan, Martin; Lu, Tongchao; Lu, Sha

    2017-04-01

    After the eruption of volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, which had a huge impact to aviation and economy, improvements of volcanic ash forecasts have been put onto the research agenda. Data assimilation uses observations to improve the forecast accuracy. Among the data assimilation approaches, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a well-known and popular method. A proper covariance localization strategy in the analysis step of EnKF is essential for reducing spurious covariances caused by the finite ensemble size, as shown for this application for assimilation of aircraft in situ measurements. After analyzing the characteristics of the physical forecast error covariances, we present a two-way tracking approach to define the localization matrix for covariance localization. The result shows that the Two-way-tracking Localized EnKF (TL-EnKF) effectively maintains the correctly specified physical covariances and largely reduces the spurious ones. The computational cost of TL-EnKF is also evaluated and is shown to be advantageous for both serial and parallel implementations. Compared to the commonly used distance-based covariance localization, the two-way tracking approach is shown to be more suitable. In addition, the covariance inflation approach is verified as an additional improvement to TL-EnKF to achieve more accurate results.

  13. A geophone wireless sensor network for investigating glacier stick-slip motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Kirk; Hart, Jane K.; Basford, Philip J.; Bragg, Graeme M.; Ward, Tyler; Young, David S.

    2017-08-01

    We have developed an innovative passive borehole geophone system, as part of a wireless environmental sensor network to investigate glacier stick-slip motion. The new geophone nodes use an ARM Cortex-M3 processor with a low power design capable of running on battery power while embedded in the ice. Only data from seismic events was stored, held temporarily on a micro-SD card until they were retrieved by systems on the glacier surface which are connected to the internet. The sampling rates, detection and filtering levels were determined from a field trial using a standard commercial passive seismic system. The new system was installed on the Skalafellsjökull glacier in Iceland and provided encouraging results. The results showed that there was a relationship between surface melt water production and seismic event (ice quakes), and these occurred on a pattern related to the glacier surface melt-water controlled velocity changes (stick-slip motion). Three types of seismic events were identified, which were interpreted to reflect a pattern of till deformation (Type A), basal sliding (Type B) and hydraulic transience (Type C) associated with stick-slip motion.

  14. Scientists Outline Volcanic Ash Risks to Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The ash clouds that belched out of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano last spring and dispersed over much of Europe, temporarily paralyzing aviation, were vast smoke signal warnings about the hazard that volcanic ash poses for air traffic around the world. At a 15 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, two experts with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) presented an overview of the damage airplanes can sustain from rock fragment- and mineral fragment-laden ash, an update on efforts to mitigate the hazard of ash, and an outline of further measures that are needed to address the problem. Between 1953 and 2009, there were 129 reported encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds, according to a newly released USGS document cited at the briefing. The report, “Encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds: A compilation of known incidents, 1953-2009,” by Marianne Guffanti, Thomas Casadevall, and Karin Budding, indicates that 26 encounters involved significant damage to the airplanes; nine of those incidents resulted in engine shutdown during flight. The report, which does not focus on the effects on airplanes of cumulative exposure to dilute ash and does not include data since 2009, indicates that “ash clouds continue to pose substantial risks to safe and efficient air travel globally.”

  15. Will subglacial rhyolite eruptions be explosive or intrusive? Some insights from analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuffen, H.; McGarvie, D. W.; Gilbert, J. S.

    Simple analytical models of subglacial eruptions are presented, which simulate evolving subglacial cavities and volcanic edifices during rhyolitic eruptions beneath temperate glaciers. They show that the relative sizes of cavity and edifice may strongly influence the eruption mechanisms. Intrusive eruptions will occur if the edifice fills the cavity, with rising magma quenched within the edifice and slow melting of ice. Explosive magma-water interaction may occur if a water- or steam-filled gap develops above the edifice. Meltwater is assumed to drain away continuously, but any gap above the edifice will be filled by meltwater or steam. Ductile roof closure will occur if the glacier weight exceeds the cavity pressure and is modelled here using Nye's law. The results show that the effusion rate is an important control on the eruption style, with explosive eruptions favoured by large effusion rates. The models are used to explain contrasting eruption mechanisms during various Quaternary subglacial rhyolite eruptions at Torfajökull, Iceland. Although the models are simplistic, they are first attempts to unravel the complex feedbacks between subglacial eruption mechanisms and glacier response that can lead to a variety of eruptive scenarios and associated hazards.

  16. Mafic intrusions triggering eruptions in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2012-04-01

    The last two eruptions in Iceland, Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011, were both provoked by an intrusion of more mafic magma into pre-existing magmatic system. Injection into the latter volcano, which is located in the main rift-zone of the island, above the presumed centre of the mantle plume and is the most active volcano of Iceland, has been gradual since the last eruption in 2004. In contrast, at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, one of the least active volcano in Iceland and located at the southern part of a propagating rift-zone where extensional tectonics are poorly developed, mafic magma intrusion occurred over less than a year. Beneath Eyjafjallajökull, a silicic intrusion at approximately 6 km depth was recharged with mantle derived alkali basalt that was injected into residual rhyolite from the penultimate eruption in the years 1821-23. The resulting magma mingIing process was highly complex, but careful sampling of tephra during the entire eruption allows the dynamics of the mingling process to be unravelled. Short-lived disequilibria between the gaseous nuclide 210Po and the much less volatile nuclide 210Pb, suggest that basalt accumulated beneath the silicic intrusion over approximately 100 days, or from early January 2010 until the onset of the explosive summit eruption on 14 April. Due to the degassing, crystal fractionation modified the composition of the injected mafic magma producing evolved Fe-and Ti-rich basalt, similar in composition to that of the nearby Katla volcano. This evolved basalt was intruded into the liquid part of the silicic intrusion only a few hours before the onset of the explosive summit eruption. The short time between intrusion and eruption led to the production of very heterogeneous (of basaltic, intermediate and silicic composition) and fine-grained tephra during the first days of explosive eruption. The fine grained tephra resulted from combined effects of magma fragmentation due to degassing of stiff magma rich in

  17. Modelling concentrations of volcanic ash encountered by aircraft in past eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witham, Claire; Webster, Helen; Hort, Matthew; Jones, Andrew; Thomson, David

    2012-03-01

    Prolonged disruption to aviation during the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland resulted in pressure to predict volcanic ash plume concentrations for the purpose of allowing aircraft to fly in regions with low ash contamination. Over the past few decades there have been a number of incidents where aircraft have encountered volcanic ash resulting in damage to the aircraft and loss of power to engines. Understanding the volcanic ash concentrations that these aircraft have encountered provides important input to determining a safe concentration limit. Aircraft encounters with six volcanic eruption plumes have been studied and ash concentrations predicted using the atmospheric dispersion model NAME. The eruptions considered are Galunggung 1982, Soputan 1985, Redoubt 1989, Pinatubo 1991, Hekla 2000 and Manam 2006. Uncertainties in the eruption source details (start time, stop time and eruption height) and in the aircraft encounter location and flight path are found to be major limitations in some cases. Errors in the driving meteorological data (which is often coarse in resolution for historic studies) and the lack of eruption plume dynamics (e.g. umbrella cloud representation) results in further uncertainties in the predicted ash concentrations. In most of the case studies, the dispersion modelling shows the presence of ash at the aircraft encounter location. Maximum ash concentrations in the vicinity of the aircraft are predicted to be at least 4000 μg m -3 although confidence in the estimated concentrations is low and uncertainties of orders of magnitude are shown to be possible.

  18. Local and remote infrasound from explosive volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; LE Pichon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject large volumes of ash into heavily travelled air corridors and thus pose a significant societal and economic hazard. In remote volcanic regions, satellite data are sometimes the only technology available to observe volcanic eruptions and constrain ash-release parameters for aviation safety. Infrasound (acoustic waves ~0.01-20 Hz) data fill this critical observational gap, providing ground-based data for remote volcanic eruptions. Explosive volcanic eruptions are among the most powerful sources of infrasound observed on earth, with recordings routinely made at ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Advances in infrasound technology and the efficient propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere therefore greatly enhance our ability to monitor volcanoes in remote regions such as the North Pacific Ocean. Infrasound data can be exploited to detect, locate, and provide detailed chronologies of the timing of explosive volcanic eruptions for use in ash transport and dispersal models. We highlight results from case studies of multiple eruptions recorded by the International Monitoring System and dedicated regional infrasound networks (2008 Kasatochi, Alaska, USA; 2008 Okmok, Alaska, USA; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kuriles, Russian Federation; 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Icleand) and show how infrasound is currently used in volcano monitoring. We also present progress towards characterizing and modeling the variability in source mechanisms of infrasound from explosive eruptions using dedicated local infrasound field deployments at volcanoes Karymsky, Russian Federation and Sakurajima, Japan.

  19. Civil aviation management during explosive volcanic eruptions: A survey on the stakeholders' perspective on the use of tephra dispersal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaini, Chiara; Bolić, Tatjana; Folch, Arnau; Castelli, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Impacts of explosive volcanic eruptions on civil aviation were reconsidered after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland, which caused unprecedented disruptions of air traffic operations in Europe. During and after the aviation breakdown of April-May 2010, communication between the involved stakeholders was recognized as a major concern. Due to the complexity and multidisciplinary nature of the topic, a great number of actors are involved, which often have little interaction outside these exceptional events. In this work, we aim at identifying the relationships between the stakeholders involved in aviation management during eruptions, as well as their needs and priorities. We perform an anonymous on-line survey, focused mainly on the use of tephra dispersal models for civil aviation purposes. We collect feedback on recent developments including our current impact assessment research, which produced a GIS-based software tool to estimate impacts on aviation based on tephra dispersal forecasts. Answers allow identifying stakeholders' requirements on ash dispersal forecasts and their use for aviation management purposes. We underline the main differences between three homogeneous groups (aviation managers and employees, modellers and field scientists, other stakeholders) and identify main end-user requirements for developing tools similar to ours. This work provides useful insights for the development of tools to support aviation stakeholders during volcanic eruptions.

  20. Neural-Network Approach to Hyperspectral Data Analysis for Volcanic Ash Clouds Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscini, Alessandro; Ventress, Lucy; Carboni, Elisa; Grainger, Roy Gordon; Del Frate, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    In this study three artificial neural networks (ANN) were implemented in order to emulate a retrieval model and to estimate the ash Aerosol optical Depth (AOD), particle effective radius (reff) and cloud height from volcanic eruption using hyperspectral remotely sensed data. ANNs were trained using a selection of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) channels in Thermal Infrared (TIR) as inputs, and the corresponding ash parameters retrieved obtained using the Oxford retrievals as target outputs. The retrieval is demonstrated for the eruption of the Eyjafjallajo ̈kull volcano (Iceland) occurred in 2010. The results of validation provided root mean square error (RMSE) values between neural network outputs and targets lower than standard deviation (STD) of corresponding target outputs, therefore demonstrating the feasibility to estimate volcanic ash parameters using an ANN approach, and its importance in near real time monitoring activities, owing to its fast application. A high accuracy has been achieved for reff and cloud height estimation, while a decreasing in accuracy was obtained when applying the NN approach for AOD estimation, in particular for those values not well characterized during NN training phase.

  1. Subglacial till formation: Microscale processes within the subglacial shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Jane K.

    2017-08-01

    This was a study of subglacial deformation till genesis from a modern temperate glacier, at Skálafellsjökull, Iceland. Detailed microscale properties of till samples (from Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM] and thin section analysis) were examined from a glacial site with in situ subglacial process monitoring and an exposed subglacial surface in the foreland. Two lithofacies were examined, a grey sandy till derived from the ash and basalt, and a silty reddish brown till derived from oxidized paleosols and/or tephra layers. These also represented a clay-content continuum from low (0.3%) to high (22.3%). The evolution from debris to subglacial till was investigated. This included a reduction in grain-size (21% for grey lithology, 13% reddish brown lithology), and reduction in rounding (RA) (32% for the grey lithology, 26% for the reddish brown lithology), and the quantification and analysis of the different grain erosion/comminution processes in the resultant till. It was shown that the microstructures within a till were dependent on shear strain and glaciological conditions (deformation history). The low clay content tills were dominated by linear structures (lineations and boudins, and anisotropic microfabric) whilst the higher clay content tills were dominated by rotational structures (turbates and plaster, and isotropic microfabric). These results are important in our understanding of the formation of both modern and Quaternary tills and informs our reconstruction of past glacial dynamics.

  2. Emergency hospital visits in association with volcanic ash, dust storms and other sources of ambient particles: a time-series study in Reykjavík, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Gislason, Thorarinn; Forsberg, Bertil; Meister, Kadri; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Jóhannsson, Thorsteinn; Finnbjornsdottir, Ragnhildur; Oudin, Anna

    2015-04-13

    Volcanic ash contributed significantly to particulate matter (PM) in Iceland following the eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. This study aimed to investigate the association between different PM sources and emergency hospital visits for cardiorespiratory causes from 2007 to 2012. Indicators of PM10 sources; "volcanic ash", "dust storms", or "other sources" (traffic, fireworks, and re-suspension) on days when PM10 exceeded the daily air quality guideline value of 50 µg/m3 were entered into generalized additive models, adjusted for weather, time trend and co-pollutants. The average number of daily emergency hospital visits was 10.5. PM10 exceeded the air quality guideline value 115 out of 2191 days; 20 days due to volcanic ash, 14 due to dust storms (two days had both dust storm and ash contribution) and 83 due to other sources. High PM10 levels from volcanic ash tended to be significantly associated with the emergency hospital visits; estimates ranged from 4.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.6, 9.2%) per day of exposure in unadjusted models to 7.3% (95% CI: -0.4, 15.5%) in adjusted models. Dust storms were not consistently associated with daily emergency hospital visits and other sources tended to show a negative association. We found some evidence indicating that volcanic ash particles were more harmful than particles from other sources, but the results were inconclusive and should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Estimation of Volcanic Ash Plume Top Height using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) height estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top height. The height estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's 55° forward and nadir views, and thus the corresponding height. Besides the stereo view, AATSR provides another advantage compared to other satellite based instruments. With AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 µm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the height estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. In addition, it is possible to study the effect of using different wavelengths in the height estimate, ranging from visible (555 nm) to thermal infrared (12 µm). The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015. Accurate information on the volcanic ash position is important for air traffic safety. The ACM algorithm can provide valuable data of both horizontal and vertical ash dispersion. These data may be useful for comparisons with existing volcanic ash dispersion models and retrieval methods. We present ACM plume top height estimate results for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, and comparisons against available ground based and satellite observations.

  4. Observations of volcanic Lightning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Behnke, S. A.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Edens, H. E.; McNutt, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    We have made detailed observations of lightning during four volcanic eruptions using lightning mapping array (LMA) stations. In January 2006 we observed several explosive eruptions from Augustine Volcano in Alaska with two LMA stations. While two stations only gave us the direction to the lightning it gave a detailed time history of the lightning in relationship to the eruption as measured by seismic and acoustic instruments. We inferred that there were two phases (explosive and plume) and three types of lightning (small discharges near the vent, larger discharges in the volcanic column, thunderstorm like lightning in the plume). In May 2008 we mapped lightning in the plume of Chaitan (Chile) three weeks after the initial eruption. In 2009 we observed the entire sequence of explosive eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska with 4 distant stations. This provided good 2-D locations of the electrical activity. In 2010 we mapped much of the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull using 6 LMA stations that provided 3-D locations. All the observations have reinforced the basic conclusions that we found at the Augustine eruption, and let us expand and refine the these ideas.

  5. Leveraging open-source software in large simulations at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Paul F.

    2004-03-01

    Three intersecting forces are making possible a revolution in the construction of scientific programs. Object-oriented technology has made possible the creation of truly reusable components. The Internet and its search engines have made it possible to find and obtain appropriate components and obtain help in learning to use them. The open source movement has made the components much more reliable, removed economic barriers to reuse, and allowed users to contribute to their evolution and upkeep. Staff members at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are full participants in this movement, both contributing and using reusable components in key areas of science, mathematics, and computer science. We will discuss the use of such components in two efforts in particular: Kull, an ASCI code for modeling laser fusion targets, and CDAT, a tool used world-wide for climate data analysis. We will also briefly discuss the problem of building such a wide variety of software on LLNL's wide variety of exotic hardware, and what factors make this problem more difficult than it need be.

  6. Reconstruction of maximum LIA extent and 20th century volume loss of maritime outlet glaciers, SE - Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Snaevarr; Björnsson, Helgi

    2017-04-01

    Kvískerjajöklar outlet glaciers cover the upper eastern flanks of Öræfajökull stratovolcano, Southeast Iceland. These maritime temperate glaciers have recessed dramatically since their maximum Little Ice Age (LIAmax) extent, from an area of 10 km2, to 6.4 km2 in 2010, i. e. 37%, an annual average recession rate of 0.03 km2/yr. We estmate the volume loss by subtraction of glacier surface maps. The LIAmax surface map was constructed from geomorphological in-field evidences of the former glacier margins, supported by 1904 topographical maps, aerial photos and maps of 1945, a LiDAR high resolution elevation model from 2010-2011 and various historical documents. The lower part of the LIAmax glacier was reconstructed by a simple ice flow modeling (Glacier Reconstruction Tool (GlaRe) in ArcGIS, by Pellitero et al. (2016). We estimate the volume loss from the 1890 LIAmax to 2010 as 0.47 km3 water equivalent (w.e.) This correspond to an annual average recession of 0.004 km3 w.e. or specific mass loss of 0.5 m/yr.

  7. Monitoring Volcanic Ash with MSG Seviri Image and RGB Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erturk, Aydin Gurol; Kerkman, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The eruption from the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland recently became a high importance for the Meteorological Institutes, Aviation, Satellite Centers and other related institutions. Urgent forecasts were requested by the air control centers, aviation industry and even the passengers who stuck at the airports. It was announced that thousands of flights are canceled; hundreds of thousands of passengers affected and the airlines lost around 1.7 billion dollars in April-May 2010. This is the worst aviation crises. MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imagery) with its 11 narrow and 1 broad band channels have been providing a worth of data sources for nowcasting and very short forecasting. SEVIRI images and RGB applications have been acted an important role to monitor Volcanic Ash during above aviation crises. SEVIRI has an infrared channel (centered @8.7 micron) which is sensitive sand, dust and ash in the atmosphere. In this study we present Ash RGB applications derived from SEVIRI data to monitor and track Ash clouds over Europe. Two main eruptions during 14-20 April and 7-17 May 2010 will be demonstrated. In addition to this, we will propose an Ash product algorithm and discuss its weakness and strength.

  8. High resolution 3D confocal microscope imaging of volcanic ash particles.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Gill, Ian; Petford, Nick

    2017-07-15

    We present initial results from a novel high resolution confocal microscopy study of the 3D surface structure of volcanic ash particles from two recent explosive basaltic eruptions, Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grimsvötn (2011), in Iceland. The majority of particles imaged are less than 100μm in size and include PM10s, known to be harmful to humans if inhaled. Previous studies have mainly used 2D microscopy to examine volcanic particles. The aim of this study was to test the potential of 3D laser scanning confocal microscopy as a reliable analysis tool for these materials and if so to what degree high resolution surface and volume data could be obtained that would further aid in their classification. First results obtained using an Olympus LEXT scanning confocal microscope with a ×50 and ×100 objective lens are highly encouraging. They reveal a range of discrete particle types characterised by sharp or concave edges consistent with explosive formation and sudden rupture of magma. Initial surface area/volume ratios are given that may prove useful in subsequent modelling of damage to aircraft engines and human tissue where inhalation has occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Glaciological Applications of Terrestrial Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytenko, D.; Dixon, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial Radar Interferometry (TRI) is a relatively new ground-based technique that combines the precision and spatial resolution of InSAR with the temporal resolution of GPS. Although TRI can be applied to a variety of fields including bridge and landslide monitoring, it is ideal for studies of the highly dynamic terminal zones of marine-terminating glaciers. Our TRI instrument is the Gamma Portable Radar Interferometer, which operates at 17.2 GHz (1.74 cm wavelength), has two receiving antennas for DEM generation, and generates amplitude and phase images at minute-scale sampling rates. Here we review preliminary results from Breiðamerkurjökull in Iceland and Helheim and Jakobshavn in Greenland. We show that the high sampling rate of the TRI can be used to observe velocity variations at the glacier terminus associated with calving, and the spatial distribution of tidal forcing. Velocity uncertainties, mainly due to atmospheric effects, are typically less than 0.05 m/d. Additionally, iceberg tracking using the amplitude imagery may provide insight into ocean currents near the terminus when fjord or lagoon conditions permit.

  10. Functional Information: Towards Synthesis of Biosemiotics and Cybernetics.

    PubMed

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2010-04-27

    Biosemiotics and cybernetics are closely related, yet they are separated by the boundary between life and non-life: biosemiotics is focused on living organisms, whereas cybernetics is applied mostly to non-living artificial devices. However, both classes of systems are agents that perform functions necessary for reaching their goals. I propose to shift the focus of biosemiotics from living organisms to agents in general, which all belong to a pragmasphere or functional universe. Agents should be considered in the context of their hierarchy and origin because their semiosis can be inherited or induced by higher-level agents. To preserve and disseminate their functions, agents use functional information - a set of signs that encode and control their functions. It includes stable memory signs, transient messengers, and natural signs. The origin and evolution of functional information is discussed in terms of transitions between vegetative, animal, and social levels of semiosis, defined by Kull. Vegetative semiosis differs substantially from higher levels of semiosis, because signs are recognized and interpreted via direct code-based matching and are not associated with ideal representations of objects. Thus, I consider a separate classification of signs at the vegetative level that includes proto-icons, proto-indexes, and proto-symbols. Animal and social semiosis are based on classification, and modeling of objects, which represent the knowledge of agents about their body (Innenwelt) and environment (Umwelt).

  11. The European air traffic management response to volcanic ash crises: towards institutionalised aviation crisis management.

    PubMed

    Dopagne, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    A cloud of ash drifting from the erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in April and May 2010 covered Europe and created an unprecedented situation. It resulted in an almost complete lockdown of European airspace in the period from 15th to 21st April, 2010: more than 100,000 flights were cancelled, 10 million people were affected and over US$1.8bn was lost by airlines globally. This paper presents the air traffic management (ATM) view of the situation. Through an analysis of the evolution of the events in the affected region, the paper will provide more details on ATM planning, reaction and follow-up actions. Furthermore, the influence of this event on the identification of further improvements needed to advance volcanic procedures internationally will be discussed. Actions undertaken since the end of the event - the establishment of the European Aviation Crisis Coordination Cell, running of the International Civil Aviation Organization VOLCEX 11/01 volcanic ash exercise and European response to the Grimsvötn eruption in May 2011 - will be discussed at the end of the paper.

  12. A Summary Case Report on the Health Impacts and Response to the Pakistan Floods of 2010

    PubMed Central

    Shabir, Omar

    2013-01-01

    In July 2010, Pakistan suffered nationwide floods after unprecedented monsoon rains overwhelmed the Indus basin. The ensuing floods claimed 1985 lives, injured 2946 people and affected over 20.2 million people. Seventy-eight out of 121 districts were affected and at one stage one-fifth of the country’s land was inundated with water. Indiscriminate damage was caused to housing, educational and health facilities, communication networks, power plants and grids, irrigation channels, agricultural land and livestock. Over 37 million medical consultations were reported within one year of the floods with acute respiratory infection, skin diseases, acute diarrhoea and suspected malaria forming the most common presentations. Rescue and relief operations were organised through the National Disaster Management Authority and a UN Cluster Approach was adopted for providing humanitarian assistance. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) played a pivotal role in coordinating relief efforts between cluster groups and providing communication platforms for identifying gaps and sharing information. This paper attempts to collate information available in the public domain into a summary report based on key principles described by Kulling et al. (2010) on health crisis reporting. PMID:23591385

  13. 210Pb-226Ra disequilibria in young gas-laden magmas

    PubMed Central

    Reagan, Mark; Turner, Simon; Handley, Heather; Turner, Michael; Beier, Christoph; Caulfield, John; Peate, David

    2017-01-01

    We present new 238U-230Th-226Ra-210Pb and supporting data for young lavas from southwest Pacific island arcs, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and Terceira, Azores. The arc lavas have significant 238U and 226Ra excesses, whereas those from the ocean islands have moderate 230Th and 226Ra excesses, reflecting mantle melting in the presence of a water-rich fluid in the former and mantle melting by decompression in the latter. Differentiation to erupted compositions in both settings appears to have taken no longer than a few millennia. Variations in the (210Pb/226Ra)0 values in all settings largely result from degassing processes rather than mineral-melt partitioning. Like most other ocean island basalts, the Terceira basalt has a 210Pb deficit, which we attribute to ~8.5 years of steady 222Rn loss to a CO2-rich volatile phase while it traversed the crust. Lavas erupted from water-laden magma systems, including those investigated here, commonly have near equilibrium (210Pb/226Ra)0 values. Maintaining these equilibrium values requires minimal persistent loss or accumulation of 222Rn in a gas phase. We infer that degassing during decompression of water-saturated magmas either causes these magmas to crystallize and stall in reservoirs where they reside under conditions of near stasis, or to quickly rise towards the surface and erupt. PMID:28338093

  14. Trapped lee waves measured downstream of Snæfellsnes peninsula, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Mobbs, Stephen; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Wellpott, Axel; Colfescu, Ioana

    2017-04-01

    On 20 October 2016 lee waves were produced by the orography in western Iceland as strong southwesterly flow impinged upon the island. Upper air measurements showed a strong upstream inversion at 4000 ft. The Snæfellsnes peninsula ( 3000 ft) has a west-east orientation and is a barrier for low level flow. The wave pattern downstream of the peninsula was composed of lee waves produced by the peninsula as well as by the Snæfellsnesjökull glacier ( 4500 ft) at its western tip. Measurements were conducted with the Facilities for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) aircraft. At 8000 ft the wind speed was 25 m/s from the southwest. Three lee waves were measured with relatively constant vertical velocity amplitude (+/-3 m/s) that remained quasi-constant during the mission. On the other hand the potential temperature magnitude diminished with time. Operational forecasts with the numerical model HARMONIE (2.5 km horizontal resolution) capture the first lee wave well but not the position of the latter waves. Simulations with the numerical model WRF (2 km and 400m resolutions) are underway in order to investigate this further.

  15. Linking the North Atlantic to central Europe: a high-resolution Holocene tephrochronological record from northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bogaard, Christel; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    A high-resolution Holocene tephrochronology for northern Germany has been established based on systematic tephrostratigraphical analysis of three peat bogs. Microscopic volcanic ash layers have been traced and characterised petrographically and by the chemical composition of the glass shards. At least 37 ash horizons representing 16 different explosive volcanic eruptions have been identified and many can be correlated between the three sites, up to 100 km apart. The tephra layers can be related to Icelandic volcanic sources and some correlated to the eruptions of Askja 1875, Hekla 3, Hekla Selsund, Hekla 4 and Hekla 5, as well as to unspecified eruptions of Icelandic volcanic systems, e.g. Torfajökull. The source volcanoes for some tephra layers remain unidentified. Some tephra layers were known previously from the North Atlantic region (e.g. Sluggan, Glen Garry), others have not been recorded previously in the literature (e.g. microlite tephra). This study provides the first comprehensive Holocene tephrostratigraphical record for northern Germany, complementing the North Atlantic tephrostratigraphical dating framework, effectively extending it into central Europe. The study shows that Icelandic ash layers are even more widespread than hitherto thought.

  16. New Holocene tephras and a proxy climate record from a blanket mire in northern Skye, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langdon, P. G.; Barber, K. E.

    2001-12-01

    Four Holocene tephras of Icelandic origin have been identified and geochemically characterised from a water shedding blanket peat sequence on the Trotternish ridge, Isle of Skye, Scotland. Geochemical characterisation of the shards propose the Glen Garry tephra to be present, a tephra layer of Hekla origin incorporating shards from Hekla-4, as well as two new tephras dated by interpolation from a radiocarbon based chronology to ca. 830 cal. yr BP and ca. 2340 cal. yr BP. The new historic tephra has an ambiguous geochemistry and therefore has not been correlated with other known Icelandic historic tephras. The new prehistoric tephra is suggested as originating from the Snæfellsjökull volcano in northwest Iceland and forms an important stratigraphical marker in this Holocene sequence. A proxy climate record has been derived from humification analyses of the peat, which compares well with other regional palaeoclimatic reconstructions, as well as enabling correlations based on tephra geochemical linkages between sites and climatic records at precise times in the past.

  17. Chemical and biological availability of hydrocarbons in urban harbor sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, L.A.; Brownawell, Bruce J.

    2002-01-01

    The degradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in batch slurry experiments conducted with field-aged sediments, highly impacted by hydrocarbon pollution. Experiments focused on examining the effects of desorption limitations to hydrocarbon mineralization and degradation. Degradation of PAH (e.g., naphthalene, fluorene, acenaphthene) and saturated hydrocarbons was examined in field-aged sediments collected from four sites in greater NY Harbor and western Long Island Sound. The sites were Rikers Island in far western Long Island Sound, Williamsburg Bridge in the East River, Shooters Island in the Arthur Kill, and the Kill Van Kull off Bayonne, New Jersey. Patterns of hydrocarbon desorption and degradation in weathered sediments were complicated by the mixed combustion and oil-derived hydrocarbon sources, and differed markedly from patterns seen in sediments following an oil spill. Rates of degradation in experiments with spiked sediments, especially over short timescales, did not appear to be limited by rates of desorption. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 224th ACS National Meeting (Boston, MA 8/18-22/2002).

  18. Inclusion of ash and SO2 emissions from volcanic eruptions in WRF-Chem: development and some applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, M.; Freitas, S. R.; Grell, G.; Webley, P.; Peckham, S.; McKeen, S. A.; Egan, S. D.

    2013-04-01

    We describe a new functionality within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with coupled Chemistry (WRF-Chem) that allows simulating emission, transport, dispersion, transformation and sedimentation of pollutants released during volcanic activities. Emissions from both an explosive eruption case and a relatively calm degassing situation are considered using the most recent volcanic emission databases. A preprocessor tool provides emission fields and additional information needed to establish the initial three-dimensional cloud umbrella/vertical distribution within the transport model grid, as well as the timing and duration of an eruption. From this source condition, the transport, dispersion and sedimentation of the ash cloud can be realistically simulated by WRF-Chem using its own dynamics and physical parameterization as well as data assimilation. Examples of model applications include a comparison of tephra fall deposits from the 1989 eruption of Mount Redoubt (Alaska) and the dispersion of ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland. Both model applications show good coincidence between WRF-Chem and observations.

  19. Drone based structural mapping at Holuhraun indicates fault reactivation and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Daniel; Walter, Thomas R.; Steinke, Bastian; Witt, Tanja; Schoepa, Anne; Duerig, Tobi; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.

    2016-04-01

    Accompanied by an intense seismic swarm in August 2014, a dike laterally formed, starting under Icelands Vatnajökull glacier, propagating over a distance of more than 45 km within only two weeks, leading to the largest eruption by volume since the 1783-84 Laki eruption. Along its propagation path, the dike caused intense surface displacements up to meters. Based on seismicity, GPS and InSAR, the propagation has already been analysed and described as segmented lateral dike growth. We now focus on few smaller regions of the dike. We consider the Terrasar-X tandem digital elevation map and aerial photos and find localized zones where structural fissures formed and curved. At these localized, regions we performed a field campaign in summer 2015, applying the close range remote sensing techniques Structure from Motion (SfM) and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS). Over 4 TLS scan were collected, along with over 5,000 aerial images. Point clouds from SfM and TLS are merged and compared, and local structural lineaments analysed. As a result, we obtained an unprecedentedly high-resolution digital elevation map. With this map, we analyse the structural expression of the fissure eruption at the surface and improve understanding on the conditions that influenced the magma propagation path. We elaborate scenarios that lead to complexities of the surface structures and the link to the underlying dike intrusion.

  20. Evaluation of quantitative satellite-based retrievals of volcanic ash clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. J.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Bojinski, S.; Siddans, R.; Thomas, G.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic ash clouds are a serious hazard to aviation, and mitigation requires a robust system of volcano monitoring, eruption detection, characterization of cloud properties, forecast of cloud movement, and communication of warnings. Several research groups have developed quantitative satellite-based volcanic ash products and some of these are in operational use by Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers around the world to aid in characterizing cloud properties and forecasting regions of ash hazard. The algorithms applied to the satellite data utilize a variety of techniques, and thus produce results that differ. The World Meteorological Organization has recently sponsored an intercomparison study of satellite-based retrievals with four goals: 1) to establish a validation protocol for satellite-based volcanic ash products, 2) to quantify and understand differences in products, 3) to develop best practices, and 4) to standardize volcanic cloud geophysical parameters. Six volcanic eruption cases were considered in the intercomparison: Eyjafallajökull, Grimsvötn, Kelut, Kirishimayama, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, and Sarychev Peak. Twenty-four algorithms were utilized, which retrieved parameters including: ash cloud top height, ash column mass loading, ash effective radius, and ash optical depth at visible and thermal-infrared wavelengths. Results were compared to space-based, airborne, and ground-based lidars; complementary satellite retrievals; and manual "expert evaluation" of ash extent. The intercomparison results will feed into the International Civil Aviation Organization "Roadmap for International Airways Volcano Watch", which integrates volcanic meteorological information into decision support systems for aircraft operations.

  1. Validation of ASH Optical Depth and Layer Height from IASI using Earlinet Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balis, D.; Siomos, N.; Koukouli, M.; Clarisse, L.; Carboni, E.; Ventress, L.; Grainger, R.; Mona, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2016-06-01

    The 2010 eruptions of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull attracted the attention of the public and the scientific community to the vulnerability of the European airspace to volcanic eruptions. The European Space Agency project "Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards", called for the creation of an optimal End-to-End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Prediction. This system is based on improved and dedicated satellite-derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide level assessments, as well as an extensive validation, using among others ground-based measurements (Koukouli et al., 2014). The validation of volcanic ash levels and height extracted from IASI/MetopA is presented in this work with emphasis on the ash plume height and ash optical depth levels. European Aerosol Research Lidar Network [EARLINET] lidar measurements are compared to different satellite estimates for two eruptive episodes. The validation results are extremely promising within the estimated uncertainties of each of the comparative datasets.

  2. Society's Growing Vulnerability to Natural Hazards and Implications for Geophysics Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slingo, J.

    2010-12-01

    2010 is shaping up to be a year of unprecedented natural hazards - at least in living memory - which have raised our awareness of our vulnerability, challenged our scientific understanding and questioned our ability to predict and prepare for such events. This talk will take some examples from this year and use them to explore the implications for the research agenda in weather and climate modelling and prediction, and in how to translate our predictions into products and services that address user needs. Specific examples include the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland, its impact on the aviation industry and the challenges that it posed to London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre. The biblical proportions of the floods in Pakistan, and the Russian heat wave, wildfires and crop losses are examples of unprecedented events which have raised questions around climate change and the degree to which such events can be attributed or not to a warming world. The prospects of modelling and predicting these hazardous events and their impacts will be discussed in terms of our capabilities and what investments are needed in model development, supercomputing resources and the science of interdisciplinary impacts. Finally we live in an uncertain world, and preparedness requires us to take account of that uncertainty. The science challenges of moving towards more reliable and confident predictions that take us from uncertainty to probabilities and risk based assessments will be discussed.

  3. The bioreactivity of the sub-10 μm component of volcanic ash: Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat.

    PubMed

    Jones, Timothy; Bérubé, Kelly

    2011-10-30

    With the recent eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyafallajökull and resulting ash cloud over much of Europe there was considerable concern about possible respiratory hazards. Volcanic ash can contain minerals that are known human respiratory health hazards such as cristobalite. Short-term ash exposures can cause skin sores, respiratory and ocular irritations and exacerbation of pre-existing lung conditions such as asthma. Long-term occupational level exposures to crystalline silicon dioxide can cause lung inflammation, oedema, fibrosis and cancer. The potential health effects would be dependent on factors including mineralogy, surface chemistry, size, and levels and duration of exposure. Bulk ash from the Soufrière Hills volcano was sourced and inhalable (<2.5 μm) ash samples prepared and physicochemically characterised. The fine ash samples were tested for bioreactivity by SDS-PAGE which determined the strength of binding between mineral grains and lung proteins. Selected proteins bound tightly to cristobalite, and bound loosely to other ash components. A positive correlation was seen between the amount of SiO(2) in the sample and the strength of the binding. The strength of binding is a function of the mineral's bioreactivity, and therefore, a potential geo-biomarker of respiratory risk.

  4. Investigation of boundary layer dynamics, dust and volcanic ash clouds with laser ceilometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münkel, Christoph; Schäfer, Klaus; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of eye-safe laser ceilometers is regular reporting of cloud base height, vertical visibility, and cloud cover. These instruments operate unattended in harsh weather conditions. The application of state-of-the-art electronics increases the quality of backscatter profiles and thus qualifies modern ceilometers for applications beyond cloud base detection. The single lens optics of the ceilometers introduced in this paper results in a compact and robust design and enables their application in campaigns monitoring climate change effects. That is why three of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) run by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology are equipped with a ceilometer. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) utilizes such an instrument to study arctic cloud formation at Station Nord, Greenland. Recent applications include site assessment for solar energy applications in the Arabic Peninsula and monitoring of Sahara dust cloud and biomass burning plume events over Germany. Backward trajectory calculations with the HYSPLIT trajectory model provided by the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory have been carried out to investigate possible sources, including wood fires in southern France and eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull and Puyehue- Cordón Caulle volcanoes.

  5. Subdiffusion of volcanic earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Suzuki, Norikazu

    2017-06-01

    A comparative study is performed on volcanic seismicities at Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, and Mt. Etna in Sicily from the viewpoint of complex systems science, and the discovery of remarkable similarities between them is reported. In these seismicities as point processes, the jump probability distributions of earthquakes (i.e., distributions of the distance between the hypocenters of two successive events) are found to obey the exponential law, whereas the waiting-time distributions (i.e., distributions of inter-occurrence time of two successive events) follow the power law. A careful analysis is made about the finite size effects on the waiting-time distributions, and the previously reported results for Mt. Etna (Abe and Suzuki 2015) are reinterpreted accordingly. It is shown that the growth of the seismic region in time is subdiffusive at both volcanoes. The aging phenomenon is commonly observed in the "event-time-averaged" mean-squared displacements of the hypocenters. A comment is also made on (non-)Markovianity of the processes.

  6. Automated detection and cataloging of global explosive volcanism using the International Monitoring System infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Green, David N.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Shearer, Peter M.; Fee, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-04-01

    We experiment with a new method to search systematically through multiyear data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network to identify explosive volcanic eruption signals originating anywhere on Earth. Detecting, quantifying, and cataloging the global occurrence of explosive volcanism helps toward several goals in Earth sciences and has direct applications in volcanic hazard mitigation. We combine infrasound signal association across multiple stations with source location using a brute-force, grid-search, cross-bearings approach. The algorithm corrects for a background prior rate of coherent unwanted infrasound signals (clutter) in a global grid, without needing to screen array processing detection lists from individual stations prior to association. We develop the algorithm using case studies of explosive eruptions: 2008 Kasatochi, Alaska; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kurile Islands; and 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. We apply the method to global IMS infrasound data from 2005-2010 to construct a preliminary acoustic catalog that emphasizes sustained explosive volcanic activity (long-duration signals or sequences of impulsive transients lasting hours to days). This work represents a step toward the goal of integrating IMS infrasound data products into global volcanic eruption early warning and notification systems. Additionally, a better understanding of volcanic signal detection and location with the IMS helps improve operational event detection, discrimination, and association capabilities.

  7. 210Pb-226Ra disequilibria in young gas-laden magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Mark; Turner, Simon; Handley, Heather; Turner, Michael; Beier, Christoph; Caulfield, John; Peate, David

    2017-03-01

    We present new 238U-230Th-226Ra-210Pb and supporting data for young lavas from southwest Pacific island arcs, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and Terceira, Azores. The arc lavas have significant 238U and 226Ra excesses, whereas those from the ocean islands have moderate 230Th and 226Ra excesses, reflecting mantle melting in the presence of a water-rich fluid in the former and mantle melting by decompression in the latter. Differentiation to erupted compositions in both settings appears to have taken no longer than a few millennia. Variations in the (210Pb/226Ra)0 values in all settings largely result from degassing processes rather than mineral-melt partitioning. Like most other ocean island basalts, the Terceira basalt has a 210Pb deficit, which we attribute to ~8.5 years of steady 222Rn loss to a CO2-rich volatile phase while it traversed the crust. Lavas erupted from water-laden magma systems, including those investigated here, commonly have near equilibrium (210Pb/226Ra)0 values. Maintaining these equilibrium values requires minimal persistent loss or accumulation of 222Rn in a gas phase. We infer that degassing during decompression of water-saturated magmas either causes these magmas to crystallize and stall in reservoirs where they reside under conditions of near stasis, or to quickly rise towards the surface and erupt.

  8. Electric environment above European VLF transmitters during the Iceland volcano eruption in spring 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Biagi, P. F.; Al-Haddad, E.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Galopeau, P. H. M.; Besser, B.; Parrot, M.; Prattes, G.; Voller, W.

    2012-04-01

    We report on electric field measurements recorded by the ICE experiment above several VLF transmitters in Europe. The aim is to study the variation of the electric environment above those transmitter stations before and after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in spring 2010. We analyze the VLF amplitude signal recorded by the ICE electric field experiment on board DEMETER micro-satellite. The sun-synchronous orbits of the micro-satellite cover an invariant latitude range between -65° and +65° in a time interval of about 40 minutes. We consider the VLF transmitter signals emitted by the following three stations in Europe: DFY (16.58 kHz, Germany), FTU (18.3 kHz, France), JXN (16.4 kHz, Norway). We study the variation of these VLF signals taking into consideration the signal intensity levels before and after the Iceland volcano eruptions. We show that the VLF sub-ionospheric signals are affected by the disturbances produced by geomagnetic activity. The seasonal and the latitudinal effects may also contribute in the variation of the VLF transmitter signal. In this investigation we discuss the methods which lead us to distinguish between the different signal sources in order to display the electric variation which may occur during the sudden activity of the volcano.

  9. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrún; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna

    2017-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (CIV) is a newly developed open-access web resource (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is) intended to serve as an official source of information about volcanoes in Iceland for the public and decision makers. CIV contains text and graphic information on all 32 active volcanic systems in Iceland, as well as real-time data from monitoring systems in a format that enables non-specialists to understand the volcanic activity status. The CIV data portal contains scientific data on all eruptions since Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and is an unprecedented endeavour in making volcanological data open and easy to access. CIV forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the European Union funded effort FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. The supersite concept implies integration of space and ground based observations for improved monitoring and evaluation of volcanic hazards, and open data policy. This work is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.

  10. Petroleum and hazardous chemical spills in Newark Bay, New Jersey, USA from 1982 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Gunster, D G; Gillis, C A; Bonnevie, N L; Abel, T B; Wenning, R J

    1993-01-01

    Newark Bay, New Jersey, is particularly vulnerable to ecological damage from petroleum and chemical spills, as a result of the enclosed nature and shallow depth of the bay, the high frequency of shipping traffic, and the numerous chemical and petroleum transfer terminals located alongs its shores. To evaluate the potential impacts to the natural resources of this coastal estuarine ecosystem, chemical and petroleum accidents reported to the US Coast Guard (USCG) between 1982 and 1991 were compiled to determine the frequency and volume of these incidents in Newark Bay and in each of its major tributaries. Records obtained from the USCG National Response Center's computerized database indicated that more than 1453 accidental incidents, resulting in the release of more than 18 million US gallons of hazardous materials and petroleum products, occurred throughout Newark Bay during this period of time. The bulk of the materials released to the aquatic environment consisted of petroleum products, specifically No. 6 Fuel Oil (103 spills, 12 829 272 US gal) and gasoline (207 spills, 48 816 US gal). The majority of the reported incidents occurred in the Arthur Kill and its tributaries, as well as in the Kill Van Kull and the Passaic River. The results of this study indicated that the accidental discharge of petroleum and hazardous chemicals represents a significant source of chemical pollution in Newark Bay. Based on the frequency of spills and the volume of materials released to the aquatic environment, it is likely that these events are having a deleterious effect on the Newark Bay ecosystem.

  11. Future Developments in Modeling and Monitoring of Volcanic Ash Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonadonna, Costanza; Folch, Arnau; Loughlin, Sue

    2011-03-01

    IAVCEI-WMO Workshop on Ash Dispersal Forecast and Civil Aviation; Geneva, Switzerland, 18-20 October 2010; The April-May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption brought to light the harmful effects of volcanic ash on civil aviation and the importance of robust ash forecasting based on the combination of numerical weather prediction (NWP), volcanic ash transport and dispersal models (VATDMs), and data acquisition. The Workshop on Ash Dispersal Forecast and Civil Aviation has produced a consensual document describing the characteristics and range of application of different VATDMs, identifying the needs of the modeling community, investigating new data acquisition strategies, and discussing how to improve communication between the volcanology community and operational agencies. The workshop was held at the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) Geneva headquarters under the sponsorship of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Geneva, the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI), and the canton of Geneva and was organized by scientists from the University of Geneva (Switzerland), the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (Spain), the Aeronautical Meteorology Division of the WMO, and the British Geological Survey (United Kingdom). Fifty-two volcanologists, meteorologists, atmospheric dispersion modelers, and space- and ground-based monitoring specialists from 12 different countries were gathered (attendance was by invitation only), including representatives from six Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) and related institutions.

  12. Satellite monitoring of African volcanoes by means of RSTVOLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergola, Nicola; Coviello, Irina; Falconieri, Alfredo; Filizzola, Carolina; Lacava, Teodosio; Liuzzi, Mariangela; Marchese, Francesco; Paciello, Rossana; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2015-04-01

    RSTVOLC is an algorithm for volcanic hot spot detection from space based on the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) multi-temporal approach. This algorithm was firstly tested on Mt. Etna area, analyzing a long-term time series of infrared Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite records, and was then implemented on data provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to study a number of volcanoes in different geographic areas, including Asamayama (Japan) and Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland). Recently, RSTVOLC has been exported on data provided by geostationary sensors such as the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), onboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites, allowing for the timely detection and real time monitoring of thermal volcanic phenomena. In this work, recent results achieved studying some important African volcanoes by means of polar and geostationary satellite data are presented. Outcomes and results achieved by RSTVOLC studying some past Ol Donyo Lengai (Tanzania) eruptions and the recent Nyamuragira (Congo) activity are reported and discussed, also for comparison with other independent hot spot detection techniques. This study confirms that RSTVOLC may be successfully used to monitor volcanoes at a global scale and to detect low level thermal activities, thanks to its intrinsic self-adaptivity to different observational/environmental conditions as well as to its high sensitivity to sublte hot spots, contributing to volcanic risk mitigation.

  13. Surface elevation change and mass balance of Icelandic ice caps derived from swath mode CryoSat-2 altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresta, L.; Gourmelen, N.; Pálsson, F.; Nienow, P.; Björnsson, H.; Shepherd, A.

    2016-12-01

    We apply swath processing to CryoSat-2 interferometric mode data acquired over the Icelandic ice caps to generate maps of rates of surface elevation change at 0.5 km postings. This high-resolution mapping reveals complex surface elevation changes in the region, related to climate, ice dynamics, and subglacial geothermal and magmatic processes. We estimate rates of volume and mass change independently for the six major Icelandic ice caps, 90% of Iceland's permanent ice cover, for five glaciological years between October 2010 and September 2015. Annual mass balance is highly variable; during the 2014/2015 glaciological year, the Vatnajökull ice cap ( 70% of the glaciated area) experienced positive mass balance for the first time since 1992/1993. Our results indicate that between glaciological years 2010/2011and 2014/2015 Icelandic ice caps have lost 5.8 ± 0.7 Gt a-1 on average, 40% less than the preceding 15 years, contributing 0.016 ± 0.002 mm a-1 to sea level rise.

  14. (210)Pb-(226)Ra disequilibria in young gas-laden magmas.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Mark; Turner, Simon; Handley, Heather; Turner, Michael; Beier, Christoph; Caulfield, John; Peate, David

    2017-03-24

    We present new (238)U-(230)Th-(226)Ra-(210)Pb and supporting data for young lavas from southwest Pacific island arcs, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and Terceira, Azores. The arc lavas have significant (238)U and (226)Ra excesses, whereas those from the ocean islands have moderate (230)Th and (226)Ra excesses, reflecting mantle melting in the presence of a water-rich fluid in the former and mantle melting by decompression in the latter. Differentiation to erupted compositions in both settings appears to have taken no longer than a few millennia. Variations in the ((210)Pb/(226)Ra)0 values in all settings largely result from degassing processes rather than mineral-melt partitioning. Like most other ocean island basalts, the Terceira basalt has a (210)Pb deficit, which we attribute to ~8.5 years of steady (222)Rn loss to a CO2-rich volatile phase while it traversed the crust. Lavas erupted from water-laden magma systems, including those investigated here, commonly have near equilibrium ((210)Pb/(226)Ra)0 values. Maintaining these equilibrium values requires minimal persistent loss or accumulation of (222)Rn in a gas phase. We infer that degassing during decompression of water-saturated magmas either causes these magmas to crystallize and stall in reservoirs where they reside under conditions of near stasis, or to quickly rise towards the surface and erupt.

  15. Uncertainty assessment and applicability of an inversion method for volcanic ash forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, Birthe Marie; Kylling, Arve; Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Schulz, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Significant improvements in the way we can observe and model volcanic ash clouds have been obtained since the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. One major development has been the application of data assimilation techniques, which combine models and satellite observations such that an optimal understanding of ash clouds can be gained. Still, questions remain regarding the degree to which the forecasting capabilities are improved by inclusion of such techniques and how these improvements depend on the data input. This study explores how different satellite data and different uncertainty assumptions of the satellite and a priori emissions affect the calculated volcanic ash emission estimate, which is computed by an inversion method that couples the satellite retrievals and a priori emissions with dispersion model data. Two major ash episodes over 4 days in April and May of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption are studied. Specifically, inversion calculations are done for four different satellite data sets with different size distribution assumptions in the retrieval. A reference satellite data set is chosen, and the range between the minimum and maximum 4-day average load of hourly retrieved ash is 121 % in April and 148 % in May, compared to the reference. The corresponding a posteriori maximum and minimum emission sum found for these four satellite retrievals is 26 and 47 % of the a posteriori reference estimate for the same two periods, respectively. Varying the assumptions made in the satellite retrieval is seen to affect the a posteriori emissions and modelled ash column loads, and modelled column loads therefore have uncertainties connected to them depending on the uncertainty in the satellite retrieval. By further exploring our uncertainty estimates connected to a priori emissions and the mass load uncertainties in the satellite data, the uncertainty in the a priori estimate is found in this case to have an order-of-magnitude-greater impact on the a posteriori

  16. Volcanic ash modeling with the online NMMB-MONARCH-ASH v1.0 model: model description, case simulation, and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Alejandro; Folch, Arnau; Jorba, Oriol; Janjic, Zavisa

    2017-03-01

    Traditionally, tephra transport and dispersal models have evolved decoupled (offline) from numerical weather prediction models. There is a concern that inconsistencies and shortcomings associated with this coupling strategy might lead to errors in the ash cloud forecast. Despite this concern and the significant progress in improving the accuracy of tephra dispersal models in the aftermath of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Cordón Caulle eruptions, to date, no operational online dispersal model is available to forecast volcanic ash. Here, we describe and evaluate NMMB-MONARCH-ASH, a new online multi-scale meteorological and transport model that attempts to pioneer the forecast of volcanic aerosols at operational level. The model forecasts volcanic ash cloud trajectories, concentration of ash at relevant flight levels, and the expected deposit thickness for both regional and global configurations. Its online coupling approach improves the current state-of-the-art tephra dispersal models, especially in situations where meteorological conditions are changing rapidly in time, two-way feedbacks are significant, or distal ash cloud dispersal simulations are required. This work presents the model application for the first phases of the 2011 Cordón Caulle and 2001 Mount Etna eruptions. The computational efficiency of NMMB-MONARCH-ASH and its application results compare favorably with other long-range tephra dispersal models, supporting its operational implementation.

  17. Recent advances in understanding ice sheet dynamics [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Shawn J.

    2005-12-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets play a dynamic role in Earth's climate system, influencing regional- and global-scale climate and responding to climate change on time scales from years to millennia. They are also an integral part of Earth's landscape in alpine and polar regions, where they are an active agent in isostatic, tectonic, and Earth surface processes. This review paper summarizes recent progress in understanding and modelling ice sheet dynamics, from the microphysical processes of ice deformation in glaciers to continental-scale processes that influence ice dynamics. Based on recent insights and research directions, it can be expected that a new generation of ice sheet models will soon replace the current standard. Improvements that can be foreseen in the near future include: (i) the addition of internally-consistent evolutionary equations for ice crystal fabric (anisotropic flow laws), (ii) more generalized flow laws that include different deformation mechanisms under different stress regimes, (iii) explicit incorporation of the effects of chemical impurities and grain size (dynamic recrystallization) on ice deformation, (iv) higher-order stress solutions to the momentum balance (Stokes' equation) that governs ice sheet flow, and (v) the continued merger of ice sheet models with increasingly complex Earth systems models, which include fully-coupled subglacial hydrological and geological processes. Examples from the Greenland Ice Sheet and Vatnajökull Ice Cap, Iceland are used to illustrate several of these new directions and their importance to glacier dynamics.

  18. Identification and tracking of ash clouds from recent explosive eruptions by using multispectral satellite infrared data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, F.; Falconieri, A.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2012-04-01

    RSTASH is a specific algorithm, based on the general Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach, developed to identify and track ash clouds using satellite infrared data. An updated and optimized version of this algorithm, which analyzes even signal measured in the visible spectral band, has recently been developed and implemented on geostationary satellites data, for a better discrimination of ash and weather clouds in daytime. This advanced configuration was firstly tested during the Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) eruption of April 2010 (by using Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager sensor aboard Meteosat Second Generation), showing further improvements in terms of false positives reduction in comparison with standard RSTASH technique. Another experimental configuration of this method, analyzing signal measured in the SEVIRI sulphur dioxide absorption band (at 8.6µm), was also successfully used to qualitatively characterize volcanic plumes emitted by the same volcano in May 2010 in terms of SO2 concentration. Results of these studies are presented and discussed here, together with main achievements obtained monitoring ash cloud emitted during Shinmoedake (Japan) explosive eruption of 26-27 January 2011, exploiting the high temporal resolution of MTSAT Japanese geostationary satellites. Moreover, for both test cases, plume height estimations, obtained by applying two different literature methods, are compared with indipendent both ground- and satellite-based observations. In this work, RSTASH performances in detecting, tracking and characterizing ash clouds are discussed, focusing on main open issues and future perspectives.

  19. Risk perceptions and trust following the 2010 and 2011 Icelandic volcanic ash crises.

    PubMed

    Eiser, J Richard; Donovan, Amy; Sparks, R Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Eruptions at the Icelandic volcanoes of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grimsvötn (2011) produced plumes of ash posing hazards to air traffic over northern Europe. In imposing restrictions on air traffic, regulators needed to balance the dangers of accidents or aircraft damage against the cost and inconvenience to travelers and industry. Two surveys examined how members of the public viewed the necessity of the imposed restrictions and their trust in different agencies as estimators of the level of risk. Study 1 was conducted with 213 British citizens (112 males, 101 females), who completed questionnaires while waiting for flights at London City Airport during May 2012. Study 2 involved an online survey of 301 Icelandic citizens (172 males, 127 females, 2 undeclared gender) during April 2012. In both samples, there was general support for the air traffic restrictions, especially among those who gave higher estimates of the likelihood of an air accident or mishap having otherwise happened. However, in both countries, the (minority of) respondents who had personally experienced travel disruption were less convinced that these restrictions were all necessary. Scientists, the International Civil Aviation Organization, and (in Iceland) the Icelandic Department of Civil Protection were all highly trusted, and seen as erring on the side of caution in their risk estimates. Airlines were seen as more likely to underestimate any risk. We conclude that perceptions of the balance between risk and caution in judgments under uncertainty are influenced by one's own motives and those attributed to others.

  20. A Neural Network Approach For Volcanic Monitoring Of Sulpher Dioxide Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscini, Alessandro; Carboni, Elisa; Don Granger, Roy; Del Frate, Fabio

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes an application of ANN for the simultaneous estimation of the columnar content and height of the SO2 plume from volcanic eruptions using hyperspectral remotely sensing data. ANN have been trained using all IASI channels between 1000-1200 and 1300-1410 cm-1, as inputs, and the corresponding values of SO2 amount and plume's height obtained using the Oxford retrieval scheme as outputs. As a case study we have chosen the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland), in particular the eruption took place during the months of April and May 2010, which had an enormous impact on the world economy. ANNs have been validated on some independent data sets belonging to the same eruption and also on IASI images of Grímsvötn eruption, occurred on May 2011. The results have provided values of RMSE between ANN outputs and targets always less than 20 DU for SO2 and 200 mb for height, so demonstrating the good performance in retrieval achieved by the ANN technique.

  1. Water vapour variability in the high-latitude upper troposphere - Part 2: Impact of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Zou, Jason; McElroy, C. Thomas; Boone, Chris D.; Sheese, Patrick E.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-02-01

    The impact of volcanic eruptions on water vapour in the high-latitude upper troposphere is studied using deseasonalized time series based on observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) water vapour sensors, namely MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) and the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The two eruptions with the greatest impact on the high-latitude upper troposphere during the time frame of this satellite-based remote sensing mission are chosen. The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption in June 2011 was the most explosive in the past 24 years and is shown to be able to account for the observed (50 ± 12) % increase in water vapour in the southern high-latitude upper troposphere in July 2011 after a minor adjustment for the simultaneous influence of the Antarctic oscillation. Eyjafjallajökull erupted in the spring of 2010, increasing water vapour in the upper troposphere at northern high latitudes significantly for a period of ˜ 1 month. These findings imply that extratropical volcanic eruptions in windy environments can lead to significant perturbations to high-latitude upper tropospheric humidity mostly due to entrainment of lower tropospheric moisture by wind-blown plumes. The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption must be taken into account to properly determine the magnitude of the trend in southern high-latitude upper tropospheric water vapour over the last decade.

  2. First satellite identification of volcanic carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Alonso, Sara; Deeter, Merritt N.; Worden, Helen M.; Clerbaux, Cathy; Mao, Debbie; Gille, John C.

    2012-11-01

    Volcanic degassing produces abundant H2O and CO2, as well as SO2, HCl, H2S, S2, H2, HF, CO, and SiF4. Volcanic SO2, HCl, and H2S have been detected from satellites in the past; the remaining species are analyzed in situ or using airborne instruments, with all the consequent limitations in safety and sampling, and at elevated costs. We report identification of high CO concentrations consistent with a volcanic origin (the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions in Iceland) in data from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument (MOPITT) onboard EOS/Terra. The high CO values coincide spatially and temporally with ash plumes emanating from the eruptive centers, with elevated SO2 and aerosol optical thickness, as well as with high CO values in data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), onboard MetOp-A. CO has a positive indirect radiative forcing; climate models currently do not account for volcanic CO emissions. Given global volcanic CO2 emissions between 130 and 440 Tg/year and volcanic CO:CO2 ratios from the literature, we estimate that average global volcanic CO emissions may be on the order of ∼5.5 Tg/year, equivalent to the CO emissions caused by combined fossil fuel and biofuel combustion in Australia.

  3. Ash plume top height estimation using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, T. H.; Kolmonen, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2014-08-01

    An algorithm is presented for the estimation of volcanic ash plume top height using the stereo view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard Envisat. The algorithm is based on matching top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectances and brightness temperatures of the nadir and 55° forward views, and using the resulting parallax to obtain the height estimate. Various retrieval parameters are discussed in detail, several quality parameters are introduced, and post-processing methods for screening out unreliable data have been developed. The method is compared to other satellite observations and in situ data. The proposed algorithm is designed to be fully automatic and can be implemented in operational retrieval algorithms. Combined with automated ash detection using the brightness temperature difference between the 11 and 12 μm channels, the algorithm allows efficient simultaneous retrieval of the horizontal and vertical dispersion of volcanic ash. A case study on the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 is presented.

  4. Ash plume top height estimate using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, T. H.; Kolmonen, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2014-04-01

    An algorithm is presented for estimation of volcanic ash plume top height using the stereo view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard ENVISAT. The algorithm is based on matching the top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances and brightness temperatures of the nadir and 55° forward views, and using the resulting parallax to obtain the height estimate. Various retrieval parameters are discussed in detail, several quality parameters are introduced, and post-processing methods for screening out unreliable data have been developed. The method is compared against other satellite observations and in-situ data. The proposed algorithm is designed to be fully automatic, and can be implemented into operational retrieval algorithms. Combined with automated ash detection using the brightness temperature difference between the 11 μm and 12 μm channels, the algorithm allows simultaneous retrieval of horizontal and vertical dispersion of volcanic ash efficiently. A case study on the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 is presented. The height estimate method results are validated against available satellite and ground based data.

  5. Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling of Volcanic Ash using Data Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, K. L.; Watson, M.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Webster, H. N.; Thomson, D.; Dacre, H.; Prata, F.

    2015-12-01

    Eruption source parameters in volcanic ash dispersion and transport modelling, such as plume height and eruption rate, can often be highly uncertain. This can lead to significant uncertainties in the position and concentration of the modelled ash cloud downwind of the vent. Methods such as inversion modelling have successfully constrained such uncertainties, but in this work estimation of the eruption source parameters for the atmospheric dispersion model NAME is bypassed by implementing data insertion. Using this method under development, ash cloud properties retrieved from satellite imagery are used to create ash sources downwind from the volcano vent, from which dispersion simulations are initialised. Using the satellite retrievals, a set of simulations are initialised from different times and combined to create forecasts. In other experiments the simulations are sequentially updated using a probabilistic cloud / ash / clear classification scheme to correct the model state over time. Simulations from the Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn eruptions compare well against other established modelling methods and satellite observations.

  6. Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylling, A.; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; Nousiainen, T.

    2014-04-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic ash clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements effective particle radius and mass loading may be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculated thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compared these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry were calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres were found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates was found to underestimate mass loading compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles. The underestimate increases with the mass loading. For an ash cloud recorded during the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption, the mass-equivalent spheres underestimate the total mass of the ash cloud by approximately 30% compared to the morphologically complex inhomogeneous particles.

  7. Optical modeling of volcanic ash particles using ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merikallio, Sini; Muñoz, Olga; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Virtanen, Timo H.; Horttanainen, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Nousiainen, Timo

    2015-05-01

    The single-scattering properties of volcanic ash particles are modeled here by using ellipsoidal shapes. Ellipsoids are expected to improve the accuracy of the retrieval of aerosol properties using remote sensing techniques, which are currently often based on oversimplified assumptions of spherical ash particles. Measurements of the single-scattering optical properties of ash particles from several volcanoes across the globe, including previously unpublished measurements from the Eyjafjallajökull and Puyehue volcanoes, are used to assess the performance of the ellipsoidal particle models. These comparisons between the measurements and the ellipsoidal particle model include consideration of the whole scattering matrix, as well as sensitivity studies on the point of view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) instrument. AATSR, which flew on the ENVISAT satellite, offers two viewing directions but no information on polarization, so usually only the phase function is relevant for interpreting its measurements. As expected, ensembles of ellipsoids are able to reproduce the observed scattering matrix more faithfully than spheres. Performance of ellipsoid ensembles depends on the distribution of particle shapes, which we tried to optimize. No single specific shape distribution could be found that would perform superiorly in all situations, but all of the best-fit ellipsoidal distributions, as well as the additionally tested equiprobable distribution, improved greatly over the performance of spheres. We conclude that an equiprobable shape distribution of ellipsoidal model particles is a relatively good, yet enticingly simple, approach for modeling volcanic ash single-scattering optical properties.

  8. An oligarchic microbial assemblage in the anoxic bottom waters of a volcanic subglacial lake.

    PubMed

    Gaidos, Eric; Marteinsson, Viggo; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Jóhannesson, Tomas; Rúnarsson, Arni Rafn; Stefansson, Andri; Glazer, Brian; Lanoil, Brian; Skidmore, Mark; Han, Sukkyun; Miller, Mary; Rusch, Antje; Foo, Wilson

    2009-04-01

    In 2006, we sampled the anoxic bottom waters of a volcanic lake beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap (Iceland). The sample contained 5 x 10(5) cells per ml, and whole-cell fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR with domain-specific probes showed these to be essentially all bacteria, with no detectable archaea. Pyrosequencing of the V6 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, Sanger sequencing of a clone library and FISH-based enumeration of four major phylotypes revealed that the assemblage was dominated by a few groups of putative chemotrophic bacteria whose closest cultivated relatives use sulfide, sulfur or hydrogen as electron donors, and oxygen, sulfate or CO(2) as electron acceptors. Hundreds of other phylotypes are present at lower abundance in our V6 tag libraries and a rarefaction analysis indicates that sampling did not reach saturation, but FISH data limit the remaining biome to <10-20% of all cells. The composition of this oligarchy can be understood in the context of the chemical disequilibrium created by the mixing of sulfidic lake water and oxygenated glacial meltwater.

  9. Functional Information: Towards Synthesis of Biosemiotics and Cybernetics

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2012-01-01

    Biosemiotics and cybernetics are closely related, yet they are separated by the boundary between life and non-life: biosemiotics is focused on living organisms, whereas cybernetics is applied mostly to non-living artificial devices. However, both classes of systems are agents that perform functions necessary for reaching their goals. I propose to shift the focus of biosemiotics from living organisms to agents in general, which all belong to a pragmasphere or functional universe. Agents should be considered in the context of their hierarchy and origin because their semiosis can be inherited or induced by higher-level agents. To preserve and disseminate their functions, agents use functional information - a set of signs that encode and control their functions. It includes stable memory signs, transient messengers, and natural signs. The origin and evolution of functional information is discussed in terms of transitions between vegetative, animal, and social levels of semiosis, defined by Kull. Vegetative semiosis differs substantially from higher levels of semiosis, because signs are recognized and interpreted via direct code-based matching and are not associated with ideal representations of objects. Thus, I consider a separate classification of signs at the vegetative level that includes proto-icons, proto-indexes, and proto-symbols. Animal and social semiosis are based on classification, and modeling of objects, which represent the knowledge of agents about their body (Innenwelt) and environment (Umwelt). PMID:22368439

  10. Simulating atmospheric transport of the 2011 Grímsvötn ash cloud using a data insertion update scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, K. L.; Western, L. M.; Watson, I. M.

    2016-09-01

    Effective modelling of atmospheric volcanic ash dispersion is important to ensure aircraft safety, and has been the subject of much study since the Eyjafjallajökull ash crisis in Europe in 2010. In this paper, a novel modelling method is presented, where the atmospheric transport of the 2011 Grímsvötn ash cloud is simulated using a data insertion update scheme. Output from the volcanic ash transport and dispersion model, NAME, is updated using satellite retrievals and the results of a probabilistic ash, cloud and clear sky classification algorithm. A range of configurations of the scheme are compared with each other, in addition to a simple data insertion method presented in a previous study. Results show that simulations in which ash layer heights and depths are updated using the model output generally perform worse in relation to satellite derived ash coverage and ash column loading than simulations that use satellite-retrieved heights and an assumed layer depth of 1.0 km. Simulated ash column loading and concentration tends to be under-predicted using this update scheme, but the timing of the arrival of the ash cloud at Stockholm is well captured, as shown by comparison with lidar-derived mass concentration profiles. Most of the updated simulations in this comparison make small gains in skill on the simple data insertion scheme.

  11. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangliang; Heemink, Arnold; Lu, Sha; Segers, Arjo; Weber, Konradin; Lin, Hai-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an ensemble-based data assimilation system combined with a volcanic ash transport model to investigate the potential improvement on the forecast accuracy with regard to the distal volcanic ash plume. We show that the error of the analyzed volcanic ash state can be significantly reduced through assimilating real-life in situ measurements. After a continuous assimilation, it is shown that the aviation advice for Germany, the Netherlands and Luxembourg can be significantly improved. We suggest that with suitable aircrafts measuring once per day across the distal volcanic ash plume, the description and prediction of volcanic ash clouds in these areas can be greatly improved.

  12. Eyjafjallajokull Volcano Plume Particle-Type Characterization from Space-Based Multi-angle Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Limbacher, James

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Research Aerosol algorithm makes it possible to study individual aerosol plumes in considerable detail. From the MISR data for two optically thick, near-source plumes from the spring 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallaj kull volcano, we map aerosol optical depth (AOD) gradients and changing aerosol particle types with this algorithm; several days downwind, we identify the occurrence of volcanic ash particles and retrieve AOD, demonstrating the extent and the limits of ash detection and mapping capability with the multi-angle, multi-spectral imaging data. Retrieved volcanic plume AOD and particle microphysical properties are distinct from background values near-source, as well as for overwater cases several days downwind. The results also provide some indication that as they evolve, plume particles brighten, and average particle size decreases. Such detailed mapping offers context for suborbital plume observations having much more limited sampling. The MISR Standard aerosol product identified similar trends in plume properties as the Research algorithm, though with much smaller differences compared to background, and it does not resolve plume structure. Better optical analogs of non-spherical volcanic ash, and coincident suborbital data to validate the satellite retrieval results, are the factors most important for further advancing the remote sensing of volcanic ash plumes from space.

  13. The Effects of Volcano-Induced Ozone Depletion on Short-lived Climate Forcing in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2012-12-01

    Photodissociation of oxygen maintains the stratopause ~50°C warmer than the tropopause. Photodissociation of ozone warms the lower stratosphere, preventing most of this high-energy DNA-damaging solar radiation from reaching the troposphere. Ozone depletion allows more UV energy to reach the lower troposphere causing photodissociation of anthropogenic ozone and nitrogen dioxide. UV energy also penetrates the ocean >10 m where it is absorbed more efficiently than infrared radiation that barely penetrates the surface. Manmade chlorofluorocarbons caused ozone depletion from 1965 to 1994 with slow recovery predicted over the next 50+ years. But the lowest levels of ozone followed the eruptions of Pinatubo (1991 VEI=6), Eyjafjallajökull (2010 VEI=4), and Grímsvötn (2011 VEI=4). Each of the relatively small, basaltic eruptions in Iceland caused more ozone depletion than the long-term effects of chlorofluorocarbons, although total ozone appears to return to pre-eruption levels within a decade. Ozone depletion by 20% increases energy flux thru the lowermost troposphere by 0.7 W m-2 for overhead sun causing temperatures in the lower stratosphere to drop >2°C since 1958 in steps after the 3 largest volcanic eruptions: Agung 1963, El Chichón 1982, and Pinatubo. Temperatures at the surface increased primarily in the regions and at the times of the greatest observed ozone depletion. The greatest warming observed was along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (65.4°S) where minimum temperatures rose 6.7°C from 1951 to 2003 while maximum temperatures remained relatively constant. Minimum total column ozone in September-October was 40-56% lower than in 1972 almost every year since 1987, strongly anti-correlated with observed minimum temperatures. Sea ice decreased 10%, 7 ice shelves separated, 87% of the glaciers retreated and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed. Elsewhere under the ozone hole, warming of continental Antarctica was limited by the high albedo (0.86) of

  14. Unrest at Bárdarbunga: Preparations for possible flooding due to subglacial volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardardottir, Jorunn; Roberts, Matthew; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Einarsson, Bergur; Thorarinsdottir, Tinna; Johannesson, Tomas; Sigurdsson, Oddur; Egilson, David; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Imo hydrological-monitoring-team

    2015-04-01

    Located partly beneath northwest Vatnajökull, Iceland, the Bárdarbunga volcanic system comprises an ice-capped central volcano and a fissure swarm extending beyond the ice margin. During the last 1100 years the volcano has erupted on at least 26 occasions. Outburst floods (jökulhlaups) on a scale of >100,000 m3 s-1 are known to have occurred during major explosive eruptions. Repeated jökulhlaups from Bárdarbunga have inundated the Jökulsá á Fjöllum River, which drains over 200 km northwards from the Dyngjujökull outlet glacier to the north coast of Iceland. Depending on the location of the eruption within the 80 km2 caldera, jökulhlaups could also flow northwards along Skjálfandafljót River and towards west and southwest into present-day tributaries of the extensively hydropower-harnessed Thjórsá River. On 16 August 2014, an intense earthquake swarm began within the Bárdarbunga caldera. Seismicity propagated from the caldera, extending ~10 km northwards of the ice margin where a fissure eruption developed in late August and remains ongoing in early January 2015. In connection with the lateral migration of magma from the caldera, the ice surface of Bárdarbunga has lowered by over 60 m; also associated with increased geothermal heat on the caldera rim, as manifested by the development of ice-surface depressions. In preparation for a subglacial eruption in the Bárdarbunga volcanic system, the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) has made several assessments of likely hydrological hazards. Assessments were undertaken on Jökulsá á Fjöllum and Skjálfandafljót at key locations where preliminary evacuation plans for populated areas were made in cooperation with the local police. Floodwater extent was estimated for key infrastructures, such as bridges, telecommunication and power lines for maximum discharge levels ranging from 3,000 to 20,000 m3 s-1. The estimations were made using either simple Manning's calculations or HEC-RAS modelling

  15. European collaboration for improved monitoring of Icelandic volcanoes: Status of the FUTUREVOLC project after the initial 18 months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Heiðveig Maria; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Loughlin, Sue; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Hooper, Andrew; Kylling, Arve; Witham, Claire; Bean, Chris; Braiden, Aoife; Ripepe, Maurizio; Prata, Fred; Pétur Heiðarsson, Einar; Other Members Of The Futurevolc Team

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC project funded by the European Union (FP7) is devoted to volcanic hazard assessment and establishing an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure through a European collaboration. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise from 26 partners from 10 countries, focusing on the four most active volcanoes of Iceland: Grímsvötn, Katla, Hekla and Bárdarbunga. The geological setting of Iceland, the high rate of eruptions and the various eruption styles make this country an optimal natural laboratory to study volcanic processes from crustal depths to the atmosphere. The project, which began on 1 October 2012, integrates advanced monitoring and analytical techniques in an innovative way, focusing on (i) detailed monitoring to improve our understanding of the seismic/magmatic unrest, in order to estimate the amount of magma available for an eruption and to provide early warnings (ii) the dynamics of magma in the conduit and a near real time estimation of the mass eruption rate and (iii) observing and modelling the plume dynamics. The project design considers effective collaboration between partners and aims for efficient cross-disciplinary workflows. A major step during the first 18 months of the project was the installation of additional equipment in the volcanic regions of Iceland to reinforce and complement the existing monitoring. The instruments include: seismometers, GPS stations, MultigGAS detectors, DOAS, infrasonic arrays, electric field sensors, radars, and optical particle sizers. Data streaming is designed to withstand extreme weather conditions. The FUTUREVOLC project has an open data policy for real and near-time data. Implementation of a data hub is currently under way, based on open access to data from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access to volcano monitoring data through a common interface will allow timely information on magma movements facilitated through combined analysis. A key part of the project is to

  16. Monitoring of jökulhlaups and element fluxes in proglacial Icelandic rivers using osmotic samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Gałeczka, Iwona M.; Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Palmer, Martin R.; Mowlem, Matthew C.; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Jónsson, Þorsteinn; Gislason, Sigurður R.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of volatile emissions from volcanoes is an integral part of understanding magmatic systems, with the exsolution and extent of volcanic degassing having a large impact on the nature of an eruption. Measurements of volatiles have traditionally focused on gas emissions into the atmosphere, but volatiles can also become dissolved in proximal water bodies en route to the surface. Thus the monitoring of rivers draining active volcanic areas can provide insights to identifying changes in activity. This process is particularly important for sub-glacial volcanoes in Iceland, where much of the volatile release is transported within glacial outbreak floods, termed jökulhlaups. Monitoring and characterising these phenomena is hampered by the dependence on spot sampling of stochastic events under challenging field conditions, which often leads to bias in the collected data. A recent technological advance is the osmotic sampler, an electricity-free pump that continuously collects water that can subsequently be divided into time-averaged samples. This technique allows for continued and unsupervised deployment of a sampler for weeks to months, representing a cost-efficient form of chemical monitoring. In this study we deployed osmotic samplers in two rivers in southern Iceland. Skálm is a proglacial river from Mýrdalsjökull glacier and Katla volcano, while Skaftá is a larger drainage system from the western part of Vatnajökull glacier. Both rivers are prone to jökulhlaups from geothermal and volcanic sources, and a small jökulhlaup of geothermal origin occurred during the second deployment in Skaftá in January 2014. The two deployments show that osmotic samplers are capable of delivering accurate chemical data in turbulent conditions for several key elements. Total dissolved fluxes for the deployment at Skaftá are calculated to be Na = 9.9 tonnes/day, Mg = 10.5 t/d, Si = 34.7 t/d, Cl = 11.0 t/d, Ca = 31.6 t/d, DIC = 50.8 t/d, and SO4 = 28.3 t/d, with

  17. The 2014-2015 slow collapse of the Bárðarbunga caldera, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Roberts, Matthew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Pálsson, Finnur; Einarsson, Páll; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Drouin, Vincent; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Reynolds, Hannah I.; Dürig, Tobias; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Hensch, Martin; Munoz-Cobo Belart, Joaquin; Oddsson, Björn

    2015-04-01

    The Bárðarbunga caldera is located in central Iceland, under in NW corner of Vatnajökull ice cap. The caldera is about 65 km2 in area, with 500-600 m high topographic rims and is fully covered with up to 800 m thick ice. On 16 August 2014 an intense earthquake swarm started in Bárðarbunga, the beginning of a major volcano-tectonic rifting event forming a 45 km long dyke extending from the caldera to Holuhraun lava field outside the northern margin of Vatnajökull (Sigmundsson et al., 2014). A large basaltic, effusive fissure eruption began in Holuhraun on 31 August that by January had formed a lava field of volume in excess of one cubic kilometre. The collapse of the caldera is expected to have begun a few days after the onset of the earthquake swarm, probably coinciding with the first M5 earthquake. This slow caldera collapse has been monitored through repeated mapping of the gradually increasing subsidence bowl (~80 km2 in December) with airborne profiling of the ice surface, satellite mapping, an online GPS station set up in September on the glacier surface in the centre of the caldera with a strong motion sensor added in November, and indirectly through recording of seismic activity. Satellite interferograms constrain both ice movements and the rate of collapse. The rate of collapse was greatest in the first two weeks or 0.5-1 m/day in the centre, but has since gradually declined with time. The daily rate was 0.1-0.2 m/day in January, when the maximum lowering had reached about 60 m. A gradual widening of the subsidence bowl has been observed since early September. It is asymmetric, deepest in the NE part of the caldera. Downwards displacement extends outside the pre-existing topographic caldera rims, particularly on the south side where the rims have subsided by over 10 meters. Ice-flow modelling indicates that the ice is mostly passively subsiding with the caldera floor. Thus, horizontal ice flow has had little effect on the shape of the subsidence bowl

  18. Small volcanic