NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Chung; Chong, Yat C.; Fong, Chee K.
1989-06-01
Interaction of GHz and MHz radiation with CO2 laser propagation in a silver halide fiber using sBs based phonon coupling is furthet investigated. The external signal serves to both probe and enhance laser generated sBs phonons in the fiber. Efficient coupling of microwave radiation into the fiber is accomplished by placing the fiber in a hollow metallic waveguide, designed and constructed to transmit the dominant mode in the 0.9-2.0 GHz band. MHz radiation is conveniently coupled into the fiber using the guided microwave radiation as carrier. Phonon emissions from the fiber under CO2 laser pumping are first established on a spectrum analyzer; low frequency generators ale then tuned to match these frequencies and their maximum interaction recorded. Such interactions are systematically studied by monitoring the amplitude and waveform of the reflected and transmitted laser pulse at various power levels and frequencies of the externally coupled radiation. A plot of reflected laser power versus incident laser power reveals a distinct sBs generated phonon threshold. Variouslaunch directions of the GHz and MHz radiation with respect to the direction of laser propagation are realized to verify theory governing sBs interactions. The MHz radiation and its associated phonons in the fiber are convenient tools for probing sBs related phenomenon in infrared fibers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Dacheng; Su, Jianjia; Cui, Wei; Yan, Yaxi; Jiang, Peipei
2014-12-01
We report an all-fiberized SBS-based high repetition rate sub-nanosecond Yb fiber laser for supercontinuum generation. The high repetition rate ns laser pulses were produced from a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-constructed fiber laser cavity consisting of a piece of double cladding Yb fiber as the gain medium and a short piece of Bi/Cr-doped fiber as a saturable absorber (SA). By optimizing the fiber length of the Bi/Cr-doped fiber and the reflectivity of the FBG, the Q-switching state of the fiber laser can be adjusted so that the energy storing condition within the fiber cavity can assure the start of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and as a result, compress the laser pulse duration. The fiber laser had an average laser power output of 1.2 W at 1064 nm with pulse repetition rate of about 80 kHz, almost four times the reported results. The pulse duration was about 1 ns with peak power of about 15 kW. After one stage of amplification, the laser power was raised to about 3 W and was used to pump a 20 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Supercontiuum (SC) laser output was obtained with average power up to 1.24 W and spectrum spanning from 550 to 2200 nm.
Patient-centered care as value-added service by compounding pharmacists.
McPherson, Timothy B; Fontane, Patrick E; Day, Jonathan R
2013-01-01
The term "value-added" is widely used to describe business and professional services that complement a product or service or that differentiate it from competing products and services. The objective of this study was to determine compounding pharmacists' self-perceptions of the value-added services they provide. A web-based survey method was used. Respondents' perceptions of their most important value-added service frequently fell into one of two categories: (1) enhanced pharmacist contribution to developing and implementing patient therapeutic plans and (2) providing customized medications of high pharmaceutical quality. The results were consistent with a hybrid community clinical practice model for compounding pharmacists wherein personalization of the professional relationship is the value-added characteristic.
Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass
Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.
2014-01-01
In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid–liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass–solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed. PMID:25516718
Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass.
Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P
2014-12-01
In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass-solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed.
Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.
Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis
2015-04-15
This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma.
Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection of low polar compounds by adding NaAuCl4.
Moriwaki, Hiroshi
2016-11-01
Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) has been widely used for various analyses. However, it is difficult to use LC/ESI/MS for the analysis of low polar compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It is well known that AuCl4(-) ion decomposes to AuCl3 by heating, and AuCl3 is a strong π-electrophilic Lewis acid. Low polar compounds (pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, benzo[ghi]perylene, dibenzothiophene and p-dimethoxybenzene) were detected by ESI/MS in the positive ion mode by adding NaAuCl4 . The low polar compound interacts with AuCl3 formed at the ESI interface, and undergoes electron transfer to AuCl3 . The radical cation of the low polar compound was then detected by MS. In addition, the LC/ESI/MS determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the post-column addition of NaAuCl4 was studied. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Effect of temperature and some added compounds on the stability of blood orange marmalade.
Licciardello, Fabio; Muratore, Giuseppe
2011-09-01
Jams and marmalades are often wrongly believed to be stable products, as the degradation of pigments such as anthocyanins, browning reactions, and the formation of sugar degradation products may occur during storage. The paper aims at studying some of the degradation reactions occurring in blood orange marmalade stored at 20 °C and 35 °C. The addition of natural (tea extract) and naturally occurring (ascorbic acid, cysteine, gallic acid) compounds to marmalade was addressed at investigating the possible effect on retarding such phenomena. Results highlight the dependence of anthocyans and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) levels on the storage temperature. Marmalades added with cysteine, unlike the samples added with phenol compounds, showed higher anthocyans and lower HMF levels just after processing, together with a reduced anthocyan loss kinetics and a slowdown of HMF formation during storage at both temperatures. Transformation of blood oranges into marmalade represents an alternative to fresh market in periods when the high availability of the citrus causes the collapse of prices. Blood orange marmalade is characterized by a high nutritional value, however, it is not widely distributed yet. Its storability is limited by color and organoleptic changes that influence consumers' acceptance. The optimization of blood orange marmalade preparation could help producers improve storability and widen distribution. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Survival of added bacterial species and metabolism of toxic compounds in natural environments
King, V.M.
1987-01-01
Bacteria able to degrade either 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) or phenanthrene (PHEN) were isolated from polluted freshwater environments. Two isolates able to degrade each compound were tested for mineralization with a sensitive /sup 14/C assay and for survival in lake water and sewage using a selective medium. One DCP isolate was identified as Alcaligenes paradoxus and the other as Alcaligenes sp. One PHEN isolate was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and the other as Pseudomonas sp. All four isolates survived and grew in sterile environments which indicated that starvation would not be a factor in survival of these strains. The number of organisms declined immediately in number in nonsterile lake water. However, they did survive or even grow in nonsterile sewage for a short period before declining in number. Biotic factors appeared to be influential for survival and mineralization of target compounds in many environments. The removal of protozoa, which prey on bacteria, improved survival of the added cells, but had no influence on the mineralization of 10 ..mu..g DCP/L. In comparison, degradation of 10 and 25 mg DCP/L stopped after a few days. Yeast nitrogen base appeared to overcome the lack of nutrient regeneration, a function attributed to protozoa. The additional nutrients increased toxicant mineralization, especially when seeded with appropriate species. Thus, protozoa may limit growth of added cells but appear to be needed for mineralization of higher concentrations of DCP.
Bacillus aryabhattai BA03: a novel approach to the production of natural value-added compounds.
Paz, Alicia; Carballo, Julia; Pérez, María José; Domínguez, José Manuel
2016-10-01
A strain designated as BA03, with the ability to transform ferulic acid into vanillin and 4-vinylguaiacol, was isolated from contaminated cryovials. The production of natural value-added compounds was dependent on the media employed. The morphological and physiological characteristics of this strain were compared with those of the typical vanillin-producer strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116. According to a partial 16S rRNA sequence, we determined that BA03 belonged to Bacillus aryabhattai. In addition, analysis of the results showed that this strain exhibited interesting enzymatic activity, including cellulases, laccases, lipases and pectinases. In light of this, we propose new functions for this multitasking microorganism. We suggest that it may be used for converting lignocellulosic wastes into byproducts with industrial uses, and also for treating disposal residues such as dyes in the textile industry. Hence, the possibility for novel research with B. aryabhattai opens up in the fields of biodegradation and/or revalorization of wastes.
Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A
2014-01-01
The aim of the current study was the exploitation of agro-industrial wastes or by-products such as olive mill wastewater (OMW) and defective wines. A cost-effective system for their maximum exploitation is suggested, using a combined process of membrane filtration and other physicochemical processes. Wastewaters are first treated in a membrane system (prefiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) where pure water and other organic fractions (by-products) are obtained. Organic fractions, called hereafter byproducts and not wastes, are further treated for the separation of organic compounds and isolation of high added value products. Experiments were performed with OMW and defective wines as characteristic agro-industrial wastewaters. Profit from the exploitation of agro-industrial wastewaters can readily help the depreciation of the indeed high cost process of membrane filtration. The simple phenolic fraction of the OMW was successfully isolated from the rest of the waste, and problems occurring during winemaking, such as high volatile acidity and odours, were tackled.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun
2012-08-01
Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.
Characterization of Compounds Formed and added on surface of outdoor Seville city hall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robador, Maria Dolores; Alcalde, Manuel; Arroyo, Fatima; Albardonedo, Antonio; Perez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis
2013-04-01
The building of the City Hall of Seville constitutes one of the samples more important of the architecture plateresque in Andalusia. For centuries the stone façade has suffered different stages of restoration. These treatments joined the effects of the environmental pollution are responsible for formation and deposition of different chemical compounds on the surface of the monuments. This study will supply information of the environmental effects on the rock, and the treatments that have been performed in previous interventions. The petrographic study showed the presence of a carbonate rock of thin grain constituted essentially by bioclastos and fine sand. The study by scanning electron microscopy showed a compact and continuous cover that suggested a polymer layer. The infrared spectroscopy study confirmed presence of acrylic resin. This resin covered sometimes a black crust constituted by alkanes characterized by mass spectrometry. In addition was found nodules constitutes by C, Ca, Fe, Si and Ca. These compounds appeared with gypsum and were attributed to environment contamination produced by combustion. Materials were observed that cover volumetric lagoons for losses of pieces or were used to fix fragments of stones that were free or displaced. The study by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of gypsum. Mortars constituted by calcite (60%) and inert material (40%; mainly quartz, feldspar and mica) were also characterized. In flute of the stone was found a black crust under which appeared a yellowish layer. The portable X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of gypsum produced by environmental contamination. Gypsum was also found in the interior of the stone confirming that this mineral has emigrated due the high porosity of the stone. In some zones of the façade was detected some possible wall paintings. Cross-sections were prepared and studied by optical and scanning electron microscopes. A layer of
Synthesis of Superconducting 2223 Compound in the Lead-Added Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Ruixing; Ishii, Hisashi; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Itoh, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Tetsurō
1990-08-01
We report the synthesis of 2223 compound in the lead-added Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system by reacting (Sr, Ca)CuO2 and (Bi, Pb, Ca)2O3-z. Samples of nearly single 2223 phase with Tc(zero resistivity)>100 K were obtained after calcination for 36 h using this method, as compared to ≈ 50% 2223 phase for batches of mixed oxides and carbonates obtained by a similar calcination schedule.
Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E
2013-08-01
Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds.
Murthy, Tal V; Kroncke, Doug; Bonin, Paul D
2011-06-01
Miniaturizing experimental sample volumes to the nanoliter volume range is one of the most economical ways to perform mid- and high-throughput compound screening experiments. Existing automation platforms for nanoliter fluid handling can be bulky, expensive, and require periodic calibration to provide consistent liquid dispensing. In addition, even with frequent calibration, significant instrument-to-instrument variation in low-volume dispensing can occur between different instrument platforms. Many of these issues can be addressed by the use of PocketTips. PocketTips are tips with a defined internal pocket designed to hold specific nanoliter volumes of compound dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. Although the overall liquid-handling process with PocketTips uses the aspirate/dispense features of the specific liquid-handling device being used, the dispensed nanoliter volume is solely based on the dimensions of the pocket of the PocketTip and thus, the liquid-handling device itself need not have nanoliter dispensing capabilities. In this report, we demonstrate the performance of PocketTips on different automation platforms. In addition, we used a cell-based ß-lactamase reporter assay system to demonstrate that compound delivery by PocketTips compares favorably with a standard compound addition technique. Copyright © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Isolation of organic compounds with high added values from agro-industrial solid wastes.
Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A
2017-05-02
Phenols are organic compounds with high antioxidant activity. Occurring mainly in plants, where they act as pigments or even as part of defense mechanisms against insects and herbivores. Given the positive impact on on human health, their isolation and purification from agricultural products is of particular interest for the production of nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetics supplements. In our study different materials rich in phenolic compounds were used, in order to separate the phenolic content and maximum condensation using physicochemical methods such as solvent extraction, filtration through membranes, adsorption/desorption on resins and vacuum distillation. The materials tested were solid wastes from winery, cocoa residuals, olive leaves, etc. The first step for the treatment was the extraction of phenolic content using water-ethanol solutions which was initially optimized. Then, sequential membrane filtration of the extracts by Ultrafiltration membranes, Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis was performed to separate the contained compounds, based on their molecular weight. To remove non-polar compounds, with similar molecular weights with phenols, methods of adsorption/desorption on specific resins were developed, in order final ethanolic solutions rich in phenolic compounds to be obtained. Finally, the ethanol was removed by vacuum evaporation at low temperatures. The purification of olive leaf phenols is illustrated in details in the present work. The final obtained concentrate, was a rich phenolic concentrate and contained 98 g/L phenols in gallic acid equivalents. This technique, after modification, can be applied to a variety of phenol-rich byproducts, allowing the operation of phenol separation plant adjustable to local agricultural activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bacterial community structure within an activated sludge reactor added with phenolic compounds.
Gómez-Acata, Selene; Esquivel-Ríos, Ivonne; Pérez-Sandoval, Mariana Vivian; Navarro-Noya, Yendi; Rojas-Valdez, Aketzally; Thalasso, Frederic; Luna-Guido, Marco; Dendooven, Luc
2016-12-16
Biodegradation of phenolic compounds in bioreactors is well documented, but the changes in the bacterial populations dynamics during degradation were not that often. A glass bubble column used as reactor was inoculated with activated sludge, spiked with 2-chlorophenol, phenol and m-cresol after 28 days and maintained for an additional 56 days, while the 16S rRNA gene from metagenomic DNA was monitored. Proteobacteria (68.1%) dominated the inoculum, but the bacterial composition changed rapidly. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes decreased from 4.8 and 9.4 to <0.1 and 0.2% respectively, while that of Actinobacteria and TM7 increased from 4.8 and 2.0 to 19.2 and 16.1% respectively. Phenol application increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria to 94.2% (mostly Brevundimonas 17.6%), while that of Bacteroidetes remained low (1.2%) until day 42. It then increased to 47.3% (mostly Leadbetterella 46.9%) at day 84. It was found that addition of phenolic compounds did not affect the relative abundance of the Alphaproteobacteria initially, but it decreased slowly while that of the Bacteroidetes increased towards the end.
Tabera, Javier; Guinda, Angeles; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Señoráns, Francisco J; Ibáñez, Elena; Albi, Tomás; Reglero, Guillermo
2004-07-28
Countercurrent supercritical fluid extraction (CC-SFE) at a pilot scale plant was used for fractionation of high-added-value products from a raw extract of olive leaves in hexane. Compounds found in the raw extract were waxes, hydrocarbons, squalene, beta-carotene, triglycerides, alpha-tocopherol, beta-sitosterol, and alcohols. The CC-SFE extraction process was investigated according to a 2(3) full factorial experimental design using the following variables and ranges: extraction pressure, 75-200 bar; extraction temperature, 35-50 degrees C; and ethanol as modifier, 0-10%. Data were analyzed in terms of extraction yield, enrichment, recovery, and selectivity. Higher extraction yields were attained at 200 bar. For most of the compounds analyzed enrichment was attained at the same conditions, that is, 75 bar, 35 degrees C, and 10% ethanol. Hydrocarbons were usually recovered in the separators, whereas waxes and alpha-tocopherol remain in the raffinate. Selectivity data reveal that alpha-tocopherol is the most easily separable compound. The influence of the experimental factors on the recovery of all the compounds was studied by means of regression models. The best fitted model was attained for beta-sitosterol, with R2 = 99.25%. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society
Inhibition of PCDD/F by adding sulphur compounds to the feed of a hazardous waste incinerator.
Wu, Hai-Long; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Xu-Guang; Yan, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Miao-Sheng; Wang, Hua
2012-01-01
Sulphur compounds, including (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and pyrite, were tested as suppressants in a hazardous waste incineration facility. The test results suggested that adding sulphur compounds only slightly reduced PCDD/F stack emissions; this restricted effect was attributed to the release of fly ash in large amounts during the sulphur adding experiments, i.e., it was due to a malfunctioning of the baghouse filter. Nevertheless, for the combined flow of flue gas+fly ash a reduction of more than 50% was achieved for the total PCDD/F concentrations and the total toxic concentrations, and an even higher inhibition capability was observed for PCDD. Also, a simulation of the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions by sulphur dioxide was conducted in the domain of experimental interest. Deactivation of catalysts, which promote PCDD/F formation, was found to be the dominant inhibition mechanism in low temperature PCDD/F formation. SO(2) could also inhibit the formation of molecular Cl(2) via the Deacon reaction, but that was not the main reason for inhibition.
Viljanen, Kaarina; Kivikari, Riitta; Heinonen, Marina
2004-03-10
Oxidation of bovine serum albumin, casein, and lactalbumin and the effect of different procyanidins, anthocyanins, and their aglycons (10 and 20 microM) on lactalbumin oxidation were investigated in a liposome system. Samples were incubated in the dark at 37 degrees C with copper, and the extent of oxidation was measured by determining the loss of tryptophan fluorescence and the formation of protein carbonyls, conjugated diene hydroperoxides, and hexanal. The correlation between different protein and lipid oxidation measurements was good and statistically significant. Casein was the most stable protein in the liposome model, and it was also the best inhibitor of liposome oxidation. All tested anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds inhibited both lipid and protein oxidation. There were no systematic differences with anthocyanins and their aglycons in relation to the concentrations used or glycosylation with either glucose or rutinose. Procyanidins B1 and B2 and ellagic acid were potentially better antioxidants than anthocyanins due to their several hydroxyl groups as measured by both protein and lipid oxidation. In conclusion, oxidative deterioration of liposomes due to protein-lipid interaction is inhibited by anthocyanins, procyanidins, and ellagitannin present, for example, in berries.
Bonilla-Hermosa, Verónica Alejandra; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas
2014-08-01
The semi-dry processing of coffee generates significant amounts of coffee pulp and wastewater. This study evaluated the production of bioethanol and volatile compounds of eight yeast strains cultivated in a mixture of these residues. Hanseniaspora uvarum UFLA CAF76 showed the best fermentation performance; hence it was selected to evaluate different culture medium compositions and inoculum size. The best results were obtained with 12% w/v of coffee pulp, 1 g/L of yeast extract and 0.3 g/L of inoculum. Using these conditions, fermentation in 1 L of medium was carried out, achieving higher ethanol yield, productivity and efficiency with values of 0.48 g/g, 0.55 g/L h and 94.11% respectively. Twenty-one volatile compounds corresponding to higher alcohols, acetates, terpenes, aldehydes and volatile acids were identified by GC-FID. Such results indicate that coffee residues show an excellent potential as substrates for production of value-added compounds. H. uvarum demonstrated high fermentative capacity using these residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Erika S.; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe
2017-04-01
The rehabilitation of mining areas with sulfide materials, both abandoned and active mines, is a priority because these areas are sources of acid mine drainage and multielemental contamination and, consequently, environmental and health risk. The combined use of Technosols and Phytostabilisation accelerates the area recovery, and ensures the sustainability at long-term of the physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the rehabilitation due to the functional complementarity of the components. Nowadays the rehabilitation strategy of contaminated areas must be based on circular economy, environmental improvements and economic approaches. Cistus ladanifer L. is an autochthones and spontaneous species that contributes to natural rehabilitation of contaminated soils from mining areas. Moreover, bioextracts obtained from C. ladanifer growing in São Domingos mining area (Iberian Pyrite Belt) presented several valuable compounds, which can provide an economic return by their use for fragrance and pharmaceutical approaches. This study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the efficiency of an integrated system for the rehabilitation of sulfide-rich and gossan tailings, which combines the application of Technosols and Phytostabilisation, and exploitation of added-value compounds from C. ladanifer bioextracts. The rehabilitation system comprised a surface layer of Technosol and a barrier of alkaline residues (biomass ashes and limestone wastes) that covered sulfide-rich wastes. Two Tecnosols composed of gossan wastes and different mixtures of agro-industrial wastes (from distilleries and greenhouse agriculture without any valorisation) at 150 Mg/ha were tested. In the Technosols was seeded C. ladanifer. After three years of plant growth, shoots biomass was quantified and used to obtain bioextracts (extraction with n-hexane). The organic composition of the bioextracts was determined and some compounds with added value (α-pinene, camphene, camphor
Be'eri, Eliezer; Owen, Simon; Shachar, Mark; Barlavie, Yaron; Eisenkraft, Arik
2016-01-01
Standard-issue Chemical-Biological-Radio-Nuclear (CBRN) gasmasks, as used for protection from non-conventional warfare agents or toxic industrial compounds, cannot be used by ventilated patients, leaving them exposed to toxic agents inhaled via their ventilators. This study was conducted to determine the safety of a CBRN filter added to the patient circuit of a ventilator, as a method for affording inhalational protection to ventilated patients. A Landrace pig was ventilated sequentially with 3 types of ventilators according to 17 different ventilation protocols, with and without a CBRN filters added in-line to the ventilation tubing for each protocol. For each protocol, physiological parameters, including oxygen saturation, inspired CO2, end tidal CO2, inspired oxygen, respiratory rate, and pulse rate, as well as airflow parameters including peak inspiratory pressure, positive end expiratory pressure and tidal volume were measured. The impact on the ventilator's trigger/sensitivity function was evaluated in vitro using a Michigan test lung. On average, the addition of the CBRN filter resulted in a 16 ml (5 %) decrease (range 0-50 ml) in the tidal volume, a 1.7 cm H2O (10 %) decrease (range 1-3 cm H2O) in the peak inspiratory pressure, and a 0.1 cm H2O (3 %) decrease (range 0-1 cm H2O) in the positive end expiratory pressure delivered to the animal. Some ventilators compensated for these airflow changes while others did not, depending on the design of the ventilator's pressure/flow sensing mechanism. Significant rebreathing occurred when the filter was positioned directly on the animal's endotracheal tube, but not when positioned on the air outflow port of the ventilator. In vitro measurements showed that the addition of the CBRN filter added a mean pressure gradient of 0.45 cm H2O to the trigger/sensitivity function of the system. In-line addition of a CBRN filter to ventilation tubing is a feasible strategy for affording inhalational protection to
Ram, M S; Seitz, L M; Rengarajan, R
1999-10-01
An autosampler attached to a purge and trap instrument was used to aid routine analyses of grain samples for volatile compounds associated with off-odors. Trapped volatiles were transferred to a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer instrument for separation and detection. Dynamic extraction of volatiles from approximately 18 g of whole grain at 80 degrees C was accomplished by purging helium through a sample vial with a Teflon-lined septum on each end. The autosampler automatically added internal standard to the sample before purging began, which required the addition of 1 mL of water for complete transfer of the standard to the sample. The added water enhanced extraction of 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octen-3-one, and some other compounds from soybeans but not from starchy grains such as corn and wheat. Addition of a free radical scavenger, such as citric acid, greatly diminished the recovery of 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-one from soybeans.
Manetti, Fabrizio; Tintori, Cristina; Armand-Ugón, Mercedes; Clotet-Codina, Imma; Massa, Silvio; Ragno, Rino; Esté, José A; Botta, Maurizio
2006-01-01
The HIV-1 entry process is an important target for the design of new pharmaceuticals for the multidrug therapy of AIDS. A lot of polyanionic compounds, such as polysulfonated and polysulfated, are reported in the literature for their ability to block early stages of HIV-1 replication. Several studies have been performed to elucidate the mechanism of the anti-HIV-1 activity of sulfated polysaccharides and polyanions in general, including binding to cell surface CD4 and interfering with the gp120-coreceptor interaction. Here, we show molecular modeling investigations on ADS-J1, a polyanionic compound with anti-HIV activity that is able to interfere with gp120-coreceptor interactions. Agreeing with experimental data, computer simulations suggested that the V3 loop of gp120 was the preferential binding site for ADS-J1 onto HIV-1. Moreover, mutations induced by the inhibitor significantly changed the stereoelectronic properties of the gp120 surface, justifying a marked drop in the affinity of ADS-J1 toward an ADS-J1-resistant HIV-1 strain.
Parra, Andres; Lopez, Pilar E; Garcia-Granados, Andres
2010-02-01
Starting from solid wastes from two-phase olive-oil extraction, the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and maslinic acid were isolated. These natural compounds were transformed into methyl olean-12-en-28-oate (5), which then was transformed into several seco-C-ring triterpene compounds by chemical and photolytic modifications. The triene seco-products were fragmented through several oxidative procedures to produce, simultaneously, cis- and trans-decalin derivatives, both potential synthons for bioactive compounds. The chemical behavior of the isolated fragments was investigated, and a suitable approach to several low-molecular-weight terpenes was performed. These are interesting processes for the value-addition to solid waste from the olive-oil industry.
Pozzo, Luisa; Pucci, Laura; Buonamici, Guglielmo; Giorgetti, Lucia; Maltinti, Maristella; Longo, Vincenzo
2015-09-01
The effects of white wheat bread and white wheat bread added with a bioactive compound mixture (Cyclanthera pedata, Glycine max, Monascus-fermented red mold rice, Cynara scolymus and Medicago sativa) were examined on hypercholesterolemic and steatotic mice, divided into four groups: control diet (CTR), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet with white wheat bread added with 1.5 g kg(-1) of mixture (HFD+AB) and high-fat diet with white wheat bread (HFD+B). Total serum cholesterol in the HFD+AB and HFD+B groups and hepatic triglycerides in the HFD+AB group decreased compared with the HFD group. Liver histology confirmed lower lipid drop accumulation in the HFD+AB group than in the HFD and HFD+B groups. HFD+AB caused a 7.0-fold increase and a 3.5-fold reduction in CYP7A1 and SREBP-1c gene expression respectively compared with the HFD group. Moreover, the HFD+B group showed a 2.2-, 8.4- and 1.5-fold increase in HMG CoA reductase, CYP7A1 and LDLr gene expression respectively compared with the HFD group. Both the white wheat bread and the added white wheat bread induced cholesterol reduction by increasing CYP7A1. Moreover, the added white wheat bread improved steatosis by decreasing SREBP-1c gene expression. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves
2015-09-01
The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE.
Yammine, Sami; Brianceau, Sylène; Manteau, Sébastien; Turk, Mohammad; Ghidossi, Rémy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine
2016-12-21
Grape byproducts are today considered as a cheap source of valuable compounds since existent technologies allow the recovery of target compounds and their recycling. The goal of the current article is to explore the different recovery stages used by both conventional and alternative techniques and processes. Alternative pre-treatments techniques reviewed are: ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields and high voltage discharges. In addition, nonconventional solvent extraction under high pressure, specifically, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction are discussed. Finally alternative purification technologies, for example membrane processing were also examined. The intent is to describe the mechanisms involved by these alternative technologies and to summarize the work done on the improvement of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from winery by-products. With a focus on the developmental stage of each technology, highlighting the research need and challenges to be overcome for an industrial implementation of these unitary operations in the overall extraction process. A critical comparison of conventional and alternative techniques will be reviewed for ethe pre-treatment of raw material, the diffusion of polyphenols and the purification of these high added value compounds. This review intends to give the reader some key answers (costs, advantages, drawbacks) to help in the choice of alternative technologies for extraction purposes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murzakov, M. A.; Chirikov, S. N.; Markushov, Y. V.
2016-09-01
The paper is aimed at research of coatings, which are achieved by means of laser cladding with additives of nanoparticles of high-melting compounds in form of tungsten carbide and tantalum (WC and TaC). In the course of experiment, various ceramic powder concentrations were tested. Main technological characteristics were determined. Power density amounted to 0.68-0.98 MW/cm2. During the coating wear resistance measurement, it was discovered that increase in nanopowder concentration extended wear resistance of coating 2-6 times. Wear resistance measurement and wear coefficient calculation were performed using Brinell-Howarth method. The load was 15 N, load time was 10 minutes. Optical metallographic microscope Neophot-30 was used to study microstructure of the deposited coatings. To reveal microstructure of the deposited coatings, the samples were exposed to chemical etching. Elemental composition of the samples was determined by the methods of X- ray microanalysis in testing solution using electron microscope EVO-50 under acceleration voltage 10-20 kV (probe current 5-50 nA) using energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectrometers.
Effect of Green Tea-Added Tablets on Volatile Sulfur-Containing Compounds in the Oral Cavity.
Porciani, Pier Francesco; Grandini, Simone
2016-12-01
A controlled, clinical, double-blind, cross-over study was conducted to assess the efficacy of sugar-free tablets containing green tea extract on oral volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC) versus placebo tablets for 30 minutes. To join the study, subjects had to have at least 24 teeth, no report of oral and systemic diseases, and no removable dentures. All eligible participants had to avoid professional oral hygiene and drugs for two weeks, to not be menstruating, to avoid brushing their teeth and tongue, to not smoke, to not consume alcohol, coffee or tea, nor onion, garlic, or licorice for six hours before the test. Moreover, they had to score a level of VSC ≥ 75 ppb at the basal measurement. Subjects were entered into their respective groups after a minimum 48-hour wash-out period. The test tablet (0.7 g) contained 0.05% green tea extract (equivalent of 1 mg polyphenols for three tablets); the control tablet was identical but without the active agent. The OralChroma2™ device was utilized to evaluate VSC in the oral air. The levels were recorded at baseline, after sucking three tablets in succession, and after 30 minutes. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and significance was set at α = 0.05. 54 subjects completed the trial (23 men, 31 women). None reported problems linked to green tea. The mean reductions in VSC level from baseline at the end of tablet sucking were 34% (p < 0.001) in the control and 55% (p < 0.001) in the test group; after 30 minutes, reductions were 7% in the control (p = NS) and 26% (p < 0.005) in the test group. The comparisons between the two groups after baseline adjustment showed a statistically significant difference in reductions both at the end of the sucking period (p < 0.01) and after 30 minutes (p < 0.01). Tablets containing green tea extract can statistically significantly reduce the oral VSC levels immediately, and after 30 minutes. Moreover, the test tablets reduced oral VSC significantly more than the control
Angelis, Apostolis; Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Nikou, Theodora; Michailidis, Dimitris; Gerolimatos, Panagiotis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Hubert, Jane; Halabalaki, Maria; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Léandros
2017-03-31
An integrated extraction and purification process for the direct recovery of high added value compounds from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is proposed by using solid support free liquid-liquid extraction and chromatography techniques. Two different extraction methods were developed on a laboratory-scale Centrifugal Partition Extractor (CPE): a sequential strategy consisting of several "extraction-recovery" cycles and a continuous strategy based on stationary phase co-current elution. In both cases, EVOO was used as mobile phase diluted in food grade n-hexane (feed mobile phase) and the required biphasic system was obtained by adding ethanol and water as polar solvents. For the sequential process, 17.5L of feed EVOO containing organic phase (i.e. 7L of EVOO treated) were extracted yielding 9.5g of total phenolic fraction corresponding to a productivity of 5.8g/h/L of CPE column. Regarding the second approach, the co-current process, 2L of the feed oil phase (containing to 0.8L of EVOO) were treated at 100mL/min yielding 1.03g of total phenolic fraction corresponding to a productivity of 8.9g/h/L of CPE column. The total phenolic fraction was then fractionated by using stepwise gradient elution Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The biphasic solvent systems were composed of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water in different proportions (X/Y/2/3, v/v). In a single run of 4h on a column with a capacity of 1L, 910mg of oleocanthal, 882mg of oleacein, 104mg of hydroxytyrosol were successfully recovered from 5g of phenolic extract with purities of 85%, 92% and 90%, respectively. CPC fractions were then submitted to orthogonal chromatographic steps (adsorption on silica gel or size exclusion chromatography) leading to the isolation of additional eleven compounds belonging to triterpens, phenolic compounds and secoiridoids. Among them, elenolic acid ethylester was found to be new compound. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzumura, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji
2014-06-01
Recently, Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu3SbSe4, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3 have attracted much attention because of their high thermoelectric performance and their common feature of very low thermal conductivity. However, for practical use, materials without toxic elements such as selenium are preferable. In this paper, we report Se-free Cu3SbS4 thermoelectric material and improvement of its figure of merit ( ZT) by chemical substitutions. Substitutions of 3 at.% Ag for Cu and 2 at.% Ge for Sb lead to significant reductions in the thermal conductivity by 37% and 22%, respectively. These substitutions do not sacrifice the power factor, thus resulting in enhancement of the ZT value. The sensitivity of the thermal conductivity to chemical substitutions in these compounds is discussed in terms of the calculated phonon dispersion and previously proposed models for Cu-based chalcogenides. To improve the power factor, we optimize the hole carrier concentration by substitution of Ge for Sb, achieving a power factor of 16 μW/cm K2 at 573 K, which is better than the best reported for Se-based Cu3SbSe4 compounds.
Li, Lin; Xu, Shaofeng; Liu, Lifei; Feng, Rentian; Gong, Yongxiang; Zhao, Xuyang; Li, Jiang; Cai, Jie; Feng, Nan; Wang, Ling; Wang, Xiaoliang; Peng, Ying
2017-01-01
The dyshomeostasis of transition metal ions, accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) senile plaques and neuroinflammatory response found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been suggested to be involved in AD pathogenesis. Novel compounds capable of targeting metal-Aβ species and neuroinflammation would be valuable. AD-35 is such a patented small-molecule compound derived from innovative modification of the chemical structure of donepezil. This compound could moderately inhibit acetylcholinesterase and metal-induced Aβ aggregation in vitro and showed disassembly of Aβ aggregates. The effects of AD-35 on cognitive impairments and neuroinflammatory changes caused by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35 were studied in rats. Compared to sham group, Aβ25-35 injection significantly led to learning and memory deficits, astrocyte activation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines releases (TNF-α and IL-1β). Further studies indicated that the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was involved in astrocyte activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Oral administration of AD-35 could markedly attenuate Aβ25-35 injection-induced astrocyte activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β release, and memory deficits. On the contrary, donepezil only showed inhibition of IL-1β production, but failed to block astrocyte activation and TNF-α production. These results showed that AD-35 would be a novel multi-mechanism drug for the prevention and/or treatment of AD.
Local monitoring of post-treatment drinking water using bench-top mass spectrometers could identify target compounds in a mass spectral library. However, a terrorist might seek to incite greater hysteria by injecting or infusing a mixture of unanticipated compounds of unknown tox...
Local monitoring of post-treatment drinking water using bench-top mass spectrometers could identify target compounds in a mass spectral library. However, a terrorist might seek to incite greater hysteria by injecting or infusing a mixture of unanticipated compounds of unknown tox...
Jiménez-Martí, Elena; Aranda, Agustín; Mendes-Ferreira, Alexandra; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; del Olmo, Marcel Lí
2007-07-01
Nitrogen starvation may lead to stuck and sluggish fermentations. These undesirable situations result in wines with high residual sugar, longer vinification times, and risks of microbial contamination. The typical oenological method to prevent these problems is the early addition of ammonium salts to the grape juice, although excessive levels of these compounds may lead to negative consequences for the final product. This addition reduces the overall fermentation time, regardless of the time of addition, but the effect is more significant when nitrogen is added during the yeast exponential phase. In this work we analysed the effect of adding different nitrogen sources (ammonia, amino acids or a combination of both) under nitrogen depletion in order to understand yeast metabolic changes that lead to the adaptation to the new conditions. These studies were carried out in a synthetic must that mimics the composition of the natural must. Furthermore, we studied how this addition affects fermentative behaviour, the levels of several yeast volatile compounds in the final product, arginase activity, and the expression of several genes involved in stress response and nitrogen metabolism during vinification. We found that the nature of the nitrogen source added during yeast late exponential growth phase introduces changes to the volatile compounds profile and to the gene expression. On the other hand, arginase activity and the expression of the stress response gene ACA1 are useful to monitor nitrogen depletion/addition during growth of the wine yeast considered under our vinification conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David
2016-11-01
We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
UCLA IDEA, 2012
2012-01-01
Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…
Azabou, Samia; Taheur, Fadia Ben; Jridi, Mourad; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef
2017-08-09
The chemical composition and the antioxidant properties of Capsicum annum discarded seeds from processing industry with their corresponding extracted oil were investigated. C. annum seeds had high levels of crude proteins (18.30%), crude oil (11.04%), and dietary fibers (60.96%). The lipophilic fraction of C. annum seeds showed higher radical scavenging activity compared to their hydrophilic fraction, while this latter exhibited the highest reducing power. The results of fatty acid composition showed that fatty acids present in C. annum seed oil were mainly polyunsaturated (84.23%), with linoleic acid being the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (70.93%). The major monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (12.18%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (11.90%). C. annum seed oil showed high absorbance in the UV-B, UV-A, and visible ranges. Owing to their composition, C. annum seeds discarded from pepper processing industry as by-product could be potentially used as high added-value ingredients in some food or nutraceutical formulations because they are well endowed with essential nutriments required for human health.
Amaral, Helena I F; Aeppli, Christoph; Kipfer, Rolf; Berg, Michael
2011-10-01
The evaluation of biotransformation of chlorinated ethenes (CEs) in contaminated aquifers is challenging when variable redox conditions and groundwater flow regime are limiting factors. By using compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (C-CSIA) and ³H-³He based groundwater dating, we assessed three CE-contaminated field sites that differed in groundwater flow velocities, redox conditions, and level of contamination. CE isotopic signatures and carbon isotopic mass balances were applied to quantify CE transformation, whereas groundwater dating allowed determining degradation timescales and assessing hydrodynamic regimes. The combination of these techniques enabled at all field sites to indicate zones within the aquifers where CE dechlorination preferably occurred, sometimes even to metabolites of no toxic concern. However, the natural transformation processes were insufficient to mitigate the entire CE contamination at the studied sites. Such situations of limited transformation are worldwide far more common than sites where optimal natural (mainly redox) conditions are enabling complete CEs degradation. Despite such constraints for natural transformation, this study showed that even under non-favorable biogeochemical CEs degradation, the combination of CSIA and groundwater dating provide valuable information to the understanding of the fate of the CEs, thus, being an important contribution in the definition of efficient remediation measures at any given biogeochemical conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.
1999-01-01
The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…
2013-10-01
The German Ad-hoc Working Group on Indoor Guidelines of the Indoor Air Hygiene Committee and of the States' Supreme Health Authorities is issuing indoor air guide values to protect public health. Naphthalene is a potentially volatile two-ring hydrocarbon with a mothball-like odor. Indoor air contaminations usually originate from tar-containing building products, sometimes from the use of mothballs. In Germany, indoor air concentrations of naphthalene are usually low, near the detection limit (medians of about 0.001 mg/m3, 95th percentiles up to 0.004 mg/m3). Naphthalene-like volatile compounds have been defined to cover methyl- and dimethylnaphthalenes and tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, fluorene and phenanthrene). Though methylnaphthalenes and dimethylnaphthalenes usually show low indoor air concentrations, they have been suspected to add to the mothball-like odor. Tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mostly occur below 0.001 mg/m3 of indoor air. Against this background naphthalene is seen to be the key component of this group of substances in indoor air. No valid human data is available with respect to health effects of inhaled naphthalene. Based on animal data cytotoxic-inflammatory lesions in the rat nasal epithelium are regarded as the critical endpoint. In a subchronic inhalation study in rats (Dodd et al., Inhal Toxicol 24:70–79, 2012), minimal effects were observed following an exposure to 5 mg naphthalene/m3. From this study the Ad-hoc Working Group derived a chronic NAEC of 2.5 mg naphthalene/m3. Time scaling was considered by a factor of 5.6 extrapolating from 6 to 24 h and 5 to 7 days, a factor of 2 applied for the use of F344 rats instead of the more sensitive Sprague-Dawley rats. Incorporating an interspecies factor of 1, an intraspecies factor of 10 and a factor of 2 for insufficient data on the toxicity of naphthalene in children resulted in a precautionary value of 0.01 mg naphthalene/m3 and a hazard
Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.
2011-01-01
Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew
2009-03-01
Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew
2009-03-01
Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara
2015-11-01
We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.
Axion wormholes in AdS compactifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertog, Thomas; Trigiante, Mario; Van Riet, Thomas
2017-06-01
We find regular axionic Euclidean wormhole solutions in Type IIB string theory compactified on {AdS}_5× {S}^5/{Z}_k . AdS/CFT enables a precise derivation of the axion content of the Euclidean theory, placing the string theory embedding of the wormholes on firm footing. This further sharpens the paradox posed by these solutions.
Stabilized Lanthanum Sulphur Compounds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, George H. (Inventor); Elsner, Norbert B. (Inventor); Shearer, Clyde H. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
Lanthanum sulfide is maintained in the stable cubic phase form over a temperature range of from 500 C to 1500 C by adding to it small amounts of calcium, barium. or strontium. This novel compound is an excellent thermoelectric material.
Added sugars and micronutrient dilution.
Livingstone, M B E; Rennie, K L
2009-03-01
There is increasing concern that high intakes of added sugars promote micronutrient dilution. However, the overall conclusion to emerge from the existing evidence base is that associations between reported intakes of added sugars and intakes of micronutrients are inconsistent and often non-linear, both across and within age groups, and between the genders. If a nutrient displacement effect does exist, a high consumption of added sugar does not necessarily compromise overall micronutrient intakes and similarly, consuming less added sugar is no guarantee that micronutrient intakes will be optimized. Clarification of this issue has been beset by methodological and conceptual difficulties. The observed associations between added sugars and micronutrient intake have been heavily contingent on both the definition of sugars chosen and the analytical approach used for adjusting for differences in reported energy intake. These issues have been further compounded by mis-reporting of food intake of unknown direction and magnitude and the cut-offs used to determine 'inadequate' micronutrient intakes which vary over time and between studies and countries. In the absence compelling evidence that micronutrient intakes are compromised by a high consumption of added sugars, it may now be appropriate to question the legitimacy of the nutrient dilution hypothesis as it is highly likely that it is oversimplifying more subtle and complex dietary issues. Recommendations for further research are made to help bring resolution to these issues.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning
2003-06-01
We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.
AdS2 D-branes in Lorentzian AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deliduman, Cemsinan
2003-09-01
The boundary states for two dimensional anti de Sitter (AdS2) Dirichlet-branes (D-branes) in Lorentzian AdS3 space-time are presented. AdS2 D-branes are algebraically defined by twisted Dirichlet boundary conditions and are located on twisted conjugacy classes of SL(2,R). Using the free-field representation of symmetry currents in the SL(2,R) Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model, the twisted Dirichlet gluing conditions among currents are translated to matching conditions among free fields and then to boundary conditions among the modes of free fields. The Ishibashi states are written as coherent states on AdS3 in the free field formalism and it is shown that twisted Dirichlet boundary conditions are satisfied on them. The tree-level amplitude of propagation of closed strings between two AdS2 D-branes is evaluated and by comparing it with the characters of sl^(2,R) Kac-Moody algebra it is shown that only states in the principal continuous series representation of sl^(2,R) Kac-Moody algebra contribute to the amplitude and thus they are the only ones that couple to AdS2 D-branes. The form of the character of sl^(2,R) principal continuous series and the boundary condition among the zero modes are used to determine the physical boundary states for AdS2 D-branes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertog, Thomas
2004-12-01
We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.
Probing crunching AdS cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav
2016-02-01
Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea
2016-05-01
It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis
2016-12-01
We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained
Cvetic, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis
2016-12-02
Here, we construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetriesmore » and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger, in agreement with the results of Castro and Song. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S2 or conformally AdS2 × S2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. As a result, the four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called ‘subtracted geometries
Salman, Mustafa; Muğlali, Omer Hakan; Selçuk, Zehra
2009-06-01
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of inorganic and organic selenium compounds supplementations to diets containing adequate selenium in broilers on performance, carcass traits, plasma and tissue glutathione peroxidase activity. A total of 150 one-day-old broilers were randomized into one control and two treatment groups each containing 50 birds; each group was then divided into 3 replicate groups. The experiment lasted 42 days. All groups were fed with broiler starter diet from day 1 to 21 and finisher diet from day 22 to 42. The basal diet for control group included adequate selenium due to vitamin-mineral premix and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.2 mg/kg organic selenium (selenomethionine, treatment group 1) and 0.2 mg/kg inorganic selenium (sodium selenite, treatment group 2). Although no significant differences were determined between treatment group 1 and the control group for mean body weights, the differences between the group given inorganic selenium and the other groups were statistically significant (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between control and treatment groups with regard to mean feed intake and feed efficiency. The dressing percentages of the second treatment group were found to be lower than the first treatment group. Treatment groups were observed to have increased levels of glutathione peroxidase in plasma (p <0.01), kidney (p < 0.05), femoral muscle (p < 0.05), heart (p < 0.01) and liver tissue (p < 0.01) compared with the control group. Results of this study indicated that the supplementation of organic selenium to diets containing adequate selenium increased plasma, liver, femoral muscle, kidney and heart tissue glutathione peroxidase activity in broilers.
Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena
2008-06-01
The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.
1981-01-01
The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.
Microbial production of value-added nutraceuticals.
Wang, Jian; Guleria, Sanjay; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Yan, Yajun
2016-02-01
Nutraceuticals are important natural bioactive compounds that confer health-promoting and medical benefits to humans. Globally growing demands for value-added nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of human diseases have rendered nutraceuticals a multi-billion dollar market. However, supply limitations and extraction difficulties from natural sources such as plants, animals or fungi, restrict the large-scale use of nutraceuticals. Metabolic engineering via microbial production platforms has been advanced as an eco-friendly alternative approach for production of value-added nutraceuticals from simple carbon sources. Microbial platforms like the most widely used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been engineered as versatile cell factories for production of diverse and complex value-added chemicals such as phytochemicals, prebiotics, polysaccaharides and poly amino acids. This review highlights the recent progresses in biological production of value-added nutraceuticals via metabolic engineering approaches.
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ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waubonsee Community Coll., Sugar Grove, IL.
The Waubonsee Community College Ad Hocracy model of governance incorporates the concept of a streamlined, flexible organizational structure which allows for voluntary participation in problem-solving and decision-making. Central to this model is the concept of open meetings which provide for the consideration of all views and the reaching of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richards, Andrew
2015-01-01
Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richards, Andrew
2015-01-01
Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.
1999-05-01
The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
This photograph shows the AD-1 aircraft in low-speed flight. The pivoting wing was intended to increase the fuel economy of a supersonic aircraft. The Ames-Dryden-1 (AD-1) aircraft was designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (pivoting) wing. The wing could be rotated on its center pivot, so that it could be set at its most efficient angle for the speed at which the aircraft was flying. NASA Ames Research Center Aeronautical Engineer Robert T. Jones conceived the idea of an oblique wing. His wind tunnel studies at Ames (Moffett Field, CA) indicated that an oblique wing design on a supersonic transport might achieve twice the fuel economy of an aircraft with conventional wings. The oblique wing on the AD-1 pivoted about the fuselage, remaining perpendicular to it during slow flight and rotating to angles of up to 60 degrees as aircraft speed increased. Analytical and wind tunnel studiesthat Jones conducted at Ames indicated that a transport-sized oblique-wing aircraft flying at speeds of up to Mach 1.4 (1.4 times the speed of sound) would have substantially better aerodynamic performance than aircraft with conventional wings. The AD-1 structure allowed the project to complete all of its technical objectives. The type of low-speed, low-cost vehicle - as expected - exhibited aeroelastic and pitch-roll-coupling effects that contributed to poor handling at sweep angles above 45 degrees. The fiberglass structure limited the wing stiffness that would have improved the handling qualities. Thus, after completion of the AD-1 project, there was still a need for a transonic oblique-wing research aircraft to assess the effects of compressibility, evaluate a more representative structure, and analyze flight performance at transonic speeds (those on either side of the speed of sound). The aircraft was delivered to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, in March 1979 and its first flight was on December 21, 1979. Piloting the aircraft on that flight, as well as
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirata, Akihiro
1997-08-01
The recent low price trend of electronic products has made IC manufacturing efficiency a top priority in the semiconductor industry. Post mold cure (PMC) process, which generally involves heating the packages in the oven at 175 C for 4 to 8 hours, takes up much longer time than most other assembly processes. If this PMC process can be reduced or eliminated, semiconductor makers will be rewarded with a much higher cost merit. We define the purpose of Non-PMC as 'to get high reliability with suitable physical and electrical properties without PMC'. We compared carious properties of molding compound before and after PMC. We found that curing reaction has almost complete through DSC and C-NMR measurement, but several properties have not stabilized yet, and that not all properties after PMC were better than before PMC. We developed new grade of molding compound considering these facts. And we found that main factors to accomplish non-PMC compound are curability and flowability, and more, increasing of fundamental properties. To accomplish non-PMC, at first, molding compound need to have very high curability. Generally speaking, too high curability causes low flowability, and causes incomplete filing, wire sweep, pad shift, and weak adhesion to inner parts of IC packages. To prevent these failures, various compound properties were studied, and we achieved in adding good flowability to very high curable molding compound. Finally, anti-popcorn property was improved by adding low moisture, high adhesion, high Tg, and high flexural strengths at high temperature. Through this study, we developed new compound grade for various package, especially large QFP using standard ECN resin.
TRIFLUOROMETHYL COMPOUNDS OF GERMANIUM
FLUORIDES, *GERMANIUM COMPOUNDS, *HALIDES, *ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, ALKYL RADICALS, ARSENIC COMPOUNDS, CHEMICAL BONDS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS ...CHLORIDES, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, HYDROLYSIS, IODIDES, METHYL RADICALS, POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, PYROLYSIS, STABILITY, SYNTHESIS, TIN COMPOUNDS.
[Enantioseparation behavior of chiral stationary phases AD, AS and OD].
Li, Liqun; Fan, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Tai; He, Jianfeng; Zhang, Weiguang
2016-01-01
Over the past decades, HPLC enantioseparation with chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been widely applied in chiral analysis and preparation of new pharmaceuticals, pesticides, food, etc. Herein, enantioseparation of 20 chiral compounds have been carried out on three polysaccharide-based CSPs (EnantioPak AD, AS and OD) with normal phases by HPLC, separately. The influences of skeletal structure and the kinds of derivative groups on separation behaviors of these CSPs have been studied in detail. As results indicated, except for compound 13, the other compounds were baseline separated on EnantioPak AD, with most of resolution over 2. 0; in addition, better separation for acidic or basic compounds was achieved through adding acidic/basic additives into the mobile phase of hexane-alcohol. For four aromatic alcohols (compounds 13-16), their retention in the EnantioPak AD column showed a weakening tendency with increase of carbon number in side chain group, and the reverse trend of their resolution was observed. Furthermore, EnantioPak AD showed much better separation performance for eight compounds (13-20) than the others. In short, these results have provided some references for further investigation of separation behavior and applications of polysaccharide-based CSPs.
AdS cycles in eternally inflating background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhi-Guo; Piao, Yun-Song
2014-09-01
In the eternally inflating background, the bubbles with AdS vacua will crunch. However, this crunch might be followed by a bounce. It is generally thought that the bubble universe may be cyclic, which will go through a sequence of AdS crunches, until the field inside the bubble finally lands at a dS minimum. However, we show that due to the amplification of field fluctuation, the bubble universe going through AdS cycles will inevitably fragment within two or three cycles. We discuss its implication to the eternal inflation scenario.
Five new bioactive compounds from Chenopodium ambrosioides.
Song, Kun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Kang, Jie; Chen, Ruo-Yun
2015-05-01
Five new bioactive compounds, chenopodiumamines A-D (1-4) and chenopodiumoside A (5), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic means (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-3 had moderate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Inuloxins A-D and derivatives as antileishmanial agents: structure-activity relationship study
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Inuloxins A-D (1-4) and a-costic acid (5), the phytotoxic compounds previously isolated from Inula viscosa, as well as synthetic derivatives of inuloxin A (compounds 6-10), inuloxin C (compound 11) and inuloxin D (compound 12) were tested in vitro for their activity against Leishmania donovani, the ...
Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.
2015-02-01
We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .
[Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welch, Mary A., Ed.
1989-01-01
This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…
AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity
Kim, Nakwoo
2005-12-02
We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.
Hartung, Thomas
2009-12-01
Taking the 110th anniversary of marketing of aspirin as starting point, the almost scary toxicological profile of aspirin is contrasted with its actual use experience. The author concludes that we are lucky that, in 1899, there was no regulatory toxicology. Adding, for the purpose of this article, a fourth R to the Three Rs, i.e. Realism, three reality-checks are carried out. The first one comes to the conclusion that the tools of toxicology are hardly adequate for the challenges ahead. The second one concludes that, specifically, the implementation of the EU REACH system is not feasible with these tools, mainly with regard to throughput. The third one challenges the belief that classical alternative methods, i.e. replacing animal test-based tools one by one, is actually leading to a new toxicology - it appears to change only patches of the patchwork, but not to overcome any inherent limitations other than ethical ones. The perspective lies in the Toxicology for the 21st Century initiatives, which aim to create a new approach from the scratch, by an evidence-based toxicology and a global "Human Toxicology Programme". 2009 FRAME.
Action growth for AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui
2016-09-01
Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.
Value Added in English Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen
2009-01-01
Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…
Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad
2011-10-01
We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.
Value Added in English Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen
2009-01-01
Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…
Aza compounds as anion receptors
Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James
1998-01-06
A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.
Aza compounds as anion receptors
Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.
1998-01-06
A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.
ADS Based on Linear Accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping
An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.
2016-11-01
Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.
AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.
2007-12-01
We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.
Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity
Amsel, Aaron J.; Compere, Geoffrey
2009-04-15
We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS{sub 4}. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdS{sub d} are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0{<=}|m|<1/2l{sub AdS}. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is 'renormalized' accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/l{sub AdS} to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS{sub 4} supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.
Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.
2010-08-10
A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.
Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J; Jones, Michael G; Wertsching, Alan K; Luther, Thomas A; Trowbridge, Tammy L
2011-11-22
A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.
Time machines and AdS solitons with negative mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Xing-Hui; Geng, Wei-Jian; Lü, H.
2017-04-01
We show that in D =2 n +1 dimensions, when mass is negative and all angular momenta are nonvanishing, Kerr and Kerr-anti-de Sitter (AdS) metrics describe smooth time machines, with no curvature singularity. Turning off the angular momenta appropriately can lead to static AdS solitons with negative mass. Setting zero the cosmological constant yields a class of Ricci-flat Kähler metrics in D =2 n dimensions. We also show that Euclidean-signatured AdS solitons with negative mass can also arise in odd dimensions. We then construct time machines in D =5 minimal gauged supergravity that carry only magnetic dipole charges. Turning off the cosmological constant, the time machine becomes massless and asymptotically flat. It can be described as a constant time bundle over the Eguchi-Hanson instanton.
Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon
2017-03-01
Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.
Solutions of free higher spins in AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan
2011-11-01
We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.
Microstates at the boundary of AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathur, Samir D.; Turton, David
2012-05-01
The bound states of the D1D5 brane system have a known gravitational description: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter region, and a `cap' ending the AdS region. We construct perturbations that correspond to the action of chiral algebra generators on Ramond ground states of D1D5 branes. Abstract arguments in the literature suggest that the perturbation should be pure gauge in the AdS region; our perturbation indeed has this structure, with the nontrivial deformation of the geometry occurring at the `neck' between the AdS region and asymptotic infinity. This `non-gauge' deformation is needed to provide the nonzero energy and momentum carried by the perturbation. We also suggest implications this structure may have for the majority of microstates which live at the cap.
New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.
Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda
2011-04-29
We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.
Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis
2017-02-01
We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).
Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons
Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis
2017-02-03
We calculate the thermal diffusivity D =more » $$\\kappa/c_\\rho$$ and butterfy velocity $$\\upsilon_\\beta$$ in holographic models that flow to $$AdS_2$$ x $R^d$ fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of $$AdS_2$$ and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension $$\\Delta$$ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = $$\\upsilon_B^2$$/(2$$\\pi$$T).« less
Holography in Lovelock Chern-Simons AdS gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetković, Branislav; Miskovic, Olivera; Simić, Dejan
2017-08-01
We analyze holographic field theory dual to Lovelock Chern-Simons anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity in higher dimensions using first order formalism. We first find asymptotic symmetries in the AdS sector showing that they consist of local translations, local Lorentz rotations, dilatations and non-Abelian gauge transformations. Then, we compute 1-point functions of energy-momentum and spin currents in a dual conformal field theory and write Ward identities. We find that the holographic theory possesses Weyl anomaly and also breaks non-Abelian gauge symmetry at the quantum level.
Loops in AdS from conformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharony, Ofer; Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese; Perlmutter, Eric
2017-07-01
We propose and demonstrate a new use for conformal field theory (CFT) crossing equations in the context of AdS/CFT: the computation of loop amplitudes in AdS, dual to non-planar correlators in holographic CFTs. Loops in AdS are largely unexplored, mostly due to technical difficulties in direct calculations. We revisit this problem, and the dual 1 /N expansion of CFTs, in two independent ways. The first is to show how to explicitly solve the crossing equations to the first subleading order in 1 /N 2, given a leading order solution. This is done as a systematic expansion in inverse powers of the spin, to all orders. These expansions can be resummed, leading to the CFT data for finite values of the spin. Our second approach involves Mellin space. We show how the polar part of the four-point, loop-level Mellin amplitudes can be fully reconstructed from the leading-order data. The anomalous dimensions computed with both methods agree. In the case of ϕ 4 theory in AdS, our crossing solution reproduces a previous computation of the one-loop bubble diagram. We can go further, deriving the four-point scalar triangle diagram in AdS, which had never been computed. In the process, we show how to analytically derive anomalous dimensions from Mellin amplitudes with an infinite series of poles, and discuss applications to more complicated cases such as the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.
AdS5 magnetized solutions in minimal gauged supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Radu, Eugen
2017-08-01
We construct a generalization of the AdS charged rotating black holes with two equal magnitude angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In addition to the mass, electric charge and angular momentum, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. In contrast with the known cases, these new black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit which describes a one parameter family of spinning charged solitons. All configurations reported in this work approach asymptotically an AdS5 spacetime in global coordinates and are free of pathologies.
Stabilized lanthanum sulphur compounds. [thermoelectric materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, G. H.; Elsner, N. B.; Shearer, C. H. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
Lanthanum sulfide is maintained in the stable cubic phase form over a temperature range of from 500 C to 1500 C by adding to it small amounts of calcium, barium, or strontium. This compound is an excellent thermoelectric material.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stothers, R. B.
1984-01-01
The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.
AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.
2016-06-01
We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.
Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.
2016-06-01
Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .
Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka
2017-01-01
We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1983-01-01
Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.
Perfluorinated compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are important man-made chemicals that have wide consumer and industrial applications. They are relatively contemporary chemicals, being in use only since the 1950s, and until recently, have be...
Perfluorinated compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are important man-made chemicals that have wide consumer and industrial applications. They are relatively contemporary chemicals, being in use only since the 1950s, and until recently, have be...
Beware the "Argumentum ad Hominem."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grau, Phyllis Nelson
1986-01-01
Differences between arguing "ad hominem" and "ad rem" are explored in two case studies of fifth-grade gifted boys, demonstrating the need for gifted children to be helped to approach problems by considering issues rather than personalities. (Author/DB)
Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography
Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo
2011-03-15
We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.
AdS vacua from dilaton tadpoles and form fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mourad, J.; Sagnotti, A.
2017-05-01
We describe how unbounded three-form fluxes can lead to families of AdS3 ×S7 vacua, with constant dilaton profiles, in the USp (32) model with ;brane supersymmetry breaking; and in the U (32) 0'B model, if their (projective-)disk dilaton tadpoles are taken into account. We also describe how, in the SO (16) × SO (16) heterotic model, if the torus vacuum energy Λ is taken into account, unbounded seven-form fluxes can support similar AdS7 ×S3 vacua, while unbounded three-form fluxes, when combined with internal gauge fields, can support AdS3 ×S7 vacua, which continue to be available even if Λ is neglected. In addition, special gauge field fluxes can support, in the SO (16) × SO (16) heterotic model, a set of AdSn ×S10-n vacua, for all n = 2 , . . , 8. String loop and α‧ corrections appear under control when large form fluxes are allowed.
One-loop diagrams in AdS space
Hung Lingyan; Shang Yanwen
2011-01-15
We study the complex scalar loop corrections to the boundary-boundary gauge two-point function in pure AdS space in Poincare coordinates, in the presence of boundary quadratic perturbations to the scalar. These perturbations correspond to double-trace perturbations in the dual CFT and modify the boundary conditions of the bulk scalars in AdS. We find that, in addition to the usual UV divergences, the one-loop calculation suffers from a divergence originating in the limit as the loop vertices approach the AdS horizon. We show that this type of divergence is independent of the boundary coupling; making use of this we extract the finite relative variation of the imaginary part of the loop via Cutkosky rules as the boundary perturbation varies. Applying our methods to compute the effects of a time-dependent impurity to the conductivities using the replica trick in AdS/CFT, we find that generally an IR-relevant disorder reduces the conductivity and that in the extreme low frequency limit the correction due to the impurities overwhelms the planar CFT result even though it is supposedly 1/N{sup 2} suppressed. We also comment on the more physical scenario of a time-independent impurity.
Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.
de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L
2013-08-02
We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ω(-s) with the frequency, ω, and s ≈ 1.7 ± 0.1.
Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uvarov, D. V.
2016-11-01
Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.
New boundary conditions for AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compère, Geoffrey; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew
2013-05-01
New chiral boundary conditions are found for quantum gravity with matter on AdS3. The associated asymptotic symmetry group is generated by a single right-moving U(1) Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra with {c_R}={3ℓ}/2G . The Kac-Moody zero mode generates global left-moving translations and equals, for a BTZ black hole, the sum of the total mass and spin. The level is positive about the global vacuum and negative in the black hole sector, corresponding to ergosphere formation. Realizations arising in Chern-Simons gravity and string theory are analyzed. The new boundary conditions are shown to naturally arise for warped AdS3 in the limit that the warp parameter is taken to zero.
Universal isolation in the AdS landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.
2016-12-01
We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.
Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo
2015-10-01
We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.
Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan
2017-02-01
We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.
2004-11-01
We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.
Oscillating shells and oscillating balls in AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Roy, Pratik; Virmani, Amitabh
2017-07-01
It has recently been reported that certain thin timelike shells undergo oscillatory motion in AdS. In this paper, we compute two-point function of a probe field in the geodesic approximation in such an oscillating shell background. We confirm that the two-point function exhibits an oscillatory behaviour following the motion of the shell. We show that similar oscillatory dynamics is possible when the perfect fluid on the shell has a polytropic equation of state. Moreover, we show that certain ball like configurations in AdS also exhibit oscillatory motion and comment on how such a solution can be smoothly matched to an appropriate exterior solution. We also demonstrate that the weak energy condition is satisfied for these oscillatory configurations.
Stringy AdS3 from the worldsheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Hull, Chris
2017-07-01
We investigate the behaviour of the bosonic string on AdS3 with H-flux at stringy scales, looking in particular for a `tensionless' limit in which there are massless higher spin gauge fields. We do this by revisiting the physical spectrum of the sl(2, R)_k WZW model and considering the limit in which k becomes small. At k = 3 we find that there is an infinite stringy tower of massless higher spin fields which are part of a continuum of light states. This can be viewed as a novel tensionless limit, which appears to be distinct from that inferred from the symmetric orbifold description of superstring AdS3 vacua.
Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles
2016-11-01
We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.
Crosscap States for Orientifolds of Euclidean AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hikida, Yasuaki
2002-05-01
Crosscap states for orientifolds of euclidean AdS3 are constructed. We show that our crosscap states describe the same orientifolds which were obtained by the classical analysis. The spectral density of open strings in the system with orientifold can be read from the Möbius strip amplitudes and it is compared to that of the open strings stretched between branes and their mirrors. We also compute the Klein bottle amplitudes.
Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovchegov, Y. V.
We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.
On information loss in AdS3/CFT2
Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...
2016-05-18
We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less
SUSY properties of warped AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Jaehoon; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2014-06-01
We examine supersymmetric properties of null-warped AdS3, or alternatively Schrödinger geometries, dual to putative warped CFTs in two dimensions. We classify super Schrödinger subalgebras of the superalgebra psu(1, 1|2) ⊕ psu(1, 1|2), corresponding to the superconformal algebra of the AdS3 × S3 geometry. We comment on geometric realisations and provide a string theory description with enhanced supersymmetry in terms of intersecting D3-branes. For type IIB supergravity solutions based on T 1,1, we consider the relationship between five-dimensional Schrödinger solutions and their three-dimensional null-warped counterparts, corresponding to R symmetry twists. Finally, we study a family of null-warped AdS3 solutions in a setting where there is an ambiguity over the R symmetry and confirm that, for examples admitting a Kaluza-Klein (KK) reduction to three dimensions, the minimisation of a real superpotential of the three-dimensional gauged supergravity captures the central charge and R symmetry.
Kramer, D.A.
2003-01-01
Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.
Kramer, D.A.
2006-01-01
In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.
Oil Biotechnology: Value-Added Products and Bioactive Fatty Acids
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
During my 40+ years research career, I have been working on "biocatalysis" of hydrophobic organic compounds, both petroleum oil and vegetable oil, to convert them to value-added products. "Biocatalysis" is defined as the use of a biocatalyst such as whole microbial cells or enzymes, in an aqueous o...
The generalized added mass revised
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Wilde, Juray
2007-05-01
The reformulation of the generalized or apparent added mass presented by De Wilde [Phys. Fluids 17, 113304 (2005)] neglects the presence of a drag-type force in the gas and solid phase momentum equations. Reformulating the generalized added mass accounting for the presence of a drag-type force, an apparent drag force appears next to the apparent distribution of the filtered gas phase pressure gradient over the phases already found by De Wilde in the above-cited reference. The reformulation of the generalized added mass and the evaluation of a linear wave propagation speed test then suggest a generalized added mass type closure approach to completely describe filtered gas-solid momentum transfer, that is, including both the filtered drag force and the correlation between the solid volume fraction and the gas phase pressure gradient.
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC
2007-02-21
The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.
Extemporaneous compounding of medicated ointments.
Nagel, Karen; Ali, Fatima; Al-Khudari, Sarah; Khan, Ayesha; Patel, Khushbu; Patel, Nikunj; Desai, Archana
2010-01-01
Topical preparations represent a large percentage of compounded prescriptions, particularly in the area of dermatology. Properties of ointment bases vary greatly, and active ingredients are frequently added as aqueous or alcoholic solutions. Currently, there are no quantitative guidelines stating the various water and alcohol absorption capacity of different bases. A short experiment was designed to quantitate the amount of water or alcohol that could be absorbed by a series of ointment bases of varying types. Our findings may be used to assist compounding pharmacists in deciding what base is most suitable to use when considering the amount of water, alcohol, or any similar solvent needed to compound the preparation. A general overview of issues related to topical medication compounding is also provided in this article.
Maximal temperature of a gas in AdS spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan
2017-04-01
Assuming only statistical mechanics and general relativity, we calculate the maximal temperature of gas of particles placed in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. If two particles with a given center of mass energy come close enough, according to classical gravity, they will form a black hole. We focus only on the black holes with a Hawking temperature lower than the environment, because they do not disappear. The number density of such black holes grows with the temperature in the system. At a certain finite temperature, the thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes. This critical temperature is lower than the Planck temperature for the values of the AdS vacuum energy density below the Planck density. This result might be interesting from the AdS/CFT correspondence point of view, since it is different from the Hawking-Page phase transition, and it is not immediately clear what effect dynamically limits the maximal temperature of the thermal state on the CFT side of the correspondence.
Kramer, D.A.
2011-01-01
Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.
Kramer, D.A.
2010-01-01
Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.
Kramer, D.A.
2002-01-01
Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.
Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space
Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh
2006-08-15
We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.
Writing CFT correlation functions as AdS scattering amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penedones, Joao
2011-03-01
We explore the Mellin representation of conformal correlation functions recently proposed by Mack. Examples in the AdS/CFT context reinforce the analogy between Mellin amplitudes and scattering amplitudes. We conjecture a simple formula relating the bulk scattering amplitudes to the asymptotic behavior of Mellin amplitudes and show that previous results on the flat space limit of AdS follow from our new formula. We find that the Mellin amplitudes are particularly useful in the case of conformal gauge theories in the planar limit. In this case, the four point Mellin amplitudes are meromorphic functions whose poles and their residues are entirely determined by two and three point functions of single-trace operators. This makes the Mellin amplitudes the ideal objects to attempt the conformal bootstrap program in higher dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.
2013-01-01
The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org
Kramer, D.A.
2007-01-01
Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.
2014-06-01
We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-<-| S 373K|-<-550- μV-K-1 for undoped samples, it should be possible to obtain highly efficient thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.
Digital Quantum Simulation of Minimal AdS /CFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Álvarez, L.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Lamata, L.; del Campo, A.; Sonner, J.; Solano, E.
2017-07-01
We propose the digital quantum simulation of a minimal AdS /CFT model in controllable quantum platforms. We consider the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model describing interacting Majorana fermions with randomly distributed all-to-all couplings, encoding nonlocal fermionic operators onto qubits to efficiently implement their dynamics via digital techniques. Moreover, we also give a method for probing nonequilibrium dynamics and the scrambling of information. Finally, our approach serves as a protocol for reproducing a simplified low-dimensional model of quantum gravity in advanced quantum platforms as trapped ions and superconducting circuits.
The AdS central charge in string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troost, Jan
2011-11-01
We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.
Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang
2017-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.
Configurational entropy of charged AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chong Oh
2017-09-01
When we consider charged AdS black holes in higher dimensional spacetime and a molecule number density along coexistence curves is numerically extended to higher dimensional cases. It is found that a number density difference of a small and large black holes decrease as a total dimension grows up. In particular, we find that a configurational entropy is a concave function of a reduced temperature and reaches a maximum value at a critical (second-order phase transition) point. Furthermore, the bigger a total dimension becomes, the more concave function in a configurational entropy while the more convex function in a reduced pressure.
Gravitational charges of transverse asymptotically AdS spacetimes
Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram
2006-12-15
Using Killing-Yano symmetries, we construct conserved charges of spacetimes that asymptotically approach to the flat or anti-de Sitter spaces only in certain directions. In D dimensions, this allows one to define gravitational charges (such as mass and angular momenta densities) of p-dimensional branes/solitons or any other extended objects that curve the transverse space into an asymptotically flat or AdS one. Our construction answers the question of what kind of charges the antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors lead to.
Internal structure of charged AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh
2016-06-01
When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.
2014-01-01
In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.
In silico strain optimization by adding reactions to metabolic models.
Correia, Sara; Rocha, Miguel
2012-07-24
Nowadays, the concerns about the environment and the needs to increase the productivity at low costs, demand for the search of new ways to produce compounds with industrial interest. Based on the increasing knowledge of biological processes, through genome sequencing projects, and high-throughput experimental techniques as well as the available computational tools, the use of microorganisms has been considered as an approach to produce desirable compounds. However, this usually requires to manipulate these organisms by genetic engineering and/ or changing the enviromental conditions to make the production of these compounds possible. In many cases, it is necessary to enrich the genetic material of those microbes with hereologous pathways from other species and consequently adding the potential to produce novel compounds. This paper introduces a new plug-in for the OptFlux Metabolic Engineering platform, aimed at finding suitable sets of reactions to add to the genomes of selected microbes (wild type strain), as well as finding complementary sets of deletions, so that the mutant becomes able to overproduce compounds with industrial interest, while preserving their viability. The necessity of adding reactions to the metabolic model arises from existing gaps in the original model or motivated by the productions of new compounds by the organism. The optimization methods used are metaheuristics such as Evolutionary Algorithms and Simulated Annealing. The usefulness of this plug-in is demonstrated by a case study, regarding the production of vanillin by the bacterium E. coli.
Landscape of nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua on coset manifolds
Koerber, Paul; Koers, Simon
2010-05-15
We construct new families of nonsupersymmetric sourceless type IIA AdS{sub 4} vacua on those coset manifolds that also admit supersymmetric solutions. We investigate the spectrum of left-invariant modes and find that most, but not all, of the vacua are stable under these fluctuations. Generically, there are also no massless moduli.
AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.
2016-12-01
Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.
Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points
Hertog, Thomas; Woerd, Ellen van der E-mail: ellen@itf.fys.kuleuven.be
2016-02-01
One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.
Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.
2015-06-01
We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.
Kramer, D.A.
2012-01-01
Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.
Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.
1986-01-14
Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.
Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.
1986-01-14
Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.
Smooth causal patches for AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raju, Suvrat
2017-06-01
We review the paradox of low energy excitations of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space (AdS). An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than k T cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position-space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analysis, we show how this resolves the "Born rule" paradox of Marolf and Polchinski [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 008, 10.1007/JHEP01(2016)008] and we verify our solution using an independent calculation. We then consider boundary states that are finely tuned to display a spontaneous excitation outside the causal patch of the infalling observer, and we propose a version of causal patch complementarity in AdS/CFT that resolves the paradox for such states as well.
Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai
2015-01-01
Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.
Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H
2009-10-01
The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5.
Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welch, Mary A., Ed.
1995-01-01
Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…
Separating Growth from Value Added
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yeagley, Raymond
2007-01-01
This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…
Courtship American Style: Newspaper Ads
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cameron, Catherine; And Others
1977-01-01
This study investigated an increasing social phenomenon--newspaper advertising for dating or marital partners--in terms of the bargaining process involved. Content analysis of personal ads in a popular "respectable" singles newspaper revealed a pattern of offers and requests reminiscent of a heterosexual stock market. (Author)
Added Value via SPI supplement
Supplement that indicates where to find the source data sets on the EPA system.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Bowden, J., K.D. Talgo, T. Spero , and C. Nolte. Assessing the Added Value of Dynamical Downscaling Using the Standardized Precipitation Index. ADVANCES IN METEOROLOGY. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, New York, NY, USA, 2016(8432064): 14 pages, (2016).
Adiabatic pumping solutions in global AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carracedo, Pablo; Mas, Javier; Musso, Daniele; Serantes, Alexandre
2017-05-01
We construct a family of very simple stationary solutions to gravity coupled to a massless scalar field in global AdS. They involve a constantly rising source for the scalar field at the boundary and thereby we name them pumping solutions. We construct them numerically in D = 4. They are regular and, generically, have negative mass. We perform a study of linear and nonlinear stability and find both stable and unstable branches. In the latter case, solutions belonging to different sub-branches can either decay to black holes or to limiting cycles. This observation motivates the search for non-stationary exactly timeperiodic solutions which we actually construct. We clarify the role of pumping solutions in the context of quasistatic adiabatic quenches. In D = 3 the pumping solutions can be related to other previously known solutions, like magnetic or translationally-breaking backgrounds. From this we derive an analytic expression.
Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George
2017-01-01
Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n <= 4 and 2 ⌊n/2 ⌋ + 1 k supersymmetries for 4 < n <= 7 , k ∈N> 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.
On jordanian deformations of AdS5 and supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.
2016-10-01
We consider various homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that can be obtained from the η-deformed superstring and related models by singular boosts. The jordanian deformations we obtain in this way behave similarly to the η-deformed model with regard to supergravity: T dualizing the classical sigma model it is possible to find corresponding solutions of supergravity, which, however, have dilatons that prevent T dualizing back. Hence the backgrounds of these jordanian deformations are not solutions of supergravity. Still, they do satisfy a set of recently found modified supergravity equations which implies that the corresponding sigma models are scale invariant. The abelian models that we obtain by singular boosts do directly correspond to solutions of supergravity. In addition to our main results we consider contraction limits of our main example, which do correspond to supergravity solutions.
The Massive Wave Equation in Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warnick, C. M.
2013-07-01
We consider the massive wave equation on asymptotically AdS spaces. We show that the timelike F behaves like a finite timelike boundary, on which one may impose the equivalent of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions for a range of (negative) mass parameter which includes the conformally coupled case. We demonstrate well posedness for the associated initial-boundary value problems at the H 1 level of regularity. We also prove that higher regularity may be obtained, together with an asymptotic expansion for the field near F. The proofs rely on energy methods, tailored to the modified energy introduced by Breitenlohner and Freedman. We do not assume the spacetime is stationary, nor that the wave equation separates.
An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman
2016-07-01
We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.
Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang
2013-04-01
In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.
Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.
2016-04-01
We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.
Higher spins on AdS3 from the worldsheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Kevin; Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Jottar, Juan I.
2017-07-01
It was recently shown that the CFT dual of string theory on AdS3 × S3 × T 4, the symmetric orbifold of T 4, contains a closed higher spin subsector. Via holography, this makes precise the sense in which tensionless string theory on this background contains a Vasiliev higher spin theory. In this paper we study this phenomenon directly from the worldsheet. Using the WZW description of the background with pure NS-NS flux, we identify the states that make up the leading Regge trajectory and show that they fit into the even spin N=4 Vasiliev higher spin theory. We also show that these higher spin states do not become massless, except for the somewhat singular case of level k = 1 where the theory contains a stringy tower of massless higher spin fields coming from the long string sector.
Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products
Du, Jing; Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin
2011-01-01
Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed. PMID:21526386
Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products.
Du, Jing; Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin
2011-08-01
Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed.
Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds
Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.
2003-03-18
We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge
Systematics of coupling flows in AdS backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.
2003-12-01
We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast with the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped grand unified theory (GUT) model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk, we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m2XY/k where mXY is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast with the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both boundary breaking of the GUT gauge group and bulk breaking through the Higgs mechanism.
Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?
Barvinsky, A. O.
2015-03-15
We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.
TV Ads Help Drive Testosterone Supplement Sales
... news/fullstory_164208.html TV Ads Help Drive Testosterone Supplement Sales Study found link between ads airing, ... TV ads have helped spur a boom in testosterone treatments, convincing many men that they need hormone ...
Commiphoranes A-D, Carbon Skeletal Terpenoids from Resina Commiphora.
Dong, Lu; Cheng, Li-Zhi; Yan, Yong-Ming; Wang, Shu-Mei; Cheng, Yong-Xian
2017-01-06
Commiphoranes A-D (1-4), four novel aromatic terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons, were isolated from Resina Commiphora. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 are dinorditerpenoids characteristic of a 6/6/6/6 ring system. In contrast, compounds 3 and 4 are sesquiterpenoids possessing a 5/6/7 backbone. Biological evaluation reveals that 3 could significantly attenuate overproduction of fibronectin, collagen I, and α-SMA in TGF-β1-induced rat renal proximal tubular cells.
Realizing "value-added" metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff
2007-03-01
The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD
Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC
2012-02-14
We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.
Holographic reconstruction of AdS exchanges from crossing symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese; Perlmutter, Eric
2017-08-01
Motivated by AdS/CFT, we address the following outstanding question in large N conformal field theory: given the appearance of a single-trace operator in the O× O OPE of a scalar primary O , what is its total contribution to the vacuum four-point function < OOOO> as dictated by crossing symmetry? We solve this problem in 4d conformal field theories at leading order in 1/ N. Viewed holographically, this provides a field theory reconstruction of crossing-symmetric, four-point exchange amplitudes in AdS5. Our solution takes the form of a resummation of the large spin solution to the crossing equations, supplemented by corrections at finite spin, required by crossing. The method can be applied to the exchange of operators of arbitrary twist τ and spin s, although it vastly simplifies for even-integer twist, where we give explicit results. The output is the set of OPE data for the exchange of all double-trace operators {[OO]}_{n,ℓ } . We find that the double-trace anomalous dimensions γ n, ℓ are negative, monotonic and convex functions of ℓ, for all n and all ℓ > s. This constitutes a holographic signature of bulk causality and classical dynamics of even-spin fields. We also find that the "derivative relation" between double-trace anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients does not hold in general, and derive the explicit form of the deviation in several cases. Finally, we study large n limits of γ n,ℓ, relevant for the Regge and bulk-point regimes.
Towards timelike singularity via AdS dual
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhowmick, Samrat; Chatterjee, Soumyabrata
2017-07-01
It is well known that Kasner geometry with spacelike singularity can be extended to bulk AdS-like geometry, furthermore, one can study field theory on this Kasner space via its gravity dual. In this paper, we show that there exists a Kasner-like geometry with timelike singularity for which one can construct a dual gravity description. We then study various extremal surfaces including spacelike geodesics in the dual gravity description. Finally, we compute correlators of highly massive operators in the boundary field theory with a geodesic approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Couzens, Christopher; Lawrie, Craig; Martelli, Dario; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Wong, Jin-Mann
2017-08-01
We construct supersymmetric AdS3 solutions in F-theory, that is Type IIB supergravity with varying axio-dilaton, which are holographically dual to 2d N=(0,4) superconformal field theories with small superconformal algebra. In F-theory these arise from D3-branes wrapped on curves in the base of an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefold Y 3 and correspond to self-dual strings in the 6d N=(1,0) theory obtained from F-theory on Y 3. The non-trivial fibration over the wrapped curves implies a varying coupling of the N=4 Super-Yang-Mills theory on the D3-branes. We compute the holographic central charges and show that these agree with the field theory and with the anomalies of self-dual strings in 6d. We complement our analysis with a discussion of the dual M-theory solutions and a comparison of the central charges.
Spectrum and statistical entropy of AdS black holes
Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2009-04-15
Popular approaches to quantum gravity describe black hole microstates differently and apply different statistics to count them. Since the relationship between the approaches is not clear, this obscures the role of statistics in calculating the black hole entropy. We address this issue by discussing the entropy of eternal AdS black holes in dimension four and above within the context of a midisuperspace model. We determine the black hole eigenstates and find that they describe the quantization in half integer units of a certain function of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) mass and the cosmological constant. In the limit of a vanishing cosmological constant (the Schwarzschild limit) the quantized function becomes the horizon area and in the limit of a large cosmological constant it approaches the ADM mass of the black holes. We show that in the Schwarzschild limit the area quatization leads to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy if Boltzmann statistics are employed. In the limit of a large cosmological constant the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy can be recovered only via Bose statistics. The two limits are separated by a first order phase transition, which seems to suggest a shift from ''particlelike'' degrees of freedom at large cosmological constant to geometric degrees of freedom as the cosmological constant approaches zero.
AdS4/CFT3 squashed, stretched and warped
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klebanov, Igor R.; Klose, Thomas; Murugan, Arvind
2009-03-01
We use group theoretic methods to calculate the spectrum of short multiplets around the extremum of Script N = 8 gauged supergravity potential which possesses Script N = 2 supersymmetry and SU(3) global symmetry. Upon uplifting to M-theory, it describes a warped product of AdS4 and a certain squashed and stretched 7-sphere. We find quantum numbers in agreement with those of the gauge invariant operators in the Script N = 2 superconformal Chern-Simons theory recently proposed to be the dual of this M-theory background. This theory is obtained from the U(N) × U(N) theory through deforming the superpotential by a term quadratic in one of the superfields. To construct this model explicitly, one needs to employ monopole operators whose complete understanding is still lacking. However, for the U(2) × U(2) gauge theory we make a proposal for the form of the monopole operators which has a number of desired properties. In particular, this proposal implies enhanced symmetry of the U(2) × U(2) ABJM theory for k = 1,2; it makes its similarity to and subtle difference from the BLG theory quite explicit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, Alyssa
We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where
Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors
Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.
1998-08-04
A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.
Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors
Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James
1998-08-04
A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.
Noncommutative AdS2/CFT1 duality: The case of massless scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinzul, A.; Stern, A.
2017-09-01
We show how to construct correlators for the CFT1 which is dual to noncommutative AdS2 (n c AdS2). We do it explicitly for the example of the massless scalar field on Euclidean n c AdS2. n c AdS2 is the quantization of AdS2 that preserves all the isometries. It is described in terms of the unitary irreducible representations, more specifically discrete series representations, of s o (2 ,1 ). We write down symmetric differential representations for the discrete series and then map them to functions on the Moyal-Weyl plane. The Moyal-Weyl plane has a large distance limit which can be identified with the boundary of n c AdS2. Killing vectors can be constructed on n c AdS2 which reduce to the AdS2 Killing vectors near the boundary. We, therefore, conclude that n c AdS2 is asymptotically AdS2, and so the AdS /CFT correspondence should apply. For the example of the massless scalar field on Euclidean n c AdS2, the on-shell action, and resulting two-point function for the boundary theory, are computed to leading order in the noncommutativity parameter. The computation is nontrivial because nonlocal interactions appear in the Moyal-Weyl description. Nevertheless, the result is remarkably simple and agrees with that of the commutative scalar field theory, up to a rescaling.
Sputnik: ad hoc distributed computation.
Völkel, Gunnar; Lausser, Ludwig; Schmid, Florian; Kraus, Johann M; Kestler, Hans A
2015-04-15
In bioinformatic applications, computationally demanding algorithms are often parallelized to speed up computation. Nevertheless, setting up computational environments for distributed computation is often tedious. Aim of this project were the lightweight ad hoc set up and fault-tolerant computation requiring only a Java runtime, no administrator rights, while utilizing all CPU cores most effectively. The Sputnik framework provides ad hoc distributed computation on the Java Virtual Machine which uses all supplied CPU cores fully. It provides a graphical user interface for deployment setup and a web user interface displaying the current status of current computation jobs. Neither a permanent setup nor administrator privileges are required. We demonstrate the utility of our approach on feature selection of microarray data. The Sputnik framework is available on Github http://github.com/sysbio-bioinf/sputnik under the Eclipse Public License. hkestler@fli-leibniz.de or hans.kestler@uni-ulm.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
1987-02-20
3 CBS-owned television stations and NBC's New York television station announced yesterday that they would begin accepting condom advertising. In addition, the ABC network announced it will begin running a 30-second public service message with Dr. C. Everett Koop, the US surgeon general, saying that condoms are the best protection against sexual transmission of AIDS. CBS said it will allow the 4 television stations and 18 radio stations it owns to accept condom advertising based on the attitudes of the local viewing or listening community. WCBS-TV in New York, WCAU-TV in Philadelphia and KCBS-TV in Los Angeles said they would accept such ads. CBS also owns a television station in Chicago. WCAU will air condom ads after 11 p.m. only, beginning probably next week, said Paul Webb, a station spokesman. "We recognize the legitimate sensitivities of some members of the community in regard to this issue," said Steve Cohen, the WCAU general manager. "However, it is the judgment of this station that the importance of providing information about the AIDS epidemic and means of prevention is an overriding consideration." NBC's New York television station, WNBC, announced that it will accept condom advertising and public service announcements. full text
The inside outs of AdS3/CFT2: exact AdS wormholes with entangled CFT duals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash
2015-01-01
We present the complete family of solutions of 3D gravity (Λ < 0) with two asymptotically AdS exterior regions. The solutions are constructed from data at the two boundaries, which correspond to two independent and arbitrary stress tensors T R , , and T L , . The two exteriors are smoothly joined on to an interior region through a regular horizon. We find CFT duals of these geometries which are entangled states of two CFT's. We compute correlators between general operators at the two boundaries and find perfect agreement between CFT and bulk calculations. We calculate and match the CFT entanglement entropy (EE) with the holographic EE which involves geodesics passing through the wormhole. We also compute a holographic, non-equilibrium entropy for the CFT using properties of the regular horizon. The construction of the bulk solutions here uses an exact version of Brown-Henneaux type diffeomorphisms which are asymptotically nontrivial and transform the CFT states by two independent unitary operators on the two sides. Our solutions provide an infinite family of explicit examples of the ER=EPR relation of Maldacena and Susskind [1].
Antismoking Ads at the Point of Sale: The Influence of Ad Type and Context on Ad Reactions.
Kim, Annice; Nonnemaker, James; Guillory, Jamie; Shafer, Paul; Parvanta, Sarah; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew
2017-06-01
Efforts are underway to educate consumers about the dangers of smoking at the point of sale (POS). Research is limited about the efficacy of POS antismoking ads to guide campaign development. This study experimentally tests whether the type of antismoking ad and the context in which ads are viewed influence people's reactions to the ads. A national convenience sample of 7,812 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 39 conditions. Participants viewed one of the four types of antismoking ads (negative health consequences-graphic, negative social consequences-intended emotive, benefits of quitting-informational, benefits of quitting-graphic) in one of the three contexts (alone, next to a cigarette ad, POS tobacco display). We assessed participants' reactions to the ads, including perceived effectiveness, negative emotion, affective dissonance, and motivational reaction. Graphic ads elicited more negative emotion and affective dissonance than benefits of quitting ads. Graphic ads elicited higher perceived effectiveness and more affective dissonance than intended emotive ads. Antismoking ads fared best when viewed alone, and graphic ads were least influenced by the context in which they were viewed. These results suggest that in developing POS campaigns, it is important to consider the competitive pro-tobacco context in which antismoking ads will be viewed.
AD, the ALICE diffractive detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tello, Abraham Villatoro
2017-03-01
ALICE is one of the four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a complement to its Heavy-Ion physics program, ALICE started during Run 1 of LHC an extensive program dedicated to the study of proton-proton diffractive processes. In order to optimize its trigger efficiencies and purities in selecting diffractive events, the ALICE Collaboration installed a very forward AD detector during the Long Shut Down 1 of LHC. This new forward detector system consists of two stations made of two layers of scintillator pads, one station on each side of the interaction point. With this upgrade, ALICE has substantially increased its forward physics coverage, including the double rapidity gap based selection of central production, as well as the measurements of inclusive diffractive cross sections.
Ad spending: maintaining market share.
Jones, J P
1990-01-01
Accuracy in manufacturers' advertising budgeting is hampered by reliance on the case rate system, which ties budgets to sales. A better measure is a brand's market share compared with its share of voice (the brand's share of the total value of the main media exposure in that product category). New brands are often "investing" in the market: speaking in a louder voice than their market shares would justify. Popular brands are often "profit taking"--keeping their voices low but enjoying a disproportionately large market share. The interrelationship between market share and share of voice, with either "investing" or "profit taking" the desired result, is not usually considered when determining ad budgets. But as advertisers realize how market share can respond to advertising pressure through switches in the share of voice, this method of market testing should gain in importance.
Arrays of stacked metal coordination compounds
Bulkowski, J.E.
1986-10-21
A process is disclosed for preparing novel arrays of metal coordination compounds characterized by arrangement of the metal ions, separated by a linking agent, in stacked order one above the other. The process permits great flexibility in the design of the array. For example, layers of different composition can be added to the array at will. 3 figs.
Arrays of stacked metal coordination compounds
Bulkowski, John E.
1986-01-01
A process is disclosed for preparing novel arrays of metal coordination compounds characterized by arrangement of the metal ions, separated by a linking agent, in stacked order one above the other. The process permits great flexibility in the design of the array. For example, layers of different composition can be added to the array at will.
Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds
Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis
1993-01-01
Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.
Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds
Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.
1994-06-14
Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.
Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds
Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.
1993-09-07
Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.
Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds
Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.
1989-01-01
Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.
Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds
Smith, L.A. Jr.
1989-07-18
Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.
Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds
Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis
1994-01-01
Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.
Hunt, M E; Kissling, F
1993-01-01
Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were
Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT We recently discovered that desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a receptor for human adenovirus species B serotypes Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14. Ad3 is considered to be a widely distributed human pathogen. Ad3 binding to DSG2 triggers the transient opening of epithelial junctions. Here, we further delineate the mechanism that leads to DSG2-mediated epithelial junction opening in cells exposed to Ad3 and recombinant Ad3 fiber proteins. We identified an Ad3 fiber knob-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases triggering the activation of the matrix-metalloproteinase ADAM17. ADAM17, in turn, cleaves the extracellular domain of DSG2 that links epithelial cells together. The shed DSG2 domain can be detected in cell culture supernatant and also in serum of mice with established human xenograft tumors. We then extended our studies to Ad14 and Ad14P1. Ad14 is an important research and clinical object because of the recent appearance of a new, more pathogenic strain (Ad14P1). In a human epithelial cancer xenograft model, Ad14P1 showed more efficient viral spread and oncolysis than Ad14. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a mutation in the Ad14P1 fiber knob could account for the differences between the two strains. While our X-ray crystallography studies suggested an altered three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Ad14P1 fiber knob in the F-G loop region, this did not significantly change the fiber knob affinity to DSG2 or the intracellular signaling and DSG2 shedding in epithelial cancer cells. IMPORTANCE A number of widely distributed adenoviruses use the epithelial junction protein DSG2 as a receptor for infection and lateral spread. Interaction with DSG2 allows the virus not only to enter cells but also to open epithelial junctions which form a physical barrier to virus spread. Our study elucidates the mechanism beyond virus-triggered junction opening with a focus on adenovirus serotype 3. Ad3 binds to DSG2 with its fiber
Condom ads promote illicit sex.
Kippley, J F
1994-01-01
Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the...
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the...
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the...
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the... you give the price per square foot, you do not have to give the coverage area. (c) If your ad...
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the... you give the price per square foot, you do not have to give the coverage area. (c) If your ad...
Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
TNTP, 2011
2011-01-01
This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…
New Features in the ADS Abstract Service
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.
2005-01-01
The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.
New Features in the ADS Abstract Service
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.
2005-01-01
The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.
Historical Literature in the ADS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.
1997-12-01
The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.
Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-compound interactions.
Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G
2004-05-05
The influence of flavor compound-compound interactions on flavor release properties and flavor perception in hard candy was investigated. Hard candies made with two different modes of binary flavor delivery, (1) L-menthol and 1,8-cineole added as a mixture and (2) L-menthol and 1,8-cineole added separate from one another, were analyzed via breath analysis and sensory time-intensity testing. Single-flavor candy containing only L-menthol or 1,8-cineole was also investigated via breath analysis for comparison. The release rates of both L-menthol and 1,8-cineole in the breath were more rapid and at a higher concentration when the compounds were added to hard candy separate from one another in comparison to their addition as a mixture (conventional protocol). Additionally, the time-intensity study indicated a significantly increased flavor intensity (measured as overall cooling) for hard candy made with separate addition of these flavor compounds. In conclusion, the flavor properties of hard candy can be controlled, at least in part, by flavor compound-compound interactions and may be altered by the method of flavor delivery.
Malaria Parasite Metabolic Pathways (MPMP) Upgraded with Targeted Chemical Compounds.
Ginsburg, Hagai; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M
2016-01-01
Malaria Parasite Metabolic Pathways (MPMP) is the website for the functional genomics of intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum. All the published information about targeted chemical compounds has now been added. Users can find the drug target and publication details linked to a drug database for further information about the medicinal properties of each compound.
Boron compounds as anion binding agents for nonaqueous battery electrolytes
Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xia-Oing; McBreen, James; Xiang, Caili
2000-02-08
Novel fluorinated boron-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boron-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boron-based anion receptors include borane and borate compounds bearing different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.
Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ökcü, Özgür; Aydıner, Ekrem
2017-01-01
In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T- P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions.
Boundary conditions for conformally coupled scalar in AdS4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Jae-Hyuk
2015-06-01
We consider conformally coupled scalar with ɸ4 coupling in AdS4 and study its various boundary conditions on AdS boundary. We have obtained perturbative solutions of equation of motion of the conformally coupled scalar with power expansion order by order in ɸ4 coupling λ up to λ2 order. In its dual CFT, we get 2, 4 and 6 point functions by using this solution with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions via AdS/CFT dictionary. We also consider marginal deformation on AdS boundary and get its on-shell and boundary effective actions.
Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.
Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan
2009-10-01
The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed.
Static Einstein-Maxwell Black Holes with No Spatial Isometries in AdS Space.
Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen
2016-11-25
We explicitly construct static black hole solutions to the fully nonlinear, D=4, Einstein-Maxwell-anti-de Sitter (AdS) equations that have no continuous spatial symmetries. These black holes have a smooth, topologically spherical horizon (section), but without isometries, and approach, asymptotically, global AdS spacetime. They are interpreted as bound states of a horizon with the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons recently discovered, for appropriate boundary data. In sharp contrast to the uniqueness results for a Minkowski electrovacuum, the existence of these black holes shows that single, equilibrium, black hole solutions in an AdS electrovacuum admit an arbitrary multipole structure.
LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems
Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J.; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan; Tawian Power Co., Taipei; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan )
1989-01-01
Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Technology Roadmaps for Compound Semiconductors.
Bennett, H S
2000-01-01
The roles cited for compound semiconductors in public versions of existing technology roadmaps from the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Inc., Optoelectronics Industry Development Association, Microelectronics Advanced Research Initiative on Optoelectronic Interconnects, and Optoelectronics Industry and Technology Development Association (OITDA) are discussed and compared within the context of trends in the Si CMOS industry. In particular, the extent to which these technology roadmaps treat compound semiconductors at the materials processing and device levels will be presented for specific applications. For example, OITDA's Optical Communications Technology Roadmap directly connects the information demand of delivering 100 Mbit/s to the home to the requirement of producing 200 GHz heterojunction bipolar transistors with 30 nm bases and InP high electron mobility transistors with 100 nm gates. Some general actions for progress towards the proposed International Technology Roadmap for Compound Semiconductors (ITRCS) and methods for determining the value of an ITRCS will be suggested. But, in the final analysis, the value added by an ITRCS will depend on how industry leaders respond. The technical challenges and economic opportunities of delivering high quality digital video to consumers provide concrete examples of where the above actions and methods could be applied.
Technology Roadmaps for Compound Semiconductors
Bennett, Herbert S.
2000-01-01
The roles cited for compound semiconductors in public versions of existing technology roadmaps from the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Inc., Optoelectronics Industry Development Association, Microelectronics Advanced Research Initiative on Optoelectronic Interconnects, and Optoelectronics Industry and Technology Development Association (OITDA) are discussed and compared within the context of trends in the Si CMOS industry. In particular, the extent to which these technology roadmaps treat compound semiconductors at the materials processing and device levels will be presented for specific applications. For example, OITDA’s Optical Communications Technology Roadmap directly connects the information demand of delivering 100 Mbit/s to the home to the requirement of producing 200 GHz heterojunction bipolar transistors with 30 nm bases and InP high electron mobility transistors with 100 nm gates. Some general actions for progress towards the proposed International Technology Roadmap for Compound Semiconductors (ITRCS) and methods for determining the value of an ITRCS will be suggested. But, in the final analysis, the value added by an ITRCS will depend on how industry leaders respond. The technical challenges and economic opportunities of delivering high quality digital video to consumers provide concrete examples of where the above actions and methods could be applied. PMID:27551615
Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states
Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao
2007-06-15
The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.
Josephson A/D Converter Development.
1979-09-01
LITERATURE ..... ............ 2 2.1 Multiple- Quantum Interference Superconducting A/D Converter ......... ........................... 2 2.2 Analysis of...within the first three years. Demonstration of a superconducting A/D converter operating well into the gigasample per second region within five years...Appendix and are described briefly below: 2.1 Multiple- Quantum Interference Superconducting A/D Converter R. E. Harris, C. A. Hamilton, and F. L. Lloyd Appl
Perceived threat of Alzheimer disease (AD): the role of personal experience with AD.
Suhr, Julie A; Kinkela, Jessica H
2007-01-01
The fear of developing Alzheimer disease (AD) is highly salient, particularly for biologic family members. The current study evaluated social/cognitive explanations for perceived AD threat beyond genetic relatedness, including personal experience with AD, belief in negative aging stereotypes, and performance on delayed memory tasks. Participants were 97 healthy older adults aged 50 to 85, self-referred for a free community memory screen. Results showed that, as expected, personal AD experience was related to perceived AD threat. Furthermore, consistent with expectations, AD experience moderated the relationship between perceived AD threat and other explanatory variables, including age, belief in negative aging stereotypes, and cognitive performance. In those with AD experience, whether genetic or not, younger age was associated with more perceived AD threat, but an inverse relationship was seen in those without AD experience. Those with genetic AD experience seem particularly vulnerable to the effects of negative age stereotype beliefs on perceived AD threat, and show an inverse relationship between their actual cognitive performance and their perception of personal AD threat. Results highlight the importance of considering personal experience with AD when assessing a person's self-reported concerns about AD or his/her own memory changes.
Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds
Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.
2005-01-01
The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619
Exploring antismoking ads: appeals, themes, and consequences.
Beaudoin, Christopher E
2002-01-01
In this study we seek a descriptive understanding of antismoking television advertising in light of the problem cigarette consumption poses for society today. We establish relationships between ad characteristics and whether ads have a youth or adult orientation, based on a content analysis of 197 antismoking television advertisements produced between 1991 and 1999. The study finds that youth-oriented ads have youth characters, sociability, and humor as common appeals, and social and short-term consequences. In contrast, adult-oriented ads relied on fear appeals and long-term, health-related consequences.
Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample
McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.
2006-10-31
A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.
Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample
McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.
2010-08-24
A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.
Design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhaolou; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Keyi
2015-12-01
In this research, design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye is presented. The imaging system consists of three layers of lens arrays. In each channel, two lenses are designed to control the angular magnification and a field lens is added to improve the image quality and extend the field of view. Aspherical surfaces are introduced to improve the image quality. Ray tracing results demonstrate that the light from the same object point is focused at the same imaging point through different channels. Therefore the system has much higher energy efficiency than conventional spherical apposition compound eye.
From path integrals to tensor networks for the AdS /CFT correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyaji, Masamichi; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento
2017-03-01
In this paper, we discuss tensor network descriptions of AdS /CFT from two different viewpoints. First, we start with a Euclidean path-integral computation of ground state wave functions with a UV cutoff. We consider its efficient optimization by making its UV cutoff position dependent and define a quantum state at each length scale. We conjecture that this path integral corresponds to a time slice of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Next, we derive a flow of quantum states by rewriting the action of Killing vectors of AdS3 in terms of the dual two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). Both approaches support a correspondence between the hyperbolic time slice H2 in AdS3 and a version of continuous multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. We also give a heuristic argument about why we can expect a sub-AdS scale bulk locality for holographic CFTs.
IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ...
Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec
Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.
2015-12-01
Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.
= 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele
2014-05-01
For all types of = 4 anti-de Sitter (AdS) supersymmetry in three dimensions, we construct manifestly supersymmetric actions for Abelian vector multiplets and explain how to extend the construction to the non-Abelian case. Manifestly = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) actions are explicitly given in the cases of (2,2) and critical (4,0) AdS supersymmetries. The = 4 vector multiplets and the corresponding actions are then reduced to (2,0) AdS superspace, in which only = 2 supersymmetry is manifest. Using the off-shell structure of the = 4 vector multiplets, we provide complete = 4 SYM actions in (2,0) AdS superspace for all types of = 4 AdS supersymmetry. In the case of (4,0) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the resulting = 2 action contains a Chern-Simons term proportional to q/r, where r is the radius of AdS 3 and q is the R-charge of a chiral scalar superfield. The R-charge is a linear inhomogeneous function of X, an expectation value of the = 4 Cotton superfield. Thus our results explain the mysterious structure of = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories on S 3 discovered in arXiv:1401.7952. In the case of (3,1) AdS supersymmetry, which has no Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action contains both a Chern-Simons term and a chiral mass-like term. In the case of (2,2) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action has no Chern-Simons and chiral mass-like terms.
Isolation of an iron-binding compound from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Cox, C D; Graham, R
1979-01-01
An iron-binding compound was isolated from ethyl acetate extracts of culture supernatant fluids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and was purified by successive paper and thin-layer chromatographic procedures. The purified compound was characterized by UV, visible, infrared, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The compound possesses phenolic characteristics, with little or no similarity to dihydroxybenzoates and no indication of a hydroxamate group. P. aeruginosa synthesized the compound during active growth in culture media containing less than 5 X 10(-6) M added FeCl3. When added to iron-poor cultures of P. aeruginosa, the compound promoted the growth of the bacterium and also reversed growth inhibition by the iron chelator ethylenediamine-di-(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid). PMID:104968
27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456 Section 19.456 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk...
Beyond Test Scores: Adding Value to Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rothman, Robert
2010-01-01
At a time when teacher quality has emerged as a key factor in student learning, a statistical technique that determines the "value added" that teachers bring to student achievement is getting new scrutiny. Value-added measures compare students' growth in achievement to their expected growth, based on prior achievement and demographic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walsh, John; Johnson, Miriam
1974-01-01
The Olympus Research Corporation (ORC) made an in-depth study of want ads. It was found the ads did not offer adequate, accurate, or easily obtained information that would make it possible for job seekers to decide whether they are suited to a job, or want it. (Author/BP)
Beyond Test Scores: Adding Value to Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rothman, Robert
2010-01-01
At a time when teacher quality has emerged as a key factor in student learning, a statistical technique that determines the "value added" that teachers bring to student achievement is getting new scrutiny. Value-added measures compare students' growth in achievement to their expected growth, based on prior achievement and demographic…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazhari, N. S.; Momeni, Davood; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Faizal, Mir; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2017-03-01
The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.
Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro
2010-01-01
A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.
Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of AdS braneworld black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam
2017-02-01
The thermodynamics and phase transitions of charged RN-AdS and rotating Kerr-AdS black holes in a generalized Randall-Sundrum braneworld are investigated in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamics, stability and phase structures in the canonical and the grand canonical ensembles for these AdS braneworld black holes are described. The thermodynamic curvatures for both these AdS braneworld black holes are computed and studied as a function of the thermodynamic variables. Through this analysis we illustrate an interesting dependence of the phase structures on the braneworld parameter for these black holes.
On circular strings in (AdS3 × S 3)ϰ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Aritra; Panigrahi, Kamal L.
2016-09-01
The so called one-parameter (often called ϰ) deformed AdS string sigma models have attracted a lot of attention lately in the study of integrability in string theory. We construct various circular string solutions in the (AdS3 × S 3) ϰ background and describe the characteristics of such solutions qualitatively. We study the Bohr-Sommerfeld like quantization for these string states to characterise the motion. Further we find a `long' string limit of such circular strings in the ϰ-deformed AdS3 and find a novel dependence of the oscillation number on the energy in the next to leading order expansion.
[Rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin].
Wang, Ji-fen; Yu, Jing; Guo, Xin; Sun, Xing-long; Wang, Ding-fang
2011-07-01
The method of rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin was studied in the present paper. Adding sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch, caffeine and phenacetin to heroin with a certain percentage, the changes in the infrared spectrum with the concentration of heroin increasing and the detection limit of the additives were determined. Whether or not heroin can be detected in the sample with high concentration of added ingredients was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Similarly, in high purity of heroin, whether or not Raman spectroscopy can detect the added ingredients was tested. Through systematic experiments, the results showed that: using infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to test the added ingredients of heroin is a rapid and effective method. Each has both advantages and disadvantages. We should select the appropriate method according to the actual cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, Takaaki; Murata, Keiju
2015-06-01
We study nonlinear dynamics of the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in super Yang-Mills theory using the AdS/CFT duality. In the gravity side, the flux tube is realized by a fundamental string whose endpoints are attached to the AdS boundary. We perturb the endpoints in various ways and numerically compute the time evolution of the nonlinearly oscillating string. As a result, cusps can form on the string, accompanied by weak turbulence and power law behavior in the energy spectrum. When cusps traveling on the string reach the boundary, we observe the divergence of the force between the quark and antiquark. Minimal amplitude of the perturbation below which cusps do not form is also investigated. No cusp formation is found when the string moves in all four AdS space directions, and in this case an inverse energy cascade follows a direct cascade.
The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.
1992-01-01
This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.
Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2005-10-07
We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.
Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler
2015-07-01
We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.
Quantum corrections to supergravity on AdS2×S2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, Finn; Lisbão, Pedro
2015-04-01
We compute the off-shell spectrum of supergravity on AdS2×S2 by explicit diagonalization of the equations of motion for an effective AdS2 theory where all fields are dualized to scalars and spin-1/2 fermions. We classify all bulk modes as physical, gauge violating, and pure gauge then compute the physical spectrum by explicit cancellation of unphysical modes. We identify boundary modes as physical fields on S2 that are formally pure gauge but with gauge function that is non-normalizable on AdS2. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to AdS2×S2 as a sum over physical fields including boundary states. The result agrees with a previous computation by Sen [1] where unphysical modes were canceled by ghosts.
Supergravity background of the λ-deformed AdS3 × S3 supercoset
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg
2016-09-01
We construct the solution of type IIB supergravity describing the integrable λ-deformation of the AdS3 ×S3 supercoset. While the geometry corresponding to the deformation of the bosonic coset has been found in the past, our background is more natural for studying superstrings, and several interesting features distinguish our solution from its bosonic counterpart. We also report progress towards constructing the λ-deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 supercoset.
Application of the National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer’s Association AD criteria to ADNI
Peller, Patrick J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Montoya Quintero, Catalina; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L.; Jordan, Lennon; Jack, Clifford R.; Knopman, David; Petersen, Ronald C.
2013-01-01
Objective: We describe the operationalization of the National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer’s Association (NIA-AA) workgroup diagnostic guidelines pertaining to Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia in a large multicenter group of subjects with AD dementia. Methods: Subjects with AD dementia from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) with at least 1 amyloid biomarker (n = 211) were included in this report. Biomarker data from CSF Aβ42, amyloid PET, fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and MRI were examined. The biomarker results were assessed on a per-patient basis and the subject categorization as defined in the NIA-AA workgroup guidelines was determined. Results: When using a requirement that subjects have a positive amyloid biomarker and single neuronal injury marker having an AD pattern, 87% (48% for both neuronal injury biomarkers) of the subjects could be categorized as “high probability” for AD. Amyloid status of the combined Pittsburgh compound B–PET and CSF results showed an amyloid-negative rate of 10% in the AD group. In the ADNI AD group, 5 of 92 subjects fit the category “dementia unlikely due to AD” when at least one neuronal injury marker was negative. Conclusions: A large proportion of subjects with AD dementia in ADNI may be categorized more definitively as high-probability AD using the proposed biomarker scheme in the NIA-AA criteria. A minority of subjects may be excluded from the diagnosis of AD by using biomarkers in clinically categorized AD subjects. In a well-defined AD dementia population, significant biomarker inconsistency can be seen on a per-patient basis. PMID:23645596
AdS black hole solutions in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Maeda, Kei-ichi; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Sasagawa, Yukinori
2011-02-15
We find that anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime with a nontrivial linear dilaton field is an exact solution in the effective action of the string theory, which is described by gravity with the Gauss-Bonnet curvature terms coupled to a dilaton field in the string frame without a cosmological constant. The AdS radius is determined by the spacetime dimensions and the coupling constants of curvature corrections. We also construct the asymptotically AdS black hole solutions with a linear dilaton field numerically. We find these AdS black holes for hyperbolic topology and in dimensions higher than four. We discuss the thermodynamical properties of those solutions. Extending the model to the case with the even-order higher Lovelock curvature terms, we also find the exact AdS spacetime with a nontrivial dilaton. We further find a cosmological solution with a bounce of three-dimensional space and a solitonic solution with a nontrivial dilaton field, which is regular everywhere and approaches an asymptotically AdS spacetime.
Merrouche, Rabiâa; Bouras, Noureddine; Coppel, Yannick; Mathieu, Florence; Monje, Marie-Carmen; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Lebrihi, Ahmed
2010-06-25
Three new antibiotics were isolated from the fermentation broth of Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137 and characterized as the dithiolopyrrolone derivatives valerylpyrrothine (1), isovalerylpyrrothine (2), and formylpyrrothine (3) as well as the known antibiotic aureothricin. The production of the dithiolopyrrolone derivatives was induced by adding valeric acid to the culture medium. The compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity in vitro.
Newville, Matthew
The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/
Preparation of uranium compounds
Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E
2013-02-19
UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.
Nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds and processes
Lerom, M.W.; Peters, H.M.
1975-07-08
This patent relates to the nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds: 3,3''-bis (difluoramino)-2,2'' 4,4', 4'',6,6',6''-octanitro-m-terphenyl (DDONT) and 3,3''-bis(difluoramino)-2,2',2''4,4',4'',6,6',6''-nonanitro-m-terphenyl (DDNONA). Procedures are described wherein diamino precursors of the indicated compounds are prepared and the final compounds are obtained by a fluorination operation. The compounds are highly energetic and suitable for use as explosives and particularly in exploding bridge wire (EBW) detonators. (auth)
Odor compound detection in male euglossine bees.
Schiestl, F P; Roubik, D W
2003-01-01
Male euglossine bees collect fragrances from various sources, which they store and use for as yet unknown purposes. They are attracted, often specifically, to single odor compounds and blends thereof. We used gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and electroantennography (EAG) to investigate the response to 8 odor compounds by males of two euglossine species, Euglossa cybelia Moure and Eulaema polychroma (Mocsàry). In E. cybelia, we recorded EAD reactions in response to 1,8-cineole, methyl benzoate, benzyl actetate, methyl salicylate, eugenol, and methyl cinnamate. E. polychroma responded to the same compounds in EAG experiments, while (1s)(-)alpha-pinene and beta-pinene failed to trigger EAD or EAG responses in the bees. Blends of two compounds triggered larger responses than single compounds in EAG experiments with E. polychroma, however, when alpha-pinene was added, reactions decreased. In the light of existing data on the bees' behavior towards these odor compounds, our work indicates that both peripheral and central nervous processes influence the attraction of euglossine bees to odors.
Bachurin, Sergey O; Shevtsova, Elena F; Makhaeva, Galina F; Grigoriev, Vladimir V; Boltneva, Natalia P; Kovaleva, Nadezhda V; Lushchekina, Sofya V; Shevtsov, Pavel N; Neganova, Margarita E; Redkozubova, Olga M; Bovina, Elena V; Gabrelyan, Alexey V; Fisenko, Vladimir P; Sokolov, Vladimir B; Aksinenko, Alexey Yu; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E; Aliev, Gjumrakch
2017-03-30
A new group of compounds, promising for the design of original multitarget therapeutic agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases, based on conjugates of aminoadamantane and carbazole derivatives was synthesized and investigated. Compounds of these series were found to interact with a group of targets that play an important role in the development of this type of diseases. First of all, these compounds selectively inhibit butyrylcholinesterase, block NMDA receptors containing NR2B subunits while maintaining the properties of MK-801 binding site blockers, exert microtubules stabilizing properties, and possess the ability to protect nerve cells from death at the calcium overload conditions. The leading compound C-2h has been shown the most promising effects on all analyzed parameters. Thus, these compounds can be regarded as promising candidates for the design of multi-target disease-modifying drugs for treatment of AD and/or similar neuropathologies.
Bachurin, Sergey O.; Shevtsova, Elena F.; Makhaeva, Galina F.; Grigoriev, Vladimir V.; Boltneva, Natalia P.; Kovaleva, Nadezhda V.; Lushchekina, Sofya V.; Shevtsov, Pavel N.; Neganova, Margarita E.; Redkozubova, Olga M.; Bovina, Elena V.; Gabrelyan, Alexey V.; Fisenko, Vladimir P.; Sokolov, Vladimir B.; Aksinenko, Alexey Yu; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E.; Aliev, Gjumrakch
2017-01-01
A new group of compounds, promising for the design of original multitarget therapeutic agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases, based on conjugates of aminoadamantane and carbazole derivatives was synthesized and investigated. Compounds of these series were found to interact with a group of targets that play an important role in the development of this type of diseases. First of all, these compounds selectively inhibit butyrylcholinesterase, block NMDA receptors containing NR2B subunits while maintaining the properties of MK-801 binding site blockers, exert microtubules stabilizing properties, and possess the ability to protect nerve cells from death at the calcium overload conditions. The leading compound C-2h has been shown the most promising effects on all analyzed parameters. Thus, these compounds can be regarded as promising candidates for the design of multi-target disease-modifying drugs for treatment of AD and/or similar neuropathologies. PMID:28358144
Fiber Compounds and Human Health.
Camara, Montana; Fernandez-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Sanchez-Mata, Maria Cortes
2017-01-01
It is known that insufficient consumption of fiber in Western societies is directly linked to certain diseases. The required daily fiber intake can be obtained from foods such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and others, or by eating foods enriched with fiber as a functional ingredient. This review studies certain fiber compounds such as oligosaccharides (namely α-galactosides and fructans), arabinoxylans and β-glucans. The European regulatory body governing nutrition and health claims aims to protect consumers' right to receive truthful information about food by verifying statements on "nutrition", "content", "health claims" and "reducing the risk of disease". Some of these foods and functional ingredients can be considered as "novel foods". This paper describes the state of the art of certain fiber compounds and their effect on human health; the different requirements for fiber components used as functional or novel food ingredients; and the response of the European authorities to the use of this ingredient and its related health claims in terms of food labelling. After EFSA approval, these claims can be used in food labelling as an added value for consumer health, which may also improve their success in the market. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.
The Recent Data Explosion in the ADS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, Carolyn S.; Accomazzi, A.; Henneken, E.; Thompson, D.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.
2007-12-01
In the past 12 months, we have added over a million records to the ADS Abstract Service. This is the equivalent of a 20% increase, or about double the rate of increase that the ADS has seen in recent years. This significant increase in size is due to the addition of several large datasets including historical data from many Springer astronomy and physics journals as well as bibliographic records from the full run of A&A Abstracts from the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. The number of citations in the Abstract Service has seen an increase of more than 25%, bringing the total number of citations to over 25 million. Our recent agreement to index records from CrossRef will continue the data explosion in the ADS into 2008.
Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence
Klebanov, Igor R.
2008-07-28
This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.
Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.
Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.
Heat kernels on cone of AdS2 and k-wound circular Wilson loop in AdS5 × S5 superstring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergamin, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.
2016-04-01
We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that should be representing k-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on k-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of AdS2 with deficit 2π (1-k). We compute the determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.
The Tetrahedral Zamolodchikov Algebra and the {AdS_5× S^5} S-matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Tsuboi, Zengo
2017-08-01
The S-matrix of the {AdS_5× S^5} string theory is a tensor product of two centrally extended su{(2|2)\\ltimes R^2 S-matrices, each of which is related to the R-matrix of the Hubbard model. The R-matrix of the Hubbard model was first found by Shastry, who ingeniously exploited the fact that, for zero coupling, the Hubbard model can be decomposed into two XX models. In this article, we review and clarify this construction from the AdS/CFT perspective and investigate the implications this has for the {AdS_5× S^5} S-matrix.
Classical worldsheets for string scattering on flat and AdS spacetime
Sommerfield, Charles M.; Thorn, Charles B.
2008-08-15
We present a study of the worldsheets that describe the classical limit of various string scattering processes. Our main focus is on string scattering in AdS spacetime because of its relation via the AdS/CFT (anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory) correspondence to gluon scattering in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. But we also consider analogous processes in flat Minkowski spacetime which we compare to the AdS case. In addition to scattering of string by string we also find and study worldsheets describing the scattering of a string by external sources.
Asymptotic Symmetries of Spacelike Stretched ADS Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blagojević, Milutin; Cvetković, Branislav
We study asymptotic symmetries in the spacelike stretched AdS sector of topologically massive gravity. The Poisson bracket algebra of the canonical generators is shown to be centrally extended semi-direct sum of the Virasoro and u(1) Kac-Moody algebra. By using the Sugawara construction, we prove that the asymptotic symmetry coincides with the conformal symmetry, described by two independent Virasoro algebras with central charges.
Cepheids in Multiple Systems: ADS 14859
2006-11-01
rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Cepheids in Multiple Systems: ADS 148591 Nancy Remage Evans Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS-4, 60 Garden...and Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy , Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 Richard L. Walker US Naval Observatory. Deceased and...published 2006 November 7 ABSTRACT. We have attempted to resolve the system containing the Cepheid V1334 Cyg (pADS 14859) using both the Faint Object
Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katoh, S.
1978-01-01
Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.
Evaluation of co-added astronomical images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasyrova, M.; Vítek, S.
2017-07-01
The co-adding, averaging, or stacking of data are popular techniques to improve scientific outcomes in astronomy, especially in the case of extraction of very faint sources. These methods allow to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to decrease the point spread function width, which improves the accuracy of segmentation. This paper deals with a brief review of image co-adding algorithms and their evaluation regarding improving the qualitative parameters of the image data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, Anne; Kaid, Lynda Lee
2002-01-01
Explores the differences in techniques, strategies, narratives, and symbols used in 1,213 television issue ads and image ads from 13 U.S. presidential campaigns. Concludes that although the majority of both types of ads were positive, negative appeals dominated a higher percentage of issue ads as compared with image ads. (SG)
AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.
Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J
2014-12-31
Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally.
Oxidation of corn oil during frying of soy-flour-added flour dough.
Yoon, Y; Choe, E
2007-08-01
Oxidation of corn oil during frying of soy-flour-added dough was studied. Flour dough containing soy flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% was fried in corn oil at 180 degrees C for 2.5 min, and a total of 60 fryings were performed every 30 min. The oxidation of oil was determined by contents of free fatty acids (FFA), conjugated dienoic acids (CDA), polar compounds, and p-anisidine values (PAV). Tocopherols and phospholipids (PLs) in the oil were determined by HPLC. Tocopherols were present in corn oil at 1000 ppm before frying and increased after the first frying of dough containing soy flour due to tocopherol transfer from soy-flour-added dough to the oil during frying. However, as the oil repeated frying, tocopherol contents decreased and its degradation rate was higher in the oil that fried soy-flour-added dough than in the oil that fried the dough without soy flour. PL was not detected in corn oil before and after frying. As the oil repeated frying, FFA, CDA, and polar compounds contents, and PAV of frying oil increased due to the oil oxidation. The values were higher in the oil which fried soy-flour-added dough than in the oil fried the dough without soy flour, indicating the acceleration of oil oxidation by soy flour added to dough. Increase in the oil oxidation by soy flour added to the dough was highly correlated with fast decomposition of tocopherol in the oil.
Synthesis of Fuels and Value-Added Nitrogen-Containing Compounds from N2
2014-11-24
The Haber - Bosch ammonia synthesis is one of the great technological achievements of the 20th century, having revolutionized agriculture and hence the... ammonia and hydrazine with its elements, N2 and H2. If successful, such research would be transformative as these important fuels and energy storage...catalysis concepts to be explored in developing and understanding the molecular dynamics of catalysis involving N2, hydrazine and ammonia . Summary of
Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development
Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.
2012-01-01
by adding as many additional Tier 1 compounds as are analytically compatible. About 35 percent of the Tier 1 compounds for sediment are high priority on the basis of measured occurrence. A total of 74 compounds, or 42 percent, are high priority on the basis of predicted likelihood of occurrence according to physical-chemical properties, and either have potential toxicity to aquatic life, high pesticide useage, or both. The remaining 22 percent of Tier 1 pesticide compounds were either degradates of Tier 1 parent compounds or included for other reasons. As with water, the Tier 1 pesticide compounds for sediment are distributed across the major pesticide-use groups; insecticides and their degradates are the largest fraction, making up 45 percent of Tier 1. In contrast to water, organochlorines, at 17 percent, are the largest chemical class for Tier 1 in sediment, which is to be expected because there is continued widespread detection in sediments of persistent organochlorine pesticides and their degradates at concentrations high enough for potential effects on aquatic life. Compared to water, there are fewer available benchmarks with which to compare contaminant concentrations in sediment, but a total of 19 Tier 1 compounds have at least one sediment benchmark or screening value for aquatic organisms. Of the 175 compounds in Tier 1, 77 percent have high aquatic-life toxicity, as defined for this process. This evaluation of pesticides and degradates resulted in two lists of compounds that are priorities for USGS analytical methods development, one for water and one for sediment. These lists will be used as the basis for redesigning and enhancing USGS analytical capabilities for pesticides in order to capture as many high-priority pesticide compounds as possible using an economically feasible approach.
Mehlhorn, R.J.
1998-10-27
A method of entrapping ionizable compounds, preferably phosphorylated hydrophobic compounds, into liposomes having transmembrane gradients is disclosed. The procedures involve forming liposomes in an acidic medium or a basic medium, adding to the acidic medium a cationic compound or to the basic medium an anionic compound and then adding a base to the cationic-containing medium or an acid to the anionic-containing medium, thereby inducing the ionizable compound into the liposomes` internal aqueous phase. The compound-entrapped liposomes prepared in accordance with the disclosed methods may be used as pharmaceutical preparations. Methods of administering such pharmaceutical preparations are also disclosed. 2 figs.
Mehlhorn, Rolf Joachim
1998-10-27
A method of entrapping ionizable compounds, preferably phosphorylated hydrophobic compounds, into liposomes having transmembrane gradients is disclosed. The procedures involve forming liposomes in an acidic medium or a basic medium, adding to the acidic medium a cationic compound or to the basic medium an anionic compound and then adding a base to the cationic-containing medium or an acid to the anionic-containing medium, thereby inducing the ionizable compound into the liposomes' internal aqueous phase. The compound-entrapped liposomes prepared in accordance with the disclosed methods may be used as pharmaceutical preparations. Methods of administering such pharmaceutical preparations are also disclosed.
Implementation of Recursion Relations in Gluon Scattering Amplitude Calculations in AdS4 /CFT3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dokmetzoglou, Nikolaos; Kharel, Savan
2017-01-01
The Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence is a duality between a theory of gravity in curved-space (AdS) and a conformally-invariant quantum field theory in flat-space (CFT). Scattering amplitudes are observables associated with the probability of the interaction of a given assembly of particles. Gluons, being the exchange particles associated with the strong nuclear force, which holds quarks together to form protons, are abundant byproducts of fundamental particle collisions. Thus, studying gluon scattering amplitudes is an effective way of deepening our understanding of these observables in AdS/CFT. Traditionally, Feynman diagrams have been used to calculate such scattering amplitudes. In this project, we use factorization properties and recursion relations to simplify these calculations. More specifically, we calculate multiple (different helicity combinations) four-point gluon scattering amplitudes in AdS4 /CFT3 (4-D AdS and 3-D CFT) as sums of products of three-point amplitudes. And then we calculate a five-point gluon scattering amplitude in AdS4 /CFT3 by decomposing it into a sum of products of these four-point and three-point amplitudes. Finally we comment on useful identities for checking these amplitudes. This work was supported by a Weinstein Davidson College Research Initiative Summer Research grant.
Supersymmetric wrapped membranes, AdS2 spaces, and bubbling geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.
2007-03-01
We perform a systematic study, in eleven dimensional supergravity, of the geometry of wrapped brane configurations admitting AdS2 limits. Membranes wrapping holomorphic curves in Calabi-Yau manifolds are found to exhibit some novel features; in particular, for fourfolds or threefolds, the gravitational effect of the branes on the overall transverse space is only weakly restricted by the kinematics of the Killing spinor equation. We also study the AdS2 limits of the wrapped brane supergravity descriptions. For membranes wrapped in a two-fold, we derive a set of AdS2 supersymmetry conditions which upon analytic continuation coincide precisely with those for the half-BPS bubbling geometries of LLM. From membranes wrapped in a three-fold, we obtain a set of AdS2 supersymmetry conditions which upon analytic continuation describe a class of spacetimes which we identify as quarter-BPS bubbling geometries in M-theory, with SO(4) × SO(3) × U(1) isometry in Riemannian signature. We also study fivebranes wrapping a special lagrangian five-cycle in a fivefold, in the presence of membranes wrapping holomorphic curves, and employ the wrapped brane supersymmetry conditions to derive a classification of the general minimally supersymmetric AdS2 geometry in M-theory.
AdS and Lifshitz scalar hairy black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Fan, Zhong-Ying; Zhu, Lu-Yao
2016-09-01
We consider Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity in general dimensions, which is nonminimally coupled to a scalar field. By choosing a scalar potential of the type V (ϕ )=2 Λ0+1/2 m2ϕ2+γ4ϕ4 , we first obtain large classes of scalar hairy black holes with spherical/hyperbolic/planar topologies that are asymptotic to locally anti- de Sitter (AdS) space-times. We derive the first law of black hole thermodynamics using Wald formalism. In particular, for one class of the solutions, the scalar hair forms a thermodynamic conjugate with the graviton and nontrivially contributes to the thermodynamical first law. We observe that except for one class of the planar black holes, all these solutions are constructed at the critical point of GB gravity where there exist unique AdS vacua. In fact, a Lifshitz vacuum is also allowed at the critical point. We then construct many new classes of neutral and charged Lifshitz black hole solutions for an either minimally or nonminimally coupled scalar and derive the thermodynamical first laws. We also obtain new classes of exact dynamical AdS and Lifshitz solutions which describe radiating white holes. The solutions eventually become AdS or Lifshitz vacua at late retarded times. However, for one class of the solutions, the final state is an AdS space-time with a globally naked singularity.
Elicitation of Diacetylenic Compounds in Suspension Cultured Cells of Eggplant
Imoto, Setsuko; Ohta, Yoshimoto
1988-01-01
Induction of stress metabolites in the suspension cultured cells of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) was examined. When autoclaved RNase A or nigeran, both of which are nonspecific phytoalexin elicitors in bean cells, were added to the cell culture of eggplant, greatly enhanced levels of three compounds were observed. One of them was cis-pentadeca-6-ene-1,3-diyne-5,15-diol, a novel diacetylenic compound. This compound has considerable fungitoxic activity. Also identified was falcarindiol, another fungitoxic diacetylenic compound previously reported as one of the phytoalexins in infected tomato fruits and leaves. Elicited compounds preferentially accumulated in the culture medium rather than in the cells and decreased to original levels during prolonged culturing. The elicitation of these compounds was closely correlated with cellular damage in terms of the decrease of growth rate and was inhibited by 10 micromolar cycloheximide. PMID:16665862
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.
2014-05-01
We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.
No-carrier-added (/sup 18/F)-N-methylspiroperidol
Shiue, C.Y.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.
1985-10-04
The present invention is directed to the synthesis of a radioligand, labeled with a positron emitting radionuclide which is suitable for dynamic studies in humans using positron emission transaxial tomography. No-carrier-added (NCA) (/sup 18/F)-N-methylspiroperiodl is prepared from four different sustrates: p-nitrobenzonitrile, cyclopropyl p-nitrophenyl ketone, p-cyclopropanoyl-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium iodide and p-cyclopropanoyl-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium perchlorate. The process for the production of NCA (/sup 18/F)-N-methylspiroperidol is a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Furthermore, the compound of this invention is shown to be effective as a new drug of choice for in vivo examination of dopamine binding sites in a human brain. In particular, this drug is primarily useful in the noninvasive technique of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT).
Arvisenet, G; Voilley, A; Cayot, N
2002-12-04
The retention of three aroma compounds-isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and linalool--from starch-containing model food matrices was measured by headspace analysis, under equilibrium conditions. We studied systems containing standard or waxy corn starch with one or two aroma compounds. The three studied aroma compounds interact differently: ethyl hexanoate and linalool form complexes with amylose, and isoamyl acetate cannot. However, in systems containing one aroma compound, we observed with both starches a significant retention of the three molecules. These results indicate that amylopectin could play a role in the retention of aroma. In systems containing two aroma compounds in a blend, the retentions measured for isoamyl acetate and for linalool were either equal to or less than those in systems where they were added alone. This phenomenon was attributed to competition between aroma compounds to bind with starch. The retention of aroma compounds blended in starch-based systems gave us additional information which confirmed that interactions occur not only with amylose but also with amylopectin.
Anion receptor compounds for non-aqueous electrolytes
Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James
2000-09-19
A new family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.
QCD condensates and holographic Wilson loops for asymptotically AdS spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, J. L.; Trinchero, R. C.
2014-02-01
The minimization of the Nambu-Goto action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the boundary is considered. This is done for asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces. The condensates of even dimension n =2 through 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficient of an in the expansion of the on-shell subtracted Nambu-Goto action for small a. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the condensates is universal in the sense that they only depend on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.
A note on vectorial AdS5/CFT4 duality for spin- j boundary theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Jin-Beom; Joung, Euihun; Lal, Shailesh
2016-12-01
The vectorial holographic correspondences between higher-spin theories in AdS5 and free vector models on the boundary are extended to the cases where the latter is described by free massless spin- j field. The dual higher-spin theory in the bulk does not include gravity and can only be defined on rigid AdS5 background with S 4 boundary. We discuss various properties of these rather special higher-spin theories and calculate their one-loop free energies. We show that the result is proportional to the same quantity for spin- j doubleton treated as if it is a AdS5 field. Finally, we consider even more special case where the boundary theory itself is given by an infinite tower of massless higher-spin fields.
QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces
Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.
2014-02-01
The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.
Thermal stability analysis of nonlinearly charged asymptotic AdS black hole solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, M.; Hamidi, S. F.
2017-08-01
In this paper, the four-dimensional nonlinearly charged black hole solutions have been considered in the presence of the power Maxwell invariant electrodynamics. Two new classes of anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions have been introduced according to different amounts of the parameters in the nonlinear theory of electrodynamics. The conserved and thermodynamical quantities of either of the black hole classes have been calculated from geometrical and thermodynamical approaches, separately. It has been shown that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is satisfied for either of the AdS black hole solutions we just obtained. Through the canonical and grand canonical ensemble methods, the black hole thermal stability or phase transitions have been analyzed by considering the heat capacities with the fixed black hole charge and fixed electric potential, respectively. It has been found that the new AdS black holes are stable if some simple conditions are satisfied.
Semiclassical folded string in AdS 5 × S 5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beccaria, Matteo; Macorini, Guido; Ratti, CarloAlberto; Valatka, Saulius
2012-05-01
We consider type IIA superstring theory on the background Ad{S_4} × {C}{{P}^3} , and the classical solution describing a folded string spinning in AdS 4 with angular momentum in {C}{{P}^3} . In the 't Hooft limit, it is the gravity dual of twist operators in the ABJM superconformal theory. We quantize the classical solution by algebraic curve methods and determine the first semiclassical correction to the energy. We provide an integral representation for this quantity valid for all values of the charges. We analyze its properties in the special regimes associated with a short or long string providing various accurate analytical expansions. Finally, we investigate various properties of the so-called slope, the leading term of the energy for short strings, collecting information that could be useful in attempts to generalize the exact results recently proposed for the folded string in AdS 5 × S 5.
Photon gas thermodynamics in dS and AdS momentum spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we study thermostatistical properties of a photon gas in the framework of two deformed special relativity models defined by the cosmological coordinatizations of the de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) momentum spaces. The dS model is a doubly special relativity theory in which an ultraviolet length scale is invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations. For the case of the AdS model, however, the Lorentz symmetry breaks at the high energy regime. We show that the existence of a maximal momentum in dS momentum space leads to maximal pressure and temperature at the thermodynamical level, while maximal internal energy and entropy arise for the case of the AdS momentum space due to the existence of a maximal kinematical energy. These results show that the thermodynamical duality of these models is very similar to their well-known kinematical duality.
Stability of warped AdS3 vacua of topologically massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Dionysios; Esole, Mboyo; Guica, Monica
2009-10-01
AdS3 vacua of topologically massive gravity (TMG) have been shown to be perturbatively unstable for all values of the coupling constant except the chiral point μl = 1. We study the possibility that the warped vacua of TMG, which exist for all values of μ, are stable under linearized perturbations. In this paper, we show that spacelike warped AdS3 vacua with Compère-Detournay boundary conditions are indeed stable in the range μl>3. This is precisely the range in which black hole solutions arise as discrete identifications of the warped AdS3 vacuum. The situation somewhat resembles chiral gravity: although negative energy modes do exist, they are all excluded by the boundary conditions, and the perturbative spectrum solely consists of boundary (pure large gauge) gravitons.
Characterization of Species C Human Adenovirus Serotype 6 (Ad6)
Weaver, Eric A.; Khare, Reeti; Hillestad, Mathew L.; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; Barry, Michael A.
2010-01-01
Adenovirus serotype (Ad5) is the most studied Ad. Ad1, 2, and 6 are also members of species C Ad and are presumed to have biologies similar to Ad5. In this work, we have compared the ability of Ad1, 2, 5, and 6 to infect liver and muscle after intravenous and intramuscular injection. We found that Ad6 was surprisingly the most potent at liver gene delivery and that Ad1 and Ad2 were markedly weaker than Ad5 and 6. To understand these differences, we sequenced the Ad6 genome. This revealed that the Ad6 fiber protein is surprisingly three shaft repeats shorter than the others which may explain differences in virus infectivity in vitro, but not in the liver. Comparison of hexon hypervariable regions (HVRs) suggests that the higher transduction by Ad5 and 6 as compared to Ad1 and 2 may be related to differences in charge and length. PMID:21251688
Financial and health literacy predict incident AD dementia and AD pathology
Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.; Boyle, Patricia A.
2017-01-01
Background Domain specific literacy is a multidimensional construct that requires multiple resources including cognitive and non-cognitive factors. Objective We test the hypothesis that domain specific literacy is associated with AD dementia and AD pathology after controlling for cognition. Methods Participants were community based older persons who completed a baseline literacy assessment, underwent annual clinical evaluations for up to 8 years and agreed to organ donation after death. Financial and health literacy was measured using 32 questions and cognition was measured using 19 tests. Annual diagnosis of AD dementia followed standard criteria. AD pathology was examined post-mortem by quantifying plaques and tangles. Cox models examined the association of literacy with incident AD dementia. Performance of model prediction for incident AD dementia was assessed using indices for integrated discrimination improvement and continuous net reclassification improvement. Linear regression models examined the independent association of literacy with AD pathology in autopsied participants. Results All 805 participants were free of dementia at baseline and 102 (12.7%) developed AD dementia during the follow-up. Lower literacy was associated with higher risk for incident AD dementia (p<0.001), and the association persisted after controlling for cognition (Hazard Ratio=1.50, p=0.004). The model including the literacy measure had better predictive performance than the one with demographics and cognition only. Lower literacy also was associated with higher burden of AD pathology after controlling for cognition (β=0.07, p=0.035). Conclusion Literacy predicts incident AD dementia and AD pathology in community-dwelling older persons, and the association is independent of traditional measures of cognition. PMID:28157101
Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Murray, S. S.
2015-04-01
Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments, or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. There are more papers written than ever on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service that provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this paper we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser-known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parikh, Maulik; Samantray, Prasant; Verlinde, Erik
2012-07-01
If the Hamiltonian of a quantum field theory is taken to be a timelike isometry, the vacuum state remains empty for all time. We search for such stationary vacua in anti-de Sitter space. By considering conjugacy classes of the Lorentz group, we find interesting one-parameter families of stationary vacua in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In particular, there exists a family of rotating Rindler vacua, labeled by the rotation parameter β, which are related to the usual Rindler vacuum by nontrivial Bogolubov transformations. Rotating Rindler-AdS space possesses not only an observer-dependent event horizon but even an observer-dependent ergosphere. We also find rotating vacua in global AdS provided a certain region of spacetime is excluded.
Stability of compounded thioguanine oral suspensions.
Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Romanick, Marcel; Somayaji, Vishwa; Mahdipoor, Parvin; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh
2011-05-15
PURPOSE. Updated information on the stability of compounded thioguanine oral suspensions prepared with currently available ingredients, as well as results of testing to determine if the addition of an antioxidant could extend shelf life by inhibiting formation of guanine, are presented. METHODS. Using triturated thioguanine tablets, three compounded suspensions were prepared: (1) a reference formulation containing methylcellulose and simple syrup, (2) an equivalent formulation using Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and (3) an antioxidant-containing formulation prepared by adding ascorbic acid to the equivalent formulation. The compounded batches were stored at room temperature (19-23 °C). The chemical stability of the suspensions was evaluated immediately after compounding and at weekly intervals by a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay method; physical stability was evaluated by regular visual checks and weekly pH testing. RESULTS. As demonstrated by serial LCMS testing, mean thioguanine levels in sampled batches of all three suspensions remained above accepted standards and mean guanine formation remained within acceptable limits for up to 63 days. The addition of ascorbic acid appeared to slow guanine formation but did not significantly extend the shelf life of the suspension. CONCLUSION. Compounded oral suspensions of thioguanine 20 mg/mL exhibited acceptable chemical and physical stability for up to nine weeks at 19-23 °C. The addition of ascorbic acid at a concentration of 0.1% to the suspension was not effective in consistently increasing the shelf life of the thioguanine suspensions.
The generalization of charged AdS black hole specific volume and number density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zi-Liang; He, Miao; Fang, Chao; Sun, Dao-Quan; Deng, Jian-Bo
2017-04-01
In this paper, by proposing a generalized specific volume, we restudy the P- V criticality of charged AdS black holes in the extended phase space. The results show that most of the previous conclusions can be generalized without change, but the ratio {\\tilde{ρ }}_c should be 3 {\\tilde{α }}/16 in general case. Further research on the thermodynamical phase transition of black hole leads us to a natural interpretation of our assumption, and more black hole properties can be generalized. Finally, we study the number density for charged AdS black hole in higher dimensions, the results show the necessity of our assumption.
Expert assessment of sea-level rise by AD 2100 and AD 2300
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmstorf, Stefan; Horton, Benjamin; Engelhart, Simon; Kemp, Andrew
2014-05-01
Large uncertainty surrounds projections of global sea-level rise, resulting from uncertainty about future warming and an incomplete understanding of the complex processes and feedback mechanisms that cause sea-level to rise. Consequently, existing models produce widely differing predictions of sea-level rise even for the same temperature scenario. Here we present results of a broad survey of 90 experts who were amongst the most active scientific publishers on the topic of sea level in recent years. They provided a probabilistic assessment of sea-level rise by AD 2100 and AD 2300 under two contrasting temperature scenarios. For the low scenario, which limits warming to <2°C above pre industrial temperature and has slowly falling temperature after AD 2050, the median 'likely' range provided by the experts is 0.4-0.6m by AD 2100 and 0.6-1.0m by AD 2300, suggesting a good chance to limit future sea-level rise to <1.0m if climate mitigation measures are successfully implemented. In contrast, for the high warming scenario (4.5°C by AD 2100 and 8°C in AD 2300) the median likely ranges are 0.7-1.2m by AD 2100 and 2.0 3.0m by AD 2300, calling into question the future survival of some coastal cities and low-lying island nations.
Expert assessment of sea-level rise by AD 2100 and AD 2300
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horton, Benjamin P.; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Engelhart, Simon E.; Kemp, Andrew C.
2014-01-01
Large uncertainty surrounds projections of global sea-level rise, resulting from uncertainty about future warming and an incomplete understanding of the complex processes and feedback mechanisms that cause sea level to rise. Consequently, existing models produce widely differing predictions of sea-level rise even for the same temperature scenario. Here we present results of a broad survey of 90 experts who were amongst the most active scientific publishers on the topic of sea level in recent years. They provided a probabilistic assessment of sea-level rise by AD 2100 and AD 2300 under two contrasting temperature scenarios. For the low scenario, which limits warming to <2 °C above pre-industrial temperature and has slowly falling temperature after AD 2050, the median 'likely' range provided by the experts is 0.4-0.6 m by AD 2100 and 0.6-1.0 m by AD 2300, suggesting a good chance to limit future sea-level rise to <1.0 m if climate mitigation measures are successfully implemented. In contrast, for the high warming scenario (4.5 °C by AD 2100 and 8 °C in AD 2300) the median likely ranges are 0.7-1.2 m by AD 2100 and 2.0-3.0 m by AD 2300, calling into question the future survival of some coastal cities and low-lying island nations.
Chaos rules out integrability of strings on AdS5 ×T 1 , 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Pallab; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.
2011-06-01
We show that certain classical string configurations in AdS5 ×T 1 , 1 are chaotic. This answers the question of integrability of string on such backgrounds in the negative. We consider a string localized in the center of AdS5 that winds around two circles of T 1 , 1. The corresponding dynamical system is equivalent to two coupled gravitational pendula and allows a very intuitive understanding. We find conclusive evidence of chaotic behavior by systematically analyzing the workings of the KAM theorem. We also show that the largest Lyapunov exponent is positive.
Warped AdS3 , dS3 , and flows from N =(0 ,2 ) SCFTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Colgáin, Eoin
2015-05-01
We present the general form of all timelike supersymmetric solutions to three-dimensional U (1 )3 gauged supergravity, a known consistent truncation of string theory. We uncover a rich vacuum structure, including an infinite class of new timelike-warped AdS3 (Gödel) and timelike-warped dS3 critical points. We outline the construction of supersymmetric flows, driven by irrelevant scalar operators in the SCFT, which interpolate between critical points. For flows from AdS3 to Gödel, the natural candidate for the central charge decreases along the flow. Flows to timelike-warped dS3 exhibit topology change.
Some comments on spacelike minimal surfaces with null polygonal boundaries in AdS m
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorn, Harald
2010-02-01
We discuss some geometrical issues related to spacelike minimal surfaces in AdS m with null polygonal boundaries at conformal infinity. In particular for AdS 4, two holomorphic input functions for the Pohlmeyer reduced system are identified. This system contains two coupled differential equations for two functions α left( {z,bar z} right) and β left( {z,bar z} right) , related to curvature and torsion of the surface. Furthermore, we conjecture that, for a polynomial choice of the two holomorphic functions, the relative positions of their zeros encode the conformal invariant data of the boundary null 2 n-gon.
Supersymmetric IIB background with AdS4 vacua from massive IIA supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.; Tsimpis, Dimitrios; Whiting, Catherine A.
2017-08-01
We present a new type IIB supergravity background of the warped form AdS4×M6 with dilaton, B -field and all Ramond-Ramond fluxes turned on. We obtain the solution by applying non-Abelian T-duality to a certain representative of a class of AdS4 backgrounds in massive IIA supergravity. By explicitly constructing the Killing spinor of the seed solution and using an argument involving Kosmann spinorial Lie derivative we demonstrate that the background is supersymmetric.
Clinical psychopharmacology of AD/HD: implications for animal models.
Solanto, M V
2000-01-01
A working knowledge of the clinical psychopharmacology of the psychostimulants in AD/HD is essential to the development of valid animal models of the disorder. The clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of D-amphetamine (D-AMP) and methylphenidate (MPH) have been well-studied. The plasma half-life of these compounds in children is approximately 5 h, with an onset of therapeutic action within a half-hour, and peak action at 1-3 h. The effective dose range for D-AMP in children is 0.2-0.5 mg/kg, and for MPH 0.3-1.0 mg/kg. In humans, psychostimulants bring about reductions in activity level and impulsivity, and improvement in attention span. Enhancement of executive processes mediated in the pre-frontal cortex in humans (especially tolerance for delay) is believed to mediate these therapeutic effects. There are no long-term remedial effects of the drug on behavior-i.e. symptoms return when the drugs are withdrawn. When used in the therapeutic dose range, there is no evidence of the development of significant tolerance or sensitization. These and other clinical findings to be discussed must guide and constrain the development of animal models of stimulant drug effects in AD/HD.
Reece, Matthew
2011-05-23
In this talk I give a brief assessment of the 'AdS/QCD correspondence', its successes, and its failures. I begin with a review of the AdS/CFT correspondence, with an emphasis on why the large N, large 't Hooft coupling limit is necessary for a calculable theory. I then briefly discuss attempts to extrapolate this correspondence to QCD-like theories, stressing why the failure of the large 't Hooft coupling limit is more important than the breakdown of the large N expansion. I sketch how event shapes can manifest stringy physics, and close with some brief remarks on the prospects for future improvements.
Issue ads and the health reform debate.
Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve
2012-06-01
The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness.
Advanced Optical A/D Converter
1993-05-01
before the receiver and separately by reducing the gain in the EDFA . It is important to note that the optical power level was varied while all the...could not exceed roughly 50% of the maximum power available at full gain from the EDFA . 4.2 Baseband-Mode Testing The single-channel system was also...AD-A275 663 Advanced Optical A/D Convert M.C. Hamilton, J.A. Bell, D.A. Leep, J.P. Lin The Boeing Company Boeing Defense and Space Group P.O. Box
Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin exacerbates Alzheimer-like changes of 3xTg-AD mice.
Chen, Yanxing; Liang, Zhihou; Tian, Zhu; Blanchard, Julie; Dai, Chun-Ling; Chalbot, Sonia; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin
2014-02-01
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves several possible molecular mechanisms, including impaired brain insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. To investigate the role of metabolic insults in AD, we injected streptozotocin (STZ), a diabetogenic compound if used in the periphery, into the lateral ventricle of the 6-month-old 3xTg-AD mice and studied the cognitive function as well as AD-like brain abnormalities, such as tau phosphorylation and Aβ accumulation, 3-6 weeks later. We found that STZ exacerbated impairment of short-term and spatial reference memory in 3xTg-AD mice. We also observed an increase in tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation, a disturbance of brain insulin signaling, and a decrease in synaptic plasticity and amyloid β peptides in the brain after STZ treatment. The expression of 20 AD-related genes, including those involved in the processing of amyloid precursor protein, cytoskeleton, glucose metabolism, insulin signaling, synaptic function, protein kinases, and apoptosis, was altered, suggesting that STZ disturbs multiple metabolic and cell signaling pathways in the brain. These findings provide experimental evidence of the role of metabolic insult in AD.
[Laboratory of Biopolymer Compounds].
Ostapchuk, A M
2008-01-01
General information is presented concerning the Laboratory of Biological Polymeric Compounds at the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; equipment, analytical and biophysical methods applied in the laboratory are listed.
Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.
1983-06-29
The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.
Polynitramino compounds outperform PETN.
Joo, Young-Hyuk; Shreeve, Jean'ne M
2010-01-07
New polynitramino compounds were synthesized and fully characterized using IR and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N) NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction.
Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.
1985-01-01
The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.
Chemistry of peroxide compounds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Volnov, I. I.
1981-01-01
The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.
Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N
2016-01-01
The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas. PMID:27194882
Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N
2016-01-01
The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.
Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds
1979-01-01
General Techniques for Combustion of Liquid/Soli. Organic Compounds by Oxygen Bomb Calorimetry by Arthur J. Head, William D. Good, and Ccrnelius...Mosselman, Chap. 8; Combustion of Liquid/Solid Organic Compounds with Non-Metallic Hetero-Atoms by Arthur J. Head and William D. Good, Chap. 9; in...0 Box 95085 Washington, DC 20234 Los Angeles, CA 90045 National Bureau of Standards CINDAS Chemical Thermodynamics Division Purdue University
Developing diatoms for value-added products: challenges and opportunities.
Fu, Weiqi; Wichuk, Kristine; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður
2015-12-25
As a major primary producer in marine environments, diatoms have been considered as promising feedstocks for their applications in functional foods, bioactive pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. This review focuses on the biotechnology potential of diatoms for value-added products like carotenoids. The impact of abiotic environmental stresses, such as intensity and quality of incident light, nutrient deficiency and silicon depletion, on diatoms has been examined to determine key factors that affect the growth performance and the accumulation of valuable compounds. Previous studies suggested that adaptive evolution could be an efficient method to improve the diatom productivity of valuable compounds. Light emitting diode (LED)-based photobioreactors were introduced and proposed as a promising new technology for producing quality products from diatoms. Currently available molecular biology tools were also summarized and discussed in relation to their application in the production of carotenoids and other valuable products. Taken together, systems biology and synthetic biology approaches have the potential to address the challenges faced while working toward the industrial application of diatoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik
Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.
Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Chaoli
2009-01-01
Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…
Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi
2009-01-01
We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…
Y-system for form factors at strong coupling in AdS5 and with multi-operator insertions in AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhiquan; Yang, Gang
2013-06-01
We study form factors in {N}=4 SYM at strong coupling in general kinematics and with multi-operator insertions by using gauge/string duality and integrability techniques. This generalizes the AdS3 results of Maldacena and Zhiboedov in two non-trivial aspects. The first generalization to AdS5 space was motivated by its potential connection to strong coupling Higgs-to-three-gluons amplitudes in QCD which was observed recently at weak coupling. The second generalization to multi-operator insertions was motivated as a step towards applying on-shell techniques to compute correlation functions at strong coupling. In this picture, each operator is associated to a monodromy condition on the cusp solutions. We construct Y-systems for both cases. The Y -functions are related to the spacetime (cross) ratios. Their WKB approximations based on a rational function P ( z) are also studied. We focus on the short operators, while the prescription is hopefully also applicable for more general operators.
Adding Users to the Website Design Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tomeo, Megan L.
2012-01-01
Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…
Value Added School Review Field Guide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alberta Education, 2009
2009-01-01
The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes…
Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi
2009-01-01
We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amiri-Sharifi, S.; Ali-Akbari, M.; Kishani-Farahani, A.; Shafie, N.
2016-08-01
We exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate thermalization in an N = 2 strongly coupled gauge theory including massless fundamental matter (quark). More precisely, we consider the response of a zero temperature state of the gauge theory under influence of an external electric field which leads to a time-dependent current. The holographic dual of the above set-up is given by introducing a time-dependent electric field on the probe D7-brane embedded in an AdS5 ×S5 background. In the dual gravity theory an apparent horizon forms on the brane which, according to AdS/CFT dictionary, is the counterpart of the thermalization process in the gauge theory side. We classify different functions for time-dependent electric field and study their effect on the apparent horizon formation. In the case of pulse functions, where the electric field varies from zero to zero, apart from non-equilibrium phase, we observe the formation of two separate apparent horizons on the brane. This means that the state of the gauge theory experiences two different temperature regimes during its time evolution.
Cutting Budget Corners While Adding Value.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veile, Craig N.; Carpenter, Mark J.
2000-01-01
Discusses how one school district saved money while adding long- term value to its capital improvement project. Planning issues involving square footage requirements, quality of material to be used, and heating and cooling system selection are discussed as are concepts to increase student learning capacity for the same construction dollars. (GR)
"Value Added" Proves Beneficial to Teacher Prep
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sawchuk, Stephen
2012-01-01
The use of "value added" information appears poised to expand into the nation's teacher colleges, with more than a dozen states planning to use the technique to analyze how graduates of training programs fare in classrooms. Supporters say the data could help determine which teacher education pathways produce teachers who are at least as…
Test Scaling and Value-Added Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ballou, Dale
2009-01-01
Conventional value-added assessment requires that achievement be reported on an interval scale. While many metrics do not have this property, application of item response theory (IRT) is said to produce interval scales. However, it is difficult to confirm that the requisite conditions are met. Even when they are, the properties of the data that…
Adding Users to the Website Design Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tomeo, Megan L.
2012-01-01
Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…
"Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Viadero, Debra
2009-01-01
A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the…
Gubser, Steven S.
2006-12-15
The AdS/CFT correspondence and a classical test string approximation are used to calculate the drag force on an external quark moving in a thermal plasma of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. This computation is motivated by the phenomenon of jet-quenching in relativistic heavy ion collisions.
The AD Nurse: Prepared to be Prepared
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beverly, Lynne; Junker, Mary H.
1977-01-01
It is not enough for the new associate degree (AD) nursing graduate to know the theory and be willing to learn. She must also have some skill in providing basic nursing care. Examples of applicants, both ADNs and BSNs, are described to illustrate the nursing talent necessary to practice sensitively and effectively. (Editor/TA)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karpatkin, Rhoda H.; Holmes, Anita
1995-01-01
Advertisers spend billions to market so-called educational products, services, and viewpoints to vulnerable young consumers. Budget constraints are forcing educators to accept ads and promotional materials. Several education and consumer-interest groups are developing guidelines for using commercial materials in schools. Consumers Union developed…
Cutting Budget Corners While Adding Value.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veile, Craig N.; Carpenter, Mark J.
2000-01-01
Discusses how one school district saved money while adding long- term value to its capital improvement project. Planning issues involving square footage requirements, quality of material to be used, and heating and cooling system selection are discussed as are concepts to increase student learning capacity for the same construction dollars. (GR)
Adding calcium improves lithium ferrite core
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lessoff, H.
1969-01-01
Adding calcium increases uniformity of grain growth over a wide range of sintering temperatures and reduces porosity within the grain. Ferrite cores containing calcium have square hysteresis loops and high curie temperatures, making them useful in coincident current memories of digital electronic computers.
Value-Added Analysis in Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicholson, Michael R.; Brown, Jeffrey R.
2010-01-01
Value-added data provide a viable alternative for gauging school effectiveness--one virtually free of the confounding effects of student demographics and other factors relating to student learning. How is it different from other measuring methods? It concentrates on growth, rather than attainment. This strengthens the concept and measurement of…
Higher Education Value Added Using Multiple Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Milla, Joniada; Martín, Ernesto San; Van Bellegem, Sébastien
2016-01-01
In this article we develop a methodology for the joint value added analysis of multiple outcomes that takes into account the inherent correlation between them. This is especially crucial in the analysis of higher education institutions. We use a unique Colombian database on universities, which contains scores in five domains tested in a…
The AD Nurse: Prepared to be Prepared
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beverly, Lynne; Junker, Mary H.
1977-01-01
It is not enough for the new associate degree (AD) nursing graduate to know the theory and be willing to learn. She must also have some skill in providing basic nursing care. Examples of applicants, both ADNs and BSNs, are described to illustrate the nursing talent necessary to practice sensitively and effectively. (Editor/TA)
Imago Mundi, Imago AD, Imago ADNI
2014-01-01
Since the launch in 2003 of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) in the USA, ever growing, similarly oriented consortia have been organized and assembled around the world. The various accomplishments of ADNI have contributed substantially to a better understanding of the underlying physiopathology of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These accomplishments are basically predicated in the trinity of multimodality, standardization and sharing. This multimodality approach can now better identify those subjects with AD-specific traits that are more likely to present cognitive decline in the near future and that might represent the best candidates for smaller but more efficient therapeutic trials – trials that, through gained and shared knowledge, can be more focused on a specific target or a specific stage of the disease process. In summary, data generated from ADNI have helped elucidate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning aging and AD pathology, while contributing to the international effort in setting the groundwork for biomarker discovery and establishing standards for early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25478022
Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Chaoli
2009-01-01
Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…
Higher Education Value Added Using Multiple Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Milla, Joniada; Martín, Ernesto San; Van Bellegem, Sébastien
2016-01-01
In this article we develop a methodology for the joint value added analysis of multiple outcomes that takes into account the inherent correlation between them. This is especially crucial in the analysis of higher education institutions. We use a unique Colombian database on universities, which contains scores in five domains tested in a…
"Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Viadero, Debra
2009-01-01
A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the…
Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Portnoy, Felix
2012-01-01
This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…
The complexity of identifying Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces in AdS3/CFT2
Bao, Ning; Chatwin-Davies, A.
2016-11-07
Here, we present a constructive algorithm for the determination of Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces in AdS3/CFT2 which exploits previously noted connections between holographic entanglement entropy and max-flow/min-cut. We then characterize its complexity as a polynomial time algorithm.
Holographic Hydrodynamics with Baryon Chemical Potential for Charged AdS Black Hole
Takeuchi, Shingo
2009-12-15
We work out the decoupling problem and hydrodynamic analysis for the sound mode in charged AdS black hole and calculate the sound velocity, the charge susceptibility and the electrical conductivity. We find that Einstein relation among the conductivity, the diffusion constant and the susceptibility holds exactly.
The complexity of identifying Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces in AdS3/CFT2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, N.; Chatwin-Davies, A.
2016-11-01
We present a constructive algorithm for the determination of Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces in AdS3/CFT2 which exploits previously noted connections between holographic entanglement entropy and max-flow/min-cut. We then characterize its complexity as a polynomial time algorithm.
Geometry and supersymmetry of heterotic warped flux AdS backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.
2015-07-01
We classify the geometries of the most general warped, flux AdS backgrounds of heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We show under some mild assumptions that there are no AdS n backgrounds with n ≠ 3. Moreover the warp factor of AdS3 backgrounds is constant, the geometry is a product AdS 3 × M 7 and such solutions preserve, 2, 4, 6 and 8 supersymmetries. The geometry of M 7 has been specified in all cases. For 2 supersymmetries, it has been found that M 7 admits a suitably restricted G 2 structure. For 4 supersymmetries, M 7 has an SU(3) structure and can be described locally as a circle fibration over a 6-dimensional KT manifold. For 6 and 8 supersymmetries, M 7 has an SU(2) structure and can be described locally as a S 3 fibration over a 4-dimensional manifold which either has an anti-self dual Weyl tensor or a hyper-Kähler structure, respectively. We also demonstrate a new Lichnerowicz type theorem in the presence of α' corrections.
Hairy black holes and the endpoint of AdS4 charged superradiance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Óscar J. C.; Masachs, Ramon
2017-02-01
We construct hairy black hole solutions that merge with the anti-de Sitter (AdS4) Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of superradiance. These hairy black holes have, for a given mass and charge, higher entropy than the corresponding AdS4-Reissner-Nordström black hole. Therefore, they are natural candidates for the endpoint of the charged superradiant instability. On the other hand, hairy black holes never dominate the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. The zero-horizon radius of the hairy black holes is a soliton (i.e. a boson star under a gauge transformation). We construct our solutions perturbatively, for small mass and charge, so that the properties of hairy black holes can be used to testify and compare with the endpoint of initial value simulations. We further discuss the near-horizon scalar condensation instability which is also present in global AdS4-Reissner-Nordström black holes. We highlight the different nature of the near-horizon and superradiant instabilities and that hairy black holes ultimately exist because of the non-linear instability of AdS.
Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Portnoy, Felix
2012-01-01
This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…
Integrable deformation of the AdS5×S5 superstring action.
Delduc, F; Magro, M; Vicedo, B
2014-02-07
An integrable deformation of the type IIB AdS5×S5 superstring action is presented. The deformed field equations, Lax connection, and κ-symmetry transformations are given. The original psu(2,2|4) symmetry is expected to become q deformed.
Thermodynamics and Stability of Five Dimensional AdS Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadat, Hassan
2012-01-01
In this paper we consider five dimensional AdS Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and calculate thermodynamical variables such as entropy, specific heat and free energy. In that case we can obtain stability conditions of the black hole and fix black hole charge and mass for phase transition.
Nearly AdS2 sugra and the super-Schwarzian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Förste, Stefan; Golla, Iris
2017-08-01
In nearly AdS2 gravity the Einstein-Hilbert term is supplemented by the Jackiw-Teitelboim action. Integrating out the bulk metric gives rise to the Schwarzian action for the boundary curve. In the present note, we show how the extension to supergravity leads to the super-Schwarzian action for the superspace boundary.
Multi-Skyrmions on AdS2 × S2, rational maps and popcorn transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canfora, Fabrizio; Tallarita, Gianni
2017-08-01
By combining two different techniques to construct multi-soliton solutions of the (3 + 1)-dimensional Skyrme model, the generalized hedgehog and the rational map ansatz, we find multi-Skyrmion configurations in AdS2 ×S2. We construct Skyrmionic multi-layered configurations such that the total Baryon charge is the product of the number of kinks along the radial AdS2 direction and the degree of the rational map. We show that, for fixed total Baryon charge, as one increases the charge density on ∂ (AdS2 ×S2) , it becomes increasingly convenient energetically to have configurations with more peaks in the radial AdS2 direction but a lower degree of the rational map. This has a direct relation with the so-called holographic popcorn transitions in which, when the charge density is high, multi-layered configurations with low charge on each layer are favored over configurations with few layers but with higher charge on each layer. The case in which the geometry is M2 ×S2 can also be analyzed.
Master symmetry in the AdS 5 × S 5 pure spinor string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandía, Osvaldo; Linch, William Divine; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini
2017-01-01
We lift the set of classical non-local symmetries recently studied by Klose, Loebbert, and Münkler in the context of ℤ 2 cosets to the pure spinor description of the superstring in the AdS 5 × S 5 background.
D-branes from pure spinor superstring in AdS5 × S5 background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanazawa, Sota; Sakaguchi, Makoto
2017-01-01
We examine the surface term for the BRST transformation of the open pure spinor superstring in an AdS5 ×S5 background. We find that the boundary condition to eliminate the surface term leads to a classification of possible configurations of 1/2 supersymmetric D-branes.
Partition functions in even dimensional AdS via quasinormal mode methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keeler, Cynthia; Ng, Gim Seng
2014-06-01
In this note, we calculate the one-loop determinant for a massive scalar (with conformal dimension Δ) in even-dimensional AdS d+1 space, using the quasinormal mode method developed in [1] by Denef, Hartnoll, and Sachdev. Working first in two dimensions on the related Euclidean hyperbolic plane H 2, we find a series of zero modes for negative real values of Δ whose presence indicates a series of poles in the one-loop partition function Z(Δ) in the Δ complex plane; these poles contribute temperature-independent terms to the thermal AdS partition function computed in [1]. Our results match those in a series of papers by Camporesi and Higuchi, as well as Gopakumar et al. [2] and Banerjee et al. [3]. We additionally examine the meaning of these zero modes, finding that they Wick-rotate to quasinormal modes of the AdS2 black hole. They are also interpretable as matrix elements of the discrete series representations of SO(2, 1) in the space of smooth functions on S 1. We generalize our results to general even dimensional AdS2 n , again finding a series of zero modes which are related to discrete series representations of SO(2 n, 1), the motion group of H 2 n .
Biodegradation of nitroaromatic compounds.
Spain, J C
1995-01-01
Nitroaromatic compounds are released into the biosphere almost exclusively from anthropogenic sources. Some compounds are produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels; others are used as synthetic intermediates, dyes, pesticides, and explosives. Recent research revealed a number of microbial systems capable of transforming or biodegrading nitroaromatic compounds. Anaerobic bacteria can reduce the nitro group via nitroso and hydroxylamino intermediates to the corresponding amines. Isolates of Desulfovibrio spp. can use nitroaromatic compounds as their source of nitrogen. They can also reduce 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene. Several strains of Clostridium can catalyze a similar reduction and also seem to be able to degrade the molecule to small aliphatic acids. Anaerobic systems have been demonstrated to destroy munitions and pesticides in soil. Fungi can extensively degrade or mineralize a variety of nitroaromatic compounds. For example, Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralizes 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and shows promise as the basis for bioremediation strategies. The anaerobic bacteria and the fungi mentioned above mostly transform nitroaromatic compounds via fortuitous reactions. In contrast, a number of nitroaromatic compounds can serve as growth substrates for aerobic bacteria. Removal or productive metabolism of nitro groups can be accomplished by four different strategies. (a) Some bacteria can reduce the aromatic ring of dinitro and trinitro compounds by the addition of a hydride ion to form a hydride-Meisenheimer complex, which subsequently rearomatizes with the elimination of nitrite. (b) Monooxygenase enzymes can add a single oxygen atom and eliminate the nitro group from nitrophenols. (c) Dioxygenase enzymes can insert two hydroxyl groups into the aromatic ring and precipitate the spontaneous elimination of the nitro group from a variety of nitroaromatic compounds. (d) Reduction of the nitro group to the corresponding
Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, En-Hua
In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile
Detection of teratogenic compounds using differentiating embryonic cells in culture.
Wilk, A L; Greenberg, J H; Horigan, E A; Pratt, R M; Martin, G R
1980-04-01
Methods are described for screening for teratogenic compounds using differentiating neural crest and prechondrogenic limb bud mesenchyme cells in culture. Substances to be tested are either added directly to the culture medium or are combined in a dialysis bag with the postmitochondrial fraction from rat liver and certain cofactors. In the latter case, the compound and its metabolites are gradually released into the medium from the dialysis bag. The results obtained with 14 compounds demonstrate a positive relationship between teratogenicity in vivo and alterations in the growth or the differentiation of the cultured cells.
Aqueous phase removal of nitrogen from nitrogen compounds
Fassbender, Alex G.
1993-01-01
A method is disclosed for denitrification of compounds containing nitrogen present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the types of nitrogen compounds present in a waste stream, (2) determining the concentrations of nitrogen compounds, (3) balancing oxidized and reduced form of nitrogen by adding a reactant, and (4) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 300.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., thereby resulting in less harmful nitrogen and oxygen gas, hydroxides, alcohols, and hydrocarbons.
Li, Jun; Tang, Yang; Jin, Hui-Juan; Cui, Yi-Di; Zhang, Li-Juan; Jiang, Tao
2015-01-01
Marinacarbolines A-D are a series of marine β-carboline alkaloids isolated from actinomycete Marinactinospora thermotolerans of the deep South China Sea with antiplasmodial activities. In inhibition assays of in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum, marinacarbolines exhibited antiplasmodial activity against drug-sensitive line 3D7 and drug-resistant line Dd2 of P. falciparum. However, approaches for the synthesis of such useful compounds are very limited. In this work, we reported a simple, efficient, and versatile process to synthesize marinacarbolines A-D (1-4). On the basis of that, the antitumor activities of marinacarbolines in a structure-dependent manner were allowed to be unveiled.
Black hole formation in AdS Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deppe, Nils; Kolly, Allison; Frey, Andrew R.; Kunstatter, Gabor
2016-10-01
AdS spacetime has been shown numerically to be unstable against a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. In [1], the authors presented a preliminary study of the effects on stability of changing the local dynamics by adding a Gauss-Bonnet term to the Einstein action. Here we provide further details as well as new results with improved numerical methods. In particular, we elucidate new structure in Choptuik scaling plots. We also provide evidence of chaotic behavior at the transition between immediate horizon formation and horizon formation after the matter pulse reflects from the AdS conformal boundary. Finally, we present data suggesting the formation of naked singularities in spacetimes with ADM mass below the algebraic bound for black hole formation.
Supercoset construction of Yang-Baxter deformed AdS5×S5 backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hideki, Kyono
2017-01-01
We consider Yang-Baxter deformations of the AdS5×S5 superstring theory. In previous works, the metric and B-field of some well-known string backgrounds concerned with the AdS/CFT correspondence have been obtained as deformations of AdS5×S5 based on r-matrices satisfying the homogeneous Yang-Baxter equation. Recently, the remaining fields including the Ramond-Ramond fields and the dilaton have been derived completely by performing the supercoset construction for abelian r-matrices. We also discuss the deformation with a non-abelian r-matrix and, in this case, the resulting background is not a solution of the type IIB supergravity. This article is based on the original paper [1].
Generalized scaling function from light-cone gauge AdS 5 × S 5 superstring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giombi, S.; Ricci, R.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.; Vergu, C.
2010-06-01
We revisit the computation of the 2-loop correction to the energy of a folded spinning string in AdS 5 with an angular momentum J in S 5 in the scaling limit ln S ≫ 1, J/{sqrt {λ ln S}} = {text{fixed}} . This correction gives the third term in the strong-coupling expansion of the generalized scaling function. The computation, using the AdS light-cone gauge approach developed in our previous paper, is done by expanding the AdS 5 × S 5 superstring partition function near the generalized null cusp world surface associated to the spinning string solution. The result corrects and extends the previous conformal gauge result of arXiv:0712.2479 and is found to be in complete agreement with the corresponding terms in the generalized scaling function as obtained from the asymptotic Bethe ansatz in arXiv:0805.4615 (and also partially from the quantum O(6) model and the Bethe ansatz data in arXiv:0809.4952). This provides a highly nontrivial strong coupling comparison of the Bethe ansatz proposal with the quantum AdS 5 × S 5 superstring theory, which goes beyond the leading semiclassical term effectively controlled by the underlying algebraic curve. The 2-loop computation we perform involves all the structures in the AdS light-cone gauge superstring action of hep-th/0009171 and thus tests its ultraviolet finiteness and, through the agreement with the Bethe ansatz, its quantum integrability. We do most of the computations for a generalized spinning string solution or the corresponding null cusp surface that involves both the orbital momentum and the winding in a large circle of S 5.
Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan
2010-04-15
The AdS/CFT correspondence defines a sector with universal strongly coupled dynamics in the field theory as the dual of pure gravity in AdS described by Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant. We explain here, from the field-theoretic viewpoint how the dynamics in this sector gets determined by the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We first show that the Boltzmann equation has very special solutions which could be functionally completely determined in terms of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We call these solutions conservative solutions. We indicate why conservative solutions should also exist when we refine this kinetic description to go closer to the exact microscopic theory or even move away from the regime of weak coupling so that no kinetic description could be employed. We argue that these conservative solutions form the universal sector dual to pure gravity at strong coupling and large N. Based on this observation, we propose a regularity condition on the energy-momentum tensor so that the dual solution in pure gravity has a smooth future horizon. We also study if irreversibility emerges only at long time scales of observation, unlike the case of the Boltzmann equation.
Reactive spreading: Adsorption, ridging and compound formation
Saiz, E.; Cannon, R.M.; Tomsia, A.P.
2000-09-11
Reactive spreading, in which a chemically active element is added to promote wetting of noble metals on nonmetallic materials, is evaluated. Theories for the energetics and kinetics of the necessary steps involved in spreading are outlined and compared to the steps in compound formation that typically accompany reactive wetting. These include: fluid flow, active metal adsorption, including nonequilibrium effects, and triple line ridging. All of these can be faster than compound nucleation under certain conditions. Analysis and assessment of recently reported experiments on metal/ceramic systems lead to a focus on those conditions under which spreading proceeds ahead of the actual formation of a new phase at the interface. This scenario may be more typical than believed, and perhaps the most effective situation leading to enhanced spreading. A rationale for the pervasive variability and hysteresis observed during high temperature wetting also emerges.
Nitrate, Nitrite, and nitroso compounds in foods
Hotchkiss, J.H.; Cassens, R.G.
1987-04-01
The concern that human foods might contain nitroso compounds stems from the discovery in the early 1960s that domestic animals fed fish meal preserved with high levels of sodium nitrite were dying of liver failure. It has been known for many years that nitrite can combine with amines to form N-nitrosamines. N-nitrosodimethylamine was determined to be the cause of the liver failure. The nitrosamine resulted from the reaction between dimethylamine contained in the fish and the added nitrite. Because nitrite is an important and widely used human food additive, particularly in the curing of meats, poultry, and fish, research was undertaken by several groups around the world to investigate the occurrence of these compounds in human foods.
Origin of the Tetragonal Ground State of Heusler Compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faleev, Sergey V.; Ferrante, Yari; Jeong, Jaewoo; Samant, Mahesh G.; Jones, Barbara; Parkin, Stuart S. P.
2017-03-01
We describe the general mechanism of tetragonal distortion in Heusler compounds X2Y Z . From 286 compounds studied using density-functional theory, 62% are found to be tetragonal at zero temperature. Such a large share of compounds with tetragonal distortions can be explained by the peak-and-valley character of the density of states (DOS) of these compounds in the cubic phase (arising from localized d bands and van Hove singularities) in conjunction with a smooth shift of peaky DOS structure relative to the Fermi energy, EF, when valence electrons are added to the system. A shift of the DOS in the Y or Z series leads to an alternation of stable and nonstable cubic phases that depends on the value of the DOS at EF in the cubic phase. Groups of compounds with a large share of tetragonal distortions are identified and explained.
STATISTICAL DATA ON CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS.
DATA STORAGE SYSTEMS, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, COMPUTERS, STATISTICAL DATA , DOCUMENTS, ARMY...CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL), (*INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS), MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, DATA PROCESSING
Mysterious zero in AdS5×S5 supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bars, Itzhak
2002-11-01
It is shown that all the states in AdS5×S5 supergravity have zero eigenvalue for all Casimir eigenvalues of its symmetry group SU(2,2|4). To compute this zero in supergravity we refine the oscillator methods for studying the lowest weight unitary representations of SU(N,M|R+S). We solve the reduction problem when one multiplies an arbitrary number of super-doubletons. This enters in the computation of the Casimir eigenvalues of the lowest weight representations. We apply the results to SU(2,2|4) that classifies the Kaluza-Klein towers of ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity compactified on AdS5×S5. We show that the vanishing of the SU(2,2|4) Casimir eigenvalues for all the states is indeed a group-theoretical fact in AdS5×S5 supergravity. By the AdS-CFT correspondence, it is also a fact for gauge invariant states of super-Yang-Mills theory with four supersymmetries in four dimensions. This nontrivial and mysterious zero is very interesting because it is predicted as a straightforward consequence of the fundamental local Sp(2) symmetry in 2T-physics. Via the 2T-physics explanation of this zero we find a global indication that these special supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theories hide a twelve-dimensional structure with (10,2) signature.
Compound management beyond efficiency.
Burr, Ian; Winchester, Toby; Keighley, Wilma; Sewing, Andreas
2009-06-01
Codeveloping alongside chemistry and in vitro screening, compound management was one of the first areas in research recognizing the need for efficient processes and workflows. Material management groups have centralized, automated, miniaturized and, importantly, found out what not to do with compounds. While driving down cost and improving quality in storage and processing, researchers still face the challenge of interfacing optimally with changing business processes, in screening groups, and with external vendors and focusing on biologicals in many companies. Here we review our strategy to provide a seamless link between compound acquisition and screening operations and the impact of material management on quality of the downstream processes. Although this is driven in part by new technologies and improved quality control within material management, redefining team structures and roles also drives job satisfaction and motivation in our teams with a subsequent positive impact on cycle times and customer feedback.
Organic compounds in meteorites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anders, E.; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M. H.
1973-01-01
The problem of whether organic compounds originated in meteorites as a primary condensate from a solar gas or whether they were introduced as a secondary product into the meteorite during its residence in a parent body is examined by initially attempting to reconstruct the physical conditions during condensation (temperature, pressure, time) from clues in the inorganic matrix of the meteorite. The condensation behavior of carbon under these conditions is then analyzed on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, and compounds synthesized in model experiments on the condensation of carbon are compared with those actually found in meteorites. Organic compounds in meteorites seem to have formed by catalytic reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and ammonia in the solar nebula at 360 to 400 K temperature and about 3 to 7.6 microtorr pressure. The onset of these reactions was triggered by the formation of suitable catalysts (magnetite, hydrated silicates) at these temperatures.
Sekhon, B. S.
2013-01-01
The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.
1977-01-01
The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.
[Energies of organic compounds
1995-07-01
The first part of our study of the enthalpy of reduction of carbonyl compounds has been completed and includes four aldehydes, acetone, a series of cyclic ketones and ethyl acetate. Results suggest that some of the literature data for these compounds are significantly in error. Equilibrium constants have been measured for the reaction of carbonyl compounds with water to give hydrates as well as with methanol to give either hemiacetals or acetals. They cover a wide range, and studies are underway to determine the reasons for the differences. Studies of the enthalpies of hydration of some alkenes which yield tertiary alcohols have been completed, as well as a study of the hydrolysis of lactones. The ``gauche effect`` has been studied, and has been shown to result from the formation of bent bonds when atoms of much different electronegativity are joined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.
1977-01-01
The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.
Organic compounds in meteorites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anders, E.; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M. H.
1973-01-01
The problem of whether organic compounds originated in meteorites as a primary condensate from a solar gas or whether they were introduced as a secondary product into the meteorite during its residence in a parent body is examined by initially attempting to reconstruct the physical conditions during condensation (temperature, pressure, time) from clues in the inorganic matrix of the meteorite. The condensation behavior of carbon under these conditions is then analyzed on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, and compounds synthesized in model experiments on the condensation of carbon are compared with those actually found in meteorites. Organic compounds in meteorites seem to have formed by catalytic reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and ammonia in the solar nebula at 360 to 400 K temperature and about 3 to 7.6 microtorr pressure. The onset of these reactions was triggered by the formation of suitable catalysts (magnetite, hydrated silicates) at these temperatures.
Compound semiconductor surfaces and interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilmsen, C. W.
All semiconductor devices and integrated circuits require dielectric layers for interconnect isolation, gate oxides, passivation, etc. Thermally grown SiO2 is the primary dielectric film for silicon technology. This ONR contract investigated the chemistry and electrical properties of the interface between III-V compound semiconductors and electrical properties of grown and deposited oxides. When this study began, very little was known about these oxides or their interfaces. The results of the research supported by this contract has added substantially to the fundamental understanding of the oxide growth, properties and electronic structure. Much of the experimental work was obtained with surface analytical techniques and significant contributions were also made in this field. The original ONR contract began in October 1975 and initially concentrated on the grown oxides of InP and GaAs. This work evolved over the years to include the study of deposited insulator/InP interfaces and trapping at the interface. The ONR contract has supported the publication of 31 journal articles and book chapters and numerous conference presentations.
Ionospheric tomography using ADS-B signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cushley, A. C.; Noël, J.-M.
2014-07-01
Numerical modeling has demonstrated that Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) signals can be used to reconstruct two-dimensional (2-D) electron density maps of the ionosphere using techniques for computerized tomography. Ray tracing techniques were used to determine the characteristics of individual waves, including the wave path and the state of polarization at the satellite receiver. The modeled Faraday rotation was computed and converted to total electron content (TEC) along the raypaths. The resulting TEC was used as input for computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) using algebraic reconstruction technique. This study concentrated on reconstructing mesoscale structures 25-100 km in horizontal extent. The primary scientific interest of this study was to show that ADS-B signals can be used as a new source of data for CIT to image the ionosphere and to obtain a better understanding of magneto-ionic wave propagation.
AdOpt@TNG control system software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baruffolo, Andrea; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo
1998-09-01
AdOptTNG is the Adaptive Optics Module for the Galileo National telescope (TNG). At first light this module will feature tip-tilt correction capabilities and a speckle interferometry facility. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the AdOptTNG Control System Software. The system is composed by a real-time part and a graphical user interface. The real-time software computes the required corrections, drives the tip-tilt mirror and function. The user interface has been written in IDL, using the IDL Widget set, taking advantage of its powerful data manipulation and analysis capabilities for data presentation and diagnostics. The integration of all these components into the TNG Control System Software, in order to allow for remote control and data archiving, is also briefly described.
Quantum load balancing in ad hoc networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasanpour, M.; Shariat, S.; Barnaghi, P.; Hoseinitabatabaei, S. A.; Vahid, S.; Tafazolli, R.
2017-06-01
This paper presents a novel approach in targeting load balancing in ad hoc networks utilizing the properties of quantum game theory. This approach benefits from the instantaneous and information-less capability of entangled particles to synchronize the load balancing strategies in ad hoc networks. The quantum load balancing (QLB) algorithm proposed by this work is implemented on top of OLSR as the baseline routing protocol; its performance is analyzed against the baseline OLSR, and considerable gain is reported regarding some of the main QoS metrics such as delay and jitter. Furthermore, it is shown that QLB algorithm supports a solid stability gain in terms of throughput which stands a proof of concept for the load balancing properties of the proposed theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Chong-Sun; Giataganas, Dimitrios
2016-11-01
We propose and study a holographic dual of the type-IIB superstring theory of AdS5×S5 in terms of the N =4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory on dS4 . We develop the bulk to boundary formalism for the computation of the correlation functions to a wide class of theories. We apply it to compute the two-point correlators in the particular duality under study and we find that they agree with the expected results in d S conformal field theory. The gauge theory is expected to be UV finite and enjoy exact S L (2 ,Z ) strong-weak duality. As the string theory Green-Schwarz sigma model carries an infinite number of classically conserved charges, it also suggests that the superconformal Yang-Mills theory is integrable and deserves further studies.
Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities
Agarwal, Deborah A.; Berket, Karlo
2003-07-14
Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.
ADS Network in Japan and in Asia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagai, Yasuki
2004-04-01
The management of long-lived high-level waste, such as minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP), is one of the most important issues to be solved for the utilization of the nuclear fission energy. The transmutation project of the radioactive wastes based on an accelerator driven sub-critical (ADS) system is very attractive, since it could reduce the risk of long-lived radioactivity and also increase the capacity of the disposal site. In the development of the ADS project networks of researchers between different fields and between different countries are crucial, since there are many scientific and technical issues, which should be studied. The activities based on these networks are discussed.
Biodegradation of perfluorinated compounds.
Parsons, John R; Sáez, Monica; Dolfing, Jan; de Voogt, Pim
2008-01-01
The information available in the literature provides evidence for the biodegradation of some poly- and per-fluorinated compounds, but such biodegradation is incomplete and may not result in mineralization. Recent publications have demonstrated that 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol, for example, can be degraded by bacteria from soil and wastewater treatment plants to perfluorooctanoic acid. Similarly, 2-N-ethyl(perfluorooctane sulfonamido)ethanol can be degraded by wastewater treatment sludge to perfluorooctanesulfonate. It is presently unclear whether these two products are degraded further. Therefore, the question remains as to whether there is a potential for defluorination and biodegradation of PFCs that contributes significantly to their environmental fate. The lack of mineralization observed is probably caused by the stability of the C-F bond, although there are examples of microbially catalyzed defluorination reactions. As is the case with reductive dechlorination or debromination, reductive defluorination is energetically favorable under anaerobic conditions and releases more energy than that available from sulfate reduction or methanogenesis. Consequently, we should consider the possibility that bacteria will adapt to utilize this source of energy, although evolving mechanisms to overcome the kinetic barriers to degradation of these compounds may take some time. The fact that such reactions are absent for some PFCs, to date, may be because too little time has passed for microorganisms to adapt to these potential substrates. Hence, the situation may be comparable to that of chlorinated organic compounds several decades ago. For many years, organochlorine compounds were considered to be catabolically recalcitrant; today, reductive chlorination reactions of many organochlorines, including PCBs and dioxins, are regularly observed in anaerobic environments. Hence, it is opportune and important to continue studying the potential degradation of perfluorinated compounds
Merged Sounding Value-Added Product
Troyan, D
2010-03-03
The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.
Appleby, C
1997-02-05
In the vast kit of tools used by corporate America to measure success, one has vaulted from the desks of CFOs to the cover of Fortune. Economic value added, better known as EVA, has become the tool of choice to assess shareholder value in publicly owned companies. Despite its Wall Street roots, advocates say EVA can also be applied to the traditionally not-for-profit health care industry, especially in an age of brutal competition for scarce capital.
DAWN: Dynamic Ad-hoc Wireless Network
2016-06-19
wireless communication networks . To accomplish this, DAWN adopts a very different approach than those followed in the past and summarized above. DAWN...wireless communication networks . The members of DAWN investigated difference aspects of wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The views, opinions and/or... communication networks . To accomplish this, DAWN adopts a very different approach than those followed in the past and summarized above. DAWN
ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product
Jensen, Michael
2012-09-28
The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.
Adding coal dust to coal batch
V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin
2009-05-15
The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.
Sweatt, William C.; Gill, David D.
2007-10-23
An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.
Prediction of intermetallic compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkhanov, Gennady S.; Kiselyova, N. N.
2009-06-01
The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nastase, Horatiu Stefan; Siegel, Warren
2000-10-01
We consider a geometric zero-radius limit for strings on AdS5 × S5, where the Anti-de Sitter hyperboloid becomes the projective lightcone. In this limit the fifth dimension becomes non dynamical, yielding a different ``holographic'' interpretation than the usual ``bulk to boundary'' one. When quantized on the random lattice, the fifth coordinate acts as a new kind of Schwinger parameter, producing Feynman rules with normal propagators at the tree level: for example, in the bosonic case ordinary massless phi4 theory is obtained. In the superstring case we obtain new, manifestly Script N = 4 supersymmetric rules for Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills. These gluons are also different from those of the usual AdS/CFT correspondence: they are the ``partons'' that make up the usual ``hadrons'' of the open and closed strings in the familiar QCD string picture. Thus, their coupling gYM and rank N of the ``color'' gauge group are different from those of the ``flavor'' gauge group of the open string. As a result we obtain different perturbation expansions in radius, coupling, and 1/N.
ADS: The Next Generation Search Platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Chyla, R.; Luker, J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Holachek, A.; Dave, R.; Murray, S. S.
2015-04-01
Four years after the last LISA meeting, the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) finds itself in the middle of major changes to the infrastructure and contents of its database. In this paper we highlight a number of features of great importance to librarians and discuss the additional functionality that we are currently developing. Our citation coverage has doubled since 2010 and now consists of over 10 million citations. We are normalizing the affiliation information in our records and we have started collecting and linking funding sources with papers in our system. At the same time, we are undergoing major technology changes in the ADS platform. We have rolled out and are now enhancing a new high-performance search engine capable of performing full-text as well as metadata searches using an intuitive query language. We are currently able to index acknowledgments, affiliations, citations, and funding sources. While this effort is still ongoing, some of its benefits are already available through the ADS Labs user interface and API at http://adslabs.org/adsabs/.
The anti-HIV activity of ADS-J1 targets the HIV-1 gp120.
Armand-Ugón, Mercedes; Clotet-Codina, Imma; Tintori, Cristina; Manetti, Fabrizio; Clotet, Bonaventura; Botta, Maurizio; Esté, José A
2005-12-05
Recent data suggest that heparin sulfates may bind to a CD4 induced epitope in the HIV-1 gp120 that constitutes the coreceptor binding site. We have studied the mechanism of action of ADS-J1, a non-peptidic compound selected by docking analysis to interact with gp41 and to interfere with the formation of N-36/C-34 complexes in sandwich ELISA experiments. We show that ADS-J1 blocked the binding of wild-type HIV-1 NL4-3 strain to MT-4 cells but not virus-cell binding of a polyanion-resistant virus. However, ADS-J1 blocked the replication of polyanion-resistant, T-20- and C34-resistant HIV-1, suggesting a second mechanism of action. Development of resistance to ADS-J1 on the polyanion-resistant HIV-1 led to mutations in gp120 coreceptor binding site and not in gp41. Time of addition experiments confirmed that ADS-J1, but not polyanions such as dextran sulfate or AR177, worked at a step that mimics the activity of an HIV coreceptor antagonist but prior to gp41-dependent fusion. We conclude that ADS-J1 may bind to the HIV coreceptor binding site as its mechanism of anti-HIV activity.
EXACT S-MATRICES FOR AdS3/CFT2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Changrim; Bombardelli, Diego
2013-12-01
We propose exact S-matrices for the AdS3/CFT2 duality between type IIB strings on AdS3×S3×M4 with M4 = S3×S1 or T4 and the corresponding two-dimensional conformal field theories. We fix the two-particle S-matrices on the basis of the symmetries su(1|1) and su(1|1)×su(1|1). A crucial justification comes from the derivation of the all-loop Bethe ansatz matching exactly the recent conjecture proposed by Babichenko et al. [J. High Energy Phys.1003, 058 (2010), arXiv:0912.1723 [hep-th
Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris
2015-01-01
We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.
The worldvolume action of kink solitons in AdS spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoury, Justin; Ovrut, Burt A.; Stokes, James
2012-08-01
A formalism is presented for computing the higher-order corrections to the worldvolume action of co-dimension one solitons. By modifying its potential, an explicit "kink" solution of a real scalar field in AdS spacetime is found. The formalism is then applied to explicitly compute the kink worldvolume action to quadratic order in two expansion parameters-associated with the hypersurface fluctuation length and the radius of AdS spacetime respectively. Two alternative methods are given for doing this. The results are expressed in terms of the trace of the extrinsic curvature and the intrinsic scalar curvature. In addition to conformal Galileon interactions, we find a non-Galileon term which is never sub-dominant. This method can be extended to any conformally flat bulk spacetime.
Supersymmetric AdS5 solutions of type IIB supergravity without D3 branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Couzens, Christopher
2017-01-01
We analyse the most general bosonic supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity whose metrics are warped products of five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS5) with a five-dimensional Riemannian manifold M 5, where the five-form flux vanishes, while all remaining fluxes are allowed to be non-vanishing consistent with SO(4,2) symmetry. This completes the program of classifying all supersymmetric solutions of ten and eleven-dimensional supergravity with an AdS5 factor. We investigate the supersymmetry conditions in some special cases, and demonstrate how these are satisfied by a solution originally found in [13], utilising the method of non-Abelian T-duality.
Massive quiver matrix models for massive charged particles in AdS
Asplund, Curtis T.; Denef, Frederik; Dzienkowski, Eric
2016-01-11
Here, we present a new class of N = 4 supersymmetric quiver matrix models and argue that it describes the stringy low-energy dynamics of internally wrapped D-branes in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) flux compactifications. The Lagrangians of these models differ from previously studied quiver matrix models by the presence of mass terms, associated with the AdS gravitational potential, as well as additional terms dictated by supersymmetry. These give rise to dynamical phenomena typically associated with the presence of fluxes, such as fuzzy membranes, internal cyclotron motion and the appearance of confining strings. We also show how these models can bemore » obtained by dimensional reduction of four-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on a three-sphere.« less
Massive quiver matrix models for massive charged particles in AdS
Asplund, Curtis T.; Denef, Frederik; Dzienkowski, Eric
2016-01-11
Here, we present a new class of N = 4 supersymmetric quiver matrix models and argue that it describes the stringy low-energy dynamics of internally wrapped D-branes in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) flux compactifications. The Lagrangians of these models differ from previously studied quiver matrix models by the presence of mass terms, associated with the AdS gravitational potential, as well as additional terms dictated by supersymmetry. These give rise to dynamical phenomena typically associated with the presence of fluxes, such as fuzzy membranes, internal cyclotron motion and the appearance of confining strings. We also show how these models can be obtained by dimensional reduction of four-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on a three-sphere.
Witten diagrams revisited: the AdS geometry of conformal blocks
Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River
2016-01-25
Here, we develop a new method for decomposing blocks. The steps involved are elementary, requiring no explicit integration, and operate directly in position space. Central to this construction is an appealingly simple answer to the question: what object in AdS computes a conformal block? The answer is a "geodesic Witten diagram", which is essentially an ordinary exchange Witten diagram, except that the cubic vertices are not integrated over all of AdS, but only over bulk geodesics connecting the boundary operators. In particular, we also consider the case of four-point functions of scalar operators, and show how to easily reproduce existing results for the relevant conformal blocks in arbitrary dimension.
Witten diagrams revisited: the AdS geometry of conformal blocks
Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; ...
2016-01-25
Here, we develop a new method for decomposing blocks. The steps involved are elementary, requiring no explicit integration, and operate directly in position space. Central to this construction is an appealingly simple answer to the question: what object in AdS computes a conformal block? The answer is a "geodesic Witten diagram", which is essentially an ordinary exchange Witten diagram, except that the cubic vertices are not integrated over all of AdS, but only over bulk geodesics connecting the boundary operators. In particular, we also consider the case of four-point functions of scalar operators, and show how to easily reproduce existingmore » results for the relevant conformal blocks in arbitrary dimension.« less
Partition functions with spin in AdS2 via quasinormal mode methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keeler, Cynthia; Lisbão, Pedro; Ng, Gim Seng
2016-10-01
We extend the results of [1], computing one loop partition functions for massive fields with spin half in AdS2 using the quasinormal mode method proposed by Denef, Hartnoll, and Sachdev [2]. We find the finite representations of SO(2, 1) for spin zero and spin half, consisting of a highest weight state | h> and descendants with non-unitary values of h. These finite representations capture the poles and zeroes of the one loop determinants. Together with the asymptotic behavior of the partition functions (which can be easily computed using a large mass heat kernel expansion), these are sufficient to determine the full answer for the one loop determinants. We also discuss extensions to higher dimensional AdS2 n and higher spins.
Gravitational instability of simply rotating AdS black holes in higher dimensions
Kodama, Hideo; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, Alexander
2009-02-15
We study the stability of AdS black holes rotating in a single two-plane for tensor-type gravitational perturbations in D>6 space-time dimensions. First, by an analytic method, we show that there exists no unstable mode when the magnitude a of the angular momentum is smaller than r{sub h}{sup 2}/R, where r{sub h} is the horizon radius and R is the AdS curvature radius. Then, by numerical calculations of quasinormal modes, using the separability of the relevant perturbation equations, we show that an instability occurs for rapidly rotating black holes with a>r{sub h}{sup 2}/R, although the growth rate is tiny (of order 10{sup -12} of the inverse horizon radius). We give numerical evidence indicating that this instability is caused by superradiance.
Static strings in global AdS space and quark-antiquark potential
Bayona, C. A. Ballon; Ferreira, Cristine N.
2008-07-15
We investigate the finite temperature quark antiquark problem in a compact space S{sup n-1}xS{sup 1} by considering static strings in global AdS{sub n+1} space with n{>=}3. For high temperatures we work in the black hole metric where two possible solutions show up : the big black hole and the small black hole. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we calculate the quark antiquark potential (free energy) as a function of the distance. We show that this potential can be intrepeted as confining for the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and deconfining for the big black hole. We find for the small black hole a confining limit for the potential but this solution is instable following the Hawking-Page criteria. Our results for the free energy reinforce the Witten interpretation of the confinement/deconfinement transition as the dual of the well-known Hawking-Page transition.
Phases of planar AdS black holes with axionic charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caldarelli, Marco M.; Christodoulou, Ariana; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Skenderis, Kostas
2017-04-01
Planar AdS black holes with axionic charge have finite DC conductivity due to momentum relaxation. We obtain a new family of exact asymptotically AdS4 black branes with scalar hair, carrying magnetic and axion charge, and we study the thermodynamics and dynamic stability of these, as well as of a number of previously known electric and dyonic solutions with axion charge and scalar hair. The scalar hair for all solutions satisfy mixed boundary conditions, which lead to modified holographic Ward identities, conserved charges and free energy, relative to those following from the more standard Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that properly accounting for the scalar boundary conditions leads to well defined first law and other thermodynamic relations. Finally, we compute the holographic quantum effective potential for the dual scalar operator and show that dynamical stability of the hairy black branes is equivalent to positivity of the energy density.
Vector condensate and AdS soliton instability induced by a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li; Li, Li-Fang; Wu, You
2014-01-01
We continue to study the holographic p-wave superconductor model in the Einstein-Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a non-minimal coupling between the complex vector field and the Maxwell field. In this paper we work in the AdS soliton background which describes a conformal field theory in the confined phase and focus on the probe approximation. We find that an applied magnetic field can lead to the condensate of the vector field and the AdS soliton instability. As a result, a vortex lattice structure forms in the spatial directions perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. As a comparison, we also discuss the vector condensate in the Einstein-SU(2) Yang-Mills theory and find that in the setup of the present paper, the Einstein-Maxwell-complex vector field model is a generalization of the SU(2) model in the sense that the vector field has a general mass and gyromagnetic ratio.
Semiclassical energy of the AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3 folded string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beccaria, Matteo; Macorini, Guido; Ratti, CarloAlberto; Valatka, Saulius
2013-01-01
We consider the classical solution describing a folded type IIA string in the background AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3. The string is spinning in AdS and has angular momentum in Bbb CBbb P3. In the 't Hooft limit, this is the gravity dual of twist operators in the ABJM superconformal theory. We quantize the classical solution by algebraic curve methods and determine the first semiclassical correction to the energy. An integral representation is given, valid for all values of the charges. We analyze its properties in the special regimes associated with a short or long string. Finally, we investigate various properties of the leading term of the energy for short strings (the so-called slope).
Logarithmic Correction to Scaling for Multispin Strings in the AdS5 Black Hole Background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, A. L.
We find new explicit solutions describing closed strings spinning with equal angular momentum in two independent planes in the AdS5 black hole space-time. These are 2n-folded strings in the radial direction and also winding m times around an angular direction. We specially consider these solutions in the long string and high temperature limit, where it is shown that there is a logarithmic correction to the scaling between energy and spin. This is similar to the one-spin case. The strings are spinning, or actually orbiting around the black hole of the AdS5 black hole space-time, similar to the solutions previously found in black hole space-times.
AdS5 vacua from type IIB supergravity on T 1 ,1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louis, Jan; Muranaka, Constantin
2017-06-01
We study maximally supersymmetric Anti-de Sitter backgrounds in consistent \\mathcal{N}=2 truncations of type IIB supergravity compactified on the Sasaki-Einstein manifold T 1,1. In particular, we focus on truncations that contain fields coming from the nontrivial second and third cohomology forms on T 1,1. These give rise to \\mathcal{N}=2 super-gravity coupled to two vector- and two hypermultiplets (Betti-vector truncation) or one vector- and three hypermultiplets (Betti-hyper truncation), respectively. We find that both truncations admit AdS5 backgrounds with the gauge group always being broken but containing at least an U(1) R factor. Moreover, in both cases we show that the moduli space of AdS vacua is nontrivial and of maximal dimension. Finally, we explicitly compute the metrics on these moduli spaces.
PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...
Compound floating pivot micromechanisms
Garcia, Ernest J.
2001-04-24
A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alcorn, A.; Berney, T.; Bretherton, K.; Mills, M.; Savery, D.; Shattock, P.
2004-01-01
Although earlier claims to identify specific compounds in the urine of people with autism had been discredited, it was subsequently suggested that there might be biochemical characteristics that were specific to early childhood, particularly in those who also did not have a severe degree of intellectual disability This study was to establish…
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Barium and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog
Lead and compounds (inorganic)
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Lead and compounds ( inorganic ) ; CASRN 7439 - 92 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.
2007-01-01
Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Selenium and Compounds ; CASRN 7782 - 49 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.
2007-01-01
Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…
Wiberg, K.B.
1995-07-01
The studies included hydrolysis of ketals, hydration of alkenes, barrier to rotation about C-O bonds in esters and acids, hydrolysis of lactones, reduction of ketones, non-bonded interactions, and enthalpies of vaporization of ketones, ketals, and other compounds.
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
EPA 635 / 04 / 052 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BORON AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 42 - 8 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2004 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
EPA / 635 / R - 05 / 002 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ZINC AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 66 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) July 2005 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington D.C . DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordanc
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
EPA / 635 / R - 98 / 008 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 41 - 7 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) April 1998 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in acco
Khriachtchev; Pettersson; Runeberg; Lundell; Rasanen
2000-08-24
The noble gases have a particularly stable electronic configuration, comprising fully filled s and p valence orbitals. This makes these elements relatively non-reactive, and they exist at room temperature as monatomic gases. Pauling predicted in 1933 that the heavier noble gases, whose valence electrons are screened by core electrons and thus less strongly bound, could form stable molecules. This prediction was verified in 1962 by the preparation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, XePtF6, the first compound to contain a noble-gas atom. Since then, a range of different compounds containing radon, xenon and krypton have been theoretically anticipated and prepared. Although the lighter noble gases neon, helium and argon are also expected to be reactive under suitable conditions, they remain the last three long-lived elements of the periodic table for which no stable compound is known. Here we report that the photolysis of hydrogen fluoride in a solid argon matrix leads to the formation of argon fluorohydride (HArF), which we have identified by probing the shift in the position of vibrational bands on isotopic substitution using infrared spectroscopy. Extensive ab initio calculations indicate that HArF is intrinsically stable, owing to significant ionic and covalent contributions to its bonding, thus confirming computational predictions that argon should form a stable hydride species with properties similar to those of the analogous xenon and krypton compounds reported before.
Barrio, Jorge R.; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Namavari, Mohammad; Phelps, Michael E.
2001-01-01
An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alcorn, A.; Berney, T.; Bretherton, K.; Mills, M.; Savery, D.; Shattock, P.
2004-01-01
Although earlier claims to identify specific compounds in the urine of people with autism had been discredited, it was subsequently suggested that there might be biochemical characteristics that were specific to early childhood, particularly in those who also did not have a severe degree of intellectual disability This study was to establish…
Aminopropyl thiophene compounds
Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.
1990-01-01
Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.
AdS black disk model for small-x DIS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João
2011-05-01
Using the approximate conformal invariance of QCD at high energies we consider a simple AdS black disk model to describe saturation in DIS. Deep inside saturation the structure functions have the same power law scaling, FT˜FL˜x-ω, where ω is related to the expansion rate of the black disk with energy. Furthermore, the ratio FL/FT is given by the universal value 1+ω/3+ω, independently of the target.
Mellin Amplitudes for Supergravity on AdS5×S5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastelli, Leonardo; Zhou, Xinan
2017-03-01
We revisit the calculation of holographic correlation functions in type-IIB supergravity on AdS5×S5 . Results for four-point functions simplify drastically when expressed in Mellin space. We conjecture a compact formula for the four-point functions of one-half Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield single-trace operators of arbitrary weight. Our methods rely on general consistency conditions and eschew detailed knowledge of the supergravity effective action.
Microstate counting of AdS 4 hyperbolic black hole entropy via the topologically twisted index
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro; Giraldo-Rivera, Victor I.; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.
2017-08-01
We compute the topologically twisted index for general N=2 supersymmetric field theories on H_2× {S}^1 . We also discuss asymptotically AdS 4 magnetically charged black holes with hyperbolic horizon, in four-dimensional N=2 gauged supergravity. With certain assumptions, put forward by Benini, Hristov and Zaffaroni, we find precise agreement between the black hole entropy and the topologically twisted index, for ABJ M theories.
Yangian of AdS3 / CFT2 and its deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regelskis, Vidas
2016-08-01
We construct highest-weight modules and a Yangian extension of the centrally extended sl(1 | 1) 2 superalgebra, that is a symmetry of the worldsheet scattering associated with the AdS3 / CFT2 duality. We demonstrate that the R-matrix intertwining atypical modules has an elegant trigonometric parametrization. We also consider a quantum deformation of this superalgebra, its modules, and obtain a quantum affine extension of the Drinfeld-Jimbo type that describes a deformed worldsheet scattering.
A comparative note on tunneling in AdS and in its boundary matrix dual
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandrasekhar, B.; Mukherji, Sudipta; Sahay, Anurag; Sarkar, Swarnendu
2012-05-01
For charged black hole, within the grand canonical ensemble, the decay rate from thermal AdS to the black hole at a fixed high temperature increases with the chemical potential. We check that this feature is well captured by a phenomenological matrix model expected to describe its strongly coupled dual. This comparison is made by explicitly constructing the kink and bounce solutions around the de-confinement transition and evaluating the matrix model effective potential on the solutions.
Exact microstate counting for dyonic black holes in AdS4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benini, Francesco; Hristov, Kiril; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2017-08-01
We present a counting of microstates of a class of dyonic BPS black holes in AdS4 which precisely reproduces their Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. The counting is performed in the dual boundary description, that provides a non-perturbative definition of quantum gravity, in terms of a twisted and mass-deformed ABJM theory. We evaluate its twisted index and propose an extremization principle to extract the entropy, which reproduces the attractor mechanism in gauged supergravity.
Minisuperspace quantization of bubbling AdS2×S2 geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qinglin
2017-01-01
We quantize the moduli space of supersymmetric microstates describing four-dimensional black holes with AdS2×S2 asymptotics. To acquire the commutation relations of quantization, we find the symplectic form that is imposed in the Type IIB supergravity and defined in the space of solutions parametrized by one complex harmonic function in R3 with sources distributed along closed curves.
Closed Timelike Curves in (2+1)-AdS Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valtancoli, P.
We build the (2+1)-AdS gravity generalization of the Gott time machine using a first-order formalism for solving the scattering of point sources. The two-body dynamics is solved by two invariant masses, whose difference is simply related to the total angular momentum of the system. We show how to build a time machine when at least one of the two invariant masses is no more real but acquires an imaginary part.
Time-dependent AdS backgrounds from S-branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deger, Nihat Sadik
2016-11-01
We construct time and radial dependent solutions that describe p-branes in chargeless S-brane backgrounds. In particular, there are some new M5- and D3-branes among our solutions which have AdS limits and contain a cosmological singularity as well. We also find a time-dependent version of the dyonic membrane configuration in 11-dimensions by applying a Lunin-Maldacena deformation to our new M5-brane solution.
Free boundary conditions and the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apolo, Luis; Porrati, Massimo
2014-03-01
We show that recently proposed free boundary conditions for AdS3 are dual to two-dimensional quantum gravity in certain fixed gauges. In particular, we note that an appropriate identification of the generator of Virasoro transformations leads to a vanishing total central charge in agreement with the theory at the boundary. We argue that this identification is necessary to match the bulk and boundary generators of Virasoro transformations and for consistency with the constraint equations.
Unfolded equations for massive higher spin supermultiplets in AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchbinder, I. L.; Snegirev, T. V.; Zinoviev, Yu. M.
2016-08-01
In this paper we give an explicit construction of unfolded equations for massive higher spin supermultiplets of the minimal (1, 0) supersymmetry in AdS 3 space. For that purpose we use an unfolded formulation for massive bosonic and fermionic higher spins and find supertransformations leaving appropriate set of unfolded equations invariant. We provide two general supermultiplets ( s, s + 1 /2) and ( s, s - 1 /2) with arbitrary integer s, as well as a number of lower spin examples.
Mellin Amplitudes for Supergravity on AdS_{5}×S^{5}.
Rastelli, Leonardo; Zhou, Xinan
2017-03-03
We revisit the calculation of holographic correlation functions in type-IIB supergravity on AdS_{5}×S^{5}. Results for four-point functions simplify drastically when expressed in Mellin space. We conjecture a compact formula for the four-point functions of one-half Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield single-trace operators of arbitrary weight. Our methods rely on general consistency conditions and eschew detailed knowledge of the supergravity effective action.
A method to find N = 1 AdS4 vacua in type IIB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solard, Gautier
2017-01-01
In this paper, we are looking for N = 1, AdS4 sourceless vacua in type IIB. While several examples exist in type IIA, there exists only one example of such vacua in type IIB. Thanks to the framework of generalized geometry we were able to devise a semi-algorithmical method to look for sourceless vacua. We present this method, which can easily be generalized to more complex cases, and give two new vacua in type IIB.
AdS black holes, the bulk-boundary dictionary, and smearing functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leichenauer, Stefan; Rosenhaus, Vladimir
2013-07-01
In Lorentzian AdS/CFT there exists a mapping between local bulk operators and nonlocal conformal field theory (CFT) operators. In global anti-de Sitter (AdS) this mapping can be found through use of bulk equations of motion and allows the nonlocal CFT operator to be expressed as a local operator smeared over a range of positions and times. We argue that such a construction is not possible if there are bulk normal modes with exponentially small near boundary imprint. We show that the AdS-Schwarzschild background is such a case, with the horizon introducing modes with angular momentum much larger than frequency, causing them to be trapped by the centrifugal barrier. More generally, we argue that any barrier in the radial effective potential which prevents null geodesics from reaching the boundary will lead to modes with vanishingly small near boundary imprint, thereby obstructing the existence of a smearing function. While one may have thought the bulk-boundary dictionary for low curvature regions, such as the exterior of a black hole, should be as in empty AdS, our results demonstrate otherwise.
Non-split and split deformations of {{AdS}}_{5}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.
2016-12-01
The η deformation of the {{AdS}}5× {S}5 superstring depends on a non-split r matrix for the superalgebra {psu}(2,2| 4). Much of the investigation into this model has considered one particular choice, however there are a number of inequivalent alternatives. This is also true for the bosonic sector of the theory with {su}(2,2), the isometry algebra of {{AdS}}5, admitting one split and three non-split r matrices. In this article we explore these r matrices and the corresponding geometries. We investigate their contraction limits, comment on supergravity backgrounds and demonstrate their relation to gauged-WZW deformations. We then extend the three non-split cases to {{AdS}}5× {S}5 and compute four separate bosonic two-particle tree-level S-matrices based on inequivalent BMN-type light-cone gauges. The resulting S-matrices, while different, are related by momentum-dependent one-particle changes of basis.
Supersymmetry of IIA warped flux AdS and flat backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.
2015-09-01
We identify the fractions of supersymmetry preserved by the most general warped flux AdS and flat backgrounds in both massive and standard IIA supergravities. We find that AdS n × w M 10 - n preserve {2}^{[n/2]}k for n ≤ 4 and {2}^{[n/2]+1}k for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries, k ∈ ℕ >0. In addition we show that, for suitably restricted fields and M 10 - n , the killing spinors of AdS backgrounds are given in terms of the zero modes of Dirac like operators on M 10 - n . This generalizes the Lichnerowicz theorem for connections whose holonomy is included in a general linear group. We also adapt our results to ℝ 1, n - 1 × w M 10 - n backgrounds which underpin flux compactifications to ℝ 1, n - 1 and show that these preserve {2}^{[n/2]}k for 2
Near horizon soft hairs as microstates of generic AdS3 black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Yavartanoo, H.
2017-02-01
In [1] the horizon fluffs proposal is put forward to identify microstates of generic nonextremal three-dimensional Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. The proposal is that black hole microstates, the horizon fluffs, are certain near horizon soft hairs which are not in the coadjoint orbits of the asymptotic Virasoro algebra associated with the BTZ black holes. It is also known that AdS3 Einstein gravity has more general black hole solutions than the BTZ family which are generically described by two periodic, but otherwise arbitrary, holomorphic and antiholomorphic functions. We show that these general AdS3 black holes which are typically conformal descendants of the BTZ black holes and are characterized by the associated Virasoro coadjoint orbits, appear as coherent states in the asymptotic symmetry algebra corresponding to the black hole family. We apply the horizon fluffs proposal to these generic AdS3 black holes and identify the corresponding microstates. We then perform microstate counting and compute the entropy. The entropy appears to be an orbit invariant quantity, providing an important check for the horizon fluffs proposal.
Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5
Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; de Boer, Jan; Jejjala, Vishnu; Simon, Joan
2007-07-24
We construct the microstates of near-extremal black holes in AdS_5 x S5 as gases of defects distributed in heavy BPS operators in the dual SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. These defects describe open strings on spherical D3-branes in the S5, and we show that they dominate the entropy by directly enumerating them and comparing the results with a partition sum calculation. We display new decoupling limits in which the field theory of the lightest open strings on the D-branes becomes dual to a near-horizon region of the black hole geometry. In the single-charge black hole we find evidence for an infrared duality between SU(N) Yang-Mills theories that exchanges the rank of the gauge group with an R-charge. In the two-charge case (where pairs of branes intersect on a line), the decoupled geometry includes an AdS_3 factor with a two-dimensional CFT dual. The degeneracy in this CFT accounts for the black hole entropy. In the three-charge case (where triples of branes intersect at a point), the decoupled geometry contains an AdS_2 factor. Below a certain critical mass, the two-charge system displays solutions with naked timelike singularities even though they do not violate a BPS bound. We suggest a string theoretic resolution of these singularities.
On elliptic string solutions in AdS3 and dS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios
2016-07-01
Classical string actions in AdS3 and dS3 can be connected to the sinh-Gordon and cosh-Gordon equations through Pohlmeyer reduction. We show that the problem of constructing a classical string solution with a given static or translationally invariant Pohlmeyer counterpart is equivalent to solving four pairs of effective Schrödinger problems. Each pair consists of a flat potential and an n = 1 Lamé potential whose eigenvalues are connected, and, additionally, the four solutions satisfy a set of constraints. An approach for solving this system is developed by employing an interesting connection between the specific class of classical string solutions and the band structure of the Lamé potential. This method is used for the construction of several families of classical string solutions, one of which turns out to be the spiky strings in AdS3. New solutions include circular rotating strings in AdS3 with singular time evolution of their radius and angular velocity as well as classical string solutions in dS3.
Stringy correlations on deformed AdS3 × S 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roychowdhury, Dibakar
2017-03-01
In this paper, following the basic prescriptions of Gauge/String duality, we perform a strong coupling computation on classical two point correlation between local (single trace) operators in a gauge theory dual to κ-deformed AdS3 × S 3 background. Our construction is based on the prescription that relates every local operator in a gauge theory to that with the (semi)classical string states propagating within the physical region surrounded by the holographic screen in deformed AdS3. In our analysis, we treat strings as being that of a point like object located near the physical boundary of the κ-deformed Euclidean Poincare AdS3 and as an extended object with non trivial dynamics associated to S 3. It turns out that in the presence of small background deformations, the usual power law behavior associated with two point functions is suppressed exponentially by a non trivial factor which indicates a faster decay of two point correlations with larger separations. On the other hand, in the limit of large background deformations ( κ ≫ 1), the corresponding two point function reaches a point of saturation. In our analysis, we also compute finite size corrections associated with these two point functions at strong coupling. As a consistency check of our analysis, we find perfect agreement between our results to that with the earlier observations made in the context of vanishing deformation.
Static BPS black holes in AdS4 with general dyonic charges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halmagyi, Nick
2015-03-01
We complete the study of static BPS, asymptotically AdS4 black holes within =2 FI-gauged supergravity and where the scalar manifold is a symmetric very special Kähler manifold. We find the analytic form for the general solution to the BPS equations, the horizon appears as a double root of a particular quartic polynomial whereas in previous work this quartic polynomial further factored into a pair of double roots. A new and distinguishing feature of our solutions is that the phase of the supersymmetry parameter varies throughout the black hole. The general solution has 2 n v independent parameters; there are two algebraic constraints on 2 n v + 2 charges, matching our previous analysis on BPS solutions of the form AdS2 × Σ g . As a consequence we have proved that every BPS geometry of this form can arise as the horizon geometry of a BPS AdS4 black hole. When specialized to the STU-model our solutions uplift to M-theory and describe a stack of M2-branes wrapped on a Riemman surface in a Calabi-Yau fivefold with internal angular momentum.
Korean nova records in A.D. 1073 and A.D. 1074: R Aquarii
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Myeong-Gu; Cho, Se-Hyung; Park, Changbom
2005-05-01
R Aqr is known to be a symbiotic binary system with an associated extended emission nebula, possibly produced by a historic outburst. To find the associated historic records, we searched for and compiled all Guest Star and Peculiar Star records in three Korean official history books that cover almost two thousand years, Samguksagi, Goryeosa, Joseonwangjosillok. In addition to the record of A.D. 1073, previously noted by Li (1985, Chin. Astron. Astrophys., 9, 322), we have found in Goryeosa another candidate record of A.D. 1074, which has the same positional description as that of A.D. 1073 with an additional brightness description. We examined various aspects of the two records and conclude that they both are likely to be the records of outburst of R Aqr. This means that there were two successive outbursts in A.D. 1073 and in A.D. 1074, separated by approximately one year. Based on these records, we estimate the distance to R Aqr to be 273 pc if the expansion of the nebula has been at a constant rate. The brightness record of A.D. 1074 corresponds to the absolute magnitude at outburst of Moutburst = -6.2m -5.2m at this distance. The two Korean records associated with R Aqr may provide astronomically meaningful constraints to the outburst model of R Aqr and the formative process of its nebulosity.
``Short'' spinning strings and structure of quantum AdS5×S5 spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beccaria, M.; Giombi, S.; Macorini, G.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.
2012-09-01
Using information from the marginality conditions of vertex operators for the AdS5×S5 superstring, we determine the structure of the dependence of the energy of quantum string states on their conserved charges and the string tension ˜λ. We consider states on the leading Regge trajectory in the flat space limit which carry one or two (equal) spins in AdS5 or S5 and an orbital momentum in S5, with Konishi multiplet states being particular cases. We argue that the coefficients in the energy may be found by using a semiclassical expansion. By analyzing the examples of folded spinning strings in AdS5 and S5, as well as three cases of circular two-spin strings, we demonstrate the universality of transcendental (zeta-function) parts of few leading coefficients. We also show the consistency with target space supersymmetry with different states belonging to the same multiplet having the same nontrivial part of the energy. We suggest, in particular, that a rational coefficient (found by Basso for the folded string using Bethe Ansatz considerations and which, in general, is yet to be determined by a direct two-loop string calculation) should, in fact, be universal.
Holographic estimation of multiplicity and the collision of membranes in modified AdS5 spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Pozdeeva, E. O.; Pozdeeva, T. O.
2013-07-01
The quark-gluon plasma formed as a result of heavy-ion collisions is currently investigated actively both theoretically and experimentally. According to the holographic approach, forming a quark-gluon plasma in the four-dimensional world is associated with creating black holes in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The multiplicity of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions is then determined by the entropy of the five-dimensional black hole, which is estimated by the area of the trapped surface. In this approach, we can model the dependence of the entropy on the energy of the colliding ions and thus the dependence of the multiplicity on the energy, and we can also compare the theoretical results with experimental data. To obtain a variety of model dependences on the energy, we consider the formation of black holes in modified AdS spaces, namely, in AdS spaces with different b factors. We find dynamics of the change of the trapped surface area depending on the energy for each investigated space.
Conformal Flow on S3 and Weak Field Integrability in AdS4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bizoń, Piotr; Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Hunik, Dominika; Luyten, Vincent; Maliborski, Maciej
2017-08-01
We consider the conformally invariant cubic wave equation on the Einstein cylinder {\\mathbb{R} × \\mathbb{S}^3} for small rotationally symmetric initial data. This simple equation captures many key challenges of nonlinear wave dynamics in confining geometries, while a conformal transformation relates it to a self-interacting conformally coupled scalar in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS4) and connects it to various questions of AdS stability. We construct an effective infinite-dimensional time-averaged dynamical system accurately approximating the original equation in the weak field regime. It turns out that this effective system, which we call the conformal flow, exhibits some remarkable features, such as low-dimensional invariant subspaces, a wealth of stationary states (for which energy does not flow between the modes), as well as solutions with nontrivial exactly periodic energy flows. Based on these observations and close parallels to the cubic Szegő equation, which was shown by Gérard and Grellier to be Lax-integrable, it is tempting to conjecture that the conformal flow and the corresponding weak field dynamics in AdS4 are integrable as well.
"Added lactose" and "added sucrose" cow's milk formulae in nutrition of low birthweight babies.
Fosbrooke, A D; Wharton, B A
1975-01-01
During the manufacture of dried milks for infant feeding the composition of cow's milk may be modified by the addition of extra carbohydrate powder to lower the relative proportions of protein and minerals, and in practice various carbohydrates are used in a largely empirical manner. In other circumstances it is known that the quality of dietary carbohydrate affects intestinal tolerance, deposition of body fat (in rats), and concentrations of plasma lipids (in man). Therefore, in this study the effects of feeding newborn infants on added lactose formula and added sucrose formula have been investigated. 29 low birthweight babies were observed throughout the first 3 months of life. The added carbohydrate achieved a satisfactory composition in terms of mineral and protein concentration of the reconstituted milk, but the "added lactose" group experienced more diarrhoea and a greater degree of metabolic acidosis during the first week of life. The added lactose group was slightly fatter and the plasma triglyceride concentration slightly higher than in the "added sucrose" group. Despite teleological evidence in favour of lactose, we found no objective contraindication to the addition of sucrose to cow's milk in the manufacture of infant feeding formulae. Both milks contained only small quantities of linoleic acid and the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the plasma and adipose tissue lipids fell to low levels, but no clinical evidence of "essential fatty acid deficiency" was found. PMID:1096831
AD-1 multiple exposure showing wing sweep
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
This photograph is a multiple exposure showing the AD-1 aircraft with its wing swept at different angles between zero and 60 degrees. The Ames-Dryden-1 (AD-1) aircraft was designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (pivoting) wing. The wing could be rotated on its center pivot, so that it could be set at its most efficient angle for the speed at which the aircraft was flying. NASA Ames Research Center Aeronautical Engineer Robert T. Jones conceived the idea of an oblique wing. His wind tunnel studies at Ames (Moffett Field, CA) indicated that an oblique wing design on a supersonic transport might achieve twice the fuel economy of an aircraft with conventional wings. The oblique wing on the AD-1 pivoted about the fuselage, remaining perpendicular to it during slow flight and rotating to angles of up to 60 degrees as aircraft speed increased. Analytical and wind tunnel studiesthat Jones conducted at Ames indicated that a transport-sized oblique-wing aircraft flying at speeds of up to Mach 1.4 (1.4 times the speed of sound) would have substantially better aerodynamic performance than aircraft with conventional wings. The AD-1 structure allowed the project to complete all of its technical objectives. The type of low-speed, low-cost vehicle - as expected - exhibited aeroelastic and pitch-roll-coupling effects that contributed to poor handling at sweep angles above 45 degrees. The fiberglass structure limited the wing stiffness that would have improved the handling qualities. Thus, after completion of the AD-1 project, there was still a need for a transonic oblique-wing research aircraft to assess the effects of compressibility, evaluate a more representative structure, and analyze flight performance at transonic speeds (those on either side of the speed of sound). The aircraft was delivered to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, in March 1979 and its first flight was on December 21, 1979. Piloting the aircraft on that flight, as well as on its last
AD-1 multiple exposure showing wing sweep
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
This photograph is a multiple exposure showing the AD-1 aircraft with its wing swept at different angles between zero and 60 degrees. The Ames-Dryden-1 (AD-1) aircraft was designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (pivoting) wing. The wing could be rotated on its center pivot, so that it could be set at its most efficient angle for the speed at which the aircraft was flying. NASA Ames Research Center Aeronautical Engineer Robert T. Jones conceived the idea of an oblique wing. His wind tunnel studies at Ames (Moffett Field, CA) indicated that an oblique wing design on a supersonic transport might achieve twice the fuel economy of an aircraft with conventional wings. The oblique wing on the AD-1 pivoted about the fuselage, remaining perpendicular to it during slow flight and rotating to angles of up to 60 degrees as aircraft speed increased. Analytical and wind tunnel studiesthat Jones conducted at Ames indicated that a transport-sized oblique-wing aircraft flying at speeds of up to Mach 1.4 (1.4 times the speed of sound) would have substantially better aerodynamic performance than aircraft with conventional wings. The AD-1 structure allowed the project to complete all of its technical objectives. The type of low-speed, low-cost vehicle - as expected - exhibited aeroelastic and pitch-roll-coupling effects that contributed to poor handling at sweep angles above 45 degrees. The fiberglass structure limited the wing stiffness that would have improved the handling qualities. Thus, after completion of the AD-1 project, there was still a need for a transonic oblique-wing research aircraft to assess the effects of compressibility, evaluate a more representative structure, and analyze flight performance at transonic speeds (those on either side of the speed of sound). The aircraft was delivered to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, in March 1979 and its first flight was on December 21, 1979. Piloting the aircraft on that flight, as well as on its last
Toxicity of dipyridyl compounds and related compounds.
Li, Shenggang; Crooks, Peter A; Wei, Xiaochen; de Leon, Jose
2004-01-01
Five dipyridyl isomers, 2,2'-, 2,3'-, 2,4'-, 3,3'-, and 4,4'-dipyridyl, are products resulting from the pyrolytic degradation of tobacco products and degradation of the herbicide paraquat, and therefore may be present in the environment. In this article, the toxicological properties of these dipyridyl isomers in humans and animals are reviewed. Epidemiological studies suggest that cancerous skin lesions in workers involved in the manufacturing of paraquat may be associated with exposure to dipyridyl compounds. Experimental animal studies suggest that dipyridyl isomers may have several toxicological effects. Three of the dipyridyl isomers (the 2,2', 2,4', and 4,4' isomers) appear to be inducers of some metabolic enzymes. The 2,2'-dipyridyl isomer, an iron chelator, appears to influence vasospasm in primate models of stroke. The cytotoxic effects of 2,2'-dipyridyl on several leukemia cell lines have been reported, and a potent teratogenic effect of 2,2'-dipyridyl has been observed in rats. Based on the results of paraquat studies in experimental animal models, it has been proposed that paraquat may have deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons. These findings support the epidemiological evidence that paraquat exposure may be associated with the development of Parkinson's disease. Studies designed to determine an association between paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease are complicated by the possibility that metabolic changes may influence the neurotoxicity of paraquat and/or its metabolites. Preliminary unpublished data in mice show that 300-mg/kg doses of 2,2'-dipyridyl are neurotoxic, and 300-mg/kg doses of 2,4'- and 4,4'-dipyridyls are lethal. These results are consistent with earlier studies in Sherman rats using high 2,2'- and 4,4'-dipyridyl doses. New studies are needed to further explore the toxicological properties of dipyridyls and their potential public health impact.
Ad Hoc Classification of Radiology Reports
Aronow, David B.; Fangfang, Feng; Croft, W. Bruce
1999-01-01
Objective: The task of ad hoc classification is to automatically place a large number of text documents into nonstandard categories that are determined by a user. The authors examine the use of statistical information retrieval techniques for ad hoc classification of dictated mammography reports. Design: The authors' approach is the automated generation of a classification algorithm based on positive and negative evidence that is extracted from relevance-judged documents. Test documents are sorted into three conceptual bins: membership in a user-defined class, exclusion from the user-defined class, and uncertain. Documentation of absent findings through the use of negation and conjunction, a hallmark of interpretive test results, is managed by expansion and tokenization of these phrases. Measurements: Classifier performance is evaluated using a single measure, the F measure, which provides a weighted combination of recall and precision of document sorting into true positive and true negative bins. Results: Single terms are the most effective text feature in the classification profile, with some improvement provided by the addition of pairs of unordered terms to the profile. Excessive iterations of automated classifier enhancement degrade performance because of overtraining. Performance is best when the proportions of relevant and irrelevant documents in the training collection are close to equal. Special handling of negation phrases improves performance when the number of terms in the classification profile is limited. Conclusions: The ad hoc classifier system is a promising approach for the classification of large collections of medical documents. NegExpander can distinguish positive evidence from negative evidence when the negative evidence plays an important role in the classification. PMID:10495099
Interpolated Sounding Value-Added Product
Troyan, D
2013-04-01
The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), and surface meteorological instruments in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of at least 266 altitude levels. This VAP is part of the Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) suite of VAPs. INTERPSONDE is the profile of the atmospheric thermodynamic state created using the algorithms of MERGESONDE without including the model data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). More specifically, INTERPSONDE VAP represents an intermediate step within the larger MERGESONDE process.
Gauged Ads-Maxwell Algebra and Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durka, R.; Kowalski-Glikman, J.; Szczachor, M.
We deform the anti-de Sitter algebra by adding additional generators {Z}ab, forming in this way the negative cosmological constant counterpart of the Maxwell algebra. We gauge this algebra and construct a dynamical model with the help of a constrained BF theory. It turns out that the resulting theory is described by the Einstein-Cartan action with Holst term, and the gauge fields associated with the Maxwell generators {Z}ab appear only in topological terms that do not influence dynamical field equations. We briefly comment on the extension of this construction, which would lead to a nontrivial Maxwell fields dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubser, Steven S.; Knaute, Johannes; Parikh, Sarthak; Samberg, Andreas; Witaszczyk, Przemek
2017-06-01
We construct a p-adic analog to AdS/CFT, where an unramified extension of the p-adic numbers replaces Euclidean space as the boundary and a version of the Bruhat-Tits tree replaces the bulk. Correlation functions are computed in the simple case of a single massive scalar in the bulk, with results that are strikingly similar to ordinary holographic correlation functions when expressed in terms of local zeta functions. We give some brief discussion of the geometry of p-adic chordal distance and of Wilson loops. Our presentation includes an introduction to p-adic numbers.
The NASA ADS: Searching, Linking and More
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, D. M.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Bohlen, E.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M.; Murray, S.
2004-01-01
The NASA ADS Abstract Service is a NASA-funded project which provides FREE World Wide Web abstract search services. We currently have over 3.6 million references in four databases: 1) Astronomy and Planetary Sciences; 2) Physics and Geophysics; 3) Space Instrumentation; and 4) Astronomy Preprints. Our eleven mirror sites in France, Germany, Japan, Chile, Great Britain, India, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Korea and China help to provide better global access. Each database contains abstracts from hundreds of journals, publications, colloquia, symposia, proceedings, PhD Theses, and NASA reports. All abstracts can be searched by author, title, or abstract text words.
The NASA ADS: Searching, Linking and More
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, D. M.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Bohlen, E.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M.; Murray, S.
2004-01-01
The NASA ADS Abstract Service is a NASA-funded project which provides FREE World Wide Web abstract search services. We currently have over 3.6 million references in four databases: 1) Astronomy and Planetary Sciences; 2) Physics and Geophysics; 3) Space Instrumentation; and 4) Astronomy Preprints. Our eleven mirror sites in France, Germany, Japan, Chile, Great Britain, India, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Korea and China help to provide better global access. Each database contains abstracts from hundreds of journals, publications, colloquia, symposia, proceedings, PhD Theses, and NASA reports. All abstracts can be searched by author, title, or abstract text words.
Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique
2016-05-01
We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.
Adding control to arbitrary unknown quantum operations
Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Ralph, Timothy C.; Kalasuwan, Pruet; Zhang, Mian; Peruzzo, Alberto; Lanyon, Benjamin P.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2011-01-01
Although quantum computers promise significant advantages, the complexity of quantum algorithms remains a major technological obstacle. We have developed and demonstrated an architecture-independent technique that simplifies adding control qubits to arbitrary quantum operations—a requirement in many quantum algorithms, simulations and metrology. The technique, which is independent of how the operation is done, does not require knowledge of what the operation is, and largely separates the problems of how to implement a quantum operation in the laboratory and how to add a control. Here, we demonstrate an entanglement-based version in a photonic system, realizing a range of different two-qubit gates with high fidelity. PMID:21811242
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubser, Steven S.; Knaute, Johannes; Parikh, Sarthak; Samberg, Andreas; Witaszczyk, Przemek
2017-01-01
We construct a p-adic analog to AdS/CFT, where an unramified extension of the p-adic numbers replaces Euclidean space as the boundary and a version of the Bruhat-Tits tree replaces the bulk. Correlation functions are computed in the simple case of a single massive scalar in the bulk, with results that are strikingly similar to ordinary holographic correlation functions when expressed in terms of local zeta functions. We give some brief discussion of the geometry of p-adic chordal distance and of Wilson loops. Our presentation includes an introduction to p-adic numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avery, Steven G.; Chowdhury, Borun D.
2014-10-01
Several recent papers argue against firewalls by relaxing the requirement for locality outside the stretched horizon. In the firewall argument, locality essentially serves the purpose of ensuring that the degrees of freedom required for infall are those in the proximity of the black hole and not the ones in the early radiation. We make the firewall argument sharper by utilizing the AdS/CFT framework and claim that the firewall argument essentially states that the dual to a thermal state in the CFT is a firewall.
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...
Phenyl boron-based compounds as anion receptors for non-aqueous battery electrolytes
Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James; Sun, Xuehui
2002-01-01
Novel fluorinated boronate-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boronate-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boronate-based anion receptors include different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.
37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...
37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...
7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...
37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...
7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...
37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...
7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...
37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...
7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...
Cognitive Impact of Banner Ad Characteristics: An Experimental Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Hairong; Bukovac, Janice L.
1999-01-01
Finds that (1) animated banner ads (display advertisements hyperlinked to an advertiser's Web site) result in quicker response and better recall (from college students) than non-animated banner ads; (2) larger banner ads lead to better comprehension and more clicks than small banner ads; and (3) user mode (information seeking or Web surfing) did…
76 FR 71430 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-11-17
... a global strategy to proceed with ADS-B In while ensuring compatibility with the standards adopted... the ADS-B In Aviation Rulemaking Committee, Recommendations to Define a Strategy for Incorporating ADS... forum for the U.S. and international aviation community to define a strategy for incorporating ADS-B...
Cognitive Impact of Banner Ad Characteristics: An Experimental Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Hairong; Bukovac, Janice L.
1999-01-01
Finds that (1) animated banner ads (display advertisements hyperlinked to an advertiser's Web site) result in quicker response and better recall (from college students) than non-animated banner ads; (2) larger banner ads lead to better comprehension and more clicks than small banner ads; and (3) user mode (information seeking or Web surfing) did…
Organic compounds in meteorites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawless, J. G.
1980-01-01
Recent studies of carbonaceous chondrites provide evidence that certain organic compounds are indigenous and the result of an abiotic, chemical synthesis. The results of several investigators have established the presence of amino acids and precursors, mono- and dicarboxylic acids, N-heterocycles, and hydrocarbons as well as other compounds. For example, studies of the Murchison and Murray meteorites have revealed the presence of at least 40 amino acids with nearly equal abundances of D and L isomers. The population consists of both protein and nonprotein amino acids including a wide variety of linear, cyclic, and polyfunctional types. Results show a trend of decreasing concentration with increasing carbon number, with the most abundant being glycine (41 n Moles/g). These and other results to be reviewed provide persuasive support for the theory of chemical evolution and provide the only natural evidence for the protobiological subset of molecules from which life on earth may have arisen.
Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo
2014-02-18
The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis.
Sung, LokMan; Kesha, Kilak; Avedschmidt, Sarah; Root, Kelly; Hlavaty, Leigh
2017-06-12
Bows and arrows are ancient weapons that have risen and fallen as the preeminent armaments used by man. Because of the ubiquity of firearms, fatalities from archery injuries in the United States have radically declined. However, when deaths involving this weapon do present themselves, the paucity of reference materials can be a hurdle for forensic pathologists and other forensic scientists. This article will provide a brief history of the origins of the bow and the inception of the compound bow. Comparing and contrasting the structures comprising a traditional bow to those of the modern compound bow will provide insight into how these components function in unison to propel arrows. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.
Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer
2011-04-01
The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat.
AD performance and its extension towards ELENA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oelert, Walter; Eriksson, Tommy; Belochitskii, Pavel; Tranquille, Gerard
The CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is devoted to special experiments with low energy antiprotons. A main topic is the antihydrogen production with the present aim to produce these antimatter atoms with such low energy that they can be trapped in a magnetic gradient field. First very convincing results have been published recently by ALPHA. Still, it appears to be cumbersome, time consuming and ineffective when collecting the needed large numbers and high densities of antiproton clouds with the present AD. Both the effectiveness and the availability for additional experiments at this unique facility would drastically increase, if the antiproton beam of presently 5 MeV kinetic energy would be reduced by an additional decelerator to something like 100 keV. Such a facility "ELENA", as an abbreviation for Extra Low ENergy Antiproton Ring and first discussed in 1982 for LEAR, was freshly proposed with a substantial new design and revised layout and is presently under consideration. ELENA will increase the number of useful antiprotons by up to two orders of magnitude and will allow to serve up to four experiments in parallel.
AD performance and its extension towards ELENA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oelert, Walter; Eriksson, Tommy; Belochitskii, Pavel; Tranquille, Gerard
2012-12-01
The CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is devoted to special experiments with low energy antiprotons. A main topic is the antihydrogen production with the present aim to produce these antimatter atoms with such low energy that they can be trapped in a magnetic gradient field. First very convincing results have been published recently by ALPHA. Still, it appears to be cumbersome, time consuming and ineffective when collecting the needed large numbers and high densities of antiproton clouds with the present AD. Both the effectiveness and the availability for additional experiments at this unique facility would drastically increase, if the antiproton beam of presently 5 MeV kinetic energy would be reduced by an additional decelerator to something like 100 keV. Such a facility "ELENA", as an abbreviation for Extra Low ENergy Antiproton Ring and first discussed in 1982 for LEAR, was freshly proposed with a substantial new design and revised layout and is presently under consideration. ELENA will increase the number of useful antiprotons by up to two orders of magnitude and will allow to serve up to four experiments in parallel.
The added mass of a spherical projectile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantaleone, J.; Messer, J.
2011-12-01
When a ball moves through the air, the air exerts a force on the ball. For a sphere moving at constant velocity with respect to the air, this force is called the drag force and it has been well measured. If the sphere moves with a nonconstant velocity there are additional forces. These "unsteady" forces depend on the sphere's acceleration and, in principle, also on higher derivatives of the motion. The force equal to a constant times the acceleration is called the "added mass" because it increases the effective inertia of the sphere moving through the fluid. We measure the unsteady forces on a sphere by observing the one- and two-dimensional projectile motion of light spheres around the highest point. The one-dimensional motion is well described by just the usual buoyant force and the added mass as calculated in the ideal fluid model. This measurement is an excellent experiment for introductory physics students. For spheres in two-dimensional projectile motion the downward vertical acceleration at the highest point increases with the horizontal velocity. This effect can be described by an additional force proportional to the speed times the acceleration.
Katz, Emanuel; Lewandowski, Adam; Schwartz, Matthew D.
2006-10-15
We explore tensor mesons in AdS/QCD focusing on f{sub 2}(1270), the lightest spin-2 resonance in QCD. We find that the f{sub 2} mass and the partial width {gamma}(f{sub 2}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}) are in very good agreement with data. In fact, the dimensionless ratio of these two quantities comes out to be within the current experimental bound. The result for this ratio depends only on N{sub c} and N{sub f}, and the quark and glueball content of the operator responsible for the f{sub 2}; more importantly, it does not depend on chiral symmetry breaking and so it is both independent of much of the arbitrariness of AdS/QCD and completely out of reach of chiral perturbation theory. For comparison, we also explore f{sub 2}{yields}{pi}{pi}, which, because of its sensitivity to the UV corrections, has much more uncertainty. We also calculate the masses of the higher spin resonances on the Regge trajectory of the f{sub 2}, and find they compare favorably with experiment.
POSSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN AD LEO
Buccino, Andrea P.; Petrucci, Romina; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Jofré, Emiliano
2014-01-20
AD Leo (GJ 388) is an active dM3 flare star that has been extensively observed both in the quiescent and flaring states. Since this active star is near the fully convective boundary, studying its long-term chromospheric activity in detail could be an appreciable contribution to dynamo theory. Here, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we analyze the Ca II K line-core fluxes derived from CASLEO spectra obtained between 2001 and 2013 and the V magnitude from the ASAS database between 2004 and 2010. From both of these totally independent time series, we obtain a possible activity cycle with a period of approximately seven years and a less significant shorter cycle of approximately two years. A tentative interpretation is that a dynamo operating near the surface could be generating the longer cycle, while a second dynamo operating in the deep convection zone could be responsible for the shorter one. Based on the long duration of our observing program at CASLEO and the fact that we observe different spectral features simultaneously, we also analyze the relation between simultaneous measurements of the Na I index (R{sub D}{sup ′}), Hα, and Ca II K fluxes at different activity levels of AD Leo, including flares.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischetti, Sebastian; Marolf, Donald; Santos, Jorge
2013-04-01
We construct stationary non-equilibrium black funnels locally asymptotic to global AdS4 in vacuum Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant. These are non-compactly-generated black holes in which a single connected bulk horizon extends to meet the conformal boundary. Thus the induced (conformal) boundary metric has smooth horizons as well. In our examples, the boundary spacetime contains a pair of black holes connected through the bulk by a tubular bulk horizon. Taking one boundary black hole to be hotter than the other (δT !=0) prohibits equilibrium. The result is a so-called flowing funnel, a stationary bulk black hole with a non-Killing horizon that may be said to transport heat toward the cooler boundary black hole. While most of our results are numerical, a semi-analytic fluid/gravity description can be obtained by passing to a one-parameter generalization of the above boundary conditions. In the fluid regime, we find excellent agreement with our numerical solutions. In terms of a dual CFT, our solutions describe heat transport via a large N version of Hawking radiation through a deconfined plasma that couples efficiently to both boundary black holes.
Enabling Meaningful Affiliation Searches in the ADS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Accomazzi, A.; Henneken, E. A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.
2015-04-01
For many years, users have wanted to search affiliations in the ADS in order to build institutional databases and to help with author disambiguation. Although we currently provide this capability upon request, we have yet to incorporate it as part of the operational Abstract Service. This is because it cannot be used reliably, primarily because of the lack of uniform representation of the affiliation data. In an effort to make affiliation searches more meaningful, we have designed a two-tiered hierarchy of standard institutional names based on Ringgold identifiers, with the expectation that this will enable us to implement a search by institution, which will work for the vast majority of institutions. It is our intention to provide the capability of searching the ADS both by standard affiliation name and original affiliation string, as well as to enable autosuggest of affiliations as a means of helping to disambiguate author identification. Some institutions are likely to require manual work, and we encourage interested librarians to assist us in standardizing the representation of their institutions in the affiliation field.
Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds
1981-01-01
Organic Compounds by I A. Hossenlopp and D. W. Scott -- Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics , 13, No. 5, 405-414 (1981). t 1 I- i !I *1 I I ~ I [LI...National Bureau of Standards CINDAS Chemical Thermodynamics Division Purdue University Research Park Attn: Dr Stan Abramowitz Attn: Dr H H Li Mr David... Chemical Thermodynamics Division AFAOL/RJT (Dr 7 D Stull) Attn: Mr Donald D Wagman Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 Washington, DC 20234 U.S. Army
Phomopsichin A-D; Four New Chromone Derivatives from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Phomopsis sp. 33.
Huang, Meixiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Lan; Yin, Sheng; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yongcheng
2016-11-22
Four new chromone derivatives, phomopsichins A-D (1-4), along with a known compound, phomoxanthone A (5), were isolated from the fermentation products of mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. 33#. Their structures were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analysis coupled with single-crystal X-ray diffraction or theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). They feature a tricyclic framework, in which a dihydropyran ring is fused with the chromone ring. Compounds 1-5 showed weak inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase as well as α-glucosidase, weak radical scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as OH, and weak antimicrobial activities. Compounds 1-4 showed no cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Their other bioactivities are worthy of further study, considering their unique molecular structures.