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Sample records for scale study quelques

  1. Astéroides et satellites de Saturne: quelques résultats récents et contribution éventuelle des données Hipparcos.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viateau, B.; Rapaport, M.

    48 astéroides et 2 satellites de Saturne étaient au programme de la mission Hipparcos, et diverses propositions ont été faites pour l'utilisation de ces données. Les auteurs présentent quelques résultats récents concernant ces objets, et susceptibles de 1) donner un supplément d'intére^t aux données astrométriques fournies par Hipparcos, 2) permettre de préciser les objectifs contenus dans diverses propositions.

  2. Learner Autonomy Scale: A Scale Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orakci, Senol; Gelisli, Yücel

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study is to develop a scale named "Learner Autonomy Scale" (LAS) for determining the learner autonomy of the students toward English lesson. The proposal scale, composed of 29 items, was applied to two study groups in Turkey. The group of Exploratory Factor Analysis that aims to determine the psychometric properties…

  3. Scale-down/scale-up studies leading to improved commercial beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nienow, Alvin W; Nordkvist, Mikkel; Boulton, Christopher A

    2011-08-01

    Scale-up/scale-down techniques are vital for successful and safe commercial-scale bioprocess design and operation. An example is given in this review of recent studies related to beer production. Work at the bench scale shows that brewing yeast is not compromised by mechanical agitation up to 4.5 W/kg; and that compared with fermentations mixed by CO(2) evolution, agitation ≥ 0.04 W/kg is able to reduce fermentation time by about 20%. Work at the commercial scale in cylindroconical fermenters shows that, without mechanical agitation, most of the yeast sediments into the cone for about 50% of the fermentation time, leading to poor temperature control. Stirrer mixing overcomes these problems and leads to a similar reduction in batch time as the bench-scale tests and greatly reduces its variability, but is difficult to install in extant fermenters. The mixing characteristics of a new jet mixer, a rotary jet mixer, which overcomes these difficulties, are reported, based on pilot-scale studies. This change enables the advantages of stirring to be achieved at the commercial scale without the problems. In addition, more of the fermentable sugars are converted into ethanol. This review shows the effectiveness of scale-up/scale-down studies for improving commercial operations. Suggestions for further studies are made: one concerning the impact of homogenization on the removal of vicinal diketones and the other on the location of bubble formation at the commercial scale. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Do Plot Scale Studies Yield Useful Data When Assessing Field Scale Practices?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plot scale data has been used to develop models used to assess field and watershed scale nutrient losses. The objective of this study was to determine if phosphorus (P) loss results from plot scale rainfall simulation studies are “directionally correct” when compared to field scale P losses. Two fie...

  5. Mineral scale management. Part 1, Case studies

    Treesearch

    Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie

    2006-01-01

    Mineral scale increases operating costs, extends downtime, and increases maintenance requirements. This paper presents several successful case studies detailing how mills have eliminated scale. Cases presented include calcium carbonate scale in a white liquor strainer, calcium oxalate scale in the D0 stage of the bleach plant, enzymatic treatment of brown stock to...

  6. Cross-Scale: a multi-spacecraft mission to study cross-scale coupling in space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, M.; Schwartz, S.; Horbury, T.; Louarn, P.; Baumjohann, W.

    Collisionless astrophysical plasmas exhibit complexity on many scales if we are to understand their properties and effects we must measure this complexity We can identify a small number of processes and phenomena one of which is dominant in almost every space plasma region of interest shocks reconnection turbulence and boundaries These processes act to transfer energy between locations scales and modes However this transfer is characterised by variability and 3D structures on at least three scales electron kinetic ion kinetic and fluid It is the interaction between physical processes at these scales that is the key to understanding these phenomena and predicting their effects However current and planned multi-spacecraft missions such as Cluster and MMS only study variations on one scale in 3D at any given time We must measure the three scales simultaneously completely to understand the energy transfer processes ESA fs Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 exercise revealed a broad consensus for a mission to study these issues commonly known as M3 In parallel Japanese scientists have been studying a similar mission concept SCOPE We have taken ideas from both of these mission proposals and produced a concept called Cross-Scale Cross-Scale would comprise three nested groups each consisting of four spacecraft with similar instrumentation Each group would have a different spacecraft separation at approximately the electron and ion gyroradii and a larger MHD scale We would therefore be able to measure variations on all three important physical scales

  7. The Denver II Scales and the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development: a correlational study.

    PubMed

    Luiz, Dolores M; Foxcroft, Cheryl D; Tukulu, Abigail N

    2004-10-01

    Screening measures aim to minimise the number of children being diagnosed incorrectly; however, many of these measures have been based on the "normal" white population. This study identified the need for a valid developmental assessment of black preschool children. The general aim of the study was to investigate the use of the Denver II and the Griffiths Scales on a pre-school black Xhosa-speaking sample. Specifically, the aim was to investigate the relationship between the Denver II Scales and the Griffiths Scales, in order to provide the first step in establishing the validity of the Denver II Scales on a South African black population. A correlational design was used and the sample was comprised of 60 Xhosa-speaking children between the ages of 3 and 6 years. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the overall performance of the Denver II and the Griffiths Scales. However, the Personal-Social Scale of the Denver II appeared to have items that were culturally biased. Further, the Denver II further identified a higher percentage of the sample to have abnormal or questionable protocols than the Griffiths Scales did.

  8. Critical Multicultural Education Competencies Scale: A Scale Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar-Ciftci, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scale in order to identify the critical mutlicultural education competencies of teachers. For this reason, first of all, drawing on the knowledge in the literature, a new conceptual framework was created with deductive method based on critical theory, critical race theory and critical multicultural…

  9. SMR Re-Scaling and Modeling for Load Following Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, K.; Wu, Q.; Bragg-Sitton, S.

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the creation of a new set of scaling parameters for the Oregon State University Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) scaled thermal hydraulic test facility. As part of a study being undertaken by Idaho National Lab involving nuclear reactor load following characteristics, full power operations need to be simulated, and therefore properly scaled. Presented here is the scaling analysis and plans for RELAP5-3D simulation.

  10. A Confirmatory Study of Rating Scale Category Effectiveness for the Coaching Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for measures of coaching efficacy derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) by testing the rating scale categorizations suggested in previous research. Previous research provided evidence for the effectiveness of a four-category (4-CAT) structure for high school and collegiate sports coaches; it also…

  11. Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure reflective…

  12. Validity Studies of the Filial Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Paul D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Factor analytic and construct validity studies were conducted to explore the validity of Cicirelli's 13-item Filial Anxiety Scale (FAS). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were a part of the investigation. Results offer support for the validity of the FAS subscales and the FAS' usefulness as an…

  13. Multisite Studies and Scaling up in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A scale-up study in education typically expands the sample of students, schools, districts, and/or practices or materials used in smaller studies in ways that build in heterogeneity. Yet surprisingly little is known about the factors that promote successful scaling up efforts in education, in large part due to the absence of empirically supported…

  14. The small-scale treatability study sample exemption

    SciTech Connect

    Coalgate, J.

    1991-01-01

    In 1981, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an interim final rule that conditionally exempted waste samples collected solely for the purpose of monitoring or testing to determine their characteristics or composition'' from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulations. This exemption (40 CFR 261.4(d)) apples to the transportation of samples between the generator and testing laboratory, temporary storage of samples at the laboratory prior to and following testing, and storage at a laboratory for specific purposes such as an enforcement action. However, the exclusion did not include large-scale samples used in treatability studies or other testing at pilot plants ormore » other experimental facilities. As a result of comments received by the EPA subsequent to the issuance of the interim final rule, the EPA reopened the comment period on the interim final rule on September 18, 1987, and specifically requested comments on whether or not the sample exclusion should be expanded to include waste samples used in small-scale treatability studies. Almost all responders commented favorably on such a proposal. As a result, the EPA issued a final rule (53 FR 27290, July 19, 1988) conditionally exempting waste samples used in small-scale treatability studies from full regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA. The question of whether or not to extend the exclusion to larger scale as proposed by the Hazardous Waste Treatment Council was deferred until a later date. This information Brief summarizes the requirements of the small-scale treatability exemption.« less

  15. Energy Feedback at the City-Wide Scale A comparison to building scale studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Richard Allan

    Climate change is a growing concern throughout the world. In the United States, leadership has so far failed to establish targeted reductions and agreement on mitigation strategies. Despite this, many large cities are taking on the challenge of measuring their emissions, establishing targeted reductions, and defining strategies for mitigation in the form of Climate Action Plans. Reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by these cities is usually based on a one-time, annual calculation. Many studies have been conducted on the impact of providing energy use data or feedback to households, and in some cases, institutional or commercial businesses. In most of those studies, the act of providing feedback has resulted in a reduction of energy use, ranging from 2% to 15%, depending upon the features of the feedback. Many of these studies included only electric use. Studies where all energy use was reported are more accurate representations of GHG emissions. GHG emissions and energy use are not the same, depending on the fuel source and in the case of this paper, the focus is on reducing energy use. This research documents the characteristics of the feedback provided in those studies in order to determine which are most effective and should be considered for application to the community-wide scale. Eleven studies, including five primary and six secondary research papers, were reviewed and analyzed for the features of the feedback. Trends were established and evaluated with respect to their effectiveness and potential for use at the community-wide scale. This paper concludes that additional research is required to determine if the use of energy feedback at the city scale could result in savings similar to those observed at the household scale. This additional research could take advantage of the features assessed here in order to be more effective and to implement the features that are best able to scale up. Further research is needed to determine whether combining city

  16. Application of fundamental principles to mineral scale reduction : case studies

    Treesearch

    Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie

    2005-01-01

    This paper will present several successful case studies where scale has been eliminated in mills including calcium carbonate scale in a white liquor strainer, calcium oxalate scale in the D0 stage, enzymatic treatment of brown stock to eliminate oxalate scale, and control of barium sulfate scale.

  17. Prelude to rational scale-up of penicillin production: a scale-down study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan; Chu, Ju; Noorman, Henk; Xia, Jianye; Tang, Wenjun; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2014-03-01

    Penicillin is one of the best known pharmaceuticals and is also an important member of the β-lactam antibiotics. Over the years, ambitious yields, titers, productivities, and low costs in the production of the β-lactam antibiotics have been stepwise realized through successive rounds of strain improvement and process optimization. Penicillium chrysogenum was proven to be an ideal cell factory for the production of penicillin, and successful approaches were exploited to elevate the production titer. However, the industrial production of penicillin faces the serious challenge that environmental gradients, which are caused by insufficient mixing and mass transfer limitations, exert a considerably negative impact on the ultimate productivity and yield. Scale-down studies regarding diverse environmental gradients have been carried out on bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi as well as animal cells. In accordance, a variety of scale-down devices combined with fast sampling and quenching protocols have been established to acquire the true snapshots of the perturbed cellular conditions. The perturbed metabolome information stemming from scale-down studies contributed to the comprehension of the production process and the identification of improvement approaches. However, little is known about the influence of the flow field and the mechanisms of intracellular metabolism. Consequently, it is still rather difficult to realize a fully rational scale-up. In the future, developing a computer framework to simulate the flow field of the large-scale fermenters is highly recommended. Furthermore, a metabolically structured kinetic model directly related to the production of penicillin will be further coupled to the fluid flow dynamics. A mathematical model including the information from both computational fluid dynamics and chemical reaction dynamics will then be established for the prediction of detailed information over the entire period of the fermentation process and

  18. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  19. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Virgile; Da Mota, Benoit; Loth, Eva; Varoquaux, Gaël; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Brühl, Rüdiger; Butzek, Brigitte; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Lemaitre, Hervé; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Schad, Daniel J; Schümann, Gunter; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Thirion, Bertrand

    2015-05-01

    Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypotheses and call for more refined models for statistical inference. Here, we demonstrate the benefits of robust regression as a tool for analyzing large neuroimaging cohorts. First, we use an analytic test based on robust parameter estimates; based on simulations, this procedure is shown to provide an accurate statistical control without resorting to permutations. Second, we show that robust regression yields more detections than standard algorithms using as an example an imaging genetics study with 392 subjects. Third, we show that robust regression can avoid false positives in a large-scale analysis of brain-behavior relationships with over 1500 subjects. Finally we embed robust regression in the Randomized Parcellation Based Inference (RPBI) method and demonstrate that this combination further improves the sensitivity of tests carried out across the whole brain. Altogether, our results show that robust procedures provide important advantages in large-scale neuroimaging group studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Reading Habits of Teacher Candidates: Study of Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan, Senem Seda Sahenk; Dagal, Asude Balaban; Tezcan, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for printed and digital competencies ("The Printed and Digital Reading Habits Scale"). The problem statement of this research can be expressed as: "The Printed and Digital Reading Habits Scale: is a valid and reliable scale?" In this study, the scale…

  1. Study of structural colour of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, V. Ya; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Pryakhina, V. I.; Kosobokov, M. S.; Zubarev, I. V.; Boymuradova, S. K.; Volchetskaya, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    Structural colours of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales have been studied experimentally using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Visualization of scales structures and computer simulation allowed distinguishing correlation between nanostructures on the scales and their colour.

  2. Curriculum Design Orientations Preference Scale of Teachers: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for preferences of teachers in regard of their curriculum design orientations. Because there was no scale development study similar to this one in Turkey, it was considered as an urgent need to develop such a scale in the study. The sample of the research consisted of 300…

  3. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous…

  4. The birth satisfaction scale: Turkish adaptation, validation and reliability study

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Fatma Cosar; Sezer, Ayse; Merih, Yeliz Dogan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the validity and the reliability of Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and to adapt it into the Turkish language. This scale is used for measuring maternal satisfaction with birth in order to evaluate women’s birth perceptions. METHODS: In this study there were 150 women who attended to inpatient postpartum clinic. The participants filled in an information form and the BSS questionnaire forms. The properties of the scale were tested by conducting reliability and validation analyses. RESULTS: BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions. It was developed by Hollins Martin and Fleming. Total scale scores ranged between 30–150 points. Higher scores from the scale mean increases in birth satisfaction. Three overarching themes were identified in Scale: service provision (home assessment, birth environment, support, relationships with health care professionals); personal attributes (ability to cope during labour, feeling in control, childbirth preparation, relationship with baby); and stress experienced during labour (distress, obstetric injuries, receiving sufficient medical care, obstetric intervention, pain, prolonged labour and baby’s health). Cronbach’s alfa coefficient was 0.62. CONCLUSION: According to the present study, BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions and evaluates women’s birth perceptions. The Turkish version of BSS has been proven to be a valid and a reliable scale. PMID:28058355

  5. FLARE: a New User Facility for Studies of Magnetic Reconnection Through Simultaneous, in-situ Measurements on MHD Scales, Ion Scales and Electron Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, H.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Goodman, A.; Prager, S.; Daughton, W. S.; Cutler, R.; Fox, W.; Hoffmann, F.; Kalish, M.; Kozub, T.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Myers, C. E.; Ren, Y.; Sloboda, P.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Bale, S. D.; Carter, T.; Dorfman, S. E.; Drake, J. F.; Egedal, J.; Sarff, J.; Wallace, J.

    2017-12-01

    The FLARE device (Facility for Laboratory Reconnection Experiments; flare.pppl.gov) is a new laboratory experiment under construction at Princeton for the studies of magnetic reconnection in the multiple X-line regimes directly relevant to space, solar, astrophysical, and fusion plasmas, as guided by a reconnection phase diagram [Ji & Daughton, (2011)]. The whole device has been successfully assembled with rough leak check completed. The first plasmas are expected in the fall to winter. The main diagnostic is an extensive set of magnetic probe arrays to cover multiple scales from local electron scales ( ˜2 mm), to intermediate ion scales ( ˜10 cm), and global MHD scales ( ˜1 m), simultaneously providing in-situ measurements over all these relevant scales. By using these laboratory data, not only the detailed spatial profiles around each reconnecting X-line are available for direct comparisons with spacecraft data, but also the global conditions and consequences of magnetic reconnection, which are often difficult to quantify in space, can be controlled or studied systematically. The planned procedures and example topics as a user facility will be discussed in detail.

  6. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Jim; Knight, Tawnie

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  7. Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale: Development and Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Üzüm, Hanifi; Karli, Ünal; Yildiz, Nuh Osman

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale, which will serve to determine how attitudes and behaviors of the coaches are perceived by the athletes. The scale, named as "Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale" (PCABS) was developed through various processes including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Following the…

  8. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  9. The Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparedness Scale: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the competencies of culturally responsive teaching and construct a Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparedness Scale (CRTPS) for the use of teacher preparation programs and preservice teachers. Competencies listed in the scale were identified through literature reviews and input from experts. The…

  10. Turkish Metalinguistic Awareness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varisoglu, Behice

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a useful, valid and reliable measurement tool that will help teacher candidates determine their Turkish metalinguistic awareness. During the development of the scale, a pool of items was created by scanning the relevant literature and examining other awareness scales. The materials prepared were re-examined…

  11. Desensitizing Agent Reduces Dentin Hypersensitivity During Ultrasonic Scaling: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Suda, Tomonari; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Akiyama, Toshiharu; Takano, Takuya; Gokyu, Misa; Sudo, Takeaki; Khemwong, Thatawee; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-09-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity can interfere with optimal periodontal care by dentists and patients. The pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling is intolerable for patient and interferes with the procedure, particularly during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) for patients with gingival recession. This study proposed to evaluate the desensitizing effect of the oxalic acid agent on pain caused by dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. This study involved 12 patients who were incorporated in SPT program and complained of dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. We examined the availability of the oxalic acid agent to compare the degree of pain during ultrasonic scaling with or without the application of the dentin hypersensitivity agent. Evaluation of effects on dentin hypersensitivity was determined by a questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores after ultrasonic scaling. The statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student t-test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The desensitizing agent reduced the mean VAS pain score from 69.33 ± 16.02 at baseline to 26.08 ± 27.99 after application. The questionnaire revealed that >80% patients were satisfied and requested the application of the desensitizing agent for future ultrasonic scaling sessions. This study shows that the application of the oxalic acid agent considerably reduces pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity experienced during ultrasonic scaling. This pain control treatment may improve patient participation and treatment efficiency.

  12. A large-scale, long-term study of scale drift: The micro view and the macro view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Li, S.; Kingsbury, G. G.

    2016-11-01

    The development of measurement scales for use across years and grades in educational settings provides unique challenges, as instructional approaches, instructional materials, and content standards all change periodically. This study examined the measurement stability of a set of Rasch measurement scales that have been in place for almost 40 years. In order to investigate the stability of these scales, item responses were collected from a large set of students who took operational adaptive tests using items calibrated to the measurement scales. For the four scales that were examined, item samples ranged from 2183 to 7923 items. Each item was administered to at least 500 students in each grade level, resulting in approximately 3000 responses per item. Stability was examined at the micro level analysing change in item parameter estimates that have occurred since the items were first calibrated. It was also examined at the macro level, involving groups of items and overall test scores for students. Results indicated that individual items had changes in their parameter estimates, which require further analysis and possible recalibration. At the same time, the results at the total score level indicate substantial stability in the measurement scales over the span of their use.

  13. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration Scaling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration is a subsonic transport aircraft concept with the potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions compared to conventional concepts. Initial studies focused on very large applications with capacities for up to 800 passengers. More recent studies have focused on the large, twin-aisle class with passenger capacities in the 300-450 range. Efficiently scaling this concept down to the single aisle or smaller size is challenging due to geometric constraints, potentially reducing the desirability of this concept for applications in the 100-200 passenger capacity range or less. In order to quantify this scaling challenge, five advanced conventional (tube-and-wing layout) concepts were developed, along with equivalent (payload/range/technology) HWB concepts, and their fuel burn performance compared. The comparison showed that the HWB concepts have fuel burn advantages over advanced tube-and-wing concepts in the larger payload/range classes (roughly 767-sized and larger). Although noise performance was not quantified in this study, the HWB concept has distinct noise advantages over the conventional tube-and-wing configuration due to the inherent noise shielding features of the HWB. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project will continue to investigate advanced configurations, such as the HWB, due to their potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions.

  14. A Preliminary Study of Ice-Accretion Scaling for SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    2003-01-01

    Proposed changes to aircraft icing certification rules are being considered by European, Canadian, and American regulatory agencies to include operation in super-cooled large droplet conditions (SLD). This paper reports results of an experimental study in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well scaling methods developed for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. Until now, scaling studies have been confined to the FAA FAR-25 Appendix C envelope of atmospheric cloud conditions. Tests were made in which it was attempted to scale to a droplet MVD of 50 microns from clouds having droplet MVDs of 175, 120, 100, and 70 microns. Scaling was based on the Ruff method with scale velocities found either by maintaining constant Weber number or by using the average of the velocities obtained by maintaining constant Weber number and constant Reynolds number. Models were unswept NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 91.4 cm. Scale models had chords of 91.4, 80.0, and 53.3 cm. Tests were conducted with reference airspeeds of 100 and 150 kt (52 and 77 m/s) and with freezing fractions of 1.0, 0.6, and 0.3. It was demonstrated that the scaled 50-micron cloud simulated well the non-dimensional ice shapes accreted in clouds with MVD's of 120 microns or less.

  15. Desensitizing Agent Reduces Dentin Hypersensitivity During Ultrasonic Scaling: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Tomonari; Akiyama, Toshiharu; Takano, Takuya; Gokyu, Misa; Sudo, Takeaki; Khemwong, Thatawee; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin hypersensitivity can interfere with optimal periodontal care by dentists and patients. The pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling is intolerable for patient and interferes with the procedure, particularly during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) for patients with gingival recession. Aim This study proposed to evaluate the desensitizing effect of the oxalic acid agent on pain caused by dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. Materials and Methods This study involved 12 patients who were incorporated in SPT program and complained of dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. We examined the availability of the oxalic acid agent to compare the degree of pain during ultrasonic scaling with or without the application of the dentin hypersensitivity agent. Evaluation of effects on dentin hypersensitivity was determined by a questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores after ultrasonic scaling. The statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student t-test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results The desensitizing agent reduced the mean VAS pain score from 69.33 ± 16.02 at baseline to 26.08 ± 27.99 after application. The questionnaire revealed that >80% patients were satisfied and requested the application of the desensitizing agent for future ultrasonic scaling sessions. Conclusion This study shows that the application of the oxalic acid agent considerably reduces pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity experienced during ultrasonic scaling. This pain control treatment may improve patient participation and treatment efficiency. PMID:26501012

  16. a Model Study of Small-Scale World Map Generalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Yin, Y.; Li, C. M.; Wu, W.; Guo, P. P.; Ma, X. L.; Hu, F. M.

    2018-04-01

    With the globalization and rapid development every filed is taking an increasing interest in physical geography and human economics. There is a surging demand for small scale world map in large formats all over the world. Further study of automated mapping technology, especially the realization of small scale production on a large scale global map, is the key of the cartographic field need to solve. In light of this, this paper adopts the improved model (with the map and data separated) in the field of the mapmaking generalization, which can separate geographic data from mapping data from maps, mainly including cross-platform symbols and automatic map-making knowledge engine. With respect to the cross-platform symbol library, the symbol and the physical symbol in the geographic information are configured at all scale levels. With respect to automatic map-making knowledge engine consists 97 types, 1086 subtypes, 21845 basic algorithm and over 2500 relevant functional modules.In order to evaluate the accuracy and visual effect of our model towards topographic maps and thematic maps, we take the world map generalization in small scale as an example. After mapping generalization process, combining and simplifying the scattered islands make the map more explicit at 1 : 2.1 billion scale, and the map features more complete and accurate. Not only it enhance the map generalization of various scales significantly, but achieve the integration among map-makings of various scales, suggesting that this model provide a reference in cartographic generalization for various scales.

  17. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  18. Rating Scale Impact on EFL Essay Marking: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2007-01-01

    Educators often have to choose among different types of rating scales to assess second-language (L2) writing performance. There is little research, however, on how different rating scales affect rater performance. This study employed a mixed-method approach to investigate the effects of two different rating scales on EFL essay scores, rating…

  19. Scaling studies of solar pumped lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Chang, J.

    1985-08-01

    A progress report of scaling studies of solar pumped lasers is presented. Conversion of blackbody radiation into laser light has been demonstrated in this study. Parametric studies of the variation of laser mixture composition and laser gas temperature were carried out for CO2 and N2O gases. Theoretical analysis and modeling of the system have been performed. Reasonable agreement between predictions in the parameter variation and the experimental results have been obtained. Almost 200 mW of laser output at 10.6 micron was achieved by placing a small sapphire laser tube inside an oven at 1500 K the tube was filled with CO2 laser gas mixture and cooled by longitudinal nitrogen gas flow.

  20. Scaling studies of solar pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Chang, J.

    1985-01-01

    A progress report of scaling studies of solar pumped lasers is presented. Conversion of blackbody radiation into laser light has been demonstrated in this study. Parametric studies of the variation of laser mixture composition and laser gas temperature were carried out for CO2 and N2O gases. Theoretical analysis and modeling of the system have been performed. Reasonable agreement between predictions in the parameter variation and the experimental results have been obtained. Almost 200 mW of laser output at 10.6 micron was achieved by placing a small sapphire laser tube inside an oven at 1500 K the tube was filled with CO2 laser gas mixture and cooled by longitudinal nitrogen gas flow.

  1. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BENGART AND MEMEL (BENCH-SCALE), GULFPORT (BENCH AND PILOT-SCALE), MONTANA POLE (BENCH-SCALE), AND WESTERN PROCESSING (BENCH-SCALE) TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents summary data on the results of various treatability studies (bench and pilot scale), conducted at three different sites where soils were contaminated with dioxins or PCBs. The synopsis is meant to show rough performance levels under a variety of differen...

  2. Prognostic value of nutritional risk screening 2002 scale in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A large-scale cohort study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Bin-Bin; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei; Zhang, Yuan; Mao, Yan-Ping; Sun, Ying; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Guo, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the value of the nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002) scale in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a large-scale study to address this issue. We employed a big-data intelligence database platform at our center and identified 3232 eligible patients treated between 2009 and 2013. Of the 3232 (12.9% of 24 986) eligible patients, 469 (14.5%), 13 (0.4%), 953 (29.5%), 1762 (54.5%) and 35 (1.1%) had NRS2002 scores of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Survival outcomes were comparable between patients with NRS2002 <3 and ≥3 (original scale). However, patients with NRS2002 ≤3 vs >3 (regrouping scale) had significantly different 5-year disease-free survival (DFS; 82.7% vs 75.0%, P < .001), overall survival (OS; 88.8% vs 84.1%, P = .001), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; 90.2% vs 85.9%, P = .001) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS; 91.6% vs 87.2%, P = .001). Therefore, we proposed a revised NRS2002 scale, and found that it provides a better risk stratification than the original or regrouping scales for predicting DFS (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.530 vs 0.554 vs 0.577; P < .05), OS (AUC = 0.534 vs 0.563 vs 0.582; P < .05), DMFS (AUC = 0.531 vs 0.567 vs 0.590; P < .05) and LRRFS (AUC = 0.529 vs 0.542 vs 0.564; P < .05 except scale A vs B). Our proposed NRS2002 scale represents a simple, clinically useful tool for nutritional risk screening in NPC. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. The Job Responsibilities Scale: Invariance in a Longitudinal Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Lunz, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of invariance of the Job Responsibilities Scale for medical technologists was studied for 1993 and 1995, conducting factor analyses of data from each year (1063 and 665 individuals, respectively). Nearly identical factor patterns were found, and Rasch rating scale analyses found nearly identical pairs of item estimates. Implications are…

  4. Digital Reading Disposition Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Berker; Karasakaloglu, Nuri

    2018-01-01

    In this study, "a Digital Reading Disposition Scale" was developed to determine undergraduate pre-service teacher students' dispositions towards digital reading, opposed to a preference for printed reading material. Initially, a 20-items trial version of the scale was administered to a total sample of N = 301 undergraduate pre-service…

  5. A Reliability Generalization Study of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beretvas, S, Natasha; Meyers, Jason L.; Leite, Walter L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (D. Crowne and D. Marlowe, 1960). Analysis of 93 studies show that the predicted score reliability for male adolescents was 0.53, and reliability for men's responses was lower than for women's. Discusses the need for further analysis of the scale. (SLD)

  6. Problemes theoriques et methodologiques dans l'etude des langues/dialectes en contact aux niveaux macrologique et micrologique = Theoretical and Methodological Issues in the Study of Languages/Dialects in Contact at Macro- and Micro-Logical Levels of Analysis. Proceedings of the International Conference DALE (University of London)/ICRB (Laval University, Quebec)/ICSBT (Vrije Universiteit te Brussel) (London, England, May 23-26, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Michel, Ed.; Hamers, Josiane F., Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on the interaction of languages and dialects in contact are presented in this volume. Papers include: "Quelques reflexions sur la variation linguistique"; "The Investigation of 'Language Continuum' and 'Diglossia': A Macrological Case Study and Theoretical Model"; "A Survey of…

  7. A study of the reliability of the Nociception Coma Scale.

    PubMed

    Riganello, F; Cortese, M D; Arcuri, F; Candelieri, A; Guglielmino, F; Dolce, G; Sannita, W G; Schnakers, C

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the reliability of the Nociception Coma Scale which has recently been developed to assess nociception in non-communicative, severely brain-injured patients. Prospective cross-sequential study. Semi-intensive care unit and long-term brain injury care. Forty-four patients diagnosed as being in a vegetative state (n=26) or in a minimally conscious state (n=18). Patients were assessed by two experts (rater A and rater B) on two consecutive weeks to measure inter-rater agreement and test-retest reliability. Total scores and subscores of the Nociception Coma Scale. We performed a total of 176 assessments. The inter-rater agreement was moderate for the total scores (k = 0.57) and fair to substantial for the subscores (0.33 ≤ k ≤ 0.62) on week 2. The test-retest reliability was substantial for the total scores (k = 0.66) and moderate to almost perfect for the subscores (0.53 ≤ k ≤ 0.96) for rater A. The inter-rater agreement was weaker on week 1, whereas the test-retest reliability was lower for the least experienced rater (rater B). This study provides further evidence of the psychometric qualities of the Nociception Coma Scale. Future studies should assess the impact of practical experience and background on administration and scoring of the scale. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Cyber Victim and Bullying Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Bayram; Yaman, Erkan; Peker, Adem

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid scale, which determines cyber victimization and bullying behaviors of high school students. Research group consisted of 404 students (250 male, 154 male) in Sakarya, in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study sample, mean age is 16.68. Content validity and face validity of the scale was…

  9. Predictive accuracy of risk scales following self-harm: multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, Leah; Cooper, Jayne; Meehan, Declan; Longson, Damien; Potokar, John; Hulme, Tom; Marsden, Jennifer; Brand, Fiona; Lange, Kezia; Riseborough, Elena; Page, Lisa; Metcalfe, Chris; Davies, Linda; O'Connor, Rory; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Kapur, Nav

    2017-06-01

    Background Scales are widely used in psychiatric assessments following self-harm. Robust evidence for their diagnostic use is lacking. Aims To evaluate the performance of risk scales (Manchester Self-Harm Rule, ReACT Self-Harm Rule, SAD PERSONS scale, Modified SAD PERSONS scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale); and patient and clinician estimates of risk in identifying patients who repeat self-harm within 6 months. Method A multisite prospective cohort study was conducted of adults aged 18 years and over referred to liaison psychiatry services following self-harm. Scale a priori cut-offs were evaluated using diagnostic accuracy statistics. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to determine optimal cut-offs and compare global accuracy. Results In total, 483 episodes of self-harm were included in the study. The episode-based 6-month repetition rate was 30% ( n = 145). Sensitivity ranged from 1% (95% CI 0-5) for the SAD PERSONS scale, to 97% (95% CI 93-99) for the Manchester Self-Harm Rule. Positive predictive values ranged from 13% (95% CI 2-47) for the Modified SAD PERSONS Scale to 47% (95% CI 41-53) for the clinician assessment of risk. The AUC ranged from 0.55 (95% CI 0.50-0.61) for the SAD PERSONS scale to 0.74 (95% CI 0.69-0.79) for the clinician global scale. The remaining scales performed significantly worse than clinician and patient estimates of risk ( P <0.001). Conclusions Risk scales following self-harm have limited clinical utility and may waste valuable resources. Most scales performed no better than clinician or patient ratings of risk. Some performed considerably worse. Positive predictive values were modest. In line with national guidelines, risk scales should not be used to determine patient management or predict self-harm. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  10. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or PNL noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10 exp 6 based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  11. Development and Validation of the Short Use of Creative Cognition Scale in Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogaten, Jekaterina; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development and validation of a short Use of Creative Cognition Scale in Studying (UCCS) that was inspired by the Cognitive Processes Associated with Creativity (CPAC) scale. In Study 1, items from two of the six subscales of the CPAC were excluded due to conceptual and psychometric issues to create a 21-item CPAC scale,…

  12. A Scale for Measuring Teachers' Mathematics-Related Beliefs: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnomo,Yoppy Wahyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scale of teacher beliefs related to mathematics, namely, beliefs about the nature of mathematics, mathematics teaching, and assessment in mathematics learning. A scale development study was used to achieve it. The draft scale consisted of 54 items in which 16 items related to beliefs about…

  13. Holistic Watershed-Scale Approach for Studying Agricultural Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capel, P. D.; Domagalski, J. L.

    2006-05-01

    The USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program studied the water quality of 51 areas across the United States during its first decade (1991-2001). Analyses of results from that phase of the NAWQA Program indicated that detailed studies of the processes affecting water quality could aid in the interpretation of these data, help to determine the direction and scope of future monitoring studies, and add to the understanding of the sources, transport and fate of non-point source chemicals, such as from agriculture. Now in the second decade of investigations, the NAWQA Program has initiated new process-based detailed studies to increase our understanding at the scale of a small watershed (about 3-15 square kilometers), nested within the larger basins studied during the first decade. The holistic, mass-budget approach for small agricultural watersheds that was adopted includes processes, and measures water and chemicals in the atmosphere, surface water, tile drains, overland flow, and within various sub-surface environments including the vadose, saturated, and hyporheic zones. The primary chemicals of interest were nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous), the triazine and acetanilide herbicides, and the organophosphorus insecticides. Extensive field observations were made, and numerical models were developed to simulate important environmental compartments and interfaces associated with the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals. It is well recognized that these field measurements and simulations cannot fully achieve a full mass budget at this scale, but the approach provides a useful means for comparisons of various processes in different environmental settings. The results gained using this approach will add to the general knowledge of environmental transport and fate processes, and have transfer value to unstudied areas and different scales of investigation. The five initial study areas started in 2002, included watersheds in California, Indiana

  14. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  15. Large scale in vivo recordings to study neuronal biophysics.

    PubMed

    Giocomo, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Over the last several years, technological advances have enabled researchers to more readily observe single-cell membrane biophysics in awake, behaving animals. Studies utilizing these technologies have provided important insights into the mechanisms generating functional neural codes in both sensory and non-sensory cortical circuits. Crucial for a deeper understanding of how membrane biophysics control circuit dynamics however, is a continued effort to move toward large scale studies of membrane biophysics, in terms of the numbers of neurons and ion channels examined. Future work faces a number of theoretical and technical challenges on this front but recent technological developments hold great promise for a larger scale understanding of how membrane biophysics contribute to circuit coding and computation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Perception Scale on the Use of Webquests in Mathematics Teaching: A Study of Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Mevhibe Kobak; Gür, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to develop a valid and reliable perception scale in order to determine the perceptions of pre-service teachers towards the use of WebQuest in mathematics teaching. The study was conducted with 115 junior and senior pre-service teachers at Balikesir University's Faculty of Education, Computer Education and Instructional…

  17. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or perceived noise level (PNL) noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10(exp 6) based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using a small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  18. The Self-Consciousness Scale: A Discriminant Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Charles S.; Glass, David C.

    1976-01-01

    A validity study is conducted of the Self-Consciousness Scale components with male undergraduates. The components, Private and Public Self Consciousness and Social Anxiety did not correlate with any other measures used to establish their validity and thus seem to be independent of other measures tested. (Author/DEP)

  19. Heritability of MMPI-2 scales in the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study

    PubMed Central

    Gizer, Ian R.; Seaton-Smith, Kimberley L.; Ehlers, Cindy L.; Vietan, Cassandra; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the heritability of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Interview 2nd edition (MMPI-2) in a family-based sample selected for alcohol dependence. Participants included 950 probands and 1204 first-degree relatives recruited for the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study. Heritability estimates (h2) for MMPI-2 scales ranged from .25–.49. When alcohol dependence was used as a covariate, heritability estimates remained significant but generally declined. However, when the MMPI-2 scales were used as covariates to estimate the heritability of alcohol dependence, scales measuring antisocial behavior (ASP), depressive symptoms (DEP), and addictive behavior (MAC-R) led to moderate increases in the heritability of alcohol dependence. This suggests that the ASP, DEP, and MAC-R scales may explain some of the non-genetic variance in the alcohol dependence diagnosis in this population when utilized as covariates, and thus may serve to produce a more homogeneous and heritable alcohol dependence phenotype. PMID:20390702

  20. A French validation study of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R).

    PubMed

    Schnakers, Caroline; Majerus, Steve; Giacino, Joseph; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Boly, Melanie; Moonen, Gustave; Damas, Pierre; Lambermont, Bernard; Lamy, Maurice; Damas, Francois; Ventura, Manfredi; Laureys, Steven

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the concurrent validity, inter-rater agreement and diagnostic sensitivity of a French adaptation of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) as compared to other coma scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness scale (FOUR) and the Wessex Head Injury Matrix (WHIM). Multi-centric prospective study. To test concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity, the four behavioural scales were administered in a randomized order in 77 vegetative and minimally conscious patients. Twenty-four clinicians with different professional backgrounds, levels of expertise and CRS-R experience were recruited to assess inter-rater agreement. Good concurrent validity was obtained between the CRS-R and the three other standardized behavioural scales. Inter-rater reliability for the CRS-R total score and sub-scores was good, indicating that the scale yields reproducible findings across examiners and does not appear to be systematically biased by profession, level of expertise or CRS-R experience. Finally, the CRS-R demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity to detect MCS patients, as compared to the GCS, the FOUR and the WHIM. The results show that the French version of the CRS-R is a valid and sensitive scale which can be used in severely brain damaged patients by all members of the medical staff.

  1. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  2. A Validation Study of the Existential Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hullett, Michael A.

    Logotherapy is a meaning-centered psychotherapy which focuses on both the meaning of human existence and the personal search for meaning. If the will to search for meaning is frustrated, "existential frustration" may result. This study validates the Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS) developed by Good and Good (1974). Basic principles of…

  3. Planning long-term vegetation studies at landscape scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term ecological research is receiving more attention now than ever before. Two recent books, Long-term Studies in Ecology: Approaches and Alternatives, edited by Gene Likens (1989), and Long-term Ecological Research: An International Perspective, edited by Paul Risser (1991), prompt the question, “Why are these books so thin?” Except for data from paleoecological, retrospective studies (see below), there are exceptionally few long-term data sets in terrestrial ecology (Strayer et al. 1986; Tilman 1989; this volume). In a sample of 749 papers published in Ecology, Tilman (1989) found that only 1.7% of the studies lasted at least five field seasons. Only one chapter in each of the review books dealt specifically with expanding both the temporal and the spatial scales of ecological research (Berkowitz et al. 1989; Magnuson et al. 1991). Judging by the growing number of landscape-scale long-term studies, however, such as the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program (Callahan 1991), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP; Palmer et al. 1991), the U.S. Army’s Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) Program (Diersing et al. 1992), and various agencies’ global change research programs (CEES 1993), there is a growing interest to expand ecological research both temporally and spatially.

  4. FY10 Report on Multi-scale Simulation of Solvent Extraction Processes: Molecular-scale and Continuum-scale Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Kent E.; Frey, Kurt; Pereira, Candido

    2014-02-02

    This task is aimed at predictive modeling of solvent extraction processes in typical extraction equipment through multiple simulation methods at various scales of resolution. We have conducted detailed continuum fluid dynamics simulation on the process unit level as well as simulations of the molecular-level physical interactions which govern extraction chemistry. Through combination of information gained through simulations at each of these two tiers along with advanced techniques such as the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) which can bridge these two scales, we can develop the tools to work towards predictive simulation for solvent extraction on the equipment scale (Figure 1). Themore » goal of such a tool-along with enabling optimized design and operation of extraction units-would be to allow prediction of stage extraction effrciency under specified conditions. Simulation efforts on each of the two scales will be described below. As the initial application of FELBM in the work performed during FYl0 has been on annular mixing it will be discussed in context of the continuum-scale. In the future, however, it is anticipated that the real value of FELBM will be in its use as a tool for sub-grid model development through highly refined DNS-like multiphase simulations facilitating exploration and development of droplet models including breakup and coalescence which will be needed for the large-scale simulations where droplet level physics cannot be resolved. In this area, it can have a significant advantage over traditional CFD methods as its high computational efficiency allows exploration of significantly greater physical detail especially as computational resources increase in the future.« less

  5. The Poverty and Housing Scale: report on a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Galambos, Colleen M; MacMaster, Samuel A

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of beliefs and attitudes on poverty and housing is important to researchers and social workers interested in examining the role that belief structures have on the development of policy and programs in these areas. This article reports pilot study findings of a new scale, The Poverty and Housing Scale (PHS), that measures this concept and evaluates its psychometric properties. Preliminary reliability was in the very good range. Examinations of content and face validity provided support of the instrument as a valid measure of beliefs and attitudes on poverty and housing. The factor analysis emerged a one factor, 13-item scale. Unlike other related scales, the PHS attempts to link the social factor of poverty and housing together. Theoretical and methodological strengths and weaknesses are considered and the implications for social work practice are discussed. The authors provide recommendations for additional testing of the instrument.

  6. The Chinese version of the Outcome Expectations for Exercise scale: validation study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ling-Ling; Chiu, Yu-Yun; Ho, Chin-Chih; Wu, Shu-Chen; Watson, Roger

    2011-06-01

    Estimates of the reliability and validity of the English nine-item Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scale have been tested and found to be valid for use in various settings, particularly among older people, with good internal consistency and validity. Data on the use of the OEE scale among older Chinese people living in the community and how cultural differences might affect the administration of the OEE scale are limited. To test the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the Outcome Expectations for Exercise scale among older people. A cross-sectional validation study was designed to test the Chinese version of the OEE scale (OEE-C). Reliability was examined by testing both the internal consistency for the overall scale and the squared multiple correlation coefficient for the single item measure. The validity of the scale was tested on the basis of both a traditional psychometric test and a confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modelling. The Mokken Scaling Procedure (MSP) was used to investigate if there were any hierarchical, cumulative sets of items in the measure. The OEE-C scale was tested in a group of older people in Taiwan (n=108, mean age=77.1). There was acceptable internal consistency (alpha=.85) and model fit in the scale. Evidence of the validity of the measure was demonstrated by the tests for criterion-related validity and construct validity. There was a statistically significant correlation between exercise outcome expectations and exercise self-efficacy (r=.34, p<.01). An analysis of the Mokken Scaling Procedure found that nine items of the scale were all retained in the analysis and the resulting scale was reliable and statistically significant (p=.0008). The results obtained in the present study provided acceptable levels of reliability and validity evidence for the Chinese Outcome Expectations for Exercise scale when used with older people in Taiwan. Future testing of the OEE-C scale needs to be carried out

  7. Development of a mobbing short scale in the Gutenberg Health Study.

    PubMed

    Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Nübling, Matthias; Letzel, Stephan; Hegewald, Janice; Wagner, Mandy; Wild, Philipp S; Blettner, Maria; Zwiener, Isabella; Latza, Ute; Jankowiak, Sylvia; Liebers, Falk; Seidler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Despite its highly detrimental potential, most standard questionnaires assessing psychosocial stress at work do not include mobbing as a risk factor. In the German standard version of COPSOQ, mobbing is assessed with a single item. In the Gutenberg Health Study, this version was used together with a newly developed short scale based on the Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of these two measures, to compare them and to test their differential impact on relevant outcome parameters. This analysis is based on a population-based sample of 1441 employees participating in the Gutenberg Health Study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and reliability analyses were used to assess the mobbing scale. To determine their predictive validities, multiple linear regression analyses with six outcome parameters and log-binomial regression models for two of the outcome aspects were run. Factor analyses of the five-item scale confirmed a one-factor solution, reliability was α = 0.65. Both the single-item and the five-item scales were associated with all six outcome scales. Effect sizes were similar for both mobbing measures. Mobbing is an important risk factor for health-related outcomes. For the purpose of psychosocial risk assessment in the workplace, both the single-item and the five-item constructs were psychometrically appropriate. Associations with outcomes were about equivalent. However, the single item has the advantage of parsimony, whereas the five-item construct depicts several distinct forms of mobbing.

  8. A Study of Developing Attitude Scale for Piano Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Tarkan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the development phases of a measurement instrument, which can be used for measuring the piano teaching attitudes of piano teachers, are investigated. Validity and reliability studies of the scale, which was developed in Turkey's circumstances, were carried out with 196 piano teachers giving piano lectures in different districts of…

  9. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children: psychometric testing of the Chinese version.

    PubMed

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chung, Oi Kwan Joyce; Ho, Ka Yan

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children. The availability of a valid and reliable instrument that accurately detects depressive symptoms in children is crucial before any psychological intervention can be appropriately planned and evaluated. There is no such an instrument for Chinese children. A test-retest, within-subjects design was used. A total of 313 primary school students between the ages of 8 and 12 years were invited to participate in the study in 2009. Participants were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, short form of the State Anxiety Scale for Children and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The internal consistency, content validity and construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children were assessed. The newly-translated scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good content validity and appropriate convergent and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis added further evidence of the construct validity of the scale. Results suggest that the newly-translated scale can be used as a self-report assessment tool in detecting depressive symptoms of Chinese children aged between 8 and 12 years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. School Social Behavior Scales: an adaptation study of the Portuguese version of the social competence scale from SSBS-2.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Raquel; Carapito, Elsa; Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques Pinto, Alexandra; Lima, Maria Luísa; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa

    2012-11-01

    This study analyses the psychometric proprieties of a Portuguese version of the social competence scale from the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS-2, Merrell, 2002). It is a rating instrument of children and adolescents behavior, to be used by teachers and other school personnel. This scale includes 3 subscales: self-management/compliance, peer relations and academic behavior. In our first sample, 175 teachers rated 344 students from grade 1 through 12. On the second sample 13 teachers rated 251 3rd and 4th grades students. The results from the Portuguese adaptation support the multidimensional structure of the social competence scale from the SSBS-2, although an alternative model demonstrated a better fit to the data than the model originally proposed by the author. The scale showed good internal consistency and good intercorrelations between subscales, as well as between subscales and the total scale. The final model was well replicated in the second sample. These results encourage us to pursue the SSBS-2 Portuguese adaptation, in order to provide a useful and validated instrument for the assessment of social competence and for educational interventions.

  11. Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (4th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 28-30, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education, Guelph (Ontario).

    These proceedings contain 28 papers (20 in English and 8 in French), including the following: "Beyond Ideology: The Case of the Corporate Classroom" (Zinman); "De quelques dimensions paradoxales de l'education interculturelle" (Ollivier); "Ideology, Indoctrination and the Language of Physics" (Winchester);…

  12. Book Reading Motivation Scale: Reliability and Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katranci, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Book reading enhances the intellectual world of people. It is very important to know the factors that motivate children to read books as it will help to instill book reading habit in them. As such, the present study aims to develop a "Book Reading Motivation Scale" to determine elementary and secondary school students' reading…

  13. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  14. Studying Scale-Up and Spread as Social Practice: Theoretical Introduction and Empirical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joseph; Hughes, Gemma; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2017-01-01

    Background Health and care technologies often succeed on a small scale but fail to achieve widespread use (scale-up) or become routine practice in other settings (spread). One reason for this is under-theorization of the process of scale-up and spread, for which a potentially fruitful theoretical approach is to consider the adoption and use of technologies as social practices. Objective This study aimed to use an in-depth case study of assisted living to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a social practice approach to explaining the scale-up of an assisted-living technology across a local system of health and social care. Methods This was an individual case study of the implementation of a Global Positioning System (GPS) “geo-fence” for a person living with dementia, nested in a much wider program of ethnographic research and organizational case study of technology implementation across health and social care (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions [SCALS] in the United Kingdom). A layered sociological analysis included micro-level data on the index case, meso-level data on the organization, and macro-level data on the wider social, technological, economic, and political context. Data (interviews, ethnographic notes, and documents) were analyzed and synthesized using structuration theory. Results A social practice lens enabled the uptake of the GPS technology to be studied in the context of what human actors found salient, meaningful, ethical, legal, materially possible, and professionally or culturally appropriate in particular social situations. Data extracts were used to illustrate three exemplar findings. First, professional practice is (and probably always will be) oriented not to “implementing technologies” but to providing excellent, ethical care to sick and vulnerable individuals. Second, in order to “work,” health and care technologies rely heavily on human relationships and situated knowledge. Third, such technologies do not

  15. A Validity and Reliability Study on the Development of the Values Scale in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilmac, Bulent; Aricak, Osman Tolga; Cesur, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the initial psychometric properties of the Values Scale for adults. While developing the first stage of the Values Scale, open-ended data on the values held by 216 university students were obtained. During the second stage, the validity and reliability studies of the 60-item Values Scale obtained by…

  16. Micro-CT Pore Scale Study Of Flow In Porous Media: Effect Of Voxel Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S.; Gray, F.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E.

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, pore scale studies have become the key to understanding the complex fluid flow processes in the fields of groundwater remediation, hydrocarbon recovery and environmental issues related to carbon storage and capture. A pore scale study is often comprised of two key procedures: 3D pore scale imaging and numerical modelling techniques. The essence of a pore scale study is to test the physics implemented in a model of complicated fluid flow processes at one scale (microscopic) and then apply the model to solve the problems associated with water resources and oil recovery at other scales (macroscopic and field). However, the process of up-scaling from the pore scale to the macroscopic scale has encountered many challenges due to both pore scale imaging and modelling techniques. Due to the technical limitations in the imaging method, there is always a compromise between the spatial (voxel) resolution and the physical volume of the sample (field of view, FOV) to be scanned by the imaging methods, specifically X-ray micro-CT (XMT) in our case In this study, a careful analysis was done to understand the effect of voxel size, using XMT to image the 3D pore space of a variety of porous media from sandstones to carbonates scanned at different voxel resolution (4.5 μm, 6.2 μm, 8.3 μm and 10.2 μm) but keeping the scanned FOV constant for all the samples. We systematically segment the micro-CT images into three phases, the macro-pore phase, an intermediate phase (unresolved micro-pores + grains) and the grain phase and then study the effect of voxel size on the structure of the macro-pore and the intermediate phases and the fluid flow properties using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) and pore network (PN) modelling methods. We have also applied a numerical coarsening algorithm (up-scale method) to reduce the computational power and time required to accurately predict the flow properties using the LB and PN method.

  17. A study of complex scaling transformation using the Wigner representation of wavefunctions.

    PubMed

    Kaprálová-Ždánská, Petra Ruth

    2011-05-28

    The complex scaling operator exp(-θ ̂x̂p/ℏ), being a foundation of the complex scaling method for resonances, is studied in the Wigner phase-space representation. It is shown that the complex scaling operator behaves similarly to the squeezing operator, rotating and amplifying Wigner quasi-probability distributions of the respective wavefunctions. It is disclosed that the distorting effect of the complex scaling transformation is correlated with increased numerical errors of computed resonance energies and widths. The behavior of the numerical error is demonstrated for a computation of CO(2+) vibronic resonances. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  18. Developing the Irrational Beliefs in Mathematics Scale (IBIMS): A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is developing a valid and reliable scale intended to determine the irrational beliefs of students in mathematics. The study was conducted with a study group consisting of 700 students in 2015-2016 academic year. Expert opinions were received for the content and face validity of the scale, and the Exploratory Factor…

  19. Study on Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Ammonium Nitrate Emulsion Explosive in Different Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiujie; Tan, Liu; Xu, Sen; Liu, Dabin; Min, Li

    2018-04-01

    Numerous accidents of emulsion explosive (EE) are attributed to uncontrolled thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate emulsion (ANE, the intermediate of EE) and EE in large scale. In order to study the thermal decomposition characteristics of ANE and EE in different scales, a large-scale test of modified vented pipe test (MVPT), and two laboratory-scale tests of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) were applied in the present study. The scale effect and water effect both play an important role in the thermal stability of ANE and EE. The measured decomposition temperatures of ANE and EE in MVPT are 146°C and 144°C, respectively, much lower than those in DSC and ARC. As the size of the same sample in DSC, ARC, and MVPT successively increases, the onset temperatures decrease. In the same test, the measured onset temperature value of ANE is higher than that of EE. The water composition of the sample stabilizes the sample. The large-scale test of MVPT can provide information for the real-life operations. The large-scale operations have more risks, and continuous overheating should be avoided.

  20. Comparison of fall prediction by the Hessisch Oldendorf Fall Risk Scale and the Fall Risk Scale by Huhn in neurological rehabilitation: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Olena; Schmidt, Simone B; Boltzmann, Melanie; Rollnik, Jens D

    2018-05-01

    To calculate scale performance of the newly developed Hessisch Oldendorf Fall Risk Scale (HOSS) for classifying fallers and non-fallers in comparison with the Risk of Falling Scale by Huhn (FSH), a frequently used assessment tool. A prospective observational trail was conducted. The study was performed in a large specialized neurological rehabilitation facility. The study population ( n = 690) included neurological and neurosurgery patients during neurological rehabilitation with varying levels of disability. Around the half of the study patients were independent and dependent in the activities of daily living (ADL), respectively. Fall risk of each patient was assessed by HOSS and FSH within the first seven days after admission. Event of fall during rehabilitation was compared with HOSS and FSH scores as well as the according fall risk. Scale performance including sensitivity and specificity was calculated for both scales. A total of 107 (15.5%) patients experienced at least one fall. In general, fallers were characterized by an older age, a prolonged length of stay, and a lower Barthel Index (higher dependence in the ADL) on admission than non-fallers. The verification of fall prediction for both scales showed a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 64% for the HOSS scale, and a sensitivity of 98% with a specificity of 12% for the FSH scale, respectively. The HOSS shows an adequate sensitivity, a higher specificity and therefore a better scale performance than the FSH. Thus, the HOSS might be superior to existing assessments.

  1. A Pilot Study: Testing of the Psychological Conditions Scale Among Hospital Nurses.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Donna M; Thomas-Hawkins, Charlotte

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Psychological Conditions Scale (PCS), a measure of drivers of engagement in hospital-based nurses. Research suggests drivers of engagement are positive links to patient, employee, and hospital outcomes. Although this scale has been used in other occupations, it has not been tested in nursing. A cross-sectional, methodological study using a convenience sample of 200 nurses in a large Magnet® hospital in New Jersey. Cronbach's α's ranged from .64 to .95. Principal components exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation revealed that 13 items loaded unambiguously in 3 domains and explained 76% of the variance. Mean PCS scores ranged from 3.62 to 4.68 on a 5-point Likert scale. The scale is an adequate measure of drivers of engagement in hospital-based nurses. Leadership efforts to promote the facilitators of engagement are recommended.

  2. Validation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Heo, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Yu, Je-Chun; Nam, Ji-Ae

    2018-02-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is designed to measure the current level of depressive symptomatology in the general population. However, no review has examined whether the scale is reliable and valid among children and adolescents in Korea. The purpose of this study was to test whether the Korean form of the CES-D is valid in adolescents. Data were obtained from 1,884 adolescents attending grades 1-3 in Korean middle schools. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Concurrent validity was evaluated by a correlation analysis between the CES-D and other scales. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency coefficient for the entire group was 0.88. The CES-D was positively correlated with scales that measure negative psychological constructs, such as the State Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Korean Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents, and the Reynold Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, but it was negatively correlated with scales that measure positive psychological constructs, such as the Korean version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. The CES-D was examined by three-dimensional exploratory factor analysis, and the three-factor structure of the scale explained 53.165% of the total variance. The variance explained by factor I was 24.836%, that explained by factor II was 15.988%, and that explained by factor III was 12.341%. The construct validity of the CES-D was tested by confirmatory factor analysis, and we applied the entire group's data using a three-factor hierarchical model. The fit index showed a level similar to those of other countries' adolescent samples. The CES-D has high internal consistency and addresses psychological constructs similar to those addressed by other scales. The CES-D showed a three-factor structure in an exploratory factor analysis. The present

  3. Electron scale magnetic reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath: Kinetic PIC simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.; Phan, T.; Haggerty, C. C.; TenBarge, J. M.; Cassak, P.; Swisdak, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent MMS observations have revealed electron scale reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath. Surprisingly, although one of the reconnection events is associated with a very strong guide field, the ions show no coupling to the reconnection dynamics. We first review the MMS observations. Then, using kinetic PIC simulations with similar plasma conditions, we study reconnection at electron scales and show that the reconnection exhibits whistler-like dynamics similar to the case of anti-parallel reconnection rather than the kinetic Alfven wave dynamics that is often associated with reconnection with a strong guide field. We study the factors controlling this behavior and discuss the implications for reconnection and turbulence at electron scales in both the magnetosheath and solar wind.

  4. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet; Cetin, Bayram

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The sample of the study consisted of 590 university students, 121 English teachers and 136 emotionally disturbed individuals who sought treatment in various clinics and counseling centers. Factor loadings of the scale ranged…

  5. Lab and Pore-Scale Study of Low Permeable Soils Diffusional Tortuosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekhov, V.; Pozdniakov, S. P.; Denisova, L.

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion plays important role in contaminant spreading in low permeable units. The effective diffusion coefficient of saturated porous medium depends on this coefficient in water, porosity and structural parameter of porous space - tortuosity. Theoretical models of relationship between porosity and diffusional tortuosity are usually derived for conceptual granular models of medium filled by solid particles of simple geometry. These models usually do not represent soils with complex microstructure. The empirical models, like as Archie's law, based on the experimental electrical conductivity data are mostly useful for practical applications. Such models contain empirical parameters that should be defined experimentally for given soil type. In this work, we compared tortuosity values obtained in lab-scale diffusional experiments and pore scale diffusion simulation for the studied soil microstructure and exanimated relationship between tortuosity and porosity. Samples for the study were taken from borehole cores of low-permeable silt-clay formation. Using the samples of 50 cm3 we performed lab scale diffusional experiments and estimated the lab-scale tortuosity. Next using these samples we studied the microstructure with X-ray microtomograph. Shooting performed on undisturbed microsamples of size 1,53 mm with a resolution ×300 (10243 vox). After binarization of each obtained 3-D structure, its spatial correlation analysis was performed. This analysis showed that the spatial correlation scale of the indicator variogram is considerably smaller than microsample length. Then there was the numerical simulation of the Laplace equation with binary coefficients for each microsamples. The total number of simulations at the finite-difference grid of 1753 cells was 3500. As a result the effective diffusion coefficient, tortuosity and porosity values were obtained for all studied microsamples. The results were analyzed in the form of graph of tortuosity versus porosity. The 6

  6. An Italian multicentre validation study of the coma recovery scale-revised.

    PubMed

    Estraneo, A; Moretta, P; De Tanti, A; Gatta, G; Giacino, J T; Trojano, L

    2015-10-01

    Rate of misdiagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DoC) can be reduced by employing validated clinical diagnostic tools, such as the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). An Italian version of the CRS-R has been recently developed, but its applicability across different clinical settings, and its concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity have not been estimated yet. To perform a multicentre validation study of the Italian version of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Analysis of inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity of the scale. One Intensive Care Unit, 8 Post-acute rehabilitation centres and 2 Long-term facilities Twenty-seven professionals (physicians, N.=11; psychologists, N.=5; physiotherapists, N.=3; speech therapists, N.=6; nurses, N.=2) from 11 Italian Centres. CRS-R and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) applied to 122 patients with clinical diagnosis of Vegetative State (VS) or Minimally Conscious State (MCS). CRS-R has good-to-excellent inter-rater reliability for all subscales, particularly for the communication subscale. The Italian version of the CRS-R showed a high sensitivity and specificity in detecting MCS with reference to clinical consensus diagnosis. The CRS-R showed good concurrent validity with the Disability Rating Scale, which had very low specificity with reference to clinical consensus diagnosis. The Italian version of the CRS-R is a valid scale for use from the sub-acute to chronic stages of DoC. It can be administered reliably by all members of the rehabilitation team with different specialties, levels of experience and settings. The present study promote use of the Italian version of the CRS-R to improve diagnosis of DoC patients, and plan tailored rehabilitation treatment.

  7. The justification of studies in genetic epidemiology - political scaling in China Medical City.

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Genetic epidemiology examines the role of genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations to help addressing health problems in a responsible manner. This paper uses a case study of genetic epidemiology in Taizhou, China, to explore ways in which anthropology can contribute to the validation of studies in genetic epidemiology. It does so, first, by identifying potential overgeneralizations of data, often due to mismatching scale and, second, by examining it's embedding in political, historical and local contexts. The example of the longitudinal cohort study in Taizhou illustrates dimensions of such 'political scaling'. Political scaling is a notion used here to refer to the effects of scaling biases in relation to the justification of research in terms of relevance, reach and research ethics. The justification of a project on genetic epidemiology involves presenting a maximum of benefits and a minimum of burden for the population. To facilitate the delineation of political scaling, an analytical distinction between donating and benefiting communities was made using the notions of 'scaling of relevance', 'scaling of reach' and 'scaling of ethics'. Political scaling results at least partly from factors external to research. By situating political scaling in the context of historical, political and local discourses, anthropologists can play a complementary role in genetic epidemiology.

  8. An Exploratory Study on Socio Economic Status Scales in a Rural and Urban Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh Masthi, N.R.; Gangaboraiah; Kulkarni, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are many different scales to measure socioeconomic status (SES). The present study was conducted with the objective to compare the most commonly used SES in rural and urban setting. Materials and Methods: This exploratory study was conducted in the rural and urban field practice area of a medical college situated in Bangalore for a period of 3 months between January and April 2010. Statistical Analysis Used: To measure the agreement between the scales spearman's rank correlations was applied. Results: A total of 120 families were included in the study. Among the 60 families surveyed at rural setting, it was observed that, majority 40 (67%) belonged to high class when the Standard of Living Index (SLI) scale was applied. Among the 60 families surveyed at urban setting, majority 30 (50%) belonged to high class when the SLI scale was applied. Conclusions: The SLI scale gives a more accurate and realistic picture of the SES of the family and hence should be the scale recommended for classification of SES in urban and rural setting. PMID:24479048

  9. Identifying the time scale of synchronous movement: a study on tropical snakes.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Tom; Phillips, Benjamin L; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Individual movement is critical to organismal fitness and also influences broader population processes such as demographic stochasticity and gene flow. Climatic change and habitat fragmentation render the drivers of individual movement especially critical to understand. Rates of movement of free-ranging animals through the landscape are influenced both by intrinsic attributes of an organism (e.g., size, body condition, age), and by external forces (e.g., weather, predation risk). Statistical modelling can clarify the relative importance of those processes, because externally-imposed pressures should generate synchronous displacements among individuals within a population, whereas intrinsic factors should generate consistency through time within each individual. External and intrinsic factors may vary in importance at different time scales. In this study we focused on daily displacement of an ambush-foraging snake from tropical Australia (the Northern Death Adder Acanthophis praelongus), based on a radiotelemetric study. We used a mixture of spectral representation and Bayesian inference to study synchrony in snake displacement by phase shift analysis. We further studied autocorrelation in fluctuations of displacement distances as "one over f noise". Displacement distances were positively autocorrelated with all considered noise colour parameters estimated as >0. We show how the methodology can reveal time scales of particular interest for synchrony and found that for the analysed data, synchrony was only present at time scales above approximately three weeks. We conclude that the spectral representation combined with Bayesian inference is a promising approach for analysis of movement data. Applying the framework to telemetry data of A. praelongus, we were able to identify a cut-off time scale above which we found support for synchrony, thus revealing a time scale where global external drivers have a larger impact on the movement behaviour. Our results suggest that

  10. Using Multi-Scale Modeling Systems to Study the Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling system to study the interactions between clouds, precipitation, and aerosols will be presented. Also how to use of the multi-satellite simulator to improve precipitation processes will be discussed.

  11. Intercultural Adaptation and Validity Study: Universal Science Literacy Scale (USLS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Cüneyd; Can, Sendil

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to adapt "The Universal Science Literacy Scale" developed by Mun, Shin, Lee, Kim, Choi, Choi and Krajcik into Turkish. The study group of the current research is comprised of a total of 645 pre-service science teachers from 6 different universities of Turkey. In the first stage of the adaptation study,…

  12. Predictive validity of the Braden Scale, Norton Scale, and Waterlow Scale in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Šateková, Lenka; Žiaková, Katarína; Zeleníková, Renáta

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive validity of the Braden, Norton, and Waterlow scales in 2 long-term care departments in the Czech Republic. Assessing the risk for developing pressure ulcers is the first step in their prevention. At present, many scales are used in clinical practice, but most of them have not been properly validated yet (for example, the Modified Norton Scale in the Czech Republic). In the Czech Republic, only the Braden Scale has been validated so far. This is a prospective comparative instrument testing study. A random sample of 123 patients was recruited. The predictive validity of the pressure ulcer risk assessment scales was evaluated based on sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The data were collected from April to August 2014. In the present study, the best predictive validity values were observed for the Norton Scale, followed by the Braden Scale and the Waterlow Scale, in that order. We recommended that the above 3 pressure ulcer risk assessment scales continue to be evaluated in the Czech clinical setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Korean version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale: a translation and validation study.

    PubMed

    Lee, JuHee; Friedmann, Erika; Picot, Sandra J; Thomas, Sue Ann; Kim, Cho Ja

    2007-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale with Korean caregivers of older stroke survivors. The Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale was developed in the United States of America for an American English-speaking population to measure primary caregivers' appraisals of potential stressors and the efficacy of their coping efforts related to caregiving experiences. Using the back-translation method, the instrument was translated into Korean. The Korean version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale was self-administered by 147 primary family caregivers recruited from three outpatient clinics and two home health agencies in Korea. The study was conducted in 2005. In this sample, Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.86. Reliability coefficients for each of the five subscales ranged from 0.40 to 0.85. Two subscales, burden and satisfaction, showed good reliability; one subscale, impact, showed marginally acceptable reliability; two subscales, mastery and demand, had low reliability. Principal components factor analysis of the Korean version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale yielded six factors. Except for the mastery domain, which was divided into two factors, the other factors were similar to those in the original scale. The Korean version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale had adequate reliability and validity in a sample of Korean caregivers of stroke survivors. It can be used to assess the impact of caregiving and interventions on Korean caregiver attitudes. Further studies are needed with different categories of caregiver.

  14. Scaling a Single Attribute: A Methodological Study of Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Richard J.; Trepanier, Mary

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the acquisition of conservation of number on equal addition tasks through scalogram analysis to determine if this analysis defines a scale or continuum. Ten block tasks administered to 85 kindergarten children validated Piaget's theory that cognitive development is sequential and continuous. (Author/ED)

  15. Prospective cohort studies of newly marketed medications: using covariate data to inform the design of large-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Jessica M; Rassen, Jeremy A; Bartels, Dorothee B; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Nonrandomized safety and effectiveness studies are often initiated immediately after the approval of a new medication, but patients prescribed the new medication during this period may be substantially different from those receiving an existing comparator treatment. Restricting the study to comparable patients after data have been collected is inefficient in prospective studies with primary collection of outcomes. We discuss design and methods for evaluating covariate data to assess the comparability of treatment groups, identify patient subgroups that are not comparable, and decide when to transition to a large-scale comparative study. We demonstrate methods in an example study comparing Cox-2 inhibitors during their postmarketing period (1999-2005) with nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Graphical checks of propensity score distributions in each treatment group showed substantial problems with overlap in the initial cohorts. In the first half of 1999, >40% of patients were in the region of nonoverlap on the propensity score, and across the study period this fraction never dropped below 10% (the a priori decision threshold for transitioning to the large-scale study). After restricting to patients with no prior NSAID use, <1% of patients were in the region of nonoverlap, indicating that a large-scale study could be initiated in this subgroup and few patients would need to be trimmed from analysis. A sequential study design that uses pilot data to evaluate treatment selection can guide the efficient design of large-scale outcome studies with primary data collection by focusing on comparable patients.

  16. Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.

    The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent ofmore » dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 ± 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 ± 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is

  17. Children's Self-Efficacy Scale: Initial Psychometric Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinelli, Selma de Cassia; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Caliatto, Susana Gakyia; Sassi, Adriana de Grecci

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of a self-efficacy measure for elementary school children. A sample of 514 children, ages 8 to 11, enrolled in Grades 2 to 4 of public schools in Brazil was investigated. The scale included 78 descriptive items about academic situations, in which the child was required to respond on a 5-point scale, the…

  18. Evaluation of Kirkwood-Buff integrals via finite size scaling: a large scale molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dednam, W.; Botha, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Solvation of bio-molecules in water is severely affected by the presence of co-solvent within the hydration shell of the solute structure. Furthermore, since solute molecules can range from small molecules, such as methane, to very large protein structures, it is imperative to understand the detailed structure-function relationship on the microscopic level. For example, it is useful know the conformational transitions that occur in protein structures. Although such an understanding can be obtained through large-scale molecular dynamic simulations, it is often the case that such simulations would require excessively large simulation times. In this context, Kirkwood-Buff theory, which connects the microscopic pair-wise molecular distributions to global thermodynamic properties, together with the recently developed technique, called finite size scaling, may provide a better method to reduce system sizes, and hence also the computational times. In this paper, we present molecular dynamics trial simulations of biologically relevant low-concentration solvents, solvated by aqueous co-solvent solutions. In particular we compare two different methods of calculating the relevant Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The first (traditional) method computes running integrals over the radial distribution functions, which must be obtained from large system-size NVT or NpT simulations. The second, newer method, employs finite size scaling to obtain the Kirkwood-Buff integrals directly by counting the particle number fluctuations in small, open sub-volumes embedded within a larger reservoir that can be well approximated by a much smaller simulation cell. In agreement with previous studies, which made a similar comparison for aqueous co-solvent solutions, without the additional solvent, we conclude that the finite size scaling method is also applicable to the present case, since it can produce computationally more efficient results which are equivalent to the more costly radial distribution

  19. Developing Attitudes Scale towards German Reading: A Study on Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan Çavusoglu, Ayse; Tepebasili, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale for German teacher candidates' attitude towards the German reading. The scale was applied to 156 students who were enrolled in the Foreign Language Teaching Department of the Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University. Out of 156 students, %14.1 (n = 22) were preparation…

  20. Validity and Reliability Studies on the Scale of the Reasons for Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil, Rustu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a scale in order to determine the reasons why students delay academic tasks and the levels that they are affected from these reasons. The study group was composed of a total of 447 students from the faculty of education. The KMO value of this scale composed of 43 items collected under six factors was…

  1. Scales and Exercises with Aksak Meters in Flute Education: A Study with Turkish and Italian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakin, Ajda Senol; Öztürk, Ferda Gürgan

    2016-01-01

    Musical scale and exercise studies in instrumental education are considered as a fundamental component of music education. During an analysis of methods prepared for instrumental education, it was detected that scale and exercise studies for Aksak meters generally did not exist. This study was conducted to identify the effects of scales and…

  2. Preliminary Study of the Autism Self-Efficacy Scale for Teachers (ASSET).

    PubMed

    Ruble, Lisa A; Toland, Michael D; Birdwhistell, Jessica L; McGrew, John H; Usher, Ellen L

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a new measure, the Autism Self-Efficacy Scale for Teachers (ASSET) for its dimensionality, internal consistency, and construct validity derived in a sample of special education teachers ( N = 44) of students with autism. Results indicate that all items reflect one dominant factor, teachers' responses to items were internally consistent within the sample, and compared to a 100-point scale, a 6-point response scale is adequate. ASSET scores were found to be negatively correlated with scores on two subscale measures of teacher stress (i.e., self-doubt/need for support and disruption of the teaching process) but uncorrelated with teacher burnout scores. The ASSET is a promising tool that requires replication with larger samples.

  3. Preliminary Study of the Autism Self-Efficacy Scale for Teachers (ASSET)

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Lisa A.; Toland, Michael D.; Birdwhistell, Jessica L.; McGrew, John H.; Usher, Ellen L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a new measure, the Autism Self-Efficacy Scale for Teachers (ASSET) for its dimensionality, internal consistency, and construct validity derived in a sample of special education teachers (N = 44) of students with autism. Results indicate that all items reflect one dominant factor, teachers’ responses to items were internally consistent within the sample, and compared to a 100-point scale, a 6-point response scale is adequate. ASSET scores were found to be negatively correlated with scores on two subscale measures of teacher stress (i.e., self-doubt/need for support and disruption of the teaching process) but uncorrelated with teacher burnout scores. The ASSET is a promising tool that requires replication with larger samples. PMID:23976899

  4. Solvent empirical scales and their importance for the study of intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babusca, Daniela; Benchea, Andreea Celia; Morosanu, Ana Cezarina; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2017-01-01

    The solvent empirical scales were developed in order to classify the solvents regarding their influence on the absorption or fluorescence spectra of different spectrally active molecules. The intermolecular interactions in binary solutions of three molecule having an intramolecular charge transfer visible absorption band are studied in this paper: 5-[2-(1,2,2,4-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)-vinyl]-thiophene-2-carbaldehyde (QTC), 1-cyano-2-{5-[2-(1,2,2,4-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)-vinyl]-thiophen-2-yl}-vinyl)-phosphonic acid diethyl ester (QTCP) and p-phenyl pyridazinium-p-nitro-phenacylid (PPNP). The solvent empirical scales with a single parameter (Z scale of Kosower, ET (30) or ETN scale of Reichardt and Dimroth) can be used to describe the strength of intermolecular interactions. The contributions of each type of interactions to the total spectral shift are evaluated using the solvent multiple parameters empirical scales defined by Kamlet and Taft and by Catalan et al.

  5. Origins of individual differences in anxiety proneness: a twin/adoption study of the anxiety-related scales from the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP).

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, J P; Pedersen, N L; Asberg, M; Schalling, D

    1996-06-01

    The genetic and environmental origins of individual differences in scores on the anxiety-proneness scales from the Karolinska Scales of Personality were explored using a twin/adoption study design in a sample consisting of 15 monozygotic twin pairs reared apart, and 26 monozygotic and 29 dizygotic twin pairs reared together. The results showed that genetic factors accounted for individual differences in scores on the psychasthenia and somatic anxiety scales. The genetic determinants were not specific to each scale, but were common to both scales. Shared-rearing environmental determinants were important for individual differences in lack of assertiveness and psychic anxiety, and were common to both scales. Individual differences in muscular tension were found to be attributable to the effects of correlated environments. The most important factor explaining individual differences for all scales was the non-shared environment component. The evidence for an aetiologically heterogeneous anxiety-proneness construct emphasizes the appropriateness of a multi-dimensional approach to anxiety proneness.

  6. Studying time of flight imaging through scattering media across multiple size scales (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velten, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Light scattering is a primary obstacle to optical imaging in a variety of different environments and across many size and time scales. Scattering complicates imaging on large scales when imaging through the atmosphere when imaging from airborne or space borne platforms, through marine fog, or through fog and dust in vehicle navigation, for example in self driving cars. On smaller scales, scattering is the major obstacle when imaging through human tissue in biomedical applications. Despite the large variety of participating materials and size scales, light transport in all these environments is usually described with very similar scattering models that are defined by the same small set of parameters, including scattering and absorption length and phase function. We attempt a study of scattering and methods of imaging through scattering across different scales and media, particularly with respect to the use of time of flight information. We can show that using time of flight, in addition to spatial information, provides distinct advantages in scattering environments. By performing a comparative study of scattering across scales and media, we are able to suggest scale models for scattering environments to aid lab research. We also can transfer knowledge and methodology between different fields.

  7. Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer-Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Hal; Swartz, Carl W.; Stenner, A. Jackson; Fitzgerald, Jill; Burdick, Don; Hanlon, Sean T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the validity of a novel computer-analytic developmental scale, the Writing Ability Developmental Scale. On the whole, collective results supported the validity of the scale. It was sensitive to writing ability differences across grades and sensitive to within-grade variability as compared to human-rated…

  8. Microfluidic Experiments Studying Pore Scale Interactions of Microbes and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how physical phenomena, chemical reactions, and microbial behavior interact at the pore-scale is crucial to understanding larger scale trends in groundwater chemistry. Recent studies illustrate the utility of microfluidic devices for illuminating pore-scale physical-biogeochemical processes and their control(s) on the cycling of iron, uranium, and other important elements 1-3. These experimental systems are ideal for examining geochemical reactions mediated by microbes, which include processes governed by complex biological phenomenon (e.g. biofilm formation, etc.)4. We present results of microfluidic experiments using a model metal reducing bacteria and varying pore geometries, exploring the limitations of the microorganisms' ability to access tight pore spaces, and examining coupled biogeochemical-physical controls on the cycling of redox sensitive metals. Experimental results will provide an enhanced understanding of coupled physical-biogeochemical processes transpiring at the pore-scale, and will constrain and compliment continuum models used to predict and describe the subsurface cycling of redox-sensitive elements5. 1. Vrionis, H. A. et al. Microbiological and geochemical heterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation field site. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6308-6318 (2005). 2. Pearce, C. I. et al. Pore-scale characterization of biogeochemical controls on iron and uranium speciation under flow conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 7992-8000 (2012). 3. Zhang, C., Liu, C. & Shi, Z. Micromodel investigation of transport effect on the kinetics of reductive dissolution of hematite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 4131-4139 (2013). 4. Ginn, T. R. et al. Processes in microbial transport in the natural subsurface. Adv. Water Resour. 25, 1017-1042 (2002). 5. Scheibe, T. D. et al. Coupling a genome-scale metabolic model with a reactive transport model to describe in situ uranium bioremediation. Microb. Biotechnol. 2, 274-286 (2009).

  9. [French validation study of the levels of emotional awareness scale].

    PubMed

    Bydlowski, S; Corcos, M; Paterniti, S; Guilbaud, O; Jeammet, P; Consoli, S M

    2002-01-01

    According to a thesis based on the idea of an influence of cognitions in the structuring of internal reality, emotional awareness, ie the capacity of representing your own emotional experience and that of others, is a cognitive process that goes into maturation. Defining this concept, Lane and Schwartz present a cognitivo-developmental model in five stages of the processes of symbolization, accounting for the differences in levels of emotional awareness observed in individuals. The organization of these cognitive processes would thus be structured in well differentiated stages, in which the development of the emotions would be inseparable from the development of ego and of the relation to others. These authors focus on the capacity of representing in a conscious way the emotional experience and consider that verbal representations used to describe the contents of what is experience constitute a good reflection of the organization structural of the emotional awareness. Therefore, they worked out an instrument of evaluation: the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), which measures the capacity to describe your own emotional experience and the one you allow to others, in an emotional situation. The system of quotation of this scale is based on the analysis of the verbal contents of the provided answers, in direct reference to the authors' theory of the levels of differentiation and integration of the emotional experience. It is therefore an empirical measurement which is centered specifically on the structural organization of the emotional experience. The various studies of validation of this instrument show that it presents solid metrological properties. This work presents the validation of the French version of Lane and Schwartz's LEAS. Validity and fidelity were studied in a group of 121 healthy subjects. This setting is part of a larger clinical evaluation, also including a collection of socio-demographic and clinical data, and other instruments of self

  10. A longitudinal study of the Friedreich Ataxia Impact Scale.

    PubMed

    Tai, Geneieve; Yiu, Eppie M; Corben, Louise A; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-05-15

    Quality of life in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) has been explored using various generic health status measurement tools, most commonly the Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2). The tool did not address many specific issues related to disease impact in people with FRDA. The Friedreich Ataxia Impact Scale (FAIS) was developed to examine clinically relevant areas in FRDA. The aims of the current study were to assess the relationship between the FAIS and clinical characteristics of FRDA, as well as to determine the responsiveness of the FAIS to change over one and two years. One hundred and four individuals with FRDA, homozygous for the GAA expansion in intron 1 of FXN, completed the FAIS at baseline. Seventy individuals completed the FAIS again 12 months later and 49 completed the FAIS at 24 months. Clinical parameters and neurologic scales (Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale (FARS)) were also recorded. The total FARS score, onset age and disease duration correlated significantly with FAIS subscales measuring symptoms and physical functioning. The physical and mental summary measures of the SF-36 V2 also correlated well with the FAIS subscales. Speech was the only subscale that demonstrated significant change over one and two years. The FAIS provides valuable insight into the perspective of individuals with FRDA on their health status, and is an important measure of morbidity. It has, however, limited responsiveness to change and its use in intervention studies is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  12. Evaluating cloud processes in large-scale models: Of idealized case studies, parameterization testbeds and single-column modelling on climate time-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neggers, Roel

    2016-04-01

    Boundary-layer schemes have always formed an integral part of General Circulation Models (GCMs) used for numerical weather and climate prediction. The spatial and temporal scales associated with boundary-layer processes and clouds are typically much smaller than those at which GCMs are discretized, which makes their representation through parameterization a necessity. The need for generally applicable boundary-layer parameterizations has motivated many scientific studies, which in effect has created its own active research field in the atmospheric sciences. Of particular interest has been the evaluation of boundary-layer schemes at "process-level". This means that parameterized physics are studied in isolated mode from the larger-scale circulation, using prescribed forcings and excluding any upscale interaction. Although feedbacks are thus prevented, the benefit is an enhanced model transparency, which might aid an investigator in identifying model errors and understanding model behavior. The popularity and success of the process-level approach is demonstrated by the many past and ongoing model inter-comparison studies that have been organized by initiatives such as GCSS/GASS. A red line in the results of these studies is that although most schemes somehow manage to capture first-order aspects of boundary layer cloud fields, there certainly remains room for improvement in many areas. Only too often are boundary layer parameterizations still found to be at the heart of problems in large-scale models, negatively affecting forecast skills of NWP models or causing uncertainty in numerical predictions of future climate. How to break this parameterization "deadlock" remains an open problem. This presentation attempts to give an overview of the various existing methods for the process-level evaluation of boundary-layer physics in large-scale models. This includes i) idealized case studies, ii) longer-term evaluation at permanent meteorological sites (the testbed approach

  13. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  14. A priori study of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in isotropic homogeneous turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chumakov, Sergei G

    2008-09-01

    We perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a passive scalar that is forced by mean gradient. The DNS data are used to study the properties of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in the framework of large eddy simulation (LES), such as alignment trends between the flux, resolved, and subgrid-scale flow structures. It is shown that the direction of the flux is strongly coupled with the subgrid-scale stress axes rather than the resolved flow quantities such as strain, vorticity, or scalar gradient. We derive an approximate transport equation for the subgrid-scale flux of a scalar and look at the relative importance of the terms in the transport equation. A particular form of LES tensor-viscosity model for the scalar flux is investigated, which includes the subgrid-scale stress. Effect of different models for the subgrid-scale stress on the model for the subgrid-scale flux is studied.

  15. The revised scale for caregiving self-efficacy: reliability and validity studies.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Ann M; McKibbin, Christine; Zeiss, Antonette M; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Two samples of family caregivers (Study 1: N = 169; Study 2: N = 145) of cognitively impaired older adults were used to revise, extend, and evaluate a measure of perceived self-efficacy for caregiving tasks. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy measures 3 domains of caregiving self-efficacy: Obtaining Respite, Responding to Disruptive Patient Behaviors, and Controlling Upsetting Thoughts. The 3 subscales show strong internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Construct validity is supported by relationships between these 3 facets of perceived caregiving efficacy and depression, anxiety, anger, perceived social support, and criticism expressed in speech samples. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy has potential uses for both research and clinical purposes.

  16. Pain point system scale (PPSS): a method for postoperative pain estimation in retrospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Gkotsi, Anastasia; Petsas, Dimosthenis; Sakalis, Vasilios; Fotas, Asterios; Triantafyllidis, Argyrios; Vouros, Ioannis; Saridakis, Evangelos; Salpiggidis, Georgios; Papathanasiou, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pain rating scales are widely used for pain assessment. Nevertheless, a new tool is required for pain assessment needs in retrospective studies. Methods The postoperative pain episodes, during the first postoperative day, of three patient groups were analyzed. Each pain episode was assessed by a visual analog scale, numerical rating scale, verbal rating scale, and a new tool – pain point system scale (PPSS) – based on the analgesics administered. The type of analgesic was defined based on the authors’ clinic protocol, patient comorbidities, pain assessment tool scores, and preadministered medications by an artificial neural network system. At each pain episode, each patient was asked to fill the three pain scales. Bartlett’s test and Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin criterion were used to evaluate sample sufficiency. The proper scoring system was defined by varimax rotation. Spearman’s and Pearson’s coefficients assessed PPSS correlation to the known pain scales. Results A total of 262 pain episodes were evaluated in 124 patients. The PPSS scored one point for each dose of paracetamol, three points for each nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug or codeine, and seven points for each dose of opioids. The correlation between the visual analog scale and PPSS was found to be strong and linear (rho: 0.715; P < 0.001 and Pearson: 0.631; P < 0.001). Conclusion PPSS correlated well with the known pain scale and could be used safely in the evaluation of postoperative pain in retrospective studies. PMID:23152699

  17. Adaptation of Organizational Justice in Sport Scale into Turkish Language: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayin, Ayfer; Sahin, Mustafa Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to provide a Turkish adaptation of the Organizational Justice in Sport Scale and perform reliability and validity studies. Answers provided by 260 participants who work as football, male basketball and female basketball coaches in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) were analysed using the original scale that…

  18. Modified Moral Distress Scale (MDS-11): Validation Study Among Italian Nurses.

    PubMed

    Badolamenti, Sondra; Fida, Roberto; Biagioli, Valentina; Caruso, Rosario; Zaghini, Francesco; Sili, Alessandro; Rea, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Moral distress (MD) has significant implications on individual and organizational health. However there is a lack of an instrument to assess it among Italian nurses. The main aim of this study was to validate a brief instrument to assess MD, developed from the Corley's Moral Distress Scale (MDS). The modified MDS scale was subjected to content and cultural validity. The scale was administered to 347 nurses. Psychometric analysis were performed to assess construct validity. The scale consists of 11 items, investigating MD in nursing practice in different clinical settings. The dimensionality of the scale was investigated through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), which showed a two-dimensional structure labeled futility and potential damage. The futility refers to feelings of powerlessness and ineffectiveness in some clinical situations; the potential damage dimension captures feelings of powerlessness when nurses are forced to tolerate or perform perceived abusive clinical proceedings. Nurses who experienced higher MD, were more lilely to experience burnout. The modified MDS showed good psychometric properties, and it is valid and reliable for assessing moral distress among Italian nurses. Hence, the modified MDS allows to monitor the distress experienced by nurses and it is an important contribution to the scientific community and all those dealing with well-being of health workers.

  19. Observational and modeling studies of heat, moisture, precipitation, and global-scale circulation patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Dayton G.; Robertson, Franklin

    1993-01-01

    The research sponsored by this grant is a continuation and an extension of the work conducted under a previous contract, 'South Pacific Convergence Zone and Global-Scale Circulations'. In the prior work, we conducted a detailed investigation of the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ), and documented many of its significant features and characteristics. We also conducted studies of its interaction with global-scale circulation features through the use of both observational and modeling studies. The latter was accomplished toward the end of the contract when Dr. James Hurrell, then a Ph.D. candidate, successfully ported the NASA GLA general circulation model (GCM) to Purdue University. In our present grant, we have expanded our previous research to include studies of other convectively-driven circulation systems in the tropics besides the SPCZ. Furthermore, we have continued to examine the relationship between these convective systems and global-scale circulation patterns. Our recent research efforts have focused on three objectives: (1) determining the periodicity of large-scale bands of organized convection in the tropics, primarily synoptic to intraseasonal time scales in the Southern Hemisphere; (2) examining the relative importance of tropical versus mid-latitude forcing for Southern Hemisphere summertime subtropical jets, particularly over the Pacific Ocean; and (3) estimating tropical precipitation, especially over oceans, using observational and budget methods. A summary list of our most significant accomplishments in the past year is given.

  20. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  1. The sense and non-sense of plot-scale, catchment-scale, continental-scale and global-scale hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstert, Axel; Heistermann, Maik; Francke, Till

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological models aim at quantifying the hydrological cycle and its constituent processes for particular conditions, sites or periods in time. Such models have been developed for a large range of spatial and temporal scales. One must be aware that the question which is the appropriate scale to be applied depends on the overall question under study. Therefore, it is not advisable to give a general applicable guideline on what is "the best" scale for a model. This statement is even more relevant for coupled hydrological, ecological and atmospheric models. Although a general statement about the most appropriate modelling scale is not recommendable, it is worth to have a look on what are the advantages and the shortcomings of micro-, meso- and macro-scale approaches. Such an appraisal is of increasing importance, since increasingly (very) large / global scale approaches and models are under operation and therefore the question arises how far and for what purposes such methods may yield scientifically sound results. It is important to understand that in most hydrological (and ecological, atmospheric and other) studies process scale, measurement scale, and modelling scale differ from each other. In some cases, the differences between theses scales can be of different orders of magnitude (example: runoff formation, measurement and modelling). These differences are a major source of uncertainty in description and modelling of hydrological, ecological and atmospheric processes. Let us now summarize our viewpoint of the strengths (+) and weaknesses (-) of hydrological models of different scales: Micro scale (e.g. extent of a plot, field or hillslope): (+) enables process research, based on controlled experiments (e.g. infiltration; root water uptake; chemical matter transport); (+) data of state conditions (e.g. soil parameter, vegetation properties) and boundary fluxes (e.g. rainfall or evapotranspiration) are directly measurable and reproducible; (+) equations based on

  2. The impact of the resolution of meteorological datasets on catchment-scale drought studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig, Jost; Stahl, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    Gridded meteorological datasets provide the basis to study drought at a range of scales, including catchment scale drought studies in hydrology. They are readily available to study past weather conditions and often serve real time monitoring as well. As these datasets differ in spatial/temporal coverage and spatial/temporal resolution, for most studies there is a tradeoff between these features. Our investigation examines whether biases occur when studying drought on catchment scale with low resolution input data. For that, a comparison among the datasets HYRAS (covering Central Europe, 1x1 km grid, daily data, 1951 - 2005), E-OBS (Europe, 0.25° grid, daily data, 1950-2015) and GPCC (whole world, 0.5° grid, monthly data, 1901 - 2013) is carried out. Generally, biases in precipitation increase with decreasing resolution. Most important variations are found during summer. In low mountain range of Central Europe the datasets of sparse resolution (E-OBS, GPCC) overestimate dry days and underestimate total precipitation since they are not able to describe high spatial variability. However, relative measures like the correlation coefficient reveal good consistencies of dry and wet periods, both for absolute precipitation values and standardized indices like the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) or Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI). Particularly the most severe droughts derived from the different datasets match very well. These results indicate that absolute values of sparse resolution datasets applied to catchment scale might be critical to use for an assessment of the hydrological drought at catchment scale, whereas relative measures for determining periods of drought are more trustworthy. Therefore, studies on drought, that downscale meteorological data, should carefully consider their data needs and focus on relative measures for dry periods if sufficient for the task.

  3. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of small scale combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo

    Recently, the demand increased for the development of microdevices such as microsatellites, microaerial vehicles, micro reactors, and micro power generators. To meet those demands the biggest challenge is obtaining stable and complete combustion at relatively small scale. To gain a fundamental understanding of small scale combustion in this thesis, thermal and kinetic coupling between the gas phase and the structure at meso and micro scales were theoretically, experimentally, and numerically studied; new stabilization and instability phenomena were identified; and new theories for the dynamic mechanisms of small scale combustion were developed. The reduction of thermal inertia at small scale significantly reduces the response time of the wall and leads to a strong flame-wall coupling and extension of burning limits. Mesoscale flame propagation and extinction in small quartz tubes were theoretically, experimentally and numerically studied. It was found that wall-flame interaction in mesoscale combustion led to two different flame regimes, a heat-loss dominant fast flame regime and a wall-flame coupling slow flame regime. The nonlinear transition between the two flame regimes was strongly dependent on the channel width and flow velocity. It is concluded that the existence of multiple flame regimes is an inherent phenomenon in mesoscale combustion. In addition, all practical combustors have variable channel width in the direction of flame propagation. Quasi-steady and unsteady propagations of methane and propane-air premixed flames in a mesoscale divergent channel were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The emphasis was the impact of variable cross-section area and the flame-wall coupling on the flame transition between different regimes and the onset of flame instability. For the first time, spinning flames were experimentally observed for both lean and rich methane and propane-air mixtures in a broad range of equivalence ratios. An effective Lewis number

  4. Dissemination of aerosol and splatter during ultrasonic scaling: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Veena, H R; Mahantesha, S; Joseph, Preethi A; Patil, Sudhir R; Patil, Suvarna H

    2015-01-01

    Routine dental procedures produce aerosol and splatter, which pose a potential risk to the clinician and dental personnel, as well as the immunocompromised patient. Reports indicate that the ultrasonic scaler is the greatest producer of aerosol and splatter. The study aimed to evaluate the contamination distance, contamination amount and contamination duration of aerosol produced during ultrasonic scaling. The study was performed on a mannequin fitted with phantom jaws on a dental chair. Mock scaling was done for 15 min using an auto-tuned magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler with the simultaneous use of a low volume saliva ejector. An ultrafiltrate-containing fluorescent dye was used in the reservoir supplying the scaler unit. Filter paper discs were placed in different positions and distances in the operatory. Immediately following scaling, the filter paper discs were replaced with new ones. This was done every 30 min for a total duration of 90 min. Maximum contamination was found on the right arm of the operator and left arm of the assistant. Contamination was also found on the head, chest and inner surface of the face mask of the operator and of the assistant. The aerosol was found to remain in the air up to 30 min after scaling. The occupational health hazards of dental aerosols can be minimized by following simple, inexpensive precautions. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Astronomy Teaching Self-Efficacy Belief Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Filiz; Ozyurek, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and safe scale for determining the self-efficacy levels of science teachers in the teaching of astronomy subjects. The study used a survey approach, which is a qualitative research method. The study was conducted with a total of 106 science teachers working in the secondary schools of Ordu city…

  6. Adaptation of Hunter Cynism Scale to Turkish: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiraz, Zafer; Bakioglu, Fuad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to carry out the adaptation of Hunter Cynicism Scale to Turkish. For this purpose, this study consists of two stages. 311 university students participated in for the first stage and 313 university students participated in for the second stage of this study. In the first stage, translation, exploratory factor analysis,…

  7. Developing Academic Motivation Scale for Learning Information Technology (AMSLIT): A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreglmann, Sinan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to develop Academic Motivation Scale for Learning Information Technology for university students. For this purpose, 120 randomly selected university students studying in different classes and faculties at KSU were invited to the study during the 2016-2017 academic year. To define the scale indicators students were asked to answer…

  8. Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS): a study on development, validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Erkoc, Sultan Baliz; Isikli, Burhanettin; Metintas, Selma; Kalyoncu, Cemalettin

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to develop a scale to measure knowledge about hypertension among Turkish adults. The Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS) was generated based on content, face, and construct validity, internal consistency, test re-test reliability, and discriminative validity procedures. The final scale had 22 items with six sub-dimensions. The scale was applied to 457 individuals aged ≥ 18 years, and 414 of them were re-evaluated for test-retest reliability. The six sub-dimensions encompassed 60.3% of the total variance. Cronbach alpha coefficients were 0.82 for the entire scale and 0.92, 0.59, 0.67, 0.77, 0.72, and 0.76 for the sub-dimensions of definition, medical treatment, drug compliance, lifestyle, diet, and complications, respectively. The scale ensured internal consistency in reliability and construct validity, as well as stability over time. Significant relationships were found between knowledge score and age, gender, educational level, and history of hypertension of the participants. No correlation was found between knowledge score and working at an income-generating job. The present scale, developed to measure the knowledge level of hypertension among Turkish adults, was found to be valid and reliable.

  9. A Study of Developing an Attitude Scale towards Authentic Learning Environments and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetinkaya, Murat

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research is to improve a valid and reliable attributing scale which identifies authentic learning environments and evaluation attributes of the science teacher candidates. The study has been designed on the base of validity and reliability of the scale developed to evaluate the authentic learning environments. The research group is…

  10. Studies on scaling of flow noise received at the stagnation point of an axisymmetric body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakeri, V. H.; Satyanarayana, S. G.; Mani, K.; Sharma, S. D.

    1991-05-01

    A description of the studies related to the problem of scaling of flow noise received at the stagnation point of axisymmetric bodies is provided. The source of flow noise under consideration is the transitional/turbulent regions of the boundary layer flow on the axisymmetric body. Lauchle has recently shown that the noise measured in the laminar region (including the stagnation point) corresponds closely to the noise measured in the transition region, provided that the acoustic losses due to diffraction are accounted for. The present study includes experimental measurement of flow noise at the stagnation point of three different shaped axisymmetric headforms. One of the body shapes chosen is that used by Lauchle in similar studies. This was done to establish the effect of body size on flow noise. The results of the experimental investigations clearly show that the flow noise received at the stagnation point is a strong function of free stream velocity, a moderately strong function of body scale but a weak function of boundary layer thickness. In addition, there is evidence that when body scale change is involved, flow noise amplitude scales but no frequency shift is involved. A scaling procedure is proposed based on the present observations along with those of Lauchle. At a given frequency, the amplitude of noise level obtained under model testing conditions is first scaled to account for differences in the velocity and size corresponding to the prototype conditions; then a correction to this is applied to account for losses due to diffraction, which are estimated on the basis of the geometric theory of diffraction (GTD) with the source being located at the predicted position of turbulent transition. Use of the proposed scaling law to extrapolate presently obtained noise levels to two other conditions involving larger-scale bodies show good agreement with actually measured levels, in particular at higher frequencies. Since model scale results have been used

  11. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study.

    PubMed

    Kamwesiga, Julius T; von Koch, Lena; Kottorp, Anders; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda ( in English ) by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda ( both in English and Luganda ) was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Overall, 10 of 59 (17%) items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75). The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision but also point out issues for further adaptation and improvement

  12. Braden scale (ALB) for assessing pressure ulcer risk in hospital patients: A validity and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Cao, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Huai, Bao-Sha

    2017-02-01

    The inter-rater reliability of Braden Scale is not so good. We modified the Braden(ALB) scale by defining nutrition subscale based on serum albumin, then assessed it's the validity and reliability in hospital patients. We designed a retrospective study for validity analysis, and a prospective study for reliability analysis. Receiver operating curve (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the predictive validity. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to investigate the inter-rater reliability. Two thousand five hundred twenty-five patients were included for validity analysis, 76 patients (3.0%) developed pressure ulcer. Positive correlation was found between serum albumin and nutrition score in Braden scale (Spearman's coefficient 0.2203, P<0.0001). The AUCs for Braden scale and Braden(ALB) scale predicting pressure ulcer risk were 0.813 (95% CI 0.797-0.828; P<0.0001), and 0.859 (95% CI 0.845-0.872; P<0.0001), respectively. The Braden(ALB) scale was even more valid than the Braden scale (z=1.860, P=0.0628). In different age subgroups, the Braden(ALB) scale seems also more valid than the original Braden scale, but no statistically significant differences were found (P>0.05). The inter-rater reliability study showed the ICC-value for nutrition increased 45.9%, and increased 4.3% for total score. The Braden(ALB) scale has similar validity compared with the original Braden scale for in hospital patients. However, the inter-rater reliability was significantly increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Library Anxiety of Law Students: A Study Utilizing the Multidimensional Library Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether law students experienced library anxiety and, if so, which components contributed to that anxiety. The Multidimensional Library Anxiety Scale (MLAS) developed by Dr. Doris Van Kampen was used to assess library anxiety levels of law students. The MLAS is a 53 question Likert scale instrument that…

  14. Personal Professional Development Efforts Scale for Middle School Mathematics Teachers: An Adaptation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balbag, M. Zafer; Yenilmez, Kürsat; Turgut, Melih

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at adapting the personal professional development efforts scale developed for science and technology teachers to be applied for middle school mathematics teachers. For this purpose, first of all, the items of the original scale were adjusted for the middle school mathematics teachers by a team of experts. Data obtained by the new…

  15. A Study of Developing an Environmental Attitude Scale for Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artvinli, Eyup; Demir, Zulfiye Melis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop an instrument that measures environmental attitudes of third grade students. The study was completed in six stages: creating scale items, content validity study, item total and remaining item correlation study, determining item discrimination, determining construct validity study and examining the internal…

  16. The scale invariant generator technique for quantifying anisotropic scale invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. M.; Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Pecknold, S.

    1999-11-01

    Scale invariance is rapidly becoming a new paradigm for geophysics. However, little attention has been paid to the anisotropy that is invariably present in geophysical fields in the form of differential stratification and rotation, texture and morphology. In order to account for scaling anisotropy, the formalism of generalized scale invariance (GSI) was developed. Until now there has existed only a single fairly ad hoc GSI analysis technique valid for studying differential rotation. In this paper, we use a two-dimensional representation of the linear approximation to generalized scale invariance, to obtain a much improved technique for quantifying anisotropic scale invariance called the scale invariant generator technique (SIG). The accuracy of the technique is tested using anisotropic multifractal simulations and error estimates are provided for the geophysically relevant range of parameters. It is found that the technique yields reasonable estimates for simulations with a diversity of anisotropic and statistical characteristics. The scale invariant generator technique can profitably be applied to the scale invariant study of vertical/horizontal and space/time cross-sections of geophysical fields as well as to the study of the texture/morphology of fields.

  17. Large-Scale Phase Synchrony Reflects Clinical Status After Stroke: An EEG Study.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Teiji; Hattori, Noriaki; Uno, Yutaka; Kitajo, Keiichi; Hatakenaka, Megumi; Yagura, Hajime; Fujimoto, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Tomomi; Nagasako, Michiko; Otomune, Hironori; Miyai, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Stroke-induced focal brain lesions often exert remote effects via residual neural network activity. Electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques can assess neural network modifications after brain damage. Recently, EEG phase synchrony analyses have shown associations between the level of large-scale phase synchrony of brain activity and clinical symptoms; however, few reports have assessed such associations in stroke patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of hemispheric phase synchrony in stroke patients by calculating its correlation with clinical status. This cross-sectional study included 19 patients with post-acute ischemic stroke admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Interhemispheric phase synchrony indices (IH-PSIs) were computed in 2 frequency bands (alpha [α], and beta [β]), and associations between indices and scores of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMA) were analyzed. For further assessments of IH-PSIs, ipsilesional intrahemispheric PSIs (IntraH-PSIs) as well as IH- and IntraH-phase lag indices (PLIs) were also evaluated. IH-PSIs correlated significantly with FIM scores and NIHSS scores. In contrast, IH-PSIs did not correlate with FMA scores. IntraH-PSIs correlate with FIM scores after removal of the outlier. The results of analysis with PLIs were consistent with IH-PSIs. The PSIs correlated with performance on the activities of daily living scale but not with scores on a pure motor impairment scale. These results suggest that large-scale phase synchrony represented by IH-PSIs provides a novel surrogate marker for clinical status after stroke.

  18. The Koukopoulos Mixed Depression Rating Scale (KMDRS): An International Mood Network (IMN) validation study of a new mixed mood rating scale.

    PubMed

    Sani, Gabriele; Vöhringer, Paul A; Barroilhet, Sergio A; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2018-05-01

    It has been proposed that the broad major depressive disorder (MDD) construct is heterogenous. Koukopoulos has provided diagnostic criteria for an important subtype within that construct, "mixed depression" (MxD), which encompasses clinical pictures characterized by marked psychomotor or inner excitation and rage/anger, along with severe depression. This study provides psychometric validation for the first rating scale specifically designed to assess MxD symptoms cross-sectionally, the Koukopoulos Mixed Depression Rating Scale (KMDRS). 350 patients from the international mood network (IMN) completed three rating scales: the KMDRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). KMDRS' psychometric properties assessed included Cronbach's alpha, inter-rater reliability, factor analysis, predictive validity, and Receiver Operator Curve analysis. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.76; 95% CI 0.57, 0.94) and interrater reliability (kappa = 0.73) were adequate. Confirmatory factor analysis identified 2 components: anger and psychomotor excitation (80% of total variance). Good predictive validity was seen (C-statistic = 0.82 95% CI 0.68, 0.93). Severity cut-off scores identified were as follows: none (0-4), possible (5-9), mild (10-15), moderate (16-20) and severe (> 21) MxD. Non DSM-based diagnosis of MxD may pose some difficulties in the initial use and interpretation of the scoring of the scale. Moreover, the cross-sectional nature of the evaluation does not verify the long-term stability of the scale. KMDRS was a reliable and valid instrument to assess MxD symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SCALE-UP OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS TO FIELD-SCALE ADSORBERS: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BASIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Design of full-scale adsorption systems typically includes expensive and time-consuming pilot studies to simulate full-scale adsorber performance. Accordingly, the rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) was developed and evaluated experimentally. The RSSCT can simulate months of f...

  20. Neutron Scattering Studies on Large Length Scale Sample Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hao

    Neutron scattering can be used to study structures of matter. Depending on the interested sample properties, different scattering techniques can be chosen. Neutron reflectivity is more often used to detect in-depth profile of layered structures and the interfacial roughness while transmission is more sensitive to sample bulk properties. Neutron Reflectometry (NR) technique, one technique in neutron reflectivity, is first discussed in this thesis. Both specular reflectivity and the first order Bragg intensity were measured in the NR experiment with a diffraction grating in order to study the in-depth and the lateral structure of a sample (polymer) deposited on the grating. However, the first order Bragg intensity solely is sometimes inadequate to determine the lateral structure and high order Bragg intensities are difficult to measure using traditional neutron scattering techniques due to the low brightness of the current neutron sources. Spin Echo Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) technique overcomes this resolution problem by measuring the Fourier transforms of all the Bragg intensities, resulting in measuring the real-space density correlations of samples and allowing the accessible length scale from few-tens of nanometers to several microns. SESANS can be implemented by using two pairs of magnetic Wollaston prims (WP) and the accessible length scale is proportional to the magnetic field intensity in WPs. To increase the magnetic field and thus increase the accessible length scale, an apparatus named Superconducting Wollaston Prisms (SWP) which has a series of strong, well-defined shaped magnetic fields created by superconducting coils was developed in Indiana University in 2016. Since then, various kinds of optimization have been implemented, which are addressed in this thesis. Finally, applications of SWPs in other neutron scattering techniques like Neutron Larmor Diffraction (NLD) are discussed.

  1. The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lisa M. J.; Naswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75…

  2. Scaling behavior studies of Ar{sup +} ion irradiated ripple structured mica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Metya, Amaresh, E-mail: amaresh.metya@saha.ac.in; Ghose, Debabrata, E-mail: amaresh.metya@saha.ac.in

    We have studied scaling behavior of ripple structured mica surfaces. Clean mica (001) surface is sputtered by 500 eV Ar{sup +} ion beam at 40° incidence angle for different time ranging from 28 minutes to 245 minutes to form ripples on it. The scaling of roughness of sputtered surface characterized by AFM is observed into two regime here; one is super roughening which is for above the crossover bombardment time (i.e, t{sub x} ≥ 105 min) with the scaling exponents α = α{sub s} = 1.45 ± 0.03, α{sub local} = 0.87 ± 0.03, β = 1.81 ± 0.01, β{submore » local} = 1.67 ± 0.07 and another is a new type of scaling dynamics for t{sub x} ≤ 105 min with the scaling exponents α = 0.95 (calculated), α{sub s} = 1.45 ± 0.03, α{sub local} = 0.87 ± 0.03, β = 1.81 ± 0.01, β{sub local} = 1.67 ± 0.07. In the super roughening scaling dynamics, two types of power law dependency is observed on spatial frequency of morphology (k): for higher k values PSD ∼ k{sup −4} describing diffusion controlled smoothening and for lower k values PSD ∼ k{sup −2} reflecting kinetic roughening.« less

  3. Scale Factor Study for 1:30 Local Scour Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    railway crossing on the Santa Ana River near Corona , CA. Data from the scale factor study provide an adjustment for applying documented scour...upstream and downstream of the test section respectively. Discharge into the model came from three recirculation pumps with a total capacity of ERDC...upstream baffle blocks. The total discharge was measured by reading the differential from a manometer across a venturi meter and verified with a total

  4. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study

    PubMed Central

    Kamwesiga, Julius T; von Koch, Lena; Kottorp, Anders; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. Objective: To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. Method: The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (in English) by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (both in English and Luganda) was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Results: Overall, 10 of 59 (17%) items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75). Conclusion: The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision but also point

  5. Bridging scales through multiscale modeling: a case study on protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Boras, Britton W; Hirakis, Sophia P; Votapka, Lane W; Malmstrom, Robert D; Amaro, Rommie E; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The goal of multiscale modeling in biology is to use structurally based physico-chemical models to integrate across temporal and spatial scales of biology and thereby improve mechanistic understanding of, for example, how a single mutation can alter organism-scale phenotypes. This approach may also inform therapeutic strategies or identify candidate drug targets that might otherwise have been overlooked. However, in many cases, it remains unclear how best to synthesize information obtained from various scales and analysis approaches, such as atomistic molecular models, Markov state models (MSM), subcellular network models, and whole cell models. In this paper, we use protein kinase A (PKA) activation as a case study to explore how computational methods that model different physical scales can complement each other and integrate into an improved multiscale representation of the biological mechanisms. Using measured crystal structures, we show how molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with atomic-scale MSMs can provide conformations for Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to feed transitional states and kinetic parameters into protein-scale MSMs. We discuss how milestoning can give reaction probabilities and forward-rate constants of cAMP association events by seamlessly integrating MD and BD simulation scales. These rate constants coupled with MSMs provide a robust representation of the free energy landscape, enabling access to kinetic, and thermodynamic parameters unavailable from current experimental data. These approaches have helped to illuminate the cooperative nature of PKA activation in response to distinct cAMP binding events. Collectively, this approach exemplifies a general strategy for multiscale model development that is applicable to a wide range of biological problems.

  6. [Correlations between Beck's suicidal ideation scale, suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and Hamilton's depression rating scale].

    PubMed

    Ducher, J-L; Dalery, J

    2008-04-01

    Most of the people who will attempt suicide, talk about it beforehand. Therefore, recognition of suicidal risk is not absolutely impossible. Beck's suicidal ideation scale and Ducher's suicidal risk assessment scale (RSD) are common tools to help practicians in this way. These scales and the Hamilton's depression scale were included in an international multicentric, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups who had been administered a fixed dose of fluvoxamin or fluoxetin for six weeks. This allowed examination of the correlations between these scales and the relations, which could possibly exist between suicidal risk, depression and anxiety. (a) Relationships between the Beck's suicidal ideation scale, the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and Hamilton's depression before treatment. Before treatment, the analysis was conducted with 108 male and female depressive outpatients, aged 18 or over. Results revealed a significant positive correlation (with a Pearson's correlation coefficient r equal to 0.69 and risk p<0.0001) between Beck's suicidal ideation scale and the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD. These scales correlate less consistently with Hamilton's depression (Beck/Hamilton's depression: r=0.34; p=0.0004-RSD/Hamilton's depression: r=0.35; p=0.0002). We observed that the clinical anxiety scale by Snaith is also strongly correlated to these two suicidal risk assessment scales (Beck/CAS: r=0.48; p<0.0001-RSD/CAS: r=0.35; p=0.0005). Besides, the item "suicide" of Hamilton's depression scale accounts for more than a third of the variability of Beck's suicidal ideation scale and the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD. According to these results, the suicidal risk evaluated by these two scales seems to be significantly correlated with anxiety as much as with depression. On the other hand, the Clinical Global Impression is fairly significantly correlated with Beck's suicidal ideation scale (r=0.22; p=0.02), unlike the suicidal risk assessment

  7. Micro-computed tomography pore-scale study of flow in porous media: Effect of voxel resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. M.; Gray, F.; Crawshaw, J. P.; Boek, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental understanding of flow in porous media at the pore-scale is necessary to be able to upscale average displacement processes from core to reservoir scale. The study of fluid flow in porous media at the pore-scale consists of two key procedures: Imaging - reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) pore space images; and modelling such as with single and two-phase flow simulations with Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) or Pore-Network (PN) Modelling. Here we analyse pore-scale results to predict petrophysical properties such as porosity, single-phase permeability and multi-phase properties at different length scales. The fundamental issue is to understand the image resolution dependency of transport properties, in order to up-scale the flow physics from pore to core scale. In this work, we use a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner to image and reconstruct three dimensional pore-scale images of five sandstones (Bentheimer, Berea, Clashach, Doddington and Stainton) and five complex carbonates (Ketton, Estaillades, Middle Eastern sample 3, Middle Eastern sample 5 and Indiana Limestone 1) at four different voxel resolutions (4.4 μm, 6.2 μm, 8.3 μm and 10.2 μm), scanning the same physical field of view. Implementing three phase segmentation (macro-pore phase, intermediate phase and grain phase) on pore-scale images helps to understand the importance of connected macro-porosity in the fluid flow for the samples studied. We then compute the petrophysical properties for all the samples using PN and LB simulations in order to study the influence of voxel resolution on petrophysical properties. We then introduce a numerical coarsening scheme which is used to coarsen a high voxel resolution image (4.4 μm) to lower resolutions (6.2 μm, 8.3 μm and 10.2 μm) and study the impact of coarsening data on macroscopic and multi-phase properties. Numerical coarsening of high resolution data is found to be superior to using a lower resolution scan because it

  8. Electropolishing effect on roughness metrics of ground stainless steel: a length scale study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakar, Doron; Harel, David; Hirsch, Baruch

    2018-03-01

    Electropolishing is a widely-used electrochemical surface finishing process for metals. The electropolishing of stainless steel has vast commercial application, such as improving corrosion resistance, improving cleanness, and brightening. The surface topography characterization is performed using several techniques with different lateral resolutions and length scales, from atomic force microscopy in the nano-scale (<0.1 µm) to stylus and optical profilometry in the micro- and mesoscales (0.1 µm-1 mm). This paper presents an experimental length scale study of the surface texture of ground stainless steel followed by an electropolishing process in the micro and meso lateral scales. Both stylus and optical profilometers are used, and multiple cut-off lengths of the standard Gaussian filter are adopted. While the commonly used roughness amplitude parameters (Ra, Rq and Rz) fail to characterize electropolished textures, the root mean square slope (RΔq) is found to better describe the electropolished surfaces and to be insensitive to scale.

  9. [Translation and Validation of the FOUR Scale for Children and its Use as Outcome Predictor: A Pilot Study].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sofia Simões; Meireles, Daniel; Pinto, Alexandra; Abecasis, Francisco

    2017-09-29

    The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness - FOUR scale has been previously validated to assess impaired consciousness in the adult population. The aim of this study is the translation into Portuguese and validation of the FOUR scale in the pediatric population. The study also compares the FOUR scale and Glasgow coma scale score ratings and the clinical outcome of patients hospitalized in Pediatric Intensive Care Units. This study prospectively rated patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Units with impaired consciousness during one year. Both scales were applied daily to patients by three types of examiners: intensivists, residents and nurses, from the moment of admission until clinical discharge. Neurological sequelae was evaluated using the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury - KOSCHI. Twenty seven patients between one and 17 years of age were included. Both scales are reliable and inter-rater reliability was greater for the FOUR score. Glasgow coma scale showed a minimum score in eight evaluations, whereas the FOUR scale obtained the minimum score in only two of these evaluations. In both scales there was a strong association between the admission score and the patient's outcome (area under curve FOUR = 0.939, versus Glasgow coma scale = 0.925). The FOUR scale provides more neurological information than Glasgow coma scale in patients with impaired consciousness and has prognostic interest. The FOUR scale can be applied in patients admitted with impaired consciousness in Pediatric Intensive Care Units. We think that a multicenter study would be very beneficial for confirming and generalizing these results.

  10. Environmental Affective Dispositions Scale (EADS): The Study of Validity and Reliability and Adaptation to Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fettahlioglu, Pinar; Timur, Serkan; Timur, Betül

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a research under circumstances of Turkey about the validity and reliability of the Affective Tendencies towards Environmental Scale prepared by Yavetz, Goldman and Pe'er (2009). The translation of this scale to Turkish was done by the researchers and language specialists. And then, the scale was evaluated by the…

  11. Theoretical and global scale model studies of the atmospheric sulfur/aerosol system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasibhatla, Prasad

    1996-01-01

    The primary focus during the third-phase of our on-going multi-year research effort has been on 3 activities. These are: (1) a global-scale model study of the anthropogenic component of the tropospheric sulfur cycle; (2) process-scale model studies of the factors influencing the distribution of aerosols in the remote marine atmosphere; and (3) an investigation of the mechanism of the OH-initiated oxidation of DMS in the remote marine boundary layer. In this paper, we describe in more detail our research activities in each of these areas. A major portion of our activities during the fourth and final phase of this project will involve the preparation and submission of manuscripts describing the results from our model studies of marine boundary-layer aerosols and DMS-oxidation mechanisms.

  12. A Study of Validity and Reliability on the Instructional Capacity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalçin, Mehmet Tufan; Eres, Figen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool that can determine the instructional capacity, according to teacher opinions. In the academic year of 2016-2017, 1011 teachers working in the public high schools and vocational technical schools in Ankara participated in the study. The total number of items on the scale was…

  13. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Spanish Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sifuentes, Lucía Macías

    2016-01-01

    With growing numbers of Hispanic students enrolling in post-secondary school, there is a need to increase retention and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). The AMAS was translated and administered to 804 freshman students at a post-secondary institution in…

  14. Adaptive scaling of reward in episodic memory: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Mason, Alice; Ludwig, Casimir; Farrell, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Reward is thought to enhance episodic memory formation via dopaminergic consolidation. Bunzeck, Dayan, Dolan, and Duzel [(2010). A common mechanism for adaptive scaling of reward and novelty. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 1380-1394] provided functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioural evidence that reward and episodic memory systems are sensitive to the contextual value of a reward-whether it is relatively higher or lower-as opposed to absolute value or prediction error. We carried out a direct replication of their behavioural study and did not replicate their finding that memory performance associated with reward follows this pattern of adaptive scaling. An effect of reward outcome was in the opposite direction to that in the original study, with lower reward outcomes leading to better memory than higher outcomes. There was a marginal effect of reward context, suggesting that expected value affected memory performance. We discuss the robustness of the reward memory relationship to variations in reward context, and whether other reward-related factors have a more reliable influence on episodic memory.

  15. Why small-scale cannabis growers stay small: five mechanisms that prevent small-scale growers from going large scale.

    PubMed

    Hammersvik, Eirik; Sandberg, Sveinung; Pedersen, Willy

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 15-20 years, domestic cultivation of cannabis has been established in a number of European countries. New techniques have made such cultivation easier; however, the bulk of growers remain small-scale. In this study, we explore the factors that prevent small-scale growers from increasing their production. The study is based on 1 year of ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews conducted with 45 Norwegian cannabis growers, 10 of whom were growing on a large-scale and 35 on a small-scale. The study identifies five mechanisms that prevent small-scale indoor growers from going large-scale. First, large-scale operations involve a number of people, large sums of money, a high work-load and a high risk of detection, and thus demand a higher level of organizational skills than for small growing operations. Second, financial assets are needed to start a large 'grow-site'. Housing rent, electricity, equipment and nutrients are expensive. Third, to be able to sell large quantities of cannabis, growers need access to an illegal distribution network and knowledge of how to act according to black market norms and structures. Fourth, large-scale operations require advanced horticultural skills to maximize yield and quality, which demands greater skills and knowledge than does small-scale cultivation. Fifth, small-scale growers are often embedded in the 'cannabis culture', which emphasizes anti-commercialism, anti-violence and ecological and community values. Hence, starting up large-scale production will imply having to renegotiate or abandon these values. Going from small- to large-scale cannabis production is a demanding task-ideologically, technically, economically and personally. The many obstacles that small-scale growers face and the lack of interest and motivation for going large-scale suggest that the risk of a 'slippery slope' from small-scale to large-scale growing is limited. Possible political implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright

  16. A Validation Study of the Revised Personal Safety Decision Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, HaeJung; Hopkins, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability and validity of an 11-item Personal Safety Decision Scale (PSDS) in a sample of child welfare workers. Methods: Data were derived from a larger cross-sectional online survey to a random stratified sample of 477 public child welfare workers in a mid-Atlantic State. An exploratory…

  17. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of…

  18. Dental scaling and risk reduction in infective endocarditis: a nationwide population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Jung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chao, Tze-Fan; Wang, Kang-Ling; Wang, Fu-Der; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chiang, Chern-En

    2013-04-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening disease. Poor oral hygiene has been assumed as an important risk factor for IE. We aimed to investigate whether the improvement of oral hygiene through dental scaling could reduce the risk of IE. From January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009, a total of 736 patients with newly diagnosed IE were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. On the same date of enrollment, 10 patients (without IE) with matched age, sex, and underlying diseases were selected to be the control group for each study patient. The frequency of dental scaling before the enrollment was analyzed and compared between the study and the control groups. The percentages of patients who ever received dental scaling before the enrollment were higher in the control group than that in the study group. For patients who received dental scaling once in 2 years, the risk of IE can be reduced by about 15% (odds ratio, 0.845; 95% confidence interval, 0.693-1.012) with a borderline P value (P = 0.058). Moreover, the risk of IE decreased significantly among patients who received dental scaling at least once per year, with an odds ratio of 0.696 (95% confidence interval, 0.542-0.894; P = 0.005). Improvement of oral hygiene by dental scaling may reduce the risk of IE. More frequent and regular dental scaling (at least once per year) was associated with a significant decrease in IE. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A study of large scale gust generation in a small scale atmospheric wind tunnel with applications to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadman, Jason Markos

    Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer can always benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an "atmospheric wind tunnel" is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including Micro Aerial Vehicle(MAV) development, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicle design, and the study of bird and insect flight, to name just a few. The small scale of MAVs provide the somewhat unique capability of full scale Reynolds number testing in a wind tunnel. However, that same small scale creates interactions under real world flight conditions, atmospheric gusts for example, that lead to a need for testing under more complex flows than the standard uniform flow found in most wind tunnels. It is for these reasons that MAVs are used as the initial testing application for the atmospheric gust tunnel. An analytical model for both discrete gusts and a continuous spectrum of gusts is examined. Then, methods for generating gusts in agreement with that model are investigated. Previously used methods are reviewed and a gust generation apparatus is designed. Expected turbulence and gust characteristics of this apparatus are compared with atmospheric data. The construction of an active "gust generator" for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to weather ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated

  20. Tracking and visualization of space-time activities for a micro-scale flu transmission study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-07

    Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large scale dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based activity and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the control, containment, and prevention decision making at the local scale. The potential for using tracking technologies to capture detailed space-time trajectories and model individual behaviour is increasing rapidly, as technological advances enable the manufacture of small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and affordable receivers and the routine use of location-aware devices has become widespread (e.g., smart cellular phones). The use of low-cost tracking devices in medical research has also been proved effective by more and more studies. This study describes the use of tracking devices to collect data of space-time trajectories and the spatiotemporal processing of such data to facilitate micro-scale flu transmission study. We also reports preliminary findings on activity patterns related to chances of influenza infection in a pilot study. Specifically, this study employed A-GPS tracking devices to collect data on a university campus. Spatiotemporal processing was conducted for data cleaning and segmentation. Processed data was validated with traditional activity diaries. The A-GPS data set was then used for visual explorations including density surface visualization and connection analysis to examine space-time activity patterns in relation to chances of influenza infection. When compared to diary data, the segmented tracking data demonstrated to be an effective alternative and showed greater accuracies in time as well as the details of routes taken by participants. A comparison of space-time activity patterns between participants who caught seasonal influenza and those who did not revealed interesting patterns. This study

  1. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS ? (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  2. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  3. Pilot-scale studies on biological treatment of hypersaline wastewater at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y Z; Zhu, G B; Wang, S Y; Yu, D S; Cui, Y W; Meng, X S

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of biological treatment of hypersaline wastewater produced from toilet flushing with seawater at low temperature, pilot-scale studies were established with plug-flow activated sludge process at low temperature (5-9 degrees C) based on bench-scale experiments. The critical salinity concentration of 30 g/L, which resulted from the cooperation results of the non-halophilic bacteria and the halophilic bacteria, was drawn in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale studies showed that high COD removal efficiency, higher than 80%, was obtained at low temperature when 30 percent seawater was introduced. The salinity improved the settleability of activated sludge, and average sludge value dropped down from 38% to 22.5% after adding seawater. Seawater salinity had a strong negative effect on notronomonas and nitrobacter growth, but much more on the nitrobacter. The nitrification action was mainly accomplished by nitrosomonas. Bench-scale experiments using two SBRs were carried out for further investigation under different conditions of salinities, ammonia loadings and temperatures. Biological nitrogen removal via nitrite pathway from wastewater containing 30 percent seawater was achieved, but the ammonia removal efficiency was strongly related not only to the influent ammonia loading at different salinities but also to temperature. When the ratio of seawater to wastewater was 30 percent, and the ammonia loading was below the critical value of 0.15 kgNH4+-N/(kgMLSS.d), the ammonia removal efficiency via nitrite pathway was above 90%. The critical level of ammonia loading was 0.15, 0.08 and 0.03 kgNH4+-N/(kgMLSS.d) respectively at the different temperature 30 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 20 degrees C when the influent ammonia concentration was 60-80 mg/L and pH was 7.5-8.0.

  4. Scaling and predictability in stock markets: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huishu; Wei, Jianrong; Huang, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Most people who invest in stock markets want to be rich, thus, many technical methods have been created to beat the market. If one knows the predictability of the price series in different markets, it would be easier for him/her to make the technical analysis, at least to some extent. Here we use one of the most basic sold-and-bought trading strategies to establish the profit landscape, and then calculate the parameters to characterize the strength of predictability. According to the analysis of scaling of the profit landscape, we find that the Chinese individual stocks are harder to predict than US ones, and the individual stocks are harder to predict than indexes in both Chinese stock market and US stock market. Since the Chinese (US) stock market is a representative of emerging (developed) markets, our comparative study on the markets of these two countries is of potential value not only for conducting technical analysis, but also for understanding physical mechanisms of different kinds of markets in terms of scaling.

  5. Scaling and Predictability in Stock Markets: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huishu; Wei, Jianrong; Huang, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Most people who invest in stock markets want to be rich, thus, many technical methods have been created to beat the market. If one knows the predictability of the price series in different markets, it would be easier for him/her to make the technical analysis, at least to some extent. Here we use one of the most basic sold-and-bought trading strategies to establish the profit landscape, and then calculate the parameters to characterize the strength of predictability. According to the analysis of scaling of the profit landscape, we find that the Chinese individual stocks are harder to predict than US ones, and the individual stocks are harder to predict than indexes in both Chinese stock market and US stock market. Since the Chinese (US) stock market is a representative of emerging (developed) markets, our comparative study on the markets of these two countries is of potential value not only for conducting technical analysis, but also for understanding physical mechanisms of different kinds of markets in terms of scaling. PMID:24632944

  6. A Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics to Study Precipitation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), and (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF). The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling system to study the precipitation, processes and their sensitivity on model resolution and microphysics schemes will be presented. Also how to use of the multi-satellite simulator to improve precipitation processes will be discussed.

  7. The Development of the Digital Addiction Scale for the University Students: Reliability and Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesici, Ahmet; Tunç, Nazenin Fidan

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to develop a scale for determining the level of digital addiction of the youth. In this study carried out with a group of 687 students from Siirt, Dicle and Erzincan Universities, a draft scale of 28 items based on the interviews with two students who spent a long time with digital tools and their friends, and on the…

  8. Experimental study on the connection property of full-scale composite member

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panpan, Cao; Qing, Sun

    2018-01-01

    The excellent properties of composite result in its increasingly application in electric power construction, however there are less experimental studies on full-scale composite member connection property. Full-scale experiments of the connection property between E-glass fiber/epoxy reinforced polymer member and steel casing in practical engineering have been conducted. Based on the axial compression test of the designed specimens, the failure process and failure characteristics were observed, the load-displacement curves and strain distribution of the specimens were obtained. The finite element analysis was used to get the tensile connection strength of the component. The connection property of the components was analyzed to provide basis of the casing connection of GFRP application in practical engineering.

  9. Experiment-scale molecular simulation study of liquid crystal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung Dac; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Matheson, Michael A.; Brown, W. Michael

    2014-03-01

    Supercomputers have now reached a performance level adequate for studying thin films with molecular detail at the relevant scales. By exploiting the power of GPU accelerators on Titan, we have been able to perform simulations of characteristic liquid crystal films that provide remarkable qualitative agreement with experimental images. We have demonstrated that key features of spinodal instability can only be observed with sufficiently large system sizes, which were not accessible with previous simulation studies. Our study emphasizes the capability and significance of petascale simulations in providing molecular-level insights in thin film systems as well as other interfacial phenomena.

  10. The Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood: An Initial Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Major, Rebecca; Allegra, Laurie; Powers, Lisa; Schatschneider, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We report findings of two exploratory validation studies of a revised instrument: the "Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood" version (SRSS-EC). The SRSS-EC was modified to reflect characteristics of externalizing and internalizing behaviors manifested by preschool-age children. In Study 1, we explored the reliability of…

  11. Scaling study of the combustion performance of gas—gas rocket injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Wei; Cai, Guo-Biao; Jin, Ping

    2011-10-01

    To obtain the key subelements that may influence the scaling of gas—gas injector combustor performance, the combustion performance subelements in a liquid propellant rocket engine combustor are initially analysed based on the results of a previous study on the scaling of a gas—gas combustion flowfield. Analysis indicates that inner wall friction loss and heat-flux loss are two key issues in gaining the scaling criterion of the combustion performance. The similarity conditions of the inner wall friction loss and heat-flux loss in a gas—gas combustion chamber are obtained by theoretical analyses. Then the theoretical scaling criterion was obtained for the combustion performance, but it proved to be impractical. The criterion conditions, the wall friction and the heat flux are further analysed in detail to obtain the specific engineering scaling criterion of the combustion performance. The results indicate that when the inner flowfields in the combustors are similar, the combustor wall shear stress will have similar distributions qualitatively and will be directly proportional to pc0.8dt-0.2 quantitatively. In addition, the combustion peformance will remain unchanged. Furthermore, multi-element injector chambers with different geometric sizes and at different pressures are numerically simulated and the wall shear stress and combustion efficiencies are solved and compared with each other. A multielement injector chamber is designed and hot-fire tested at several chamber pressures and the combustion performances are measured in a total of nine hot-fire tests. The numerical and experimental results verified the similarities among combustor wall shear stress and combustion performances at different chamber pressures and geometries, with the criterion applied.

  12. Pore scale study of multiphase multicomponent reactive transport during CO2 dissolution trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Mengyi; Kang, Qinjun; Tao, Wenquan

    2018-06-01

    Solubility trapping is crucial for permanent CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. For the first time, a pore-scale numerical method is developed to investigate coupled scCO2-water two-phase flow, multicomponent (CO2(aq), H+, HCO3-, CO32- and OH-) mass transport, heterogeneous interfacial dissolution reaction, and homogeneous dissociation reactions. Pore-scale details of evolutions of multiphase distributions and concentration fields are presented and discussed. Time evolutions of several variables including averaged CO2(aq) concentration, scCO2 saturation, and pH value are analyzed. Specific interfacial length, an important variable which cannot be determined but is required by continuum models, is investigated in detail. Mass transport coefficient or efficient dissolution rate is also evaluated. The pore-scale results show strong non-equilibrium characteristics during solubility trapping due to non-uniform distributions of multiphase as well as slow mass transport process. Complicated coupling mechanisms between multiphase flow, mass transport and chemical reactions are also revealed. Finally, effects of wettability are also studied. The pore-scale studies provide deep understanding of non-linear non-equilibrium multiple physicochemical processes during CO2 solubility trapping processes, and also allow to quantitatively predict some important empirical relationships, such as saturation-interfacial surface area, for continuum models.

  13. Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Nyberg, Solja T; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; Bacquer, De Dirk; Batty, G David; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; Goldberg, Marcel; Kittel, France; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Nordin, Maria; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Theorell, Töres; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-20

    Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.

  14. Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). Results We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments. PMID:22264402

  15. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity, at the interill scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penuela Fernandez, A.; Bielders, C.; Javaux, M.

    2012-04-01

    The relative surface connection function (RSC) was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outlet (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrogram at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 x 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 x 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses was used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (L) or width (l) of the field. Border effects were observed for the smaller scales. In most of cases, for L or l smaller than 750mm, increasing L or l, resulted in a strong increase or decrease of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing l. On the contrary, a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing L. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as L increased. This change in C was inversely proportional to the change in L. This observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which no correlation was found between C and L. The results of this study help identify the critical scale to study overland flow connectivity. At scales larger than the critical scale, the RSC function showed a great potential to be extrapolated to other scales.

  16. Study deviance-type scale in the development of Korean elder

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Gun-Sang; Yi, Eun-Surk; Hwang, Hee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to develop a questionnaire of deviant behavior for the Korean elderly people which may make a big contribution to the examination of deviance behavior of the elderly people and may play an important role in providing a methodological basis. In order to accomplish the purpose of the this study, there were three different stages; (a) making preliminary question items, (b) refining the items of the scale through a plot study, and (c) finalizing question items by a main survey. In the first stage, 43 question items were developed using the open-ended questionnaire and structural inquiry of succession from 137 elderly people who are over 65 yr. In the second phase, based on data collected by the 200 elderly people pilot testing was performed through exploratory factor analysis and reliability test. The scale is a 27-item self-report questionnaire. In the main survey conducted by 184 elderly people, 21 items, which consisted of four subfactors, were finalized in order to measure deviance behaviors of the Korean elderly people: social deviance (n=8), economic deviance (n=5), psychological deviance (n=5), and physical deviance (n=3). PMID:26730382

  17. Study deviance-type scale in the development of Korean elder.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gun-Sang; Yi, Eun-Surk; Hwang, Hee-Jeong

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to develop a questionnaire of deviant behavior for the Korean elderly people which may make a big contribution to the examination of deviance behavior of the elderly people and may play an important role in providing a methodological basis. In order to accomplish the purpose of the this study, there were three different stages; (a) making preliminary question items, (b) refining the items of the scale through a plot study, and (c) finalizing question items by a main survey. In the first stage, 43 question items were developed using the open-ended questionnaire and structural inquiry of succession from 137 elderly people who are over 65 yr. In the second phase, based on data collected by the 200 elderly people pilot testing was performed through exploratory factor analysis and reliability test. The scale is a 27-item self-report questionnaire. In the main survey conducted by 184 elderly people, 21 items, which consisted of four subfactors, were finalized in order to measure deviance behaviors of the Korean elderly people: social deviance (n=8), economic deviance (n=5), psychological deviance (n=5), and physical deviance (n=3).

  18. Distinguishing globally-driven changes from regional- and local-scale impacts: The case for long-term and broad-scale studies of recovery from pollution.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, S J; Evans, A J; Mieszkowska, N; Adams, L C; Bray, S; Burrows, M T; Firth, L B; Genner, M J; Leung, K M Y; Moore, P J; Pack, K; Schuster, H; Sims, D W; Whittington, M; Southward, E C

    2017-11-30

    Marine ecosystems are subject to anthropogenic change at global, regional and local scales. Global drivers interact with regional- and local-scale impacts of both a chronic and acute nature. Natural fluctuations and those driven by climate change need to be understood to diagnose local- and regional-scale impacts, and to inform assessments of recovery. Three case studies are used to illustrate the need for long-term studies: (i) separation of the influence of fishing pressure from climate change on bottom fish in the English Channel; (ii) recovery of rocky shore assemblages from the Torrey Canyon oil spill in the southwest of England; (iii) interaction of climate change and chronic Tributyltin pollution affecting recovery of rocky shore populations following the Torrey Canyon oil spill. We emphasize that "baselines" or "reference states" are better viewed as envelopes that are dependent on the time window of observation. Recommendations are made for adaptive management in a rapidly changing world. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardwaremore » mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.« less

  20. Assessment of dyspnoea in the emergency department by numeric and visual scales: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Placido, Rui; Gigaud, Carine; Gayat, Etienne; Ferry, Axelle; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Plaisance, Patrick; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Laribi, Said

    2015-04-01

    Dyspnoea is a common and often debilitating symptom that affects up to 50% of patients admitted to acute tertiary care hospitals. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the numeric rating scale (NRS) and the visual analogue scale (VAS) for dyspnoea evaluation in the ED setting. This was a cohort study of patients admitted to the ED in a university hospital, with dyspnoea as the chief complaint. The agreement of the two dyspnoea scales was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). One hundred and seventeen patients were included in this analysis. The median age for the whole study population was 67 years and 42% of patients were male. The aetiology of dyspnoea was acute heart failure (AHF) in 35% of patients. There was good agreement between the two scores (ICC=0.795; 95% CI=0.717-0.853; P<0.001). This pilot study demonstrated that numerical rating and visual analogue scales agree well when assessing the severity of dyspnoea in the ED. Further studies with larger cohorts of patients are needed to confirm these preliminary results. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). All rights reserved.

  1. Decreasing scoring errors on Wechsler Scale Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Linger, Michele L; Ray, Glen E; Zachar, Peter; Underhill, Andrea T; LoBello, Steven G

    2007-10-01

    Studies of graduate students learning to administer the Wechsler scales have generally shown that training is not associated with the development of scoring proficiency. Many studies report on the reduction of aggregated administration and scoring errors, a strategy that does not highlight the reduction of errors on subtests identified as most prone to error. This study evaluated the development of scoring proficiency specifically on the Wechsler (WISC-IV and WAIS-III) Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests during training by comparing a set of 'early test administrations' to 'later test administrations.' Twelve graduate students enrolled in an intelligence-testing course participated in the study. Scoring errors (e.g., incorrect point assignment) were evaluated on the students' actual practice administration test protocols. Errors on all three subtests declined significantly when scoring errors on 'early' sets of Wechsler scales were compared to those made on 'later' sets. However, correcting these subtest scoring errors did not cause significant changes in subtest scaled scores. Implications for clinical instruction and future research are discussed.

  2. The BARRIERS scale -- the barriers to research utilization scale: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A commonly recommended strategy for increasing research use in clinical practice is to identify barriers to change and then tailor interventions to overcome the identified barriers. In nursing, the BARRIERS scale has been used extensively to identify barriers to research utilization. Aim and objectives The aim of this systematic review was to examine the state of knowledge resulting from use of the BARRIERS scale and to make recommendations about future use of the scale. The following objectives were addressed: To examine how the scale has been modified, to examine its psychometric properties, to determine the main barriers (and whether they varied over time and geographic locations), and to identify associations between nurses' reported barriers and reported research use. Methods Medline (1991 to September 2009) and CINHAL (1991 to September 2009) were searched for published research, and ProQuest® digital dissertations were searched for unpublished dissertations using the BARRIERS scale. Inclusion criteria were: studies using the BARRIERS scale in its entirety and where the sample was nurses. Two authors independently assessed the study quality and extracted the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results Sixty-three studies were included, with most using a cross-sectional design. Not one study used the scale for tailoring interventions to overcome identified barriers. The main barriers reported were related to the setting, and the presentation of research findings. Overall, identified barriers were consistent over time and across geographic locations, despite varying sample size, response rate, study setting, and assessment of study quality. Few studies reported associations between reported research use and perceptions of barriers to research utilization. Conclusions The BARRIERS scale is a nonspecific tool for identifying general barriers to research utilization. The scale is reliable as reflected in assessments of internal

  3. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Piccolo, Mônica Sarto; Rosella, Maria Fernanda Normanha da Silva Martins; Sabino, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-07-21

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001) and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001). Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001). A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001) was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  4. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Piccolo, Mônica Sarto; Rosella, Maria Fernanda Normanha da Silva Martins; Sabino, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001) and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001). Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001). A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001) was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  5. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): A scale-construction study.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Van Dierendonck, Machteld C

    2015-12-01

    Although recognition of equine pain has been studied extensively over the past decades there is still need for improvement in objective identification of pain in horses with acute colic. This study describes scale construction and clinical applicability of the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP) in horses with acute colic. A cohort follow-up study was performed using 50 adult horses (n = 25 with acute colic, n = 25 controls). Composite pain scores were assessed by direct observations, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores were assessed from video clips. Colic patients were assessed at arrival, and on the first and second mornings after arrival. Both the EQUUS-COMPASS and EQUUS-FAP scores showed high inter-observer reliability (ICC = 0.98 for EQUUS-COMPASS, ICC = 0.93 for EQUUS-FAP, P <0.001), while a moderate inter-observer reliability for the VAS scores was found (ICC = 0.63, P <0.001). The cut-off value for differentiation between healthy and colic horses for the EQUUS-COMPASS was 5, and for differentiation between conservatively treated and surgically treated or euthanased patients it was 11. For the EQUUS-FAP, cut-off values were 4 and 6, respectively. Internal sensitivity and specificity were good for both EQUUS-COMPASS (sensitivity 95.8%, specificity 84.0%) and EQUUS-FAP (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 88.0%). The use of the EQUUS-COMPASS and EQUUS-FAP enabled repeated and objective scoring of pain in horses with acute colic. A follow-up study with new patients and control animals will be performed to further validate the constructed scales that are described in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Visual circle scale (VCS)--a patient-friendly scale to measure pain compared to VAS and Likert scale].

    PubMed

    Huber, J F; Hüsler, J; Zumstein, M D; Ruflin, G; Lüscher, M

    2007-01-01

    The visual analogue scale (VAS) and Likert scale (LS) are widely used but the patients might have difficulties to work with these scales and there might be errors in calculation. The visual circle scale (VCS) is a graphic construct with a simple grading to augment the understanding and ease for calculation. This study compares the different scales in orthopaedic patients for pain assessment postoperatively. In addition, the scales were rated by the patients for simplicity, understanding and global rating. Included were 65 patients (40 women) with an average age of 66 years with 330 pain assessments and 65 questionnaire ratings. The average pain was LS 42.7, VAS 39.3, VCS 44. The correlation coefficients r (Spearman) between all scales were > 0.89 and the same held also for sensitivity for change. The VCS was the scale preferred by > 50 % of the orthopaedic patients to assess the pain. The VCS is able to measure pain comparably to the known scales (VAS, Likert scale). From the patients point of view it is the preferred scale to work with.

  7. Scaling Effects on Materials Tribology: From Macro to Micro Scale.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Pantcho; Chromik, Richard R

    2017-05-18

    The tribological study of materials inherently involves the interaction of surface asperities at the micro to nanoscopic length scales. This is the case for large scale engineering applications with sliding contacts, where the real area of contact is made up of small contacting asperities that make up only a fraction of the apparent area of contact. This is why researchers have sought to create idealized experiments of single asperity contacts in the field of nanotribology. At the same time, small scale engineering structures known as micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) have been developed, where the apparent area of contact approaches the length scale of the asperities, meaning the real area of contact for these devices may be only a few asperities. This is essentially the field of microtribology, where the contact size and/or forces involved have pushed the nature of the interaction between two surfaces towards the regime where the scale of the interaction approaches that of the natural length scale of the features on the surface. This paper provides a review of microtribology with the purpose to understand how tribological processes are different at the smaller length scales compared to macrotribology. Studies of the interfacial phenomena at the macroscopic length scales (e.g., using in situ tribometry) will be discussed and correlated with new findings and methodologies at the micro-length scale.

  8. Scaling Effects on Materials Tribology: From Macro to Micro Scale

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Pantcho; Chromik, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    The tribological study of materials inherently involves the interaction of surface asperities at the micro to nanoscopic length scales. This is the case for large scale engineering applications with sliding contacts, where the real area of contact is made up of small contacting asperities that make up only a fraction of the apparent area of contact. This is why researchers have sought to create idealized experiments of single asperity contacts in the field of nanotribology. At the same time, small scale engineering structures known as micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) have been developed, where the apparent area of contact approaches the length scale of the asperities, meaning the real area of contact for these devices may be only a few asperities. This is essentially the field of microtribology, where the contact size and/or forces involved have pushed the nature of the interaction between two surfaces towards the regime where the scale of the interaction approaches that of the natural length scale of the features on the surface. This paper provides a review of microtribology with the purpose to understand how tribological processes are different at the smaller length scales compared to macrotribology. Studies of the interfacial phenomena at the macroscopic length scales (e.g., using in situ tribometry) will be discussed and correlated with new findings and methodologies at the micro-length scale. PMID:28772909

  9. Progesterone lipid nanoparticles: Scaling up and in vivo human study.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Sguizzato, Maddalena; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Carducci, Federica; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Cortesi, Rita

    2017-10-01

    This investigation describes a scaling up study aimed at producing progesterone containing nanoparticles in a pilot scale. Particularly hot homogenization techniques based on ultrasound homogenization or high pressure homogenization have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with caprylic-capric triglyceride. It was found that the high pressure homogenization method enabled to obtain nanoparticles without agglomerates and smaller mean diameters with respect to ultrasound homogenization method. X-ray characterization suggested a lamellar structural organization of both type of nanoparticles. Progesterone encapsulation efficiency was almost 100% in the case of high pressure homogenization method. Shelf life study indicated a double fold stability of progesterone when encapsulated in nanoparticles produced by the high pressure homogenization method. Dialysis and Franz cell methods were performed to mimic subcutaneous and skin administration. Nanoparticles constituted of tristearin in mixture with caprylic/capric triglyceride display a slower release of progesterone with respect to nanoparticles constituted of pure tristearin. Franz cell evidenced a higher progesterone skin uptake in the case of pure tristearin nanoparticles. A human in vivo study, based on tape stripping, was conducted to investigate the performance of nanoparticles as progesterone skin delivery systems. Tape stripping results indicated a decrease of progesterone concentration in stratum corneum within six hours, suggesting an interaction between nanoparticle material and skin lipids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Turkish Adaptation of the Mathematical Resilience Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürefe, Nejla; Akçakin, Veysel

    2018-01-01

    Persistent in mathematical studies is an important element allowing students to be successful in their STEM careers, and there is a need for affective measurement instruments to assess persistence in mathematics in spite of problems. For this reason, this study aims to adapt the Mathematical Resilience Scale developed to assess resilience, which…

  11. The association of tooth scaling and decreased cardiovascular disease: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zu-Yin; Chiang, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chin-Chou; Chung, Chia-Min; Chan, Wan-Leong; Huang, Po-Hsun; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Leu, Hsin-Bang

    2012-06-01

    Poor oral hygiene has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the association between preventive dentistry and cardiovascular risk reduction has remained undetermined. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between tooth scaling and the risk of cardiovascular events by using a nationwide, population-based study and a prospective cohort design. Our analyses were conducted using information from a random sample of 1 million persons enrolled in the nationally representative Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Exposed individuals consisted of all subjects who were aged ≥ 50 years and who received at least 1 tooth scaling in 2000. The comparison group of non-exposed persons consisted of persons who did not undergo tooth scaling and were matched to exposed individuals using propensity score matching by the time of enrollment, age, gender, history of coronary artery disease, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. During an average follow-up period of 7 years, 10,887 subjects who had ever received tooth scaling (exposed group) and 10,989 age-, gender-, and comorbidity-matched subjects who had not received tooth scaling (non-exposed group) were enrolled. The exposed group had a lower incidence of acute myocardial infarction (1.6% vs 2.2%, P<.001), stroke (8.9% vs 10%, P=.03), and total cardiovascular events (10% vs 11.6%, P<.001) when compared with the non-exposed group. After multivariate analysis, tooth scaling was an independent factor associated with less risk of developing future myocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.85), stroke (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93), and total cardiovascular events (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.91). Furthermore, when compared with the non-exposed group, increasing frequency of tooth scaling correlated with a higher risk reduction of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and total cardiovascular events (P for trend<.001). Tooth

  12. Observational and numerical studies of extreme frontal scale contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.

    1995-01-01

    The general objective of this effort is to increase understanding of how frontal scale contraction processes may create and sustain intense mesoscale precipitation along intensifying cold fronts. The five-part project (an expansion of the originally proposed two-part project) employed conventional meteorological data, special mesoscale data, remote sensing measurements, and various numerical models. First an idealized hydrostatic modeling study of the scale contraction effects of differential cloud cover on low-level frontal structure and dynamics was completed and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The second objective was to complete and publish the results from a three dimensional numerical model simulation of a cold front in which differential sensible heating related to cloud coverage patterns was apparently crucial in the formation of a severe frontal squall line. The third objective was to use a nonhydrostatic model to examine the nonlinear interactions between the transverse circulation arising from inhomogeneous cloud cover, the adiabatic frontal circulation related to semi-geostrophic forcing, and diabatic effects related to precipitation processes, in the development of a density current-like microstructure at the leading edge of cold fronts. Although the development of a frontal model that could be used to initialize such a primitive equation model was begun, we decided to focus our efforts instead on a project that could be successfully completed in this short time, due to the lack of prospects for continued NASA funding beyond this first year (our proposal was not accepted for future funding). Thus, a fourth task was added, which was to use the nonhydrostatic model to test tentative hypotheses developed from the most detailed observations ever obtained on a density current (primarily sodar and wind profiler data). These simulations were successfully completed, the findings were reported at a scientific conference, and the results have recently been

  13. Tinetti and Berg balance scales correlate with disability in hereditary peripheral neuropathies: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Monti Bragadin, M; Francini, L; Bellone, E; Grandis, M; Reni, L; Canneva, S; Gemelli, C; Ursino, G; Maggi, G; Mori, L; Schenone, A

    2015-08-01

    The combination of distal muscle weakness, sensory defects and feet deformities leads to disequilibrium in patients affected by Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy. Studies relating the outcome of balance scales and clinical severity of CMT are lacking. To evaluate the accuracy of the Tinetti Balance scale (TBS) and Berg Balance scale (BBS) in identifying balance disorders and quantifying disease severity in CMT patients. Observational study. University of Genoa-IRCCS AOU San Martino IST-Department of Neurology, Italy. Nineteen individuals with a diagnosis of CMT (12 females, 7 males, age 41.26±12.42). All subjects underwent an evaluation with both TBS and BBS. Disability was quantified with CMT neuropathy score (CMTNS). Moreover, a complete neurophysiological study was performed. Distal lower limbs strength was evaluated with MRC scale. Pearson rank order correlation was used to determine the correlation between the scores on the two tests and to identify an eventual correlation between TBS or BBS and the CMTNS. Both scales showed a highly significant negative correlation with the CMTNS (r=-0.78, P<0.0005 and r=-0.77, P<0.001, respectively) and distal weakness on the anterior tibial muscles (AT) (TBS: AT left: r=0.65, P<0.005 and AT right: 0.59, P<0.01; BBS: AT left r=+0.71, P<0.001 and AT right r=+0.66, P<0.005). We found also a highly significant, positive correlation between the two different balance scales (r=+0.9, P<0.0001). TBS and BBS strongly correlate with disease disability and distal muscular weakness. Both TBS and BBS may play a relevant role in the assessment of disability in patients affected by CMT. Further studies are needed to validate our results in a larger population.

  14. Medical student quality-of-life in the clerkships: a scale validation study.

    PubMed

    Brannick, Michael T; Horn, Gregory T; Schnaus, Michael J; Wahi, Monika M; Goldin, Steven B

    2015-04-01

    Many aspects of medical school are stressful for students. To empirically assess student reactions to clerkship programs, or to assess efforts to improve such programs, educators must measure the overall well-being of the students reliably and validly. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measure designed to achieve these goals. The authors developed a measure of quality of life for medical students by sampling (public domain) items tapping general happiness, fatigue, and anxiety. A quality-of-life scale was developed by factor analyzing responses to the items from students in two different clerkships from 2005 to 2008. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Validity was assessed by factor analysis, convergence with additional theoretically relevant scales, and sensitivity to change over time. The refined nine-item measure is a Likert scaled survey of quality-of-life items comprised of two domains: exhaustion and general happiness. The resulting scale demonstrated good reliability and factorial validity at two time points for each of the two samples. The quality-of-life measure also correlated with measures of depression and the amount of sleep reported during the clerkships. The quality-of-life measure appeared more sensitive to changes over time than did the depression measure. The measure is short and can be easily administered in a survey. The scale appears useful for program evaluation and more generally as an outcome variable in medical educational research.

  15. [Study on preparation of composite nano-scale Fe3O4 for phosphorus control].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Pan, Gang; Chen, Hao

    2010-03-01

    Composite nano-scale Fe3O4 particles were prepared in sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solution by the oxidation deposition method. The adsorptions of phosphorus by micro-scale Fe3O4 and composite nano-scale Fe3O4 were investigated in water and soil, and the role of cellulase in the adsorption of composite nano-scale Fe3O4 was studied. Kinetic tests indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of phosphorous on the composite nano-scale Fe3O4 (2.1 mg/g) was less than that of micro-scale Fe3O4 (3.2 mg/g). When cellulase was added to the solution of composite nano-scale Fe3O4 to degrade CMC, the removal rate of P by the nanoparticles (86%) was enhanced to the same level as the microparticles (90%). In the column tests, when the composite nano-scale Fe3O4 suspension was introduced in the downflow mode through the soil column, 72% of Fe3O4 penetrated through the soil bed under gravity. In contrast, the micro-scale Fe3O4 failed to pass through the soil column. The retention rate of P was 45% in the soil column when treated by the CMC-stabilized nanoparticles, in comparison with only 30% for the untreated soil column, however it could be improved to 74% in the soil column when treated by both the CMC-stabilized nanoparticles and cellulase, which degraded CMC after the nanoparticles were delivered into the soil.

  16. [Construct validity of the Medical Outcomes Study's social support scale adapted to Portuguese in the Pró-Saúde Study].

    PubMed

    Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra; Faerstein, Eduardo; Werneck, Guilherme L; Lopes, Cláudia S

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the construct validity of the Medical Outcomes Study's social support scale adapted to Portuguese, when utilized in a cohort study among non-faculty civil servants at a university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study). Baseline data were obtained in 1999, when 4,030 participants (92.0% of those eligible) completed a multidimensional self-administered questionnaire at the workplace. From the original scale's five social support dimensions, factor analysis of the data extracted only three dimensions: positive social interaction/affective support; emotional/information support; and material support. We estimated associations between social support dimensions and socio-demographic, health, and well being-related characteristics. We confirmed the hypotheses that less isolated individuals, those with better self-rated health, those who reported more participation in group activities, and those with no evidence of common mental disorders reported better perception of social support. In conclusion, we found good evidence for a high construct validity of this scale, supporting its use in future analyses in the Pró-Saúde Study and in similar population groups.

  17. Water Awareness Scale for Pre-Service Science Teachers: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik Iscen, Cansu

    2015-01-01

    The role of teachers in the formation of environmentally sensitive behaviors in students is quite high. Thus, the water awareness of teachers, who represent role models for students, is rather important. The main purpose of this study is to identify the reliability and validity study outcomes of the Water Awareness Scale, which was developed to…

  18. Pore scale study of multiphase multicomponent reactive transport during CO 2 dissolution trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Li; Wang, Mengyi; Kang, Qinjun

    Solubility trapping is crucial for permanent CO 2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. For the first time, a pore-scale numerical method is developed to investigate coupled scCO 2-water two-phase flow, multicomponent (CO 2(aq), H +, HCO 3 –, CO 3 2 – and OH –) mass transport, heterogeneous interfacial dissolution reaction, and homogeneous dissociation reactions. Pore-scale details of evolutions of multiphase distributions and concentration fields are presented and discussed. Time evolutions of several variables including averaged CO 2(aq) concentration, scCO 2 saturation, and pH value are analyzed. Specific interfacial length, an important variable which cannot be determined but is requiredmore » by continuum models, is investigated in detail. Mass transport coefficient or efficient dissolution rate is also evaluated. The pore-scale results show strong non-equilibrium characteristics during solubility trapping due to non-uniform distributions of multiphase as well as slow mass transport process. Complicated coupling mechanisms between multiphase flow, mass transport and chemical reactions are also revealed. Lastly, effects of wettability are also studied. The pore-scale studies provide deep understanding of non-linear non-equilibrium multiple physicochemical processes during CO 2 solubility trapping processes, and also allow to quantitatively predict some important empirical relationships, such as saturation-interfacial surface area, for continuum models.« less

  19. Pore scale study of multiphase multicomponent reactive transport during CO 2 dissolution trapping

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Li; Wang, Mengyi; Kang, Qinjun; ...

    2018-04-26

    Solubility trapping is crucial for permanent CO 2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. For the first time, a pore-scale numerical method is developed to investigate coupled scCO 2-water two-phase flow, multicomponent (CO 2(aq), H +, HCO 3 –, CO 3 2 – and OH –) mass transport, heterogeneous interfacial dissolution reaction, and homogeneous dissociation reactions. Pore-scale details of evolutions of multiphase distributions and concentration fields are presented and discussed. Time evolutions of several variables including averaged CO 2(aq) concentration, scCO 2 saturation, and pH value are analyzed. Specific interfacial length, an important variable which cannot be determined but is requiredmore » by continuum models, is investigated in detail. Mass transport coefficient or efficient dissolution rate is also evaluated. The pore-scale results show strong non-equilibrium characteristics during solubility trapping due to non-uniform distributions of multiphase as well as slow mass transport process. Complicated coupling mechanisms between multiphase flow, mass transport and chemical reactions are also revealed. Lastly, effects of wettability are also studied. The pore-scale studies provide deep understanding of non-linear non-equilibrium multiple physicochemical processes during CO 2 solubility trapping processes, and also allow to quantitatively predict some important empirical relationships, such as saturation-interfacial surface area, for continuum models.« less

  20. Preferential flow across scales: how important are plot scale processes for a catchment scale model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Barbara; Jackisch, Conrad; Hopp, Luisa; Klaus, Julian

    2017-04-01

    Numerous experimental studies showed the importance of preferential flow for solute transport and runoff generation. As a consequence, various approaches exist to incorporate preferential flow in hydrological models. However, few studies have applied models that incorporate preferential flow at hillslope scale and even fewer at catchment scale. Certainly, one main difficulty for progress is the determination of an adequate parameterization for preferential flow at these spatial scales. This study applies a 3D physically based model (HydroGeoSphere) of a headwater region (6 ha) of the Weierbach catchment (Luxembourg). The base model was implemented without preferential flow and was limited in simulating fast catchment responses. Thus we hypothesized that the discharge performance can be improved by utilizing a dual permeability approach for a representation of preferential flow. We used the information of bromide irrigation experiments performed on three 1m2 plots to parameterize preferential flow. In a first step we ran 20.000 Monte Carlo simulations of these irrigation experiments in a 1m2 column of the headwater catchment model, varying the dual permeability parameters (15 variable parameters). These simulations identified many equifinal, yet very different parameter sets that reproduced the bromide depth profiles well. Therefore, in the next step we chose 52 parameter sets (the 40 best and 12 low performing sets) for testing the effect of incorporating preferential flow in the headwater catchment scale model. The variability of the flow pattern responses at the headwater catchment scale was small between the different parameterizations and did not coincide with the variability at plot scale. The simulated discharge time series of the different parameterizations clustered in six groups of similar response, ranging from nearly unaffected to completely changed responses compared to the base case model without dual permeability. Yet, in none of the groups the

  1. Module Degradation Mechanisms Studied by a Multi-Scale Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Steve; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Hacke, Peter

    2016-11-21

    A key pathway to meeting the Department of Energy SunShot 2020 goals is to reduce financing costs by improving investor confidence through improved photovoltaic (PV) module reliability. A comprehensive approach to further understand and improve PV reliability includes characterization techniques and modeling from module to atomic scale. Imaging techniques, which include photoluminescence, electroluminescence, and lock-in thermography, are used to locate localized defects responsible for module degradation. Small area samples containing such defects are prepared using coring techniques and are then suitable and available for microscopic study and specific defect modeling and analysis.

  2. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  3. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuela, A.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C. L.

    2012-06-01

    A major challenge in present-day hydrological sciences is to enhance the performance of existing distributed hydrological models through a better description of subgrid processes, in particular the subgrid connectivity of flow paths. The relative surface connection function (RSC) was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outflow boundary (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrogram at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 × 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 × 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses were used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (l) or width (w) of the field. Border effects, at different extents depending on the microtopography, were observed for the smaller scales, when decreasing l or w, which resulted in a strong decrease or increase of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing w. On the contrary, a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing l. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as l increased. This change in C was inversely proportional to the change in l. This observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which

  4. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuela, A.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in present-day hydrological sciences is to enhance the performance of existing distributed hydrological models through a better description of subgrid processes, in particular the subgrid connectivity of flow paths. The Relative Surface Connection (RSC) function was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outflow boundary (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrograph at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 × 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 × 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses were used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (l) or width (w) of the field. To different extents depending on the microtopography, border effects were observed for the smaller scales when decreasing l or w, which resulted in a strong decrease or increase of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing w, but a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing l. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as l increased, the change in C being inversely proportional to the change in l. However, this observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which no

  5. Factorial Structure of the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheing, Gladys L. Y.; Lai, Amy K. M.; Vong, Sinfia K. S.; Chan, Fong H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the preliminary validation results for the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale (PRES). The PRES is a clinical tool developed to measure the expectations about rehabilitation treatment and outcome for people with back pain. Fifty people with chronic back pain were recruited from 11 physiotherapy outpatient…

  6. Psychometric evaluation of the Moral Distress Risk Scale: A methodological study.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rafaela; Zoboli, Elma Lcp; Vieira, Margarida M

    2017-01-01

    Moral distress is a kind of suffering that nurses may experience when they act in ways that are considered inconsistent with moral values, leading to a perceived compromise of moral integrity. Consequences are mostly negative and include physical and psychological symptoms, in addition to organizational implications. To psychometrically test the Moral Distress Risk Scale. A methodological study was realized. Data were submitted to exploratory factorial analysis through the SPSS statistical program. Participants and research context: In total, 268 nurses from hospitals and primary healthcare settings participated in this research during the period of March to June of 2016. Ethical considerations: This research has ethics committee approval. The Moral Distress Risk Scale is composed of 7 factors and 30 items; it shows evidence of acceptable reliability and validity with a Cronbach's α = 0.913, a total variance explained of 59%, a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = 0.896, and a significant Bartlett <0.001. Concerns about moral distress should be beyond acute care settings, and a tool to help clarify critical points in other healthcare contexts may add value to moral distress speech. Psychometric results reveal that the Moral Distress Risk Scale can be applied in different healthcare contexts.

  7. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…

  8. A comparative study of bio-inspired protective scales using 3D printing and mechanical testing.

    PubMed

    Martini, Roberto; Balit, Yanis; Barthelat, Francois

    2017-06-01

    Flexible natural armors from fish, alligators or armadillo are attracting an increasing amount of attention for their unique combinations of hardness, flexibility and light weight. The extreme contrast of stiffness between hard scales and surrounding soft tissues gives rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as models for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite this growing interest, there is little guideline for the choice of materials, optimum thickness, size, shape and arrangement for the protective scales. In this work, we explore how the geometry and arrangement of hard scales can be tailored to promote scale-scale interactions. We use 3D printing to fabricate arrays of scales with increasingly complex geometries and arrangements, from simple squares with no overlap to complex ganoid-scales with overlaps and interlocking features. We performed puncture tests and flexural tests on each of the 3D printed materials, and we report the puncture resistance - compliance characteristics of each design on an Ashby chart. The interactions between the scales can significantly increase the resistance to puncture, and these interactions can be maximized by tuning the geometry and arrangement of the scales. Interestingly, the designs that offer the best combinations of puncture resistance and flexural compliance are similar to the geometry and arrangement of natural teleost and ganoid scales, which suggests that natural evolution has shaped these systems to maximize flexible protection. This study yields new insights into the mechanisms of natural dermal armor, and also suggests new designs for personal protective systems. Flexible natural armors from fishes, alligators or armadillos are attracting an increasing amount of attention for their unique and attractive combinations of hardness, flexibility and low weight. Despite a growing interest in bio-inspired flexible protection, there is still little guideline for the choice of materials, optimum

  9. Scale Development and Initial Tests of the Multidimensional Complex Adaptive Leadership Scale for School Principals: An Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özen, Hamit; Turan, Selahattin

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the scale of the Complex Adaptive Leadership for School Principals (CAL-SP) and examine its psychometric properties. This was an exploratory mixed method research design (ES-MMD). Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to develop and assess psychometric properties of the questionnaire. This study…

  10. Teachers' Attitudes towards Teaching English Grammar: A Scale Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Murat

    2017-01-01

    In most ELT classes, the importance of grammar, how it should be taught or how much it should be integrated into language teaching are still matters of discussion. Considering this fact, learning teachers' attitudes towards teaching grammar is significantly valuable for researchers. This study thus aimed to design a scale that identifies teachers'…

  11. A Study of the Effects of Large Scale Gust Generation in a Small Scale Atmospheric Wind Tunnel: Application to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadman, Jason; Mohseni, Kamran

    2009-11-01

    Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer could benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the turbulence of the atmospheric boundary layer at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an ``atmospheric wind tunnel'' is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including that of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) and other unmanned aircraft, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicles, and the study of bird and insect fight. The construction of an active ``gust generator'' for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to days ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated using oil flow visualization.

  12. Scaling Pharmacodynamics from In Vitro and Preclinical Animal Studies to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Donald E.; Woo, Sukyung; Jusko, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary An important feature of mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models is the identification of drug- and system-specific factors that determine the intensity and time-course of pharmacological effects. This provides an opportunity to integrate information obtained from in vitro bioassays and preclinical pharmacological studies in animals to anticipate the clinical and adverse responses to drugs in humans. The fact that contemporary PK/PD modeling continues to evolve and seeks to emulate systems level properties should provide enhanced capabilities to scale-up pharmacodynamic data. Critical steps in drug discovery and development, such as lead compound and first in human dose selection, may become more efficient with the implementation and further refinement of translational PK/PD modeling. In this review, we highlight fundamental principles in pharmacodynamics and the basic expectations for in vitro bioassays and traditional allometric scaling in PK/PD modeling. Discussion of PK/PD modeling efforts for recombinant human erythropoietin is also included as a case study showing the potential for advanced systems analysis to facilitate extrapolations and improve understanding of inter-species differences in drug responses. PMID:19252333

  13. Data gaps in anthropogenically driven local-scale species richness change studies across the Earth's terrestrial biomes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Grace E P; Romanuk, Tamara N

    2016-05-01

    There have been numerous attempts to synthesize the results of local-scale biodiversity change studies, yet several geographic data gaps exist. These data gaps have hindered ecologist's ability to make strong conclusions about how local-scale species richness is changing around the globe. Research on four of the major drivers of global change is unevenly distributed across the Earth's biomes. Here, we use a dataset of 638 anthropogenically driven species richness change studies to identify where data gaps exist across the Earth's terrestrial biomes based on land area, future change in drivers, and the impact of drivers on biodiversity, and make recommendations for where future studies should focus their efforts. Across all drivers of change, the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests and the tropical moist broadleaf forests are the best studied. The biome-driver combinations we have identified as most critical in terms of where local-scale species richness change studies are lacking include the following: land-use change studies in tropical and temperate coniferous forests, species invasion and nutrient addition studies in the boreal forest, and warming studies in the boreal forest and tropics. Gaining more information on the local-scale effects of the specific human drivers of change in these biomes will allow for better predictions of how human activity impacts species richness around the globe.

  14. Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

  15. Rasch analysis of the London Handicap Scale in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Yoo-Im

    2014-07-31

    Although activity and participation are the target domains in stroke rehabilitation interventions, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the validity of participation measurement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale in community-dwelling stroke patients, using Rasch analysis. Participants were 170 community-dwelling stroke survivors. The data were analyzed using Winsteps (version 3.62) with the Rasch model to determine the unidimensionality of item fit, the distribution of item difficulty, and the reliability and suitability of the rating process for the London Handicap Scale. Data of 16 participants did not fit the Rasch model and there were no misfitting items. The person separation value was 2.42, and the reliability was .85; furthermore, the rating process for the London Handicap Scale was found to be suitable for use with stroke patients. This was the first trial to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale using Rasch analysis; the results supported the suitability of this scale for use with stroke patients.

  16. A scaling theory for linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of scaling for rational (transfer) functions in terms of transformation groups is developed. Two different four-parameter scaling groups which play natural roles in studying linear systems are identified and the effect of scaling on Fisher information and related statistical measures in system identification are studied. The scalings considered include change of time scale, feedback, exponential scaling, magnitude scaling, etc. The scaling action of the groups studied is tied to the geometry of transfer functions in a rather strong way as becomes apparent in the examination of the invariants of scaling. As a result, the scaling process also provides new insight into the parameterization question for rational functions.

  17. Study on the removal efficiency of UF membranes using bacteriophages in bench-scale and semi-technical scale.

    PubMed

    Kreissel, K; Bösl, M; Lipp, P; Franzreb, M; Hambsch, B

    2012-01-01

    To determine the removal efficiency of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for nano-particles in the size range of viruses the state of the art uses challenge tests with virus-spiked water. This work focuses on bench-scale and semi-technical scale experiments. Different experimental parameters influencing the removal efficiency of the tested UF membrane modules were analyzed and evaluated for bench- and semi-technical scale experiments. Organic matter in the water matrix highly influenced the removal of the tested bacteriophages MS2 and phiX174. Less membrane fouling (low ΔTMP) led to a reduced phage reduction. Increased flux positively affected phage removal in natural waters. The tested bacteriophages MS2 and phiX174 revealed different removal properties. MS2, which is widely used as a model organism to determine virus removal efficiencies of membranes, mostly showed a better removal than phiX174 for the natural water qualities tested. It seems that MS2 is possibly a less conservative surrogate for human enteric virus removal than phiX174. In bench-scale experiments log removal values (LRV) for MS2 of 2.5-6.0 and of 2.5-4.5 for phiX174 were obtained for the examined range of parameters. Phage removal obtained with differently fabricated semi-technical modules was quite variable for comparable parameter settings, indicating that module fabrication can lead to differing results. Potting temperature and module size were identified as influencing factors. In conclusion, careful attention has to be paid to the choice of experimental settings and module potting when using bench-scale or semi-technical scale experiments for UF membrane challenge tests.

  18. Open and Distance Education Accreditation Standards Scale: Validity and Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Ertug

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop, and test the validity and reliability of a scale for the use of researchers to determine the accreditation standards of open and distance education based on the views of administrators, teachers, staff and students. This research was designed according to the general descriptive survey model since it aims…

  19. [Preliminary study on civil capacity rating scale for mental disabled patients].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin-Ting; Pang, Yan-Xia; Cai, Wei-Xiong; Tang, Tao; Huang, Fu-Yin

    2010-10-01

    To create civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients, and explore its feasibility during the forensic psychiatric expertise. The civil capacity-related items were determined after discussion and consultation. The civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients was established and the manual was created according to the logistic sequence of the assessment. The rating scale was used during the civil assessment in four institutes. There were 14 items in civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients. Two hundred and two subjects were recruited and divided into three groups according to the experts' opinion on their civil capacities: full civil capacity, partial civil capacity and no civil capacity. The mean score of the three groups were 2.32 +/- 2.45, 11.62 +/- 4.01 and 25.02 +/- 3.90, respectively, and there was statistical differences among the groups. The Cronbach alpha of the rating scale was 0.9724, and during the split-reliability test, the two-splited part of the rating scale were highly correlated (r = 0.9729, P = 0.000). The Spearman correlative coefficient between each item and the score of the rating scale was from 0.643 to 0.882 (P = 0.000). There was good correlation between the conclusion according to the rating scale and the experts' opinion (kappa = 0.841, P = 0.000). When the discriminate analysis was used, 7 items were included into the discrimination equation, and 92.6% subjects were identified as the correct groups using the equation. There is satisfied reliability and validity on civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients. The rating scale can be used as effective tools to grade their civil capacity during the forensic expertise.

  20. The Turkish Adaptation of the Friendship Qualities Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan Atik, Zeynep; Cok, Figen; Esen Coban, Aysel; Dogan, Turkan; Guney Karaman, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors have aimed to adapt the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS) in order to determine friendship relation levels among adolescents. A total of 603 high school students from Ankara Turkey, were selected using convenient sampling to participate in this study. During the course of this study, the FQS was first translated into…

  1. Choice of time-scale in Cox's model analysis of epidemiologic cohort data: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Thiébaut, Anne C M; Bénichou, Jacques

    2004-12-30

    Cox's regression model is widely used for assessing associations between potential risk factors and disease occurrence in epidemiologic cohort studies. Although age is often a strong determinant of disease risk, authors have frequently used time-on-study instead of age as the time-scale, as for clinical trials. Unless the baseline hazard is an exponential function of age, this approach can yield different estimates of relative hazards than using age as the time-scale, even when age is adjusted for. We performed a simulation study in order to investigate the existence and magnitude of bias for different degrees of association between age and the covariate of interest. Age to disease onset was generated from exponential, Weibull or piecewise Weibull distributions, and both fixed and time-dependent dichotomous covariates were considered. We observed no bias upon using age as the time-scale. Upon using time-on-study, we verified the absence of bias for exponentially distributed age to disease onset. For non-exponential distributions, we found that bias could occur even when the covariate of interest was independent from age. It could be severe in case of substantial association with age, especially with time-dependent covariates. These findings were illustrated on data from a cohort of 84,329 French women followed prospectively for breast cancer occurrence. In view of our results, we strongly recommend not using time-on-study as the time-scale for analysing epidemiologic cohort data. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A review and empirical study of the composite scales of the Das-Naglieri cognitive assessment system.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Simon M

    2009-01-01

    Alexander Luria's model of the working brain consisting of three functional units was formulated through the examination of hundreds of focal brain-injury patients. Several psychometric instruments based on Luria's syndrome analysis and accompanying qualitative tasks have been developed since the 1970s. In the mid-1970s, JP Das and colleagues defined a specific cognitive processes model based directly on Luria's two coding units termed simultaneous and successive by studying diverse cross-cultural, ability, and socioeconomic strata. The cognitive assessment system is based on the PASS model of cognitive processes and consists of four composite scales of Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive (PASS) devised by Naglieri and Das in 1997. Das and colleagues developed the two new scales of planning and attention to more closely model Luria's theory of higher cortical functions. In this paper a theoretical review of Luria's theory, Das and colleagues elaboration of Luria's model, and the neural correlates of PASS composite scales based on extant studies is summarized. A brief empirical study of the neuropsychological specificity of the PASS composite scales in a sample of 33 focal cortical stroke patients using cluster analysis is then discussed. Planning and simultaneous were sensitive to right hemisphere lesions. These findings were integrated with recent functional neuroimaging studies of PASS scales. In sum it was found that simultaneous is strongly dependent on dual bilateral occipitoparietal interhemispheric coordination whereas successive demonstrated left frontotemporal specificity with some evidence of interhemispheric coordination across the prefrontal cortex. Hence, support for the validity of the PASS composite scales was found as well as for the axiom of the independence of code content from code type originally specified in 1994 by Das, Naglieri, and Kirby.

  3. Using Multi-Scale Modeling Systems and Satellite Data to Study the Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei--Kuo; Chern, J.; Lamg, S.; Matsui, T.; Shen, B.; Zeng, X.; Shi, R.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 sq km in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale models can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving models through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model). (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, W8F). (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling systems to study the interactions between clouds, precipitation, and aerosols will be presented. Also how to use the multi-satellite simulator to improve precipitation processes will be discussed.

  4. Prospective and Retrospective Studies of Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes: Methods and Results of Four Large-Scale Follow-Up Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Dean R.; Johnson, Robert A.

    This report compares the research methods, provider and patient characteristics, and outcome results from four large-scale followup studies of drug treatment during the 1990s: (1) the California Drug and Alcohol Treatment Assessment (CALDATA); (2) Services Research Outcomes Study (SROS); (3) National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES);…

  5. The Need for Large-Scale, Longitudinal Empirical Studies in Middle Level Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Steven B.; Caskey, Micki M.; Flowers, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This essay describes and discusses the ongoing need for large-scale, longitudinal, empirical research studies focused on middle grades education. After a statement of the problem and concerns, the essay describes and critiques several prior middle grades efforts and research studies. Recommendations for future research efforts to inform policy…

  6. Does Scale Really Matter? Ultra-Large-Scale Systems Seven Years after the Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-24

    Beyonce Knowles releases second consecutive No.1 album and fourth No.1 single in the US BlackBerry users numbered 4,900,000 in March, 2006...And yet…there is a fast growing gap between our research and reality. 75 Does Scale Really Matter?: ULS Systems Seven Years Later Linda Northrop

  7. [Study on procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading scale of Phellodendron amurense].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanlu; Zhang, Zhao; Dai, Lingchao; Zhang, Bengang; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Han

    2011-12-01

    To study the procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading scale of Phellodendron amurense. Seed quality testing methods were developed, which included the test of sampling, seed purity, weight per 1 000 seeds, seed moisture, seed viability and germination rate. The related data from 62 cases of seed specimens of P. amurense were analyzed by cluster analysis. The seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading scale was formulated.

  8. The East River, Colorado Community Watershed: Hydrobiogeochemical Studies Spanning Scales and Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. H.; Brown, W. S.; Carroll, R. W. H.; Dafflon, B.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.; Leger, E.; Li, L.; Maxwell, R. M.; Rowland, J. C.; Steltzer, H.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wainwright, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and its collaborating institutions have recently established a "Community Watershed" in the headwaters of the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado (USA) designed to quantify processes impacting the ability of mountainous systems to retain and release water, nutrients, carbon, and metals. The East River Community Watershed spans a range of scales from hillslope to catena to catchment, with surface water and groundwater linking a diversity of geomorphic compartments. Research is highly multi-disciplinary involving hydrologists, plant ecologists, geochemists, geomorphologists, microbiologists, and climate scientists. Research is focused on both mechanistic and empirical studies designed to assess the impact of climate perturbations, such as early snowmelt, on coupled ecohydrological and biogeochemical processes as they relate to both water availability and water quality. Stakeholder participation provides feedback and support on environmental monitoring as well as a direct link to management planning decisions being conducted as part of the Colorado Water Plan. Data collection activities and monitoring infrastructure are emplaced within the catchment in such a way as to assess the aggregate impact of fine scale processes on catchment scale behavior. Monitoring occurs over diversity of time scales from minutes to months to years, with observational data being used to populate and constrain reactive transport models describing water and nutrient flows across the aforementioned scales of enquiry. Strong infrastructural investments in both data and monitoring networks include dispersed stream gaging and water sampling, meteorological station networks, elevation dependent fluxes of carbon, water, and plant phenological behavior, as well as remote sensing datasets designed to establish baseline data required to assess the impacts of both natural and simulated climate perturbations.

  9. Adaptation and initial psychometric study of the self-report version of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Larissa Forni; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre S; de Lima Osório, Flávia

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to adapt the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale from the clinician administered to the self-report version (LSAS-SR) and to perform the initial psychometric studies concerning internal consistency and item analysis. The phase of adaptation was performed by two specialists in the Mental Health area and the face validity was tested by a group of 30 university students. As part of the psychometric study of the LSAS-SR, the internal consistency was assessed and the items were analyzed by applying the scale to 682 university students. The LSAS-SR proved to be easy to understand by the group studied, with no need to make any changes in the instructions for application. The scale showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.96) as well as an acceptable correlation between items and total score (0.38-0.72). The initial psychometric studies of the LSAS-SR presented adequate indicators, stimulating the continuation of studies involving the validation and reliability of the scale not only when applied to a sample of the general population, but also when applied to clinical groups.

  10. An interrater reliability study of the Braden scale in two nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Kottner, Jan; Dassen, Theo

    2008-10-01

    Adequate risk assessment is essential in pressure ulcer prevention. Assessment scales were designed to support practitioners in identifying persons at pressure ulcer risk. The Braden scale is one of the most extensively studied risk assessment instruments, although the majority of studies focused on validity rather than reliability. The first aim was to measure the interrater reliability of the Braden scale and its individual items. The second aim was to study different statistical approaches regarding interrater reliability estimation. An interrater reliability study was conducted in two German nursing homes. Residents (n = 152) from 8 units were assessed twice. The raters were trained nurses with a work experience ranging from 0.5 to 30 years. Data were analysed using an overall percentage of agreement, weighted and unweighted kappa and the intraclass correlation coefficient. Differences between nurses rating the overall Braden score ranged from 0 up to 9 points. Interrater reliability expressed by the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.73 (95% CI 0.26 - 0.91) to 0.95 (95% CI 0.87 - 0.98). Calculated intraclass correlation coefficients for individual items ranged from 0.06 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.48) to 0.97 (95% CI 0.93-0.99) with the lowest values being measured for the items "sensory perception" and "nutrition". There was no association between work experience and the level of interrater reliability. With two exceptions, simple kappa-values were always lower than weighted kappa-values and intraclass correlation coefficients. Although the calculated interrater reliability coefficients for the total Braden score were high in some cases, several clinically relevant differences occurred between the nurses. Due to interrater reliability being very low for the items "sensory perception" and "nutrition", it is doubtful if their assessment contributes to any valid results. The calculation of weighted kappa or intraclass correlation coefficients is the most

  11. Scale and the Evolutionarily Based Approximate Number System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Cesar; Jones, M. Gail; You, Hye Sun; Robertson, Laura; Chesnutt, Katherine; Halberda, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Crosscutting concepts such as "scale, proportion, and quantity" are recognised by U.S. science standards as a potential vehicle for students to integrate their scientific and mathematical knowledge; yet, U.S. students and adults trail their international peers in scale and measurement estimation. Culturally based knowledge of scale such…

  12. An approach to studying scale for students in higher education: a Rasch measurement model analysis.

    PubMed

    Waugh, R F; Hii, T K; Islam, A

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire comprising 80 self-report items was designed to measure student Approaches to Studying in a higher education context. The items were conceptualized and designed from five learning orientations: a Deep Approach, a Surface Approach, a Strategic Approach, Clarity of Direction and Academic Self-Confidence, to include 40 attitude items and 40 corresponding behavior items. The study aimed to create a scale and investigate its psychometric properties using a Rasch measurement model. The convenience sample consisted of 350 students at an Australian university in 1998. The analysis supported the conceptual structure of the Scale as involving studying attitudes and behaviors towards five orientations to learning. Attitudes are mostly easier than behaviors, in line with the theory. Sixty-eight items fit the model and have good psychometric properties. The proportion of observed variance considered true is 92% and the Scale is well-targeted against the students. Some harder items are needed to improve the targeting and some further testing work needs to be done on the Surface Approach. In the Surface Approach and Clarity of Direction in Studying, attitudes make a lesser contribution than behaviors to the variable, Approaches to Studying.

  13. Study of free edge effect on sub-laminar scale for thermoplastic composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Min; Lu, Huanbao; Tong, Jingwei; Su, Yishi; Li, Hongqi; Lv, Yongmin

    2008-11-01

    The interlaminar deformation on the free edge surface in thermoplastic composite AS4/PEEK laminates under bending loading are studied by means of digital image correlation method (DICM) using a white-light industrial microscopic. During the test, any artificial stochastic spray is not applied to the specimen surface. In laminar scale, the interlaminare displacements of [0/90]3s laminate are measured. In sub-laminar scale, the tested area includes a limited number of fibers; the fiber is elastic with actual diameter about 7μm, and PEEK matrix has elastic-plastic behavior. The local mesoscopic fields of interlaminar displacement near the areas of fiber-matrix interface are obtained by DICM. The distributions of in-plane elastic-plastic stresses near the interlaminar interface between different layers are indirectly obtained using the coupling the results of DICM with finite element method. Based on above DICM experiments, the influences of random fiber distribution and the PEEK matrix ductility in sub-laminar scale on the ineterlaminar mesomechanical behavior are investigated. The experimental results in the present work are important for multi-scale theory and numerical analysis of interlaminar deformation and stresses in these composite laminates.

  14. Scale-by-scale contributions to Lagrangian particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalescu, Cristian C.; Wilczek, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Fluctuations on a wide range of scales in both space and time are characteristic of turbulence. Lagrangian particles, advected by the flow, probe these fluctuations along their trajectories. In an effort to isolate the influence of the different scales on Lagrangian statistics, we employ direct numerical simulations (DNS) combined with a filtering approach. Specifically, we study the acceleration statistics of tracers advected in filtered fields to characterize the smallest temporal scales of the flow. Emphasis is put on the acceleration variance as a function of filter scale, along with the scaling properties of the relevant terms of the Navier-Stokes equations. We furthermore discuss scaling ranges for higher-order moments of the tracer acceleration, as well as the influence of the choice of filter on the results. Starting from the Lagrangian tracer acceleration as the short time limit of the Lagrangian velocity increment, we also quantify the influence of filtering on Lagrangian intermittency. Our work complements existing experimental results on intermittency and accelerations of finite-sized, neutrally-buoyant particles: for the passive tracers used in our DNS, feedback effects are neglected such that the spatial averaging effect is cleanly isolated.

  15. Large Scale Structure Studies: Final Results from a Rich Cluster Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinglend, K.; Batuski, D.; Haase, S.; Hill, J.

    1995-12-01

    The results from the COBE satellite show the existence of structure on scales on the order of 10% or more of the horizon scale of the universe. Rich clusters of galaxies from the Abell-ACO catalogs show evidence of structure on scales of 100 Mpc and hold the promise of confirming structure on the scale of the COBE result. Unfortunately, until now, redshift information has been unavailable for a large percentage of these clusters, so present knowledge of their three dimensional distribution has quite large uncertainties. Our approach in this effort has been to use the MX multifiber spectrometer on the Steward 2.3m to measure redshifts of at least ten galaxies in each of 88 Abell cluster fields with richness class R>= 1 and mag10 <= 16.8 (estimated z<= 0.12) and zero or one measured redshifts. This work has resulted in a deeper, 95% complete and more reliable sample of 3-D positions of rich clusters. The primary intent of this survey has been to constrain theoretical models for the formation of the structure we see in the universe today through 2-pt. spatial correlation function and other analyses of the large scale structures traced by these clusters. In addition, we have obtained enough redshifts per cluster to greatly improve the quality and size of the sample of reliable cluster velocity dispersions available for use in other studies of cluster properties. This new data has also allowed the construction of an updated and more reliable supercluster candidate catalog. Our efforts have resulted in effectively doubling the volume traced by these clusters. Presented here is the resulting 2-pt. spatial correlation function, as well as density plots and several other figures quantifying the large scale structure from this much deeper and complete sample. Also, with 10 or more redshifts in most of our cluster fields, we have investigated the extent of projection effects within the Abell catalog in an effort to quantify and understand how this may effect the Abell sample.

  16. A review and empirical study of the composite scales of the Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Simon M

    2009-01-01

    Alexander Luria’s model of the working brain consisting of three functional units was formulated through the examination of hundreds of focal brain-injury patients. Several psychometric instruments based on Luria’s syndrome analysis and accompanying qualitative tasks have been developed since the 1970s. In the mid-1970s, JP Das and colleagues defined a specific cognitive processes model based directly on Luria’s two coding units termed simultaneous and successive by studying diverse cross-cultural, ability, and socioeconomic strata. The cognitive assessment system is based on the PASS model of cognitive processes and consists of four composite scales of Planning–Attention–Simultaneous–Successive (PASS) devised by Naglieri and Das in 1997. Das and colleagues developed the two new scales of planning and attention to more closely model Luria’s theory of higher cortical functions. In this paper a theoretical review of Luria’s theory, Das and colleagues elaboration of Luria’s model, and the neural correlates of PASS composite scales based on extant studies is summarized. A brief empirical study of the neuropsychological specificity of the PASS composite scales in a sample of 33 focal cortical stroke patients using cluster analysis is then discussed. Planning and simultaneous were sensitive to right hemisphere lesions. These findings were integrated with recent functional neuroimaging studies of PASS scales. In sum it was found that simultaneous is strongly dependent on dual bilateral occipitoparietal interhemispheric coordination whereas successive demonstrated left frontotemporal specificity with some evidence of interhemispheric coordination across the prefrontal cortex. Hence, support for the validity of the PASS composite scales was found as well as for the axiom of the independence of code content from code type originally specified in 1994 by Das, Naglieri, and Kirby. PMID:22110322

  17. Persian version of the Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale: psychometric study among subjects with physical disability.

    PubMed

    Rajati, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Masoud; Hasandokht, Tolou; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Akbarzadeh, Rasool; Ashtarian, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    Self-efficacy plays a key role in varying areas of human conditions which can be measured by different scales. The present study was aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) in Iranian Subjects with Physical Disability (SWPD). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and self-report surveys from 214 subjects. The face and content validity, and reliability were evaluated. Discriminates were evaluated between the sub-groups of disability levels, physical activity, and health condition levels. The concurrent, convergent, divergent, and construct validity were assessed by short form health survey scale (SF-36), general self-efficacy scale (GSES), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), respectively. Replaceable exploratory factor analysis was evaluated. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were acceptable face and content validity, and reliability. Furthermore, significant correlation was found between PSES and SF-36 (p < 0.001). Self-efficacy was statistically different among the disability levels (p = 0.02), physical activity levels (p < 0.001), and health status (p = 0.001). The correlation of Persian Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) scores with GSES (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), and HADS (R = -0.53, p < 0.001) was significant. This scale yielded a two-dimensional structure, with a good internal replicability. The external replicability was satisfactory when we compared factor loadings with the original study. The PSES is a valid, reliable and sensitive tool to measure the self-efficacy among SWPD for planning and managing of disability problems. Implications for rehabilitation Psychometric properties of the Persian version of self-Efficacy scale (PSES) appear to be similar to original, English version. The PSES has been shown to have validity and reliability in Persian physical disables and can be used for patients with more different types of physical disability than

  18. Psychometric properties and the predictive validity of the insomnia daytime worry scale: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kallestad, Håvard; Hansen, Bjarne; Langsrud, Knut; Hjemdal, Odin; Stiles, Tore C

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between presleep worry and insomnia has been investigated in previous studies, but less attention has been given to the role of daytime worry and symptoms of insomnia. The aims of the current study were (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a novel scale measuring insomnia-specific worry during daytime and (b) to examine whether levels of daytime worry predict severity of insomnia symptoms. Participants (N = 353) completed the Insomnia Daytime Worry Scale (IDWS) and the Insomnia Severity Index. An explorative principal-axis factor analysis extracted two factors from the IDWS, accounting for 70.5% of the variance. The IDWS demonstrated good reliability. The total score of IDWS and both factors predicted levels of insomnia severity in two separate hierarchical regression analyses. This preliminary evidence suggests that the IDWS is a valid and reliable scale to measure daytime worry in insomnia.

  19. A Validity Study of Attitudes toward Science Scale among Iranian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaghatdar, Muhammad J.; Soltani, Asghar; Abedi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is providing a scale for measuring attitudes toward science among Persian secondary school students. A total of 300 (150 girls and 150 boys) of second grade students from all disciplines including science and mathematics in secondary education, participated in the study. Research instrument was, translated Persian version…

  20. Scaling and scale invariance of conservation laws in Reynolds transport theorem framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haltas, Ismail; Ulusoy, Suleyman

    2015-07-01

    Scale invariance is the case where the solution of a physical process at a specified time-space scale can be linearly related to the solution of the processes at another time-space scale. Recent studies investigated the scale invariance conditions of hydrodynamic processes by applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformations to the governing equations of the processes. Scale invariance of a physical process is usually achieved under certain conditions on the scaling ratios of the variables and parameters involved in the process. The foundational axioms of hydrodynamics are the conservation laws, namely, conservation of mass, conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of energy from continuum mechanics. They are formulated using the Reynolds transport theorem. Conventionally, Reynolds transport theorem formulates the conservation equations in integral form. Yet, differential form of the conservation equations can also be derived for an infinitesimal control volume. In the formulation of the governing equation of a process, one or more than one of the conservation laws and, some times, a constitutive relation are combined together. Differential forms of the conservation equations are used in the governing partial differential equation of the processes. Therefore, differential conservation equations constitute the fundamentals of the governing equations of the hydrodynamic processes. Applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformation to the conservation laws in the Reynolds transport theorem framework instead of applying to the governing partial differential equations may lead to more fundamental conclusions on the scaling and scale invariance of the hydrodynamic processes. This study will investigate the scaling behavior and scale invariance conditions of the hydrodynamic processes by applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformation to the conservation laws in the Reynolds transport theorem framework.

  1. Scaling satan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.

  2. Assessment of the degradation efficiency of full-scale biogas plants: A comparative study of degradation indicators.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Nges, Ivo Achu; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Haoyu

    2017-11-01

    Increasing popularity and applications of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process has necessitated the development and identification of tools for obtaining reliable indicators of organic matter degradation rate and hence evaluate the process efficiency especially in full-scale, commercial biogas plants. In this study, four biogas plants (A1, A2, B and C) based on different feedstock, process configuration, scale and operational performance were selected and investigated. Results showed that the biochemical methane potential (BMP) based degradation rate could be use in incisively gauging process efficiency in lieu of the traditional degradation rate indicators. The BMP degradation rates ranged from 70 to 90% wherein plants A2 and C showed the highest throughput. This study, therefore, corroborates the feasibility of using the BMP degradation rate as a practical tool for evaluating process performance in full-scale biogas processes and spots light on the microbial diversity in full-scale biogas processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The scale on community care perceptions (scope) for nursing students: A development and psychometric validation study.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, Margriet; de Vos, Rien; Latour, Corine; Kirschner, Paul A; Scholte Op Reimer, Wilma

    2018-05-11

    The aim of this study was to develop a valid instrument to measure student nurses' perceptions of community care (SCOPE). DeVellis' staged model for instrument development and validation was used. Scale construction of SCOPE was based on existing literature. Evaluation of its psychometric properties included exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis. After pilot-testing, 1062 bachelor nursing students from six institutions in the Netherlands (response rate 81%) took part in the study. SCOPE is a 35-item scale containing: background variables, 11 measuring the affective component, 5 measuring community care perception as a placement, 17 as a future profession, and 2 on the reasons underlying student preference. Principal axis factoring yielded two factors in the affective component scale reflecting 'enjoyment' and 'utility', two in the placement scale reflecting 'learning possibilities' and 'personal satisfaction', and four in the profession scale: 'professional development', 'collaboration', 'caregiving', and 'complexity and workload'. Cronbach's α of the complete scale was 0.892 and of the subscales 0.862, 0.696, and 0.810 respectively. SCOPE is a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring students' perceptions of community care. By determining these perceptions, it becomes possible to positively influence them with targeted curriculum redesign, eventually contributing to decreasing the workforce shortage in community nursing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Higher Education Teachers' Descriptions of Their Own Learning: A Large-Scale Study of Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Töytäri, Aija; Piirainen, Arja; Tynjälä, Päivi; Vanhanen-Nuutinen, Liisa; Mäki, Kimmo; Ilves, Vesa

    2016-01-01

    In this large-scale study, higher education teachers' descriptions of their own learning were examined with qualitative analysis involving application of principles of phenomenographic research. This study is unique: it is unusual to use large-scale data in qualitative studies. The data were collected through an e-mail survey sent to 5960 teachers…

  5. An Investigation of Psychometric Properties of Coping Styles Scale Brief Form: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacanli, Hasan; Surucu, Mustafa; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop a short form of Coping Styles Scale based on COPE Inventory. A total of 275 undergraduate students (114 female, and 74 male) were administered in the first study. In order to test factors structure of Coping Styles Scale Brief Form, principal components factor analysis and direct oblique rotation was…

  6. Lifelong Learning Competence Scale (LLLCS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin; Hursen, Cigdem

    2011-01-01

    In this research our aim is to develop a scale for lifelong learning competences and investigate the validity and the reliability of the structure of the scale. The participants of this research are 300 secondary school teachers who are randomly selected. The findings on the scale's validity of the structure are computed by the method of factor…

  7. Psychometric Validation Study of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Reported Version for Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Forni dos Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR), translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413) and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252). The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90–0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson’s = 0.82). The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard. PMID:23922961

  8. Kansas City Transportation and Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In fall 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the Kansas City Transportation Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) to learn more about local community air quality in three neighborhoods in Kansas City, KS.

  9. Using Multi-Scale Modeling Systems and Satellite Data to Study the Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, J.; Lamg, S.; Matsui, T.; Shen, B.; Zeng, X.; Shi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (l) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, the recent developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling system to study the precipitating systems and hurricanes/typhoons will be presented. The high-resolution spatial and temporal visualization will be utilized to show the evolution of precipitation processes. Also how to

  10. An Analysis of Rich Cluster Redshift Survey Data for Large Scale Structure Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinglend, K.; Batuski, D.; Haase, S.; Hill, J.

    1994-12-01

    The results from the COBE satellite show the existence of structure on scales on the order of 10% or more of the horizon scale of the universe. Rich clusters of galaxies from Abell's catalog show evidence of structure on scales of 100 Mpc and may hold the promise of confirming structure on the scale of the COBE result. However, many Abell clusters have zero or only one measured redshift, so present knowledge of their three dimensional distribution has quite large uncertainties. The shortage of measured redshifts for these clusters may also mask a problem of projection effects corrupting the membership counts for the clusters. Our approach in this effort has been to use the MX multifiber spectrometer on the Steward 2.3m to measure redshifts of at least ten galaxies in each of 80 Abell cluster fields with richness class R>= 1 and mag10 <= 16.8 (estimated z<= 0.12) and zero or one measured redshifts. This work will result in a deeper, more complete (and reliable) sample of positions of rich clusters. Our primary intent for the sample is for two-point correlation and other studies of the large scale structure traced by these clusters in an effort to constrain theoretical models for structure formation. We are also obtaining enough redshifts per cluster so that a much better sample of reliable cluster velocity dispersions will be available for other studies of cluster properties. To date, we have collected such data for 64 clusters, and for most of them, we have seven or more cluster members with redshifts, allowing for reliable velocity dispersion calculations. Velocity histograms and stripe density plots for several interesting cluster fields are presented, along with summary tables of cluster redshift results. Also, with 10 or more redshifts in most of our cluster fields (30({') } square, just about an `Abell diameter' at z ~ 0.1) we have investigated the extent of projection effects within the Abell catalog in an effort to quantify and understand how this may effect

  11. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate-Scale Hydrodynamic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Labiosa, Rochelle G.

    2010-11-30

    The Washington State Department of Ecology contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop an intermediate-scale hydrodynamic and water quality model to study dissolved oxygen and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound and to help define potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies and decisions. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or dominate human impacts to dissolved oxygen levels in the sensitive areas. In this study, anmore » intermediate-scale hydrodynamic model of Puget Sound was developed to simulate the hydrodynamics of Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits for the year 2006. The model was constructed using the unstructured Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model. The overall model grid resolution within Puget Sound in its present configuration is about 880 m. The model was driven by tides, river inflows, and meteorological forcing (wind and net heat flux) and simulated tidal circulations, temperature, and salinity distributions in Puget Sound. The model was validated against observed data of water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity at various stations within the study domain. Model validation indicated that the model simulates tidal elevations and currents in Puget Sound well and reproduces the general patterns of the temperature and salinity distributions.« less

  12. On Which Microphysical Time Scales to Use in Studies of Entrainment-Mixing Mechanisms in Clouds

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Chunsong; Liu, Yangang; Zhu, Bin; ...

    2018-03-23

    The commonly used time scales in entrainment-mixing studies are examined in this paper to seek the most appropriate one, based on aircraft observations of cumulus clouds from the RACORO campaign and numerical simulations with the Explicit Mixing Parcel Model. The time scales include: τ evap, the time for droplet complete evaporation; τ phase, the time for saturation ratio deficit (S) to reach 1/e of its initial value; τ satu, the time for S to reach -0.5%; τ react, the time for complete droplet evaporation or S to reach -0.5%. It is found that the proper time scale to use dependsmore » on the specific objectives of entrainment-mixing studies. First, if the focus is on the variations of liquid water content (LWC) and S, then τ react for saturation, τ satu and τ phase are almost equivalently appropriate, because they all represent the rate of dry air reaching saturation or of LWC decrease. Second, if one focuses on the variations of droplet size and number concentration, τ react for complete evaporation and τ evap are proper because they characterize how fast droplets evaporate and whether number concentration decreases. Moreover, τ react for complete evaporation and τ evap are always positively correlated with homogeneous mixing degree (ψ), thus the two time scales, especially τ evap, are recommended for developing parameterizations. However, ψ and the other time scales can be negatively, positively, or not correlated, depending on the dominant factors of the entrained air (i.e., relative humidity or aerosols). Third and finally, all time scales are proportional to each other under certain microphysical and thermodynamic conditions.« less

  13. On Which Microphysical Time Scales to Use in Studies of Entrainment-Mixing Mechanisms in Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chunsong; Liu, Yangang; Zhu, Bin

    The commonly used time scales in entrainment-mixing studies are examined in this paper to seek the most appropriate one, based on aircraft observations of cumulus clouds from the RACORO campaign and numerical simulations with the Explicit Mixing Parcel Model. The time scales include: τ evap, the time for droplet complete evaporation; τ phase, the time for saturation ratio deficit (S) to reach 1/e of its initial value; τ satu, the time for S to reach -0.5%; τ react, the time for complete droplet evaporation or S to reach -0.5%. It is found that the proper time scale to use dependsmore » on the specific objectives of entrainment-mixing studies. First, if the focus is on the variations of liquid water content (LWC) and S, then τ react for saturation, τ satu and τ phase are almost equivalently appropriate, because they all represent the rate of dry air reaching saturation or of LWC decrease. Second, if one focuses on the variations of droplet size and number concentration, τ react for complete evaporation and τ evap are proper because they characterize how fast droplets evaporate and whether number concentration decreases. Moreover, τ react for complete evaporation and τ evap are always positively correlated with homogeneous mixing degree (ψ), thus the two time scales, especially τ evap, are recommended for developing parameterizations. However, ψ and the other time scales can be negatively, positively, or not correlated, depending on the dominant factors of the entrained air (i.e., relative humidity or aerosols). Third and finally, all time scales are proportional to each other under certain microphysical and thermodynamic conditions.« less

  14. Physical transformations of iron oxide and silver nanoparticles from an intermediate scale field transport study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Hilary P.; Hart, Ashley E.; Baldwin, Jonathon A.; Waterhouse, Tyler C.; Kitchens, Christopher L.; Mefford, O. Thompson; Powell, Brian A.

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding the fate and transport of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in environmental systems and the potential impacts on human and environmental health due to the exponential increase in commercial and industrial use worldwide. To date, there have been relatively few field-scale studies or laboratory-based studies on environmentally relevant soils examining the chemical/physical behavior of the NPs following release into natural systems. The objective of this research is to demonstrate the behavior and transformations of iron oxide and silver NPs with different capping ligands within the unsaturated zone. Here, we show that NP transport within the vadose zone is minimal primarily due to heteroaggregation with soil surface coatings with results that >99 % of the NPs remained within 5 cm of the original source after 1 year in intermediate-scale field lysimeters. These results suggest that transport may be overestimated when compared to previous laboratory-scale studies on pristine soils and pure minerals and that future work must incorporate more environmentally relevant parameters.

  15. Dust exposure during small-scale mining in Tanzania: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bratveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Mashalla, Yohana J S; Maalim, Hatua

    2003-04-01

    Small-scale mining in developing countries is generally labour-intensive and carried out with low levels of mechanization. In the Mererani area in the northern part of Tanzania, there are about 15000 underground miners who are constantly subjected to a poor working environment. Gemstones are found at depths down to 500 m. The objectives of this pilot study were to monitor the exposure to dust during work processes, which are typical of small-scale mining in developing countries, and to make a rough estimation of whether there is a risk of chronic pulmonary diseases for the workers. Personal sampling of respirable dust (n = 15) and 'total' dust (n = 5) was carried out during three consecutive days in one mine, which had a total of 50 workers in two shifts. Sampling started immediately before the miners entered the shaft, and lasted until they reappeared at the mine entrance after 5-8 h. The median crystalline silica content and the combustible content of the respirable dust samples were 14.2 and 5.5%, respectively. When drilling, blasting and shovelling were carried out, the exposure measurements showed high median levels of respirable dust (15.5 mg/m(3)), respirable crystalline silica (2.4 mg/m(3)), respirable combustible dust (1.5 mg/m(3)) and 'total' dust (28.4 mg/m(3)). When only shovelling and loading of sacks took place, the median exposures to respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica were 4.3 and 1.1 mg/m(3). This study shows that the exposure to respirable crystalline silica was high during underground small-scale mining. In the absence of personal protective equipment, the miners in the Mererani area are presumably at a high risk of developing chronic silicosis.

  16. Numerical analysis of scalar dissipation length-scales and their scaling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishnavi, Pankaj; Kronenburg, Andreas

    2006-11-01

    Scalar dissipation rate, χ, is fundamental to the description of scalar-mixing in turbulent non-premixed combustion. Most contributions to the statistics for χ come from the finest turbulent mixing-scales and thus its adequate characterisation requires good resolution. Reliable χ-measurement is complicated by the trade-off between higher resolution and greater signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, the present numerical study utilises the error-free mixture fraction, Z, and fluid mechanical data from the turbulent reacting jet DNS of Pantano (2004). The aim is to quantify the resolution requirements for χ-measurement in terms of easily measurable properties of the flow like the integral-scale Reynolds number, Reδ, using spectral and spatial-filtering [cf. Barlow and Karpetis (2005)] analyses. Analysis of the 1-D cross-stream dissipation spectra enables the estimation of the dissipation length scales. It is shown that these spectrally-computed scales follow the expected Kolmogorov scaling with Reδ-0.75 . The work also involves local smoothening of the instantaneous χ-field over a non-overlapping spatial-interval (filter-width, wf), to study the smoothened χ-value as a function of wf, as wf is extrapolated to the smallest scale of interest. The dissipation length-scales thus captured show a stringent Reδ-1 scaling, compared to the usual Kolmogorov-type. This concurs with the criterion of 'resolution adequacy' of the DNS, as set out by Sreenivasan (2004) using the theory of multi-fractals.

  17. Validating a Fidelity Scale to Understand Intervention Effects in Classroom-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Pamela; Moore, Brooke; Boardman, Alison G.; Arya, Diana J.; Maul, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    K-12 intervention studies often include fidelity of implementation (FOI) as a mediating variable, though most do not report the validity of fidelity measures. This article discusses the critical need for validated FOI scales. To illustrate our point, we describe the development and validation of the Implementation Validity Checklist (IVC-R), an…

  18. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  19. Achieving online consent to participation in large-scale gene-environment studies: a tangible destination.

    PubMed

    Wood, Fiona; Kowalczuk, Jenny; Elwyn, Glyn; Mitchell, Clive; Gallacher, John

    2011-08-01

    Population based genetics studies are dependent on large numbers of individuals in the pursuit of small effect sizes. Recruiting and consenting a large number of participants is both costly and time consuming. We explored whether an online consent process for large-scale genetics studies is acceptable for prospective participants using an example online genetics study. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 42 members of the public stratified by age group, gender and newspaper readership (a measure of social status). Respondents were asked to use a website designed to recruit for a large-scale genetic study. After using the website a semi-structured interview was conducted to explore opinions and any issues they would have. Responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. The majority of respondents said they would take part in the research (32/42). Those who said they would decline to participate saw fewer benefits from the research, wanted more information and expressed a greater number of concerns about the study. Younger respondents had concerns over time commitment. Middle aged respondents were concerned about privacy and security. Older respondents were more altruistic in their motivation to participate. Common themes included trust in the authenticity of the website, security of personal data, curiosity about their own genetic profile, operational concerns and a desire for more information about the research. Online consent to large-scale genetic studies is likely to be acceptable to the public. The online consent process must establish trust quickly and effectively by asserting authenticity and credentials, and provide access to a range of information to suit different information preferences.

  20. Pore-scale study of multiphase reactive transport in fibrous electrodes of vanadium redox flow batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Li; He, YaLing; Tao, Wen -Quan; ...

    2017-07-21

    The electrode of a vanadium redox flow battery generally is a carbon fibre-based porous medium, in which important physicochemical processes occur. In this work, pore-scale simulations are performed to study complex multiphase flow and reactive transport in the electrode by using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Four hundred fibrous electrodes with different fibre diameters and porosities are reconstructed. Both the permeability and diffusivity of the reconstructed electrodes are predicted and compared with empirical relationships in the literature. Reactive surface area of the electrodes is also evaluated and it is found that existing empirical relationship overestimates the reactive surface under lowermore » porosities. Further, a pore-scale electrochemical reaction model is developed to study the effects of fibre diameter and porosity on electrolyte flow, V II/V III transport, and electrochemical reaction at the electrolyte-fibre surface. Finally, evolution of bubble cluster generated by the side reaction is studied by adopting a LB multiphase flow model. Effects of porosity, fibre diameter, gas saturation and solid surface wettability on average bubble diameter and reduction of reactive surface area due to coverage of bubbles on solid surface are investigated in detail. It is found that gas coverage ratio is always lower than that adopted in the continuum model in the literature. Furthermore, the current pore-scale studies successfully reveal the complex multiphase flow and reactive transport processes in the electrode, and the simulation results can be further upscaled to improve the accuracy of the current continuum-scale models.« less

  1. Linking the concept of scale to studies of biological diversity: evolving approaches and tools.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Swihart, R.K.; Bestelmeyer, B. T.

    2006-01-01

    Although the concepts of scale and biological diversity independently have received rapidly increasing attention in the scientific literature since the 1980s, the rate at which the two concepts have been investigated jointly has grown much more slowly. We find that scale considerations have been incorporated explicitly into six broad areas of investigation related to biological diversity: (1) heterogeneity within and among ecosystems, (2) disturbance ecology, (3) conservation and restoration, (4) invasion biology, (5) importance of temporal scale for understanding processes, and (6) species responses to environmental heterogeneity. In addition to placing the papers of this Special Feature within the context of brief summaries of the expanding literature on these six topics, we provide an overview of tools useful for integrating scale considerations into studies of biological diversity. Such tools include hierarchical and structural-equation modelling, kriging, variable-width buffers, k-fold cross-validation, and cascading graph diagrams, among others. Finally, we address some of the major challenges and research frontiers that remain, and conclude with a look to the future.

  2. Nonlinear effects of microtopography on macroscopic rainfall-runoff partitioning a the hillslope scale: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; Domin, Andrea; Hinz, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative description and prediction of hydrological response of hillslopes or hillslope-scale catchments to rainfall events is becoming evermore relevant. At the hillslope scale, the onset of runoff and the overall rainfall-runoff transformation are controlled by multiple interacting small-scale processes, that, when acting together produce a response described in terms of hydrological variables well-defined at the catchment and hillslope scales. We hypothesize that small scale features such microtopography of the land surface will will govern large scale signatures of temporal runoff evolution. This can be tested directly by numerical modelling of well-defined surface geometries and adequate process description. It requires a modelling approach consistent with fundamental fluid mechanics, well-designed numerical methods, and computational efficiency. In this work, an idealized rectangular domain representing a hillslope with an idealized 2D sinusoidal microtopography is studied by simulating surface water redistribution by means of a 2D diffusive-wave (zero-inertia) shallow water model. By studying more than 500 surfaces and performing extensive sensitivity analysis forced by a single rainfall pulse, the dependency of characteristic hydrological responses to microtopographical properties was assessed. Despite of the simplicity of periodic surface and the rain event, results indicate complex surface flow dynamics during the onset of runoff observed at the macro and micro scales. Macro scale regimes were defined in terms of characteristics hydrograph shapes and those were related to surface geometry. The reference regime was defined for smooth topography and consisted of a simple hydrograph with smoothly rising and falling limbs with an intermediate steady state. In constrast, rough surface geometry yields stepwise rising limbs and shorter steady states. Furthermore, the increase in total infiltration over the whole domain relative to the smooth reference

  3. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  4. Space Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Scaling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D.

    1989-01-01

    The design feasibility study is documented of a single cylinder, free piston Stirling engine/linear alternator (FPSE/LA) power module generating 150 kW-electric (kW sub e), and the determination of the module's maximum feasible power level. The power module configuration was specified to be a single cylinder (single piston, single displacer) FPSE/LA, with tuning capacitors if required. The design requirements were as follows: (1) Maximum electrical power output; (2) Power module thermal efficiency equal to or greater than 20 percent at a specific mass of 5 to 8 kg/kW(sub e); (3) Heater wall temperature/cooler wall temperature = 1050 K/525 K; (4) Sodium heat-pipe heat transport system, pumped loop NaK (sodium-potassium eutectic mixture) rejection system; (5) Maximum power module vibration amplitude = 0.0038 cm; and (6) Design life = 7 years (60,000 hr). The results show that a single cylinder FPSE/LA is capable of meeting program goals and has attractive scaling attributes over the power range from 25 to 150 kW(sub e). Scaling beyond the 150 kW(sub e) power level, the power module efficiency falls and the power module specific mass reaches 10 kg/kW(sub e) at a power output of 500 kW(sub e). A discussion of scaling rules for the engine, alternator, and heat transport systems is presented, along with a detailed description of the conceptual design of a 150 kW(sub e) power module that meets the requirements. Included is a discussion of the design of a dynamic balance system. A parametric study of power module performance conducted over the power output range of 25 to 150 kW(sub e) for temperature ratios of 1.7, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 is presented and discussed. The results show that as the temperature ratio decreases, the efficiency falls and specific mass increases. At a temperature ratio of 1.7, the 150 kW(sub e) power module cannot satisfy both efficiency and specific mass goals. As the power level increases from 25 to 150 kW(sub e) at a fixed temperature ratio, power

  5. Students' Attitudes towards Edmodo, a Social Learning Network: A Scale Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunkul, Eyup; Cankaya, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    Social Learning Networks (SLNs) are the developed forms of Social Network Sites (SNSs) adapted to educational environments, and they are used by quite a large population throughout the world. In addition, in related literature, there is no scale for the measurement of students' attitudes towards such sites. The purpose of this study was to develop…

  6. Scale-dependent behavior of scale equations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilwon

    2009-09-01

    We propose a new mathematical framework to formulate scale structures of general systems. Stack equations characterize a system in terms of accumulative scales. Their behavior at each scale level is determined independently without referring to other levels. Most standard geometries in mathematics can be reformulated in such stack equations. By involving interaction between scales, we generalize stack equations into scale equations. Scale equations are capable to accommodate various behaviors at different scale levels into one integrated solution. On contrary to standard geometries, such solutions often reveal eccentric scale-dependent figures, providing a clue to understand multiscale nature of the real world. Especially, it is suggested that the Gaussian noise stems from nonlinear scale interactions.

  7. Adaptation of Self-Control and Self-Management Scale (SCMS) into Turkish Culture: A Study on Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercoskun, Muhammet Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt self-control and self-management scale (SCMS) developed by Mezo into Turkish and to test it considering gender and academic achievement variables. The scale was translated from English to Turkish for linguistic validity and then this scale was translated into English using back translation. The original and…

  8. Atmospheric numerical modeling resource enhancement and model convective parameterization/scale interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, Paula P.

    1993-01-01

    Research will be undertaken in this contract in the area of Modeling Resource and Facilities Enhancement to include computer, technical and educational support to NASA investigators to facilitate model implementation, execution and analysis of output; to provide facilities linking USRA and the NASA/EADS Computer System as well as resident work stations in ESAD; and to provide a centralized location for documentation, archival and dissemination of modeling information pertaining to NASA's program. Additional research will be undertaken in the area of Numerical Model Scale Interaction/Convective Parameterization Studies to include implementation of the comparison of cloud and rain systems and convective-scale processes between the model simulations and what was observed; and to incorporate the findings of these and related research findings in at least two refereed journal articles.

  9. Using Accelerometers to Measure Physical Activity in Large-Scale Epidemiologic Studies: Issues and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for aerobic activity require that adults carry out ≥150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity physical activity, with a large body of epidemiologic evidence showing this level of activity to decrease the incidence of many chronic diseases. Less is known about whether light-intensity activities also have such benefits, and whether sedentary behavior is an independent predictor of increased risks of these chronic diseases, as imprecise assessments of these behaviours and cross-sectional study designs have limited knowledge to date. Methods Recent technological advances in assessment methods have made the use of movement sensors, such as the accelerometer, feasible for use in longitudinal, large-scale epidemiologic studies. Several such studies are collecting sensor-assessed, objective measures of physical activity with the aim of relating these to the development of clinical endpoints. This is a relatively new area of research; thus, in this paper, we use the Women’s Health Study (WHS) as a case study to illustrate challenges related to data collection, data processing, and analyses of the vast amount of data collected. Results The WHS plans to collect 7 days of accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior in ~18,000 women aged ≥62 years. Several logistical challenges exist in collecting data; nonetheless as of 31 August 2013, 11,590 women have already provided some data. Additionally, the WHS experience on data reduction and data analyses can help inform other similar large-scale epidemiologic studies. Conclusions Important data on the health effects of light-intensity activity and sedentary behaviour will emerge from large-scale epidemiologic studies collecting objective assessments of these behaviours. PMID:24297837

  10. Development of the Large-Scale Forcing Data to Support MC3E Cloud Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The large-scale forcing fields (e.g., vertical velocity and advective tendencies) are required to run single-column and cloud-resolving models (SCMs/CRMs), which are the two key modeling frameworks widely used to link field data to climate model developments. In this study, we use an advanced objective analysis approach to derive the required forcing data from the soundings collected by the Midlatitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E) in support of its cloud modeling studies. MC3E is the latest major field campaign conducted during the period 22 April 2011 to 06 June 2011 in south-central Oklahoma through a joint effort between the DOE ARM program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Program. One of its primary goals is to provide a comprehensive dataset that can be used to describe the large-scale environment of convective cloud systems and evaluate model cumulus parameterizations. The objective analysis used in this study is the constrained variational analysis method. A unique feature of this approach is the use of domain-averaged surface and top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) observations (e.g., precipitation and radiative and turbulent fluxes) as constraints to adjust atmospheric state variables from soundings by the smallest possible amount to conserve column-integrated mass, moisture, and static energy so that the final analysis data is dynamically and thermodynamically consistent. To address potential uncertainties in the surface observations, an ensemble forcing dataset will be developed. Multi-scale forcing will be also created for simulating various scale convective systems. At the meeting, we will provide more details about the forcing development and present some preliminary analysis of the characteristics of the large-scale forcing structures for several selected convective systems observed during MC3E.

  11. High-Throughput Microbore UPLC-MS Metabolic Phenotyping of Urine for Large-Scale Epidemiology Studies.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nicola; Lewis, Matthew R; Plumb, Robert S; Wilson, Ian D; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2015-06-05

    A new generation of metabolic phenotyping centers are being created to meet the increasing demands of personalized healthcare, and this has resulted in a major requirement for economical, high-throughput metabonomic analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Meeting these new demands represents an emerging bioanalytical problem that must be solved if metabolic phenotyping is to be successfully applied to large clinical and epidemiological sample sets. Ultraperformance (UP)LC-MS-based metabolic phenotyping, based on 2.1 mm i.d. LC columns, enables comprehensive metabolic phenotyping but, when employed for the analysis of thousands of samples, results in high solvent usage. The use of UPLC-MS employing 1 mm i.d. columns for metabolic phenotyping rather than the conventional 2.1 mm i.d. methodology shows that the resulting optimized microbore method provided equivalent or superior performance in terms of peak capacity, sensitivity, and robustness. On average, we also observed, when using the microbore scale separation, an increase in response of 2-3 fold over that obtained with the standard 2.1 mm scale method. When applied to the analysis of human urine, the 1 mm scale method showed no decline in performance over the course of 1000 analyses, illustrating that microbore UPLC-MS represents a viable alternative to conventional 2.1 mm i.d. formats for routine large-scale metabolic profiling studies while also resulting in a 75% reduction in solvent usage. The modest increase in sensitivity provided by this methodology also offers the potential to either reduce sample consumption or increase the number of metabolite features detected with confidence due to the increased signal-to-noise ratios obtained. Implementation of this miniaturized UPLC-MS method of metabolic phenotyping results in clear analytical, economic, and environmental benefits for large-scale metabolic profiling studies with similar or improved analytical performance compared to

  12. Toward atomic-scale bright-field electron tomography for the study of fullerene-like nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Bar Sadan, Maya; Houben, Lothar; Wolf, Sharon G; Enyashin, Andrey; Seifert, Gotthard; Tenne, Reshef; Urban, Knut

    2008-03-01

    We present the advancement of electron tomography for three-dimensional structure reconstruction of fullerene-like particles toward atomic-scale resolution. The three-dimensional reconstruction of nested molybdenum disulfide nanooctahedra is achieved by the combination of low voltage operation of the electron microscope with aberration-corrected phase contrast imaging. The method enables the study of defects and irregularities in the three-dimensional structure of individual fullerene-like particles on the scale of 2-3 A. Control over shape, size, and atomic architecture is a key issue in synthesis and design of functional nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the primary technique to characterize materials down to the atomic level, albeit the images are two-dimensional projections of the studied objects. Recent advancements in aberration-corrected TEM have demonstrated single atom sensitivity for light elements at subångström resolution. Yet, the resolution of tomographic schemes for three-dimensional structure reconstruction has not surpassed 1 nm3, preventing it from becoming a powerful tool for characterization in the physical sciences on the atomic scale. Here we demonstrate that negative spherical aberration imaging at low acceleration voltage enables tomography down to the atomic scale at reduced radiation damage. First experimental data on the three-dimensional reconstruction of nested molybdenum disulfide nanooctahedra is presented. The method is applicable to the analysis of the atomic architecture of a wide range of nanostructures where strong electron channeling is absent, in particular to carbon fullerenes and inorganic fullerenes.

  13. The Study of Adopting Problem Based Learning in Normal Scale Class Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chia-ling

    2014-01-01

    This study adopts the Problem Based Learning (PBL) for pre-service teachers in teacher education program. The reasons to adopt PBL are the class scale is not a small class, the contents are too many to teach, and the technologies are ready to be used in classroom. This study used an intermediary, movie, for scenario to student to define the…

  14. Development and Validation of Academic Dishonesty Scale (ADS): Presenting a Multidimensional Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Hilal; Bala, Ranjan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale measuring academic dishonesty of undergraduate students. The sample of the study constitutes nine hundred undergraduate students selected via random sampling technique. After receiving expert's opinions for the face and content validity of the scale, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and…

  15. Fundamental studies of stress distributions and stress relaxation in oxide scales on high temperature alloys. [Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Shores, D.A.; Stout, J.H.; Gerberich, W.W.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes a three-year study of stresses arising in the oxide scale and underlying metal during high temperature oxidation and of scale cracking. In-situ XRD was developed to measure strains during oxidation over 1000{degrees}C on pure metals. Acoustic emission was used to observe scale fracture during isothermal oxidation and cooling, and statistical analysis was used to infer mechanical aspects of cracking. A microscratch technique was used to measure the fracture toughness of scale/metal interface. A theoretical model was evaluated for the development and relaxation of stresses in scale and metal substrate during oxidation.

  16. An Eulerian time filtering technique to study large-scale transient flow phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanierschot, Maarten; Persoons, Tim; van den Bulck, Eric

    2009-10-01

    Unsteady fluctuating velocity fields can contain large-scale periodic motions with frequencies well separated from those of turbulence. Examples are the wake behind a cylinder or the processing vortex core in a swirling jet. These turbulent flow fields contain large-scale, low-frequency oscillations, which are obscured by turbulence, making it impossible to identify them. In this paper, we present an Eulerian time filtering (ETF) technique to extract the large-scale motions from unsteady statistical non-stationary velocity fields or flow fields with multiple phenomena that have sufficiently separated spectral content. The ETF method is based on non-causal time filtering of the velocity records in each point of the flow field. It is shown that the ETF technique gives good results, similar to the ones obtained by the phase-averaging method. In this paper, not only the influence of the temporal filter is checked, but also parameters such as the cut-off frequency and sampling frequency of the data are investigated. The technique is validated on a selected set of time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements such as the initial region of an annular jet and the transition between flow patterns in an annular jet. The major advantage of the ETF method in the extraction of large scales is that it is computationally less expensive and it requires less measurement time compared to other extraction methods. Therefore, the technique is suitable in the startup phase of an experiment or in a measurement campaign where several experiments are needed such as parametric studies.

  17. North Carolina Linking Study: A Study of the Alignment of the NWEA RIT Scale with the North Carolina State End of Grade (EOG) Testing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) completed a study to connect the scale of the North Carolina State End of Grade (EOG) Testing Program used for North Carolina's mathematics and reading assessments with NWEA's Rausch Interval Unit (RIT) scale. Information from the state assessments was used in a study to establish…

  18. Exploring the need for Transition Readiness Scales within cystic fibrosis services: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Mary; Houghton, Catherine

    2018-07-01

    To explore healthcare professionals' and patients' perceptions of the potential use of a Transition Readiness Scale in cystic fibrosis care. This included an examination of barriers and facilitators to its implementation along with the identification of key items to include in a Transition Readiness Scale. Due to increasing life expectancy and improved quality of life, more adolescents with cystic fibrosis are transitioning from paediatric to adult health care. To assess and correctly manage this transition, a more structured approach to transition is advocated. This can be achieved using a Transition Readiness Scale to potentially identify or target areas of care in which the adolescent may have poor knowledge. These key items include education, developmental readiness taking into account relationships, reproduction, future plans and self-management skills. Existing tools to gauge readiness concentrate mainly on education and self-care needs assessment as their key items. Currently, there is no specific cystic fibrosis Transition Readiness Scale in use in Ireland or internationally. The study used a descriptive qualitative design. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (n = 8) and analysed using a thematic approach. The findings identified the potential benefits of this tool and second the resources which need to be in place before its development and implementation into cystic fibrosis services. Transition Readiness Scales have substantial relevance with cystic fibrosis services emphasising the importance of establishing the necessary resources prior to its implementation. These were identified as more staff, a dedicated private space and staff training and education. Significant resources are needed to fully integrate Transition Readiness Scales in practice. The study findings suggest multidisciplinary collaborations, and patient engagement is pivotal in planning and easing the transition process for adolescents with cystic fibrosis. © 2018 The

  19. Adaptation of ICT Integration Approach Scale to Kosovo Culture: A Study of Validity and Reliability Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kervan, Serdan; Tezci, Erdogan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt ICT integration approach scale to Kosovo culture, which measures ICT integration approaches of university faculty to teaching and learning process. The scale developed in Turkish has been translated into Albanian to provide linguistic equivalence. The survey was given to a total of 303 instructors [161 (53.1%)…

  20. Scaling Study of Reconnection Heating in Torus Plasma Merging Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yasushi; Akimitsu, Moe; Sawada, Asuka; Cao, Qinghong; Koike, Hideya; Hatano, Hironori; Kaneda, Taishi; Tanabe, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    We have been investigating toroidal plasma merging and reconnection for high-power heating of spherical tokamak (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), using TS-3 (ST, FRC: R =0.2m, 1985-), TS-4 (ST, FRC: R =0.5m, 2000-), UTST (ST: R =0.45m, 2008-) and MAST (ST: R =0.9m, 2000-) devices. The series of merging experiments made clear the promising scaling and characteristics of reconnection heating: (i) its ion heating energy that scales with square of the reconnecting magnetic field Brec, (ii) its energy loss lower than 10%, (iii) its ion heating energy (in the downstream) 10 time larger than its electron heating energy (at around X-point) and (iv) low dependence of ion heating on the guide (toroidal) field Bg. The Brec2-scalingwas obtained when the current sheet was compressed to the order of ion gyrodadius. When the sheet was insufficiently compressed, the measured ion temperature was lower than the scaling prediction. Based on this scaling, we realized significant ion heating up to 1.2keV in MAST after 2D elucidation of ion heating up to 250eV in TS-3 [3,4]. This promising scaling leads us to new high Brec reconnection heating experiments for future direct access to burning plasma: TS-U (2017-) in Univ. Tokyo and ST-40 in Tokamak Energy Inc. (2017-). This presentation reviews major progresses in those toroidal plasma merging experiments for physics and fusion applications of magnetic reconnection.

  1. Deformation Partitioning: The Missing Link Between Outcrop-Scale Observations And Orogen-Scale Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, S.; Paterson, S. R.; Jiang, D.; Miller, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Structural studies of orogenic deformation fields are mostly based on small-scale structures ubiquitous in field exposures, hand samples, and under microscopes. Relating deformation histories derived from such structures to changing lithospheric-scale deformation and boundary conditions is not trivial due to vast scale separation (10-6 107 m) between characteristic lengths of small-scale structures and lithospheric plates. Rheological heterogeneity over the range of orogenic scales will lead to deformation partitioning throughout intervening scales of structural development. Spectacular examples of structures documenting deformation partitioning are widespread within hot (i.e., magma-rich) orogens such as the well-studied central Sierra Nevada and Cascades core of western North America: (1) deformation partitioned into localized, narrow, triclinic shear zones separated by broad domains of distributed pure shear at micro- to 10 km scales; (2) deformation partitioned between plutons and surrounding metamorphic host rocks as shown by pluton-wide magmatic fabrics consistently oriented differently than coeval host rock fabrics; (3) partitioning recorded by different fabric intensities, styles, and orientations established from meter-scale grid mapping to 100 km scale domainal analyses; and (4) variations in the causes of strain and kinematics within fold-dominated domains. These complex, partitioned histories require synthesized mapping, geochronology, and structural data at all scales to evaluate partitioning and in the absence of correct scaling can lead to incorrect interpretations of histories. Forward modeling capable of addressing deformation partitioning in materials containing multiple scales of rheologically heterogeneous elements of varying characteristic lengths provides the ability to upscale the large synthesized datasets described above to plate-scale tectonic processes and boundary conditions. By comparing modeling predictions from the recently developed

  2. Concepts of scale and scaling

    Treesearch

    Jianguo Wu; Harbin Li

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between pattern and process is of great interest in all natural and social sciences, and scale is an integral part of this relationship. It is now well documented that biophysical and socioeconomic patterns and processes operate on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the scale multiplicity and scale dependence of pattern,...

  3. A Cross-Cultural Validation Study of the Computer Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JinGyu; And Others

    The reliability and factorial validity of the Computer Attitudes Scale (CAS) was assessed with college students in South Korea. The CAS was developed for use with high school students, but has been used in higher education in the United States. It is a Likert-type scale of 30 positive and negative statements about the use of computers, and is one…

  4. Contribution of large scale coherence to wind turbine power: A large eddy simulation study in periodic wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Tanmoy; Peet, Yulia T.

    2018-03-01

    Length scales of eddies involved in the power generation of infinite wind farms are studied by analyzing the spectra of the turbulent flux of mean kinetic energy (MKE) from large eddy simulations (LES). Large-scale structures with an order of magnitude bigger than the turbine rotor diameter (D ) are shown to have substantial contribution to wind power. Varying dynamics in the intermediate scales (D -10 D ) are also observed from a parametric study involving interturbine distances and hub height of the turbines. Further insight about the eddies responsible for the power generation have been provided from the scaling analysis of two-dimensional premultiplied spectra of MKE flux. The LES code is developed in a high Reynolds number near-wall modeling framework, using an open-source spectral element code Nek5000, and the wind turbines have been modelled using a state-of-the-art actuator line model. The LES of infinite wind farms have been validated against the statistical results from the previous literature. The study is expected to improve our understanding of the complex multiscale dynamics in the domain of large wind farms and identify the length scales that contribute to the power. This information can be useful for design of wind farm layout and turbine placement that take advantage of the large-scale structures contributing to wind turbine power.

  5. Studies on combined model based on functional objectives of large scale complex engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuting, Wang; Jingchun, Feng; Jiabao, Sun

    2018-03-01

    As various functions were included in large scale complex engineering, and each function would be conducted with completion of one or more projects, combined projects affecting their functions should be located. Based on the types of project portfolio, the relationship of projects and their functional objectives were analyzed. On that premise, portfolio projects-technics based on their functional objectives were introduced, then we studied and raised the principles of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects. In addition, The processes of combined projects were also constructed. With the help of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects, our research findings laid a good foundation for management of large scale complex engineering portfolio management.

  6. A study of regional-scale aerosol assimilation using a Stretch-NICAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, S.; Dai, T.; Schutgens, N.; Nakajima, T.

    2013-12-01

    Although aerosol is considered to be harmful to human health and it became a social issue, aerosol models and emission inventories include large uncertainties. In recent studies, data assimilation is applied to aerosol simulation to get more accurate aerosol field and emission inventory. Most of these studies, however, are carried out only on global scale, and there are only a few researches about regional scale aerosol assimilation. In this study, we have created and verified an aerosol assimilation system on regional scale, in hopes to reduce an error associated with the aerosol emission inventory. Our aerosol assimilation system has been developed using an atmospheric climate model, NICAM (Non-hydrostaric ICosahedral Atmospheric Model; Satoh et al., 2008) with a stretch grid system and coupled with an aerosol transport model, SPRINTARS (Takemura et al., 2000). Also, this assimilation system is based on local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). To validate this system, we used a simulated observational data by adding some artificial errors to the surface aerosol fields constructed by Stretch-NICAM-SPRINTARS. We also included a small perturbation in original emission inventory. This assimilation with modified observational data and emission inventory was performed in Kanto-plane region around Tokyo, Japan, and the result indicates the system reducing a relative error of aerosol concentration by 20%. Furthermore, we examined a sensitivity of the aerosol assimilation system by varying the number of total ensemble (5, 10 and 15 ensembles) and local patch (domain) size (radius of 50km, 100km and 200km), both of which are the tuning parameters in LETKF. The result of the assimilation with different ensemble number 5, 10 and 15 shows that the larger the number of ensemble is, the smaller the relative error become. This is consistent with ensemble Kalman filter theory and imply that this assimilation system works properly. Also we found that assimilation system

  7. Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Torres-Castro, Sara; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2016-12-09

    The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) has been widely used and has proven to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing satisfaction with life in diverse population groups, however, research on satisfaction with life and validation of different measuring instruments in Mexican adults is still lacking. The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in a representative sample of Mexican adults. This is a methodological study to evaluate a satisfaction with life scale in a sample of 13,220 Mexican adults 50 years of age or older from the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) was analysed using Cronbach's alpha and inter-item correlations. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed. Known-groups validity was evaluated comparing good-health and bad-health participants. Comorbidity, perceived financial situation, self-reported general health, depression symptoms, and social support were included to evaluate the validity between these measures and the total score of the scale using Spearman's correlations. The analysis of the scale's reliability showed good internal consistency (α = 0.74). The exploratory factor analysis confirmed the existence of a unique factor structure that explained 54% of the variance. SWLS was related to depression, perceived health, financial situation, and social support, and these relations were all statistically significant (P < .01). There was significant difference in life satisfaction between the good- and bad-health groups. Results show good internal consistency and construct validity of the SWLS. These results are comparable with results from previous studies. Meeting the study's objective to validate the scale, the results show that the Spanish version of the SWLS is a reliable and valid measure of satisfaction with life in the Mexican context.

  8. Instrument development and validation of a quality scale for historical research papers (QSHRP): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jacinta; Watson, Roger

    2014-12-01

    To report a pilot study for the development and validation of an instrument to measure quality in historical research papers. There are no set criteria to assess historical papers published in nursing journals. A three phase mixed method sequential confirmatory design. In 2012, we used a three-phase approach to item generation and content evaluation. In phase 1, we consulted nursing historians using an online survey comprising three open-ended questions and revised the items. In phase 2, we evaluated the revised items for relevance with expert historians using a 4-point Likert scale and Content Validity Index calculation. In phase 3, we conducted reliability testing of the instrument using a 3-point Likert scale. In phase 1, 121 responses were generated via the online survey and revised to 40 interrogatively phrased items. In phase 2, five items with an Item Content Validity Index score of ≥0·7 remained. In phase 3, responses from historians resulted in 100% agreement to questions 1, 2 and 4 and 89% and 78%, respectively, to questions 3 and 5. Items for the QSHRP have been identified, content validated and reliability tested. This scale improves on previous scales, which over-emphasized source criticism. However, a full-scale study is needed with nursing historians to increase its robustness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Developing a Scale for Innovation Management at Schools: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable assessment tool for use in determining the competency beliefs of school administrators about innovation management. The scale applied to a study group of 216 school administrators, after work Centered on assessing intelligibility and specialized opinion. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  10. A Fundamental Study for Efficient Implementaion of Online Collaborative Activities in Large-Scale Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuba, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Yusei; Kubota, Shin-Ichiro; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We study tactics for writing skills development through cross-disciplinary learning in online large-scale classes, and particularly are interested in implementation of online collaborative activities such as peer reviewing of writing. The goal of our study is to carry out collaborative works efficiently via online effectively in large-scale…

  11. Cross-scale interactions: Quantifying multi-scaled cause–effect relationships in macrosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra S.; Bissell, Edward G.; Bremigan, Mary T.; Downing, John A.; Fergus, Carol E.; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Henry, Emily N.; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stow, Craig A.; Tan, Pang-Ning; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly discovering that ecological processes are made up of components that are multi-scaled in space and time. Some of the most complex of these processes are cross-scale interactions (CSIs), which occur when components interact across scales. When undetected, such interactions may cause errors in extrapolation from one region to another. CSIs, particularly those that include a regional scaled component, have not been systematically investigated or even reported because of the challenges of acquiring data at sufficiently broad spatial extents. We present an approach for quantifying CSIs and apply it to a case study investigating one such interaction, between local and regional scaled land-use drivers of lake phosphorus. Ultimately, our approach for investigating CSIs can serve as a basis for efforts to understand a wide variety of multi-scaled problems such as climate change, land-use/land-cover change, and invasive species.

  12. Development and study of self-efficacy scale in medication adherence among Iranian patients with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Najimi, Arash; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Golshiri, Parastoo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at developing and studying the scale of self-efficacy in adherence to treatment in Iranian patients with hypertension. METHODS: A mix-method study was conducted on the two stages: in the first phase, a qualitative study was done using content analysis through deep and semi-structured interviews. After data analysis, the draft of tool was prepared. Items in the draft were selected based on the extracted concepts. In the second phase, validity and reliability of the instrument were implemented using a quantitative study. The prepared instrument in the first phase was studied among 612 participants. To test the construct validity and internal consistency, exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used, respectively. To study the validity of the final scale, the average score of self-efficacy in patients with controlled hypertension were compared with patients with uncontrolled hypertension. RESULTS: In overall, 16 patients were interviewed. Twenty-six items were developed to assess different concepts of self-efficacy. Concept-related items were extracted from interviews to study the face validity of the tool from patient's point of view. Four items were deleted because scored 0.79 in content validity. The mean of questionnaire content validity was 0.85. Items were collected in two factors with an eigenvalue >1. Four items were deleted with load factor <0.4. Reliability was 0.84 for the entire instrument. CONCLUSION: Self-efficacy scale in patients with hypertension is a valid and reliable instrument that can effectively evaluate the self-efficacy in medication adherence in the management of hypertension. PMID:29114551

  13. Technical and scale efficiency of public community hospitals in Eritrea: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eritrean gross national income of Int$610 per capita is lower than the average for Africa (Int$1620) and considerably lower than the global average (Int$6977). It is therefore imperative that the country’s resources, including those specifically allocated to the health sector, are put to optimal use. The objectives of this study were (a) to estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of public secondary level community hospitals in Eritrea, based on data generated in 2007, (b) to estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient, and (c) to estimate using Tobit regression analysis the impact of institutional and contextual/environmental variables on hospital inefficiencies. Methods A two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method is used to estimate efficiency of hospitals and to explain the inefficiencies. In the first stage, the efficient frontier and the hospital-level efficiency scores are first estimated using DEA. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed on some institutional and contextual/environmental variables using a Tobit model. In 2007 there were a total of 20 secondary public community hospitals in Eritrea, nineteen of which generated data that could be included in the study. The input and output data were obtained from the Ministry of Health (MOH) annual health service activity report of 2007. Since our study employs data that are five years old, the results are not meant to uncritically inform current decision-making processes, but rather to illustrate the potential value of such efficiency analyses. Results The key findings were as follows: (i) the average constant returns to scale technical efficiency score was 90.3%; (ii) the average variable returns to scale technical efficiency score was 96.9%; and (iii) the average scale efficiency score was 93.3%. In 2007, the inefficient hospitals could

  14. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Attitudes toward Sustainable Development Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biasutti, Michele; Frate, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes toward Sustainable Development scale, a quantitative 20-item scale that measures Italian university students' attitudes toward sustainable development. A total of 484 undergraduate students completed the questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the scale was statistically…

  15. Numerical study of the small scale structures in Boussinesq convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinan, E.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    Two-dimensional Boussinesq convection is studied numerically using two different methods: a filtered pseudospectral method and a high order accurate Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. The issue whether finite time singularity occurs for initially smooth flows is investigated. The numerical results suggest that the collapse of the bubble cap is unlikely to occur in resolved calculations. The strain rate corresponding to the intensification of the density gradient across the front saturates at the bubble cap. We also found that the cascade of energy to small scales is dominated by the formulation of thin and sharp fronts across which density jumps.

  16. Statistical scaling of pore-scale Lagrangian velocities in natural porous media.

    PubMed

    Siena, M; Guadagnini, A; Riva, M; Bijeljic, B; Pereira Nunes, J P; Blunt, M J

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the scaling behavior of sample statistics of pore-scale Lagrangian velocities in two different rock samples, Bentheimer sandstone and Estaillades limestone. The samples are imaged using x-ray computer tomography with micron-scale resolution. The scaling analysis relies on the study of the way qth-order sample structure functions (statistical moments of order q of absolute increments) of Lagrangian velocities depend on separation distances, or lags, traveled along the mean flow direction. In the sandstone block, sample structure functions of all orders exhibit a power-law scaling within a clearly identifiable intermediate range of lags. Sample structure functions associated with the limestone block display two diverse power-law regimes, which we infer to be related to two overlapping spatially correlated structures. In both rocks and for all orders q, we observe linear relationships between logarithmic structure functions of successive orders at all lags (a phenomenon that is typically known as extended power scaling, or extended self-similarity). The scaling behavior of Lagrangian velocities is compared with the one exhibited by porosity and specific surface area, which constitute two key pore-scale geometric observables. The statistical scaling of the local velocity field reflects the behavior of these geometric observables, with the occurrence of power-law-scaling regimes within the same range of lags for sample structure functions of Lagrangian velocity, porosity, and specific surface area.

  17. Studies on unsaturated flow in dual-scale fiber fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Yan, Shilin; Li, Yongjing

    2018-03-01

    Fiber fabrics in liquid composite molding (LCM) can be recognized as a dual-scale structure. As sink theory developed, this unsaturated flow behavior has already been simulated successfully; however, most of simulated results based on a unit cell under ideal status, thus making results were not agreement with experiment. In this study, an experimental method to establish sink function was proposed. After compared the simulation results by this sink function, it shows high accuracy with the experimental data. Subsequently, the key influencing factors for unsaturated flow have been further investigated; results show that the filling time for unsaturated flow was much longer than saturated flow. In addition, the injection pressure and permeability were the key factors lead to unsaturated flow.

  18. Examining related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization among people with disabilities in Taiwan, a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hsien-Tang; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Su, Hsun-Pi; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-09-01

    Limited studies with large samples have been conducted on the utilization of dental calculus scaling among people with physical or mental disabilities. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of dental calculus scaling among the national disabled population. This study analyzed the utilization of dental calculus scaling among the disabled people, using the nationwide data between 2006 and 2008. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed to analyze related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization. The dental calculus scaling utilization rate among people with physical or mental disabilities was 16.39%, and the annual utilization frequency was 0.2 times. Utilization rate was higher among the female and non-aboriginal samples. Utilization rate decreased with increased age and disability severity while utilization rate increased with income, education level, urbanization of residential area and number of chronic illnesses. Related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization rate were gender, age, ethnicity (aboriginal or non-aboriginal), education level, urbanization of residence area, income, catastrophic illnesses, chronic illnesses, disability types, and disability severity significantly influenced the dental calculus scaling utilization rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Large-scale optimization-based non-negative computational framework for diffusion equations: Parallel implementation and performance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Justin; Karra, Satish; Nakshatrala, Kalyana B.

    It is well-known that the standard Galerkin formulation, which is often the formulation of choice under the finite element method for solving self-adjoint diffusion equations, does not meet maximum principles and the non-negative constraint for anisotropic diffusion equations. Recently, optimization-based methodologies that satisfy maximum principles and the non-negative constraint for steady-state and transient diffusion-type equations have been proposed. To date, these methodologies have been tested only on small-scale academic problems. The purpose of this paper is to systematically study the performance of the non-negative methodology in the context of high performance computing (HPC). PETSc and TAO libraries are, respectively, usedmore » for the parallel environment and optimization solvers. For large-scale problems, it is important for computational scientists to understand the computational performance of current algorithms available in these scientific libraries. The numerical experiments are conducted on the state-of-the-art HPC systems, and a single-core performance model is used to better characterize the efficiency of the solvers. Furthermore, our studies indicate that the proposed non-negative computational framework for diffusion-type equations exhibits excellent strong scaling for real-world large-scale problems.« less

  20. Large-scale optimization-based non-negative computational framework for diffusion equations: Parallel implementation and performance studies

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Justin; Karra, Satish; Nakshatrala, Kalyana B.

    2016-07-26

    It is well-known that the standard Galerkin formulation, which is often the formulation of choice under the finite element method for solving self-adjoint diffusion equations, does not meet maximum principles and the non-negative constraint for anisotropic diffusion equations. Recently, optimization-based methodologies that satisfy maximum principles and the non-negative constraint for steady-state and transient diffusion-type equations have been proposed. To date, these methodologies have been tested only on small-scale academic problems. The purpose of this paper is to systematically study the performance of the non-negative methodology in the context of high performance computing (HPC). PETSc and TAO libraries are, respectively, usedmore » for the parallel environment and optimization solvers. For large-scale problems, it is important for computational scientists to understand the computational performance of current algorithms available in these scientific libraries. The numerical experiments are conducted on the state-of-the-art HPC systems, and a single-core performance model is used to better characterize the efficiency of the solvers. Furthermore, our studies indicate that the proposed non-negative computational framework for diffusion-type equations exhibits excellent strong scaling for real-world large-scale problems.« less

  1. [Adaptation and psychometric proprieties study for the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale - Escala de Coping para Adolescentes].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Cruz, Diana; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Sampaio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Coping is a psychological process that prompts the individual to adapt to stressful situations. The Adolescent Coping Scale is a widely used research and clinical tool. This study aimed to develop a Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale and to analyze the strategies and coping styles of young people in our sample. An anonymous questionnaire comprising the Adolescent Coping Scale was submitted and replied by 1 713 students (56% female, from 12 to 20 years, average age 16) The validity study of the scale included: principal component and reliability analysis; confirmatory analysis using structural equation modelling Subsequently, a gender comparison of both the strategies and the coping styles was conducted through independent samples t tests. The final structure of the Adolescent Coping Scale adaptation retained 70 items assessing 16 coping strategies grouped into three major styles. The scales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha values between 0.63. and 0.86, with the exception of one dimension that as shown a value of 0.55) and the confirmatory model showed a good fit (goodness of fit index values between 0.94 e 0.96). Two coping strategies were eliminated on statistical grounds (insufficient saturations of items in the corresponding dimensions). We found that the style of coping focused on problem solving is the most used by youths from our sample, in both sexes. Females had higher mean values in non-productive coping style and reference to others. This adapted version has high similarity with the original scale, with expectable minor changes, given that coping is influenced by cultural, geographical and socio-economic variables. The present study represents an important part of the validation protocol Portuguese Adolescent Coping Scale, including its linguistic adaptation and its internal consistency and factor structure studies.

  2. A Flexible Pilot-Scale Setup for Real-Time Studies in Process Systems Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjapornpon, Chanin; Fletcher, Nathan; Soroush, Masoud

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript describes a flexible, pilot-scale setup that can be used for training students and carrying out research in process systems engineering. The setup allows one to study a variety of process systems engineering concepts such as design feasibility, design flexibility, control configuration selection, parameter estimation, process and…

  3. Study on the Validity and Reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Scale in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Deniz, M. Engin

    2015-01-01

    This study is to analyze the validity and reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ). The sample consisted of 650 university students. The structural validity of the MDMQ, as well as correlations among its sub-scales, measure-bound validity, internal consistency, item total correlations and test-retest reliability coefficients…

  4. Development and Validation of Information Technology Mentor Teacher Attitude Scale: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study development and validation of a teacher attitude scale toward Information Technology Mentor Teachers (ITMT). ITMTs give technological support to other teachers for integration of technology in their lessons. In the literature, many instruments have been developed to measure teachers' attitudes towards the technological tools…

  5. Analyzing extreme sea levels for broad-scale impact and adaptation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, T.; Haigh, I. D.; Nicholls, R. J.; Arns, A.; Dangendorf, S.; Hinkel, J.; Slangen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal impact and adaptation assessments require detailed knowledge on extreme sea levels (ESL), because increasing damage due to extreme events is one of the major consequences of sea-level rise (SLR) and climate change. Over the last few decades, substantial research efforts have been directed towards improved understanding of past and future SLR; different scenarios were developed with process-based or semi-empirical models and used for coastal impact studies at various temporal and spatial scales to guide coastal management and adaptation efforts. Uncertainties in future SLR are typically accounted for by analyzing the impacts associated with a range of scenarios and model ensembles. ESL distributions are then displaced vertically according to the SLR scenarios under the inherent assumption that we have perfect knowledge on the statistics of extremes. However, there is still a limited understanding of present-day ESL which is largely ignored in most impact and adaptation analyses. The two key uncertainties stem from: (1) numerical models that are used to generate long time series of storm surge water levels, and (2) statistical models used for determining present-day ESL exceedance probabilities. There is no universally accepted approach to obtain such values for broad-scale flood risk assessments and while substantial research has explored SLR uncertainties, we quantify, for the first time globally, key uncertainties in ESL estimates. We find that contemporary ESL uncertainties exceed those from SLR projections and, assuming that we meet the Paris agreement, the projected SLR itself by the end of the century. Our results highlight the necessity to further improve our understanding of uncertainties in ESL estimates through (1) continued improvement of numerical and statistical models to simulate and analyze coastal water levels and (2) exploit the rich observational database and continue data archeology to obtain longer time series and remove model bias

  6. Analytic study of small scale structure on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph; Rocha, Jorge V.; Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106

    2006-10-15

    The properties of string networks at scales well below the horizon are poorly understood, but they enter critically into many observables. We argue that in some regimes, stretching will be the only relevant process governing the evolution. In this case, the string two-point function is determined up to normalization: the fractal dimension approaches one at short distance, but the rate of approach is characterized by an exponent that plays an essential role in network properties. The smoothness at short distance implies, for example, that cosmic string lensing images are almost undistorted. We then add in loop production as a perturbationmore » and find that it diverges at small scales. This need not invalidate the stretching model, since the loop production occurs in localized regions, but it implies a complicated fragmentation process. Our ability to model this process is limited, but we argue that loop production peaks a few orders of magnitude below the horizon scale, without the inclusion of gravitational radiation. We find agreement with some features of simulations, and interesting discrepancies that must be resolved by future work.« less

  7. Integrated Modeling and Experimental Studies at the Meso Scale for Advanced Reactive Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-76 Integrated Modeling and Experimental Studies at the Meso- Scale for Advanced Reactive Materials ...study the energy release processes that thermitic and/or exothermic intermetallic reactive materials experience when they are subjected to...thermitic and/or exothermic intermetallic materials experience when they are subjected to sustained shock loading. Data from highly spatially and

  8. Application of SWMM in Water Resources Management: A Community Scale Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan-Hua; Tung, Ching-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Under the impacts of climate change, water resource management faces a serious challenge. Due to extremely events, the water supply system is hard to maintain stable water supply. In order to decrease the pressure of centralized water supply system, the water demand management should be strengthened. The storm water management model (SWMM) is widely used to simulate surface runoff, and it has been improved to have the ability of continuous simulation. In this study, storm water management model (SWMM) is applied to simulate surface runoff and integrated into the framework of water resource management for a rural community scale. In a rural community, the surface runoff may be collected and treated by wetlands for later uses. The reclaimed water from wetlands may become a new water resource for non-contact domestic water uses, or be reused to meet irrigating water demand. Thus, the water demand from the centralized system can be reduced, and the water supply system may have lower risk under the climate change. On the other hand, SWMM can simulate the measures of low impact development (LID), such as bio-retention cell, green roof, rain barrel etc. The decentralized measures, LID, may not only reduce the runoff and delay the peak flow, and but also provide the service of water supply. In this study, LID is applied to water resource management of a rural community, and combined with the centralized water supply system. The results show the application of SWMM to water resources management in a community scale study. Besides, the effectiveness of LID on water supply is also evaluated.

  9. The Internal Consistency and Validity of the Vaccination Attitudes Examination Scale: A Replication Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Louise; Smith, Michael; Miller, Christopher B; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2018-06-19

    Vaccinations are important preventative health behaviors. The recently developed Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) Scale aims to measure the reasons behind refusal/hesitancy regarding vaccinations. The aim of this replication study is to conduct an independent test of the newly developed VAX Scale in the UK. We tested (a) internal consistency (Cronbach's α); (b) convergent validity by assessing its relationships with beliefs about medication, medical mistrust, and perceived sensitivity to medicines; and (c) construct validity by testing how well the VAX Scale discriminated between vaccinators and nonvaccinators. A sample of 243 UK adults completed the VAX Scale, the Beliefs About Medicines Questionnaire, the Perceived Sensitivity to Medicines Scale, and the Medical Mistrust Index, in addition to demographics of age, gender, education levels, and social deprivation. Participants were asked (a) whether they received an influenza vaccination in the past year and (b) if they had a young child, whether they had vaccinated the young child against influenza in the past year. The VAX (a) demonstrated high internal consistency (α = .92); (b) was positively correlated with medical mistrust and beliefs about medicines, and less strongly correlated with perceived sensitivity to medicines; and (c) successfully differentiated parental influenza vaccinators from nonvaccinators. The VAX demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity, and construct validity in an independent UK sample. It appears to be a useful measure to help us understand the health beliefs that promote or deter vaccination behavior.

  10. The effect of Interaction Anxiousness Scale and Brief Social Phobia Scale for screening social anxiety disorder in college students: a study on discriminative validity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianqin; Yang, Jinwei; Zhou, Yuqiu; Chu, Fuliu; Zhao, Xiwu; Wang, Weiren; Wang, Yunlong; Peng, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent mental health problems, but there is little research concerning the effective screening instruments in practice. This study was designed to examine the discriminative validity of Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) and Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS) for the screening of SAD through the compared and combined analysis. Firstly, 421 Chinese undergraduates were screened by the IAS and BSPS. Secondly, in the follow-up stage, 248 students were interviewed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used, and the related psychometric characters were checked. The results indicated that the ROC in these two scales demonstrated discrimination is in satisfactory level (range: 0.7-0.8). However, the highest agreement (92.17%) was identified when a cut-off point of 50 measured by the IAS and a cut-off point of 34 by the BSPS were combined, also with higher PPV, SENS, SPEC and OA than that reached when BSPS was used individually, as well as PPV, SPEC and OA in IAS. The findings indicate that the combination of these two scales is valid as the general screening instrument for SAD in maximizing the discriminative validity.

  11. Variations of characteristic time scales in rotating stratified turbulence using a large parametric numerical study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, D; Marino, R; Herbert, C; Pouquet, A

    2016-01-01

    We study rotating stratified turbulence (RST) making use of numerical data stemming from a large parametric study varying the Reynolds, Froude and Rossby numbers, Re, Fr and Ro in a broad range of values. The computations are performed using periodic boundary conditions on grids of 1024(3) points, with no modeling of the small scales, no forcing and with large-scale random initial conditions for the velocity field only, and there are altogether 65 runs analyzed in this paper. The buoyancy Reynolds number defined as R(B) = ReFr2 varies from negligible values to ≈ 10(5), approaching atmospheric or oceanic regimes. This preliminary analysis deals with the variation of characteristic time scales of RST with dimensionless parameters, focusing on the role played by the partition of energy between the kinetic and potential modes, as a key ingredient for modeling the dynamics of such flows. We find that neither rotation nor the ratio of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency to the inertial frequency seem to play a major role in the absence of forcing in the global dynamics of the small-scale kinetic and potential modes. Specifically, in these computations, mostly in regimes of wave turbulence, characteristic times based on the ratio of energy to dissipation of the velocity and temperature fluctuations, T(V) and T(P), vary substantially with parameters. Their ratio γ=T(V)/T(P) follows roughly a bell-shaped curve in terms of Richardson number Ri. It reaches a plateau - on which time scales become comparable, γ≈0.6 - when the turbulence has significantly strengthened, leading to numerous destabilization events together with a tendency towards an isotropization of the flow.

  12. Predicting habitat suitability for wildlife in southeastern Arizona using Geographic Information Systems: scaled quail, a case study

    Treesearch

    Kirby D. Bristow; Susan R. Boe; Richard A. Ockenfels

    2005-01-01

    Studies have used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to evaluate habitat suitability for wildlife on a landscape scale, yet few have established the accuracy of these models. Based on documented habitat selection patterns of scaled quail (Callipepla squamata pallida), we produced GIS covers for several habitat parameters to create a map of...

  13. A Small-scale Physical Model of the Lower Mississippi River for Studying the Potential of Medium- and Large-scale Diversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past several thousand years the Mississippi River has formed one of the world's largest deltas and much of the Louisiana coast. However, in the last 100 years or so, anthropogenic controls have been placed on the system to maintain important navigation routes and for flood control resulting in the loss of the natural channel shifting necessary for replenishment of the deltaic coast with fresh sediment and resources. In addition, the high relative sea level rise in the lowermost portion of the river is causing a change in the distributary flow patterns of the river and deposition center. River and sediment diversions are being proposed as way to re-create some of the historical distribution of river water and sediments into the delta region. In response to a need for improving the understanding of the potential for medium- and large-scale river and sediment diversions, the state of Louisiana funded the construction of a small-scale physical model (SSPM) of the lower ~76 river miles (RM). The SSPM is a 1:12,000 horizontal, 1:500 vertical, highly-distorted, movable bed physical model designed to provide qualitative and semi-quantitative results regarding bulk noncohesive sediment transport characteristics in the river and through medium- and large-scale diversion structures. The SSPM was designed based on Froude similarity for the hydraulics and Shields similarity for sand transport and has a sediment time scale of 1 year prototype to 30 minutes model allowing for decadal length studies of the land building potential of diversions. Annual flow and sediment hydrographs were developed from historical records and a uniform relative sea level rise of 3 feet in 100 years is used to account for the combined effects of eustatic sea level rise and subsidence. Data collected during the experiments include river stages, dredging amounts and high-resolution video of transport patterns within the main channel and photographs of the sand deposition patterns in the

  14. Dimensionless, Scale Invariant, Edge Weight Metric for the Study of Complex Structural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Colon-Perez, Luis M.; Spindler, Caitlin; Goicochea, Shelby; Triplett, William; Parekh, Mansi; Montie, Eric; Carney, Paul R.; Price, Catherine; Mareci, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    High spatial and angular resolution diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with network analysis provides a unique framework for the study of brain structure in vivo. DWI-derived brain connectivity patterns are best characterized with graph theory using an edge weight to quantify the strength of white matter connections between gray matter nodes. Here a dimensionless, scale-invariant edge weight is introduced to measure node connectivity. This edge weight metric provides reasonable and consistent values over any size scale (e.g. rodents to humans) used to quantify the strength of connection. Firstly, simulations were used to assess the effects of tractography seed point density and random errors in the estimated fiber orientations; with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), edge weight estimates improve as the seed density increases. Secondly to evaluate the application of the edge weight in the human brain, ten repeated measures of DWI in the same healthy human subject were analyzed. Mean edge weight values within the cingulum and corpus callosum were consistent and showed low variability. Thirdly, using excised rat brains to study the effects of spatial resolution, the weight of edges connecting major structures in the temporal lobe were used to characterize connectivity in this local network. The results indicate that with adequate resolution and SNR, connections between network nodes are characterized well by this edge weight metric. Therefore this new dimensionless, scale-invariant edge weight metric provides a robust measure of network connectivity that can be applied in any size regime. PMID:26173147

  15. Scale-up of electrolytic and photoelectrolytic processes for water reclaiming: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Martín de Vidales, María J; Cotillas, Salvador; Perez-Serrano, José F; Llanos, Javier; Sáez, Cristina; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2016-10-01

    This work focuses on the scale-up of electrochemical and photoelectrochemical oxidation processes with diamond anodes for the removal of organic pollutants and disinfection of treated urban wastewater, two of the most important parameters for the reclaiming of wastewater. The removal of organics was studied with actual biologically treated urban wastewater intensified with 100 mg dm(-3) of caffeine, added as a trace organic pollutant. The disinfection was also studied with biologically treated urban wastewater, and Escherichia coli was used to monitor the efficiency of the process. Results obtained with a single DiaCell® 101 were compared with those obtained with a single-stack DiaCell® 1001 and with a pilot plant made up of five of these stacks. Results obtained demonstrate that scale-up is not a simple but a very complex process, in which not only the electrode and the irradiation dose are important but also mass transfer conditions. Enhanced mass transport conditions have a determining and very positive effect on the removal of organics and a negative effect on the disinfection. Likewise, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation affects in a different way in the different setups used, having a great influence on the removal of complex organics and on the speciation of oxidants produced during disinfection. This works helps to understand the key differences observed in the scale-up, and it is a first approach for future works focused on the real application of conductive diamond electrochemical oxidation.

  16. Dimensionless, Scale Invariant, Edge Weight Metric for the Study of Complex Structural Networks.

    PubMed

    Colon-Perez, Luis M; Spindler, Caitlin; Goicochea, Shelby; Triplett, William; Parekh, Mansi; Montie, Eric; Carney, Paul R; Price, Catherine; Mareci, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    High spatial and angular resolution diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with network analysis provides a unique framework for the study of brain structure in vivo. DWI-derived brain connectivity patterns are best characterized with graph theory using an edge weight to quantify the strength of white matter connections between gray matter nodes. Here a dimensionless, scale-invariant edge weight is introduced to measure node connectivity. This edge weight metric provides reasonable and consistent values over any size scale (e.g. rodents to humans) used to quantify the strength of connection. Firstly, simulations were used to assess the effects of tractography seed point density and random errors in the estimated fiber orientations; with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), edge weight estimates improve as the seed density increases. Secondly to evaluate the application of the edge weight in the human brain, ten repeated measures of DWI in the same healthy human subject were analyzed. Mean edge weight values within the cingulum and corpus callosum were consistent and showed low variability. Thirdly, using excised rat brains to study the effects of spatial resolution, the weight of edges connecting major structures in the temporal lobe were used to characterize connectivity in this local network. The results indicate that with adequate resolution and SNR, connections between network nodes are characterized well by this edge weight metric. Therefore this new dimensionless, scale-invariant edge weight metric provides a robust measure of network connectivity that can be applied in any size regime.

  17. A Parametric Study of Fine-scale Turbulence Mixing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper is a study of aerodynamic noise spectra from model functions that describe the source. The study is motivated by the need to improve the spectral shape of the MGBK jet noise prediction methodology at high frequency. The predicted spectral shape usually appears less broadband than measurements and faster decaying at high frequency. Theoretical representation of the source is based on Lilley's equation. Numerical simulations of high-speed subsonic jets as well as some recent turbulence measurements reveal a number of interesting statistical properties of turbulence correlation functions that may have a bearing on radiated noise. These studies indicate that an exponential spatial function may be a more appropriate representation of a two-point correlation compared to its Gaussian counterpart. The effect of source non-compactness on spectral shape is discussed. It is shown that source non-compactness could well be the differentiating factor between the Gaussian and exponential model functions. In particular, the fall-off of the noise spectra at high frequency is studied and it is shown that a non-compact source with an exponential model function results in a broader spectrum and better agreement with data. An alternate source model that represents the source as a covariance of the convective derivative of fine-scale turbulence kinetic energy is also examined.

  18. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics

    PubMed Central

    García Morales, Mayrolin; Denno, Barbara D.; Miller, Douglass R.; Miller, Gary L.; Ben-Dov, Yair; Hardy, Nate B.

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provide insect identifiers, pest managers, insect systematists, evolutionary biologists and ecologists efficient access to information about scale insect biological diversity. It provides comprehensive information on scale insects taken directly from the primary literature. Currently, it draws from 23 477 articles and describes the systematics and biology of 8194 valid species. For 20 years, ScaleNet ran on the same software platform. That platform is no longer viable. Here, we present a new, open-source implementation of ScaleNet. We have normalized the data model, begun the process of correcting invalid data, upgraded the user interface, and added online administrative tools. These improvements make ScaleNet easier to use and maintain and make the ScaleNet data more accurate and extendable. Database URL: http://scalenet.info PMID:26861659

  19. Principles for scaling of distributed direct potable water reuse systems: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianjiao; Englehardt, James D

    2015-05-15

    Scaling of direct potable water reuse (DPR) systems involves tradeoffs of treatment facility economy-of-scale, versus cost and energy of conveyance including energy for upgradient distribution of treated water, and retention of wastewater thermal energy. In this study, a generalized model of the cost of DPR as a function of treatment plant scale, assuming futuristic, optimized conveyance networks, was constructed for purposes of developing design principles. Fractal landscapes representing flat, hilly, and mountainous topographies were simulated, with urban, suburban, and rural housing distributions placed by modified preferential growth algorithm. Treatment plants were allocated by agglomerative hierarchical clustering, networked to buildings by minimum spanning tree. Simulations assume advanced oxidation-based DPR system design, with 20-year design life and capability to mineralize chemical oxygen demand below normal detection limits, allowing implementation in regions where disposal of concentrate containing hormones and antiscalants is not practical. Results indicate that total DPR capital and O&M costs in rural areas, where systems that return nutrients to the land may be more appropriate, are high. However, costs in urban/suburban areas are competitive with current water/wastewater service costs at scales of ca. one plant per 10,000 residences. This size is relatively small, and costs do not increase significantly until plant service areas fall below 100 to 1000 homes. Based on these results, distributed DPR systems are recommended for consideration for urban/suburban water and wastewater system capacity expansion projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Scale Development Study for the Teachers on Out of School Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkan-Kiyici, Fatime; Yavuz Topaloglu, Melike

    2016-01-01

    When teachers organize planned and systematical out-of-school learning activities, students can understand the abstract and complex terms and topics better and therefore meaningful and deeper learning can occur. Within this context this study aims to develop a valid and reliable scale to determine the attitudes, behaviors, efficiency and…

  1. Study of Multiple Scale Physics of Magnetic Reconnection on the FLARE (Facility for Laboratory Reconnection Experiments)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, H.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Prager, S.; Daughton, W. S.; Bale, S. D.; Carter, T. A.; Crocker, N.; Drake, J. F.; Egedal, J.; Sarff, J.; Wallace, J.; Chen, Y.; Cutler, R.; Fox, W. R., II; Heitzenroeder, P.; Kalish, M.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Myers, C. E.; Ren, Y.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.

    2015-12-01

    The FLARE device (flare.pppl.gov) is a new intermediate-scale plasma experiment under construction at Princeton to study magnetic reconnection in regimes directly relevant to space, solar and astrophysical plasmas. The existing small-scale experiments have been focusing on the single X-line reconnection process either with small effective sizes or at low Lundquist numbers, but both of which are typically very large in natural plasmas. The configuration of the FLARE device is designed to provide experimental access to the new regimes involving multiple X-lines, as guided by a reconnection "phase diagram" [Ji & Daughton, PoP (2011)]. Most of major components of the FLARE device have been designed and are under construction. The device will be assembled and installed in 2016, followed by commissioning and operation in 2017. The planned research on FLARE as a user facility will be discussed on topics including the multiple scale nature of magnetic reconnection from global fluid scales to ion and electron kinetic scales. Results from scoping simulations based on particle and fluid codes and possible comparative research with space measurements will be presented.

  2. EXPLOSIVE EVENTS ON A SUBARCSECOND SCALE IN IRIS OBSERVATIONS: A CASE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Fu, Hui

    We present a study of a typical explosive event (EE) at subarcsecond scale witnessed by strong non-Gaussian profiles with blue- and redshifted emission of up to 150 km s{sup –1} seen in the transition region Si IV 1402.8 Å, and the chromospheric Mg II k 2796.4 Å and C II 1334.5 Å observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) at unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. For the first time an EE is found to be associated with very small-scale (∼120 km wide) plasma ejection followed by retraction in the chromosphere. These small-scale jets originate from a compact bright-point-like structure of ∼1.''5 size as seen in themore » IRIS 1330 Å images. SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI co-observations show that the EE lies in the footpoint of a complex loop-like brightening system. The EE is detected in the higher temperature channels of AIA 171 Å, 193 Å, and 131 Å, suggesting that it reaches a higher temperature of log T = 5.36 ± 0.06 (K). Brightenings observed in the AIA channels with durations 90-120 s are probably caused by the plasma ejections seen in the chromosphere. The wings of the C II line behave in a similar manner to the Si IV'S, indicating close formation temperatures, while the Mg II k wings show additional Doppler-shifted emission. Magnetic convergence or emergence followed by cancellation at a rate of 5 × 10{sup 14} Mx s{sup –1} is associated with the EE region. The combined changes of the locations and the flux of different magnetic patches suggest that magnetic reconnection must have taken place. Our results challenge several theories put forward in the past to explain non-Gaussian line profiles, i.e., EEs. Our case study on its own, however, cannot reject these theories; thus, further in-depth studies on the phenomena producing EEs are required.« less

  3. Coupling large scale hydrologic-reservoir-hydraulic models for impact studies in data sparse regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Neal, Jeff; Wagener, Thorsten; Bates, Paul; Freer, Jim; Woods, Ross; Pianosi, Francesca; Sheffied, Justin

    2017-04-01

    As hydraulic modelling moves to increasingly large spatial domains it has become essential to take reservoirs and their operations into account. Large-scale hydrological models have been including reservoirs for at least the past two decades, yet they cannot explicitly model the variations in spatial extent of reservoirs, and many reservoirs operations in hydrological models are not undertaken during the run-time operation. This requires a hydraulic model, yet to-date no continental scale hydraulic model has directly simulated reservoirs and their operations. In addition to the need to include reservoirs and their operations in hydraulic models as they move to global coverage, there is also a need to link such models to large scale hydrology models or land surface schemes. This is especially true for Africa where the number of river gauges has consistently declined since the middle of the twentieth century. In this study we address these two major issues by developing: 1) a coupling methodology for the VIC large-scale hydrological model and the LISFLOOD-FP hydraulic model, and 2) a reservoir module for the LISFLOOD-FP model, which currently includes four sets of reservoir operating rules taken from the major large-scale hydrological models. The Volta Basin, West Africa, was chosen to demonstrate the capability of the modelling framework as it is a large river basin ( 400,000 km2) and contains the largest man-made lake in terms of area (8,482 km2), Lake Volta, created by the Akosombo dam. Lake Volta also experiences a seasonal variation in water levels of between two and six metres that creates a dynamic shoreline. In this study, we first run our coupled VIC and LISFLOOD-FP model without explicitly modelling Lake Volta and then compare these results with those from model runs where the dam operations and Lake Volta are included. The results show that we are able to obtain variation in the Lake Volta water levels and that including the dam operations and Lake Volta

  4. Teaching Satisfaction Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Chung-Lim; Au, Wing-Tung

    2006-01-01

    The present study proposes a teaching satisfaction measure and examines the validity of its scores. The measure is based on the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Scores on the five-item Teaching Satisfaction Scale (TSS) were validated on a sample of 202 primary and secondary school teachers and favorable psychometric properties were found. As…

  5. 3D fully convolutional networks for subcortical segmentation in MRI: A large-scale study.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Jose; Desrosiers, Christian; Ben Ayed, Ismail

    2018-04-15

    This study investigates a 3D and fully convolutional neural network (CNN) for subcortical brain structure segmentation in MRI. 3D CNN architectures have been generally avoided due to their computational and memory requirements during inference. We address the problem via small kernels, allowing deeper architectures. We further model both local and global context by embedding intermediate-layer outputs in the final prediction, which encourages consistency between features extracted at different scales and embeds fine-grained information directly in the segmentation process. Our model is efficiently trained end-to-end on a graphics processing unit (GPU), in a single stage, exploiting the dense inference capabilities of fully CNNs. We performed comprehensive experiments over two publicly available datasets. First, we demonstrate a state-of-the-art performance on the ISBR dataset. Then, we report a large-scale multi-site evaluation over 1112 unregistered subject datasets acquired from 17 different sites (ABIDE dataset), with ages ranging from 7 to 64 years, showing that our method is robust to various acquisition protocols, demographics and clinical factors. Our method yielded segmentations that are highly consistent with a standard atlas-based approach, while running in a fraction of the time needed by atlas-based methods and avoiding registration/normalization steps. This makes it convenient for massive multi-site neuroanatomical imaging studies. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to study subcortical structure segmentation on such large-scale and heterogeneous data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptation study of the Turkish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-T).

    PubMed

    Arcan, K; Karanci, A N

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to adapt and to test the validity and the reliability of the Turkish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-T) that was developed by Raylu and Oei (Addiction 99(6):757-769, 2004a). The significance of erroneous cognitions in the development and the maintenance of gambling problems, the importance of promoting gambling research in different cultures, and the limited information about the gambling individuals in Turkey due to limited gambling research interest inspired the present study. The sample consisted of 354 voluntary male participants who were above age 17 and betting on sports and horse races selected through convenience sampling in betting terminals. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis following the original scale's five factor structure indicated a good fit for the data. The analyses were carried out with 21 items due to relatively inadequate psychometric properties of two GRCS-T items. Correlational analyses and group comparison tests supported the concurrent and the criterion validity of the GRCS-T. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the whole scale was 0.84 whereas the coefficients ranged between 0.52 and 0.78 for the subscales of GRCS-T. The findings suggesting that GRCS-T is a valid and reliable instrument to identify gambling cognitions in Turkish samples are discussed considering the possible influence of the sample make-up and cultural texture within the limitations of the present study and in the light of the relevant literature.

  7. Scale factor management in the studies of affine models of shockproof garment elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Oleg; Pleshko, Mikhail; Ponomareva, Irina; Merenyashev, Vitaliy

    2018-03-01

    New samples of protective garment for performing construction work at height require numerous tests in conditions close to real conditions of extreme vital activity. The article presents some results of shockproof garment element studies and a description of a patented prototype. The tests were carried out on a model which geometric dimensions were convenient for manufacturing it in a limited batch. In addition, the used laboratory equipment (for example, a unique power pendulum), blanks made of a titanium-nickel alloy with a shape memory effect also imposed their limitations. The problem of the adequacy of the obtained experimental results transfer to mass-produced products was solved using tools of the classical similarity theory. Scale factor management influence in the affine modeling of the shockproof element, studied on the basis of the equiatomic titanium-nickel alloy with the shape memory effect, allowed us to assume, with a sufficient degree of reliability, the technical possibility of extrapolating the results of experimental studies to full-scale objects for the formation of the initial data of the mathematical model of shockproof garment dynamics elastoplastic deformation (while observing the similarity of the features of external loading).

  8. A thermal scale modeling study for Apollo and Apollo applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The program is reported for developing and demonstrating the capabilities of thermal scale modeling as a thermal design and verification tool for Apollo and Apollo Applications Projects. The work performed for thermal scale modeling of STB; cabin atmosphere/spacecraft cabin wall thermal interface; closed loop heat rejection radiator; and docked module/spacecraft thermal interface are discussed along with the test facility requirements for thermal scale model testing of AAP spacecraft. It is concluded that thermal scale modeling can be used as an effective thermal design and verification tool to provide data early in a spacecraft development program.

  9. Dynamic modeling and validation of a lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis process--a demonstration scale study.

    PubMed

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-12-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis process is one of the key steps in second generation biofuel production. After being thermally pretreated, the lignocellulosic material is liquefied by enzymes prior to fermentation. The scope of this paper is to evaluate a dynamic model of the hydrolysis process on a demonstration scale reactor. The following novel features are included: the application of the Convection-Diffusion-Reaction equation to a hydrolysis reactor to assess transport and mixing effects; the extension of a competitive kinetic model with enzymatic pH dependency and hemicellulose hydrolysis; a comprehensive pH model; and viscosity estimations during the course of reaction. The model is evaluated against real data extracted from a demonstration scale biorefinery throughout several days of operation. All measurements are within predictions uncertainty and, therefore, the model constitutes a valuable tool to support process optimization, performance monitoring, diagnosis and process control at full-scale studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FLARE: a New User Facility to Study Multiple-Scale Physics of Magnetic Reconnection Through in-situ Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, H.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Prager, S.; Daughton, W. S.; Chen, Y.; Cutler, R.; Fox, W.; Hoffmann, F.; Kalish, M.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Myers, C. E.; Ren, Y.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Bale, S. D.; Carter, T.; Dorfman, S. E.; Drake, J. F.; Egedal, J.; Sarff, J.; Wallace, J.

    2016-12-01

    The FLARE device (Facility for Laboratory Reconnection Experiments; http://flare.pppl.gov) is a new intermediate-scale plasma experiment under construction at Princeton for the studies of magnetic reconnection in the multiple X-line regimes directly relevant to space, solar, astrophysical, and fusion plasmas, as guided by a reconnection phase diagram [Ji & Daughton, Physics of Plasmas 18, 111207 (2011)]. Most of major components either have been already fabricated or are near their completion, including the two most crucial magnets called flux cores. The hardware assembly and installation begin in this summer, followed by commissioning in 2017. Initial comprehensive set of research diagnostics will be constructed and installed also in 2017. The main diagnostics is an extensive set of magnetic probe arrays, covering multiple scales from local electron scales ( ˜ 2 mm) , to intermediate ion scales ( ˜10 cm), and global MHD scales ( ˜ 1 m). The main advantage for the magnetospheric community to use this facility is the ability to simultaneously provide in-situ measurements over all of these relevant scales. By using these laboratory data, not only the detailed spatial profiles around each reconnecting X-line are available for direct comparisons with spacecraft data, but also the global conditions and consequences of magnetic reconnection, which are often difficult to quantify in space, can be controlled or studied systematically. The planned procedures and example topics as a user facility will be discussed in details.

  11. Earthquake Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.; Boettcher, M.; Richardson, E.

    2002-12-01

    Using scaling relations to understand nonlinear geosystems has been an enduring theme of Don Turcotte's research. In particular, his studies of scaling in active fault systems have led to a series of insights about the underlying physics of earthquakes. This presentation will review some recent progress in developing scaling relations for several key aspects of earthquake behavior, including the inner and outer scales of dynamic fault rupture and the energetics of the rupture process. The proximate observations of mining-induced, friction-controlled events obtained from in-mine seismic networks have revealed a lower seismicity cutoff at a seismic moment Mmin near 109 Nm and a corresponding upper frequency cutoff near 200 Hz, which we interpret in terms of a critical slip distance for frictional drop of about 10-4 m. Above this cutoff, the apparent stress scales as M1/6 up to magnitudes of 4-5, consistent with other near-source studies in this magnitude range (see special session S07, this meeting). Such a relationship suggests a damage model in which apparent fracture energy scales with the stress intensity factor at the crack tip. Under the assumption of constant stress drop, this model implies an increase in rupture velocity with seismic moment, which successfully predicts the observed variation in corner frequency and maximum particle velocity. Global observations of oceanic transform faults (OTFs) allow us to investigate a situation where the outer scale of earthquake size may be controlled by dynamics (as opposed to geologic heterogeneity). The seismicity data imply that the effective area for OTF moment release, AE, depends on the thermal state of the fault but is otherwise independent of fault's average slip rate; i.e., AE ~ AT, where AT is the area above a reference isotherm. The data are consistent with β = 1/2 below an upper cutoff moment Mmax that increases with AT and yield the interesting scaling relation Amax ~ AT1/2. Taken together, the OTF

  12. Scale and the evolutionarily based approximate number system: an exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Cesar; Jones, M. Gail; You, Hye Sun; Robertson, Laura; Chesnutt, Katherine; Halberda, Justin

    2017-05-01

    Crosscutting concepts such as scale, proportion, and quantity are recognised by U.S. science standards as a potential vehicle for students to integrate their scientific and mathematical knowledge; yet, U.S. students and adults trail their international peers in scale and measurement estimation. Culturally based knowledge of scale such as measurement units may be built on evolutionarily-based systems of number such as the approximate number system (ANS), which processes approximate representations of numerical magnitude. ANS is related to mathematical achievement in pre-school and early elementary students, but there is little research on ANS among older students or in science-related areas such as scale. Here, we investigate the relationship between ANS precision in public school U.S. seventh graders and their accuracy estimating the length of standard units of measurement in SI and U.S. customary units. We also explored the relationship between ANS and science and mathematics achievement. Accuracy estimating the metre was positively and significantly related to ANS precision. Mathematics achievement, science achievement, and accuracy estimating other units were not significantly related to ANS. We thus suggest that ANS precision may be related to mathematics understanding beyond arithmetic, beyond the early school years, and to the crosscutting concepts of scale, proportion, and quantity.

  13. Clinical Utilisation and Usefullness of the Rating Scale of Mixed States, ("Gt-Msrs"): a Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Tavormina, Giuseppe; Franza, Francesco; Stranieri, Giuseppe; Juli, Luigi; Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2017-09-01

    The rating scale "G.T. MSRS" has been designed to improve the clinical effectiveness of the clinician psychiatrists, by enabling them to make an early "general" diagnosis of mixed states. The knowledge of the clinical features of the mixed states and of the symptoms of the "mixity" of mood disorders is crucial: to mis-diagnose or mis-treat patients with these symptoms may increase the suicide risk and make worse the evolution of mood disorders going to the dysphoric state. This study is the second validation study of the "G.T. MSRS" rating scale, in order to demonstrate its usefullness.

  14. Rating scales for musician's dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Berque, Patrice; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart; Frucht, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a focal adult-onset dystonia most commonly involving the hand. It has much greater relative prevalence than non-musician’s focal hand dystonias, exhibits task specificity at the level of specific musical passages, and is a particularly difficult form of dystonia to treat. For most MD patients, the diagnosis confirms the end of their music performance careers. Research on treatments and pathophysiology is contingent upon measures of motor function abnormalities. In this review, we comprehensively survey the literature to identify the rating scales used in MD and the distribution of their use. We also summarize the extent to which the scales have been evaluated for their clinical utility, including reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity to MD, and practicality for a clinical setting. Out of 135 publications, almost half (62) included no quantitative measures of motor function. The remaining 73 studies used a variety of choices from among 10 major rating scales. Most used subjective scales involving either patient or clinician ratings. Only 25% (18) of the studies used objective scales. None of the scales has been completely and rigorously evaluated for clinical utility. Whether studies involved treatments or pathophysiologic assays, there was a heterogeneous choice of rating scales used with no clear standard. As a result, the collective interpretive value of those studies is limited because the results are confounded by measurement effects. We suggest that the development and widespread adoption of a new clinically useful rating scale is critical for accelerating basic and clinical research in MD. PMID:23884039

  15. The Swedish version of the Ritvo autism and asperger diagnostic scale: revised (RAADS-R). A validation study of a rating scale for adults.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lisa M J; Näswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-12-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75 adults with ASD and 197 comparison cases. Also, a subset completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Three out of four subscales had high internal consistency. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity was 93%. The ASD subjects had significantly higher mean scores on all subscales. ASD females had higher scores than ASD males on the sensory motor subscale, a dimension not included in the AQ. RAADS-R showed promising test re-test reliability.

  16. NH4+ ad-/desorption in sequencing batch reactors: simulation, laboratory and full-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Schwitalla, P; Mennerich, A; Austermann-Haun, U; Müller, A; Dorninger, C; Daims, H; Holm, N C; Rönner-Holm, S G E

    2008-01-01

    Significant NH4-N balance deficits were found during the measurement campaigns for the data collection for dynamic simulation studies at five full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), as well as during subsequent calibrations at the investigated plants. Subsequent lab scale investigations showed high evidence for dynamic, cycle-specific NH4+ ad-/desorption to the activated flocs as one reason for this balance deficit. This specific dynamic was investigated at five full-scale SBR plants for the search of the general causing mechanisms. The general mechanism found was a NH4+ desorption from the activated flocs at the end of the nitrification phase with subsequent nitrification and a chemical NH4+ adsorption at the flocs in the course of the filling phases. This NH4+ ad-/desorption corresponds to an antiparallel K+ ad/-desorption.One reasonable full-scale application was investigated at three SBR plants, a controlled filling phase at the beginning of the sedimentation phase. The results indicate that this kind of filling event must be specifically hydraulic controlled and optimised in order to prevent too high waste water break through into the clear water phase, which will subsequently be discarded. IWA Publishing 2008.

  17. Scale and scaling in soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  18. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Sinha, Rajita; Hetland, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many number of studies examining workaholism, large-scale studies have been lacking. The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16–75 years). Participants were administered the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Obsession-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Bergen Work Addiction Scale, along with additional questions examining demographic and work-related variables. Correlations between workaholism and all psychiatric disorder symptoms were positive and significant. Workaholism comprised the dependent variable in a three-step linear multiple hierarchical regression analysis. Basic demographics (age, gender, relationship status, and education) explained 1.2% of the variance in workaholism, whereas work demographics (work status, position, sector, and annual income) explained an additional 5.4% of the variance. Age (inversely) and managerial positions (positively) were of most importance. The psychiatric symptoms (ADHD, OCD, anxiety, and depression) explained 17.0% of the variance. ADHD and anxiety contributed considerably. The prevalence rate of workaholism status was 7.8% of the present sample. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis, all psychiatric symptoms were positively associated with being a workaholic. The independent variables explained between 6.1% and 14.4% in total of the variance in workaholism cases. Although most effect sizes were relatively small, the study’s findings expand our understanding of possible psychiatric predictors of workaholism, and particularly shed new insight into the reality of adult ADHD in work life. The study’s implications, strengths, and shortcomings are also discussed. PMID:27192149

  19. The Strategic Planning Attitude Scale: A Study of Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Nuri; Karadag, Engin; Karaman, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale measuring attitudes toward strategic planning for primary and secondary school administrators. In the research, 498 school administrators (77 females, 421 males; 140 principles, 56 vice and 302 assistant administrators) consisted of the sampling group in three districts of Istanbul/Turkey according to…

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Application of Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warash, Barbara G.; Ward, Corina; Rotilie, Sally

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether attending a one day training on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) corresponded to pre-k classroom changes. Teachers attended an ECERS-R module training and six months later completed a questionnaire to report any classroom changes. The questionnaire consisted of listing the subscales and…

  1. The Relationship between the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Scales and Subtests for Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatino, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study determines the comparability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III in relation to gifted children. Results indicate that both tests produce remarkably similar scale and subtest scores when administered under clinical conditions. (JPS)

  2. Improved pattern scaling approaches for the use in climate impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herger, Nadja; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Knutti, Reto

    2015-05-01

    Pattern scaling is a simple way to produce climate projections beyond the scenarios run with expensive global climate models (GCMs). The simplest technique has known limitations and assumes that a spatial climate anomaly pattern obtained from a GCM can be scaled by the global mean temperature (GMT) anomaly. We propose alternatives and assess their skills and limitations. One approach which avoids scaling is to consider a period in a different scenario with the same GMT change. It is attractive as it provides patterns of any temporal resolution that are consistent across variables, and it does not distort variability. Second, we extend the traditional approach with a land-sea contrast term, which provides the largest improvements over the traditional technique. When interpolating between known bounding scenarios, the proposed methods significantly improve the accuracy of the pattern scaled scenario with little computational cost. The remaining errors are much smaller than the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model spread.

  3. Fractal scaling in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) echolocation: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perisho, Shaun T.; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.; Hajnal, Alen; Houser, Dorian; Kuczaj, Stan A., II

    2016-02-01

    Fractal scaling patterns, which entail a power-law relationship between magnitude of fluctuations in a variable and the scale at which the variable is measured, have been found in many aspects of human behavior. These findings have led to advances in behavioral models (e.g. providing empirical support for cascade-driven theories of cognition) and have had practical medical applications (e.g. providing new methods for early diagnosis of medical conditions). In the present paper, fractal analysis is used to investigate whether similar fractal scaling patterns exist in inter-click interval and peak-peak amplitude measurements of bottlenose dolphin click trains. Several echolocation recordings taken from two male bottlenose dolphins were analyzed using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Higuchi's (1988) method for determination of fractal dimension. Both animals were found to exhibit fractal scaling patterns near what is consistent with persistent long range correlations. These findings suggest that recent advances in human cognition and medicine may have important parallel applications to echolocation as well.

  4. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding brominated organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...

  5. An evaluation of a pre-scaling gel (SofScale) on the ease of supragingival calculus removal.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R; Foyle, D M; Daniels, J

    1994-09-01

    SofScale is a pre-scaling gel, containing disodium EDTA and sodium lauryl sulphate, which is claimed to soften calculus and therefore facilitate its removal. 31 subjects were treated in a double blind randomised placebo controlled split mouth study to evaluate this product. Test or placebo gels were applied to the lingual surfaces of the mandibular teeth for 4 min and the time taken to complete the removal of supragingival calculus recorded. The operator recorded on which side the calculus was considered easier to remove and the patient indicated how comfortable the scaling had been. The mean calculus index was 1.99 for the SofScale group and 1.97 for the placebo. The mean time taken to complete scaling was 5.31 min for both groups. Using the Student t-test, there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.7) between either the calculus index or time taken to complete the scaling between the groups. The operator did not consider SofScale to facilitate calculus removal and patients did not find calculus removal more comfortable when SofScale had been used. There was no increased sensitivity in the SofScale group following scaling. The results of this study do not support the use of SofScale as an adjunct to scaling.

  6. Estimating unbiased economies of scale of HIV prevention projects: a case study of Avahan.

    PubMed

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceptıon scale of barrıers to contraceptıve use: a methodologıcal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Selma; Cetinkaya, Aynur; Cavuslar, Aysel

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and develop the Perception Scale of Barriers to Contraceptive Use (PSBCU) as a measurement tool for the qualitative assessment of the barriers and obstacles women perceived with regard to contraceptive use or low rates of contraceptive use in women using family planning services. The data for this methodological study were collected using the face-to-face interview technique from 320 married women between the ages of 15-49 who were attending clinics at the Hafsa Sultan Hospital, CBU. The data collection tools used in the study, which was carried out from May to September 2014, were the "Introductory Information Form" and the "Perception Scale of Barriers to Contraceptive Use". Language validity and construct validity (explanatory factor analysis) were applied in order to test the validity of the Perception Scale of Barriers to Contraceptive Use. Kaiser Meier Olkin (KMO) analysis was performed to determine the availability of the scale for the size of participants. The sample adequacy calculated as the KMO value was 0.916 and the Bartlett's Test of Sphericity (X 2  = 6721.793 p  < 0.000) sample size analysis value was found to be sufficient for factor analysis. The total Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of 34 items which included three factors explaining 54.95% of the variance after Varimax rotation was calculated to be 0.95. The largest factor was the "cognitive domain" explaining 18.89% of the variance, followed by the "emotional domain" explaining 18.05% of the variance, and finally the "social domain" explaining 18.01% of the variance. Item-total score correlation coefficients of scale items were found to be between 0.54 and 0.83. The study demonstrateded that the "Perception Scale of Barriers to Contraceptive Use" was valid and reliable. We believe that the scale is suitable for use by women in a family planning education and training programs in order to evaluate their situation. It should also be assessed for validity

  8. Effect of spatial and temporal scales on habitat suitability modeling: A case study of Ommastrephes bartramii in the northwest pacific ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Caixia; Chen, Xinjun; Gao, Feng; Tian, Siquan

    2014-12-01

    Temporal and spatial scales play important roles in fishery ecology, and an inappropriate spatio-temporal scale may result in large errors in modeling fish distribution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the roles of spatio-temporal scales in habitat suitability modeling, with the western stock of winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) in the northwest Pacific Ocean as an example. In this study, the fishery-dependent data from the Chinese Mainland Squid Jigging Technical Group and sea surface temperature (SST) from remote sensing during August to October of 2003-2008 were used. We evaluated the differences in a habitat suitability index model resulting from aggregating data with 36 different spatial scales with a combination of three latitude scales (0.5°, 1° and 2°), four longitude scales (0.5°, 1°, 2° and 4°), and three temporal scales (week, fortnight, and month). The coefficients of variation (CV) of the weekly, biweekly and monthly suitability index (SI) were compared to determine which temporal and spatial scales of SI model are more precise. This study shows that the optimal temporal and spatial scales with the lowest CV are month, and 0.5° latitude and 0.5° longitude for O. bartramii in the northwest Pacific Ocean. This suitability index model developed with an optimal scale can be cost-effective in improving forecasting fishing ground and requires no excessive sampling efforts. We suggest that the uncertainty associated with spatial and temporal scales used in data aggregations needs to be considered in habitat suitability modeling.

  9. Perceived Stress Scale: reliability and validity study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Eleni; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Lionis, Christos; Varvogli, Liza; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina

    2011-08-01

    To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14) and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21 version), and a list of stress-related symptoms. Psychometric properties of PSS were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (construct validity), Cronbach's alpha (reliability), and by investigating relations with the DASS-21 scores and the number of symptoms, across individuals' characteristics. The two-factor structure of PSS-10 and PSS-14 was confirmed in our analysis. We found satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (0.82 for the full scale) for PSS-14 and PSS-10 and marginal satisfactory values for PSS-4 (0.69). PSS score exhibited high correlation coefficients with DASS-21 subscales scores, meaning stress (r = 0.64), depression (r = 0.61), and anxiety (r = 0.54). Women reported significantly more stress compared to men and divorced or widows compared to married or singled only. A strong significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation between the stress score and the number of self-reported symptoms was also noted. The Greek versions of the PSS-14 and PSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties and their use for research and health care practice is warranted.

  10. ['Walkability' and physical activity - results of empirical studies based on the 'Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS)'].

    PubMed

    Rottmann, M; Mielck, A

    2014-02-01

    'Walkability' is mainly assessed by the NEWS questionnaire (Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale); in Germany this questionnaire is widely unknown. We now try to fill this gap by providing a systematic overview of empirical studies based on the NEWS. A systematic review was conducted concerning original papers including empirical analyses based on the NEWS. The results are summarised and presented in tables. Altogether 31 publications could be identified. Most of them focus on associations with the variable 'physical activity', and they often report significant associations with at least some of the scales included in the NEWS. Due to methodological differences between the studies it is difficult to compare the results. The concept of 'walkability' should also be established in the German public health discussion. A number of methodological challenges remain to be solved, such as the identification of those scales and items in the NEWS that show the strongest associations with individual health behaviours. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The Self-Efficacy Scale: A Construct Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Mark; Adams, Carol

    Self-efficacy is defined as the belief that one can successfully perform a behavior. Self-efficacy theory asserts that self-efficacy expectancies exert powerful influence on behavior and behavior change. The Self-efficacy Scale, which was developed to assess generalized self-efficacy expectations, consists of two subscales: general self-efficacy…

  12. Thoughts on Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    This essay reflects on the challenges of thinking about scale--of making sense of phenomena such as continuous professional development (CPD) at the system level, while holding on to detail at the finer grain size(s) of implementation. The stimuli for my reflections are three diverse studies of attempts at scale--an attempt to use ideas related to…

  13. The Chinese version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS): Mokken scaling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hierarchical scales are very useful in clinical practice due to their ability to discriminate precisely between individuals, and the original English version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale has been shown to contain a hierarchy of items. The purpose of this study was to analyse a Mandarin Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale for a hierarchy of items according to the criteria of Mokken scaling. Data from 180 Chinese participants who completed the Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale were analysed using the Mokken Scaling Procedure and the 'R' statistical programme using the diagnostics available in these programmes. Correlation between Mandarin Chinese items and a Chinese translation of the Short Form (36) Health Survey was also analysed. Findings Fifteen items from the Mandarin Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale were retained in a strong and reliable Mokken scale; invariant item ordering was not evident and the Mokken scaled items of the Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale correlated with the Short Form (36) Health Survey. Conclusions Items from the Mandarin Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale form a Mokken scale and this offers further insight into how the items of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale relate to the measurement of health-related quality of life people with a myocardial infarction. PMID:22221696

  14. Investigating measurement equivalence of visual analogue scales and Likert-type scales in Internet-based personality questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Tim; Dantlgraber, Michael; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    Visual analogue scales (VASs) have shown superior measurement qualities in comparison to traditional Likert-type response scales in previous studies. The present study expands the comparison of response scales to properties of Internet-based personality scales in a within-subjects design. A sample of 879 participants filled out an online questionnaire measuring Conscientiousness, Excitement Seeking, and Narcissism. The questionnaire contained all instruments in both answer scale versions in a counterbalanced design. Results show comparable reliabilities, means, and SDs for the VAS versions of the original scales, in comparison to Likert-type scales. To assess the validity of the measurements, age and gender were used as criteria, because all three constructs have shown non-zero correlations with age and gender in previous research. Both response scales showed a high overlap and the proposed relationships with age and gender. The associations were largely identical, with the exception of an increase in explained variance when predicting age from the VAS version of Excitement Seeking (B10 = 1318.95, ΔR(2) = .025). VASs showed similar properties to Likert-type response scales in most cases.

  15. Transitioning a home telehealth project into a sustainable, large-scale service: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wade, Victoria A; Taylor, Alan D; Kidd, Michael R; Carati, Colin

    2016-05-16

    This study was a component of the Flinders Telehealth in the Home project, which tested adding home telehealth to existing rehabilitation, palliative care and geriatric outreach services. Due to the known difficulty of transitioning telehealth projects services, a qualitative study was conducted to produce a preferred implementation approach for sustainable and large-scale operations, and a process model that offers practical advice for achieving this goal. Initially, semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior clinicians, health service managers and policy makers, and a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was undertaken to identify the range of options for ongoing operations, plus the factors affecting sustainability. Subsequently, the interviewees and other decision makers attended a deliberative forum in which participants were asked to select a preferred model for future implementation. Finally, all data from the study was synthesised by the researchers to produce a process model. 19 interviews with senior clinicians, managers, and service development staff were conducted, finding strong support for home telehealth but a wide diversity of views on governance, models of clinical care, technical infrastructure operations, and data management. The deliberative forum worked through these options and recommended a collaborative consortium approach for large-scale implementation. The process model proposes that the key factor for large-scale implementation is leadership support, which is enabled by 1) showing solutions to the problems of service demand, budgetary pressure and the relationship between hospital and primary care, 2) demonstrating how home telehealth aligns with health service policies, and 3) achieving clinician acceptance through providing evidence of benefit and developing new models of clinical care. Two key actions to enable change were marketing telehealth to patients, clinicians and policy-makers, and building a community of

  16. A study of energy-size relationship and wear rate in a lab-scale high pressure grinding rolls unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi Dashtbayaz, Samira

    This study is focused on two independent topics of energy-size relationship and wear-rate measurements on a lab-scale high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR). The first part of this study has been aimed to investigate the influence of the operating parameters and the feed characteristics on the particle-bed breakage using four different ore samples in a 200 mm x 100 mm lab-scale HPGR. Additionally, multistage grinding, scale-up from a lab-scale HPGR, and prediction of the particle size distributions have been studied in detail. The results obtained from energy-size relationship studies help with better understanding of the factors contributing to more energy-efficient grinding. It will be shown that the energy efficiency of the two configurations of locked-cycle and open multipass is completely dependent on the ore properties. A test procedure to produce the scale-up data is presented. The comparison of the scale-up factors between the data obtained on the University of Utah lab-scale HPGR and the industrial machine at the Newmont Boddington plant confirmed the applicability of lab-scale machines for trade-off studies. The population balance model for the simulation of product size distributions has shown to work well with the breakage function estimated through tests performed on the HPGR at high rotational speed. Selection function has been estimated by back calculation of population balance model with the help of the experimental data. This is considered to be a major step towards advancing current research on the simulation of particle size distribution by using the HPGR machine for determining the breakage function. Developing a technique/setup to measure the wear rate of the HPGR rolls' surface is the objective of the second topic of this dissertation. A mockup was initially designed to assess the application of the linear displacement sensors for measuring the rolls' weight loss. Upon the analysis of that technique and considering the corresponding sources of

  17. Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (Sheehan-STS)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and prospective assessments of treatment-emergent suicidal thoughts and behaviors are essential to both clinical care and randomized clinical trials. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale is a prospective, patient self-report or clinician-administered rating scale that tracks both treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behaviors. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was incorporated into a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and active comparator study examining the efficacy of an experimental corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist (BMS-562086) for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Method: The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was administered to subjects at baseline, Week 2, Week 4, and Week 8 or early termination. Subjects completed theSheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale by self report. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was designated as an exploratory outcome measure in the study protocol, and post-hoc analyses were performed to examine the performance of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale. Results: A total of 82 subjects completed the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale during the course of the study. Altogether, these subjects provided 297 completed Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale ratings across the study time points. Sixty-one subjects (n=25 placebo, n=24 BMS-562086, and n=12 escitalopram) had a baseline and at least one post-baseline Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale measurement. The mean change from baseline at Week 8 in the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale total score was -0.10, -0.02, and -0.06 for escitalopram, placebo, and BMS-562086 groups, respectively. The sensitivity of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale and HAM-D Item #3 (suicide) for identifying subjects with suicidal thoughts or behaviors was 100 percent and 63 percent, respectively. Conclusions: The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale may be a sensitive psychometric tool to prospectively assess for treatment

  18. Rating scale for the assessment of competence in ultrasound-guided peripheral vascular access - a Delphi Consensus Study.

    PubMed

    Primdahl, Stine C; Todsen, Tobias; Clemmesen, Louise; Knudsen, Lars; Weile, Jesper

    2016-09-21

    Peripheral vascular access is vital for treatment and diagnostics of hospitalized patients. Ultrasound-guided vascular access (UGVA) is superior to the landmark technique. To ensure competence-based education, an assessment tool of UGVA competence is needed. We aimed to develop a global rating scale (RS) for assessment of UGVA competence based on opinions on the content from ultrasound experts in a modified Delphi consensus study. We included experts from anesthesiology, emergency medicine and radiology across university hospitals in Denmark. Nine elements were drafted based on existing literature and recommendations from international societies. In a multi-round survey, the experts rated the elements on a five-point Likert scale according to importance, and suggested missing elements. The final Delphi round occurred when >80% of the experts rated all elements ≥4 on the Likert scale. Sixteen experts consented to participate in the study, one withdrew consent prior to the first Delphi round, and 14 completed all three Delphi rounds. In the first Delphi round the experts excluded one element from the scale and changed the content of two elements. In the second Delphi round, the experts excluded one element from the scale. In the third Delphi round, consensus was obtained on the eight elements: preparation of utensils, ergonomics, preparation of the ultrasound device, identification of blood vessels, anatomy, hygiene, coordination of the needle, and completion of the procedure. We developed an RS for assessment of UGVA competence based on opinions of ultrasound experts through a modified Delphi consensus study.

  19. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): A validation study.

    PubMed

    VanDierendonck, Machteld C; van Loon, Johannes P A M

    2016-10-01

    This study presents the validation of two recently described pain scales, the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP), in horses with acute colic. A follow-up cohort study of 46 adult horses (n = 23 with acute colic; n = 23 healthy control horses) was performed for validation and refinement of the constructed scales. Both pain scales showed statistically significant differences between horses with colic and healthy control horses, and between horses with colic that could be treated conservatively and those that required surgical treatment or were euthanased. Sensitivity and specificity were good for both EQUUS-COMPASS (87% and 71%, respectively) and EQUUS-FAP (77% and 100%, respectively) and were not substantially influenced by applying weighting factors to the individual parameters. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Guiding Learners into Reengagement through the SCALE Environment: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verginis, Ilias; Gouli, Evangelia; Gogoulou, Agoritsa; Grigoriadou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the facilities offered by the open learner model maintained in the web-based, adaptive, activity-oriented learning environment SCALE (Supporting Collaboration and Adaptation in a Learning Environment), in order to guide online students who become disengaged and support their reengagement. The open learner model (OLM_SCALE)…

  1. Mokken scaling of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS).

    PubMed

    Thompson, David R; Watson, Roger

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hierarchical and cumulative nature of the 35 items of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS), a disease-specific health-related quality of life measure. Data from 668 participants who completed the MIDAS were analysed using the Mokken Scaling Procedure, which is a computer program that searches polychotomous data for hierarchical and cumulative scales on the basis of a range of diagnostic criteria. Fourteen MIDAS items were retained in a Mokken scale and these items included physical activity, insecurity, emotional reaction and dependency items but excluded items related to diet, medication or side-effects. Item difficulty, in item response theory terms, ran from physical activity items (low difficulty) to insecurity, suggesting that the most severe quality of life effect of myocardial infarction is loneliness and isolation. Items from the MIDAS form a strong and reliable Mokken scale, which provides new insight into the relationship between items in the MIDAS and the measurement of quality of life after myocardial infarction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.

    PubMed

    García Morales, Mayrolin; Denno, Barbara D; Miller, Douglass R; Miller, Gary L; Ben-Dov, Yair; Hardy, Nate B

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provide insect identifiers, pest managers, insect systematists, evolutionary biologists and ecologists efficient access to information about scale insect biological diversity. It provides comprehensive information on scale insects taken directly from the primary literature. Currently, it draws from 23,477 articles and describes the systematics and biology of 8194 valid species. For 20 years, ScaleNet ran on the same software platform. That platform is no longer viable. Here, we present a new, open-source implementation of ScaleNet. We have normalized the data model, begun the process of correcting invalid data, upgraded the user interface, and added online administrative tools. These improvements make ScaleNet easier to use and maintain and make the ScaleNet data more accurate and extendable. Database URL: http://scalenet.info. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Study on the millimeter-wave scale absorber based on the Salisbury screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liming; Dai, Fei; Xu, Yonggang; Zhang, Yuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem on the millimeter-wave scale absorber, the Salisbury screen absorber is employed and designed based on the RL. By optimizing parameters including the sheet resistance of the surface resistive layer, the permittivity and the thickness of the grounded dielectric layer, the RL of the Salisbury screen absorber could be identical with that of the theoretical scale absorber. An example is given to verify the effectiveness of the method, where the Salisbury screen absorber is designed by the proposed method and compared with the theoretical scale absorber. Meanwhile, plate models and tri-corner reflector (TCR) models are constructed according to the designed result and their scattering properties are simulated by FEKO. Results reveal that the deviation between the designed Salisbury screen absorber and the theoretical scale absorber falls within the tolerance of radar Cross section (RCS) measurement. The work in this paper has important theoretical and practical significance in electromagnetic measurement of large scale ratio.

  4. Length scale effects of friction in particle compaction using atomistic simulations and a friction scaling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, T. W.; Horstemeyer, M. F.

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate and quantify the length scale effects related to interparticle friction under compaction. Previous studies have shown as the length scale of a specimen decreases, the strength of a single crystal metal or ceramic increases. The question underlying this research effort continues the thought—If there is a length scale parameter related to the strength of a material, is there a length scale parameter related to friction? To explore the length scale effects of friction, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using an embedded atom method potential were performed to analyze the compression of two spherical FCC nickel nanoparticles at different contact angles. In the MD model study, we applied a macroscopic plastic contact formulation to determine the normal plastic contact force at the particle interfaces and used the average shear stress from the MD simulations to determine the tangential contact forces. Combining this information with the Coulomb friction law, we quantified the MD interparticle coefficient of friction and showed good agreement with experimental studies and a Discrete Element Method prediction as a function of contact angle. Lastly, we compared our MD simulation friction values to the tribological predictions of Bhushan and Nosonovsky (BN), who developed a friction scaling model based on strain gradient plasticity and dislocation-assisted sliding that included a length scale parameter. The comparison revealed that the BN elastic friction scaling model did a much better job than the BN plastic scaling model of predicting the coefficient of friction values obtained from the MD simulations.

  5. Study of Velocity and Magnetic Field Fluctuations at Kinetic Scale with the DSCOVR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vech, D.; Kasper, J. C.; Klein, K. G.; Hegedus, A. M.; Stevens, M. L.; Case, A. W.; Szabo, A.; Koval, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched in 2015, performs high resolution measurements of the solar wind at the L1 vantage point. The Faraday cup onboard DSCOVR is capable of sampling solar wind velocity distribution functions at cadences up to 1 Hz, which is complemented by the 50 samples/sec magnetic field experiment. The combined usage of these data makes it possible to study kinetic scale physics, in particular turbulent fluctuations and the associated dissipation processes with unprecedented resolution. In this work we investigate recently obtained data sets and analyze correlations between the magnetic field and the measured currents in different energy/charge windows. The goal of the study is to search for active wave-particle interactions at specific locations in phase space. We estimate the significance of these correlations and discuss the implications for our understanding of kinetic scale physics of the solar wind.

  6. Symptom Dimensions of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales in Psychosis: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Todd S.; Jung, Kwanghee; Hwang, Heungsun; Yin, John; Taylor, Laura; Menon, Mahesh; Peters, Emmanuelle; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Waters, Flavie; Lecomte, Tania; Sommer, Iris E.; Daalman, Kirstin; van Lutterveld, Remko; Hubl, Daniela; Kindler, Jochen; Homan, Philipp; Badcock, Johanna C.; Chhabra, Saruchi; Cella, Matteo; Keedy, Sarah; Allen, Paul; Mechelli, Andrea; Preti, Antonio; Siddi, Sara; Erickson, David

    2014-01-01

    The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) is an instrument designed to quantify the severity of delusions and hallucinations and is typically used in research studies and clinical settings focusing on people with psychosis and schizophrenia. It is comprised of the auditory hallucinations (AHS) and delusions subscales (DS), but these subscales do not necessarily reflect the psychological constructs causing intercorrelation between clusters of scale items. Identification of these constructs is important in some clinical and research contexts because item clustering may be caused by underlying etiological processes of interest. Previous attempts to identify these constructs have produced conflicting results. In this study, we compiled PSYRATS data from 12 sites in 7 countries, comprising 711 participants for AHS and 520 for DS. We compared previously proposed and novel models of underlying constructs using structural equation modeling. For the AHS, a novel 4-dimensional model provided the best fit, with latent variables labeled Distress (negative content, distress, and control), Frequency (frequency, duration, and disruption), Attribution (location and origin of voices), and Loudness (loudness item only). For the DS, a 2-dimensional solution was confirmed, with latent variables labeled Distress (amount/intensity) and Frequency (preoccupation, conviction, and disruption). The within-AHS and within-DS dimension intercorrelations were higher than those between subscales, with the exception of the AHS and DS Distress dimensions, which produced a correlation that approached the range of the within-scale correlations. Recommendations are provided for integrating these underlying constructs into research and clinical applications of the PSYRATS. PMID:24936086

  7. A preliminary study to measure and develop job satisfaction scale for medical teachers.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Kavita; Srivastava, Kalpana; Singh, Amarjit; Jadav, S L

    2011-07-01

    Job satisfaction of medical teachers has an impact on quality of medical education and patient care. In this background, the study was planned to develop scale and measure job satisfaction status of medical teachers. To generate items pertaining to the scale of job satisfaction, closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires were administered to medical professionals. The job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and rated on Likert type of rating scale. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to ascertain job satisfaction among 245 health science faculty of an autonomous educational institution. Factor loading was calculated and final items with strong factor loading were selected. Data were statistically evaluated. Average job satisfaction score was 53.97 on a scale of 1-100. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was 0.918 for entire set of items. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction level across different age groups (P 0.0358) showing a U-shaped pattern and fresh entrants versus reemployed faculty (P 0.0188), former showing lower satisfaction. Opportunity for self-development was biggest satisfier, followed by work, opportunity for promotion, and job security. Factors contributing toward job dissatisfaction were poor utilization of skills, poor promotional prospects, inadequate pay and allowances, work conditions, and work atmosphere. Tertiary care teaching hospitals in autonomous educational institutions need to build infrastructure and create opportunities for their medical professional. Job satisfaction of young entrants needs to be raised further by improving their work environment. This will pave the way for effective delivery of health care.

  8. A preliminary study to measure and develop job satisfaction scale for medical teachers

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Kavita; Srivastava, Kalpana; Singh, Amarjit; Jadav, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction of medical teachers has an impact on quality of medical education and patient care. In this background, the study was planned to develop scale and measure job satisfaction status of medical teachers. Materials and Methods: To generate items pertaining to the scale of job satisfaction, closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires were administered to medical professionals. The job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and rated on Likert type of rating scale. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to ascertain job satisfaction among 245 health science faculty of an autonomous educational institution. Factor loading was calculated and final items with strong factor loading were selected. Data were statistically evaluated. Results: Average job satisfaction score was 53.97 on a scale of 1–100. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was 0.918 for entire set of items. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction level across different age groups (P 0.0358) showing a U-shaped pattern and fresh entrants versus reemployed faculty (P 0.0188), former showing lower satisfaction. Opportunity for self-development was biggest satisfier, followed by work, opportunity for promotion, and job security. Factors contributing toward job dissatisfaction were poor utilization of skills, poor promotional prospects, inadequate pay and allowances, work conditions, and work atmosphere. Conclusion: Tertiary care teaching hospitals in autonomous educational institutions need to build infrastructure and create opportunities for their medical professional. Job satisfaction of young entrants needs to be raised further by improving their work environment. This will pave the way for effective delivery of health care. PMID:23271862

  9. Psychopathological dimensions of depression: a factor study of the 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale in unipolar depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Pancheri, P; Picardi, A; Pasquini, M; Gaetano, P; Biondi, M

    2002-02-01

    Agreement on the factor structure of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) has not been consistent among studies, and some investigators argued that the scale's factor structure is not reliable. This study aimed at shedding more light on this debated issue. We studied 186 adults with unipolar depression (Major Depressive Disorder, n=80; Dysthymic Disorder, n=71; Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, n=25; Adjustment Disorder, n=10). They had no comorbid DSM-IV axis I or axis II disorders, and had received no treatment with antidepressant drugs in the previous 2 months. The factor structure of the scale was studied using the principal factor method, followed by oblique rotation. Factor scores were computed for each subject using the regression method. Using the scree-test criterion for factor extraction, we obtained a four-factor solution, explaining 43.8% of total variance. The four factors extracted were identified as (1) somatic anxiety/somatization factor; (2) a psychic anxiety dimension; (3) a pure depressive dimension; and (4) anorexia factor. Patients with Major Depressive Disorder scored significantly higher than patients with other diagnoses on the pure depressive dimension. These results need to be replicated in different cultures, using analogous factoring techniques. Though not exhibiting factorial invariance in the stricter sense of the term, the 17-item HDRS did exhibit a relatively reliable factor structure. Our analysis provides further evidence that the scale is multidimensional. However, as long as the multidimensional character of the scale is taken into account the scale should be able to play a useful role in clinical research.

  10. Adaptation of General Belongingness Scale into Turkish for Adolescents: Validity and Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Mehmet Ali

    2017-01-01

    The current research aims to adapt the General Belongingness Scale (GBS), developed by Malone, Pillow, and Osman (2012), into Turkish for adolescents and to conduct the validity and reliability studies for it. Ages of the participants, a total of 567 adolescents including 274 males (48.3%) and 293 females (51.7%) ranged between 14 and 18 (average…

  11. The Scaling of Loss Pathways and Heat Transfer in Small Scale Internal Combustion Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-16

    less than 5%. Two factors drove the high short-circuiting observed in the 405 studied engines: excess fresh charge delivered to the engines beyond...losses do not begin to increase substantially until engine displacement decreases below 10 cm3. The objective concluded with a parametric study ...81 4.1. Why Loss Pathways in ICEs Scale ................................................................ 82 4.2. Scaling Studies

  12. Laboratory study of sonic booms and their scaling laws. [ballistic range simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toong, T. Y.

    1974-01-01

    This program undertook to seek a basic understanding of non-linear effects associated with caustics, through laboratory simulation experiments of sonic booms in a ballistic range and a coordinated theoretical study of scaling laws. Two cases of superbooms or enhanced sonic booms at caustics have been studied. The first case, referred to as acceleration superbooms, is related to the enhanced sonic booms generated during the acceleration maneuvers of supersonic aircrafts. The second case, referred to as refraction superbooms, involves the superbooms that are generated as a result of atmospheric refraction. Important theoretical and experimental results are briefly reported.

  13. A thermal scale modeling study for Apollo and Apollo applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The development and demonstration of practical thermal scale modeling techniques applicable to systems involving radiation, conduction, and convection with emphasis on cabin atmosphere/cabin wall thermal interface are discussed. The Apollo spacecraft environment is used as the model. Four possible scaling techniques were considered: (1) modified material preservation, (2) temperature preservation, (3) scaling compromises, and Nusselt number preservation. A thermal mathematical model was developed for use with the Nusselt number preservation technique.

  14. The allometric exponent for scaling clearance varies with age: a study on seven propofol datasets ranging from preterm neonates to adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenguang; Allegaert, Karel; Peeters, Mariska Y M; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2014-01-01

    For scaling clearance between adults and children, allometric scaling with a fixed exponent of 0.75 is often applied. In this analysis, we performed a systematic study on the allometric exponent for scaling propofol clearance between two subpopulations selected from neonates, infants, toddlers, children, adolescents and adults. Seven propofol studies were included in the analysis (neonates, infants, toddlers, children, adolescents, adults1 and adults2). In a systematic manner, two out of the six study populations were selected resulting in 15 combined datasets. In addition, the data of the seven studies were regrouped into five age groups (FDA Guidance 1998), from which four combined datasets were prepared consisting of one paediatric age group and the adult group. In each of these 19 combined datasets, the allometric scaling exponent for clearance was estimated using population pharmacokinetic modelling (nonmem 7.2). The allometric exponent for propofol clearance varied between 1.11 and 2.01 in cases where the neonate dataset was included. When two paediatric datasets were analyzed, the exponent varied between 0.2 and 2.01, while it varied between 0.56 and 0.81 when the adult population and a paediatric dataset except for neonates were selected. Scaling from adults to adolescents, children, infants and neonates resulted in exponents of 0.74, 0.70, 0.60 and 1.11 respectively. For scaling clearance, ¾ allometric scaling may be of value for scaling between adults and adolescents or children, while it can neither be used for neonates nor for two paediatric populations. For scaling to neonates an exponent between 1 and 2 was identified. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. A Note on the Score Reliability for the Satisfaction with Life Scale: An RG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassar, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to meta-analytically investigate the score reliability for the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Four-hundred and sixteen articles using the measure were located through electronic database searches and then separated to identify studies which had calculated reliability estimates from their own data. Sixty-two…

  16. Next Generation Analytic Tools for Large Scale Genetic Epidemiology Studies of Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mechanic, Leah E.; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Amos, Christopher I.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Cox, Nancy J.; Divi, Rao L.; Fan, Ruzong; Harris, Emily L.; Jacobs, Kevin; Kraft, Peter; Leal, Suzanne M.; McAllister, Kimberly; Moore, Jason H.; Paltoo, Dina N.; Province, Michael A.; Ramos, Erin M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Roeder, Kathryn; Schaid, Daniel J.; Stephens, Matthew; Thomas, Duncan C.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Witte, John S.; Zhang, Shunpu; Zöllner, Sebastian; Feuer, Eric J.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of genetic markers associated with common diseases. However, most of these markers confer relatively small increments of risk and explain only a small proportion of familial clustering. To identify obstacles to future progress in genetic epidemiology research and provide recommendations to NIH for overcoming these barriers, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop entitled “Next Generation Analytic Tools for Large-Scale Genetic Epidemiology Studies of Complex Diseases” on September 15–16, 2010. The goal of the workshop was to facilitate discussions on (1) statistical strategies and methods to efficiently identify genetic and environmental factors contributing to the risk of complex disease; and (2) how to develop, apply, and evaluate these strategies for the design, analysis, and interpretation of large-scale complex disease association studies in order to guide NIH in setting the future agenda in this area of research. The workshop was organized as a series of short presentations covering scientific (gene-gene and gene-environment interaction, complex phenotypes, and rare variants and next generation sequencing) and methodological (simulation modeling and computational resources and data management) topic areas. Specific needs to advance the field were identified during each session and are summarized. PMID:22147673

  17. A validation study of the psychometric properties of the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Nina Bjerre; O'Neill, Lotte; Gormsen, Lise Kirstine; Hvidberg, Line; Morcke, Anne Mette

    2014-10-10

    Reflection, the ability to examine critically one's own learning and functioning, is considered important for 'the good doctor'. The Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS) is an instrument measuring student reflection, which has not yet been validated beyond the original Dutch study. The aim of this study was to adapt GRAS for use in a Danish setting and to investigate the psychometric properties of GRAS-DK. We performed a cross-cultural adaptation of GRAS from Dutch to Danish. Next, we collected primary data online, performed a retest, analysed data descriptively, estimated measurement error, performed an exploratory and a confirmatory factor analysis to test the proposed three-factor structure. 361 (69%) of 523 invited students completed GRAS-DK. Their mean score was 88 (SD = 11.42; scale maximum 115). Scores were approximately normally distributed. Measurement error and test-retest score differences were acceptable, apart from a few extreme outliers. However, the confirmatory factor analysis did not replicate the original three-factor model and neither could a one-dimensional structure be confirmed. GRAS is already in use, however we advise that use of GRAS-DK for effect measurements and group comparison awaits further review and validation studies. Our negative finding might be explained by a weak conceptualisation of personal reflection.

  18. Evolution of scaling emergence in large-scale spatial epidemic spreading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Qing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Kan

    2011-01-01

    Zipf's law and Heaps' law are two representatives of the scaling concepts, which play a significant role in the study of complexity science. The coexistence of the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law motivates different understandings on the dependence between these two scalings, which has still hardly been clarified. In this article, we observe an evolution process of the scalings: the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law are naturally shaped to coexist at the initial time, while the crossover comes with the emergence of their inconsistency at the larger time before reaching a stable state, where the Heaps' law still exists with the disappearance of strict Zipf's law. Such findings are illustrated with a scenario of large-scale spatial epidemic spreading, and the empirical results of pandemic disease support a universal analysis of the relation between the two laws regardless of the biological details of disease. Employing the United States domestic air transportation and demographic data to construct a metapopulation model for simulating the pandemic spread at the U.S. country level, we uncover that the broad heterogeneity of the infrastructure plays a key role in the evolution of scaling emergence. The analyses of large-scale spatial epidemic spreading help understand the temporal evolution of scalings, indicating the coexistence of the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law depends on the collective dynamics of epidemic processes, and the heterogeneity of epidemic spread indicates the significance of performing targeted containment strategies at the early time of a pandemic disease.

  19. Process, pattern and scale: hydrogeomorphology and plant diversity in forested wetlands across multiple spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, L.; Hupp, C. R.; Forman, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Many geodisturbances occur across large spatial scales, spanning entire landscapes and creating ecological phenomena in their wake. Ecological study at large scales poses special problems: (1) large-scale studies require large-scale resources, and (2) sampling is not always feasible at the appropriate scale, and researchers rely on data collected at smaller scales to interpret patterns across broad regions. A criticism of landscape ecology is that findings at small spatial scales are "scaled up" and applied indiscriminately across larger spatial scales. In this research, landscape scaling is addressed through process-pattern relationships between hydrogeomorphic processes and patterns of plant diversity in forested wetlands. The research addresses: (1) whether patterns and relationships between hydrogeomorphic, vegetation, and spatial variables can transcend scale; and (2) whether data collected at small spatial scales can be used to describe patterns and relationships across larger spatial scales. Field measurements of hydrologic, geomorphic, spatial, and vegetation data were collected or calculated for 15- 1-ha sites on forested floodplains of six (6) Chesapeake Bay Coastal Plain streams over a total area of about 20,000 km2. Hydroperiod (day/yr), floodplain surface elevation range (m), discharge (m3/s), stream power (kg-m/s2), sediment deposition (mm/yr), relative position downstream and other variables were used in multivariate analyses to explain differences in species richness, tree diversity (Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index H'), and plant community composition at four spatial scales. Data collected at the plot (400-m2) and site- (c. 1-ha) scales are applied to and tested at the river watershed and regional spatial scales. Results indicate that plant species richness and tree diversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index H') can be described by hydrogeomorphic conditions at all scales, but are best described at the site scale. Data collected at plot and site

  20. Patterns and scaling properties of surface soil moisture in an agricultural landscape: An ecohydrological modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korres, W.; Reichenau, T. G.; Schneider, K.

    2013-08-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. Soil moisture, and surface soil moisture in particular, is highly variable in space and time. Its spatial and temporal patterns in agricultural landscapes are affected by multiple natural (precipitation, soil, topography, etc.) and agro-economic (soil management, fertilization, etc.) factors, making it difficult to identify unequivocal cause and effect relationships between soil moisture and its driving variables. The goal of this study is to characterize and analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of surface soil moisture (top 20 cm) in an intensively used agricultural landscape (1100 km2 northern part of the Rur catchment, Western Germany) and to determine the dominant factors and underlying processes controlling these patterns. A second goal is to analyze the scaling behavior of surface soil moisture patterns in order to investigate how spatial scale affects spatial patterns. To achieve these goals, a dynamically coupled, process-based and spatially distributed ecohydrological model was used to analyze the key processes as well as their interactions and feedbacks. The model was validated for two growing seasons for the three main crops in the investigation area: Winter wheat, sugar beet, and maize. This yielded RMSE values for surface soil moisture between 1.8 and 7.8 vol.% and average RMSE values for all three crops of 0.27 kg m-2 for total aboveground biomass and 0.93 for green LAI. Large deviations of measured and modeled soil moisture can be explained by a change of the infiltration properties towards the end of the growing season, especially in maize fields. The validated model was used to generate daily surface soil moisture maps, serving as a basis for an autocorrelation analysis of spatial patterns and scale. Outside of the growing season, surface soil moisture patterns at all spatial scales depend mainly upon soil properties. Within the main growing season, larger scale

  1. Mokken scaling analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cosco, Theodore D; Doyle, Frank; Watson, Roger; Ward, Mark; McGee, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a prolifically used scale of anxiety and depression. The original bidimensional anxiety-depression latent structure of the HADS has come under significant scrutiny, with previous studies revealing one-, two-, three- and four-dimensional structures. The current study examines the latent structure of the HADS using a non-parametric item response theory method. Using data conglomerated from four independent studies of cardiovascular disease employing the HADS (n=893), Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of the HADS. A single scale consisting of 12 of 14 HADS items was revealed, indicating a unidimensional latent HADS structure. The HADS was initially intended to measure mutually exclusive levels of anxiety and depression; however, the current study indicates that a single dimension of general psychological distress is captured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenomenological Study of Business Models Used to Scale Online Enrollment at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dana E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore factors for selecting a business model for scaling online enrollment by institutions of higher education. The goal was to explore the lived experiences of academic industry experts involved in the selection process. The research question for this study was: What were the lived…

  3. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  4. Psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of the pure procrastination scale, the irrational procrastination scale, and the susceptibility to temptation scale in a clinical population.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Alexander; Forsell, Erik; Svensson, Andreas; Forsström, David; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2014-01-01

    Procrastination is a prevalent self-regulatory failure associated with stress and anxiety, decreased well-being, and poorer performance in school as well as work. One-fifth of the adult population and half of the student population describe themselves as chronic and severe procrastinators. However, despite the fact that it can become a debilitating condition, valid and reliable self-report measures for assessing the occurrence and severity of procrastination are lacking, particularly for use in a clinical context. The current study explored the usefulness of the Swedish version of three Internet-administered self-report measures for evaluating procrastination; the Pure Procrastination Scale, the Irrational Procrastination Scale, and the Susceptibility to Temptation Scale, all having good psychometric properties in English. In total, 710 participants were recruited for a clinical trial of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination. All of the participants completed the scales as well as self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Principal Component Analysis was performed to assess the factor validity of the scales, and internal consistency and correlations between the scales were also determined. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Minimal Detectable Change, and Standard Error of Measurement were calculated for the Irrational Procrastination Scale. The Swedish version of the scales have a similar factor structure as the English version, generated good internal consistencies, with Cronbach's α ranging between .76 to .87, and were moderately to highly intercorrelated. The Irrational Procrastination Scale had an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of .83, indicating excellent reliability. Furthermore, Standard Error of Measurement was 1.61, and Minimal Detectable Change was 4.47, suggesting that a change of almost five points on the scale is necessary to determine a reliable change in self-reported procrastination severity. The

  5. Adaptation of the PERMA Well-Being Scale into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayse, Eliüsük Bülbül

    2018-01-01

    Seligman's "well-being scale" PERMA evaluates people's level of well-being in five dimensions: P: Positive and Negative emotions, E: Engagement, R: Relationships, M: Meaning, A: Accomplishment, N: Negative Emotion and H: Health. This scale measures a person's level of well being using five components. The measurement scale developed…

  6. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format, which replaces each response option in the Likert scale with a full sentence. We hypothesized that this format would result in a cleaner factor structure as compared with the Likert format. We tested this hypothesis on three popular psychological scales: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, the Conscientiousness subscale of the Big Five Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Scales in both formats showed comparable reliabilities. However, scales in the Expanded format had better (i.e., lower and more theoretically defensible) dimensionalities than scales in the Likert format, as assessed by both exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses. We encourage further study and wider use of the Expanded format, particularly when a scale’s dimensionality is of theoretical interest. PMID:27182074

  7. Experimental Study of Small-Scale Mineral Particles in the Atmosphere of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Chen, B. B.; Popel, S. I.; Dubinskii, A. Yu.; Weidler, P. G.; Friedrich, F.

    2018-03-01

    An experimental study of small-scale mineral particles in the atmosphere over Kyrgyzstan is carried out. It is shown that the substance of the studied particles corresponds to quartz-enriched minerals, feldspars, layered silicates, minerals containing lime carbonate, etc. Overall, there is a definite correspondence between the mineral particle compositions in the atmosphere of Kyrgyzstan and in the other regions of Central Asia. The constructed size-distribution functions of the particles agree with the results of studying the dust aerosol properties in the deserts of Central Asia obtained in the southwestern part of Tajikistan in 1989.

  8. Adaptation of Internet Addiction Scale in Azerbaijani Language: A Validity-Reliability and Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…

  9. Gravo-Aeroelastic Scaling for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Fingersh, Lee J; Loth, Eric; Kaminski, Meghan

    2017-06-09

    A scaling methodology is described in the present paper for extreme-scale wind turbines (rated at 10 MW or more) that allow their sub-scale turbines to capture their key blade dynamics and aeroelastic deflections. For extreme-scale turbines, such deflections and dynamics can be substantial and are primarily driven by centrifugal, thrust and gravity forces as well as the net torque. Each of these are in turn a function of various wind conditions, including turbulence levels that cause shear, veer, and gust loads. The 13.2 MW rated SNL100-03 rotor design, having a blade length of 100-meters, is herein scaled to the CART3more » wind turbine at NREL using 25% geometric scaling and blade mass and wind speed scaled by gravo-aeroelastic constraints. In order to mimic the ultralight structure on the advanced concept extreme-scale design the scaling results indicate that the gravo-aeroelastically scaled blades for the CART3 are be three times lighter and 25% longer than the current CART3 blades. A benefit of this scaling approach is that the scaled wind speeds needed for testing are reduced (in this case by a factor of two), allowing testing under extreme gust conditions to be much more easily achieved. Most importantly, this scaling approach can investigate extreme-scale concepts including dynamic behaviors and aeroelastic deflections (including flutter) at an extremely small fraction of the full-scale cost.« less

  10. Assessment of commonly used pediatric stool scales: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Saps, M; Nichols-Vinueza, D; Dhroove, G; Adams, P; Chogle, A

    2013-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and to match the pictures with descriptors for each stool type. Thirty percent of the children appropriately characterized the stools as hard, loose, or normal using the BSFS vs. 36.6% with the 3-D model (p=0.27). Appropriate correlation of stools as hard, loose, or normal consistency using the BSFS vs. the 3-D model by age group was: 6 to 11-year-olds, 27.5% vs. 33.3% (p=0.58) and 12 to 17-year-olds, 32.1% vs. 39.5% (p=0.41). Thirty-three percent correlated the BSFS pictures with the correct BSFS words, 46% appropriately correlated with the M-BSFS words, and 46% correlated the 3-D stool models with the correct wording. The BSFS and M-BSFS that are widely used as stool assessment instruments are not user-friendly for children. The 3-D model was not found to be better than the BSFS and the M-BSFS. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. A fast boosting-based screening method for large-scale association study in complex traits with genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Yong; Fasulo, D

    2006-01-01

    Genome-wide association study for complex diseases will generate massive amount of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) data. Univariate statistical test (i.e. Fisher exact test) was used to single out non-associated SNPs. However, the disease-susceptible SNPs may have little marginal effects in population and are unlikely to retain after the univariate tests. Also, model-based methods are impractical for large-scale dataset. Moreover, genetic heterogeneity makes the traditional methods harder to identify the genetic causes of diseases. A more recent random forest method provides a more robust method for screening the SNPs in thousands scale. However, for more large-scale data, i.e., Affymetrix Human Mapping 100K GeneChip data, a faster screening method is required to screening SNPs in whole-genome large scale association analysis with genetic heterogeneity. We propose a boosting-based method for rapid screening in large-scale analysis of complex traits in the presence of genetic heterogeneity. It provides a relatively fast and fairly good tool for screening and limiting the candidate SNPs for further more complex computational modeling task.

  12. Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an "Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8". The study group included 691 students out of 10 schools in Eskisehir. Both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted on the data (Burnout stem from school activities, burnout stem from family, feeling of…

  13. Unethical Computer Using Behavior Scale: A Study of Reliability and Validity on Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namlu, Aysen Gurcan; Odabasi, Hatice Ferhan

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out in a Turkish university with 216 undergraduate students of computer technology as respondents. The study aimed to develop a scale (UECUBS) to determine the unethical computer use behavior. A factor analysis of the related items revealed that the factors were can be divided under five headings; intellectual property,…

  14. A priori study of subgrid-scale features in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, F.; Trias, F. X.; Gorobets, A.; Oliva, A.

    2017-10-01

    At the crossroad between flow topology analysis and turbulence modeling, a priori studies are a reliable tool to understand the underlying physics of the subgrid-scale (SGS) motions in turbulent flows. In this paper, properties of the SGS features in the framework of a large-eddy simulation are studied for a turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC). To do so, data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent air-filled RBC in a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio unity and π spanwise open-ended distance are used at two Rayleigh numbers R a ∈{1 08,1 010 } [Dabbagh et al., "On the evolution of flow topology in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Fluids 28, 115105 (2016)]. First, DNS at Ra = 108 is used to assess the performance of eddy-viscosity models such as QR, Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity (WALE), and the recent S3PQR-models proposed by Trias et al. ["Building proper invariants for eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale models," Phys. Fluids 27, 065103 (2015)]. The outcomes imply that the eddy-viscosity modeling smoothes the coarse-grained viscous straining and retrieves fairly well the effect of the kinetic unfiltered scales in order to reproduce the coherent large scales. However, these models fail to approach the exact evolution of the SGS heat flux and are incapable to reproduce well the further dominant rotational enstrophy pertaining to the buoyant production. Afterwards, the key ingredients of eddy-viscosity, νt, and eddy-diffusivity, κt, are calculated a priori and revealed positive prevalent values to maintain a turbulent wind essentially driven by the mean buoyant force at the sidewalls. The topological analysis suggests that the effective turbulent diffusion paradigm and the hypothesis of a constant turbulent Prandtl number are only applicable in the large-scale strain-dominated areas in the bulk. It is shown that the bulk-dominated rotational structures of vortex-stretching (and its synchronous viscous dissipative structures) hold

  15. Experimental Study on Scale-Up of Solid-Liquid Stirred Tank with an Intermig Impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Zhao, Xing; Zhang, Lifeng; Yin, Pan

    2017-02-01

    The scale-up of a solid-liquid stirred tank with an Intermig impeller was characterized via experiments. Solid concentration, impeller just-off-bottom speed and power consumption were measured in stirred tanks of different scales. The scale-up criteria for achieving the same effect of solid suspension in small-scale and large-scale vessels were evaluated. The solids distribution improves if the operating conditions are held constant as the tank is scaled-up. The results of impeller just-off-bottom speed gave X = 0.868 in the scale-up relationship ND X = constant. Based on this criterion, the stirring power per unit volume obviously decreased at N = N js, and the power number ( N P) was approximately equal to 0.3 when the solids are uniformly distributed in the vessels.

  16. A Study on Mutil-Scale Background Error Covariances in 3D-Var Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xubin; Tan, Zhe-Min

    2017-04-01

    The construction of background error covariances is a key component of three-dimensional variational data assimilation. There are different scale background errors and interactions among them in the numerical weather Prediction. However, the influence of these errors and their interactions cannot be represented in the background error covariances statistics when estimated by the leading methods. So, it is necessary to construct background error covariances influenced by multi-scale interactions among errors. With the NMC method, this article firstly estimates the background error covariances at given model-resolution scales. And then the information of errors whose scales are larger and smaller than the given ones is introduced respectively, using different nesting techniques, to estimate the corresponding covariances. The comparisons of three background error covariances statistics influenced by information of errors at different scales reveal that, the background error variances enhance particularly at large scales and higher levels when introducing the information of larger-scale errors by the lateral boundary condition provided by a lower-resolution model. On the other hand, the variances reduce at medium scales at the higher levels, while those show slight improvement at lower levels in the nested domain, especially at medium and small scales, when introducing the information of smaller-scale errors by nesting a higher-resolution model. In addition, the introduction of information of larger- (smaller-) scale errors leads to larger (smaller) horizontal and vertical correlation scales of background errors. Considering the multivariate correlations, the Ekman coupling increases (decreases) with the information of larger- (smaller-) scale errors included, whereas the geostrophic coupling in free atmosphere weakens in both situations. The three covariances obtained in above work are used in a data assimilation and model forecast system respectively, and then the

  17. Classroom Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Teacher Self-Efficacy in Developing Students' Reading, Writing and Verbal Skills: Scale Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canbulat, Ayse Nur Kutluca

    2017-01-01

    This work uses exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to study Verbal Skills Development Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (VSDTS), Reading Skills Development Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (RSDTS) and Writing Skills Development Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (WSDTS) developed to identify classroom teacher candidates' perceptions of teacher…

  18. Scientific Inquiry Competency Perception Scale (The Case of Kazak Post-Graduate Students) Reliability and Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelisli, Yücel; Beisenbayeva, Lyazzat

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to develop a reliable scale to be used to determine the scientific inquiry competency perception of post-graduate students engaged in post-graduate studies in the field of educational sciences and teacher education in Kazakhstan. The study employed the descriptive method. Within the context of the study, a scale…

  19. Evolution of Scaling Emergence in Large-Scale Spatial Epidemic Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Qing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Kan

    2011-01-01

    Background Zipf's law and Heaps' law are two representatives of the scaling concepts, which play a significant role in the study of complexity science. The coexistence of the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law motivates different understandings on the dependence between these two scalings, which has still hardly been clarified. Methodology/Principal Findings In this article, we observe an evolution process of the scalings: the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law are naturally shaped to coexist at the initial time, while the crossover comes with the emergence of their inconsistency at the larger time before reaching a stable state, where the Heaps' law still exists with the disappearance of strict Zipf's law. Such findings are illustrated with a scenario of large-scale spatial epidemic spreading, and the empirical results of pandemic disease support a universal analysis of the relation between the two laws regardless of the biological details of disease. Employing the United States domestic air transportation and demographic data to construct a metapopulation model for simulating the pandemic spread at the U.S. country level, we uncover that the broad heterogeneity of the infrastructure plays a key role in the evolution of scaling emergence. Conclusions/Significance The analyses of large-scale spatial epidemic spreading help understand the temporal evolution of scalings, indicating the coexistence of the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law depends on the collective dynamics of epidemic processes, and the heterogeneity of epidemic spread indicates the significance of performing targeted containment strategies at the early time of a pandemic disease. PMID:21747932

  20. Study on data model of large-scale urban and rural integrated cadastre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liangyong; Huang, Quanyi; Gao, Dequan

    2008-10-01

    Urban and Rural Integrated Cadastre (URIC) has been the subject of great interests for modern cadastre management. It is highly desirable to develop a rational data model for establishing an information system of URIC. In this paper, firstly, the old cadastral management mode in China was introduced, the limitation was analyzed, and the conception of URIC and its development course in China were described. Afterwards, based on the requirements of cadastre management in developed region, the goal of URIC and two key ideas for realizing URIC were proposed. Then, conceptual management mode was studied and a data model of URIC was designed. At last, based on the raw data of land use survey with a scale of 1:1000 and urban conversional cadastral survey with a scale of 1:500 in Jiangyin city, a well-defined information system of URIC was established according to the data model and an uniform management of land use and use right and landownership in urban and rural area was successfully realized. Its feasibility and practicability was well proved.

  1. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  2. Laryngeal manual therapy palpatory evaluation scale: A preliminary study to examine its usefulness in diagnosis of occupational dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Woźnicka, Ewelina; Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Morawska, Joanna; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2017-03-24

    The aim of this study has been to assess the larynx and soft tissue around the vocal tract in a group of people with healthy voice, and in a group of patients with occupational dysphonia using the new laryngeal manual therapy palpatory evaluation scale (LMTPE). The examinations were performed in a study (dysphonic) group of professional voice users who had developed voice disorders (N = 51) and in the control group of normophonic subjects (N = 50). All the participants underwent perceptual voice assessment and examination by means of the LMTPE scale. Additionally, phoniatric examination including VHI (Voice Handicap Index) questionnaire, GRBAS (the Grade of hoarseness, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenic, Strained) perceptual evaluation, maximum phonation time (MPT) measurement and videostroboscopy was performed in the study group. The comparison of the LMTPE total score showed that the results of the study group were significantly poorer than those of controls (p < 0.001). In the study group, correlations were found between the LMTPE results and the VHI scores (p < 0.05), perceptual evaluation by the GRBAS (p < 0.05) and the objective parameter MPT (p < 0.05). The study has proven that the LMTPE scale is characterized by the high score of Cronbach's α ratio estimating the reliability of the test. The results have confirmed that the LMTPE scale seems to be a valuable tool, useful in diagnostics of occupational dysphonia, particularly of hyperfunction origin. Med Pr 2017;68(2):179-188. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. ToHajiilee Economic Development, Inc.(TEDI) Feasibility Study for Utility-Scale Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Burpo, Rob

    2012-02-29

    To Hajiilee Economic Development, Inc. (TEDI) is the economic development entity representing the ToHajiilee Chapter of the Navajo Nation, also known as the Caoncito Band of Navajo (CBN). Using DOE funding, TEDI assembled a team of qualified advisors to conduct a feasibility study for a utility-scale 30 MW Photovoltaic (PV) solar power generation facility on TEDI trust lands. The goal for this project has been to gather information and practical business commitments to successfully complete the feasibility analysis. The TEDI approach was to successively make informed decisions to select an appropriate technology best suited to the site, determine environmental viabilitymore » of the site, secure options for the sale of generated power, determine practicality of transmission and interconnection of power to the local grid, and secure preliminary commitments on project financing. The feasibility study has been completed and provides TEDI with a practical understanding of its business options in moving forward with developing a solar project on CBN tribal lands. Funding from DOE has allowed TEDI and its team of professional advisors to carefully select technology and business partners and build a business model to develop this utility-scale solar project. As a result of the positive feasibility findings, TEDI is moving forward with finalizing all pre-construction activities for its major renewable energy project.« less

  4. Reliability and Validity Study of the Mobile Learning Adoption Scale Developed Based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Aydin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mobile learning adoption scale (MLAS) was developed on the basis of Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The scale that was developed consists of four sections. These sections are as follows: Stages in the innovation-decision process, Types of m-learning decision, Innovativeness level and attributes of m-learning. There…

  5. Reliability and Validity Study of the Mobile Learning Adoption Scale Developed Based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Aydin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mobile learning adoption scale (MLAS) was developed on the basis of Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The scale that was developed consists of four sections. These sections are as follows: Stages in the innovation-decision process, Types of m-learning decision, Innovativeness level and attributes of m-learning.…

  6. Validity and Reliability Study for the Social and Emotional Competence Assessment Scale among 60-72 Months-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ölçer, Sevinç

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the aim is to adapt the scale developed by Merrell, Felver-Gant and Tom (2011) to evaluate Social-Emotional Competence of Children and Young People among 60-72 months old children. Data have been obtained 200 preschool children attending preschool institutions. In testing validity of the scale, expert opinions are taken…

  7. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  8. Pilot-scale study of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Meinel, F; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M

    Adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) is a promising technique for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from treated wastewater. To enhance the adsorption efficiency, PAC is recycled back into the adsorption stage. This technique was examined in pilot scale in comparison to a reference without recirculation. Coagulation with Fe(3+) was carried out simultaneously to adsorption. Extensive OMP measurements showed that recirculation significantly increased OMP eliminations. Thus, significant PAC savings were feasible. The PAC concentration in the contact reactor proved to be an important operating parameter that can be surrogated by the easily measurable total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. OMP eliminations increased with increasing TSS concentrations. At 20 mg PAC L(-1) and 2.8 g TSS L(-1) in the contact reactor, well-adsorbable carbamazepine was eliminated by 97%, moderately adsorbable diclofenac was eliminated by 92% and poorly-adsorbable acesulfame was eliminated by 54% in comparison to 49%, 35% and 18%, respectively, without recirculation. The recirculation system represents an efficient technique, as the PAC's adsorption capacity is practically completely used. Small PAC dosages yield high OMP eliminations. Poorly-adsorbable gabapentin was eliminated to an unexpectedly high degree. A laboratory-scale biomass inhibition study showed that aerobic biodegradation removed gabapentin in addition to adsorption.

  9. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Jonathan; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2015-11-01

    A new mechanism for turbulent mean-field dynamo is proposed, in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the ``shear-current'' effect. The dynamo is studied using a variety of computational and analytic techniques, both when the magnetic fluctuations arise self-consistently through the small-scale dynamo and in lower Reynolds number regimes. Given the inevitable existence of non-helical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help to explain generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects. This work was supported by a Procter Fellowship at Princeton University, and the US Department of Energy Grant DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  10. Development and Validation of Supervisory Behaviour Description Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale which will describe how education supervisors' behaviours are perceived. Four separate studies have been conducted in order to develop the scale. In the first study the scale that was developed is applied to a working group consisting of 704 teachers. The factor structure of the scale is examined by…

  11. Comparison of the psychometric properties of 3 pain scales used in the pediatric emergency department: Visual Analogue Scale, Faces Pain Scale-Revised, and Colour Analogue Scale.

    PubMed

    Le May, Sylvie; Ballard, Ariane; Khadra, Christelle; Gouin, Serge; Plint, Amy C; Villeneuve, Edith; Mâsse, Benoit; Tsze, Daniel S; Neto, Gina; Drendel, Amy L; Auclair, Marie-Christine; McGrath, Patrick J; Ali, Samina

    2018-03-30

    Appropriate pain measurement relies on the use of valid, reliable tools. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the psychometric properties of 3 self-reported pain scales commonly used in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The inclusion criteria were children aged 6 to 17 years presenting to the ED with a musculoskeletal injury and self-reported pain scores ≥30 mm on the mechanical Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Self-reported pain intensity was assessed using the mechanical VAS, Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), and Colour Analogue Scale (CAS). Convergent validity was assessed by Pearson correlations and the Bland-Altman method; responsiveness to change was assessed using paired sample t tests and standardized mean responses; and reliability was estimated using relative and absolute indices. A total of 456 participants were included, with a mean age of 11.9 years ± 2.7 and a majority were boys (252/456, 55.3%). Correlations between each pair of scales were 0.78 (VAS/FPS-R), 0.92 (VAS/CAS), and 0.79 (CAS/FPS-R). Limits of agreement (95% confidence interval) were -3.77 to 2.33 (VAS/FPS-R), -1.74 to 1.75 (VAS/CAS), and -2.21 to 3.62 (CAS/FPS-R). Responsiveness to change was demonstrated by significant differences in mean pain scores among the scales (P < 0.0001). Intraclass correlation coefficient and coefficient of repeatability estimates suggested acceptable reliability for the 3 scales at, respectively, 0.79 and ±2.29 (VAS), 0.82 and ±2.07 (CAS), and 0.76 and ±2.82 (FPS-R). The scales demonstrated good psychometric properties for children with acute pain in the ED. The VAS and CAS showed a strong convergent validity, whereas FPS-R was not in agreement with the other scales.

  12. AN HST PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE LARGE-SCALE JET OF 3C273

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15c observed by very long baseline interferometry. In contrast, we find that the kiloparsec-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of −0.2 ± 0.5c over the whole jet. Assuming themore » knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor Γ < 2.9. This suggests that the jet has either decelerated significantly by the time it reaches the kiloparsec scale, or that the knots in the jet are standing shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these knots, which requires the knots to be in motion, but IC/CMB is also disfavored in the first scenario due to energetic considerations, in agreement with the recent finding of Meyer and Georganopoulos which ruled out the IC/CMB model for the X-ray emission of 3C 273 via gamma-ray upper limits.« less

  13. A Small-Scale, Feasibility Study of Academic Language Time in Primary Grade Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen A.; Zuzolo, Nicole; Primm, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    A small-scale feasibility study was conducted to explore the implementation of academic language time (ALT) in primary grade classrooms with and without access to digital devices. Academic language time is a structural change that dedicates a portion of language arts instructional time to direct vocabulary instruction using evidence-based…

  14. Acculturation and the Center For Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale for Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Brian E; Vermeesch, Amber L; Hall, Rosemary F; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2011-01-01

    Culturally valid measures of depression for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women are important for developing and implementing effective interventions to reduce health disparities. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is a widely used measure of depression. Differential item functioning has been studied using language preference as a proxy for acculturation, but it is unknown if the results were due to acculturation or the language of administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of acculturation, defined with a dimensional measure, to Spanish CES-D item responses. Spanish-speaking Hispanic women (n = 504) were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of Salud, Educación, Prevención y Autocuidado (Health, Education, Prevention, and Self-Care). Acculturation, an important dimension of variation within the diverse U.S. Hispanic community, was defined by high or low scores on the Americanism subscale of the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale. Differential item functioning for each of the 20 CES-D items between more acculturated and less acculturated women was tested using ordinal logistic regression. No items on the Depressed Affect, Somatic Activity, or Positive Affect subscales showed meaningful differential item functioning, but 1 item ("People were unfriendly") on the Interpersonal subscale had small results (R = 1.1%). The majority of CES-D items performed similarly for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women with high and low acculturation. Less acculturated women responded more positively to "People were unfriendly," despite having an equivalent level of depression, than did more acculturated women. Possibilities for improving this item are proposed.

  15. Utility of the response bias scale (RBS) and other MMPI-2 validity scales in predicting TOMM performance.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Davis, Jeremy J; Shepard, Polly H; Herman, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    The present study represents a replication and extension of the original Response Bias Scale (RBS) validation study. In addition to examining the relationship between the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), RBS, and several other well-researched Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) validity scales (i.e., F, Fb, Fp, and the Fake Bad Scale), the present study also included the recently developed Infrequency Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale and the Henry-Heilbronner Index (HHI) of the MMPI-2. Findings from this retrospective data analysis (N=46) demonstrated the superiority of the RBS, and to a certain extent the HHI, over other MMPI-2 validity scales in predicting TOMM failure within the outpatient Veterans Affairs population. Results of the current study confirm the clinical utility of the RBS and suggest that, particularly if the MMPI-2 is an existing part of the neuropsychological assessment, examination of RBS scores is an efficient means of detecting negative response bias.

  16. Can manual ability be measured with a generic ABILHAND scale? A cross-sectional study conducted on six diagnostic groups

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Carlyne; Vandervelde, Laure; Batcho, Charles Sèbiyo; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Several ABILHAND Rasch-built manual ability scales were previously developed for chronic stroke (CS), cerebral palsy (CP), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and neuromuscular disorders (NMD). The present study aimed to explore the applicability of a generic manual ability scale unbiased by diagnosis and to study the nature of manual ability across diagnoses. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Outpatient clinic homes (CS, CP, RA), specialised centres (CP), reference centres (CP, NMD) and university hospitals (SSc). Participants 762 patients from six diagnostic groups: 103 CS adults, 113 CP children, 112 RA adults, 156 SSc adults, 124 NMD children and 124 NMD adults. Primary and secondary outcome measures Manual ability as measured by the ABILHAND disease-specific questionnaires, diagnosis and nature (ie, uni-manual or bi-manual involvement and proximal or distal joints involvement) of the ABILHAND manual activities. Results The difficulties of most manual activities were diagnosis dependent. A principal component analysis highlighted that 57% of the variance in the item difficulty between diagnoses was explained by the symmetric or asymmetric nature of the disorders. A generic scale was constructed, from a metric point of view, with 11 items sharing a common difficulty among diagnoses and 41 items displaying a category-specific location (asymmetric: CS, CP; and symmetric: RA, SSc, NMD). This generic scale showed that CP and NMD children had significantly less manual ability than RA patients, who had significantly less manual ability than CS, SSc and NMD adults. However, the generic scale was less discriminative and responsive to small deficits than disease-specific instruments. Conclusions Our finding that most of the manual item difficulties were disease-dependent emphasises the danger of using generic scales without prior investigation of item invariance across diagnostic groups. Nevertheless, a generic manual ability scale could be

  17. Large-scale laboratory study of breaking wave hydrodynamics over a fixed bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Dominic A.; van der Zanden, Joep; O'Donoghue, Tom; Hurther, David; Cáceres, Iván.; McLelland, Stuart J.; Ribberink, Jan S.

    2017-04-01

    A large-scale wave flume experiment has been carried out involving a T = 4 s regular wave with H = 0.85 m wave height plunging over a fixed barred beach profile. Velocity profiles were measured at 12 locations along the breaker bar using LDA and ADV. A strong undertow is generated reaching magnitudes of 0.8 m/s on the shoreward side of the breaker bar. A circulation pattern occurs between the breaking area and the inner surf zone. Time-averaged turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is largest in the breaking area on the shoreward side of the bar where the plunging jet penetrates the water column. At this location, and on the bar crest, TKE generated at the water surface in the breaking process reaches the bottom boundary layer. In the breaking area, TKE does not reduce to zero within a wave cycle which leads to a high level of "residual" turbulence and therefore lower temporal variation in TKE compared to previous studies of breaking waves on plane beach slopes. It is argued that this residual turbulence results from the breaker bar-trough geometry, which enables larger length scales and time scales of breaking-generated vortices and which enhances turbulence production within the water column compared to plane beaches. Transport of TKE is dominated by the undertow-related flux, whereas the wave-related and turbulent fluxes are approximately an order of magnitude smaller. Turbulence production and dissipation are largest in the breaker zone and of similar magnitude, but in the shoaling zone and inner surf zone production is negligible and dissipation dominates.

  18. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power: Bull Run, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-05-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures' Small-Scale Hydroelectric Policy Project is designed to assist selected state legislatures in looking at the benefits that a state can derive from the development of small-scale hydro, and in carrying out a review of state laws and regulations that affect the development of the state's small-scale hydro resources. The successful completion of the project should help establish state statutes and regulations that are consistent with the efficient development of small-scale hydro. As part of the project's work with state legislatures, seven case studies of small-scale hydro sites were conducted to provide a general analysismore » and overview of the significant problems and opportunities for the development of this energy resource. The case study approach was selected to expose the actual difficulties and advantages involved in developing a specific site. Such an examination of real development efforts will clearly reveal the important aspects about small-scale hydro development which could be improved by statutory or regulatory revision. Moreover, the case study format enables the formulation of generalized opportunities for promoting small-scale hydro based on specific development experiences. The case study for small-scale hydro power development at the City of Portland's water reserve in the Bull Run Forest is presented with information included on the Bull Run hydro power potential, current water usage, hydro power regulations and plant licensing, technical and economic aspects of Bull Run project, and the environmental impact. (LCL)« less

  19. Laboratory studies of aerosol electrification and experimental evidence for electrical breakdown at different scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alois, Stefano; Merrison, Jonathan; Iversen, Jens Jacob; Sesterhenn, Joern

    2017-04-01

    Contact electrification between different particles size/material can lead to electric field generation high enough to produce electrical breakdown. Experimental studies of solid aerosol contact electrification (Alois et al., 2016) has shown various electrical breakdown phenomena; these range from field emission at the contact site (nm-scale) limiting particle surface charge concentration, to visible electrical discharges (cm-scale) observed both with the use of an electrometer and high-speed camera. In these experiments micron-size particles are injected into a low-pressure chamber, where they are deviated by an applied electric field. A laser Doppler velocimeter allows the simultaneous determination of particle size and charge of single grains. Results have shown an almost constant surface charge concentration, which is likely to be due to charge limitation by field emission at the contact site between particle and injector. In a second measurement technique, the electrically isolated injector tube (i.e. a Faraday cage) is connected to an oscilloscope and synchronised to a high speed camera filming the injection. Here the electrification of a large cloud of particles can be quantified and discharging effects studied. This study advances our understanding on the physical processes leading to electrification and electrical breakdown mechanisms.

  20. Preliminary Validation of the Perceived Locus of Causality Scale for Academic Motivation in the Context of University Studies (PLOC-U)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez de Miguel, Manuel; Lizaso, Izarne; Hermosilla, Daniel; Alcover, Carlos-Maria; Goudas, Marios; Arranz-Freijó, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that self-determination theory can be useful in the study of motivation in sport and other forms of physical activity. The Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) scale was originally designed to study both. Aim: The current research presents and validates the new PLOC-U scale to measure academic motivation in the…

  1. The Nottingham Adjustment Scale: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Dodds, A G; Flannigan, H; Ng, L

    1993-09-01

    The concept of adjustment to acquired sight loss is examined in the context of existing loss models. An alternative conceptual framework is presented which addresses the 'blindness experience', and which suggests that the depression so frequently encountered in those losing their sight can be understood better by recourse to cognitive factors than to psychoanalytically based theories of grieving. A scale to measure psychological status before and after rehabilitation is described, its factorial validity is demonstrated, and its validity in enabling changes to be measured. Practitioners are encouraged to adopt a similar perspective in other areas of acquired disability.

  2. Short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; McGrath, Patrick B; Gier-Lonsway, Stephanie L; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are commonly used self-report measures that assess 2 dimensions of social anxiety. Given the need for short, readable measures, this research proposes short forms of both scales. Item-level analyses of readability characteristics of the SIAS and SPS items led to the selection of 6 items from each scale for use in the short forms. The SIAS and SPS short forms had reading levels at approximately the 6th and 5th grade level, respectively. Results using nonclinical (Study 1: N = 469) and clinical (Study 2: N = 145) samples identified these short forms as being factorially sound, possessing adequate internal consistency, and having strong convergence with their full-length counterparts. Moreover, these short forms showed convergence with other measures of social anxiety, showed divergence from measures assessing related constructs, and predicted concurrent interpersonal functioning. Recommendations for the use of these short forms are discussed.

  3. Stability of Rasch Scales over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine S.; Lee, Yoonsun

    2010-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) methods are generally used to create score scales for large-scale tests. Research has shown that IRT scales are stable across groups and over time. Most studies have focused on items that are dichotomously scored. Now Rasch and other IRT models are used to create scales for tests that include polytomously scored items.…

  4. Characterizing and modelling river channel migration rates at a regional scale: Case study of south-east France.

    PubMed

    Alber, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    An increased awareness by river managers of the importance of river channel migration to sediment dynamics, habitat complexity and other ecosystem functions has led to an advance in the science and practice of identifying, protecting or restoring specific erodible corridors across which rivers are free to migrate. One current challenge is the application of these watershed-specific goals at the regional planning scales (e.g., the European Water Framework Directive). This study provides a GIS-based spatial analysis of the channel migration rates at the regional-scale. As a case study, 99 reaches were sampled in the French part of the Rhône Basin and nearby tributaries of the Mediterranean Sea (111,300 km 2 ). We explored the spatial correlation between the channel migration rate and a set of simple variables (e.g., watershed area, channel slope, stream power, active channel width). We found that the spatial variability of the channel migration rates was primary explained by the gross stream power (R 2  = 0.48) and more surprisingly by the active channel width scaled by the watershed area. The relationship between the absolute migration rate and the gross stream power is generally consistent with the published empirical models for freely meandering rivers, whereas it is less significant for the multi-thread reaches. The discussion focused on methodological constraints for a regional-scale modelling of the migration rates, and the interpretation of the empirical models. We hypothesize that the active channel width scaled by the watershed area is a surrogate for the sediment supply which may be a more critical factor than the bank resistance for explaining the regional-scale variability of the migration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RESOLVING NEIGHBORHOOD-SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING: A CASE STUDY IN WILMINGTON, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality modeling is useful for characterizing exposures to air pollutants. While models typically provide results on regional scales, there is a need for refined modeling approaches capable of resolving concentrations on the scale of tens of meters, across modeling domains 1...

  6. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Basic Electronics Skills Self-Efficacy Scale (BESS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Ö.; Korkmaz, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve a measurement tool to evaluate the self-efficacy of Electrical-Electronics Engineering students through their basic electronics skills. The sample group is composed of 124 Electrical-Electronics engineering students. The validity of the scale is analyzed with two different methods through factor analysis and…

  7. Home Language and Language Proficiency; A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study in Dutch Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; van der Slik, Frans; De Bot, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a large-scale longitudinal study into the development of language proficiency of Dutch primary school children aged 7-10. Data on language proficiency and a range of background variables were analyzed. Results suggest that while immigrant children develop their language skill in Dutch considerably over 2 years, they are nonetheless…

  8. Efficiency of professional tooth brushing before ultrasonic scaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Noh, H; Oh, H Y

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of dental plaque biofilm removal with a toothbrush, an interdental brush and dental floss by a dental hygienist prior to ultrasonic scaling on treatment times and client satisfaction. This study was conducted among adults who received scaling after agreeing to participate in this study at a dental clinic in Seoul, Korea, from July to September 2012. Thirty-seven subjects received modified scaling (M-scaling) which is ultrasonic scaling after plaque control with a toothbrush and dental floss by a dental hygienist, and 37 subjects received routine ultrasonic scaling (R-scaling). Univariate and multivariate analyses and chi-squared and t-tests were conducted using SAS. This study was approved by the Kangwon Institutional Review Board. Significant differences were found between the outcomes of M- and R-scaling for both the ultrasonic scaling time (M-scaling, 7.41 ± 6.18 min; R-scaling, 23.22 ± 6.92 min) and the total tooth cleaning time (M-scaling, 15.92 ± 7.70 min; R-scaling, 23.22 ± 6.92 min) (P < 0.001). Subject satisfaction with the scaling process was not significantly different between M-scaling (4.54 ± 0.80) and R-scaling (4.84 ± 0.44). These findings indicated that removing the dental plaque biofilm with a toothbrush and dental floss by a hygienist before scaling with an ultrasonic device was more effective in reducing the working time of the dental hygienist. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A Scale of Mobbing Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop the Mobbing Impacts Scale and to examine its validity and reliability analyses. The sample of study consisted of 509 teachers from Sakarya. In this study construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities and item analysis of the scale were examined. As a result of factor analysis for…

  10. Multi-scale Material Appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongzhi

    Modeling and rendering the appearance of materials is important for a diverse range of applications of computer graphics - from automobile design to movies and cultural heritage. The appearance of materials varies considerably at different scales, posing significant challenges due to the sheer complexity of the data, as well the need to maintain inter-scale consistency constraints. This thesis presents a series of studies around the modeling, rendering and editing of multi-scale material appearance. To efficiently render material appearance at multiple scales, we develop an object-space precomputed adaptive sampling method, which precomputes a hierarchy of view-independent points that preserve multi-level appearance. To support bi-scale material appearance design, we propose a novel reflectance filtering algorithm, which rapidly computes the large-scale appearance from small-scale details, by exploiting the low-rank structures of Bidirectional Visible Normal Distribution Functions and pre-rotated Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions in the matrix formulation of the rendering algorithm. This approach can guide the physical realization of appearance, as well as the modeling of real-world materials using very sparse measurements. Finally, we present a bi-scale-inspired high-quality general representation for material appearance described by Bidirectional Texture Functions. Our representation is at once compact, easily editable, and amenable to efficient rendering.

  11. Geodesic least squares regression for scaling studies in magnetic confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoolaege, Geert

    In regression analyses for deriving scaling laws that occur in various scientific disciplines, usually standard regression methods have been applied, of which ordinary least squares (OLS) is the most popular. However, concerns have been raised with respect to several assumptions underlying OLS in its application to scaling laws. We here discuss a new regression method that is robust in the presence of significant uncertainty on both the data and the regression model. The method, which we call geodesic least squares regression (GLS), is based on minimization of the Rao geodesic distance on a probabilistic manifold. We demonstrate the superiority ofmore » the method using synthetic data and we present an application to the scaling law for the power threshold for the transition to the high confinement regime in magnetic confinement fusion devices.« less

  12. The factor structure of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Thomas; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Schramm, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Stefan G; Stangier, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are two compendium measures that have become some of the most popular self-report scales of social anxiety. Despite their popularity, it remains unclear whether it is necessary to maintain two separate scales of social anxiety. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the factor analytic structure of both measures to determine the factorial validity of each scale. For this purpose, we administered both scales to 577 patients at the beginning of outpatient treatment. Analyzing both scales simultaneously, a CFA with two correlated factors showed a better fit to the data than a single factor model. An additional EFA with an oblique rotation on all 40 items using the WLSMV estimator further supported the two factor solution. These results suggest that the SIAS and SPS measure similar, but not identical facets of social anxiety. Thus, our findings provide support to retain the SIAS and SPS as two separate scales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The English and Spanish Self-Efficacy to Manage Chronic Disease Scale measures were validated using multiple studies.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philip L; Lorig, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Self-efficacy theory, as developed by Bandura, suggests that self-efficacy is an important predictor of future behavior. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program was designed to enhance self-efficacy as one approach to improving health behaviors and outcomes for people with varying chronic diseases. The six-item Self-Efficacy to Manage Chronic Disease Scale (SEMCD) and the four-item Spanish-language version (SEMCD-S) were developed to measure changes in self-efficacy in program participants and have been used in a numerous evaluations of chronic disease self-management programs. This study describes the development of the scales and their psychometric properties. Secondary analyses of questionnaire data from 2,866 participants in six studies are used to quantify and evaluate the SEMCD. Data from 868 participants in two studies are used for the SEMCD-S. Subjects consisted of individuals with various chronic conditions, who enrolled in chronic disease self-management programs (either small group or Internet based). Subjects came from United States, England, Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Descriptive statistics are summarized, reliability tested (Cronbach alpha), and principal component analyses applied to items. Baseline and change scores are correlated with baseline and change scores for five medical outcome variables that have been shown to be associated with self-efficacy measures in past studies. Principal component analyses confirmed the one-dimensional structure of the scales. The SEMCD had means ranging from 4.9 to 6.1 and the SEMCD-S 6.1 and 6.2. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach alpha, 0.88-0.95). The scales were sensitive to change and significantly correlated with health outcomes. The SEMCD and SEMCD-S are reliable and appear to be valid instruments for assessing self-efficacy for managing chronic disease. There was remarkable consistency across a range of studies from varying countries using two languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales: The Expanded Format as an Alternative to the Likert Scale Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format,…

  15. The revised Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale: a validity and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Hale, W D; Fiedler, L R; Cochran, C D

    1992-07-01

    The Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale (GESS; Fibel & Hale, 1978) was revised and assessed for reliability and validity. The revised version was administered to 199 college students along with other conceptually related measures, including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test, and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. One subsample of students also completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory, while another subsample performed a criterion-related task that involved risk taking. Item analysis yielded 25 items with correlations of .45 or higher with the total score. Results indicated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability.

  16. Integrative approaches for large-scale transcriptome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Alexander; Ko, Arthur; Shi, Huwenbo; Bhatia, Gaurav; Chung, Wonil; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Jansen, Rick; de Geus, Eco JC; Boomsma, Dorret I; Wright, Fred A; Sullivan, Patrick F; Nikkola, Elina; Alvarez, Marcus; Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitoharju, Emma; Kähönen, Mika; Seppälä, Ilkka; Raitakari, Olli T.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Price, Alkes L.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Many genetic variants influence complex traits by modulating gene expression, thus altering the abundance levels of one or multiple proteins. Here, we introduce a powerful strategy that integrates gene expression measurements with summary association statistics from large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genes whose cis-regulated expression is associated to complex traits. We leverage expression imputation to perform a transcriptome wide association scan (TWAS) to identify significant expression-trait associations. We applied our approaches to expression data from blood and adipose tissue measured in ~3,000 individuals overall. We imputed gene expression into GWAS data from over 900,000 phenotype measurements to identify 69 novel genes significantly associated to obesity-related traits (BMI, lipids, and height). Many of the novel genes are associated with relevant phenotypes in the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel. Our results showcase the power of integrating genotype, gene expression and phenotype to gain insights into the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:26854917

  17. The Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale: Initial Validity and Internal Consistency Findings From Three Multisite Studies With Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Kelly; Brown, Gregory K.; Stanley, Barbara; Brent, David A.; Yershova, Kseniya V.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Currier, Glenn W.; Melvin, Glenn A.; Greenhill, Laurence; Shen, Sa; Mann, J. John

    2013-01-01

    Objective Research on suicide prevention and interventions requires a standard method for assessing both suicidal ideation and behavior to identify those at risk and to track treatment response. The Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) was designed to quantify the severity of suicidal ideation and behavior. The authors examined the psychometric properties of the scale. Method The C-SSRS’s validity relative to other measures of suicidal ideation and behavior and the internal consistency of its intensity of ideation subscale were analyzed in three multisite studies: a treatment study of adolescent suicide attempters (N=124); a medication efficacy trial with depressed adolescents (N=312); and a study of adults presenting to an emergency department for psychiatric reasons (N=237). Results The C-SSRS demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity with other multi-informant suicidal ideation and behavior scales and had high sensitivity and specificity for suicidal behavior classifications compared with another behavior scale and an independent suicide evaluation board. Both the ideation and behavior subscales were sensitive to change over time. The intensity of ideation subscale demonstrated moderate to strong internal consistency. In the adolescent suicide attempters study, worst-point lifetime suicidal ideation on the C-SSRS predicted suicide attempts during the study, whereas the Scale for Suicide Ideation did not. Participants with the two highest levels of ideation severity (intent or intent with plan) at baseline had higher odds for attempting suicide during the study. Conclusions These findings suggest that the C-SSRS is suitable for assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical and research settings. PMID:22193671

  18. International Large-Scale Assessment Studies and Educational Policy-Making in Chile: Contexts and Dimensions of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Cristián; Meckes, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Chile has participated in all major international large-scale assessment studies (ILSAs) of the IEA and OECD, as well as the regional ones conducted by UNESCO in Latin America, after it had been involved in the very first international Science Study in 1970-1971. This article examines the various ways in which these studies have…

  19. Reliability of plasma polar metabolite concentrations in a large-scale cohort study using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harada, Sei; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Chan, Queenie; Kurihara, Ayako; Fukai, Kota; Iida, Miho; Kato, Suzuka; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Takeuchi, Ayano; Akiyama, Miki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Elliott, Paul; Tomita, Masaru; Sato, Asako; Suzuki, Chizuru; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Takebayashi, Toru

    2018-01-01

    Cohort studies with metabolomics data are becoming more widespread, however, large-scale studies involving 10,000s of participants are still limited, especially in Asian populations. Therefore, we started the Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort Study enrolling 11,002 community-dwelling adults in Japan, and using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The CE-MS method is highly amenable to absolute quantification of polar metabolites, however, its reliability for large-scale measurement is unclear. The aim of this study is to examine reproducibility and validity of large-scale CE-MS measurements. In addition, the study presents absolute concentrations of polar metabolites in human plasma, which can be used in future as reference ranges in a Japanese population. Metabolomic profiling of 8,413 fasting plasma samples were completed using CE-MS, and 94 polar metabolites were structurally identified and quantified. Quality control (QC) samples were injected every ten samples and assessed throughout the analysis. Inter- and intra-batch coefficients of variation of QC and participant samples, and technical intraclass correlation coefficients were estimated. Passing-Bablok regression of plasma concentrations by CE-MS on serum concentrations by standard clinical chemistry assays was conducted for creatinine and uric acid. In QC samples, coefficient of variation was less than 20% for 64 metabolites, and less than 30% for 80 metabolites out of the 94 metabolites. Inter-batch coefficient of variation was less than 20% for 81 metabolites. Estimated technical intraclass correlation coefficient was above 0.75 for 67 metabolites. The slope of Passing-Bablok regression was estimated as 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 0.98) for creatinine and 0.95 (0.92, 0.96) for uric acid. Compared to published data from other large cohort measurement platforms, reproducibility of metabolites common to the platforms was similar to or better

  20. Exploratory Factor Analysis Study for the Scale of High School Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Gökhan; Aslan, Aysegül; Yadigaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    It is important to develop students' positive attitudes chemistry lessons in school because research has suggested that attitudes are linked with academic achievement. Therefore, how to evaluate the attitudes is an important topic in education. The purpose of this study was to develop a Likert-type scale that could measure high school students'…

  1. Nurture Groups: A Large-Scale, Controlled Study of Effects on Development and Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sue; MacKay, Tommy; Kearney, Maura

    2009-01-01

    Nurture groups have contributed to inclusive practices in primary schools in the UK for some time now and have frequently been the subject of articles in this journal. This large-scale, controlled study of nurture groups across 32 schools in the City of Glasgow provides further evidence for their effectiveness in addressing the emotional…

  2. A Scale to Assess Science Activity Videos (SASAV): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Yilmaz; Bakirci, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an assessment scale for science activity videos that can be used to determine qualified science activity videos that can fulfill the objectives of activity based science education, help teachers to evaluate any science activity videos and decide whether to include into science learning process. The subjects…

  3. The Turkish Version of Web-Based Learning Platform Evaluation Scale: Reliability and Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Funda

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the language equivalence and the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the "Web-Based Learning Platform Evaluation Scale" ("Web Tabanli Ögrenme Ortami Degerlendirme Ölçegi" [WTÖODÖ]) used in the selection and evaluation of web-based learning environments. Within this scope,…

  4. Rasch analysis of the participation scale (P-scale): usefulness of the P-scale to a rehabilitation services network.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mariana Angélica Peixoto; Coster, Wendy Jane; Mancini, Marisa Cotta; Dutra, Fabiana Caetano Martins Silva; Kramer, Jessica; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira

    2017-12-08

    A person's participation is acknowledged as an important outcome of the rehabilitation process. The Participation Scale (P-Scale) is an instrument that was designed to assess the participation of individuals with a health condition or disability. The scale was developed in an effort to better describe the participation of people living in middle-income and low-income countries. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to examine whether the Participation Scale is suitable to assess the perceived ability to take part in participation situations by patients with diverse levels of function. The sample was comprised by 302 patients from a public rehabilitation services network. Participants had orthopaedic or neurological health conditions, were at least 18 years old, and completed the Participation Scale. Rasch analysis was conducted using the Winsteps software. The mean age of all participants was 45.5 years (standard deviation = 14.4), 52% were male, 86% had orthopaedic conditions, and 52% had chronic symptoms. Rasch analysis was performed using a dichotomous rating scale, and only one item showed misfit. Dimensionality analysis supported the existence of only one Rasch dimension. The person separation index was 1.51, and the item separation index was 6.38. Items N2 and N14 showed Differential Item Functioning between men and women. Items N6 and N12 showed Differential Item Functioning between acute and chronic conditions. The item difficulty range was -1.78 to 2.09 logits, while the sample ability range was -2.41 to 4.61 logits. The P-Scale was found to be useful as a screening tool for participation problems reported by patients in a rehabilitation context, despite some issues that should be addressed to further improve the scale.

  5. BENCH-SCALE STUDIES ON THE SIMULTANEOUS FORMATION OF PCBS AND PCDDS/FS FROM COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on a bench-scale experimental study to characterize a newly built reactor system that was built to: produce levels and distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) production similar to those achieved by previous re...

  6. English Usage in Daily Life by Turkish Students between 15-19 Years of Age: A Scale Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deha Dogan, C.; Canan Karababa, Z.; Fulya Soguksu, A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale to assess the level of English usage in daily life by students between 15 and 19 years of age, and to compare these students' scale scores according to their achievement levels in an English course. Five hundred and ninety-five participants were randomly selected from a universe.…

  7. Impact of Device Scaling on Deep Sub-micron Transistor Reliability: A Study of Reliability Trends using SRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mark; Huang, Bing; Qin, Jin; Gur, Zvi; Talmor, Michael; Chen, Yuan; Heidecker, Jason; Nguyen, Duc; Bernstein, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    As microelectronics are scaled in to the deep sub-micron regime, users of advanced technology CMOS, particularly in high-reliability applications, should reassess how scaling effects impact long-term reliability. An experimental based reliability study of industrial grade SRAMs, consisting of three different technology nodes, is proposed to substantiate current acceleration models for temperature and voltage life-stress relationships. This reliability study utilizes step-stress techniques to evaluate memory technologies (0.25mum, 0.15mum, and 0.13mum) embedded in many of today's high-reliability space/aerospace applications. Two acceleration modeling approaches are presented to relate experimental FIT calculations to Mfr's qualification data.

  8. Development and Validation of a Risk Scale for Emergence Agitation After General Anesthesia in Children: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Hino, Maai; Mihara, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Saeko; Hijikata, Toshiyuki; Miwa, Takaaki; Goto, Takahisa; Ka, Koui

    2017-08-01

    Emergence agitation (EA) is a common complication in children after general anesthesia. The goal of this 2-phase study was (1) to develop a predictive model (EA risk scale) for the incidence of EA in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia by performing a retrospective analysis of data from our previous study (phase 1) and (2) to determine the validity of the EA risk scale in a prospective observational cohort study (phase 2). Using data collected from 120 patients in our previous study, logistic regression analysis was used to predict the incidence of EA in phase 1. The optimal combination of the predictors was determined by a stepwise selection procedure using Akaike information criterion. The β-coefficient for the selected predictors was calculated, and scores for predictors determined. The predictive ability of the EA risk scale was assessed by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the area under the ROC curve (c-index) was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). In phase 2, the validity of the EA risk scale was confirmed using another data set of 100 patients (who underwent minor surgery under general anesthesia). The ROC curve, the c-index, the best cutoff point, and the sensitivity and specificity at the point were calculated. In addition, we calculated the gray zone, which ranges between the two points where sensitivity and specificity, respectively, become 90%. In phase 1, the final model of the multivariable logistic regression analysis included the following 4 predictors: age (logarithm odds ratios [OR], -0.38; 95% CI, -0.81 to 0.00), Pediatric Anesthesia Behavior score (logarithm OR, 0.65; 95% CI, -0.09 to 1.40), anesthesia time (logarithm OR, 0.60; 95% CI, -0.18 to 1.19), and operative procedure (logarithm OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.30-3.75 for strabismus surgery and logarithm OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 0.99-4.45 for tonsillectomy). The EA risk scale included these 4 predictors and ranged from 1 to 23 points. In phase 2, the incidence of EA

  9. Validation of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale across the Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elissa J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Scale and the Social Phobia Scale (both by R. P. Mattick and J. C. Clark, 1989) was studied with 165 patients with anxiety disorders and 21 people without anxiety. Results support the usefulness of the scales for screening and treatment design and evaluation. (SLD)

  10. Measuring self-reported studying and learning for university students: linking attitudes and behaviours on the same scale.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Russell F

    2002-12-01

    The relationships between self-reported Approaches to Studying and Self-concept, Self-capability and Studying and Learning Behaviour are usually studied by measuring the variables separately (using factor analysis and Cronbach Alphas) and then using various correlation techniques (such as multiple regression and path analysis). This procedure has measurement problems and is called into question. To create a single scale of Studying and Learning using a model with subsets of ordered stem-items based on a Deep Approach, a Surface Approach and a Strategic Approach, integrated with three self-reported aspects (an Ideal Self-view, a Capability Self-view and a Studying and Learning Behaviour Self-view). The stem-item sample was 33, all answered in three aspects, that produced an effective item sample of 99. The person convenience sample was 431 students in education (1(st) to 4(th) year) at an Australian university during 2000. The latest Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model Computer Program (Andrich, Lyne, Sheridan, & Luo, 2000) was used to analyse the data and create a single scale of Studying and Learning. Altogether 77 items fitted a Rasch Measurement Model and formed a scale in which the 'difficulties' of the items were ordered from 'easy' to 'hard' and the student measures of Studying and Learning were ordered from 'low' to 'high'. The proportion of observed student variance considered true was 0.96. The response categories were answered consistently and logically and the results supported many, but not all, the conceptualised ordering of the subscales. Students found it 'easy' to report a high Ideal Self-view, 'much harder' to report a high Capability Self-view, and 'harder still' to report a high Studying and Learning Behaviour for the stem-items, in accordance with the model, where items fit the measurement model. The Ideal Self-view Surface Approach items provided the most non-fit to the model. This method was highly successful in producing a single scale of

  11. Up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models from objects to land use units at the meso-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Flood risk management increasingly relies on risk analyses, including loss modelling. Most of the flood loss models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel multi-variable models significantly improve loss estimation on the micro-scale and may also be advantageous for large-scale applications. However, more input parameters also reveal additional uncertainty, even more in upscaling procedures for meso-scale applications, where the parameters need to be estimated on a regional area-wide basis. To gain more knowledge about challenges associated with the up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models the following approach is applied: Single- and multi-variable micro-scale flood loss models are up-scaled and applied on the meso-scale, namely on basis of ATKIS land-use units. Application and validation is undertaken in 19 municipalities, which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany by comparison to official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB).In the meso-scale case study based model validation, most multi-variable models show smaller errors than the uni-variable stage-damage functions. The results show the suitability of the up-scaling approach, and, in accordance with micro-scale validation studies, that multi-variable models are an improvement in flood loss modelling also on the meso-scale. However, uncertainties remain high, stressing the importance of uncertainty quantification. Thus, the development of probabilistic loss models, like BT-FLEMO used in this study, which inherently provide uncertainty information are the way forward.

  12. Upscaling of nanoparticle transport in porous media under unfavorable conditions: Pore scale to Darcy scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetha, N.; Raoof, Amir; Mohan Kumar, M. S.; Majid Hassanizadeh, S.

    2017-05-01

    Transport and deposition of nanoparticles in porous media is a multi-scale problem governed by several pore-scale processes, and hence, it is critical to link the processes at pore scale to the Darcy-scale behavior. In this study, using pore network modeling, we develop correlation equations for deposition rate coefficients for nanoparticle transport under unfavorable conditions at the Darcy scale based on pore-scale mechanisms. The upscaling tool is a multi-directional pore-network model consisting of an interconnected network of pores with variable connectivities. Correlation equations describing the pore-averaged deposition rate coefficients under unfavorable conditions in a cylindrical pore, developed in our earlier studies, are employed for each pore element. Pore-network simulations are performed for a wide range of parameter values to obtain the breakthrough curves of nanoparticle concentration. The latter is fitted with macroscopic 1-D advection-dispersion equation with a two-site linear reversible deposition accounting for both equilibrium and kinetic sorption. This leads to the estimation of three Darcy-scale deposition coefficients: distribution coefficient, kinetic rate constant, and the fraction of equilibrium sites. The correlation equations for the Darcy-scale deposition coefficients, under unfavorable conditions, are provided as a function of measurable Darcy-scale parameters, including: porosity, mean pore throat radius, mean pore water velocity, nanoparticle radius, ionic strength, dielectric constant, viscosity, temperature, and surface potentials of the particle and grain surfaces. The correlation equations are found to be consistent with the available experimental results, and in qualitative agreement with Colloid Filtration Theory for all parameters, except for the mean pore water velocity and nanoparticle radius.

  13. Detox{sup SM} wet oxidation system studies for engineering scale up

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.T.; Moslander, J.E.; Zigmond, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Catalyzed wet oxidation utilizing iron(III) has been shown to have promise for treating many hazardous and mixed wastes. The reaction occurs at the surface of contact between an aqueous iron(III) solution and organic material. Studies with liquid- and vapor-phase organic waste surrogates have established reaction kinetics and the limits of reaction rate based on organic concentration and iron(III) diffusion. Continuing engineering studies have concentrated on reaction vessel agitator and solids feed configurations, an improved bench scale reflux condenser and reflux condenser calculations, sparging of organic compounds from the process condensate water, filtration of solids from the process solution, and flammabilitymore » limits for volatile organic compounds in the headspace of the reaction vessel under the reaction conditions. Detailed engineering design and fabrication of a demonstration unit for treatment of mixed waste is in progress.« less

  14. Allometric scaling of microbial fuel cells and stacks: The lifeform case for scale-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.

    2017-07-01

    This case study reports for the first time on the comparison between allometric scaling of lifeforms and scale-up of microbial fuel cell entities; enlarging individual units in volume, footprint and electrode surface area but also multiplying a static size/footprint and electrode surface area to scale-up by stacking. A study published in 2010 by DeLong et al. showed for the first time that Kleiber's law does not apply uniformly to all lifeforms, and that in fact growth rate for prokaryotes is superlinear, for protists is linear and for metazoa is sublinear. The current study, which is utilising data from previous experiments, is showing for the first time that for individual MFC units, which are enlarged, growth rate/power is sublinear, whereas for stacks this is superlinear.

  15. Group intervention for burnout in parents of chronically ill children - a small-scale study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Caisa; Åman, Jan; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Lindahl Norberg, Annika

    2016-12-01

    Long-term stress leading to burnout symptoms is prevalent in parents of chronically ill children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a group intervention by measuring changes in self-rated clinical burnout and performance-based self-esteem. In addition, the parental perceptions of the acceptability of the intervention were explored. Previously, we have explored the prevalence of clinical burnout in parents of patients 1-18 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the county of Örebro. All parents who exhibited clinical burnout symptoms in accordance with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) were then invited to participate in a group intervention, which was evaluated in the present small-scale study. The group intervention consisted of eight sessions over a 12-week period, including education about behaviour, cognition and symptoms associated with burnout, intending to help the parents to develop adequate strategies for coping with and reducing stress. We evaluated the effect of the intervention in terms of self-rated clinical burnout and performance-based self-esteem (PBSE). In addition, the acceptability of the intervention was evaluated by analyses of recruitment and retention and self-reports from parents. Sixteen parents (13 of children with TIDM and three of children with IBD) out of 104 reporting clinical burnout participated in the intervention. All participants completed the intervention, and the mean attendance rate at all sessions was 90%. Parents' subjective evaluations were mainly positive, and SMBQ (p = 0.01) and PBSE scale (p = 0.04) measurements were significantly reduced, which effects remained 6 months after completion of the intervention. Despite the small-scale study, we consider that this intervention for parents with clinical burnout was appreciated and well accepted. The significant reduction in clinical burnout symptoms requires further evaluation in randomised

  16. Assessment of the face validity of two pain scales in Kenya: a validation study using cognitive interviewing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients in sub-Saharan Africa commonly experience pain, which often is un-assessed and undertreated. One hindrance to routine pain assessment in these settings is the lack of a single-item pain rating scale validated for the particular context. The goal of this study was to examine the face validity and cultural acceptability of two single-item pain scales, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), in a population of patients on the medical, surgical, and pediatric wards of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya. Methods Swahili versions of the NRS and FPS-R were developed by standard translation and back-translation. Cognitive interviews were performed with 15 patients at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Interview transcripts were analyzed on a question-by-question basis to identify major themes revealed through the cognitive interviewing process and to uncover any significant problems participants encountered with understanding and using the pain scales. Results Cognitive interview analysis demonstrated that participants had good comprehension of both the NRS and the FPS-R and showed rational decision-making processes in choosing their responses. Participants felt that both scales were easy to use. The FPS-R was preferred almost unanimously to the NRS. Conclusions The face validity and acceptability of the Swahili versions of the NRS and FPS-R has been demonstrated for use in Kenyan patients. The broader application of these scales should be evaluated and may benefit patients who currently suffer from pain. PMID:22512923

  17. Development of life story experience (LSE) scales for migrant dentists in Australia: a sequential qualitative-quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, M; Spencer, A J; Short, S D; Watkins, K; Chrisopoulos, S; Brennan, D S

    2016-09-01

    The integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches introduces new avenues to bridge strengths, and address weaknesses of both methods. To develop measure(s) for migrant dentist experiences in Australia through a mixed methods approach. The sequential qualitative-quantitative design involved first the harvesting of data items from qualitative study, followed by a national survey of migrant dentists in Australia. Statements representing unique experiences in migrant dentists' life stories were deployed the survey questionnaire, using a five-point Likert scale. Factor analysis was used to examine component factors. Eighty-two statements from 51 participants were harvested from the qualitative analysis. A total of 1,022 of 1,977 migrant dentists (response rate 54.5%) returned completed questionnaires. Factor analysis supported an initial eight-factor solution; further scale development and reliability analysis led to five scales with a final list of 38 life story experience (LSE) items. Three scales were based on home country events: health system and general lifestyle concerns (LSE1; 10 items), society and culture (LSE4; 4 items) and career development (LSE5; 4 items). Two scales included migrant experiences in Australia: appreciation towards Australian way of life (LSE2; 13 items) and settlement concerns (LSE3; 7 items). The five life story experience scales provided necessary conceptual clarity and empirical grounding to explore migrant dentist experiences in Australia. Being based on original migrant dentist narrations, these scales have the potential to offer in-depth insights for policy makers and support future research on dentist migration. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd

  18. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-06-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterisation facility for "next generation" sampling aimed at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity on quantification of a set of exemplar parameters, organic matter, loss on ignition (LOI), biomass, soil microbiology, MCPA sorption and mineralization is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a fit-for-purpose heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale profile (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-1 m) replication sampling pattern. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results concludes that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  19. Family strengths and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale: a factor analytic study.

    PubMed

    Schumm, W R; Bollman, S R; Jurich, A P; Hatch, R C

    2001-06-01

    20 new items were developed to measure six concepts of family strengths and were administered, along with the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale, to over 266 married subjects as part of a larger survey of current and former members of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). A common factor analysis suggested that most of the items were associated with their expected factors, while reliability analyses indicated that most of the scales had acceptable estimates of internal consistency. The marital satisfaction items clearly were associated with their own factor and not other factors, providing support for the unidimensional nature of the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale and for its construct validity.

  20. Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term “euthanasia” influences people’s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman’s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term “euthanasia”, the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it. PMID:23908751

  1. Scale model experimentation: using terahertz pulses to study light scattering.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Jeremy; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2002-11-07

    We describe a new class of experiments involving applications of terahertz radiation to problems in biomedical imaging and diagnosis. These involve scale model measurements, in which information can be gained about pulse propagation in scattering media. Because of the scale invariance of Maxwell's equations, these experiments can provide insight for researchers working on similar problems at shorter wavelengths. As a first demonstration, we measure the propagation constants for pulses in a dense collection of spherical scatterers, and compare with the predictions of the quasi-crystalline approximation. Even though the fractional volume in our measurements exceeds the limit of validity of this model, we find that it still predicts certain features of the propagation with reasonable accuracy.

  2. Landscape-Scale Research In The Ouachita Mountains Of West-Central Arkansas: General Study Design

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A landscape-scale study on forest ecology and management began in 1995 in the eastern Ouachita Mountains. Of four large watersheds, three were within the Winona Ranger District of the Ouachita National Forest, and a major forest industry landowner largely owned and managed the fourth. These watersheds vary from 3,700 to 9,800 acres. At this...

  3. The Study of Validity and Reliability of the Perceived Value Scale of Prospective Teachers in Terms of Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Engin; Budak, Yusuf; Demir, Cennet Gologlu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop "Perceived Value Scale in regard to Teaching Profession of Prospective Teachers." The validity and reliability analysis of the scale, developed for prospective elementary school teachers, was performed. In order to determine the values of the teaching profession, first of all, the related literature…

  4. Development of the Nonverbal Communication Skills of School Administrators Scale (NCSSAS): Validity, Reliability and Implementation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzun, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale intended for identifying the school administrators' nonverbal communication skills, and establish the relationship between the nonverbal communication skills of school administrators and job performance of teachers. The study was conducted in three stages. The first stage involved the creation…

  5. Psychometric study of the Required Care Levels for People with Severe Mental Disorder Assessment Scale (ENAR-TMG).

    PubMed

    Lascorz, David; López, Victoria; Pinedo, Carmen; Trujols, Joan; Vegué, Joan; Pérez, Víctor

    2016-03-08

    People with severe mental disorder have significant difficulties in everyday life that involve the need for continued support. These needs are not easily measurable with the currently available tools. Therefore, a multidimensional scale that assesses the different levels of need for care is proposed, including a study of its psychometric properties. One-hundred and thirty-nine patients (58% men) with a severe mental disorder were assessed using the Required Care Levels for People with Severe Mental Disorder Assessment Scale (ENAR-TMG), the Camberwell Assessment of Need scale, and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales. ENAR-TMG's psychometric features were examined by: a) evaluating 2 sources of validity evidence (evidence based on internal structure and evidence based on relations to other variables), and b) estimating the internal consistency, temporal stability, inter-rater reliability, and sensitivity to change of scores of the ENAR-TMG's subscales. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a one-factor structure for each of the theoretical dimensions of the scale, in which all but one showed a significant and positive correlation with the Camberwell Assessment of Need (range of r: 0.143-0.557) and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (range of r: 0.241-0.474) scales. ENAR-TMG subscale scores showed acceptable internal consistency (range of ordinal α coefficients: 0.682-0.804), excellent test-retest (range of intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.889-0.999) and inter-rater reliabilities (range of intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.926-0.972), and satisfactory sensitivity to treatment-related changes (range of η 2 : 0.003-0.103). The satisfactory psychometric behaviour of the ENAR-TMG makes the scale a promising tool to assess global functioning in people with a severe mental disorder. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. A cross-national study on the multidimensional characteristics of the five-item psychological demands scale of the Job Content Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Choi, BongKyoo; Kawakami, Norito; Chang, SeiJin; Koh, SangBaek; Bjorner, Jakob; Punnett, Laura; Karasek, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The five-item psychological demands scale of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) has been assumed to be one-dimensional in practice. To examine whether the scale has sufficient internal consistency and external validity to be treated as a single scale, using the cross-national JCQ datasets from the United States, Korea, and Japan. Exploratory factor analyses with 22 JCQ items, confirmatory factor analyses with the five psychological demands items, and correlations analyses with mental health indexes. Generally, exploratory factor analyses displayed the predicted demand/control/support structure with three and four factors extracted. However, at more detailed levels of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the demands scale showed clear evidence of multi-factor structure. The correlations of items and subscales of the demands scale with mental health indexes were similar to those of the full scale in the Korean and Japanese datasets, but not in the U.S. data. In 4 out of 16 sub-samples of the U.S. data, several significant correlations of the components of the demands scale with job dissatisfaction and life dissatisfaction were obscured by the full scale. The multidimensionality of the psychological demands scale should be considered in psychometric analysis and interpretation, occupational epidemiologic studies, and future scale extension.

  7. The impact of variation in scaling factors on the estimation of internal dose metrics: a case study using bromodichloromethane (BDCM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models include values for metabolic rate parameters extrapolated from in vitro metabolism studies using scaling factors such as mg of microsomal protein per gram of liver (MPPGL) and liver mass (FVL). Variation in scaling factor ...

  8. Development of Mathematics Course Attitude Scale: A Preliminary Study of Validity & Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskici, Menekse; Ilgaz, Gökhan; Aricak, Osman Tolga

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a Mathematics Course Attitude Scale to measure high school students' attitudes towards mathematics and to test the validity and reliability of this scale. It is also aimed to reveal whether there are significant differences in school students' attitudes towards mathematics according to their gender and…

  9. A Factor Analytic Study of a Scale Designed to Measure Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, James A.; Perkins, Mark

    A death anxiety scale developed in 1973 by Nehrke was administered to 655 adult subjects. Their responses were differentiated according to age, sex, race, and level of education. Data were also analyzed using the varimax rotated factor matrix procedure to determine significant factors that the scale was, in fact, measuring. Loadings on four…

  10. A Scaled Framework for CRISPR Editing of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Study Psychiatric Disease.

    PubMed

    Hazelbaker, Dane Z; Beccard, Amanda; Bara, Anne M; Dabkowski, Nicole; Messana, Angelica; Mazzucato, Patrizia; Lam, Daisy; Manning, Danielle; Eggan, Kevin; Barrett, Lindy E

    2017-10-10

    Scaling of CRISPR-Cas9 technology in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represents an important step for modeling complex disease and developing drug screens in human cells. However, variables affecting the scaling efficiency of gene editing in hPSCs remain poorly understood. Here, we report a standardized CRISPR-Cas9 approach, with robust benchmarking at each step, to successfully target and genotype a set of psychiatric disease-implicated genes in hPSCs and provide a resource of edited hPSC lines for six of these genes. We found that transcriptional state and nucleosome positioning around targeted loci was not correlated with editing efficiency. However, editing frequencies varied between different hPSC lines and correlated with genomic stability, underscoring the need for careful cell line selection and unbiased assessments of genomic integrity. Together, our step-by-step quantification and in-depth analyses provide an experimental roadmap for scaling Cas9-mediated editing in hPSCs to study psychiatric disease, with broader applicability for other polygenic diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring and assessment of soil erosion at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests affected by fire damage in northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Ali; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Naderi-Khorasgani, Mehdi; Kerry, Ruth; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, Ruhollah

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the occurrence of erosion processes at large scales is very difficult without studying them at small scales. In this study, soil erosion parameters were investigated at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests in northern Iran. Surface erosion and some vegetation attributes were measured at the watershed scale in 30 parcels of land which were separated into 15 fire-affected (burned) forests and 15 original (unburned) forests adjacent to the burned sites. The soil erodibility factor and splash erosion were also determined at the micro-plot scale within each burned and unburned site. Furthermore, soil sampling and infiltration studies were carried out at 80 other sites, as well as the 30 burned and unburned sites, (a total of 110 points) to create a map of the soil erodibility factor at the regional scale. Maps of topography, rainfall, and cover-management were also determined for the study area. The maps of erosion risk and erosion risk potential were finally prepared for the study area using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) procedure. Results indicated that destruction of the protective cover of forested areas by fire had significant effects on splash erosion and the soil erodibility factor at the micro-plot scale and also on surface erosion, erosion risk, and erosion risk potential at the watershed scale. Moreover, the results showed that correlation coefficients between different variables at the micro-plot and watershed scales were positive and significant. Finally, assessment and monitoring of the erosion maps at the regional scale showed that the central and western parts of the study area were more susceptible to erosion compared with the western regions due to more intense crop-management, greater soil erodibility, and more rainfall. The relationships between erosion parameters and the most important vegetation attributes were also used to provide models with equations that were specific to the study region. The results of this

  12. A longitudinal evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Population using Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Covic, Tanya; Pallant, Julie F; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to test the internal validity of the total Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale using Rasch analysis in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population. Methods CES-D was administered to 157 patients with RA over three time points within a 12 month period. Rasch analysis was applied using RUMM2020 software to assess the overall fit of the model, the response scale used, individual item fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and person separation. Results Pooled data across three time points was shown to fit the Rasch model with removal of seven items from the original 20-item CES-D scale. It was necessary to rescore the response format from four to three categories in order to improve the scale's fit. Two items demonstrated some DIF for age and gender but were retained within the 13-item CES-D scale. A new cut point for depression score of 9 was found to correspond to the original cut point score of 16 in the full CES-D scale. Conclusion This Rasch analysis of the CES-D in a longstanding RA cohort resulted in the construction of a modified 13-item scale with good internal validity. Further validation of the modified scale is recommended particularly in relation to the new cut point for depression. PMID:17629902

  13. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff hasmore » been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.« less

  14. Scaling a Convection-Resolving RCM to Near-Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutwyler, D.; Fuhrer, O.; Chadha, T.; Kwasniewski, G.; Hoefler, T.; Lapillonne, X.; Lüthi, D.; Osuna, C.; Schar, C.; Schulthess, T. C.; Vogt, H.

    2017-12-01

    In the recent years, first decade-long kilometer-scale resolution RCM simulations have been performed on continental-scale computational domains. However, the size of the planet Earth is still an order of magnitude larger and thus the computational implications of performing global climate simulations at this resolution are challenging. We explore the gap between the currently established RCM simulations and global simulations by scaling the GPU accelerated version of the COSMO model to a near-global computational domain. To this end, the evolution of an idealized moist baroclinic wave has been simulated over the course of 10 days with a grid spacing of up to 930 m. The computational mesh employs 36'000 x 16'001 x 60 grid points and covers 98.4% of the planet's surface. The code shows perfect weak scaling up to 4'888 Nodes of the Piz Daint supercomputer and yields 0.043 simulated years per day (SYPD) which is approximately one seventh of the 0.2-0.3 SYPD required to conduct AMIP-type simulations. However, at half the resolution (1.9 km) we've observed 0.23 SYPD. Besides formation of frontal precipitating systems containing embedded explicitly-resolved convective motions, the simulations reveal a secondary instability that leads to cut-off warm-core cyclonic vortices in the cyclone's core, once the grid spacing is refined to the kilometer scale. The explicit representation of embedded moist convection and the representation of the previously unresolved instabilities exhibit a physically different behavior in comparison to coarser-resolution simulations. The study demonstrates that global climate simulations using kilometer-scale resolution are imminent and serves as a baseline benchmark for global climate model applications and future exascale supercomputing systems.

  15. Initial Validation Study for a Scale Used to Determine Service Intensity for Itinerant Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrund, Rona L.; Darst, Shannon; Munro, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to begin validation of a scale that will be used by teachers of students with visual impairments to determine appropriate recommended type and frequency of services for their students based on identified student need. Methods: Validity and reliability of the Visual Impairment Scale of Service Intensity…

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Chinese Medicine Diagnosis Scale of Phlegm and Blood Stasis Syndrome in Coronary Heart Disease: A Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Qi; Peng, Dan-Hong; Wang, Yan-Ping; Xie, Rong; Chen, Xin-Lin; Yu, Chun-Quan; Li, Xian-Tao

    2018-05-03

    Phlegm and blood stasis syndrome (PBSS) is one of the main syndromes in coronary heart disease (CHD). Syndromes of Chinese medicine (CM) are lack of quantitative and easyimplementation diagnosis standards. To quantify and standardize the diagnosis of PBSS, scales are usually applied. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CM diagnosis scale of PBSS in CHD. Six hundred patients with stable angina pectoris of CHD, 300 in case group and 300 in control group, will be recruited from 5 hospitals across China. Diagnosis from 2 experts will be considered as the "gold standard". The study design consists of 2 phases: pilot test is used to evaluate the reliability and validity, and diagnostic test is used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the scale, including sensitivity, specififi city, likelihood ratio and area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. This study will evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CM diagnosis scale of PBSS in CHD. The consensus of 2 experts may not be ideal as a "gold standard", and itself still requires further study. (No. ChiCTR-OOC-15006599).

  17. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  18. Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2015-03-01

    A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.

  19. A new way to protect privacy in large-scale genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Kamm, Liina; Bogdanov, Dan; Laur, Sven; Vilo, Jaak

    2013-04-01

    Increased availability of various genotyping techniques has initiated a race for finding genetic markers that can be used in diagnostics and personalized medicine. Although many genetic risk factors are known, key causes of common diseases with complex heritage patterns are still unknown. Identification of such complex traits requires a targeted study over a large collection of data. Ideally, such studies bring together data from many biobanks. However, data aggregation on such a large scale raises many privacy issues. We show how to conduct such studies without violating privacy of individual donors and without leaking the data to third parties. The presented solution has provable security guarantees. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Single-scale renormalisation group improvement of multi-scale effective potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chataignier, Leonardo; Prokopec, Tomislav; Schmidt, Michael G.; Świeżewska, Bogumiła

    2018-03-01

    We present a new method for renormalisation group improvement of the effective potential of a quantum field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields. The method amounts to solving the renormalisation group equation for the effective potential with the boundary conditions chosen on the hypersurface where quantum corrections vanish. This hypersurface is defined through a suitable choice of a field-dependent value for the renormalisation scale. The method can be applied to any order in perturbation theory and it is a generalisation of the standard procedure valid for the one-field case. In our method, however, the choice of the renormalisation scale does not eliminate individual logarithmic terms but rather the entire loop corrections to the effective potential. It allows us to evaluate the improved effective potential for arbitrary values of the scalar fields using the tree-level potential with running coupling constants as long as they remain perturbative. This opens the possibility of studying various applications which require an analysis of multi-field effective potentials across different energy scales. In particular, the issue of stability of the scalar potential can be easily studied beyond tree level.

  1. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    inventory on industrial and transportation sources other than big power plants. Through the inventory evaluation, the necessity to develop high-resolution emission inventory with comprehensive emission source information is revealed for atmospheric science studies and air quality improvement at local scale.

  2. Phase boundaries of power-law Anderson and Kondo models: A poor man's scaling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Mengxing; Chowdhury, Tathagata; Mohammed, Aaron; Ingersent, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    We use the poor man's scaling approach to study the phase boundaries of a pair of quantum impurity models featuring a power-law density of states ρ (ɛ ) ∝|ɛ| r , either vanishing (for r >0 ) or diverging (for r <0 ) at the Fermi energy ɛ =0 , that gives rise to quantum phase transitions between local-moment and Kondo-screened phases. For the Anderson model with a pseudogap (i.e., r >0 ), we find the phase boundary for (a) 0 1 , where the phases are separated by first-order quantum phase transitions that are accessible only for broken p-h symmetry. For the p-h-symmetric Kondo model with easy-axis or easy-plane anisotropy of the impurity-band spin exchange, the phase boundary and scaling trajectories are obtained for both r >0 and r <0 . Throughout the regime of weak-to-moderate impurity-band coupling in which poor man's scaling is expected to be valid, the approach predicts phase boundaries in excellent qualitative and good quantitative agreement with the nonperturbative numerical renormalization group, while also establishing the functional relations between model parameters along these boundaries.

  3. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 1. Founding principles and scale laws.

    PubMed

    Auffray, Charles; Nottale, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, and discuss how scale laws of increasing complexity can be used to model and understand the behaviour of complex biological systems. In scale relativity theory, the geometry of space is considered to be continuous but non-differentiable, therefore fractal (i.e., explicitly scale-dependent). One writes the equations of motion in such a space as geodesics equations, under the constraint of the principle of relativity of all scales in nature. To this purpose, covariant derivatives are constructed that implement the various effects of the non-differentiable and fractal geometry. In this first review paper, the scale laws that describe the new dependence on resolutions of physical quantities are obtained as solutions of differential equations acting in the scale space. This leads to several possible levels of description for these laws, from the simplest scale invariant laws to generalized laws with variable fractal dimensions. Initial applications of these laws to the study of species evolution, embryogenesis and cell confinement are discussed.

  4. Modeling Randomness in Judging Rating Scales with a Random-Effects Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the random-effects rating scale model (RE-RSM) which takes into account randomness in the thresholds over persons by treating them as random-effects and adding a random variable for each threshold in the rating scale model (RSM) (Andrich, 1978). The RE-RSM turns out to be a special case of the multidimensional random…

  5. Moving image analysis to the cloud: A case study with a genome-scale tomographic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Kevin; Stampanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the time required to measure a terabyte of microscopic imaging data has gone from years to minutes. This shift has moved many of the challenges away from experimental design and measurement to scalable storage, organization, and analysis. As many scientists and scientific institutions lack training and competencies in these areas, major bottlenecks have arisen and led to substantial delays and gaps between measurement, understanding, and dissemination. We present in this paper a framework for analyzing large 3D datasets using cloud-based computational and storage resources. We demonstrate its applicability by showing the setup and costs associated with the analysis of a genome-scale study of bone microstructure. We then evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages associated with local versus cloud infrastructures.

  6. The natural resources supply indexes study of the pig breeding scale in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Zhang, Qi-Zhen; Ji, Xue-Qiang; Xu, Yue-Feng

    2017-08-01

    For the pollution problem of the pig breeding scale, we took three indexes as evaluation criterion, including arable land per capita, the water resource per capita and per capita share of grain. Then SPSS was used to synthesized the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale. The results show that with the fast development of technology and the steadily rising of grain production, the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale are raising constantly.

  7. The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE): translation and validation study of the Iranian version

    PubMed Central

    Tavoli, Azadeh; Melyani, Mahdiyeh; Bakhtiari, Maryam; Ghaedi, Gholam Hossein; Montazeri, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE) is a commonly used instrument to measure social anxiety. This study aimed to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the BFNE in Iran. Methods The English language version of the BFNE was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 235 students with (n = 33, clinical group) and without social phobia (n = 202, non-clinical group). In addition to the BFNE, two standard instruments were used to measure social phobia severity: the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). All participants completed a brief background information questionnaire, the SPIN, the SIAS and the BFNE scales. Statistical analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the BFNE. Results In all 235 students were studied (111 male and 124 female). The mean age for non-clinical group was 22.2 (SD = 2.1) years and for clinical sample it was 22.4 (SD = 1.8) years. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (to test reliability) was acceptable for both non-clinical and clinical samples (α = 0.90 and 0.82 respectively). In addition, 3-week test-retest reliability was performed in non-clinical sample and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was quite high (ICC = 0.71). Validity as performed using convergent and discriminant validity showed satisfactory results. The questionnaire correlated well with established measures of social phobia such as the SPIN (r = 0.43, p < 0.001) and the SIAS (r = 0.54, p < 0.001). Also the BFNE discriminated well between men and women with and without social phobia in the expected direction. Factor analysis supported a two-factor solution corresponding to positive and reverse-worded items. Conclusion This validation study of the Iranian version of BFNE proved that it is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of social phobia. However, since the scale showed a

  8. The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE): translation and validation study of the Iranian version.

    PubMed

    Tavoli, Azadeh; Melyani, Mahdiyeh; Bakhtiari, Maryam; Ghaedi, Gholam Hossein; Montazeri, Ali

    2009-07-09

    The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE) is a commonly used instrument to measure social anxiety. This study aimed to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the BFNE in Iran. The English language version of the BFNE was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 235 students with (n = 33, clinical group) and without social phobia (n = 202, non-clinical group). In addition to the BFNE, two standard instruments were used to measure social phobia severity: the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). All participants completed a brief background information questionnaire, the SPIN, the SIAS and the BFNE scales. Statistical analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the BFNE. In all 235 students were studied (111 male and 124 female). The mean age for non-clinical group was 22.2 (SD = 2.1) years and for clinical sample it was 22.4 (SD = 1.8) years. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (to test reliability) was acceptable for both non-clinical and clinical samples (alpha = 0.90 and 0.82 respectively). In addition, 3-week test-retest reliability was performed in non-clinical sample and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was quite high (ICC = 0.71). Validity as performed using convergent and discriminant validity showed satisfactory results. The questionnaire correlated well with established measures of social phobia such as the SPIN (r = 0.43, p < 0.001) and the SIAS (r = 0.54, p < 0.001). Also the BFNE discriminated well between men and women with and without social phobia in the expected direction. Factor analysis supported a two-factor solution corresponding to positive and reverse-worded items. This validation study of the Iranian version of BFNE proved that it is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of social phobia. However, since the scale showed a two-factor structure and this does

  9. Multidisciplinary Delphi Development of a Scale to Evaluate Team Function in Obstetric Emergencies: The PETRA Scale.

    PubMed

    Balki, Mrinalini; Hoppe, David; Monks, David; Cooke, Mary Ellen; Sharples, Lynn; Windrim, Rory

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new interdisciplinary teamwork scale, the Perinatal Emergency: Team Response Assessment (PETRA), for the management of obstetric crises, through consensus agreement of obstetric caregivers. This prospective study was performed using expert consensus, based on a Delphi method. The study investigators developed a new PETRA tool, specifically related to obstetric crisis management, based on the existing literature and discussions among themselves. The scale was distributed to a selected panel of experts in the field for the Delphi process. After each round of Delphi, every component of the scale was analyzed quantitatively by the percentage of agreement ratings and each comment reviewed by the blinded investigators. The assessment scale was then modified, with components of less than 80% agreement removed from the scale. The process was repeated on three occasions to reach a consensus and final PETRA scale. Fourteen of 24 invited experts participated in the Delphi process. The original PETRA scale included six categories and 48 items, one global scale item, and a 3-point rubric for rating. The overall percentage agreement by experts in the first, second, and third rounds was 95.0%, 93.2%, and 98.5%, respectively. The final scale after the third round of Delphi consisted of the following seven categories: shared mental model, communication, situational awareness, leadership, followership, workload management, and positive/effective behaviours and attitudes. There were 34 individual items within these categories, each with a 5-point rating rubric (1 = unacceptable to 5 = perfect). Using a structured Delphi method, we established the face and content validity of this assessment scale that focuses on important aspects of interdisciplinary teamwork in the management of obstetric crises. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada

  10. A systems approach to assess farm-scale nutrient and trace element dynamics: a case study at the Ojebyn dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Ingrid; Modin-Edman, Anna-Karin; Bengtsson, Helena; Gustafson, Gunnela M; Salomon, Eva; Nilsson, S Ingvar; Holmqvist, Johan; Jonsson, Simon; Sverdrup, Harald

    2005-06-01

    A systems analysis approach was used to assess farmscale nutrient and trace element sustainability by combining full-scale field experiments with specific studies of nutrient release from mineral weathering and trace-element cycling. At the Ojebyn dairy farm in northern Sweden, a farm-scale case study including phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and zinc (Zn) was run to compare organic and conventional agricultural management practices. By combining different element-balance approaches (at farmgate, barn, and field scales) and further adapting these to the FARMFLOW model, we were able to combine mass flows and pools within the subsystems and establish links between subsystems in order to make farm-scale predictions. It was found that internal element flows on the farm are large and that there are farm internal sources (Zn) and loss terms (K). The approaches developed and tested at the Ojebyn farm are promising and considered generally adaptable to any farm.

  11. A CFD study on the effectiveness of trees to disperse road traffic emissions at a city scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanjean, A. P. R.; Hinchliffe, G.; McMullan, W. A.; Monks, P. S.; Leigh, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper focuses on the effectiveness of trees at dispersing road traffic emissions on a city scale. CFD simulations of air-pollutant concentrations were performed using the OpenFOAM software platform using the k-ε model. Results were validated against the CODASC wind tunnel database before being applied to a LIDAR database of buildings and trees representing the City of Leicester (UK). Most other CFD models in the literature typically use idealised buildings to model wind flow and pollution dispersion. However, the methodology used in this study uses real buildings and trees data from LIDAR to reconstruct a 3D representation of Leicester City Centre. It focuses on a 2 × 2 km area which is on a scale larger than those usually used in other CFD studies. Furthermore, the primary focus of this study is on the interaction of trees with wind flow dynamics. It was found that in effect, trees have a regionally beneficial impact on road traffic emissions by increasing turbulence and reducing ambient concentrations of road traffic emissions by 7% at pedestrian height on average. This was an important result given that previous studies generally concluded that trees trapped pollution by obstructing wind flow in street canyons. Therefore, this study is novel both in its methodology and subsequent results, highlighting the importance of combining local and regional scale models for assessing the impact of trees in urban planning.

  12. A comparative study of modern and fossil cone scales and seeds of conifers: A geochemical approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Kruge, M.A.; Van Bergen, P. F.; Sadowska, A.

    1997-01-01

    Modern cone scales and seeds of Pinus strobus and Sequoia sempervirens, and their fossil (Upper Miocene, c. 6 Mar) counterparts Pinus leitzii and Sequoia langsdorfi have been studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), electron-microprobe and scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic observations revealed only minor microbial activity and high-quality structural preservation of the fossil material. The pyrolysates of both modern genera showed the presence of ligno-cellulose characteristic of conifers. However, the abundance of (alkylated)phenols and 1,2-benzenediols in modern S. sempervirens suggests the presence of non-hydrolysable tannins or abundant polyphenolic moieties not previously reported in modern conifers. The marked differences between the pyrolysis products of both modern genera are suggested to be of chemosystematic significance. The fossil samples also contained ligno-cellulose which exhibited only partial degradation, primarily of the carbohydrate constituents. Comparison between the fossil cone scale and seed pyrolysates indicated that the ligno-cellulose complex present in the seeds is chemically more resistant than that in the cone scales. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the pyrolysis data allowed for the determination of the discriminant functions used to assess the extent of degradation and the chemosystematic differences between both genera and between cone scales and seeds. Elemental composition (C, O, S), obtained using electron-microprobe, corroborated the pyrolysis results. Overall, the combination of chemical, microscopic and statistical methods allowed for a detailed characterization and chemosystematic interpretations of modern and fossil conifer cone scales and seeds.

  13. Ripple scalings in geothermal facilities, a key to understand the scaling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhl, Bernhard; Grundy, James; Baumann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Scalings are a widespread problem among geothermal plants which exploit the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Zone. They effect the technical and economic efficiency of geothermal plants. The majority of the scalings observed at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Basin are carbonates. They are formed due to a disruption of the lime-carbonic-acid equilibrium during production caused by degassing of CO2. These scalings are found in the production pipes, at the pumps and at filters and can nicely be described using existing hydrogeochemical models. This study proposes a second mechanism for the formation of scalings in ground-level facilities. We investigated scalings which accumulated at the inlet to the heat exchanger. Interestingly, the scalings were recovered after the ground level facilities had been cleaned. The scalings showed distinct ripple structures, which is likely a result of solid particle deposition. From the ripple features the the flow conditions during their formation were calculated based on empirical equations (Soulsby, 2012). The calculations suggest that the deposits were formed during maintenance works. Thin section images of the sediments indicate a two-step process: deposition of sediment grains, followed by stabilization with a calcite layer. The latter likely occured during maintenance. To prevent this type of scalings blocking the heat exchangers, the maintenance procedure has to be revised. References: Soulsby, R. L.; Whitehouse, R. J. S.; Marten, K. V.: Prediction of time-evolving sand ripples in shelf seas. Continental Shelf Research 2012, 38, 47-62

  14. Development of Capstone Project Attitude Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to develop valid and reliable Capstone Project Attitude Scales (CPAS). Among the scales reviewed, the Modified Fennema-Shermann Mathematics Attitude Scales was adapted in the construction of the CPAS. Usefulness, Confidence, and Gender View were the three subscales of the CPAS. Four hundred sixty-three students answered the…

  15. A PILOT-SCALE STUDY ON THE COMBUSTION OF WASTE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper Post-consumer carpet is a potential substitute fuel for high temperature thermal processes such as cement kilns and boilers.This paper reports on results examining emissions of PCDDs/Fs from a series of pilot-scale experiments performed on the EPA's rotary kiln incinerator simulator facility in Research triangle Park, NC.

  16. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21): further examination of dimensions, scale reliability, and correlates.

    PubMed

    Osman, Augustine; Wong, Jane L; Bagge, Courtney L; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Lozano, Gregorio

    2012-12-01

    We conducted two studies to examine the dimensions, internal consistency reliability estimates, and potential correlates of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Participants in Study 1 included 887 undergraduate students (363 men and 524 women, aged 18 to 35 years; mean [M] age = 19.46, standard deviation [SD] = 2.17) recruited from two public universities to assess the specificity of the individual DASS-21 items and to evaluate estimates of internal consistency reliability. Participants in a follow-up study (Study 2) included 410 students (168 men and 242 women, aged 18 to 47 years; M age = 19.65, SD = 2.88) recruited from the same universities to further assess factorial validity and to evaluate potential correlates of the original DASS-21 total and scale scores. Item bifactor and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a general factor accounted for the greatest proportion of common variance in the DASS-21 item scores (Study 1). In Study 2, the fit statistics showed good fit for the bifactor model. In addition, the DASS-21 total scale score correlated more highly with scores on a measure of mixed depression and anxiety than with scores on the proposed specific scales of depression or anxiety. Coefficient omega estimates for the DASS-21 scale scores were good. Further investigations of the bifactor structure and psychometric properties of the DASS-21, specifically its incremental and discriminant validity, using known clinical groups are needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhang, Changyong

    2015-08-01

    , however, not affected by the flow rate because molecular diffusion limits reductant supply to the micropore domain interior. Domain-based macroscopic models were evaluated to scale redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. A single domain model, which ignores subgrid transport heterogeneity deviated significantly from the pore-scale results. Further analysis revealed that the rate expression for hematite reduction was not scalable from the pore to porous media using the single domain model. A three-domain model, which effectively considers subgrid reactive diffusion in the micropore and macropore domains, significantly improved model description. Overall this study revealed the importance of subgrid transport heterogeneity in the manifestation of redox reaction rates in porous media and in scaling reactions from the pore to porous media. The research also supported that the domain-based scaling approach can be used to directly scale redox reactions in porous media with subgrid transport heterogeneity.« less

  18. Finite-size scaling study of the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Paul D.

    1986-02-01

    The phase diagram of the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model is investigated by using the technique of phenomenological finite-size scaling. The location of the tricritical point and the values of the critical and tricritical exponents are determined. The location of the tricritical point (Tt=0.610+/-0.005, Dt=1.9655+/-0.0010) is well outside the error bars for the value quoted in previous Monte Carlo simulations but in excellent agreement with more recent Monte Carlo renormalization-group results. The values of the critical and tricritical exponents, with the exception of the leading thermal tricritical exponent, are in excellent agreement with previous calculations, conjectured values, and Monte Carlo renormalization-group studies.

  19. Evaluating the capabilities of watershed-scale models in estimating sediment yield at field-scale.

    PubMed

    Sommerlot, Andrew R; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Woznicki, Sean A; Giri, Subhasis; Prohaska, Michael D

    2013-09-30

    Many watershed model interfaces have been developed in recent years for predicting field-scale sediment loads. They share the goal of providing data for decisions aimed at improving watershed health and the effectiveness of water quality conservation efforts. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare three watershed-scale models (Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Field_SWAT, and the High Impact Targeting (HIT) model) against calibrated field-scale model (RUSLE2) in estimating sediment yield from 41 randomly selected agricultural fields within the River Raisin watershed; 2) evaluate the statistical significance among models; 3) assess the watershed models' capabilities in identifying areas of concern at the field level; 4) evaluate the reliability of the watershed-scale models for field-scale analysis. The SWAT model produced the most similar estimates to RUSLE2 by providing the closest median and the lowest absolute error in sediment yield predictions, while the HIT model estimates were the worst. Concerning statistically significant differences between models, SWAT was the only model found to be not significantly different from the calibrated RUSLE2 at α = 0.05. Meanwhile, all models were incapable of identifying priorities areas similar to the RUSLE2 model. Overall, SWAT provided the most correct estimates (51%) within the uncertainty bounds of RUSLE2 and is the most reliable among the studied models, while HIT is the least reliable. The results of this study suggest caution should be exercised when using watershed-scale models for field level decision-making, while field specific data is of paramount importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Micro-scale experimental study of Microbial-Induced Carbonate Precipitation (MICP) by using microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; S