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Sample records for schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia

  1. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Schmid Metaphyseal Chondrodysplasia in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Efat; Vakili, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of hereditary diseases, which are autosomal recessive. CAH occurs due to defect in one of the cortisol coding genes and often clinically presents itself with signs of androgen overproduction. In this article, we report a case of CAH and Schmid metaphyseal dysplasia. Our literature review indicated that this report is the first attempt on CYP11B1 and Schmid dysplasia in a child. The specific diagnosis of 11-β-hydroxylase deficiency can be determined using high basal levels of deoxycorticosterone and/or 11-deoxycortisol serums. PMID:26722148

  2. Genetic changes in the RNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P in Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ridanpaa, M; Ward, L; Rockas, S; Sarkioja, M; Makela, H; Susic, M; Glorieux, F; Cole, W; Makitie, O

    2003-01-01

    Background: The Schmid type of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (MCDS) is generally due to mutations in COL10A1 encoding for type X collagen of cartilage. Methods: We performed a study on the genes coding for the RNA components of RNase MRP (MRPR) and RNase P (H1RNA) among 20 patients with diagnosis of MCDS and no mutations in COL10A1. Results: Two patients were found to be homozygous for a base substitution G for A at nucleotide 70 of RMRP, which is the major mutation causing cartilage–hair hypoplasia. No pathogenic mutations were detected in H1RNA. Conclusion: Cartilage–hair hypoplasia diagnosis should be considered in patients with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia even in the absence of any extra-skeletal manifestations if no mutation in COL10A1 can be found and the family history is compatible with autosomal recessive inheritance. Correct diagnosis is important for genetic counselling and for proper follow up of the patients. PMID:14569119

  3. Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Spranger, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Any review of the metaphyseal chondrodysplasias is complicated by their variety and mainly unknown pathogenesis. The more familiar types display considerable clinical and radiological diversity: even more so the rarer disorders which still require complete definition, but differences in their mode of inheritance make diagnostic precision mandatory. These dysplasias present in infancy or in childhood, when the patient, usually dwarfed, may be proportionate, so that some forms may be confused with rickets or other lesions. Mental retardation is unusual, but the skin, hair, nails and facies provide valuable diagnostic features. Radiological abnormalities mainly affect the metaphyses of the shortened limb bones, less often the skull, vertebrae, pelvis, ribs and extremities, and sometimes their distribution may indicate the specific type of dysplasia. In a further complex group multiple systems are involved, notably the pancreas, intestine and lympho-reticular, causing malabsorption and haematological or immunological disorders. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:335375

  4. Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with ectodermal dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Jequier, S.; Bellini, F.; Mackenzie, D.A.

    1981-11-01

    The first case of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with marked cupping of the metaphyses and cone epiphyses combined with complete alopecia was described in 1966 by Bellini. A second identical case was found in another Italian patient. Both show extremely early epiphyseal fusion. This is probably a new form of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.

  5. Murk Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with long-term followup.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Duncan, B P

    1987-01-01

    The fourteenth reported patient with Murk Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is presented, with a remarkable followup from birth to the age of 15 years. Numerous invasive procedures were performed in pursuit of erroneous provisional diagnoses. Five of these patients presented in infancy with radiographic metaphyseal changes similar to rickets, but with preservation of the provisional zone of calcification. Following infancy, these patients reveal the more typical short-limbed dwarfism, with fusiform joints and bowed extremities.

  6. A distinctive type of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with characteristic thickening of the distal ulna and radius: possible metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-Rosenberg.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Seng; Elliott, Alison M; Loke, Kah-Yin; Lachman, Ralph S

    2003-05-15

    We report an 8-year-old boy with a distinctive form of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (MCD). He presented with moderate disproportionate short stature and bony swelling of his wrists, knees, and ankles. There were severe metaphyseal abnormalities with a honeycomb appearance affecting the distal tibiae and fibulae, proximal tibiae, distal femurs, distal ulnae and radii, and both hands. His thoracolumbar spine was normal. Radiological examination of the mother's forearms revealed widening of the distal radii and short ulnae with hypoplastic distal ends. Rosenberg and Löhr [1986: Eur J Pediatr 145:40-45] reported a four-generational kindred in which affected members had thickening of the wrist proximal to the styloid process of the ulna and thickening of the dorsum sellae. Although many of the radiographic features of this patient are those of MCD-Rosenberg, the skeletal features of our patient do not appear to represent any known classified forms of MCD.

  7. Distinctive metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with severe distal radius and ulna involvement (upper extremity mesomelia) and normal height.

    PubMed

    Camera, Andrea; Camera, Gianni

    2003-10-01

    Metaphyseal chondrodysplasias (MCD) are skeletal disorders characterized by metaphyseal irregularities and, usually, by short stature. In MCD, wide heterogeneity exists with regard to clinical and radiological changes. We report on a patient with clinical and radiological findings of MCD who had coxa valga and normal height with metaphyseal involvement of the long bones. The short radii and ulnae showed a very severe change in their distal metaphyses, leading to mesomelic shortening confined to the upper limbs. Hematological, ophthalmological, and hearing examinations were normal. This type of MCD appears to represent a yet undescribed syndrome.

  8. Characterization of a PTH1R missense mutation responsible for Jansen type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Shimomura-Kuroki, Junko; Farooq, Muhammad; Sekimoto, Tsuneo; Amizuka, Norio; Shimomura, Yutaka

    2016-05-09

    Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), and its receptor (PTH1R) play an important role in differentiation of bone and cartilage in the developing stages. Constitutive dimers of PTH1R are believed to be dissociated by ligand binding, and monomeric PTH1R is capable of activating G protein. Jansen type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is caused by missense mutations in PTH1R, which are constitutively active even without the presence of the ligands. However, the underlying pathomechanisms remained largely unknown. In this study, we have attempted to further characterize a PTH1R missense mutation H223R responsible for Jansen type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. cDNAs encoding wild-type (Wt)- and H223R mutant (Mut)-PTH1R were transfected into HEK293T cells, and as a consequence of western blots, both the Wt- and Mut-PTH1R proteins showed several fragments between 55 and 65 kDa in size, while the patterns of N-glycosylation were distinct between them. Then we hypothesized that the Mut-PTH1R might physically interact with the Wt-PTH1R, leading to affect the downstream cAMP accumulation. Co-immunoprecipitation assays clearly showed that interaction occurred not only between the Wt-PTH1R themselves, but also between the Wt- and Mut-PTH1R. Furthermore, we performed CRE reporter assays to investigate cAMP accumulation. Constitutive, ligand-independent cAMP accumulation was observed in HEK293T cells expressing the Mut-PTH1R. Interestingly, there was a statistically lower constitutive activity in HEK293T cells co-expressing the Wt- and Mut-PTH1R proteins. Summarizing, it seems likely that Mut-PTH1R may be, at least in part, co-localized with Wt-PTH1R by forming a heterodimer, leading to affect the function to each other.

  9. Transcriptional Profiling of Chondrodysplasia Growth Plate Cartilage Reveals Adaptive ER-Stress Networks That Allow Survival but Disrupt Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Trevor L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Mackie, Eleanor J.; Rajpar, M. Helen; McDermott, Ben T.; Boot-Handford, Raymond P.; Bateman, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type (MCDS) is characterized by mild short stature and growth plate hypertrophic zone expansion, and caused by collagen X mutations. We recently demonstrated the central importance of ER stress in the pathology of MCDS by recapitulating the disease phenotype by expressing misfolding forms of collagen X (Schmid) or thyroglobulin (Cog) in the hypertrophic zone. Here we characterize the Schmid and Cog ER stress signaling networks by transcriptional profiling of microdissected mutant and wildtype hypertrophic zones. Both models displayed similar unfolded protein responses (UPRs), involving activation of canonical ER stress sensors and upregulation of their downstream targets, including molecular chaperones, foldases, and ER-associated degradation machinery. Also upregulated were the emerging UPR regulators Wfs1 and Syvn1, recently identified UPR components including Armet and Creld2, and genes not previously implicated in ER stress such as Steap1 and Fgf21. Despite upregulation of the Chop/Cebpb pathway, apoptosis was not increased in mutant hypertrophic zones. Ultrastructural analysis of mutant growth plates revealed ER stress and disrupted chondrocyte maturation throughout mutant hypertrophic zones. This disruption was defined by profiling the expression of wildtype growth plate zone gene signatures in the mutant hypertrophic zones. Hypertrophic zone gene upregulation and proliferative zone gene downregulation were both inhibited in Schmid hypertrophic zones, resulting in the persistence of a proliferative chondrocyte-like expression profile in ER-stressed Schmid chondrocytes. Our findings provide a transcriptional map of two chondrocyte UPR gene networks in vivo, and define the consequences of UPR activation for the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of chondrocytes experiencing ER stress during hypertrophy. Thus they provide important insights into ER stress signaling and its impact on cartilage pathophysiology. PMID

  10. Transcriptional profiling of chondrodysplasia growth plate cartilage reveals adaptive ER-stress networks that allow survival but disrupt hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Trevor L; Bell, Katrina M; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Mackie, Eleanor J; Rajpar, M Helen; McDermott, Ben T; Boot-Handford, Raymond P; Bateman, John F

    2011-01-01

    Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type (MCDS) is characterized by mild short stature and growth plate hypertrophic zone expansion, and caused by collagen X mutations. We recently demonstrated the central importance of ER stress in the pathology of MCDS by recapitulating the disease phenotype by expressing misfolding forms of collagen X (Schmid) or thyroglobulin (Cog) in the hypertrophic zone. Here we characterize the Schmid and Cog ER stress signaling networks by transcriptional profiling of microdissected mutant and wildtype hypertrophic zones. Both models displayed similar unfolded protein responses (UPRs), involving activation of canonical ER stress sensors and upregulation of their downstream targets, including molecular chaperones, foldases, and ER-associated degradation machinery. Also upregulated were the emerging UPR regulators Wfs1 and Syvn1, recently identified UPR components including Armet and Creld2, and genes not previously implicated in ER stress such as Steap1 and Fgf21. Despite upregulation of the Chop/Cebpb pathway, apoptosis was not increased in mutant hypertrophic zones. Ultrastructural analysis of mutant growth plates revealed ER stress and disrupted chondrocyte maturation throughout mutant hypertrophic zones. This disruption was defined by profiling the expression of wildtype growth plate zone gene signatures in the mutant hypertrophic zones. Hypertrophic zone gene upregulation and proliferative zone gene downregulation were both inhibited in Schmid hypertrophic zones, resulting in the persistence of a proliferative chondrocyte-like expression profile in ER-stressed Schmid chondrocytes. Our findings provide a transcriptional map of two chondrocyte UPR gene networks in vivo, and define the consequences of UPR activation for the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of chondrocytes experiencing ER stress during hypertrophy. Thus they provide important insights into ER stress signaling and its impact on cartilage pathophysiology.

  11. [Cytokines in bone diseases. Genetic defects of PTH/PTHrP receptor in chondrodysplasia].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Naoshi

    2010-10-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) signaling plays important roles in regulating the differentiation of chondrocytes in endochondral bone development. PTHrP signaling functions as an inhibitory effect on chondrocyte hypertrophy which is a terminal stage of differentiation at a growth plate. Mutations of the PTH÷PTHrP receptor have been identified in Jansen metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Blomstrand's lethal chondrodysplasia, and enchondromatosis. Furthermore, genetic manipulations of the PTHrP and its receptor genes in mice have demonstrated the critical roles of these proteins in regulating both the switch between proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2 is a disorder characterized by bone, skin, and ...

  13. Cancer and metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Zajicek, G

    2001-08-01

    Metaphysics, is generally a pleasant, and harmless intellectual endeavor. Even if leading to wrong conclusions, nobody is hurt. Suppose that contrary to general belief, the Big Bang (1) never happened and the world is eternal. No harm is done. Some philosophers, like Kant, enjoyed life despite the fact that, nature, or the thing in itself, eluded their understanding (2). But suppose that the thing in itself is your patient, and you apply metaphysical reasoning for his treatment, metaphysics may occasionally be damaging. This is particularly pertinent to cancer, a disease that is haunted by false metaphysical statements. Since cancer is part of medicine, the present discourse deals with medical metaphysics. Medicine provides a simple way, or rule of thumb, for distinguishing between correct and wrong medical metaphysical statements. If they harm the patient, they are wrong, and if they aid him, they are correct. Statements that do not affect a patient's well being, e.g., 'Big Bang may be hazardous to your health', are of no apparent value and doubtful. Since treatment outcome is generally uncertain, the physician continually searches for new ideas that may aid his patient, even if they are metaphysical. In diseases, like cancer, that elude his understanding, his adherence to metaphysics intensifies, and he is ready to consider even doubtful suggestions for treatment. Yet by relaxing the rules of thumb for evaluating metaphysical concepts, he gradually slips into the irrational domain.

  14. Brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata: A difficult diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Andrea; Bartoletti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We report on a child with the brachytelephalangic type of chondrodysplasia punctata, a very rare form of the disease. At birth, the patient was originally diagnosed with the Conradi-Hunermann type, a more common and severe type. A pediatric radiologist questioned the diagnosis and followed up with the patient, who is now three years old. Based on the clinical and radiographic findings, it was concluded that he had the brachytelephalangic type. This unique case demonstrates the necessity of communication among all health care personnel taking care of the patient. The diagnosis greatly affected the child's future and education.

  15. Immunohistochemical examination of epiphyseal growth plates of Japanese Brown cattle with chondrodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Soeta, S; Shimoura, H; Hatakeyama, N; Kodaka, T; Amasaki, H; Yamano, S; Taniguchi, K; Naito, Y

    2007-01-01

    A new type of inherited chondrodysplasia is described in Japanese Brown cattle, but the basic defects of the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) in the limb long bones, and proliferation and differentiation of the chondrocytes in the EGP, are not yet understood. In the present study, the EGPs of the limb long bones in eight cases of chondrodysplasia and four normal (control) cattle were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. In the control cattle, proliferative chondrocytes (PCs) and hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs) were arranged in columns parallel to the long axis of the bone, and HCs were situated on the metaphyseal side of the EGP. In all the affected cattle, many chondrocytes with a hypertrophic appearance were detected in the inner areas of the central portion of the EGP. The PC columns were short and arranged irregularly. Bone tissue and small blood vessels were found frequently in these areas. Six affected cattle showed complete EGP-closure. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging showed that the calcified cartilage matrix was restricted to the lower region of the hypertrophic zone (HZ) of the EGP in the control cattle, while the calcified cartilage matrix and bone tissue were scattered in the inner areas of the EGP in all the chondrodysplastic cattle. Immunohistochemistry revealed type X collagen in the HCs and cartilage matrix of the HZ in the control cattle. In all the affected cattle, type X collagen was detected in apparently hypertrophic chondrocytes in the inner areas of the EGP. Type II collagen was detected in the entire EGP in all the affected cattle, as in the controls. BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine), injected intravenously 1h before euthanasia was detected in many PCs in the EGP in the control cattle; none, however, was detected in the central portion of the EGP in any affected animal. These observations indicate that differentiation into HCs and calcification of cartilage matrix occur in the inner areas of the central portion of the EGP in

  16. Physical and Metaphysical Counterfactuals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    terms of a stochastic decision policy in which agents choose actions with certain probabilities. This mapping, from the metaphysical to the physical...should be helpful in assessing whether metaphysically -inspired extensions of current interventional theories are warranted in a given decision making situation.

  17. Metaphysics and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verran, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Is it possible to learn and simultaneously articulate the metaphysical basis of that learning? In my contribution to the forum I tell of how I came to recognise that bilingual Yoruba children could articulate the contrasting metaphysical framings of Yoruba and English numbering. The story introduces an arena I call "ontics" that recognises the…

  18. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    PubMed

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries.

  19. The neurology of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To describe the neurologic profiles of Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP); a peroxisomal disorder clinically characterized by skeletal abnormalities, congenital cataracts, severe growth and developmental impairments and immobility of joints. Defective plasmalogen biosynthesis is the main biochemical feature. Methods Observational study including review of clinical and biochemical abnormalities, genotype, presence of seizures and neurophysiological studies of a cohort of 16 patients with RCDP. Results Patients with the severe phenotype nearly failed to achieve any motor or cognitive skills, whereas patients with the milder phenotype had profound intellectual disability but were able to walk and had verbal communication skills. Eighty-eight percent of patients developed epileptic seizures. The age of onset paralleled the severity of the clinical and biochemical phenotype. Myoclonic jerks, followed by atypical absences were most frequently observed. All patients with clinical seizures had interictal encephalographic evidence of epilepsy. Visual evoked (VEP) and brain auditory potential (BAEP) studies showed initial normal latency times in 93% of patients. Deterioration of VEP occurred in a minority in both the severe and the milder phenotype. BAEP and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) were more likely to become abnormal in the severe phenotype. Plasmalogens were deficient in all patients. In the milder phenotype levels of plasmalogens were significantly higher in erythrocytes than in the severe phenotype. Phytanic acid levels ranged from normal to severely increased, but had no relation with the neurological phenotype. Conclusion Neurodevelopmental deficits and age-related occurrence of seizures are characteristic of RCDP and are related to the rest-activity in plasmalogen biosynthesis. Evoked potential studies are more likely to become abnormal in the severe phenotype, but are of no predictive value in single cases of RCDP. PMID:24172221

  20. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... This condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern . The gene associated with this condition is located on the ... Andria G, Meroni G, Parenti G. X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata: spectrum of arylsulfatase E gene mutations and expanded clinical variability. Am J Med ...

  1. On neuropsychoanalytic metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Talvitie, Vesa; Ihanus, Juhani

    2011-12-01

    Neuropsychoanalysis focuses on the neural counterparts of psychoanalytically interesting phenomena and has left the difference in the metaphysical presuppositions between neuroscience and psychoanalysis unexamined. The authors analyse the logical possibilities concerning the relation between the brain and the mental unconscious in terms of the serial, parallel, epiphenomenalist and Kantian conceptions, and conclude that none of them provides a satisfactory ground for neuropsychoanalysis. As far as psychoanalytic explanations refer to the mental unconscious, they cannot be verified with the help of neuroscience. Neither is it possible to form a picture of how a neuro-viewpoint might be of help for psychoanalytic theorizing. Neuropsychoanalysis has occasionally been seen as a reductionist affair, but the authors suggest that neuropsychoanalysts themselves lean on the hybrid conception, which combines neuroscientific and psychoanalytic viewpoints. The authors state arguments in favour of the interfield conception of neuropsychoanalysis that takes seriously the metaphysical tensions between neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

  2. Ontological engineering versus metaphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataj, Emanuel; Tomanek, Roman; Mulawka, Jan

    2011-10-01

    It has been recognized that ontologies are a semantic version of world wide web and can be found in knowledge-based systems. A recent time survey of this field also suggest that practical artificial intelligence systems may be motivated by this research. Especially strong artificial intelligence as well as concept of homo computer can also benefit from their use. The main objective of this contribution is to present and review already created ontologies and identify the main advantages which derive such approach for knowledge management systems. We would like to present what ontological engineering borrows from metaphysics and what a feedback it can provide to natural language processing, simulations and modelling. The potential topics of further development from philosophical point of view is also underlined.

  3. [Spondyloepiphyseal and metaphyseal dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Wirth, T

    2008-01-01

    Spondyloepiphyseal, metaphyseal and spondylometaphyseal dysplasias are a group of hereditary skeletal diseases, which lead to small stature, axial deformities of the lower extremities and spinal deformities. They differ in pathophysiology, heredity and in their clinical and radiologic appearance. The orthopaedic surgeon treats the spinal manifestations and the axial malalignment of the disease. Among the spinal deformities there are instabilities of the upper cervical spine as well as structural deformities like kyphosis and scoliosis. More frequently, the axial malalignment caused by congenital coxa vara, severe genu varum or genu valgum requires treatment. These deformities are managed by corrective osteotomies of the proximal femur, supracondylar or proximal tibial osteotomies around the knee and by temporary epiphyseodeses. Despite a high recurrence rate requiring repeated surgery the patients report great satisfaction with the treatment results. Well-timed orthopaedic treatment helps avoid or delay the inevitable long-term sequelae of untreated patients such as painful degenerative changes of the spine or early onset of severe osteoarthritis.

  4. Maternal systemic lupus erythematosus and chondrodysplasia punctata in two sibs: phenocopy or coincidence?

    PubMed Central

    Elçioglu, N; Hall, C M

    1998-01-01

    Two sibs with chondrodysplasia punctata in whom the mother was suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus are presented and the radiological features described. Comparison with other forms of chondrodysplasia punctata with a review of the relevant publications is presented and the possible association with maternal systemic lupus erythematosus is highlighted. Images PMID:9719382

  5. Insights on activation enthalpy for non-Schmid slip in body-centered cubic metals

    DOE PAGES

    Hale, Lucas M.; Lim, Hojun; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; ...

    2014-12-18

    We use insights gained from atomistic simulation to develop an activation enthalpy model for dislocation slip in body-centered cubic iron. Furthermore, using a classical potential that predicts dislocation core stabilities consistent with ab initio predictions, we quantify the non-Schmid stress-dependent effects of slip. The kink-pair activation enthalpy is evaluated and a model is identified as a function of the general stress state. Thus, our model enlarges the applicability of the classic Kocks activation enthalpy model to materials with non-Schmid behavior.

  6. Towards a Metaphysics of Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Keith

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I combine aspects of process philosophy and elements from philosophies of difference in order to give some indication of how we might begin to construct a metaphysics of contemporary science. I will focus on the work of Whitehead and Deleuze as representatives of each respective tradition and try to show how their work can be…

  7. Transhumanism, metaphysics, and the posthuman god.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2010-12-01

    After describing Heidegger's critique of metaphysics as ontotheology, I unpack the metaphysical assumptions of several transhumanist philosophers. I claim that they deploy an ontology of power and that they also deploy a kind of theology, as Heidegger meant it. I also describe the way in which this metaphysics begets its own politics and ethics. In order to transcend the human condition, they must transgress the human.

  8. On Darwin's 'metaphysical notebooks'. II: "Metaphysics" and final cause.

    PubMed

    Calabi, L

    2001-01-01

    The first part of this paper was published in Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 94 (2001). In the second part below an examination is made of the meaning of the term Metaphysics in some passages of the Darwinian Notebooks for the years 1836-1844. Metaphysics no longer defines a field of philosophical enquiries mainly concerning the being and the essence after the manner of Aristotle; it now refers to a kind of philosophy of mind after the manner of J. Locke's criticism of the Hypokeimenon. However Aristotle's Metaphysics also encompasses a treatment of the idea of causes, and of final cause particularly, in the explanation of events, and in the explanation of natural phenomena especially. The criticism of the idea of final cause in the interpretation of the world of life is one of Darwin's foundational acts in his early years. When conceiving his Système du monde, in the last years of the XVIII Century, Laplace could think that God is a hypothesis not really needed by science, as we are told. For the knowledge of organic nature to attain the status of science, it remained to be shown that since--certain of the exemplariness of Newton's Principles as much as cautious before the mystery of life--did not need the hypothesis of final ends in order to understand and explain the productions of the living nature: not only in the form of that final cause (the First Cause, the Vera Causa) in which Natural Theology still rested, but also in the form of nature's inner finality which still moulded Whewell's Kantian philosophy. Such demonstration is a very important subject in Darwin's early enquiries, where he criticises finalism as a projection of self-conceiving Man, likely inherited from a knowing of causality in nuce to be found also in animals.

  9. Dewey's Naturalistic Metaphysics: Expostulations and Replies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    Critics of Dewey's metaphysics point to his dismissal of any philosophy which locates ideals in a realm beyond experience. However, Dewey's sustained critique of dualistic philosophies is but a first step in his reconstruction and recovery of the function of the metaphysical. Detaching the discussion of values from inquiry, whether scientific,…

  10. Quantum entanglement and a metaphysics of relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfeld, Michael

    This paper argues for a metaphysics of relations based on a characterization of quantum entanglement in terms of non-separability, thereby regarding entanglement as a sort of holism. By contrast to a radical metaphysics of relations, the position set out in this paper recognizes things that stand in the relations, but claims that, as far as the relations are concerned, there is no need for these things to have qualitative intrinsic properties underlying the relations. This position thus opposes a metaphysics of individual things that are characterized by intrinsic properties. A principal problem of the latter position is that it seems that we cannot gain any knowledge of these properties insofar as they are intrinsic. Against this background, the rationale behind a metaphysics of relations is to avoid a gap between epistemology and metaphysics.

  11. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  12. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  13. The Role of Metaphysical Naturalism in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahner, Martin

    2012-10-01

    This paper defends the view that metaphysical naturalism is a constitutive ontological principle of science in that the general empirical methods of science, such as observation, measurement and experiment, and thus the very production of empirical evidence, presuppose a no-supernature principle. It examines the consequences of metaphysical naturalism for the testability of supernatural claims, and it argues that explanations involving supernatural entities are pseudo-explanatory due to the many semantic and ontological problems of supernatural concepts. The paper also addresses the controversy about metaphysical versus methodological naturalism.

  14. A proper metaphysics for cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy C; Moreno, Miguel A; Holden, John G

    2003-01-01

    The general failure to individuate component causes in cognitive performance suggests the need for an alternative metaphysics. The metaphysics of control hierarchy theory accommodates the fact of self-organization in nature and the possibility that intentional actions are self-organized. One key assumption is that interactions among processes dominate their intrinsic dynamics. Scaling relations in response time variability motivate this assumption in cognitive performance.

  15. An extremely rare case: osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kasapkara, C S; Küçükçongar, A; Boyunağa, O; Bedir, T; Oncü, F; Hasanoğlu, A; Tümer, L

    2013-01-01

    OMD (osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia) is a very rare sclerosing bone disorder, first described by G. Nishimura in two Japanese siblings in 1993 (6). We report the case of a 12-month-old male with hypotonia, developmental delay and sclerosis of the metaphyses and epiphyses of specific bones. This 36-week gestation boy was born to a 26 year old gravida 5 para 1 Turkish mother and a 27 year old nonconsanguineous father. Radiographic findings obtained during the hospital stay included bilateral symmetrical osteosclerosis of the metaphyseal portions of the long bones in the upper and lower extremities with osteopenic shafts. Narrow bands of metaphyseal osteosclerosis were detected in the short tubular bones of the hands and feet. Growing parts of bilateral scapula, iliac, pubic and ischial bones show sclerotic bands. In addition superior and inferior plates of vertebras, transverse processes of sacral vertebras, all visible epiphyses, carpal and tarsal bones also show sclerotic changes. The scalp was unaffected. Based on the clinical, radiographic, and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of OMD was made. We do not know any of the osteosclerotic bone disorder with changes including hypotonia, mental and motor developmental delay and metaphyseal sclerosis of the bones with a unique distribution except OMD. The syndrome is characterized by developmental delay of a progressive nature, hypotonia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and late-onset spastic paraplegia 18 years ago. Our patient is the 4th case of OMD described in the literature share some clinical and radiological similarities with other three reported cases of osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasias.

  16. [On the quest for the right way--life and work of Magnus Schmid (1918-1977), historian of medicine].

    PubMed

    Mildenberger, Florian

    2008-01-01

    Magnus Schmid seems to have been an "ordinary historian of medicine" from 1950 to 1977 in Munich and Erlangen. Following his death he became forgotten by his colleagues. But despite the fact, that he did not publish great books, he modernized the subject and was open to new interpretations of history of medicine and to intercultural views on history. For more than 20 years he seemed to be a quite liberal researcher, but following the changes in society after the 1968/69 revolt, he became a fighter for a new conservatism. Schmid was unwilling to accept that people decided freely about their body and health, without consulting doctors like him while he believed in an unchangeable foundation of ethics in medicine (e. g. abortion). So Schmid, in the last years of his life to the fact, made his valuable scientific works disappear behind his dubious campaigning against the modernized western German society.

  17. Type II collagen defects in the chondrodysplasias. I. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, L W; Bautista, J; James, P L; Rimoin, D L

    1989-01-01

    The spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias (SEDs) and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasias (SEMDs) are a heterogeneous group of skeletal dysplasias (dwarfing disorders) characterized by abnormal epiphyses, with and without varying degrees of metaphyseal irregularities, flattened vertebral bodies, and myopia. To better define the underlying cause of these disorders, we have analyzed the collagens from costal cartilage from several of these patients, using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of intact chains and cyanogen bromide (CNBr) peptides and amino acid analysis. In almost all of the patients in this study group, the type II collagen exhibited a slower electrophoretic mobility when compared with that in normal controls. The mobility of many, but not all, of the CNBr peptides was also retarded. Peptides near the amino terminus were almost always altered, while the mobility of peptides close to the carboxyl terminus were normal in all but the severely affected cases. Analysis of the CNBr peptides on an HPLC sieving column confirmed that the electrophoretically abnormal peptides were of a higher molecular weight than were control peptides. Amino acid analysis indicated that the abnormal collagens have a higher ratio of hydroxylysine to lysine than does control collagen, suggesting that overmodification may be involved in the altered mobility. Our results are consistent with a defect in the collagen helix that results in overmodification of the molecule from that point toward the amino terminus. We propose that some forms of SED and SEMD are associated with abnormalities in type II collagen that results in delayed helix formation and consequent overmodification of the collagen. Cases of SED fit onto a continuous spectrum of clinical severity that correlates positively with both the extent of alteration and the proximity of the defect to the carboxyl terminus. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2741952

  18. Mechanisms, determination and the metaphysics of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Soom, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, I evaluate recently defended mechanistic accounts of the unity of neuroscience from a metaphysical point of view. Considering the mechanistic framework in general (Sections 2 and 3), I argue that explanations of this kind are essentially reductive (Section 4). The reductive character of mechanistic explanations provides a sufficiency criterion, according to which the mechanism underlying a certain phenomenon is sufficient for the latter. Thus, the concept of supervenience can be used in order to describe the relation between mechanisms and phenomena (Section 5). Against this background, I show that the mechanistic framework is subject to the causal exclusion problem and faces the classical metaphysical options when it comes to the relations obtaining between different levels of mechanisms (Section 6). Finally, an attempt to improve the metaphysics of mechanisms is made (Section 7) and further difficulties are pointed out (Section 8).

  19. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  20. Exploratory Bifactor Analysis of the WJ-III Cognitive in Adulthood via the Schmid-Leiman Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson-III cognitive in the adult time period (age 20 to 90 plus) was analyzed using exploratory bifactor analysis via the Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization procedure. The results of this study suggested possible overfactoring, a different factor structure from that posited in the Technical Manual and a lack of invariance across both…

  1. Greene's Dialectics of Freedom and Dewey's Naturalistic Existential Metaphysics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This article attempts to develop the Deweyan naturalistic existential metaphysics which underlies Maxine Greene's diverse dialectics. Also included are reflections on the implications of the dialectic of freedom and Dewey's metaphysics for education and the arts. (IAH)

  2. The Role of Metaphysical Naturalism in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper defends the view that metaphysical naturalism is a constitutive ontological principle of science in that the general empirical methods of science, such as observation, measurement and experiment, and thus the very production of empirical evidence, presuppose a no-supernature principle. It examines the consequences of metaphysical…

  3. Stylistics and the Metaphysics of Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil

    2007-01-01

    In order to better understand the worth of aesthetic experience in encountering poetry, fresh perspectives are helpful. This paper introduces the reader to modern stylistics: that is linguistic examinations of "the speaker's meaning" in literature and notes such "scientific" approaches to poetry do find common metaphysical ground with leading…

  4. Audism: Exploring the Metaphysics of Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, H-Dirksen L.

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the development of the concept of "audism" from its inception in the mid-1970s by exploring three distinct dimensions of oppression: individual, institutional, and metaphysical. Although the first two aspects of audism have been identified, there is a deeply rooted belief system regarding language and human identity that is yet…

  5. Determination of death: Metaphysical and biomedical discourse.

    PubMed

    Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Luneckaitė, Žydrunė; Peičius, Eimantas; Bagdonaitė, Živilė; Riklikienė, Olga; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2016-01-01

    The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational-logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question "Does a brain death mean death of a human being?" two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death.

  6. The many Metaphysics within Physics. Essay review of 'The Metaphysics within Physics' by Tim Maudlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Mauricio

    Tim Maudlin's new book The Metaphysics within Physics (Oxford University Press, 2007) collects six essays by one of the most thoughtful and original minds working in the philosophy of physics nowadays. Some had previously circulated informally for years. For example, Chapter 1 ('A Modest Proposal Concerning Laws, Counterfactuals and Explanations') is as old as my own philosophical career-I recall reading a draft in the early 1990s. The mere publication of such a long-awaited collection is therefore already good news. In addition, the degree of coherence and the lack of redundancy are greater than one would expect from a collection of disparate essays written at diverse times and with a range of different targets. The whole book can be understood coherently as an extended argument in favor of a particular 'physics-based' methodology for inquiry in metaphysics. This methodology recommends a detailed and thorough analysis of current physics as a benchmark for any thesis, dispute or argument in metaphysics. It follows that proper metaphysical inquiry must be suitably informed not just about the current state of play in analytical metaphysics but also about the current state of development of the relevant part of present day physics.

  7. Metaphysics and medical education: taking holism seriously.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Medical education is now suffused with concepts that have their source outside the traditional scientific and medical disciplines: concepts such as holism, connectedness and reflective practice. Teaching of these, and other problematic concepts such as medical uncertainty and error, has been defined more by the challenge they pose to the standard model rather than being informed by a strong positive understanding. This challenge typically involves a critical engagement with the idea of objectivity, which is rarely acknowledged as an inherently metaphysical critique. Consequently, these ideas prove to be difficult to teach well. I suggest that the lack of an integrating, positive narrative is the reason for teaching difficulty, and propose that what is needed is an explicit commitment to teach the metaphysics of medicine, with the concept of holism being the fulcrum on which the remaining concepts turn. An acknowledged metaphysical narrative will encompass the scientific realism that medical students typically bring to their tertiary education, and at the same time enable a bigger picture to be drawn that puts the newer and more problematic concepts into context.

  8. An expressed fgf4 retrogene is associated with breed-defining chondrodysplasia in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Parker, Heidi G; VonHoldt, Bridgett M; Quignon, Pascale; Margulies, Elliott H; Shao, Stephanie; Mosher, Dana S; Spady, Tyrone C; Elkahloun, Abdel; Cargill, Michele; Jones, Paul G; Maslen, Cheryl L; Acland, Gregory M; Sutter, Nathan B; Kuroki, Keiichi; Bustamante, Carlos D; Wayne, Robert K; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2009-08-21

    Retrotransposition of processed mRNAs is a common source of novel sequence acquired during the evolution of genomes. Although the vast majority of retroposed gene copies, or retrogenes, rapidly accumulate debilitating mutations that disrupt the reading frame, a small percentage become new genes that encode functional proteins. By using a multibreed association analysis in the domestic dog, we demonstrate that expression of a recently acquired retrogene encoding fibroblast growth factor 4 (fgf4) is strongly associated with chondrodysplasia, a short-legged phenotype that defines at least 19 dog breeds including dachshund, corgi, and basset hound. These results illustrate the important role of a single evolutionary event in constraining and directing phenotypic diversity in the domestic dog.

  9. An Expressed Fgf4 Retrogene Is Associated with Breed-Defining Chondrodysplasia in Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Heidi G.; VonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Quignon, Pascale; Margulies, Elliott H.; Shao, Stephanie; Mosher, Dana S.; Spady, Tyrone C.; Elkahloun, Abdel; Cargill, Michele; Jones, Paul G.; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Acland, Gregory M.; Sutter, Nathan B.; Kuroki, Keiichi; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Wayne, Robert K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2009-01-01

    Retrotransposition of processed mRNAs is a frequent source of novel sequence acquired during the evolution of genomes. The vast majority of retroposed gene copies are inactive pseudogenes that rapidly acquire mutations that disrupt the reading frame, while precious few are conserved to become new genes. Utilizing a multi-breed association analysis in the domestic dog, we demonstrate that a recently acquired fgf4 retrogene causes chondrodysplasia, a short-legged phenotype that defines several common dog breeds including the dachshund, corgi and basset hound. The discovery that a single evolutionary event underlies a breed-defining phenotype for 19 diverse dog breeds demonstrates the importance of unique mutational events in constraining and directing phenotypic diversity in the domestic dog. PMID:19608863

  10. The Interdependence of Pedagogy, Learning Theory, Morality and Metaphysics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunden, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Explores the incompatibility between constructivist theories of learning and realist metaphysics (belief that knowledge and skills exist in mind-independent workplace practices). Shows how this results in conflict between constructivist teaching approaches and the transmission or banking mode favored by realist metaphysics. (SK)

  11. The metaphysics of quantum mechanics: Modal interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluck, Stuart Murray

    2004-11-01

    This dissertation begins with the argument that a preferred way of doing metaphysics is through philosophy of physics. An understanding of quantum physics is vital to answering questions such as: What counts as an individual object in physical ontology? Is the universe fundamentally indeterministic? Are indiscernibles identical? This study explores how the various modal interpretations of quantum mechanics answer these sorts of questions; modal accounts are one of the two classes of interpretations along with so-called collapse accounts. This study suggests a new alternative within the class of modal views that yields a more plausible ontology, one in which the Principle of the Identity of Indisceribles is necessarily true. Next, it shows that modal interpretations can consistently deny that the universe must be fundamentally indeterministic so long as they accept certain other metaphysical commitments: either a perfect initial distribution of states in the universe or some form of primitive dispositional properties. Finally, the study sketches out a future research project for modal interpretations based on developing quantified quantum logic.

  12. Isolated metaphyseal injury influences unrelated bones

    PubMed Central

    Tätting, Love; Sandberg, Olof; Bernhardsson, Magnus; Ernerudh, Jan; Aspenberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Fracture healing involves different inflammatory cells, some of which are not part of the traditional bone field, such as B-cells and cytotoxic T-cells. We wanted to characterize bone healing by flow cytometry using 15 different inflammatory cell markers in a mouse model of metaphyseal injury, and incidentally discovered a previously unknown general skeletal reaction to trauma. Material and methods A bent needle was inserted and twisted to traumatize the cancellous bone in the proximal tibia of C57/Bl6 female mice. This is known to induce vivid bone formation locally in the marrow compartment. Cells were harvested from the injured region, the uninjured contralateral tibia, and the humerus. The compositions of the immune cell populations were compared to those in untraumatized control animals. Results Tibial metaphyseal injury led to substantial changes in the cell populations over time. Unexpectedly, similar changes were also seen in the contralateral tibia and in the humerus, despite the lack of local trauma. Most leukocyte subsets were affected by this generalized reaction. Interpretation A relatively small degree of injury to the proximal tibia led to systemic changes in the immune cell populations in the marrow of unrelated bones, and probably in the entire skeleton. The few changes that were specific for the injury site appeared to relate to modulatory functions. PMID:28128005

  13. Observability, Visualizability and the Question of Metaphysical Neutrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    Theories in fundamental physics are unlikely to be ontologically neutral, yet they may nonetheless fail to offer decisive empirical support for or against particular metaphysical positions. I illustrate this point by close examination of a particular objection raised by Wolfgang Pauli against Hermann Weyl. The exchange reveals that both parties to the dispute appeal to broader epistemological principles to defend their preferred metaphysical starting points. I suggest that this should make us hesitant to assume that in deriving metaphysical conclusions from physical theories we place our metaphysical theories on a purely empirical foundation. The metaphysics within a particular physical theory may well be the result of a priori assumptions in the background, not particular empirical findings.

  14. α2-Heremans-schmid glycoprotein (fetuin A) downregulation and its utility in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Manolakis, Anastassios C; Christodoulidis, Gregory; Kapsoritakis, Andreas N; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Tiaka, Elisavet K; Oikonomou, Kostas; Valotassiou, Varvara J; Potamianos, Spyros P

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the impact of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on α2-Heremans-Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG/fetuin A) and potential associations with disease and patient characteristics. METHODS AHSG serum levels were determined in treatment-naïve newly-diagnosed patients, 96 with ulcerative colitis (UC), 84 with Crohn's disease (CD), 62 with diarrhea-predominant or mixed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, D- and M- types) and 180 healthy controls (HC), by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All patients were followed for a minimum period of 3 years at the Gastroenterology Department of the University Hospital of Larissa, Greece. C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-glycan antibodies, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies IgG, anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibodies IgG, anti-laminariobioside carbohydrate antibodies IgG and anti-chitobioside carbohydrate antibodies IgA were also determined via immunonephelometry and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS The mean ± SE of serum AHSG, following adjustment for confounders, was 0.32 ± 0.02 g/L in IBD, 0.32 ± 0.03 g/L in CD and 0.34 ± 0.03 g/L in UC patients, significantly lower than in IBS patients (0.7 ± 0.018 g/L) and HC (0.71 ± 0.02 g/L) (P < 0.0001, in all cases). AHSG levels were comparable between the CD and UC groups. Based on AHSG levels IBD patients could be distinguished from HC with about 90% sensitivity and specificity. Further adjusted analysis verified the inverse association between AHSG and penetrating, as well as stricturing CD (partial correlation coefficient: -0.45 and -0.33, respectively) (P < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, inverse correlations between AHSG and CRP and the need for anti-TNFα therapy or surgery, were found (partial correlation coefficients: -0.31, -0.33, -0.41, respectively, P < 0.05, in all cases). Finally, IBD individuals who were seropositive, for at least one marker, had AHSG levels falling within the two lower quartiles (OR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.5-5.44, P

  15. A chondrodysplasia family produced by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene: Genotype/phenotype correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Superti-Furga, A.; Steinmann, B.; Gitzelmann, R.; Rossi, A.

    1996-05-03

    Achondrogenesis type 1B (ACG-1B), atelosteogenesis type 2 (AO-2), and diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) are recessively inherited chondrodysplasia of decreasing severity caused by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST) gene on chromosome 5. In these conditions, sulfate transport across the cell membrane is impaired which results in insufficient sulfation of cartilage proteoglycans and thus in an abnormally low sulfate content of cartilage. The severity of the phenotype correlates well with the predicted effect of the underlying DTDST mutations: homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for stop codons or transmembrane domain substitutions mostly result in achondrogenesis type 1B, while other structural or regulatory mutations usually result in one of the less severe phenotypes. The chondrodysplasia arising at the DTDST locus constitute a bone dysplasia family with recessive inheritance. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Audism: exploring the metaphysics of oppression.

    PubMed

    Bauman, H-Dirksen L

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the development of the concept of "audism" from its inception in the mid-1970s by exploring three distinct dimensions of oppression: individual, institutional, and metaphysical. Although the first two aspects of audism have been identified, there is a deeply rooted belief system regarding language and human identity that is yet to be explored within the context of audism. This article attempts to expose how our particular historical and philosophical constructions of language and being have created what French philosopher Jacques Derrida calls phonocentrism. Although Derrida does not discuss audism, his deconstruction of the Western notion of language provides a lens through which we can better see the orientation that has provided fertile ground out of which individual and institutional audism has flourished.

  17. [The metaphysical dimension of animal ethics].

    PubMed

    Walz, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Utilitarian ethics recognises animals as moral objects, but it does not attribute an absolute value to human or non-human individuals. Animal ethics according to Regan defines the non-human individual as an inherent value, but concedes that humans should be given precedence over animals if a situation involves a decision between life and death. Such life and death decisions relate to the fundamental structures of biological nature. To individuals these fundamental structures (the paradox of life and death) will necessarily appear absurd. The metaphysical dimension of animal ethics tries to shed light on the connections between life and death, body and mind that underly ethical discussions and searches for alternatives to the natural organisation of life.

  18. Leibniz on the metaphysical foundation of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple, Daniel R.

    This thesis examines how and why Leibniz felt that physics must be grounded in metaphysics. I argue that one of the strongest motivation Leibniz had for attempting to ground physics in metaphysics was his concern over the problem of induction. Even in his early writings, Leibniz was well aware of the problem of induction and how this problem threatened the very possibility of physics. Both his early and later theories of truth are geared towards solving this deep problem in the philosophy of science. In his early theory of truth, all truths are ultimately grounded in (but not necessarily reducible to) an identity. Hence, all truths are ultimately based in logic. Consequently, the problem of induction is seemingly solved since everything that happens, happens with the force of logical necessity. Unfortunately, this theory is incompatible with Leibniz's theory of possible worlds and hence, jeopardizes the liberty of God. In Leibniz's later theory of truth, Leibniz tries to overcome this weakness by acknowledging truths that are grounded in the free but moral necessity of God's actions. Since God's benevolence is responsible for the actualization of this world, then this world must possess rational laws. Furthermore, since God's rationality ensures that everything obeys the principle of sufficient reason, then we can use this principle to determine the fundamental laws of the universe. Leibniz himself attempts to derive these laws using this principle. Kant attempted to continue this work of securing the possibility of science, and the problems he encountered helped to shape his critical philosophy. So I conclude by a comparative analysis of Leibniz and Kant on the foundations of physics.

  19. The abundant world: Paul Feyerabend's metaphysics of science.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide an interpretation of Feyerabend's metaphysics of science as found in late works like Conquest of Abundance and Tyranny of Science. Feyerabend's late metaphysics consists of an attempt to criticize and provide a systematic alternative to traditional scientific realism, a package of views he sometimes referred to as "scientific materialism." Scientific materialism is objectionable not only on metaphysical grounds, nor because it provides a poor ground for understanding science, but because it implies problematic claims about the epistemic and cultural authority of science, claims incompatible with situating science properly in democratic societies. I show how Feyerabend's metaphysical view, which I call "the abundant world" or "abundant realism," constitute a sophisticated and challenging form of ontological pluralism that makes interesting connections with contemporary philosophy of science and issues of the political and policy role of science in a democratic society.

  20. The tragic and the metaphysical in philosophy and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Stolorow, Robert D; Atwood, George E

    2013-06-01

    This article elaborates a claim, first introduced by Wilhelm Dilthey, that metaphysics represents an illusory flight from the tragedy of human finitude. Metaphysics, of which psychoanalytic metapsychologies are a form, transforms the unbearable fragility and transience of all things human into an enduring, permanent, changeless reality, an illusory world of eternal truths. Three "clinical cases" illustrate this thesis in the work and lives of a philosopher and two psychoanalytic theorists: Friedrich Nietzsche and his metaphysical doctrine of the eternal return of the same, Sigmund Freud and his dual instinct theory, and Heinz Kohut and his theoretical language of the self. It is contended that the best safeguard against the pitfalls of metaphysical illusion lies in a shared commitment to reflection on the constitutive contexts of all our theoretical ideas.

  1. Newton's Metaphysics of Space as God's Emanative Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquette, Dale

    2014-09-01

    In several of his writings, Isaac Newton proposed that physical space is God's "emanative effect" or "sensorium," revealing something interesting about the metaphysics underlying his mathematical physics. Newton's conjectures depart from Plato and Aristotle's metaphysics of space and from classical and Cambridge Neoplatonism. Present-day philosophical concepts of supervenience clarify Newton's ideas about space and offer a portrait of Newton not only as a mathematical physicist but an independent-minded rationalist philosopher.

  2. Gould on species, metaphysics and macroevolution: A critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Sandy C

    2017-04-01

    Stephen Jay Gould's views on the ontology of species were an important plank of his revisionist program in evolutionary theory. In this paper I cast a critical eye over those views. I focus on three central aspects of Gould's views on species: the relation between the Darwinian and the metaphysical notions of individuality, the relation between the ontology of species and macroevolution, and the issue of contextualism and conventionalism about the metaphysics of species.

  3. Septoclast Deficiency Accompanies Postnatal Growth Plate Chondrodysplasia in the Toothless (tl) Osteopetrotic, Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1)-Deficient Rat and Is Partially Responsive to CSF-1 Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gartland, Alison; Mason-Savas, April; Yang, Meiheng; MacKay, Carole A.; Birnbaum, Mark J.; Odgren, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    The septoclast is a specialized, cathepsin B-rich, perivascular cell type that accompanies invading capillaries on the metaphyseal side of the growth plate during endochondral bone growth. The putative role of septoclasts is to break down the terminal transverse septum of growth plate cartilage and permit capillaries to bud into the lower hypertrophic zone. This process fails in osteoclast-deficient, osteopetrotic animal models, resulting in a progressive growth plate dysplasia. The toothless rat is severely osteopetrotic because of a frameshift mutation in the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) gene (Csf1tl). Whereas CSF-1 injections quickly restore endosteal osteoclast populations, they do not improve the chondrodysplasia. We therefore investigated septoclast populations in Csf1tl/Csf1tl rats and wild-type littermates, with and without CSF-1 treatment, at 2 weeks, before the dysplasia is pronounced, and at 4 weeks, by which time it is severe. Tibial sections were immunolabeled for cathepsin B and septoclasts were counted. Csf1tl/Csf1tl mutants had significant reductions in septoclasts at both times, although they were more pronounced at 4 weeks. CSF-1 injections increased counts in wild-type and mutant animals at both times, restoring mutants to normal levels at 2 weeks. In all of the mutants, septoclasts seemed misoriented and had abnormal ultrastructure. We conclude that CSF-1 promotes angiogenesis at the chondroosseous junction, but that, in Csf1tl/Csf1tl rats, septoclasts are unable to direct their degradative activity appropriately, implying a capillary guidance role for locally supplied CSF-1. PMID:19893052

  4. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    PubMed

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate.

  5. A multi-scale model of dislocation plasticity in α-Fe: Incorporating temperature, strain rate and non-Schmid effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.; Hale, L. M.; Zimmerman, J. A.; Battaile, C. C.; Weinberger, C. R.

    2015-01-05

    In this study, we develop an atomistically informed crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) model for body-centered-cubic (BCC) α-Fe that incorporates non-Schmid stress dependent slip with temperature and strain rate effects. Based on recent insights obtained from atomistic simulations, we propose a new constitutive model that combines a generalized non-Schmid yield law with aspects from a line tension (LT) model for describing activation enthalpy required for the motion of dislocation kinks. Atomistic calculations are conducted to quantify the non-Schmid effects while both experimental data and atomistic simulations are used to assess the temperature and strain rate effects. The parameterized constitutive equation is implemented into a BCC CP-FE model to simulate plastic deformation of single and polycrystalline Fe which is compared with experimental data from the literature. This direct comparison demonstrates that the atomistically informed model accurately captures the effects of crystal orientation, temperature and strain rate on the flow behavior of siangle crystal Fe. Furthermore, our proposed CP-FE model exhibits temperature and strain rate dependent flow and yield surfaces in polycrystalline Fe that deviate from conventional CP-FE models based on Schmid's law.

  6. A multi-scale model of dislocation plasticity in α-Fe: Incorporating temperature, strain rate and non-Schmid effects

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, H.; Hale, L. M.; Zimmerman, J. A.; ...

    2015-01-05

    In this study, we develop an atomistically informed crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) model for body-centered-cubic (BCC) α-Fe that incorporates non-Schmid stress dependent slip with temperature and strain rate effects. Based on recent insights obtained from atomistic simulations, we propose a new constitutive model that combines a generalized non-Schmid yield law with aspects from a line tension (LT) model for describing activation enthalpy required for the motion of dislocation kinks. Atomistic calculations are conducted to quantify the non-Schmid effects while both experimental data and atomistic simulations are used to assess the temperature and strain rate effects. The parameterized constitutive equationmore » is implemented into a BCC CP-FE model to simulate plastic deformation of single and polycrystalline Fe which is compared with experimental data from the literature. This direct comparison demonstrates that the atomistically informed model accurately captures the effects of crystal orientation, temperature and strain rate on the flow behavior of siangle crystal Fe. Furthermore, our proposed CP-FE model exhibits temperature and strain rate dependent flow and yield surfaces in polycrystalline Fe that deviate from conventional CP-FE models based on Schmid's law.« less

  7. Life after Newton: an ecological metaphysic.

    PubMed

    Ulanowicz, R E

    1999-05-01

    Ecology may indeed be 'deep', as some have maintained, but perhaps much of the mystery surrounding it owes more simply to the dissonance between ecological notions and the fundamentals of the modern synthesis. Comparison of the axioms supporting the Newtonian world view with those underlying the organicist and stochastic metaphors that motivate much of ecosystems science reveals strong disagreements--especially regarding the nature of the causes of events and the scalar domains over which these causes can operate. The late Karl Popper held that the causal closure forced by our mechanical perspective on nature frustrates our attempts to achieve an 'evolutionary theory of knowledge.' He suggested that the Newtonian concept of 'force' must be generalized to encompass the contingencies that arise in evolutionary processes. His reformulation of force as 'propensity' leads quite naturally to a generalization of Newton's laws for ecology. The revised tenets appear, however, to exhibit more scope and allow for change to arise from within a system. Although Newton's laws survive (albeit in altered form) within a coalescing ecological metaphysic, the axioms that Enlightenment thinkers appended to Newton's work seem ill-suited for ecology and perhaps should yield to a new and coherent set of assumptions on how to view the processes of nature.

  8. Fetal akinesia in metatropic dysplasia: The combined phenotype of chondrodysplasia and neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Unger, Sheila; Lausch, Ekkehart; Stanzial, Franco; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Stefanova, Irina; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nilius, Bernd; Zabel, Bernhard; Superti-Furga, Andrea

    2011-11-01

    Dominant mutations in the receptor calcium channel gene TRPV4 have been associated with a family of skeletal dysplasias (metatropic dysplasia, pseudo-Morquio type 2, spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type, brachyolmia, and familial digital arthropathy) as well as with dominantly inherited neuropathies (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy 2C, scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy, and congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy). While there is phenotypic overlap between the various members of each group, the two groups were considered to be totally separate with the former being strictly a structural skeletal condition and the latter group being confined to the peripheral nervous system. We report here on fetal akinesia as the presenting feature of severe metatropic dysplasia, suggesting that certain TRPV4 mutations can cause both a skeletal and a neuropathic phenotype. Three cases were detected on prenatal ultrasound because of absent movements in the second trimester. Case 4 presented with multiple joint contractures and absent limb movements at birth and was diagnosed with "fetal akinesia syndrome". Post-interruption and post-natal X-rays showed typical features of metatropic dysplasia in all four. Sequencing of the TRPV4 gene confirmed the presence of de novo heterozygous mutations predicting G78W (Case 1), T740I (Cases 2 and 3), and K276E (Case 4). Although some degree of restriction of movements is not uncommon in fetuses with skeletal dysplasia, akinesia as leading sign is unusual and suggests that certain TRPV4 mutations produce both chondrodysplasia and a peripheral neuropathy resulting in a severe "overlap" phenotype.

  9. Plasmalogens and fatty alcohols in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata and Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ana R; da Silva, Tiago Ferreira; Brites, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a special class of ether-phospholipids, best recognized by their vinyl-ether bond at the sn-1 position of the glycerobackbone and by the observation that their deficiency causes rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). The complex plasmalogen biosynthetic pathway involves multiple enzymatic steps carried-out in peroxisomes and in the endoplasmic reticulum. The rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens resides in the formation of the fatty alcohol responsible for the formation of an intermediate with an alkyl-linked moiety. The regulation in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens also takes place at this step using a feedback mechanism to stimulate or inhibit the biosynthesis. As such, fatty alcohols play a relevant role in the formation of ether-phospholipids. These advances in our understanding of complex lipid biosynthesis brought two seemingly distinct disorders into the spotlight. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is caused by defects in the microsomal fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) leading to the accumulation of fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes. In RCDP cells, the defect in plasmalogens is thought to generate a feedback signal to increase their biosynthesis, through the activity of fatty acid reductases to produce fatty alcohols. However, the enzymatic defects in either glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) or alkylglycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) disrupt the biosynthesis and result in the accumulation of the fatty alcohols. A detailed characterization on the processes and enzymes that govern these intricate biosynthetic pathways, as well as, the metabolic characterization of defects along the pathway should increase our understanding of the causes and mechanisms behind these disorders.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... IMAGe syndrome intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies Enable Javascript to view ... combination of intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies is commonly known by ...

  11. The metaphysical basis of a liberal organ procurement policy.

    PubMed

    Hershenov, David B; Delaney, James J

    2010-08-01

    There remains a need to properly analyze the metaphysical assumptions underlying two organ procurement policies: presumed consent and organ sales. Our contention is that if one correctly understands the metaphysics of both the human body and material property, then it will turn out that while organ sales are illiberal, presumed consent is not. What we mean by illiberal includes violating rights of bodily integrity, property, or autonomy, as well as arguing for or against a policy in a manner that runs afoul of Rawlsian public reason.

  12. [The mark of envy: metaphysics and embryology according to Descartes].

    PubMed

    Gaudemard, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between medicine and metaphysics in modern natural philosophy and especially in Descartes' philosophy. I argue that Descartes hypothetical account of birthmarks in connection with his embryology provides an argumentative proof of the metaphysical necessity of a substantial union between mind and body, which however does not threaten his doctrine of the real distinction between these two substances. It would appear that his argument relies on a temporal conception of alethic modalities and provides a new answer to Henricus Regius who in 1641 claimed that, for Descartes, the human being is an ensper accidens.

  13. Ulnar metaphyseal osteochondrosis in seven captive bred cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Allan, Graeme; Portas, Timothy; Bryant, Benn; Howlett, Rolfe; Blyde, David

    2008-01-01

    Distal ulna metaphyseal osteochondrosis was identified in seven captive bred cheetahs raised in Australia between 1984 and 2005. The disorder was characterized by bilateral carpal valgus conformation. In the metaphyseal region of the distal ulnae, an osteolucent defect that appeared as a proximal extension of the lucent physis was identified radiographically between 6 and 10 months of age. Ulna ostectomy was done to correct the angular limb deformity. Histologically, changes were identified in the osteolucent lesion that resembled osteochondrosis. We propose that the condition is probably familial and/or dietary in origin.

  14. SSCP and segregation analysis of the human type X collagen gene (COL10A1) in heritable forms of chondrodysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetman, W.A.; Rash, B.; Thomas, J.T.; Boot-Handford, R.; Grant, M.E.; Wallis, G.A. ); Sykes, B. ); Beighton, P. ); Hecht, J.T. ); Zabell, B. )

    1992-10-01

    Type X collagen is a homotrimeric, short chain, nonfibrillar collagen that is expressed exclusively by hypertrophic chondrocytes at the sites of endochondral ossification. The distribution and pattern of expression of the type X collagen gene (COL10A1) suggests that mutations altering the structure and synthesis of the protein may be responsible for causing heritable forms of chondrodysplasia. The authors investigated whether mutations within the human COL10A1 gene were responsible for causing the disorders achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, pseudoachondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia, by analyzing the coding regions of the gene by using PCR and the single-stranded conformational polymorphism technique. By this approach, seven sequence changes were identified within and flanking the coding regions of the gene of the affected persons. The authors demonstrated that six of these sequence changes were not responsible for causing these forms of chondrodysplasia but were polymorphic in nature. The sequence changes were used to demonstrate discordant segregation between the COL10A1 locus and achondroplasia and pseudoachondroplasia, in nuclear families. This lack of segregation suggests that mutations within or near the COL101A1 locus are not responsible for these disorders. The seventh sequence change resulted in a valine-to-methionine substitution in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the molecule and was identified in only two hypochondroplasic individuals from a single family. Segregation analysis in this family was inconclusive, and the significance of this substitution remains uncertain. 47 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Atelosteogenesis type II is caused by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate-transporter gene (DTDST): Evidence for a phenotypic series involving three chondrodysplasias

    SciTech Connect

    Haestbacka, J.; Lander, E.S.; Superti-Furga, A.

    1996-02-01

    Atelosteogenesis type II (AO II) is a neonatally lethal chondrodysplasia whose clinical and histological characteristics resemble those of another chondrodysplasia, the much less severe diastrophic dysplasia (DTD). The similarity suggests a shared pathogenesis involving lesions in the same biochemical pathway and perhaps the same gene. DTD is caused by mutations in the recently identified diastrophic dysplasia sulfate-transporter gene (DTDST). Here, we report that AOII patients also have DTDST mutations, which lead to defective uptake of inorganic sulfate and insufficient sulfation of macromolecules by patient mesenchymal cells in vitro. Together with our recent observation that a third even more severe chondrodysplasia, achondrogenesis type IB, is also caused by mutations in DTDST, these results demonstrate a phenotypic series of three chondrodysplasias of increasing severity caused by lesions in a single sulfate-transporter gene. The severity of the phenotype appears to be correlated with the predicted effect of the mutations on the residual activity of the DTDST protein. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fall and Rise of Aristotelian Metaphysics in the Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, John

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the fortunes of Aristotelian metaphysics in science and the philosophy of science. It considers the Enlightenment claim that such a metaphysics is fundamentally unscientific, and that its abandonment was essential to the scientific revolution. The history of the scientific revolution and the metaphysical debates involved in it…

  17. Probing the Limits of Reality: The Metaphysics in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John L.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses metaphysical questions concerning the ultimate structure of reality and discusses scientific nature. Suggests that the world cannot afford to neglect the role of conceptual analysis in thinking critically about the possibilities that science fiction claims to describe. (Author/KHR)

  18. Modes of Learning: Whitehead's Metaphysics and the Stages of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, George

    2012-01-01

    Educators are familiar with Alfred North Whitehead's three stages of education: romance, precision, and generalization. Philosophers are familiar with his metaphysical theories about the primacy of temporal processes. In "Modes of Learning," George Allan brings these two sides of Whitehead's thought together for the first time in a book suitable…

  19. Metaphyseal osteopathy-like disease in two sibling kittens.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Valeria; D'Ettorre, Paolo; Caldin, Marco; Vezzoni, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of a growth plate disturbance resembling canine metaphyseal osteopathy in two, two-month-old, sibling, intact, female Domestic Shorthair cats. Clinical signs and radiographic lesions resolved spontaneously after three months. Follow-up examination at six months of age showed complete recovery and no radiographic abnormalities.

  20. Recurrent mutation in CDMP1 in a family with Grebe chondrodysplasia: broadening the phenotypic manifestation of syndrome in Pakistani population

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Sara; Riaz, Hafiza Fizzah; Touseef, Mohammad; Basit, Sulman; Haque, Muhammad Faiyaz Ul; Malik, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Grebe syndrome (OMIM-200700) is a very rare type of acromesomelic dysplasia with autosomal recessive inheritance. We studied a Pakistani family with two affected individuals having typical features of Grebe chondrodysplasia. Patients were observed with short and deformed limbs having a proximo-distal gradient of severity. Hind-limbs were more severely affected than fore-limbs. Digits on autopods were very short and nonfunctional. Index subject also had nearsightedness. However, symptoms in the craniofacial and axial skeleton were minimal. Genetic analysis revealed four base pair insertion mutation (c.1114insGAGT) in gene coding cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1 (CDMP1). This mutation was predicted to cause premature stop codon. The clinical presentation in this study broadens the range of phenotypes associated with CDMP1 mutation in Pakistani population. PMID:26870132

  1. The toothless osteopetrotic rat has a normal vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) cascade and chondrodysplasia resistant to treatments with colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and/or DBP-MAF.

    PubMed

    Odgren, P R; Popoff, S N; Safadi, F F; MacKay, C A; Mason-Savas, A; Seifert, M F; Marks, S C

    1999-08-01

    The osteopetrotic rat mutation toothless (tl) is characterized by little or no bone resorption, few osteoclasts and macrophages, and chondrodysplasia at the growth plates. Short-term treatment of tl rats with colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) has been shown to increase the number of osteoclasts and macrophages, producing dramatic resolution of skeletal sclerosis at some, but not all, sites. Defects in production of vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) have been identified in two other independent osteopetrotic mutations of the rat (op and ia), and two in the mouse (op and mi), in which macrophages and osteoclasts can be activated by the administration of exogenous DBP-MAF. The present studies were undertaken to examine the histology and residual growth defects in tl rats following longer CSF-1 treatments, to investigate the possibility that exogenous DBP-MAF might act synergistically with CSF-1 to improve the tl phenotype, and to assess the integrity of the endogenous DBP-MAF pathway in this mutation. CSF-1 treatment-with or without DBP-MAF-induced resorption of metaphyseal bone to the growth plate on the marrow side, improved slightly but did not normalize long bone growth, and caused no improvement in the abnormal histology of the growth plate. Injections of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc) to prime macrophage activation via the DBP-MAF pathway raised superoxide production to similar levels in peritoneal macrophages from both normal and mutant animals, indicating no defect in the DBP-MAF pathway in tl rats. Interestingly, pretreatments with CSF-1 alone also increased superoxide production, although the mechanism for this remains unknown. In summary, we find that, unlike other osteopetrotic mutations investigated to date, the DBP-MAF pathway does not appear to be defective in the tl rat; that additional DBP-MAF does not augment the beneficial skeletal effects seen with CSF-1 alone; and that the growth plate chondrodystrophy seen in

  2. Psychotherapy: What's Metaphysical Got to Do With It?

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2009-12-01

    Clinicians have a number of treatment options for dealing with the emotional ills of patients, including psychoeducation, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. However, after years of experience in the clinical field, we have recognized that these treatment options may not be sufficient to adequately address the problems of some patients. We have found that adding a metaphysical/spiritual component may be helpful, particularly for those patients with histories of childhood trauma. In this edition of The Interface, we discuss four metaphysical techniques for facilitating patient healing-1) refocusing on the present, 2) reframing adversity, 3) practicing surrender, and 4) meditation. These approaches can be mutually integrated and compliment a psychological treatment in either the psychiatric or primary care setting, regardless of whether or not the patient has formal religious beliefs.

  3. Foucauldian diagnostics: space, time, and the metaphysics of medicine.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2009-08-01

    This essay places Foucault's work into a philosophical context, recognizing that Foucault is difficult to place and demonstrates that Foucault remains in the Kantian tradition of philosophy, even if he sits at the margins of that tradition. For Kant, the forms of intuition-space and time-are the a priori conditions of the possibility of human experience and knowledge. For Foucault, the a priori conditions are political space and historical time. Foucault sees political space as central to understanding both the subject and objects of medicine, psychiatry, and the social sciences. Through this analysis one can see that medicine's metaphysics is a metaphysics of efficient causation, where medicine's objects are subjected to mechanisms of efficient control.

  4. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David Kelley

    In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

  5. The metaphysical lessons of synthetic biology and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I examine some important metaphysical lessons that are often presented as derived from two new scientific disciplines: synthetic biology and neuroscience. I analyse four of them: the nature of life, the existence of a soul (the mind-body problem), personhood, and free will. Many caveats are in order, and each 'advance' or each case should be assessed for itself. I conclude that a main lesson can nevertheless be learned: in conjunction with modern science, neuroscience and synthetic biology allow us to enrich old metaphysical debates, to deepen and even renew them. In particular, it becomes less and less plausible to consider life, mind, person, and agency as non-natural or non-physical entities.

  6. Semantics and metaphysics in informatics: toward an ontology of tasks.

    PubMed

    Figdor, Carrie

    2011-04-01

    This article clarifies three principles that should guide the development of any cognitive ontology. First, that an adequate cognitive ontology depends essentially on an adequate task ontology; second, that the goal of developing a cognitive ontology is independent of the goal of finding neural implementations of the processes referred to in the ontology; and third, that cognitive ontologies are neutral regarding the metaphysical relationship between cognitive and neural processes.

  7. Probing the limits of reality: the metaphysics in science fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John L.

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction provides a genre in which metaphysical questions concerning the ultimate structure of reality regularly arise. In addressing these questions, contemporary scientists tend to assume that the questions are of a scientific nature and should be handled solely by reference to our best theories. In this paper, it is argued that we cannot afford to neglect the role of conceptual analysis - a distinctively philosophical task - in thinking critically about the possibilities that science fiction claims to describe.

  8. Beware of mereologists bearing gifts: prolegomena to a medical metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Khushf, George

    2013-10-01

    This essay considers implications of formal mereologies and ontologies for medical metaphysics. Edward Fried's extensional mereological account of the human body is taken as representative of a prominent strand in analytic metaphysics that has close affinities with medical positivism. I show why such accounts fail. First, I consider how Fried attempts to make sense of the medical case of Barney Clark, the first recipient of an artificial heart, and show that his analytic metaphysical categories do not have the right kind of fit with the case. A proper medical metaphysic should involve a richer two way dialogue with medicine, and it should not just "apply" formal accounts worked out in other settings. Second, I argue that any effort to account for real wholes with extensional mereological sums requires all sorts of ad hoc, supplementary mechanisms that do the real work, and the full repertoire of these mechanisms involves inconsistencies and semantic shifts. Finally, I consider an alternative strand of work on non-extensional whole/part relations that is closer to medicine and that can deepen reflection on some core problems in bioethics, for example, associated with the determination of death when an organism ceases to function as a whole. In addition to the utility such formal ontologies have for addressing traditional problems such as the determination of death, philosophers of medicine should appreciate the increasingly influential role such formal tools are playing in the development of data system ontologies. Assumptions integral to these ontologies have far reaching implications for the way future research and practice in medicine will be conducted, and much greater critical reflection is needed on the full range of issues associated with the development and use of such medical ontologies.

  9. Natural kinds in evolution and systematics: metaphysical and epistemological considerations.

    PubMed

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2009-06-01

    Despite the traditional focus on metaphysical issues in discussions of natural kinds in biology, epistemological considerations are at least as important. By revisiting the debate as to whether taxa are kinds or individuals, I argue that both accounts are metaphysically compatible, but that one or the other approach can be pragmatically preferable depending on the epistemic context. Recent objections against construing species as homeostatic property cluster kinds are also addressed. The second part of the paper broadens the perspective by considering homologues as another example of natural kinds, comparing them with analogues as functionally defined kinds. Given that there are various types of natural kinds, I discuss the different theoretical purposes served by diverse kind concepts, suggesting that there is no clear-cut distinction between natural kinds and other kinds, such as functional kinds. Rather than attempting to offer a unique metaphysical account of 'natural' kind, a more fruitful approach consists in the epistemological study of how different natural kind concepts are employed in scientific reasoning.

  10. Metaphysical Underdetermination and Logical Determination: the Case of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenhart, Jonas R. B.

    2014-03-01

    The `underdetermination of metaphysics by the physics' is the thesis that our best scientific theories do not uniquely determine their ontologies. Non-relativistic quantum mechanics is famously thought to exemplify this kind of underdetermination: it may be seen as compatible with both an ontology of individual objects and with an ontology of non-individual objects. A possible way out of the dilema thus created consists in adopting some version of Ontic Structural Realism (OSR), a view according to which the metaphysically relevant aspect of the theory is its structure, not the nature of the objects dealt with. According to OSR, particular objects may be dispensed with (eliminated or re-conceptualized) in favor of the structure of the theory. In this paper we shall argue that the underdetermination of metaphysics by the physics is a consequence of a too strict naturalism in ontology. As a result, when a mitigated ontological naturalism is taken into account, underdetermination does not appear to have such dark consequences for object-oriented ontologies in quantum mechanics.

  11. Defining human death: an intersection of bioethics and metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    For many years now, bioethicists, physicians, and others in the medical field have disagreed concerning how to best define human death. Different theories range from the Harvard Criteria of Brain Death, which defines death as the cessation of all brain activity, to the Cognitive Criteria, which is based on the loss of almost all core mental properties, e.g., memory, self-consciousness, moral agency, and the capacity for reason. A middle ground is the Irreversibility Standard, which defines death as occurring when the capacity for consciousness is forever lost. Given all these different theories, how can we begin to approach solving the issue of how to define death? I propose that a necessary starting point is discussing an even more fundamental question that properly belongs in the philosophical field of metaphysics: we must first address the issue of diachronic identity over time, and the persistence conditions of personal identity. In this paper, I illustrate the interdependent relationship between this metaphysical question and questions concerning the definition of death. I also illustrate how it is necessary to antecedently attend to the metaphysical issue of defining death before addressing certain issues in medical ethics, e.g., whether it is morally permissible to euthanize patients in persistent vegetative states or procure organs from anencephalic infants.

  12. Langerhans cell histiocytosis case with dense metaphyseal band sign.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Ichiro; Aihara, Toshinori; Morimoto, Akira; Watanabe, Hideaki; Furukawa, Rieko

    2013-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma, a type of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, exhibits a classic vertebral collapse, which is called vertebra plana (Calve's disease) and it manifests as a solitary bony lesion. Vertebra plana can cause severe pain in patients. Bisphosphonates (clodronate, pamidronate and zoledronic acid) have been recently used to treat osteolytic bone lesions of LCH. Zoledronic acid has 100 times relative potency that of pamidronate. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl who had zoledronic acid treatment for severe back pain due to vertebra plana. X-ray photographs of the patient's body showed dense metaphyseal band sign, which can be found in lead poisoning, treated leukemia, healing rickets, recovery from scurvy, vitamin D hypervitaminosis, congenital hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism. Increased biological potent zoledronic acid deprived her of severe back pain due to vertebra plana and might cause dense metaphyseal band sign of her skeleton. Conclusion; We have cured the severe back pain of a 10-year-old girl case of eosinophilic granuloma with zoledronic acid. After that treatment, X-ray photographs of the patient's body showed dense metaphyseal band sign. There have been few such cases reported until now.

  13. Intrafocal pinning for distal radius metaphyseal fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Shital N; Jain, Viral V; Youngquist, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case control study was to evaluate the results of intrafocal pinning for distal radius metaphyseal fractures in children and to compare these results with conventional pinning. Data were collected from medical records and radiographs from patients who underwent closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for distal radius fracture in a Level I trauma center at the authors' institution between 2008 and 2010. Inclusion criteria included a dorsally angulated metaphyseal fracture without physeal involvement, an open distal radius physis, and a follow-up to radiographic union. A total of 10 patients with intrafocal pinning were compared to 26 patients with conventional pinning. Preoperatively, angulation was greater in patients who received intrafocal pinning than conventional pinning based on anteroposterior radiographs. Postoperatively, the 2 groups did not differ in angulation on either anteroposterior or lateral radiographs. One malunion and 2 pin-related complications occurred in the conventional pinning group, and 1 pin-related complication occurred in the intrafocal pinning group. The 2 groups did not differ by age, sex, side of injury, days to surgery, or initial shortening. This study affirms that the intrafocal pinning technique is an alternative to the conventional pinning technique for the stabilization of displaced metaphyseal distal radius fractures in children. Intrafocal pinning can also be used as a reduction tool for fractures that cannot be reduced by closed manipulation. The complications are comparable between the 2 techniques.

  14. Johann Christoph Sturm's universal mathematics and metaphysics (German Title: Universalmathematik und Metaphysik bei Johann Christoph Sturm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinsle, Ulrich G.

    In order to understand Sturm's concept of a universal mathematics as a replacement or complement of metaphysics, one first has to examine the evolution of the idea of a mathesis universalis up to Sturm, and his concept of metaphysics. According to the understanding of those times, natural theology belongs to metaphysics. The last section is concerned with Sturm's statements on the existence of God and his assessments for a physico-theology.

  15. DNA-based association and description of the larval stage of Apatania helvetica Schmid 1954 (Trichoptera, Apataniidae) with notes on ecology and zoogeography

    PubMed Central

    WARINGER, JOHANN; LUBINI, VERENA; HOPPELER, FELICITAS; PAULS, STEFFEN U.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the hitherto unknown larva of Apatania helvetica Schmid 1954. Sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase region were used to associate adult females and larvae. Genetic data confirmed the autochthonous status of this taxon within the parthenogenetic Apatania muliebris complex (‘sous groupe’) sensu Schmid 1954. Information on the morphology of the larva is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. Apatania helvetica is morphologically close to Apatania muliebris McLachlan 1866 and A. fimbriata (Pictet 1834). In the context of Apataniidae, this trio of species can be separated by the presence of long tapering setae with flexuous tips at the anterior border of the pronotum, by a central gap within the transverse setal band on the 1st abdominal dorsum, by biometry of the frontoclypeal setation and by their distribution ranges in Europe. With respect to European ecoregions (Graf et al. 2008), Apatania muliebris has been recorded from the Alps, the central plains and highlands, the Baltic province, Great Britain, Ireland and Scandinavia; A. fimbriata is known from the Alps, the western and central highlands, the western plains, the Hungarian lowlands and the Carpathians. A. helvetica is restricted to the Alps and has only been recorded in Switzerland. PMID:26624099

  16. Fall and Rise of Aristotelian Metaphysics in the Philosophy of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamont, John

    2009-06-01

    The paper examines the fortunes of Aristotelian metaphysics in science and the philosophy of science. It considers the Enlightenment claim that such a metaphysics is fundamentally unscientific, and that its abandonment was essential to the scientific revolution. The history of the scientific revolution and the metaphysical debates involved in it is examined, and it is argued that the eclipse of Aristotelian views was neither complete, nor merited. The evolution of Humeian and positivist accounts of science is described, and it is shown how the severe problems with these accounts, together with a revival of Aristotelian concepts in philosophy, have led to the rebirth of broadly Aristotelian accounts of the metaphysics underlying science.

  17. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care.

  18. The metaphysical art of Giorgio de Chirico. Migraine or epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Blanke, Olaf; Landis, Theodor

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that the great Italian painter Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978), who developed the unique style of 'metaphysical art', suffered from migraine and used some of his morbid manifestations as a source of inspiration for his paintings. Yet, whereas many of the symptoms that de Chirico described are rare in migraine, they are frequently encountered in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we rediscuss de Chirico's symptoms critically and suggest that, if his symptoms were of neurological origin, they rather relate to temporal lobe epilepsy than migraine.

  19. Rejecting medical humanism: medical humanities and the metaphysics of medicine.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2008-03-01

    The call for a narrative medicine has been touted as the cure-all for an increasingly mechanical medicine. It has been claimed that the humanities might create more empathic, reflective, professional and trustworthy doctors. In other words, we can once again humanise medicine through the addition of humanities. In this essay, I explore how the humanities, particularly narrative medicine, appeals to the metaphysical commitments of the medical institution in order to find its justification, and in so doing, perpetuates a dualism of humanity that would have humanism as the counterpoint to the biopsychosociologisms of our day.

  20. Delayed-Choice Experiments and the Metaphysics of Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egg, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Delayed-choice experiments in quantum mechanics are often taken to undermine a realistic interpretation of the quantum state. More specifically, Healey has recently argued that the phenomenon of delayed-choice entanglement swapping is incompatible with the view that entanglement is a physical relation between quantum systems. This paper argues against these claims. It first reviews two paradigmatic delayed-choice experiments and analyzes their metaphysical implications. It then applies the results of this analysis to the case of entanglement swapping, showing that such experiments pose no threat to realism about entanglement.

  1. Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals Compound Heterozygosity for Ethnically Distinct PEX7 Mutations Responsible for Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata, Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Jessie C.; Glamuzina, Emma; Taylor, Juliet; Swan, Brendan; Handisides, Shona; Wilson, Callum; Fietz, Michael; van Dijk, Tessa; Appelhof, Bart; Hill, Rosamund; Marks, Rosemary; Love, Donald R.; Robertson, Stephen P.; Snell, Russell G.; Lehnert, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    We describe two brothers who presented at birth with bone growth abnormalities, followed by development of increasingly severe intellectual and physical disability, growth restriction, epilepsy, and cerebellar and brain stem atrophy, but normal ocular phenotypes. Case 1 died at 19 years of age due to chronic respiratory illnesses without a unifying diagnosis. The brother remains alive but severely disabled at 19 years of age. Whole exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous stop mutations in the peroxisome biogenesis factor 7 gene in both individuals. Mutations in this gene cause rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, type 1 (RCDP1). One mutation, p.Arg232∗, has only been documented once before in a Japanese family, which is of interest given these two boys are of European descent. The other mutation, p.Leu292∗, is found in approximately 50% of RCDP1 patients. These are the first cases of RCDP1 that describe the coinheritance of the p.Arg232∗ and p.Leu292∗ mutations and demonstrate the utility of WES in cases with unclear diagnoses. PMID:26587300

  2. Structural and Functional Mutations of the Perlecan Gene Cause Schwartz-Jampel Syndrome, with Myotonic Myopathy and Chondrodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Le, Alexander H.; Nishino, Ichizo; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ho, Nicola C.; Francomano, Clair A.; Govindraj, Prasanthi; Hassell, John R.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Spranger, Jürgen; Stevenson, Roger E.; Iannaccone, Susan; Dalakas, Marinos C.; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2002-01-01

    Perlecan, a large heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of the basement membrane and other extracellular matrices and has been implicated in multiple biological functions. Mutations in the perlecan gene (HSPG2) cause two classes of skeletal disorders: the relatively mild Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (SJS) and severe neonatal lethal dyssegmental dysplasia, Silverman-Handmaker type (DDSH). SJS is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by varying degrees of myotonia and chondrodysplasia, and patients with SJS survive. The molecular mechanism underlying the chondrodystrophic myotonia phenotype of SJS is unknown. In the present report, we identify five different mutations that resulted in various forms of perlecan in three unrelated patients with SJS. Heterozygous mutations in two patients with SJS either produced truncated perlecan that lacked domain V or significantly reduced levels of wild-type perlecan. The third patient had a homozygous 7-kb deletion that resulted in reduced amounts of nearly full-length perlecan. Unlike DDSH, the SJS mutations result in different forms of perlecan in reduced levels that are secreted to the extracellular matrix and are likely partially functional. These findings suggest that perlecan has an important role in neuromuscular function and cartilage formation, and they define the molecular basis involved in the difference in the phenotypic severity between DDSH and SJS. PMID:11941538

  3. Matrilin-3 mutations that cause chondrodysplasias interfere with protein trafficking while a mutation associated with hand osteoarthritis does not

    PubMed Central

    Otten, C; Wagener, R; Paulsson, M; Zaucke, F

    2005-01-01

    Several mutations in the extracellular matrix protein matrilin-3 cause a heterogeneous disease spectrum affecting skeletal tissues. We introduced three disease causing point mutations leading to single amino acid exchanges (R116W, T298M, C299S) in matrilin-3 and expressed the corresponding proteins in primary articular chondrocytes to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular level. Expression levels, processing, and the secretion pattern of a mutation linked to hand osteoarthritis (T298M) were similar to the wildtype protein, whereas the two other mutants were poorly expressed and hardly detectable in supernatants of transiently transfected cells. Using immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated that mutants R116W and C299S are retained and accumulate within the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). Their further trafficking to the Golgi compartment seems to be disturbed, whereas T298M is secreted normally. In cells transfected with the wildtype and T298M constructs, a matrilin-3 containing filamentous network was formed surrounding the cells, whereas in the case of R116W and C299S such structures were completely absent. These observations are similar to those for mutations in the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) leading to multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and pseudoachondroplasia suggesting that retention and accumulation of cartilage proteins in the ER might be a general mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of chondrodysplasias. PMID:16199550

  4. Biochemical characterization of arylsulfatase E and functional analysis of mutations found in patients with X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata.

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, A; Parenti, G; d'Addio, M; Andria, G; Ballabio, A; Meroni, G

    1998-01-01

    X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX) is a congenital disorder characterized by abnormalities in cartilage and bone development. Mutations leading to amino acid substitutions were identified recently in CDPX patients, in the coding region of the arylsulfatase E (ARSE) gene, a novel member of the sulfatase gene family. Transfection of the ARSE full-length cDNA, in Cos7 cells, allowed us to establish that its protein product is a 60-kD precursor, which is subject to N-glycosylation, to give a mature 68-kD form that, unique among sulfatases, is localized to the Golgi apparatus. Five missense mutations found in CDPX patients were introduced into wild-type ARSE cDNA by site-directed mutagenesis. These mutants were transfected into Cos7 cells, and the arylsulfatase activity and biochemical properties were determined, to study the effect of these substitutions on the ARSE protein. One of the mutants behaves as the wild-type protein. All four of the other mutations resulted in a complete lack of arylsulfatase activity, although the substitutions do not appear to affect the stability and subcellular localization of the protein. The loss of activity due to these mutations confirms their involvement in the clinical phenotype and points to the importance of these residues in the correct folding of a catalytically active ARSE enzyme. PMID:9497243

  5. The will: from metaphysical freedom to normative functionalism.

    PubMed

    Felthous, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Free will is regarded by some as the most and by others as the least relevant concept for criminal responsibility. Contributions from religious and philosophical thinkers over the classical and medieval Christian eras demonstrate that, despite the passionate and historically consequential debates over the meaning of "freedom," the unifying theme that joined the will with the intellect remained persistent and pervasive. Leading historical jurists in England eventually dropped the descriptor "free," but retained the central importance of the will to criminal responsibility and emphasized its dependence on the intellect to function properly. Modern rationalist philosophers denied the will's metaphysical freedom, but not its existence. Today the neurosciences reveal more and more about how the will functions, even as lawyers and psychiatrists hesitate to utter the word. In properly avoiding metaphysical freedom within forensic inquiry and discourse, it is a grave conceptual mistake to overlook the will itself. Once greater conceptual clarity on the empirical nature of the will is achieved and accepted, the law itself could rediscover the core mental faculty behind human agency, the will.

  6. Metaphysical and ethical perspectives on creating animal-human chimeras.

    PubMed

    Eberl, Jason T; Ballard, Rebecca A

    2009-10-01

    This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards as to the moral permissibility of the research in question. Are a-h chimeras entitled to the more restrictive and protective ethical standards applied to human research subjects? We elucidate an Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical framework in which to argue how such chimeras ought to be defined ontologically. We then examine when the creation of, and experimentation upon, certain types of a-h chimeras may be morally permissible.

  7. Heterologous embryo transfer: Magisterial answers and metaphysical questions.

    PubMed

    Accad, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The debate regarding the morality of heterologous embryo transfer (HET) as a solution for the fate of cryopreserved embryos remains active. This paper endeavors to show that the magisterial instructions on bioethical issues can only lead to the conclusion that HET is always morally illicit. I begin by showing that the text of Dignitas personae recognizes HET as a procedure accomplishing a procreative function, and I indicate that it is through gestation that this procreative function occurs. I further show that the previous Instruction, Donum vitae, implicitly points to an ontological or spiritual consideration at play during gestation. This consideration is likely related to the procreative function identified in Dignitas personae. Finally, I place these two textual arguments in the context of the debate concerning HET and conclude that metaphysical questions must be clarified in order for the immorality of HET to be understood from a suitable anthropological perspective and gain more widespread acceptance.

  8. Particles, particle labels, and quanta: The toll of unacknowledged metaphysics

    SciTech Connect

    Redhead, M. ); Teller, P. )

    1991-01-01

    The practice of describing multiparticle quantum systems in terms of labeled particles indicates that the authors think of quantum entities as individuatable. The labels, together with particle indistinguishability, create the need for symmetrization or antisymmetrization (or, in principle, higher-order symmetries), which in turn results in surplus formal structure' in the formalism, formal structure which corresponds to nothing in the real world. The authors argue that these facts show quanta to be unindividuatable entities, things in principle incapable of supporting labels, and so things which support no factual difference if two of them are thought of as being switched. When thinking of the metaphysics of quanta, one should eschew the misleading labels of the tensor product Hilbert space formalism and prefer the ontologically more faithful description of the Fock space formalism. This conception eliminates puzzles about the quantum statistics of bosons.

  9. Spreading disease: a controversy concerning the metaphysics of disease.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, R

    1998-01-01

    This article concerns the metaphysics of disease. Is disease a fixed feature of the world or a social value or preference? I argue that disease is not a value-laden concept and thus debates concerning it differ fundamentally from debates concerning health, harm, or suffering where evaluative judgements are central. I show how the so-called social constructionist view of disease has been motivated both by ethical concerns with medical practices and general theoretical doubts about scientific naturalism. If I can show that ethical concerns about medical treatment can be answered without adopting social constructionism, that leaves only the broader theoretical question of naturalism. I cannot completely answer those theoretical doubts, but I show that the theoretical motivation is less convincing when it is separated from the moral challenge often accompanying it. I conclude that a convincing defense of the non-naturalistic conception of disease is rarely attempted and proves more difficult and counter-intuitive than its proponents assume.

  10. Pragmatism, metaphysics, and bioethics: beyond a theory of moral deliberation.

    PubMed

    Pamental, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Pragmatism has been understood by bioethicists as yet another rival in the "methods wars," as yet another theory of moral deliberation. This has led to criticism of pragmatic bioethics as both theoretically and practically inadequate. Pragmatists' responses to these objections have focused mainly on misunderstandings of pragmatism's epistemology. These responses are insufficient. Pragmatism's commitment to radical empiricism gives it theoretical resources unappreciated by critics and defenders alike. Radical empiricism, unlike its more traditional ancestors, undercuts the gaps between theory and practice, and subjective and objective accounts of experience, and in so doing provides the metaphysical and epistemological basis for a thoroughgoing empirical naturalism in ethics. Pragmatism's strength as an approach to moral problems thus emerges as a result of a much wider array of resources than contemporary interpreters have acknowledged, which makes it a richer, deeper framework for understanding moral deliberation in general and bioethical decision making in particular.

  11. On Some Troubles with the Metaphysics of Fermionic Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigaj, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    In this paper I discuss some metaphysical consequences of an unorthodox approach to the problem of the identity and individuality of "indistinguishable" quantum particles. This approach is based on the assumption that the only admissible way of individuating separate components of a given system is with the help of the permutation-invariant qualitative properties of the total system. Such a method of individuation, when applied to fermionic compositions occupying so-called GMW-nonentangled states, yields highly implausible consequences regarding the number of distinct components of a given composite system. I specify the problem (which I call the problem of fermionic inflation) in detail, and I consider several strategies of solving it. The preferred solution of the problem is based on the premise that spatial location should play a privileged role in identifying and making reference to quantum-mechanical systems.

  12. Heterologous embryo transfer: Magisterial answers and metaphysical questions

    PubMed Central

    Accad, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The debate regarding the morality of heterologous embryo transfer (HET) as a solution for the fate of cryopreserved embryos remains active. This paper endeavors to show that the magisterial instructions on bioethical issues can only lead to the conclusion that HET is always morally illicit. I begin by showing that the text of Dignitas personae recognizes HET as a procedure accomplishing a procreative function, and I indicate that it is through gestation that this procreative function occurs. I further show that the previous Instruction, Donum vitae, implicitly points to an ontological or spiritual consideration at play during gestation. This consideration is likely related to the procreative function identified in Dignitas personae. Finally, I place these two textual arguments in the context of the debate concerning HET and conclude that metaphysical questions must be clarified in order for the immorality of HET to be understood from a suitable anthropological perspective and gain more widespread acceptance. PMID:24899737

  13. Metaphysical accounts of the zygote as a person and the veto power of facts.

    PubMed

    Bole, T J

    1989-12-01

    That the soul of a human person is infused at conception is a metaphysical claim. But given its traditional articulation, it has the empirical consequence that the zygote must have a substantial continuity with the adult person, a continuity which is already determined at conception. This empirical consequence is contradicted by the fact that the zygote may become a hydatidiform mole, or several persons. The metaphysical claim is falsified by the facts.

  14. Beyond positivism: a metaphysical basis for clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Herman, J

    1992-09-01

    Medicine does not have its own unified body of scientific knowledge. Instead, physicians who are oriented to research make sporadic incursions into the basic sciences such as genetics, biochemistry, immunology, epidemiology, physiology, pharmacology and so on. These latter, taken together, comprise biomedicine which is said to have adopted the positivist epistemology or the Cartesian/Newtonian one that regards the scientist as an uninvolved observer of nature. In effect, medical science has come to rest on a theory of knowledge which links meaning to probability and considers prediction as the scientist's chief task. Like its predecessor, the probability theory of meaning rejects metaphysical speculation and remains connected to observations made, directly or indirectly, by means of the five senses. Despite some brilliant successes touching on relatively uncommon disorders, biomedicine cannot explain most day-to-day clinical activity. An understanding of what transpires between patient and doctor, of its diagnostic potential and therapeutic weight requires hermeneutic, or phenomenological, inquiry which brings about changes in both parties to it. Such a science, as ontological speculation has been called, cannot be deciphered by an epistemology couched in the imagery of physics and chemistry.

  15. Method and metaphysics in Clements's and Gleason's ecological explanations.

    PubMed

    Eliot, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    To generate explanatory theory, ecologists must wrestle with how to represent the extremely many, diverse causes behind phenomena in their domain. Early twentieth-century plant ecologists Frederic E. Clements and Henry A. Gleason provide a textbook example of different approaches to explaining vegetation, with Clements allegedly committed, despite abundant exceptions, to a law of vegetation, and Gleason denying the law in favor of less organized phenomena. However, examining Clements's approach to explanation reveals him not to be expressing a law, and instead to be developing an explanatory structure without laws, capable of progressively integrating causal complexity. Moreover, Clements and Gleason largely agree on the causes of vegetation; but, since causal understanding here underdetermines representation, they differ on how to integrate recognized causes into general theory--that is, in their methodologies. Observers of the case may have mistakenly assumed that scientific representation across the disciplines typically aims at laws like Newton's, and that representations always reveal scientists' metaphysical commitments. Ironically, in the present case, this assumption seems to have been made even by observers who regard Clements as nai ve for his alleged commitment to an ecological law.

  16. Overcoming O: Dewey and the Problem of Bion's Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nir

    2015-10-01

    Bion guides us to eschew memory, desire, and understanding in order to become one with O-the ultimate reality of the analytic moment. However, his directions are valid only to the extent that such a meta-reality actually exists. Otherwise there is nothing to unite with and no reason to shun memory or desire. The present work inquires whether we may provide Bion's technique with a less speculative philosophy, specifically Dewey's pragmatist theory of aesthetics. It begins with reviewing the similarities between the two writers' methods, highlighting their shared emphasis on openness to the unknown. Yet listening to their intonations reveals that they actually convey opposite ideas as to what this "unknown" may be. Whereas Dewey sanguinely portrays the possibilities of the "yet-unknown," Bion emphasizes the dread of our inescapable encounter with the unknowable. This dread is embodied in his concept of O. Thus, rather than being merely a metaphysical speculation, O communicates Bion's conviction that fear forms the core of our existence. Banishing O from the counseling room may indeed aid his method in becoming accessible to a wider audience; at the same time, however, doing so might also deprive it of the very context that gives it meaning.

  17. Four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Howsepian, A A

    2008-04-01

    In this essay, I attempt to provide answers to the following four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis. (1) Following its first cellular fission, is it coherent to claim that one and only one of two "blastomeric" twins of a human zygote is identical with that zygote? (2) Following the fusion of two human pre-embryos, is it coherent to claim that one and only one pre-fusion pre-embryo is identical with that postfusion pre-embryo? (3) Does a live human being come into existence only when its brain comes into existence? (4) At implantation, does a pre-embryo become a mere part of its mother? I argue that either if things have quidditative properties or if criterialism is false, then queries (1) and (2) can be answered in the affirmative; that in light of recent developments in theories of human death and in light of a more "functional" theory of brains, query (3) can be answered in the negative; and that plausible mereological principles require a negative answer to query (4).

  18. Fundamental awareness: A framework for integrating science, philosophy and metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Theise, Neil D; Kafatos, Menas C

    2016-01-01

    The ontologic framework of Fundamental Awareness proposed here assumes that non-dual Awareness is foundational to the universe, not arising from the interactions or structures of higher level phenomena. The framework allows comparison and integration of views from the three investigative domains concerned with understanding the nature of consciousness: science, philosophy, and metaphysics. In this framework, Awareness is the underlying reality, not reducible to anything else. Awareness and existence are the same. As such, the universe is non-material, self-organizing throughout, a holarchy of complementary, process driven, recursive interactions. The universe is both its own first observer and subject. Considering the world to be non-material and comprised, a priori, of Awareness is to privilege information over materiality, action over agency and to understand that qualia are not a "hard problem," but the foundational elements of all existence. These views fully reflect main stream Western philosophical traditions, insights from culturally diverse contemplative and mystical traditions, and are in keeping with current scientific thinking, expressible mathematically.

  19. Fundamental awareness: A framework for integrating science, philosophy and metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Theise, Neil D.; Kafatos, Menas C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ontologic framework of Fundamental Awareness proposed here assumes that non-dual Awareness is foundational to the universe, not arising from the interactions or structures of higher level phenomena. The framework allows comparison and integration of views from the three investigative domains concerned with understanding the nature of consciousness: science, philosophy, and metaphysics. In this framework, Awareness is the underlying reality, not reducible to anything else. Awareness and existence are the same. As such, the universe is non-material, self-organizing throughout, a holarchy of complementary, process driven, recursive interactions. The universe is both its own first observer and subject. Considering the world to be non-material and comprised, a priori, of Awareness is to privilege information over materiality, action over agency and to understand that qualia are not a “hard problem,” but the foundational elements of all existence. These views fully reflect main stream Western philosophical traditions, insights from culturally diverse contemplative and mystical traditions, and are in keeping with current scientific thinking, expressible mathematically. PMID:27489576

  20. Mind, medicine, and metaphysics: reflections on the reclamation of the human spirit.

    PubMed

    Penn, Michael L; Wilson, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Following the publication of such works as Auguste Comte's Cour de Philosophie Positive (1830-1842), in which he argued the inherent immaturity of metaphysical discourse, metaphysics, for Western intellectuals--and especially for Western intellectuals committed to science--has largely been abandoned. In recent years, however, we have seen renewed interest in metaphysics among some researchers and clinicians, due, in part, to increasing attempts to integrate diverse fields of study into some unified and coherent understanding of human life. For many psychologists and psychiatrists, this renewed interest is accompanied by an implicit, and sometimes explicit, re-embrace of the notion of the "human spirit." In this paper we explore some of the processes animating this movement and some of the clinical implications that flow from it.

  1. Alpha-2 Heremans Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG) Modulates Signaling Pathways in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line SQ20B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Pamela D.; Sakwe, Amos; Koumangoye, Rainelli; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Ochieng, Josiah; Marshall, Dana R.

    2014-02-15

    This study was performed to identify the potential role of Alpha-2 Heremans Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) tumorigenesis using an HNSCC cell line model. HNSCC cell lines are unique among cancer cell lines, in that they produce endogenous AHSG and do not rely, solely, on AHSG derived from serum. To produce our model, we performed a stable transfection to down-regulate AHSG in the HNSCC cell line SQ20B, resulting in three SQ20B sublines, AH50 with 50% AHSG production, AH20 with 20% AHSG production and EV which is the empty vector control expressing wild-type levels of AHSG. Utilizing these sublines, we examined the effect of AHSG depletion on cellular adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion in a serum-free environment. We demonstrated that sublines EV and AH50 adhered to plastic and laminin significantly faster than the AH20 cell line, supporting the previously reported role of exogenous AHSG in cell adhesion. As for proliferative potential, EV had the greatest amount of proliferation with AH50 proliferation significantly diminished. AH20 cells did not proliferate at all. Depletion of AHSG also diminished cellular migration and invasion. TGF-β was examined to determine whether levels of the TGF-β binding AHSG influenced the effect of TGF-β on cell signaling and proliferation. Whereas higher levels of AHSG blunted TGF-β influenced SMAD and ERK signaling, it did not clearly affect proliferation, suggesting that AHSG influences on adhesion, proliferation, invasion and migration are primarily due to its role in adhesion and cell spreading. The previously reported role of AHSG in potentiating metastasis via protecting MMP-9 from autolysis was also supported in this cell line based model system of endogenous AHSG production in HNSCC. Together, these data show that endogenously produced AHSG in an HNSCC cell line, promotes in vitro cellular properties identified as having a role in tumorigenesis. Highlights: • Head

  2. The Age of Milton--Paradise, Metaphysics, and Chivalric Codes: 5114.303.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Richard

    Developed for a high school unit on the age of Milton, this guide is designed to examine the dominant literary modes of thought expressed in Spenser's "The Faerie Queene," Milton's "Comus,""Paradise Lost," and "Paradise Regained," and John Donne's metaphysical poetry. Performance objectives are listed along…

  3. The Problem of Absolute Knowledge. Metaphysics as Intellectual Intuition in Classic Modern European Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torubarova, Tatyana V.

    2016-01-01

    Classic modern European philosophy explicate, reflect; leaving own history in fundamental metaphysical position, where the existence is understood as conscience. This position is representative in the process of historic development, transition of philosophical thought from R. Dekart to G. Hegel. It appears exactly the field of key metaphysical…

  4. The Specter of Metaphysics in Counseling Research and Practice: The Qualitative Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Fred J.; Shank, Gary

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that qualitative research will gain acceptance when it takes a significant step toward solving a major problem in the discipline. Provides a tentative outline of an approach to metaphysical problems involving radical empiricism and phenomenolgy. Delineates some necessary cognitive shifts involving dialectical and abductive reasoning…

  5. Different effects of indomethacin on healing of shaft and metaphyseal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Olof; Aspenberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose NSAIDs are commonly used in the clinic, and there is a general perception that this does not influence healing in common types of human fractures. Still, NSAIDs impair fracture healing dramatically in animal models. These models mainly pertain to fractures of cortical bone in shafts, whereas patients more often have corticocancellous fractures in metaphyses. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the effect of an NSAID is different in shaft healing and metaphyseal healing. Methods 26 mice were given an osteotomy of their left femur with an intramedullary nail. 13 received injections of indomethacin, 1 mg/kg twice daily. After 17 days of healing, the femurs were analyzed with 3-point bending and microCT. 24 other mice had holes drilled in both proximal tibias, to mimic a stable metaphyseal injury. A screw was inserted in the right tibial hole only. After 7 days of indomethacin injections or control injections, screw fixation was measured with mechanical pull-out testing and the side without a screw was analyzed with microCT. Results In the shaft model, indomethacin led to a 35% decrease in force at failure (95% CI: 14–54). Callus size was reduced to a similar degree, as seen by microCT. Metaphyseal healing was less affected by indomethacin, as no effect on pull-out force could be seen (95% CI: –27 to 17) and there was only a small drop in new bone volume inside the drill hole. The difference in the relative effect of indomethacin between the 2 models was statistically significant (p = 0.006). Interpretation Indomethacin had a minimal effect on stable metaphyseal fractures, but greatly impaired healing of unstable shaft fractures. This could explain some of the differences found between animal models and clinical experience. PMID:25323801

  6. Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion.

  7. Expression of a partially deleted gene of human type II procollagen (COL2A1) in transgenic mice produces a chondrodysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberg, P.; Khillan, J.S.; Prockop, D.J.; Helminen, H.; Kontusaari, S.; Ala-Kokko, L. )

    1991-09-01

    A minigene version of the human gene for type II procollagen (COL2AI) was prepared that lacked a large central region containing 12 of the 52 exons and therefore 291 of the 1523 codons of the gene. The construct was modeled after sporadic in-frame deletions of collagen genes that cause synthesis of shortened pro{alpha} chains that associate with normal pro{alpha} chains and thereby cause degradation of the shortened and normal pro{alpha} chains through a process called procollagen suicide. The gene construct was used to prepare five lines of transgenic mice expressing the minigene. A large proportion of the mice expressing the minigene developed a phenotype of a chondrodysplasia with dwarfism, short and thick limbs, a short snout, a cranial bulge, a cleft palate, and delayed mineralization of bone. A number of mice died shortly after birth. Microscopic examination of cartilage revealed decreased density and organization of collagen fibrils. In cultured chondrocytes from the transgenic mice, the minigene was expressed as shortened pro{alpha}1(II) chains that were disulfide-linked to normal mouse pro{alpha}1(II) chains. Therefore, the phenotype is probably explained by depletion of the endogenous mouse type II procollagen through the phenomenon of procollagen suicide.

  8. The metaphysical club at the Johns Hopkins University (1879-1885).

    PubMed

    Behrens, Peter J

    2005-11-01

    Of the earliest American universities, The Johns Hopkins in Baltimore holds a unique position for psychology. At Hopkins, many of America's first psychologists received their graduate training. Of special interest is the Hopkins Metaphysical Club, organized in 1879 by Charles Sanders Peirce. It provided a forum for research and scholarship by faculty and students. Papers related to topics of the "new" psychology began to appear in 1883, about the time G. Stanley Hall was given a 3-year appointment at Hopkins. When Peirce departed Hopkins in 1885, Hall was free to develop psychology in his image and disbanded the club. Nevertheless, the Metaphysical Club played an important role in the emergence of American scientific psychology.

  9. Reality, locality and all that: "experimental metaphysics" and the quantum foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Eric G.

    2008-10-01

    In recent decades there has been a resurge of interest in the foundations of quantum theory, partly motivated by new experimental techniques, partly by the emerging field of quantum information science. Old questions, asked since the seminal article by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR), are being revisited. The work of John Bell has changed the direction of investigation by recognising that those fundamental philosophical questions can have, after all, input from experiment. Abner Shimony has aptly termed this new field of enquiry "experimental metaphysics". The objective of this Thesis is to contribute to that body of research, by formalising old concepts, proposing new ones, and finding new results in well-studied areas. Without losing from sight that the appeal of experimental metaphysics comes from the adjective, every major result is followed by clear experimental proposals for quantum-atom optical setups.

  10. "Pros and cons" of total hip arthroplasty with metaphyseal Proxima endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Wraźen, Waldemar; Golec, Edward B; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Golec, Piotr; Jaworowski, Michał de Lubicz; Dudkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The authors present their own experience concerning total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. Proxima, a metaphyseal prosthesis, provides an innovative supplement to total hip arthroplasty. In this study, the authors present their own experience using Proxima in patients with hip osteoarthritis. This study was performed between 2008 to 2013 and comprised of 62 patients, of which 38 were male (61.3%) and 24 female (38.7%). All patients were operated on due to hip osteoarthritis using total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. The age of patients included into the study ranged from 23 years to 62 years with the mean age of 46 years. The authors paid close attention to the "pros and cons" of surgical techniques and assessed clinical and radiological results in both the short and long-term observation periods. The clinical evaluation was based on the Harris Hip Score and radiological assessment of fixation of the acetabular cup of the endoprosthesis was based on Pradhan's criteria. The endoprosthesis Proxima stem was positioned using the manufacturer's recommended method, evaluating the direction, scope and duration of the displacement in the marrow cavity of the proximal stump of the femur. According to the authors' analysis, the surgery gives good functional and radiological results both in the short- and long-term observation periods. The effectiveness depends on precise qualification for surgery, proper surgical techniques and specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femur stump. The most common reasons for primary and secondary dislocations of the metaphyseal endoprosthesis Proxima stem occur during the first three months post surgery. This is due to incorrect surgical techniques, which disregard the importance of specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femoral stump, which affects Proxima implantation, and cause deviations towards a varus or valgus orientation.

  11. Different methods and metaphysics in early molecular genetics--a case of disparity of research?

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Ute

    2008-01-01

    The encounter between two fundamentally different approaches in seminal research in molecular biology--the problems, aims, methods and metaphysics--is delineated and analyzed. They are exemplified by the microbiologist Oswald T. Avery who, in line with the reductionist mechanistic metaphysics of Jacques Loeb, attempted to explain basic life phenomena through chemistry; and the theoretical physicist Max Delbrück who, influenced by Bohr's antimechanistic views, preferred to explain these phenomena without chemistry. Avery's and Delbrück's most important studies took place concurrently. Thus analysis of their contrasting approaches lends itself to examination of the Weltanschauungen view concerning the role of fundamental (metaphysical) assumptions in scientific change, that is, the view that empirical research cannot be neutral in regard to the worldviews of the researchers. This study shows that the initial ostensible disparity (non-integratibility) of the two approaches lasted for just a short time. Ironically it was a student of Delbrück's school, James Watson, who (with Crick) proposed a chemical model, the DNA double helix, as a solution to Delbrück's problem. The structure of DNA has not been seriously challenged over the past half century Moreover, Watson's and Crick's work did not call into question the validity of Delbrück's research, but opened it up to entirely new approaches. The case of Avery and Delbrück demonstrates that after initial obstacles were overcome the different fundamental attitudes and the resulting research practices were capable of integration.

  12. The metaphyseal bone defect predicts outcome in reverse shoulder arthroplasty for proximal humerus fracture sequelae.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Stefan; Uschok, Stephan; Herrmann, Sebastian; Gwinner, Clemens; Perka, Carsten; Scheibel, Markus

    2014-06-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) represents an established procedure for treatment of fracture sequelae (FS) after proximal humerus fractures. The present work evaluates which factors are of influence for the clinical outcome. Fifty cases (mean age 69, range 44-89) have been evaluated postoperatively clinically [Constant Score (CS)] and radiographically (mean FU 34; range 24-93 months). The type of primary treatment, the amount of a metaphyseal bone defect, the preoperative status of the rotator cuff, the number of previous operative interventions and the type of FS according to Boileau were analysed whether they are of influence for clinical outcome. The mean CS increased significantly from 16.9 ± 6.7 preoperatively to 54.1 ± 15.7 points postoperatively. The CS of primary conservative treatment was significantly higher in comparison to primary operative treatment. Patients with a metaphyseal bone defect of more than 3 cm had significantly lower CS results. Degenerative changes of the teres minor muscle also had a significant negative influence on clinical results. Score results decreased with increasing number of previous operations. There were no significant difference in between patients classified as Boileau type I and II (category 1) compared to types III and IV (category 2). RSA significantly improved the clinical result. A metaphyseal bone defect and preoperative degeneration of the teres minor showed to be negative prognostic factors. Primary operative treatment and the number of previous operations also negatively influenced the clinical result.

  13. Typology reconfigured: from the metaphysics of essentialism to the epistemology of representation.

    PubMed

    Love, Alan C

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to encourage a reconfiguration of the discussion about typology in biology away from the metaphysics of essentialism and toward the epistemology of classifying natural phenomena for the purposes of empirical inquiry. First, I briefly review arguments concerning 'typological thinking', essentialism, species, and natural kinds, highlighting their predominantly metaphysical nature. Second, I use a distinction between the aims, strategies, and tactics of science to suggest how a shift from metaphysics to epistemology might be accomplished. Typological thinking can be understood as a scientific tactic that involves representing natural phenomena using idealizations and approximations, which facilitates explanation, investigation, and theorizing via abstraction and generalization. Third, a variety of typologies from different areas of biology are introduced to emphasize the diversity of this representational reasoning. One particular example is used to examine how there can be epistemological conflict between typology and evolutionary analysis. This demonstrates that alternative strategies of typological thinking arise due to the divergent explanatory goals of researchers working in different disciplines with disparate methodologies. I conclude with several research questions that emerge from an epistemological reconfiguration of typology.

  14. Arnold Chiari Malformation With Sponastrime (Spondylar and Nasal Changes, With Striations of the Metaphyses) Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, A Leum; Cho, Sung Yoon; Jin, Dong Kyu; Im, Soo-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract SPOndylar and NAsal changes, with STRIations of the Metaphyses (SPONASTRIME) dysplasia (SD) is a dwarfing autosomal recessive syndrome, characterized by a variety of clinical and radiographic features, which form the basis for diagnosis. We describe the presentation of an Arnold Chiari malformation in a patient with a clinical diagnosis of SD. The malformation was successfully treated by decompression of the foramen magnum and elevation of the cerebellum, with complete resolution of pain. We report a rare case of Arnold Chiari malformation in a patient presenting with clinical and radiographic features strongly suggestive of SD and be successfully treated. PMID:27149441

  15. Do estrogen and alendronate improve metaphyseal fracture healing when applied as osteoporosis prophylaxis?

    PubMed

    Kolios, Leila; Hoerster, Ann Kristin; Sehmisch, Stephan; Malcherek, Marie Christin; Rack, Thomas; Tezval, Mohammed; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Stuermer, Ewa Klara

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is accompanied by predominantly metaphyseal fractures with a delayed and qualitatively reduced healing process. This study addressed the question of whether fracture healing in the context of osteoporosis prophylaxis is improved with estrogen (E) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six ovariectomized and 12 sham-operated 12-week-old rats received soy-free (osteoporotic C, sham), E-, or ALN- supplemented diets. After 10 weeks, a metaphyseal tibia osteotomy and standardized T-plate fixation were performed. After a 5-week healing process, the fracture callus was evaluated qualitatively by biomechanical bending test and quantitatively in microradiographic sections. The time course of callus formation was examined using fluorochrome-labeled histological sections. Administration of E improved the biomechanical properties of callus (stiffness [N/mm]: sham: 110.2 + or - 76.07, C: 41.28 + or - 33.70, E: 85.72 + or - 47.24, ALN: 72.07 + or - 34.68). The resistance to microfracturing seen in E-treated animals was significantly enhanced and even superior to sham (yield load [N] sham: 27.44 + or - 9.72, C: 21.04 + or - 12.47, E: 42.85 + or - 13.74(Delta), ALN: 25.28 + or - 6.4(.)) (* P < 0.05 vs. sham group, (Delta) P < 0.05 vs. C group, (*) P < 0.05 vs. E group). Trabecular bone in particular was improved, indicating the presence of physiological endosteal bridging (Tr.Dn [%] sham: 10.53 + or - 18.9, C: 1.01 + or - 0.14, E: 24.13 + or - 34.09(Delta), ALN: 3.99 + or - 8.3(.)). ALN did not help bone healing, as shown by mechanical tests. Compared to the C group, statistically, ALN did not show worse properties. The induction of callus formation under ALN treatment was slightly delayed (Tt.Cl [mm(2)] sham: 3.68 + or - 0.66, C: 3.44 + or - 0.42, E: 3.69 + or - 0.58, ALN: 3.06 + or - 0.56). Osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture healing was qualitatively and quantitatively improved by E prophylaxis. The process of fracture healing occurred nearly physiologically (shamlike

  16. Minimizing the complications of intramedullary nailing for distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yaligod, Vishwanath; Rudrappa, Girish H.; Nagendra, Srinivas; Shivanna, Umesh M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The complications of intramedullary nailing of distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures have a direct impact on ankle and hind foot function. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients. Unreamed nail was negotiated across the well reduced fracture till subchondral bone and fixed with 2 to 3 distal locking screws in different planes. Results Fracture union rate was 85%. Three out of 28 patients had malalignment. Mean ankle, hindfoot functional score was 85. Conclusion Complications can be minimized by impacting the unreamed nail till the subchondral bone while maintaining the fracture well reduced and by using multiple distal locking screws in different planes. PMID:24719527

  17. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of epiphyseal and metaphyseal marrow in normal piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Renfa; Qi, Jianpin; Tang, Lihua

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the appearance of normal epiphyseal and metaphyseal marrow and normal changes of marrow due to fatty conversion on Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MR Imaging. Unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging were performed in proximal and distal femoral ends of 8 healthy piglets at the ages of 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, respectively. The changes with age in signal intensity and enhancement ratio of the epiphyseal and metaphyseal marrow with age were examined. The correlation of MRI characteristics with histological findings was studied. Our study showed that marrow of the metaphysis and of periphery of the 2nd ossification center were well vascularized hematopoietic marrow and had great enhancements. The enhancement ratio of metaphysis was greater than that of epiphyseal marrow and both enhancement ratios degraded gradually with age. The central regions of the epiphyseal ossification center and of the diaphysis were of fatty marrow and had little enhancement. It is concluded that on Gd-enhanced MR imaging the hematopoietic marrow of metaphysis and of periphery of the 2nd ossification center had greater enhancement than that of fatty marrow of central region of the 2nd ossification center. All of their enhancements decreased gradually with age.

  18. Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of "Experimental Metaphysics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, Geoffrey

    After reviewing paradigmatic cases of "experimental metaphysics" basing inferences against local realism and determinism on experimental tests of Bells theorem (and successors), we concentrate on clarifying the meaning and status of "objective probability" in quantum mechanics. The terms "objective" and "subjective" are found ambiguous and inadequate, masking crucial differences turning on the question of what the numerical values of probability functions measure vs. the question of the nature of the "events" on which such functions are defined. This leads naturally to a 2×2 matrix of types of interpretations, which are then illustrated with salient examples. (Of independent interest are the splitting of "Copenhagen interpretation" into "objective" and "subjective" varieties in one of the dimensions and the splitting of Bohmian hidden variables from (other) modal interpretations along that same dimension.) It is then explained why Everett interpretations are difficult to categorize in these terms. Finally, we argue that Bohmian mechanics does not seriously threaten the experimental-metaphysical case for ultimate randomness and purely physical probabilities.

  19. A witnessed case of a classic metaphyseal fracture caused during IV line placement in a child: Insight into mechanism of injury.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Tanya; Opfer, Erin; Berglund, Lisa; Lowe, Lisa H; Anderst, James

    2015-10-01

    Recent publications argue that classic metaphyseal fractures are caused by rickets as opposed to trauma. Previous case reports of accidental traumatic classic metaphyseal fractures have been discounted due to lack of identification of the fracture at the time of the traumatic event, and lack of an evaluation for boney metabolic disorders. We report a case of a 20 day old male with a diagnosis of congenital vertical talus who sustained a classic metaphyseal fracture of the distal tibia during manipulation in preparation for intravenous line placement. The mechanics of the event causing the classic metaphyseal fracture were witnessed and accompanied by an audible "pop". Prior x-rays of the tibia demonstrate normal osseous morphology, and an evaluation for boney metabolic disorders was normal. This case identifies a traumatic classic metaphyseal fracture and provides insight into the types of forces necessary to cause such a fracture.

  20. Use of mineralized collagen bone graft substitutes and dorsal locking plate in treatment of elder metaphyseal comminuted distal radius fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke-Bin; Huang, Kui; Teng, Yu; Qu, Yan-Zheng; Cui, Wei; Huang, Zhen-Fei; Sun, Ting-Fang; Guo, Xiao-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Bone graft may be needed to fill bone defect in elderly patients with a metaphyseal comminuted distal radius fracture. In this retrospective, nonrandomized, single-surgeon study, we evaluated the clinical and radiologic outcomes of using both dorsal locking plates with or without augmentation with mineralized collagen (MC) bone graft for elderly patients with dorsally metaphyseal comminuted radius fractures. Patients in group 1 ( n = 12) were treated with dorsal locking plates with MC bone graft application into the metaphyseal bone defect, and those in group 2 ( n = 12) only with dorsal locking plates. Clinical and radiologic parameters were determined at three and 12 months after surgery. At final follow-up, no significant difference was noted between the 2 groups in terms of palmar tilt and radial inclination ( p = 0.80); however, ulnar variance increased significantly in the group 2 treated with dorsal locking plates without augmentation ( p < 0.05). Functionally, there was no significant difference between the groups. Our preliminary study suggests that combination of MC as bone-graft substitutes and dorsal locking plates may be a usefully alternative for elderly patients with metaphyseal comminuted distal radius fracture.

  1. Lower Limb Metaphyseal Bone Is Lost in Men with Coeliac Disease and Does Not Relate to Parathyroid Status

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Sally F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To investigate regional lower limb bone density and associations with weight, PTH, and bone breakdown in coeliac men. Methods. From whole body DXA scans bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 28 coeliac men, in the lower limb (subdivided into 6 regions, 3 being metaphyseal (mainly trabecular) and 2 diaphyseal (mainly cortical)). BMD at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine L2–4, body weight, height, serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and urinary calcium and NTx/Cr, a measure of bone breakdown, were also measured. Age matched healthy men provided values for BMD calculation of z and T scores and for biochemical measurements. Results. Low BMD z scores were found at metaphyseal regions in the leg (p < 0.001) and in the FN (p < 0.05). The distal metaphyseal region BMD in the leg was lower than spine or FN (p < 0.05). PTH, urinary calcium/creatinine, and urinary NTx/Cr were similar to controls. Both metaphyseal and diaphyseal BMD z scores were associated with body weight (p < 0.02), but not with either PTH or urinary NTx/Cr. Conclusions. Low BMD lower limb regions comprising mostly trabecular bone occur early in CD and in the absence of elevated PTH or increased bone resorption. Low BMD is associated with low body weight. PMID:27672477

  2. An infant with cartilage-hair hypoplasia due to a novel homozygous mutation in the promoter region of the RMRP gene associated with chondrodysplasia and severe immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Vatanavicharn, N; Visitsunthorn, N; Pho-iam, T; Jirapongsananuruk, O; Pacharn, P; Chokephaibulkit, K; Limwongse, C; Wasant, P

    2010-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by short-limbed dwarfism, sparse hair, and immune deficiency. It is caused by mutations in the RMRP gene, which encodes the RNA component of the mitochondrial RNA-processing ribonuclease (RNase MRP). Several mutations have been identified in its promoter region or transcribed sequence. However, homozygous mutations in the promoter region have been only reported in a patient with primary immunodeficiency without other features of CHH. We report on a Thai girl who first presented with chronic diarrhea, recurrent pneumonia, and severe failure to thrive, without apparently disproportionate dwarfism. The diagnosis of CHH was made after the severe wasting was corrected, and disproportionate growth became noticeable. The patient had the typical features of CHH, including sparse hair and metaphyseal abnormalities. The immunologic profiles were consistent with combined immune deficiency. Mutation analysis identified a novel homozygous mutation, g.-19_-25 dupACTACTC, in the promoter region of the RMRP gene. Identification of the mutation enabled us to provide a prenatal diagnosis in the subsequent pregnancy. This patient is the first CHH case with the characteristic features due to the homozygous mutation in the promoter region of the RMRP gene. The finding of severe immunodeficiency supports that promoter mutations markedly disrupt mRNA cleavage function, which causes cell-cycle impairment.

  3. Molecular defects in the chondrodysplasias

    SciTech Connect

    Rimoin, D.L.

    1996-05-03

    There has been a recent explosion of knowledge concerning the biochemical and molecular defects in the skeletal dysplasia. Through both the candidate gene approach and positional cloning, specific gene defects that produce the skeletal dysplasia have been identified and may be classified into several general categories: (1) qualitative or quantitative abnormalities in the structural proteins of cartilage; (2) inborn errors of cartilage metabolism; (3) defects in local regulators of cartilage growth; and (4) systemic defects influencing cartilage development. 35 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Stress and human spirituality 2000: at the cross roads of physics and metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Seaward, B L

    2000-12-01

    Although stress is defined as a perceived threat, the implications of stress go well beyond physical well-being. In the words of Carl Jung, "Every crisis is a spiritual crisis." Western science, so strongly influenced by the Cartesian Principle of Reductionism, has ignored the essence and significance of human spirituality in the health and healing process. Holistic healing honors the integration, balance, and harmony of mind, body, spirit, and emotions, where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Stress (unresolved issues of anger and fear) chokes the human spirit, the life force of human energy, which ultimately affects the physical body. From the perspectives of both physics and metaphysics, stress is a disruption in the state of coherence between the layers of consciousness in the human energy field. The emerging paradigm of health reunites mind, body, and spirit, and considers health as a function of coherence among the energy levels of these components.

  5. On Darwin's 'metaphysical notebooks'. I: teleology and the project of a theory.

    PubMed

    Calabi, L

    2001-01-01

    Huxley's essay On the Reception of the 'Origin of Species' brings us close to the issue of cause and of why- and how-questions in the understanding of the living world. The present contribution, which is divided into two parts, reviews the problem of Teleology as conceived by Huxley and re-examines Darwin as the author who revealed the existence of a 'foundations problem' in the explanation of an entire realm of nature, i.e., the problem of explaining such realm in terms of its own, specific legality, or iuxta sua propria principia. In the first part the enquiry is mainly focused on the secularization of natural history after Paley; in the second part it is mainly focused on the desubjectivization of the inquiry into natural history after Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck. The second part will be published in the next issue of Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum. In the first part below an analysis is made of Notebooks M and N. The author disputes the correctness of conceiving them only as the works where Darwin envisages the 'metaphysical' themes later to become the subject of The Expression of the Emotions. He suggests to conceive of them also as the works where Darwin defines the terms of the general project of his own, peculiar evolutionary theory. The author then outlines the intellectual progress of Darwin from the inosculation to the transmutation hypotheses. Darwin's reading of Malthus appears to be analytically decisive, because it offers him the vintage point to attack the metaphysical and theological citadels on the morphological side. Darwin is thus able to re-consider Erasmus' comprehensive zoonomic project, by displacing it, however, from the old idea of the scala naturae to the new one of the "coral of life", and by emphasising the distinction between "the fittest" and "the best" vs. the tradition of Natural Theology.

  6. Risk factors affecting metaphyseal irregularities in the radius and ulna of growing Newfoundland dogs.

    PubMed

    Trangerud, C; Meuwissen, T; Ropstad, E; Indrebø, A; Grøndalen, J; Moe, L

    2007-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to study risk factors affecting metaphyseal irregularities (MI) in the distal radius and ulna of growing Newfoundland dogs. Risk factors studied included the genetic effects, effects of litters, BW, circumferences of the distal radius and ulna (CDRU), and total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. The study included 118 Newfoundland dogs (60 females, 58 males), derived from 32 litters. Body weight, separated on sex and MI, was fitted to the Gompertz function. Occurrence of MI differed significantly between sexes, with 55% of males and 35% of females affected (P = 0.03). Growth curves for the 2 groups of dogs, with and without MI, diverged after 60 to 70 d, and dogs with irregularities were heavier at maturity than dogs of the same sex without irregularities. In univariate analysis, the litter effect was a significant predictor of MI, explaining 32% of total variability of the MI incidence, but the genetic effects were not significant. However, the latter were significant in bivariate analysis of MI and BW. In the bivariate analysis, the effects of litter on MI and BW were significantly correlated at all observational points except at birth, 180 d, and 536 d. Total ALP concentrations decreased with increasing age, and differences between groups diminished with increasing age, indicating a negative effect of total ALP on MI. Correlation between MI and total ALP concentrations of litters was estimated in a bivariate analysis. This correlation was significant and ranged between -0.34 and -0.62. Similarly, the genetic relationship between total ALP and MI from 120 d of age onward varied between -0.31 to -0.60. However, correlations were only significant at 356 d of age (genetic correlation = 0.60; P = 0.01). The mean CDRU increased from 90 d of age toward a peak at 180 d. Thereafter, CDRU declined and stabilized at about 1 yr of age. The mean CDRU between the groups of dogs with and without MI diverged most at 90 d of age

  7. Puppy line, metaphyseal sclerosis, and caudolateral curvilinear and circumferential femoral head osteophytes in early detection of canine hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Risler, Amanda; Klauer, Julia M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Adams, William M

    2009-01-01

    Ventrodorsal extended hip radiographs were analyzed from Foxhounds, Irish setters, Greyhounds, and Labrador retrievers radiographed four to seven times between 8 and 110 weeks of age. Occurrence in these 91 dogs of a puppy line, an ill-defined zone of proximal femoral metaphyseal sclerosis, a femoral neck linear sclerosis, or circumferential linear femoral head osteophytosis at 15-17 weeks of age were compared with hip joint laxity, as measured by distraction index, and to later findings of caudal curvilinear femoral neck osteophytes, circumferential femoral head osteophytes, hip incongruity consistent with hip dysplasia and degenerative joint disease by 52 weeks of age. A puppy line and/or femoral metaphyseal sclerosis was common at 15-17 weeks of age for dogs at mimimal risk (Greyhounds) and high risk (Foxhounds) of developing early degenerative joint disease associated with canine hip dysplasia. Though 44% of Greyhound hips had puppy lines and 28% had femoral metaphyseal sclerosis at 15-17 weeks of age, no Greyhound had a caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte or circumferential femoral head osteophyte at 24-27 or 52 weeks of age. No significant relationship was found between occurrence of a puppy line, a circumferential femoral head osteophyte or femoral metaphyseal sclerosis at 15-17 weeks and canine hip dysplasia or degenerative joint disease incidence at 42-52 weeks. Presence of a caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte in at least one hip at 24-27 weeks was significantly related to the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia by 42-52 weeks. When both a caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte and a circumferential femoral head osteophyte were present in a hip at 24-27 weeks, degenerative joint disease was evident in all such hips by 42-52 weeks of age.

  8. Intraosseous fat necrosis and metaphyseal osteonecrosis in a patient with chronic pancreatitis: MR imaging and CT scanning.

    PubMed

    L'Hirondel, J L; Fournier, L; Fretille, A; Denizet, D; Loyau, G

    1994-01-01

    Necrosis of fatty bone marrow is an unusual complication of several pancreatic disorders. We describe a patient with polyarthritis, sterile subcutaneous abscess and osteolysis arising during the course of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. MR images of one knee showed multiple foci of abnormal signal intensity within the marrow of the distal femur and proximal tibia, consistent with intraosseous fat necrosis. CT scans showed significant changes in the cancellous bone in these areas compatible with metaphyseal osteonecrosis.

  9. An Uncemented Spreading Stem for the Fixation in the Metaphyseal Femur: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Daniel; Pumberger, Matthias; Fuchs, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment to restore full range of motion and full weight bearing after extensive femoral bone resection in patients with primary or metastatic femoral tumours is individually challenging. Especially when the remaining distal or proximal bone is very short, a rigid fixation of an implant is difficult to achieve due to the reverse funnel shape of the metaphysis. Herein, we present a novel implant design using a spreading mechanism in the distal part of the prosthesis for rigid, uncemented fixation in the remaining femoral bone after extensive tumour resection of the femur. We present the outcome of 5 female patients who underwent implantation of this spreading stem after extensive proximal or distal femoral bone resection. There was no radiological or clinical loosening or implant-related revision surgery in our follow-up (mean 21.46 months, range 3.5–46 months). This uncemented spreading stem may therefore represent an alternative option for fixation of a prosthetic device in the remaining metaphyseal femur. PMID:27293377

  10. On problems in defining abstract and metaphysical concepts--emergence of a new model.

    PubMed

    Nahod, Bruno; Nahod, Perina Vukša

    2014-12-01

    Basic anthropological terminology is the first project covering terms from the domain of the social sciences under the Croatian Special Field Terminology program (Struna). Problems that have been sporadically noticed or whose existence could have been presumed during the processing of terms mainly from technical fields and sciences have finally emerged in "anthropology". The principles of the General Theory of Terminology (GTT), which are followed in Struna, were put to a truly exacting test, and sometimes stretched beyond their limits when applied to concepts that do not necessarily have references in the physical world; namely, abstract and metaphysical concepts. We are currently developing a new terminographical model based on Idealized Cognitive Models (ICM), which will hopefully ensure a better cross-filed implementation of various types of concepts and their relations. The goal of this paper is to introduce the theoretical bases of our model. Additionally, we will present a pilot study of the series of experiments in which we are trying to investigate the nature of conceptual categorization in special languages and its proposed difference form categorization in general language.

  11. Terrorists: analogies and differences with mental diseases. A phenomenological-metaphysical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisogni, Primavera

    2010-01-01

    Are islamic terrorists insane? International scholars generally concede that Al Qaeda members are not mentally ill. But, until now, there has not been a shared consensus and a strong argument that can prove it. This paper intends to throw light on the specific dehumanization of terrorists and to show that they are always responsible for their acts, unlike those who are affected by mental diseases. The members of Al Qaeda deny the world of life and take the distance from its sense and value: in their perspective only subversive action makes sense. However they always maintain a transcendent relation with the world (I-you; I-it). Persons with serious mental diseases have generally lost the sense of their self and the transcendence with the world. Terrorists and people with mental illness share a common separation from the world of life: one is voluntary, the other is the consequence of a number of factors (biological, social, etc.). Terrorists and psychotics have nevertheless something in common: the deprivation of the self. A loss of being that--I argue--is at the origin of the ordinariness of terrorists and the experience of void in psychotics. Two symptoms that reveal the condition of an intimate dryness, from a phenomenological and a metaphysical point of view as a consequence of a distorted relation with the world of life. I shall discuss how ordinariness is strictly related with the blurring definition of terrorism.

  12. Heidegger, environmental ethics, and the metaphysics of nature: inhabiting the earth in a technological age

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of philosophical problems concerning the human disruption and destruction of the natural environment have tended to presuppose (a) that the problems themselves are adequately defined by the natural sciences, and (b) that the proper philosophical approach is by means of an ethics that restricts itself to determining the character and limits of moral obligation. This dissertation (a) argues that modern natural science, which is expected to define the problem of an environmental crisis, itself employs a concept of nature, derived from the metaphysical tradition, that is generative of the very problems to be resolved; (b) develops, on the basis of Heidegger's rethinking of the traditional question of being, a more adequate understanding of nature; and (c) shows that the resolution of these problems can best be accomplished by means of a more broadly conceived ethics that closes the breach between theory and praxis by articulating an appropriate manner of comportment toward entities as a whole (and not soley human, nor even sentient, entities) which displays an integration of thought and action, and which Heidegger calls inhabitation or dwelling.

  13. Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of ``Experimental Metaphysics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, Geoffrey

    After reviewing paradigmatic cases of “experimental metaphysics” basing inferences against local realism and determinism on experimental tests of Bells theorem (and successors), we concentrate on clarifying the meaning and status of “objective probability” in quantum mechanics. The terms “objective” and “subjective” are found ambiguous and inadequate, masking crucial differences turning on the question of what the numerical values of probability functions measure vs. the question of the nature of the “events” on which such functions are defined. This leads naturally to a 2×2 matrix of types of interpretations, which are then illustrated with salient examples. (Of independent interest are the splitting of “Copenhagen interpretation” into “objective” and “subjective” varieties in one of the dimensions and the splitting of Bohmian hidden variables from (other) modal interpretations along that same dimension.) It is then explained why Everett interpretations are difficult to categorize in these terms. Finally, we argue that Bohmian mechanics does not seriously threaten the experimental-metaphysical case for ultimate randomness and purely physical probabilities.

  14. The problem of contextuality and the impossibility of experimental metaphysics thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermens, Ronnie

    Recently a new impulse has been given to the experimental investigation of contextuality. In this paper we show that for a widely used definition of contextuality there can be no decisive experiment on the existence of contextuality. To this end, we give a clear presentation of the hidden variable models due to Meyer, Kent and Clifton (MKC), which would supposedly nullify the Kochen-Specker theorem. Although we disagree with this last statement, the models do play a significant role in the discussion on the meaning of contextuality. In fact, we introduce a specific MKC-model of which we show that it is non-contextual and completely in agreement with quantum mechanical predictions. We also investigate the possibility of other definitions of non-contextuality-with an emphasis on operational definitions-and argue that any useful definition relies on the specification of a theoretical framework. It is therefore concluded that no experimental test can yield any conclusions about contextuality on a metaphysical level.

  15. The uncertain foundation of neo-Darwinism: metaphysical and epistemological pluralism in the evolutionary synthesis.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Richard G

    2009-06-01

    The Evolutionary Synthesis is often seen as a unification process in evolutionary biology, one which provided this research area with a solid common theoretical foundation. As such, neo-Darwinism is believed to constitute from this time onward a single, coherent, and unified movement offering research guidelines for investigations. While this may be true if evolutionary biology is solely understood as centred around evolutionary mechanisms, an entirely different picture emerges once other aspects of the founding neo-Darwinists' views are taken into consideration, aspects potentially relevant to the elaboration of an evolutionary worldview: the tree of life, the ontological distinctions of the main cosmic entities (inert matter, biological organisms, mind), the inherent properties of self-organizing matter, evolutionary ethics, and so on. Profound tensions and inconsistencies are immediately revealed in the neo-Darwinian movement once this broader perspective is adopted. This pluralism is such that it is possible to identify at least three distinct and quasi-incommensurable epistemological/metaphysical frameworks as providing a proper foundation for neo-Darwinism. The analysis of the views of Theodosius Dobzhansky, Bernhard Rensch, and Ernst Mayr will illustrate this untenable pluralism, one which requires us to conceive of the neo-Darwinian research agenda as being conducted in more than one research programme or research tradition at the same time.

  16. High-density physical mapping of a 3-Mb region in Xp22.3 and refined localization of the gene for X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, I.; Levilliers, J.; Petit, C.

    1995-03-20

    The study of patients with chromosomal rearrangements has led to the mapping of the gene responsible for X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1; MIM 302950) to the distal part of the Xp22.3 region, between the loci PABX and DXS31. To refine this mapping, a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig map spanning this region has been constructed. Together with the YAC contig of the pseudo-autosomal region that we previously established, this map covers the terminal 6 Mb of Xp, with an average density of 1 probe every 100 kb. Newly isolated probes that detect segmental X-Y homologies on Yp and Yq suggest multiple complex rearrangements of the ancestral pseudoautosomal region during evolution. Compilation of the data obtained from the study of individuals carrying various Xp22.3 deletions led us to conclude that the CDPX disease displays incomplete penetrance and, consequently, to refine the localization of CDPX1 to a 600-kb interval immediately adjacent to the pseudoautosomal boundary. This interval, in which 12 probes are ordered, provides the starting point for the isolation of CDPX1. 67 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The Possibility of a New Metaphysics for Quantum Mechanics from Meinong's Theory of Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graffigna, Matías

    According to de Ronde it was Bohr's interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (QM) which closed the possibility of understanding physical reality beyond the realm of the actual, so establishing the Orthodox Line of Research. In this sense, it is not the task of any physical theory to look beyond the language and metaphysics supposed by classical physics, in order to account for what QM describes. If one wishes to maintain a realist position (though not nave) regarding physical theories, one seems then to be trapped by an array of concepts that do not allow to understand the main principles involved in the most successful physical theory thus far, mainly: the quantum postulate, the principle of indetermination and the superposition principle. If de Ronde is right in proposing QM can only be completed as a physical theory by the introduction of `new concepts' that admit as real a domain beyond actuality, then a new ontology that goes beyond Aristotelian and Newtonian actualism is needed. It was already in the early 20th century that misunderstood philosopher Alexius von Meinong proposed a Theory of Objects that admits a domain of being beyond existence-actuality. Member of the so called `School of Brentano', Meinong's concerns were oriented to provide an ontology of everything that can be thought of, and at the same time an intentionality theory of how objects are thought of. I wish to argue that in Meinong's theory of objects we find the rudiments of the ontology and the intentionality theory we need to account for QM's basic principles: mainly the possibility of predicating properties of non-entities, or in other words, the possibility of objectively describing a domain of what is, that is different from the domain of actual existence.

  18. Chance: from metaphysical principle to explanatory concept. The idea of uncertainty in a natural history of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Baptiste

    2012-09-01

    The term "chance" has been given varied and different meanings in the history of occidental thought, carrying metaphysical connotations and controversial power. Despite the obscurity implied by this polysemy, this term is still frequently used without undergoing the conceptual clarifications that could locate its precise meaning and its original function in a theory. Here I propose a brief genealogical draft of this term and of its conceptual forms, from Aristotle to Darwin, to demonstrate the necessity of specifying what function it is fulfilling in each precise theoretical framework, in order not to be overwhelmed by the wide spectrum of the word.

  19. Arnold Chiari Malformation With Sponastrime (Spondylar and Nasal Changes, With Striations of the Metaphyses) Dysplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, A Leum; Cho, Sung Yoon; Jin, Dong Kyu; Im, Soo-Bin

    2016-05-01

    SPOndylar and NAsal changes, with STRIations of the Metaphyses (SPONASTRIME) dysplasia (SD) is a dwarfing autosomal recessive syndrome, characterized by a variety of clinical and radiographic features, which form the basis for diagnosis. We describe the presentation of an Arnold Chiari malformation in a patient with a clinical diagnosis of SD. The malformation was successfully treated by decompression of the foramen magnum and elevation of the cerebellum, with complete resolution of pain.We report a rare case of Arnold Chiari malformation in a patient presenting with clinical and radiographic features strongly suggestive of SD and be successfully treated.

  20. Science Awareness and Science Literacy through the Basic Physics Course: Physics with a bit of Metaphysics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2016-08-01

    Until the 1980s, it is well known and practiced in Indonesian Basic Physics courses, to present physics by its effective technicalities: The ideally elastic spring, the pulley and moving blocks, the thermodynamics of ideal engine models, theoretical electrostatics and electrodynamics with model capacitors and inductors, wave behavior and its various superpositions, and hopefully closed with a modern physics description. A different approach was then also experimented with, using the Hobson and Moore texts, stressing the alternative aim of fostering awareness, not just mastery, of science and the scientific method. This is hypothesized to be more in line with the changed attitude of the so-called Millenials cohort who are less attentive if not interested, and are more used to multi-tasking which suits their shorter span of attention. The upside is increased awareness of science and the scientific method. The downside is that they are getting less experience of the scientific method which intensely bases itself on critical observation, analytic thinking to set up conclusions or hypotheses, and checking consistency of the hypotheses with measured data. Another aspect is recognition that the human person encompasses both the reasoning capacity and the mental- spiritual-cultural capacity. This is considered essential, as the world grows even smaller due to increased communication capacity, causing strong interactions, nonlinear effects, and showing that value systems become more challenging and challenged due to physics / science and its cosmology, which is successfully based on the scientific method. So students should be made aware of the common basis of these two capacities: the assumptions, the reasoning capacity and the consistency assumption. This shows that the limits of science are their set of basic quantifiable assumptions, and the limits of the mental-spiritual-cultural aspects of life are their set of basic metaphysical (non-quantifiable) assumptions. The

  1. Evolution of the radiographic appearance of the metaphyses over the first year of life in type V osteogenesis imperfecta: clues to pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arundel, Paul; Offiah, Amaka; Bishop, Nicholas J

    2011-04-01

    We present the first report of the development of characteristic radiologic appearances of long bones during the first year of life in an infant with type V osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). We show the evolution of metaphyseal abnormalities from a rickets-like appearance to the classically described dense metaphyseal bands. These abnormalities suggest that the underlying defect in type V OI may involve a molecule common to both bone and cartilage that is involved in the regulation of growth plate development and metadiaphyseal ossification. Our findings provide new insights into skeletal development in type V OI and potentially yield useful clues to the identity of the defect underpinning the condition.

  2. Growth arrest of the distal radius following a metaphyseal fracture: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chris W; Kay, Robert M; Skaggs, David L

    2002-01-01

    We report a 12-year-old girl who developed growth arrest of the distal radius physis 9 months after sustaining a complete fracture of the distal radial and ulnar metaphysis with no involvement of the physis evident at time of injury. The girl sustained a fracture of the metaphysis of her right distal radius and ulna after a fall. Anterior-posterior, lateral and oblique radiographs at injury, and during subsequent healing show no evidence of the fracture involving the physis. She was treated with closed reduction and casting for 6 weeks and healed uneventfully. She returned 4 month later concerned about distal ulnar prominence. Radiographs revealed a loss of radial tilt and with suspicion of a physeal bar. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a physeal bar located in the dorsal radial region. A literature search of the Medline database was used to obtain prior case reports for review purpose. The patient underwent an epiphysiodesis of the distal radius and ulna along with an opening wedge osteotomy and bone grafting of the distal radius to restore radial height and inclination. She healed without complication and with restoration of the normal relationship of the distal radius and ulna. A review of the literature reveals five reported case of distal radial metaphyseal fractures not invloving the physis leading to growth arrest. By comparison, there are 31 reported cases of distal radius physeal arrest following fractures involving the physis. The physician should be aware that common distal radius metaphyseal fractures may rarely lead to growth arrest.

  3. Book Review: Time and the metaphysics of relativity. William Lane Craig, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, 2000, 292pp. US 92, ISBN 0-792-36668-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorato, Mauro

    In a recent book on " Time and the Metaphysics of Relativity", William Lane Craig uses the concept of time to try to reconstruct strong conceptual links between theology, metaphysics and physics, three vertices of a triangle that until the 17th century have been much less separated than they are today. According to Craig, the task of the philosopher of time is not just to use the prestige of contemporary physical theories to support certain metaphysical views (the A versus the B theory), or, more questionably, certain views of God (his timelessness versus his omni temporality). He also claims that one should be guided by certain a priori theological and metaphysical hypotheses in order to interpret and even evaluate physical theories. In this respect, the main aim of the book is to rehabilitate a neo-lorentzian interpretation of relativity and to show its connection with cosmic time, which Craig questionably regards as a direct measure of God's, tensed, A-theoretical Time. Not by chance, the present volume is part of a remarkable tetralogy, the other three dealing with God, Time and Eternity, The Tensed Theory of Time and The Tenseless Theory of Time.

  4. [Prolonged states of virtual recovery after atypical pubertal schizophrenic episodes with over-valuation disorders of the "metaphysical intoxication" type].

    PubMed

    Bil'zho, A G

    1986-01-01

    Using clinical and follow-up methods of investigation the authors studied a number of patients with juvenile slowly progressive schizophrenia in whom the disease picture in youth was characterized by over-worship disturbances of the "metaphysical intoxication" type which were attended by marked social and occupational disadaptation. A group of patients (n = 25) was identified with a state of practical cure after youth. Three most characteristic patterns of personality changes in these patients were described. The dominant role in their structure was played by manifestations of delay of mental maturation and the syndrome of psychic juvenilism of a dissociated nature. A certain relationship was found between the level and nature of the patients' occupational adaptation and the type of their personality changes. The question is discussed about the determination of the disease stage in such cases. The authors consider them as recovery states with some personality changes which can be ascribed to residual schizophrenia.

  5. [Epilepsy from a metaphysical perspective: an interpretation of the biblical story of the epileptic boy and Raphael's Transfiguration].

    PubMed

    Janz, D

    1994-01-01

    Raphael's last painting reveals, in the upper half of the picture, Christ's transfiguration on Mount Tabor and, in the lower half, the young boy's epileptic seizure at the foot of the mountain in the presence of the other disciples. Raphael depicts both events, which are told in succession in the Gospels, as if they took place at the same time. By synchronizing both scenes, Raphael demonstrated a significant correspondence between Christ and the epileptic boy which reveals the epileptic seizure as a symbolic representation of a transcendental event. This metaphysical aspect of epilepsy depicted by Raphael can also be found in the corresponding biblical passages. In the Gospels, the metamorphosis caused by the epileptic seizure is used as a simile for Christ's transfiguration through suffering, death and resurrection.

  6. Epilepsy, viewed metaphysically: an interpretation of the biblical story of the epileptic boy and of Raphael's transfiguration.

    PubMed

    Janz, D

    1986-01-01

    Raphael's last painting reveals, in the upper half of the picture, Christ's transfiguration on Mount Tabor and, in the lower half, the young boy's epileptic seizure at the foot of the mountain in the presence of the other disciples. Raphael depicts both events, which are told in succession in the Gospels, as if they took place at the same time. By synchronizing both scenes Raphael demonstrated a significant correspondence between Christ and the epileptic boy, which reveals the epileptic seizure as a symbolic representation of a transcendent event. This metaphysical aspect of epilepsy depicted by Raphael can also be found in the corresponding biblical passages. In the Gospels, the metamorphosis caused by the epileptic seizure is used as a simile for Christ's transfiguration through suffering, death, and resurrection.

  7. Percutaneous Kirschner Wire fixation in distal radius metaphyseal fractures in children: does it change the overall outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, M; Memisoglu, S; Copuroglu, C; Saridogan, K

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Kirschner wire fixation after closed reduction of radial metaphyseal fractures with high risk of redisplacement. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study 40 cases were studied in two groups. In group 1 (n=20, average age 11.2 years), K-wire fixation was performed after closed reduction. In group 2 (n=20 average age 10.1 years), only plaster immobilization was applied following closed reduction. The compared clinical and radiological parameters were, pain, limb deformitiy, range of motion of the wrist, angulation of the fracture site, radial distal epipihyseal angle and severity of translation. Results:Redisplacement rate was 10% in group 1 and 50% in group 2. This shows, Kirschner wire fixation has a positive effect in the maintanence of the initial reduction (p<0.05). Age, gender, reduction quality had no effect on redisplacement (p>0.05). Concerning the severity of translation, the risk of redisplacement increases in stage 3 (50%- 100%) and stage 4 (>100%) fractures (p<0,05). Concomitant complete ulnar fracture has also redisplacement risk (p<0.05). Redisplacement risk increases when the distance of fracture line to epiphyseal line was between 11-20 mm (p<0.05). There was no significiant difference between two groups after last evaluation based on radiological parameters and clinical results (p>0.05). Conclusions:This study shows that Kirschner wire fixation prevents redisplacement in early follow-up of first three weeks but there is no superiority after 20 months follow-up in distal metaphyseal fractures of children. PMID:21311635

  8. From collagen chemistry towards cell therapy – a personal journey

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The Fell–Muir Award requires the recipient to deliver a lecture and a review manuscript which provides a personal overview of significant scientific developments in the field of matrix biology over the period of the recipient's career. In this context, this review considers the collagen family of structural proteins and the advances in biochemical, molecular biological and genetic techniques which led to the elucidation of the structure, synthesis and function of this important group of extracellular matrix constituents. Particular attention is focussed on early research on the identification and assembly of the soluble precursors of collagen types I and II, and the identification of the precursor of basement membrane collagen type IV. In subsequent studies investigating the maintenance of the chick chondrocyte phenotype in culture, the influence of the extracellular milieu was found to influence markedly both cell morphology and collagen gene expression. These studies led to the discovery of collagen type X whose expression is restricted to hypertrophic chondrocytes at sites of endochondral ossification. Such research provided a prelude to investigations of mammalian endochondral ossification which is known to be aberrant in a variety of human chondrodysplasias and is reactivated in bone fracture repair and in osteoarthritis. The cloning of bovine and then human collagen type X genes facilitated studies in relevant human diseases and contributed to the discovery of mutations in the COL10A1 gene in families with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid. Clustering of mutations in the C-terminal domain of the type X collagen molecule has now been widely documented and investigations of the pathogenic mechanisms in animal models are beginning to suggest the prospect of novel treatment strategies. PMID:17696900

  9. Chondrodiatasis in a patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia using the Ilizarov technique: successful correction of an angular deformity with ensuing ossification of a large metaphyseal lesion. A case report.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, G G; Fassier, F; Hamdy, R C

    1998-01-01

    Distraction through the physis (chondrodiatasis) is a controversial technique with unpredictable results. However, it has been used in the past for the lengthening and correction of angular deformities of long bones. We report the case of an 11-year-old patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) who presented with a severe recurvatum deformity of the left proximal tibia secondary to collapse of the tibial plateau into a large metaphyseal cystic lesion. Using the chondrodiatasis technique with a percutaneously applied Ilizarov circular frame, we were able to correct this deformity. Surprisingly, healing and ossification of the metaphyseal lesion was simultaneously observed at the end of the treatment, a finding which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported.

  10. Development and validation of new model for microvascular transplantation of epiphyseal plate allografts with minimal adjoining epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone.

    PubMed

    Bray, Peter W; Neligan, Peter C; Bowen, C Vaughan A; Danska, Jayne S; Boyer, Martin I

    2003-01-01

    A model for the free allograft microvascular transplantation of rabbit proximal tibial epiphyseal plate allografts was developed, validated, and tested in an in vivo animal model. Transplants contained the minimum amount of adjacent epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone compatible with preservation of the epiphyseal-plate vascular supply, as determined by corrosion casting. Perfusion to this graft was evaluated quantitatively using radioactive microspheres, and qualitatively using India-ink injection. Female New Zealand White rabbits at 12 weeks of age were utilized. Vascularized transplantation of epiphyseal plate allografts was performed either into a defect of matched size in the iliac crest or into a soft-tissue pocket without bone contact. Cyclosporine A immunosuppression (CSA) was administered daily for 6 weeks. Two control groups underwent identical surgical procedures, but had no postoperative immunosuppression. Epiphyseal plates both with and without bone contact, in rabbits immunosuppressed postoperatively with CSA, demonstrated longitudinal growth and preserved viability as determined by positive bromodeoxyuridine uptake. Control epiphyseal plates transferred without postoperative immunosuppression were uniformly nonviable. This new model has value as a basis for further studies into the clinical applicability of isolated epiphyseal-plate transplants.

  11. Beyond the metaphysical: health-promoting existential mechanisms and their impact on the health status of clients.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Dean

    2003-09-01

    This paper aims to conceptualize the issues that surround the notion of existential health. It also seeks to establish the impact that existential issues have upon the health of the individual client and how these might explicitly be applied in clinical practice settings. The ability of clients to draw upon their own existential resources as a fundamental part of their health care experience often goes unrecognized in nursing. Whilst existential mechanisms may be theoretically recognized, as a valid aspect of an individual's unique and personal identity, they are not an established part of the health care activity of nurses. Entrenched biomedical frameworks of care delivery and the interchangeable use of metaphysical health states with existential health states in the established literature present particular dilemmas for the acknowledgement of existential health in clients. A review of the literature has been conducted. This account argues that the failure to recognize and assess a client's existential health status represents a major omission on the part of the clinical nurse. These nurses are, in effect, denying their clients the right to exercise and mobilize an important and valuable health resource.

  12. The metaphysics of D-CTCs: On the underlying assumptions of Deutsch's quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    I argue that Deutsch's model for the behavior of systems traveling around closed timelike curves (CTCs) relies implicitly on a substantive metaphysical assumption. Deutsch is employing a version of quantum theory with a significantly supplemented ontology of parallel existent worlds, which differ in kind from the many worlds of the Everett interpretation. Standard Everett does not support the existence of multiple identical copies of the world, which the D-CTC model requires. This has been obscured because he often refers to the branching structure of Everett as a "multiverse", and describes quantum interference by reference to parallel interacting definite worlds. But he admits that this is only an approximation to Everett. The D-CTC model, however, relies crucially on the existence of a multiverse of parallel interacting worlds. Since his model is supplemented by structures that go significantly beyond quantum theory, and play an ineliminable role in its predictions and explanations, it does not represent a quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel.

  13. Micro-computed tomography assisted distal femur metaphyseal blunt punch compression for determining trabecular bone strength in mice.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Uma; Pritchard, Zachary J; Voor, Michael J

    2016-05-03

    Shorter generation time and the power of genetic manipulation make mice an ideal model system to study bone biology as well as bone diseases. However their small size presents a challenge to perform strength measurements, particularly of the weight-bearing cancellous bone in the murine long bones. We recently developed an improved method to measure the axial compressive strength of the cancellous bone in the distal femur metaphysis in mice. Transverse micro-computed tomography image slices that are 7µm thick were used to locate the position where the epiphysis-metaphysis transition occurs. This enabled the removal of the distal femur epiphysis at the exact transition point exposing the full extent of metaphyseal trabecular bone, allowing more accurate and consistent measurement of its strength. When applied to a murine model system consisting of five month old male wild-type (WT) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) knockout (KO) Camkk2(-/-) mice that possess recorded differences in trabecular bone volume, data collected using this method showed good correlation between bone volume fraction and strength of trabecular bone. In combination with micro-computed tomography and histology, this method will provide a comprehensive and consistent assessment of the microarchitecture and tissue strength of the cancellous bone in murine mouse models.

  14. The effects of prostaglandin E2 in growing rats - Increased metaphyseal hard tissue and cortico-endosteal bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Ueno, K.; Deng, Y. P.; Woodbury, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of in vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in bone formation is investigated. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 223-267 g were injected subcutaneously with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg of PGE2-kg daily for 21 days. The processing of the tibiae for observation is described. Radiographs and histomorphometric analyses are also utilized to study bone formation. Body weight, weights of soft tissues and bones morphometry are evaluated. It is observed that PGE2 depressed longitudinal bone growth, increased growth cartilage thickness, decreased degenerative cartilage cell size and cartilage cell production, and significantly increased proximal tibial metaphyseal hard tissue mass. The data reveal that periosteal bone formation is slowed down at higher doses of PGE2 and endosteal bone formation is slightly depressed less than 10 days post injection; however, here is a late increase (10 days after post injection) in endosteal bone formation and in the formation of trabecular bone in the marrow cavity of the tibial shaft. It is noted that the effects of PGE2 on bone formation are similar to the responses of weaning rats to PGE2.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata

    MedlinePlus

    ... are also important for the production of fats (lipids) used in digestion and in the nervous system. ... genes play roles in the formation (synthesis) of lipid molecules called plasmalogens. Plasmalogens are found in cell ...

  16. Does metaphyseal cement augmentation in fracture management influence the adjacent subchondral bone and joint cartilage?: an in vivo study in sheep stifle joints.

    PubMed

    Goetzen, Michael; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Arens, Daniel; Zeiter, Stephan; Stadelmann, Vincent; Nehrbass, Dirk; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Augmentation of implants with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement in osteoporotic fractures is a promising approach to increase implant purchase. Side effects of PMMA for the metaphyseal bone, particularly for the adjacent subchondral bone plate and joint cartilage, have not yet been studied. The following experimental study investigates whether subchondral PMMA injection compromises the homeostasis of the subchondral bone and/or the joint cartilage.Ten mature sheep were used to simulate subchondral PMMA injection. Follow-ups of 2 (4 animals) and 4 (6 animals) months were chosen to investigate possible cartilage damage and subchondral plate alterations in the knee. Evaluation was completed by means of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) imaging, histopathological osteoarthritis scoring, and determination of glycosaminoglycan content in the joint cartilage. Results were compared with the untreated contralateral knee and statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests.Evaluation of the histological osteoarthritis score revealed no obvious cartilage damage for the treated knee; median histological score after 2 months 0 (range 4), after 4 months 1 (range 5). There was no significant difference when compared with the untreated control site after 2 and 4 months (P = 0.23 and 0.76, respectively). HRpQCT imaging showed no damage to the metaphyseal trabeculae. Glycosaminoglycan measurements of the treated joint cartilage after 4 months revealed no significant difference compared with the untreated cartilage (P = 0.24).The findings of this study support initial clinical observation that PMMA implant augmentation of metaphyseal fractures appears to be a safe procedure for fixation without harming the subchondral bone plate and adjacent joint cartilage.

  17. Metaphyseal locking plate as a definitive external fixator for treating open tibial fractures--clinical outcome and a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Wu, Chin-Hsien; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Lin, Ting-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated both the outcome of using a locking plate as a definitive external fixator for treating open tibial fractures and, using finite element analysis, the biomechanical performance of external and internal metaphyseal locked plates in treating proximal tibial fractures. Eight open tibial patients were treated using a metaphyseal locked plate as a low-profile definitive external fixator. Then, finite element models of internal (IPF) as well as two different external plate fixations (EPFs) for proximal tibial fractures were reconstructed. The offset distances from the bone surface to the EPFs were 6 cm and 10 cm. Both axial stiffness and angular stiffness were calculated to evaluate the biomechanical performance of these three models. The mean follow-up period was 31 months (range, 18-43 months). All the fractures united and the mean bone healing time was 37.5 weeks (range, 20-52 weeks). All patients had excellent or good functional results and were walking freely at the final follow-up. The finite element finding revealed that axial stiffness and angular stiffness decreased as the offset distance from the bone surface increased. Compared to the IPF models, in the two EPF models, axial stiffness decreased by 84-94%, whereas the angular stiffness decreased by 12-21%. The locking plate used as a definitive external fixator provided a high rate of union. While the locking plate is not totally rigid, it is clinically stable and may be advisable for stiffness reduction of plating constructs, thus promoting fracture healing by callus formation. Our patients experienced a comfortable clinical course, excellent knee and ankle joint motion, satisfactory functional results and an acceptable complication rate.

  18. [Early diagnosis, variety of outcomes and prognosis of juvenile schizophrenia with over-value disorders of the "metaphysical intoxication" type onset (results of a late follow-up study)].

    PubMed

    Tsutsul'kovskaia, M Ia; Izvol'skiĭ, S A; Bol'zho, A G; Kopeĭko, G I

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of follow-up findings about juvenile schizophrenia first expressed in superworship manifestations according to the type of metaphysical intoxication (98 observations), the authors established that most frequently these cases were characterized by a torpid course of the disease in the framework of slowly progressing juvenile schizophrenia. There was a high rate of favourable outcomes at the level of "clinical recovery" (in 42.5%). Favourable prognostic signs were as follows: the complete nature of the clinical picture of the syndrome, its similarity to pubertal crisis manifestations, the absence in its structure of other positive disturbances and a number of specific features of the premorbid picture. The authors determined the pattern of correlation between the typological characteristics of the state of juvenile metaphysical intoxication and the outcome of the disease, peculiarities of manifestations of this phenomenon at the initial stage of psychotic forms of juvenile schizophrenia, as well as distinctive features of superworship formations according to the type of juvenile metaphysical intoxication observed in the framework of pubertal decompensation in schizoid psychopathies.

  19. Effects of Long-Term Daily Administration of Prostaglandin-E2 on Maintaining Elevated Proximal Tibial Metaphyseal Cancellous Bone Mass in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S. S.; Mori, Satoshi; Li, Xiao Jian; Kimmel, Donald B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of long-term prostaglandin E(sub 2) (PGE(sub 2)) on cancellous bone in proximal tibial metaphysis were studied in 7 month old male Sprague-Dawley rats given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE(sub 2)/kg/day and sacrificed after 60, 120, and 180 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double fluorescent-labeled undecalcified bone specimens. After 60 days of treatment, PGE(sub 2) produced diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, increased trabecular bone area, eroded and labeled trabecular perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate at all dose levels when compared with age-matched controls. In rats given PGE(sub 2) for longer time periods (120 and 180 days), trabecular bone area, diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, labeled perimeter, mineral apposition, and bone formation rates were sustained at the elevated levels achieved earlier at 60-day treatment. The eroded perimeter continued to increase until 120 days, then plateau. The observation that continuous systemic PGE(sub 2) administration to adult male rats elevated metaphyseal cancellous bone mass to 3.5-fold of the control level within 60 days and maintained it for another 120 days indicates that the powerful skeletal anabolic effects of PGE2 can be sustained with continuous administration .

  20. From the "metaphysics of the individual" to the critique of society: on the practical significance of Michel Henry's phenomenology of life.

    PubMed

    Staudigl, Michael

    This essay explores the practical significance of Michel Henry's "material phenomenology." Commencing with an exposition of his most basic philosophical intuition, i.e., his insight that transcendental affectivity is the primordial mode of revelation of our selfhood, the essay then brings to light how this intuition also establishes our relation to both the world and others. Animated by a radical form of the phenomenological reduction, Henry's material phenomenology brackets the exterior world in a bid to reach the concrete interior transcendental experience at the base of all exteriority. The essay argues that this "counter reduction," designed as a practical orientation to the world, suspends all traditional parameters of onto(theo)logical individuation in order to rethink subjectivity in terms of its transcendental corporeality, i.e., in terms of the invisible display of "affective flesh." The development of this "metaphysics of the individual" anchors his "practical philosophy" as he developed it-under shifting accents-throughout his oeuvre. In particular, the essay brings into focus Henry's reflections on modernity, the industry of mass culture and their "barbaric" movements. The essay briefly puts these cultural and political areas of Henry's of thinking into contact with his late "theological turn," i.e., his Christological account of Life and the (inter)subjective self-realization to which it gives rise.

  1. The skeletal effects of colony-stimulating factor-1 in toothless (osteopetrotic) rats: persistent metaphyseal sclerosis and the failure to restore subepiphyseal osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Marks, S C; Mackay, C A; Jackson, M E; Larson, E K; Cielinski, M J; Stanley, E R; Aukerman, S L

    1993-01-01

    Toothless (tl), one of four osteopetrotic mutations in the rat, is characterized by few osteoclasts, undetectable bone resorption, and failure of correction by bone marrow transplantation. We recently reported that CSF-1 treatment improves these skeletal problems but that metaphyseal sclerosis persists. In the present study we demonstrate that optimal reduction of the skeletal sclerosis in tl rats following CSF-1 treatment has lower and upper dosage thresholds and that skeletal sclerosis returns after CSF-1 withdrawal. Osteoclasts increase significantly in tl rats after CSF-1 treatment, but compared to untreated normal littermates, histochemical staining for characteristic enzymes and osteoclast number is reduced and no osteoclasts appear in the subepiphyseal areas of long bones. These data are interpreted to mean that there are dosage limits to the beneficial skeletal effects of CSF-1, that persistent sclerosis is related to the failure to restore subepiphyseal osteoclasts, that osteoclast or progenitor populations may be deficient or differ in their responses to CSF-1, and that the defect in tl rats is not merely lack of a circulating, biologically active form of CSF-1.

  2. Absolute becoming, relational becoming and the arrow of time: Some non-conventional remarks on the relationship between physics and metaphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorato, Mauro

    The literature on the compatibility between the time of our experience-characterized by passage or becoming-and time as is represented within spacetime theories has been affected by a persistent failure to get a clear grasp of the notion of becoming, both in its relation to an ontology of events "spread" in a four-dimensional manifold, and in relation to temporally asymmetric physical processes. In the first part of my paper I try to remedy this situation by offering what I consider a clear and faithful explication of becoming, valid independently of the particular spacetime setting in which we operate. Along the way, I will show why the metaphysical debate between the so-called "presentists" and "eternalists" is completely irrelevant to the question of becoming, as the debate itself is generated by a failure to distinguish between a tensed and a tenseless sense of "existence". After a much needed distinction between absolute and relational becoming, I then show in what sense classical (non-quantum) spacetime physics presupposes both types of becoming, for the simple reason that spacetime physics presupposes an ontology of (timelike-separated) events. As a consequence, not only does it turn out that using physics to try to provide empirical evidence for the existence of becoming amounts to putting the cart before the horses, but also that the order imposed by "the arrow of becoming" is more fundamental than any other physical arrow of time, despite the fact that becoming cannot be used to explain why entropy grows, or retarded electromagnetic radiation prevails versus advanced radiation.

  3. Defining disability: metaphysical not political.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2013-08-01

    Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British social model, unlike an interactional approach, is unable to provide a realistic account of the experience of disability, and subsequently, unable to be properly utilized to ensure justice for people with disabilities.

  4. Energy: Between Physics and Metaphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunge, Mario

    The general concept of energy is somewhat unclear as long as it is confined to physics, since every chapter of it defines its own particular concept of energy. The general concept can be elucidated in terms of the hypergeneral (philosophical) concepts of concrete thing and changeability. In this way one succeeds in crafting a minitheory that identifies energy with mutability, and that regards it, as well as its conservation, as a universal property of concrete things. The moral is that physicists and philosophers can learn from one another.

  5. Energy: Between Physics and Metaphysics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Mario

    2000-01-01

    The general concept of energy is somewhat unclear as long as it is confined to physics since every chapter of it defines its own particular concept of energy. The general concept can be elucidated in terms of the hypergeneral concepts of concrete things and changeability. Concludes that physicists and philosophers can learn from one another.…

  6. Transphyseal osseous bridges in experimental osteonecrosis of the femoral head of the rat. Histologic study of the bony bridges connecting the epiphyseal with the metaphyseal bony trabeculae through gaps in the physeal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Peskin, B; Shupak, A; Misselevich, I; Zinman, C; Levin, D; Jacob, Z; Reis, D N; Boss, J H

    2001-07-01

    In view of the lifelong persistence of the physis, the femoral head of rats may serve to model Perthes disease and slipped capital femoral epiphysis. To produce osteonecrosis, the blood supply of one femoral head of 133, 6-month-old animals was severed by circumferentially incising the periosteum of the neck and cutting the ligamentum teres. The rats were killed 7 days to 90 days postoperatively. Associated with resorption of the necrotic bone and marrow, remodeling of the epiphysis was characterized by an ingrowth of vascularized fibrous tissue, formation of new bone and some cartilage, architectural deformation and flattening of the head. In 22 of 83 rats killed 30 days or more postoperatively, gaps in the continuity of the physeal cartilage were occupied by osseous bridges, connecting newly formed epiphyseal bony trabeculae with either the preexisting or newly formed metaphyseal osseous trabeculae. This healing mode may follow ischemic death of physeal chondrocytes or be owing to another mechanism, e.g., release of mediatory substances of inflammation. These findings raise the possibility that fixation of the healing epiphysis of a child's previously necrotic femoral head to the metaphysis occurs by transphyseal osseous growth in cases in which the physis is involved in the necrotic process.

  7. 75 FR 55334 - Schmid Laboratories, Inc. et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of Five New Drug Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... applications have repeatedly failed to file required annual reports for the applications. DATES: Effective... drugs for human use are required to submit annual reports to FDA concerning each of their approved... withdraw approval of five NDAs because the firms had failed to submit the required annual reports for...

  8. The suitability of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated (HAC) hip hemiarthroplasty stem for intra-capsular femoral neck fractures in osteoporotic elderly patients: the Metaphyseal-Diaphyseal Index, a solution to preventing intra-operative periprosthetic fracture.

    PubMed

    Chana, Rishi; Mansouri, Reza; Jack, Chris; Edwards, Max R; Singh, Ravi; Keller, Carmel; Khan, Farid

    2011-11-18

    This study will seek to identify a measurable radiographic index, the Metaphyseal-Diaphyseal Index (MDI) score to determine whether intra-operative fracture in osteoporotic bone can be predicted.A 5 year prospective cohort of 560 consecutive patients, undergoing hemiarthroplasty (cemented or uncemented), was evaluated. A nested case-control study to determine risk factors affecting intra-operative fracture was carried out. The Vancouver Classification was used to classify periprosthetic fracture. The MDI score was calculated using radiographs from the uncemented group. As a control (gold standard), Yeung et al's Canal Bone Ratio (CBR) score was also calculated. From this, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was formulated for both scores and area under the curve (AUC) compared. Intra and inter-observer correlations were determined. Cost analysis was also worked out for adverse outcomes. Four hundred and seven uncemented and one hundred and fifty-three cemented stems were implanted. The use of uncemented implants was the main risk factor for intra-operative periprosthetic fracture. Sixty-two periprosthetic fractures occurred in the uncemented group (15.2%), nine occurred in the cemented group (5.9%), P < 0.001. The revision rate for sustaining a periprosthetic fracture (uncemented group) was 17.7%, P < 0.001 and 90 day mortality 19.7%, P < 0.03. MDI's AUC was 0.985 compared to CBR's 0.948, P < 0.001. The MDI score cut-off to predict fracture was 21, sensitivity 98.3%, specificity 99.8%, positive predictive value 90.5% and negative predictive value 98%. Multivariate regression analysis ruled out any other confounding factors as being significant. The intra and inter-observer Pearson correlation scores were r = 0.99, P < 0.001. JRI uncemented hemiarthroplasty has a significantly higher intra-operative fracture rate. We recommend cemented arthroplasty for hip fractures. We propose a radiographic system that may allow surgeons to select patients who are good

  9. A metaphysical journey in a comatose state.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, R

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about the intense experience of being in the hospital in a comatose state resulting from an aneurysm with a massive brain hemorrhage and two subsequent surgeries. The event begins with a premonition of what will happen from a street name. The experience of brain surgeries, along with the fine care of the nurses, left me with a truly memorable impression. This paper describes the various feelings and strong emotions that I experienced while in a comatose state. It suggests that a patient in a comatose state can exist in a deep state of emotions close to ecstasy. The paper concludes with gratefulness to all the people who followed me step by step on this journey.

  10. Ape Metaphysics: Object Individuation without Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Natacha; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2008-01-01

    Developmental research suggests that whereas very young infants individuate objects purely on spatiotemporal grounds, from (at latest) around 1 year of age children are capable of individuating objects according to the kind they belong to and the properties they instantiate. As the latter ability has been found to correlate with language, some…

  11. Ape metaphysics: object individuation without language.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Natacha; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2008-02-01

    Developmental research suggests that whereas very young infants individuate objects purely on spatiotemporal grounds, from (at latest) around 1 year of age children are capable of individuating objects according to the kind they belong to and the properties they instantiate. As the latter ability has been found to correlate with language, some have speculated whether it might be essentially language dependent and therefore uniquely human. Existing studies with non-human primates seem to speak against this hypothesis, but fail to present conclusive evidence due to methodological shortcomings. In the present experiments we set out to test non-linguistic object individuation in three great ape species with a refined manual search methodology. Experiment 1 tested for spatiotemporal object individuation: Subjects saw 1 or 2 objects simultaneously being placed inside a box in which they could reach, and then in both conditions only found 1 object. After retrieval of the 1 object, subjects reached again significantly more often when they had seen 2 than when they had seen 1 object. Experiment 2 tested for object individuation according to property/kind information only: Subjects saw 1 object being placed inside the box, and then either found that object (expected) or an object of a different kind (unexpected). Analogously to Experiment 1, after retrieval of the 1 object, subjects reached again significantly more often in the unexpected than in the expected condition. These results thus confirm previous findings suggesting that individuating objects according to their property/kind is neither uniquely human nor essentially language dependent. It remains to be seen, however, whether this kind of object individuation requires sortal concepts as human linguistic thinkers use them, or whether some simpler form of tracking properties is sufficient.

  12. Measurement of Workload: Physics, Psychophysics, and Metaphysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopher, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper reviews the results of two experiments in which workload analysis was conducted based upon performance measures, brain evoked potentials and magnitude estimations of subjective load. The three types of measures were jointly applied to the description of the behavior of subjects in a wide battery of experimental tasks. Data analysis shows both instances of association and dissociation between types of measures. A general conceptual framework and methodological guidelines are proposed to account for these findings.

  13. "Humanitas", Metaphysics and Modern Liberal Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    There is a new myth of the heterogeneous that is reducing the concept of humanity to a sinful enlightenment. In this article I investigate the contribution that a renewed understanding of liberal arts education might offer for the idea of a humanist education and for the concept of humanity; and this at a time when not only the concept of humanity…

  14. Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    William James's overtly philosophical work may be more continuous with his psychological work than is sometimes thought. His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian psychology: that direct experience is primary and has to be taken at face value. An examination of James's theory of space perception suggests that, even in his early work, he presupposed the primacy of direct experience, and that later changes in his account of space perception can be understood as making his view more consistent with this presupposition. In his earlier view of space perception, James argued that sensations were directly experienced as spatial, though he accepted that spatial relations between sensations may be constructed by higher order thought. In his later view, however, James argued that spatial relations were just as directly experienced as sensations. The work of T. H. Green may have prompted James to recognize the full consequence of his ideas and to realize that taking experience at face value required that spatial relations be thought of as intrinsic to experience rather than the result of intellectual construction.

  15. Infants' Metaphysics: The Case of Numerical Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Carey, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Five experiments using the visual habitation paradigm with 158 infants demonstrated that these 10-month olds did not use property/kind information to establish representations of 2 numerically distinct objects, a finding that provided support for the object-first hypothesis. (SLD)

  16. Two different forms of lethal chondrodysplasias caused by COL2A1 gene mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Winterpacht, A.; Hilbert, K.; Schwarze, U.

    1994-09-01

    Two bone dysplasia families seem to be due to mutations in the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1): the so-called spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) group with achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, SEDC, osteoarthrosis and the Stickler-Kniest pattern that include different forms of Kniest and Stickler dysplasia. Both groups comprise a clinical spectrum ranging from lethal to mild. COL2A1-mutations have been identified in lethal forms of the SEDC family but not in lethal forms of the Stickler/Kniest group. We now report a COL2A-1 mutation in an additional case of hypochondrogenesis (patient S) and in a lethal case of Kniest dysplasia (patient B). We amplified all 54 exons of the COL2A1 gene in both patients and screened the PCR products for mutations by SSCP analysis and sequencing. In patient B, we identified an 18 bp deletion in exon 34 which removes 6 amino acids from the mature protein. In patient S, we were able to identify a two base pair exchange (GG to AT) in exon 31, which leads to the very unusual conversion of Gly to Ile. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Gly to Ile conversion in the COL2A1 gene, and the first report of a COL2A1 gene mutation in a lethal form of Kniest dysplasia. On the basis of the known COL2A1 gene mutations and the genotype-phenotype correlations established so far, we provide molecular data (an in frame deletion in patient B and a Gly conversion in patient S) that support their clinical classification as Kniest dysplasia and hypochondrogenesis, respectively.

  17. Location interval at Xp22.3 for X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, L.; Hutchison, W.; Holloway, A.

    1994-09-01

    The literature shows that there is a gene for chondropdysplasia punctata (CDP) located at Xp22.3 from the study of chromosomal rearrangements involving Xp. It is also suspected that there are genes for short stature and mental retardation nearby. Petit has described a family of brachytelephalangic CDP that was due to a submicroscopic interstitial deletion of Xp22.3. Symmetrical (mild) CDP seems to be identical to brachytelephalangic CDP clinically, has variable features of short stature and mental retardation, and has a preponderance of affected males. We describe results using DNA probes from Xp22.3 in 10 patients with radiologically proven symmetrical CDP. Other known genes in this region have a high proportion of deletions as we screened our patients for deletions in DXYS20, MIC2, PABX, DXYS159X, DXS283, DXS285, J502(PCR), DXS31, DXS43 (listed distally to proximally). No deletions were found. We have also studied a fetus with proven CDP who has a X,Y translocation (46,V,t(X;Y)(p22.3;q12)mat). This patient was deleted for all distal probes up to J502(PCR). It is not yet known where the breakpoint lies but it may be just proximal to the CDP gene. The results of the 10 symmetrical CDPs and the X;Y translocation fetus are presented with further definition of the X chromosomal breakpoint in the translocation.

  18. Hydrops associated with chondrodysplasia of the fetus in a miniature Scottish Highland cow.

    PubMed

    Catalina Cabrera, L; McNabb, Bret R; Woods, Sarah E; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Busch, Rosie C

    2016-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old primiparous miniature Scottish Highland cow with an unknown breeding date was evaluated for suspected hydrops. CLINICAL FINDINGS Transabdominal and transrectal ultrasonographic examination identified a large amount of hypoechoic fluid within an enlarged uterus; the fetus could not be identified. Presence of a severely distended uterus and concerns regarding associated health risks to the cow led to the decision to induce labor. Although fluids were expelled, parturition did not progress further over the following 48 hours. Vaginal examination revealed a partially dilated cervix and an abnormally shaped fetus that was too large to pass vaginally. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Supportive care was provided to the cow, and a stillborn bull calf was delivered by cesarean section. Grossly evident chondrodystrophic dwarfism with hydrocephalus, compatible with so-called bulldog calf malformations, was confirmed by diagnostic imaging and histopathologic evaluation. The cow recovered from surgery uneventfully and was discharged from the hospital the following day. Genetic analysis of DNA from hair roots collected from the sire and dam confirmed both were carriers of an aggrecan-1 gene mutation (bulldog dwarfism1) previously associated with dwarfism and bulldog calf malformations in Dexter cattle. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bulldog calf malformations associated with an aggrecan-1 gene mutation in miniature Scottish Highland cattle, confirming that at least 1 genetic mutation associated with this condition is found in cattle breeds other than Dexter. The findings highlighted the clinical importance of testing for known genetic diseases in breeding cattle, particularly among miniature breeds.

  19. Hierarchical Factor Structure of the Cognitive Assessment System: Variance Partitions from the Schmid-Leiman (1957) Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal higher-order factor structure of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Das, 1997a) for the 5-7 and 8-17 age groups in the CAS standardization sample is reported. Following the same procedure as recent studies of other prominent intelligence tests (Dombrowski, Watkins, & Brogan, 2009; Canivez, 2008; Canivez &…

  20. Exploratory Bifactor Analysis of the WJ-III Achievement at School Age via the Schmid-Leiman Orthogonalization Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of academic achievement measures has been rarely investigated in the literature apart from that which appears in the instruments' technical manuals. This is concerning, given the widespread use of academic achievement instruments when making educational decisions about children. The Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Achievement for…

  1. Congenital chondrodysplastic dwarfism with dyshematopoiesis in a holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kazumi; Maruyama, Minoru; Dobashi, Koji; Tanimura, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Kumiko; Haritani, Makoto; Nakajima, Yasuyuki

    2002-10-01

    A holstein calf with congenital chondrodysplastic dwarfism was histopathologically examined. The head of the calf was relatively flat giving a dog-like appearance with its short nose and sloping forehead. Limb bones were dumbbell-like with short diaphysis and hypertrophied metaphyses. Bone marrow was pale, whitish and fatty. In the metaphyseal plates most of chondrocytes were pyknotic with swollen and ghost-like cytoplasm, and were irregularly arranged. Column of calcified cartilage were poorly formed losing comb-like structure. Bone marrow was ischemic with poor hematopoiesis and was moderately replaced by adipose tissue. In articular cartilage, most of chondrocytes were degenerated with ghost-like cytoplasm. Many cartilage canals and occasional bone marrow-like structure were formed. The characteristics lesions of the calf were chondrodysplasia and dyshematopoiesis.

  2. Marked variability in the radiographic features of cartilage-hair hypoplasia: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Andrea; Manning, M A; Zollars, Linda K; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2012-11-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare recessive metaphyseal chondrodysplasia characterized by severe short stature, ectodermal dysplasia, anemia in childhood, immune deficiency, susceptibility to malignancy, and normal intelligence. Short, thick long bones, metaphyseal flaring and irregularities, and globular epiphyses at the knees and ankles are the typical radiographic findings. The diagnosis is primarily made on the basis of clinical features, although mutations in the RMRP gene have recently been described in affected individuals, facilitating confirmation of the clinical diagnosis in atypical patients. We present a patient with two RMRP mutations whose stature and ectodermal features supported the diagnosis of CHH, but whose radiographic findings and other extraskeletal findings did not. We propose that the most consistent and reliable features of CHH are short stature of prenatal onset and ectodermal dysplasia, and suggest that the diagnosis of CHH be considered and mutation analysis pursued even when typical radiographic findings are absent.

  3. Receptors for parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide: from molecular cloning to definition of diseases.

    PubMed

    Jüppner, H; Schipani, E

    1996-07-01

    The parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor belongs to a distinct family of G protein-coupled receptors, the members of which usually signal through at least two second messenger systems, adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C. The parathyroid hormone/ parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor is most abundantly expressed in bone, kidney and growth-plate chondrocytes, and, at lower levels, in a variety of fetal and adult tissues. To search for human diseases that are caused by parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor defects, genomic DNA of patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib and of patients with Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia was screened for mutations in all coding exons of the receptor gene. Inactivating parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor mutations were excluded in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. However, a receptor mutation that causes agonist-independent, constitutive cAMP accumulation was identified in a patient with Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, a rare form of short-limbed dwarfism associated with hypercalcemia despite normal or low concentrations of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. These findings allow the conclusion to be drawn that parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptors mediate the endocrine actions of parathyroid hormone, which are required for the control of calcium homeostasis and the autocrine-paracrine actions of parathyroid hormone-related peptide, which are required for normal growth-plate development.

  4. Between physics and metaphysics: structure as a boundary concept.

    PubMed

    Tau, Ramiro

    2015-03-01

    The notion of structure is found to be used in a great number of theories, scientific research programs and world views. However, its uses and definitions are as diverse as the objects of the scientific disciplines where it can be found. Without trying to recreate the structuralist aspiration from the mid XX century, which believed to have found in this notion a common transdisciplinary language, I discuss a specific aspect of this concept that could be considered a constant in different perspectives. This aspect refers to the location of the notions of structure as boundaries in the different scientific theories. With this, I try to argue that the definition or presentation of a structure configures in itself the frontier for scientific knowledge, defining at the same time implied ontological assumptions. In order to discuss this hypothesis, and taking into consideration the double origin of contemporary notions of structure -the mathematical and linguistic line-, I revise several theoretical perspectives which made explicit the relation between structures and knowledge, and their relation with the real: the arguments on physical knowledge by Eddington, structural anthropology, structural linguistics, Lacanian psychoanalysis and Piaget's genetic psychology.

  5. Metaphysical and value underpinnings of traditional medicine in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Omonzejele, Peter F; Maduka, Chukwugozie

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the extent to which recourse to traditional healers depended on biometric variables; ways of knowing in good time what ailments were more likely to be better handled by traditional healers; rationale behind traditional healing methodologies. On the whole, four research questions were engaged. The sample for the study included residents in urban (Benin City) and rural (Ehime Mbano) communities in Nigeria. The instruments comprised of two questionnaires. The traditional healers were also interviewed in addition. The findings of the research included the following: in both rural and urban areas, women and more elderly persons had more recourse than other groups to traditional medicine; Christians, less educated persons, self-employed persons and women affirmed most strongly to the efficacy of traditional medicine over Western medicine with respect to certain ailments; ways for averting spiritual illnesses included obeying instructions from ancestors and offering regular sacrifices to the gods; methods used by traditional healers to determine whether an ailment was "spiritual" or as a result of home problems included diagnosis linked to divination, interpretation of dreams particularly those involving visits by ancestors, interpretation of nightmares and omens such as the appearance of owls; methods for curing patients included use of herbs particularly those believed to have magical powers, offering of sacrifices, use of incantations and wearing of protective medicine.

  6. Localizationism to neuroplasticity---the evolution of metaphysical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth; Mahajan, S N; Diwan, S K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroplasticity (also referred to as brain plasticity, cortical plasticity or cortical re-mapping) is the changing of neurons, organization of their networks, and their function via new experiences. The brain consists of nerve cells or neurons and glial cells which are interconnected, and learning may happen through changing of the strength of the connections between neurons, by adding or removing connections, or by adding new cells. "Plasticity" relates to learning by adding or removing connections, or adding cells. Contrary to the traditional belief of neurolocalizationism, which states that each region of brain is dedicated for a particular type of activity, neuroplasticity has struggled a long way and has created a safe niche in the neuroscientific hall of honor. Salute to the neuroplasticians for their efforts to revolutionize the doctrine of neurology for the better understanding of the remarkable powers of brain. This article is a brief attempt to fathom the mysterious and scientific ways of neuroplasticity.

  7. Mirror neurons: Enigma of the metaphysical modular brain.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth

    2012-07-01

    Mirror neurons are one of the most important discoveries in the last decade of neuroscience. These are a variety of visuospatial neurons which indicate fundamentally about human social interaction. Essentially, mirror neurons respond to actions that we observe in others. The interesting part is that mirror neurons fire in the same way when we actually recreate that action ourselves. Apart from imitation, they are responsible for myriad of other sophisticated human behavior and thought processes. Defects in the mirror neuron system are being linked to disorders like autism. This review is a brief introduction to the neurons that shaped our civilization.

  8. Neither metaphysical dichotomy nor pure identity: clarifying the emergentist creed.

    PubMed

    Sartenaer, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Emergentism is often misleadingly described as a monolithic "third way" between radical monism and pluralism. In the particular case of biology, for example, emergentism is perceived as a middle course between mechanicism and vitalism. In the present paper I propose to show that the conceptual landscape between monism and pluralism is more complex than this classical picture suggests. On the basis of two successive analyses-distinguishing three forms of tension between monism and pluralism and a distinction between derivational and functional reduction-I define three different versions of emergentism that can be considered as consistent middle courses between monism and pluralism (respectively theoretical, explanatory and causal emergence). I then emphasise the advantage of this taxonomy of the concepts of emergence by applying the results of my analysis to the historical controversy that pertains to the relationship between life and matter.

  9. Metaphysics, science and the asphaltene phase behavior problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, T.P.

    1996-12-31

    Spontaneous phase separation and deposition of the asphaltenic component of crude oils is the source of costly problems in the petroleum industry. Over the past several decades so-called {open_quotes}colloid stabilization{close_quotes} model has dominated attempts to account for the phase behavior of the asphaltene fraction of the crude oil. We will argue that this model is not {open_quotes}scientific{close_quotes} in the sense that is has been applied only for the post-hoc rationalization of experimental results; absent have been serious attempts to experimentally test specific predictions deduced from the model. A critical examination of the colloid stabilization model brings to light several fundamental shortcomings. An alternative thermodynamic, or {open_quotes}solvation{close_quotes} model is shown to make predictions in far better agreement with experiment, and has been the key to developing an analytical model that accurately predicts the conditions under which crude oils become unstable to asphaltene deposition. This example will be used to argue that the defining elements of (good) scientific research - the formulation of explicit hypotheses of high predictive content and their critical evaluation, above all by experimental attempts at falsification - are also effective, indeed necessary, for analyzing the complex problems offered by the {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} world and for achieving technological advancement.

  10. What is a gene? From molecules to metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Holmes

    2006-01-01

    Mendelian genes have become molecular genes, with increasing puzzlement about locating them, due to increasing complexity in genomic webworks. Genome science finds modular and conserved units of inheritance, identified as homologous genes. Such genes are cybernetic, transmitting information over generations; this too requires multi-leveled analysis, from DNA transcription to development and reproduction of the whole organism. Genes are conserved; genes are also dynamic and creative in evolutionary speciation-most remarkably producing humans capable of wondering about what genes are.

  11. Crazy children, fantastical theories, and the many uses of metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C N

    1997-12-01

    Woolley rightly challenges the incredible idea, held by some adults, that it is children who are peculiarly "fantastical" in their thinking. However, Woolley expresses little appreciation for "fantastical thinking" as it underlies the capacity for both grand delusions and amazing insights. In reducing "fantastical thinking" to conceptual error, she overlooks the mythical underpinnings of her own theorizing and neglects the many constructive roles of "fantastical thinking" in development.

  12. Cognitive Metaphor Theory and the Metaphysics of Immediacy.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Mathias W

    2016-05-01

    One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are foundational obstacles to defining a coherent and cognitively valid concept of "metaphor" and "concrete meaning," and some general problems with singling out certain domains of experience as more immediate than others. I conclude from these considerations that whatever the facts are about the comprehension of individual metaphors, the available evidence is incompatible with the notion of an underlying conceptual structure organized according to the immediacy of experience.

  13. Metaphysics of colliding self-gravitating plane waves

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, R.A.; Tipler, F.J.

    1984-04-15

    We discuss certain global features of colliding plane-wave solutions to Einstein's equations. In particular, we show that the apparently local curvature singularities both in the Khan-Penrose solution and in the Bell-Szekeres solution are actually global. These global singularities are associated with the breakdown of nondegenerate planar symmetry in the characteristic initial data sets.

  14. Neuroscientific Prediction and the Intrusion of Intuitive Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Rose, David; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    How might advanced neuroscience-in which perfect neuro-predictions are possible-interact with ordinary judgments of free will? We propose that peoples' intuitive ideas about indeterminist free will are both imported into and intrude into their representation of neuroscientific scenarios and present six experiments demonstrating intrusion and importing effects in the context of scenarios depicting perfect neuro-prediction. In light of our findings, we suggest that the intuitive commitment to indeterminist free will may be resilient in the face of scientific evidence against such free will.

  15. Metaphysics of colliding self-gravitating plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzner, Richard A.; Tipler, Frank J.

    1984-04-01

    We discuss certain global features of colliding plane-wave solutions to Einstein's equations. In particular, we show that the apparently local curvature singularities both in the Khan-Penrose solution and in the Bell-Szekeres solution are actually global. These global singularities are associated with the breakdown of nondegenerate planar symmetry in the characteristic initial data sets.

  16. Cognitive Metaphor Theory and the Metaphysics of Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Mathias W.

    2016-01-01

    One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are…

  17. The "Spiritual Handshake": Toward a Metaphysical Sustainability Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut

    2007-01-01

    Is it feasible and appropriate to develop a sustainability metrics which captures cosmological-spiritual dimensions of un/sustainability? Departing from the supposition that the crisis of unsustainability is a crisis of worldview and misguided cosmology which needs redirection on a cultural and global scale, this essay introduces the notion of a…

  18. Is Society Capable of Learning? Beyond a Metaphysical Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2016-01-01

    There is an assumption that any contemporary society should become a learning society to maintain stability in the face of change. Although proponents and policymakers take for granted that a society has the ability to learn, can this idea be defended? There is a problem in determining exactly what is meant by a learning society that learns. One…

  19. Social Darwinism, Scientific Racism, and the Metaphysics of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Rutledge M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that science is often used as a justification to propose, project, and enact racist social policies. The philosophy of Social Darwinism is reviewed, and its assumptions about race and human abilities is discussed. The consequences of scientific racism for dominant groups are analyzed. (GR)

  20. Description of the larva of Philopotamus achemenus Schmid 1959 (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae) and a larval key for species of Philopotamus in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Ioannis

    2014-06-16

    The larva of Philopotamus achemenus is described for the first time. The diagnostic features of the species are described and illustrated and some information regarding its ecology and world distribution is included. Furthermore, its morphological characters are compared and contrasted in an identification key for larvae of the Greek species of Philopotamus. 

  1. Cartilage-hair hypoplasia associated with isolated hypoganglionosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Yoshitomo; Kohno, Miyuki; Nishida, Syouichi; Shironomae, Tsubasa; Satomi, Miwa; Kuwahara, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Sadayoshi; Niida, Yo

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a rare metaphyseal chondrodysplasia characterized by diverse clinical manifestations and a high incidence of Hirschsprung disease. We present a male patient with cartilage-hair hypoplasia associated with severe intestinal obstruction. Genetic analysis of ribonuclease mitochondrial RNA-processing complex gene identified compound heterozygous mutations consisted with previously reported mutations: n.-14_3dupGAAGCTGAGGACGTGGT and n.183G > T. First, we considered that intestinal obstruction was due to an extensive type of Hirschsprung disease, but it was later confirmed as isolated hypoganglionosis. Isolated hypoganglionosis is rare and its therapeutic strategies are not well established. In cases of cartilage-hair hypoplasia associated with severe intestinal obstruction, the differential diagnosis of not only Hirschsprung disease, but also isolated hypoganglionosis, should be considered.

  2. A second family with autosomal recessive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia and early death.

    PubMed

    Mégarbané, André; Mehawej, Cybel; El Zahr, Amir; Haddad, Soha; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2014-04-01

    We report on a consanguineous Lebanese family in which two sibs had pre- and post-natal growth retardation, developmental delay, large anterior fontanel, prominent forehead, low-set ears, depressed nasal bridge, short nose, anteverted nares, increased nasal width, prominent abdomen, and short limbs. Radiographs disclosed the presence of wormian bones, platyspondyly, decreased interpedicular distance at the lumbar vertebrae, square iliac bones, horizontal acetabula, trident acetabula, hypoplastic ischia, partial agenesis of the sacrum, ribs with cupped ends, short long bones with abnormal modeling, slight widening of the distal femoral metaphyses, and delayed epiphyseal ossification. Both sibs had a severe cardiomegaly and died at around 24 months from a heart failure. Differential diagnosis suggests that this is a second family presenting a newly described early lethal chondrodysplasia first reported by [Mégarbané et al. (2008); Am J Med Genet Part A 146A:2916-2919].

  3. Phenotypic expressions of a Gly154Arg mutation in type II collagen in two unrelated patients with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaitila, I.; Marttinen, E.; Koerkkoe, J.; Ala-Kokko, L.

    1996-05-03

    Type II collagenopathies consist of chondrodysplasia ranging from lethal to mild in severity. A large number of mutations has been found in the COL2A1 gene. Glycine substitutions have been the most common types of mutation. Genotype-phenotype correlations in type II collagenopathies have not been established, partly because of insufficient clinical and radiographic description of the patients. We found a glycine-to-arginine substitution at position 154 in type II collagen in two unrelated isolated propositi with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and provide a comparative clinical and radiographic analysis from birth to young adulthood for this condition. The clinical phenotype was disproportionate short stature with varus/valgus deformities of the lower limbs requiring corrective osteotomies, and lumbar lordosis. The skeletal radiographs showed an evolution from short tubular bones, delayed epiphyseal development, and mild vertebral involvement to severe metaphyseal dysplasia with dappling irregularities, and hip {open_quotes}dysplasia.{close_quotes} The metaphyseal abnormalities disappeared by adulthood. 27 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ectopic bone formation and chondrodysplasia in transgenic mice carrying the rat C3(1)/T{sub AG} fusion gene

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.E.; Maroulakou, I.G.; Anver, M.

    1994-09-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the SV40 large T-antigen (T{sup AG}) under the regultory control of the hormone-responsive rat C3(1) prostatein promoter develop unusual bone and cartilage lesions, as well as ectopic bone and cartilage formation. Two lines of transgenic animals have been propagated in which the expression of the transgene in chondrocytes results in a mild to moderate generalized disorganization of cartilage growth which appears to affect multiple tissues, including the trachea, ear pinna and articular cartilage. The epiphyseal plates are also affected with normal architecture of the zones of proliferation and maturation, but marked elongation of the zone of hypertrophy. Immunocytochemistry demonstrates that expression of T{sup AG} is limited to the zone of hypertropny in the epiphyseal plates, suggesting that the chondrocytes become hormone-responsive at this particular stage of differentiation. Normal mineralization and trabecular formation in long bone appears to occur. Ectopic bone and cartilage formation occurs in the foot pads of the fore- and hind- feet over the course of several months. This is preceded by proliferation of sweat gland epithelial cells followed by the appearance of nodules of cartilage and bone. The nodules are closely associated with proliferating epithelium but are not contiguous with bony structures normally found in the feet. The roles of BMP`s, growth factors, oncogenes and hormones in the development of these lesions will be presented. These transgenic animals may provide new insights into hormone-responsiveness of chondrocytes, as well as factors involved in the processes of bone and cartilage differentiation and growth. These transgenic animals may serve as a useful model for human heterotopic bone formation.

  5. Neonatal Death Dwarfism in a Girl with Distinctive Bone Dysplasia Compatible with Grebe Chondrodysplasia: Analysis by CT Scan-based Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Chehida, Farid Ben; Ganger, Rudolf; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We report on a female fetus noted to have severe malformative type of skeletal dysplasia on ultrasonography done at 35 weeks gestation. The girl died shortly after birth. Clinical examination showed a fetus with severe dwarfism, extensive long and short bones, and bone deficiencies associated with multiple dislocations. Computed tomography (CT) scan-based phenotype showed a complex constellation of malformations consistent with the diagnosis of Grebe syndrome. Parents being first cousins (consanguineous marriage) strongly suggests autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal death dwarfism of Grebe syndrome analyzed by CT scan-based phenotype. PMID:25337439

  6. The Phenomenon of the Home: Metaphysics of the Innermost (as Illustrated by the Modern Russian Culture)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shupletsova, Elena Zh.; Solodov, Andrei V.; Samoilov, Anton O.; Polyakov, Nikita ?.; Pyankova, Anastasia Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is based on the influence of the expanding globalization processes that affect the view of life of a modern man: the internal balance is lost due to feeling of chaos, rhythm of life and constant changes. In these conditions there is a tendency to de-humanize the living environment, depersonalization of…

  7. The whole is more than the sum of its parts: Aristotle, metaphysical.

    PubMed

    Upton, Joseph; Janeka, Ivo; Ferraro, Nalton

    2014-01-01

    This phrase, a favorite of Dr. Joseph E. Murray, can be interpreted in many ways. Mathematically, the whole is equal to the sum of its parts, neither more nor less. Psychological Gestalt theory would maintain that the whole is something else or something different than the sum of its parts. Merely adding up the component parts is meaningless compared with the "part-whole" relationship (SYNERGETICS: Explorations of Thinking. MacMillan Publishing Co, Inc; 1975). Organizational pundits maintain that this principle describes the synergy, which exists between individuals working together in a cooperative effort. Collectively, they are able to achieve an outcome superior to that of 1 or 2 people working alone. This concept is vintage Joseph E. Murray. He was an integral part of the Peter Bent Brigham team, which transformed the dream of organ transplantation into clinical reality over 50 years ago. Although many advances in medicine are made by the serendipity of a prepared mind making a critical observation (Alexander Fleming and penicillin), individual brilliance (Judah Folkman and angiogenesis), or by technology (magnetic resonance imaging), most are achieved by groups of physicians and scientists working together. All have prepared minds. When the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital physicians and researchers at the Harvard Medical School dedicated all of their energy on solving the problems of end-stage renal disease, their effort was concentrated and primarily regional. Today, this cooperation is global, as communication has been facilitated by the Internet, iPhone, iPad, video conferencing, electronic libraries, and the like.

  8. [Critical analysis of the immunological self/non-self model and of its implicit metaphysical foundations].

    PubMed

    Pradeu, Thomas; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2004-05-01

    An examination of the concepts used in immunology prompts us to wonder about the origins and the legitimacy of the notions of self and non-self, which constitute the core of the dominant theoretical model in this science. All theoretical reflection concerning immunology must aim at determining a criterion of immunogenicity, that is, an operational definition of the conditions in which an immune reaction occurs or does not occur. By criticizing both conceptually and experimentally the self/non-self vocabulary, we can demonstrate the inaccuracy and even the inadequacy of the dichotomy of self/non-self. Accordingly, the self/non-self model must be reexamined, or even rejected. On the basis of this critique, we can suggest an alternative theoretical hypothesis for immunology, based on the notion of continuity. The 'continuity hypothesis' developed here attempts to give a criterion of immunogenicity that avoids the reproaches leveled at the self model.

  9. The problem with brain GUTs: conflation of different senses of "prediction" threatens metaphysical disaster.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael L; Chemero, Tony

    2013-06-01

    Clark appears to be moving toward epistemic internalism, which he once rightly rejected. This results from a double over-interpretation of predictive coding's significance. First, Clark argues that predictive coding offers a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) of brain function. Second, he over-reads its epistemic import, perhaps even conflating causal and epistemic mediators. We argue instead for a plurality of neurofunctional principles.

  10. Embodied free will beliefs: some effects of physical states on metaphysical opinions.

    PubMed

    Ent, Michael R; Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-07-01

    The present research suggests that people's bodily states affect their beliefs about free will. People with epilepsy and people with panic disorder, which are disorders characterized by a lack of control over one's body, reported less belief in free will compared to people without such disorders (Study 1). The more intensely people felt sexual desire, physical tiredness, and the urge to urinate, the less they believed in free will (Study 2). Among non-dieters, the more intensely they felt hunger, the less they believed in free will. However, dieters showed a trend in the opposite direction (Study 3).

  11. Phloem loading--not metaphysical, only complex: towards a unified model of phloem loading.

    PubMed

    Komor, E; Orlich, G; Weig, A; Köckenberger, W

    1996-08-01

    Phloem loading comprises the entire pathway of phloem-mobile solutes from their place of generation (or delivery) to the sieve tubes in a sequence of transport steps across or passing by several different cell types. Each of these steps can be classified as symplastic or apoplastic. The detailed anatomical-cytological work in the past ten years made clear that the symplastic continuity from mesophyll to sieve tubes may be very different for different plant species or even in different vein orders. Therefore data from one species are not transferable to another species and a well-rounded picture involving different experimental methods has to be aimed at for each species separately. The information obtained with the Ricinus seedling, where phloem loading and sieve tube sap analysis can be achieved relatively easily, is presented. The analysis of the radioactive labelling of sucrose from the sieve tubes of cotyledons, in which external and intracellular sucrose had been differently labelled, revealed that at sucrose concentrations close to the natural one, 50% of sucrose is loaded directly from the external medium. The other 50% is first taken up by mesophyll and then released for uptake into the sieve tubes. No bundle tissue works as obligate, intermediate sucrose storage. The apoplast therefore definitely serves as a transit reservoir for sucrose destined to be loaded into the sieve tubes. The sieve tube sap contains glycolytic metabolites at concentrations higher than found in the hypocotyl tissue, whereas the corresponding glycolytic enzymes are missing. It is concluded that the enzymes are sequestered in the companion cell or by parietal membrane stacks. Not only the sieve tubes but nearly all cotyledonary cells are equipped with a sucrose-H(+) symporter able to achieve sucrose accumulation and sensitive to inhibition by high salt concentrations or SH reagents. A cDNA clone coding for a sucrose carrier was isolated. It is transcribed at approximately the same level in most organs of the seedling and throughout the germination period. Leaves of adult Ricinus have significantly lower levels of this transcript. Recirculation of excess, phloem-delivered solutes from the sink back to the source is shown not only to be a common feature of long-distance transport, but the only way that an imbalance between supply to and consumption of nutrients in the sink can be adjusted in the source. It is a pathway by which sink activity regulates phloem loading. Non-invasive NMR imaging revealed the flow rates and flow speeds in phloem and xylem in the intact seedling and proved directly the existence of an internal circulating solution flow. A unified model of phloem loading is proposed, based on a pump-and-leak model, where active sucrose carriers (and other carriers) accumulate solutes in the sieve tubes with a concomitant build-up of pressure resulting in mass flow. Plasmodesmata are leaks (as are the transport carriers, too), slowing down the transport rate, but they also serve as diffusion channels for substances which are produced in the neighbouring cell. Therefore, compounds, which are not made in the sieve tubes themselves are translocated together with the bulk solution of sieve tube sap.

  12. Persons and death: what's metaphysically wrong with our current statutory definition of death?

    PubMed

    Lizza, J P

    1993-08-01

    This paper challenges the recommendations of 1981 President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research that all jurisdictions in the United States should adopt the Uniform Determination of Death Act, which endorses a whole-brain, rather than a higher-brain, definition of death. I argue that the Commission was wrong to reject the "personhood argument" for the higher-brain definition on the grounds that there is no consensus among philosophers or the general population as to what constitutes "personhood". I claim that philosophers agree that some potential for cognitive function is necessary for personhood and that, when this is absent in cases of anencephaly and persistent vegetative state (PVS), the individual should be considered dead. I further argue that the lack of consensus among the general population is due in large measure to misunderstandings about the medical reality of PVS and beliefs influenced by feelings for a specific individual in PVS. I also examine and reject two tutorist arguments which have been used to support the Commission's position: that the higher-brain definition would threaten the severely senile and severely retarded, and that there are not currently adequate medical techniques for determining when all higher-brain activities have ceased.

  13. Analysis of the influence of a metha-type metaphysical stem on biomechanical parameters.

    PubMed

    Pozowski, Andrzej; Ścigała, Krzysztof; Kierzek, Andrzej; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The full postoperative loading of the limb is possible if patients are properly selected and qualified for hip arthroplasty and the requirements as to the proper position of the metaphysial stem are met. The lack of precision, and patient qualification which does not satisfy the fixed criteria may result in stem setting inconsistent with the assumptions. An analysis based on the finite element method (FEM) will enable one to find out how to plan the magnitude of operated joint loading on the basis of the position of the stem in the postoperative radiograph. By analyzing the distribution of bone tissue deformations one can identify the zones where the spongy bone is overloaded and determine the strain level in comparison with the one determined for a model of the bone with the stem in proper position. On the basis of the results obtained one can estimate the range of loads for the operated limb, which will not result in the loss of the stem's primary stability prior to obtaining secondary stability through osteointegration. Moreover, an analysis of the formation of bone structures around the stem showed that the incorrect setting of a Metha-type stem may lead to the initiation of loosening.

  14. Heaps of health, metaphysical fitness: Ayurveda and the ontology of good health in medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Alter, J S

    1999-02-01

    Because most scholars take it for granted that medicine is concerned with healing and problems of ill health, the way in which various medical systems define good health has not been adequately studied. Moreover, good health as such is usually regarded as a natural, normative state of being even by most medical anthropologists, who otherwise take a critical, relativist perspective on the subject of illness, pain, and disease. Using the case of Ayurvedic medicine, this article shows that there is a very different way of looking at the question of how health is embodied. This perspective is proactive and concerned with overall fitness rather than reactive and primarily concerned with either illness or disease. The argument presented here therefore seeks to go beyond the limiting--although extremely useful--orientation of remedial health care and suggest a radical challenge to some of the most basic ontological assumptions in the cross-cultural comparative study of medical systems.

  15. Judgement and the role of the metaphysics of values in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Thornton, T

    2006-06-01

    Despite its authors' intentions, the four principles approach to medical ethics can become crudely algorithmic in practice. The first section sets out the bare bones of the four principles approach drawing out those aspects of Beauchamp and Childress's Principles of biomedical ethics that encourage this misreading. The second section argues that if the emphasis on the guidance of moral judgement is augmented by a particularist account of what disciplines it, then the danger can be reduced. In the third section, I consider how much the resultant picture diverges from Beauchamp and Childress's actual position.

  16. Physiology as the antechamber to metaphysics: the young William James's hope for a philosophical psychology.

    PubMed

    Croce, P J

    1999-11-01

    In the 5 years before 1878, when his career in psychology was becoming established, William James wrote a series of notes and reviews assessing the work of many of the pioneers in the new field. Adopting a public and confident voice, even while he was privately still uncertain and searching, James criticized the dogmatism of positivist and idealist claims to the study of the human brain and mind. In his short writings of 1873-1877, James started to formulate his own middle path. His first steps on that path show that he did not reject either scientific or philosophic inquiry; instead, he viewed scientific knowledge as a way to understand philosophical questions more deeply. Saving his sharpest critiques for positivism, James endorsed scientific investigation without materialist assmptions. While his career in psychology was still only a hope, James treated science as a means toward humanist insight.

  17. Metaphysics for an enlightened public: The controversy over monads in Germany, 1746-1748.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This essay analyzes the controversy that attended the prize essay question on monads proposed by the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1746. The controversy was first touched off by an anonymous pamphlet published by the mathematician Leonhard Euler, the academy's most well known member, that attacked the doctrine of monads. It peaked with the awarding of the prize to Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi, whose winning essay closely followed Euler's arguments. This essay discusses the controversy as one instance in a broader quarrel in the German academic community over the suitability of Christian Wolff's philosophy as the foundation for a broad range of academic disciplines, including natural philosophy. It also analyzes the controversy as displaying the central role of the periodical press in the emergent German public sphere.

  18. A metaphysics of living systems: the Yōga-Vāsistha view.

    PubMed

    Narasimha, Roddam

    2002-12-01

    The Yōga-Vāsistha is a rich and complex philosophical 'poem' (kāvya) of epic length, written in classical Sanskrit by an unknown author some time between the 6th and 13th centuries CE, probably around the 7th century. It is notable for its eloquent praise of self-effort and enquiry or analysis, and for its severe disparagement of the notion of fate. It views consciousness as (a) characterizing all living forms (including plant and insect life), (b) being atomic, and (c) analogous to the emergence of waves and whirlpools in water; it therefore grapples with what today would be called the problems of reductionism and emergentism. Notions of the survival of the fittest, and of a dynamic process of creation and loss, are expressed with characteristic force. The paper presents a selection of verses (in an English translation) setting forth these views, and a brief analysis of their implications.

  19. Constructing the principles: Method and metaphysics in the progress of theoretical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Lawrence C.

    This thesis presents a new framework for the philosophy of physics focused on methodological differences found in the practice of modern theoretical physics. The starting point for this investigation is the longstanding debate over scientific realism. Some philosophers have argued that it is the aim of science to produce an accurate description of the world including explanations for observable phenomena. These scientific realists hold that our best confirmed theories are approximately true and that the entities they propose actually populate the world, whether or not they have been observed. Others have argued that science achieves only frameworks for the prediction and manipulation of observable phenomena. These anti-realists argue that truth is a misleading concept when applied to empirical knowledge. Instead, focus should be on the empirical adequacy of scientific theories. This thesis argues that the fundamental distinction at issue, a division between true scientific theories and ones which are empirically adequate, is best explored in terms of methodological differences. In analogy with the realism debate, there are at least two methodological strategies. Rather than focusing on scientific theories as wholes, this thesis takes as units of analysis physical principles which are systematic empirical generalizations. The first possible strategy, the conservative, takes the assumption that the empirical adequacy of a theory in one domain serves as good evidence for such adequacy in other domains. This then motivates the application of the principle to new domains. The second strategy, the innovative, assumes that empirical adequacy in one domain does not justify the expectation of adequacy in other domains. New principles are offered as explanations in the new domain. The final part of the thesis is the application of this framework to two examples. On the first, Lorentz's use of the aether is reconstructed in terms of the conservative strategy with respect to the principles of Galilean relativity. A comparison between the conservative strategy as an application of the conservative strategy and TeVeS as one of the innovative constitutes the second example.

  20. On the reality of the incorporeal intelligibles: a reflection on the metaphysics of psychology.

    PubMed

    Bakan, D

    2001-10-01

    An argument is made for the existence of entities which are neither necessarily material nor mental as real and which are apprehensible and generatable by human beings. Money, color, triangle, natural and social law, instruction, danger, and invention are given as examples. It is the task of the science of psychology to grasp, conceptualise, and characterise the human being that lives in a world of incorporeal intelligibles and makes them as well. The tradition of Aristotle, Brentano and his two students, Freud and Husserl, and Wertheimer is identified favorably in this connection.

  1. Micromotion in the fracture healing of closed distal metaphyseal tibial fractures: A multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vicenti, G; Pesce, V; Tartaglia, N; Abate, A; Mori, C M; Moretti, B

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic locking screw (DLS) in association with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in a bridging construct for simple metadiaphyseal long bone fractures enables modulation of the rigidity of the system and facilitates the development of early and triplanar bone callus. Twenty patients affected by distal tibial fracture were treated with MIPO bridging technique and DLS at the proximal side of the fracture. Time of consolidation, quality of the reduction, complications and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score were monitored and the results compared with those from a control group treated with only standard screws on both fracture sides. Student t-test for independent samples was used for the comparison of means between the two groups. Chi-square test was used for the comparison of proportions. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed to assess the possible confounding effects. Performance was considered significant for p<0.05. The mean healing time was 17.6 ± 2.8 weeks in the group treated with standard screws and 13.5 ± 1.8 weeks in the group treated with DLS (t=5.5, p<0.0001). The DLS was associated with early healing and triplanar bone callus.

  2. Application of distal metaphyseal osteotomy for treatment of high intermetatarsal angle bunion deformities.

    PubMed

    Oloff, L M; Bocko, A P

    1998-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 10 patients (13 feet) with moderate to severe hallux valgus who underwent a chevron or modified chevron osteotomy with multiple adjunctive soft-tissue releases for surgical treatment. Radiographic and subjective results were evaluated with an average follow-up of 24 months (range, 10-41). Preoperative criteria included an intermetatarsal (IM) angle of greater than 16 degrees (average of 18.4 degrees) and painful hallux valgus deformity. Average preop hallux abductus was 35.4 degrees (range, 25 degrees-48 degrees). The average reduction in the actual IM angle was (-) 5.2 degrees with a relative IM correction of (-) 11.6 degrees. Average postoperative hallux abductus angle was 7.0 degrees (range, 0 degree-22 degrees). Subjectively, all patients were satisfied with their results and stated they would have the procedure again. No complications were noted in this patient population, including, infection, avascular necrosis, hallux varus, and recurrence of deformity. The chevron osteotomy was found to be successful in this population with high intermetatarsal angles when appropriate consideration was given to correction of soft-tissue-deforming forces and contractures.

  3. Invited commentary: meta-physical activity and the search for the truth.

    PubMed

    Arem, Hannah; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Matthews, Charles E

    2015-05-01

    Measurement error in self-reported data from questionnaires is a well-recognized challenge in studies of physical activity and health. In this issue of the Journal, Lim et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(9):648-655) used data from accelerometers in a small measurement study to correct self-reported physical activity data from a larger study of adults from New York City and to develop an error correction model. They showed that correction of measurement error in self-reported physical activity levels strengthened the associations of physical activity with both obesity and diabetes by 30%-50% compared with using the self-reported questionnaire data alone. Thus, Lim et al. demonstrated a method to improve potentially biased estimates of the association between self-reported physical activity and disease. However, as this field develops, we feel it is important to call attention to a sometimes overlooked problem that occurs when comparing these instruments: Questionnaires and accelerometers are often calibrated (i.e., designed) to measure different types of physical activity, and accelerometers are still subject to measurement error. Thus, physical activity estimates corrected with an imperfect accelerometer measurement might over- or undercorrect the strength of the associations. We take this opportunity to further comment on physical activity measurement in epidemiologic studies and the implications for research.

  4. Phenomenology as research method or substantive metaphysics? An overview of phenomenology's uses in nursing.

    PubMed

    Earle, Vicki

    2010-10-01

    In exploring phenomenological literature, it is evident that the term 'phenomenology' holds rather different meanings depending upon the context. Phenomenology has been described as both a philosophical movement and an approach to human science research. The phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty was philosophical in nature and not intended to provide rules or procedures for conducting research. The Canadian social scientist, van Manen, however, introduced specific guidelines for conducting human science research, which is rooted in hermeneutic phenomenology and this particular method has been employed in professional disciplines such as education, nursing, clinical psychology, and law. The purpose of this paper is to explore the difference between the phenomenological method as described by van Manen and that of other philosophers such as Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. In so doing, the author aims to address the blurred boundaries of phenomenology as a research method and as a philosophical movement and highlight the influence of these blurred boundaries on nursing knowledge development.

  5. On the Poverty of Philosophy: The Metaphysics of McLaren's "Revolutionary Critical Pedagogy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Scott Ellison examines a line of critical thought in educational theory that has unapologetically sought transcendence in the face contemporary social and political conditions. Under the banner of critical pedagogy, Peter McLaren sees this current period of globalization as representing a worldwide historical crisis requiring a…

  6. Physics and Metaphysics of Deterrence: The British Approach (Newport Paper, Number 8, December 1994)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    the nation’s armed forces. In the midst of these changes, the strategic calculus itself may be shifting. Jacques Attali , the French economist and... Attali , Millennium (New York: Random House, Inc., 1991) , p. 7. 299. The main proponent of the "declinist" thesis to explain hegemonic decline has

  7. Judgement and the role of the metaphysics of values in medical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, T

    2006-01-01

    Despite its authors' intentions, the four principles approach to medical ethics can become crudely algorithmic in practice. The first section sets out the bare bones of the four principles approach drawing out those aspects of Beauchamp and Childress's Principles of biomedical ethics that encourage this misreading. The second section argues that if the emphasis on the guidance of moral judgement is augmented by a particularist account of what disciplines it, then the danger can be reduced. In the third section, I consider how much the resultant picture diverges from Beauchamp and Childress's actual position. PMID:16731739

  8. Advertising, Desire, and the Unified Field: A Metaphysical Perspective on Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    Suggesting that ills said to be perpetrated by advertising are really attributes of a unified field of consciousness, this paper discusses the concept that advertising creates desire. The generally undisputed notion that advertising helps to create specific desires is distinguished from the criticism that advertising increases the level and…

  9. Caught By Our Dangling Paradigms: How Our Metaphysical Assumptions Influence Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Notions of intelligence and giftedness should keep pace with current knowledge of quantum physics and what is known abut the nature of reality. There are three perspectives as to the nature of reality. Materialistic monism views the universe as being made up of only matter and energy. Dualism views the universe as being made up of matter and…

  10. Metaphysics and Methods in Moral Enquiry and Education: Some Old Philosophical Wine for New Theoretical Bottles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, David

    2014-01-01

    If we reject sentimentalist accounts of the nature of moral motivation and education, then we may regard some form of reason as intrinsic to any genuine moral response. The large question for moral education is therefore that of the nature of such reason--perhaps more especially of its status as knowledge. In this regard, there is evidence of some…

  11. "Lekta" and Inner Form as Loci of Sense in Metaphysics of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyanda-Geller, Olga V.

    2012-01-01

    This project seeks to answer the question whether it is possible to locate sense in language. I suggest that two theories seemingly unrelated to each other, one belonging to Ancient thought, and the other to modern Continental philosophy, give positive answer to the question. I focus on the concepts of "lekton" and "inner form"…

  12. Listening to Children's Views of Spiritual and Metaphysical Concepts: A New Dimension to Educational Psychology Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersch, Irvine; Dowling, Fiona; Panagiotaki, Georgia; Potton, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Educational psychologists (EPs) have for many years been developing techniques for listening to children. The aim of the present research was to investigate ways of listening to the "spiritual" views of children in order to develop questions that educational psychologists might use as part of the assessment repertoire. The study explored…

  13. Energy, Metaphysics, and Space: Ernst Mach's Interpretation of Energy Conservation as the Principle of Causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzardi, Luca

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses Ernst Mach's interpretation of the principle of energy conservation (EC) in the context of the development of energy concepts and ideas about causality in nineteenth-century physics and theory of science. In doing this, it focuses on the close relationship between causality, energy conservation and space in Mach's antireductionist view of science. Mach expounds his thesis about EC in his first historical-epistemological essay, Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes von der Erhaltung der Arbeit (1872): far from being a new principle, it is used from the early beginnings of mechanics independently from other principles; in fact, EC is a pre-mechanical principle which is generally applied in investigating nature: it is, indeed, nothing but a form of the principle of causality. The paper focuses on the scientific-historical premises and philosophical underpinnings of Mach's thesis, beginning with the classic debate on the validity and limits of the notion of cause by Hume, Kant, and Helmholtz. Such reference also implies a discussion of the relationship between causality on the one hand and space and time on the other. This connection plays a major role for Mach, and in the final paragraphs its importance is argued in order to understand his antireductionist perspective, i.e. the rejection of any attempt to give an ultimate explanation of the world via reduction of nature to one fundamental set of phenomena.

  14. Exome Sequencing Identifies INPPL1 Mutations as a Cause of Opsismodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Céline; Faqeih, Eissa Ali; Bartholdi, Deborah; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Borochowitz, Zvi; Cavalcanti, Denise P.; Frigo, Amandine; Nitschke, Patrick; Roume, Joelle; Santos, Heloísa G.; Shalev, Stavit A.; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Le Merrer, Martine; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Opsismodysplasia (OPS) is a severe autosomal-recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by pre- and postnatal micromelia with extremely short hands and feet. The main radiological features are severe platyspondyly, squared metacarpals, delayed skeletal ossification, and metaphyseal cupping. In order to identify mutations causing OPS, a total of 16 cases (7 terminated pregnancies and 9 postnatal cases) from 10 unrelated families were included in this study. We performed exome sequencing in three cases from three unrelated families and only one gene was found to harbor mutations in all three cases: inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 (INPPL1). Screening INPPL1 in the remaining cases identified a total of 12 distinct INPPL1 mutations in the 10 families, present at the homozygote state in 7 consanguinous families and at the compound heterozygote state in the 3 remaining families. Most mutations (6/12) resulted in premature stop codons, 2/12 were splice site, and 4/12 were missense mutations located in the catalytic domain, 5-phosphatase. INPPL1 belongs to the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase family, a family of signal-modulating enzymes that govern a plethora of cellular functions by regulating the levels of specific phosphoinositides. Our finding of INPPL1 mutations in OPS, a severe spondylodysplastic dysplasia with major growth plate disorganization, supports a key and specific role of this enzyme in endochondral ossification. PMID:23273569

  15. Lentiviral-mediated RNAi inhibition of Sbds in murine hematopoietic progenitors impairs their hematopoietic potential

    PubMed Central

    Rawls, Amy S.; Gregory, Alyssa D.; Woloszynek, Jill R.; Liu, Fulu

    2007-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, multilineage hematopoietic dysfunction, and metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. Bone marrow dysfunction is present in nearly all patients with SDS, with neutropenia being the most common abnormality. The majority of patients with SDS have mutations in the Shwachman Bodian Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene. We have developed a strategy to examine the consequences of lentiviral-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of Sbds on hematopoiesis. Here, we report that both Sbds RNA and protein expression can be efficiently inhibited in primary murine hematopoietic cells using lentiviral-mediated RNAi. Inhibition of Sbds results in a defect in granulocytic differentiation in vitro and impairs myeloid progenitor generation in vivo. In addition, short-term hematopoietic engraftment was impaired, which is due in part to reduced homing of hematopoietic progenitors to the bone marrow. Finally, we show that inhibition of Sbds is associated with a decrease in circulating B lymphocytes, despite evidence of normal B lymphopoiesis. These data provide the first evidence that loss of Sbds is sufficient to induce abnormalities in hematopoiesis. PMID:17638857

  16. Establishing a Democratic Religion: Metaphysics and Democracy in the Debates over the President's Commission on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Ethan

    2007-01-01

    World War II stands as a defining moment for American higher education. During the crisis of international relations that existed by the late 1930s, American thinkers of various stripes felt compelled to mobilize the country's intellectual and educational resources in defense of democracy, thus creating "a great ideological revival of democracy…

  17. Experimental metaphysics2 : The double standard in the quantum-information approach to the foundations of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagar, Amit

    Among the alternatives of non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM) there are those that give different predictions than quantum mechanics in yet-untested circumstances, while remaining compatible with current empirical findings. In order to test these predictions, one must isolate one's system from environmental induced decoherence, which, on the standard view of NRQM, is the dynamical mechanism that is responsible for the 'apparent' collapse in open quantum systems. But while recent advances in condensed-matter physics may lead in the near future to experimental setups that will allow one to test the two hypotheses, namely genuine collapse vs. decoherence, hence make progress toward a solution to the quantum measurement problem, those philosophers and physicists who are advocating an information-theoretic approach to the foundations of quantum mechanics are still unwilling to acknowledge the empirical character of the issue at stake. Here I argue that in doing so they are displaying an unwarranted double standard.

  18. The deep metaphysics of quantum gravity: The seventeenth century legacy and an alternative ontology beyond substantivalism and relationism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, Edward

    2013-11-01

    This essay presents an alternative to contemporary substantivalist and relationist interpretations of quantum gravity hypotheses by means of an historical comparison with the ontology of space in the seventeenth century. Utilizing differences in the spatial geometry between the foundational theory and the theory derived from the foundational, in conjunction with nominalism and platonism, it will be argued that there are crucial similarities between seventeenth century and contemporary theories of space, and that these similarities reveal a host of underlying conceptual issues that the substantival/relational dichotomy fails to distinguish.

  19. Un-thought out metaphysics in analytical psychology: a critique of Jung's epistemological basis for psychic reality.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Robin McCoy

    2011-09-01

    The author investigates the relation of Kant, Schopenhauer and Heidegger to Jung's attempts to formulate theory regarding the epistemological conundrum of what can and what cannot be known and what must remain uncertain. Jung's ambivalent use and misuse of Kant's division of the world into phenomenal and noumenal realms is highlighted in discussion of concepts such as the psychoid archetype which he called 'esse in anima' and his use of Schopenhauer's concept of 'will' to justify a transcendence of the psyche/soma divide in a postulation of a 'psychoid' realm. Finally, the author describes Jung's reaction to Heidegger's theories via his assertion that Heidegger's 'pre-given world design' was an alternate formulation of his concept of the archetypes. An underlying theme of the paper is a critique of Jung's foundationalism which perpetuates the myth of an isolated mind. This model of understanding subjectivity is briefly contrasted with Heidegger's 'fundamental ontology' which focuses on a non-Cartesian 'understanding' of the 'presencing of being' in everyday social and historical contexts.

  20. Nonunion in a distal radius metaphyseal fracture in a child: Role of intact periosteal sleeve in management

    PubMed Central

    Sivashanmugam, Raju; Vijay, Sriram; Balakumar, Balasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    We present an adolescent with distal radius nonunion following an open fracture and failed surgery which eventually united when the length and stability was restored for eight weeks duration. The intact periosteal sleeve at the nonunion site formed new bone when its tension was restored by gradual differential distraction. This case report highlights the possibility of stimulating bony union in an established atrophic nonunion by distracting the minimally disturbed soft tissue and thick osteogenic periosteal envelope in the paediatric age group. PMID:25593362

  1. Finding the Right Kind of Awe and Wonder: The Metaphysical Potential of Religion to Ground an Environmental Ethic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that an anthropocentric fallacy permeates thinking within both technological and ecological approaches to environmentalism. In consequence, sustainable development is an incoherent concept through the weakness of its anthropocentric ethical grounding. Using the Judaeo-Christian tradition as an example, this paper examines the…

  2. Sibs with mental retardation, supraorbital sclerosis, and metaphyseal dysplasia: frontometaphyseal dysplasia, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, or a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, W; Hall, C M; Dillon, M J; Baraitser, M

    1991-01-01

    A brother and sister are presented with unusual facies, bilateral mixed hearing loss, mental retardation, and widespread radiological abnormalities. The clinical and radiological evidence for and against the two most likely diagnoses of frontometaphyseal dysplasia and craniometaphyseal dysplasia is considered. Images PMID:1956063

  3. Energy, Metaphysics, and Space: Ernst Mach's Interpretation of Energy Conservation as the Principle of Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzardi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Ernst Mach's interpretation of the principle of energy conservation (EC) in the context of the development of energy concepts and ideas about causality in nineteenth-century physics and theory of science. In doing this, it focuses on the close relationship between causality, energy conservation and space in Mach's…

  4. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D

    2002-12-01

    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  5. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: first molecular diagnosis in a Brazilian child.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cresio; Fernandes, Julia Constança; Sampaio, Silvana; Paiva, Raquel de Melo Alves; Calado, Rodrigo Tocantins

    2013-01-01

    Herein the first molecular diagnosis of a Brazilian child with Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome is reported. A 6-year-old boy was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis at the age of 15 months due to recurrent respiratory infections, diarrhea and therapeutic response to pancreatic enzymes. Three sweat tests were negative. At the age of 5 years, he began to experience pain in the lower limbs, laxity of joints, lameness and frequent falls. A radiological study revealed metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. A complete blood cell count showed leukopenia (leukocytes: 3.1-3.5 x 10(3)/µL), neutropenia (segmented neutrophils: 15-22%), but normal hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count. A molecular study revealed biallelic mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome gene (183-184TA-CT K62X in exon 2 and a 258+2T-C transition) confirming the diagnosis of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome. A non-pathologic, silent nucleotide A to G transition at position 201 was also found in heterozygosis in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome gene. This is the first report to describe a Brazilian child with molecular diagnosis of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, intermittent or persistent neutropenia and skeletal changes. Other characteristics include immune system, hepatic and cardiac changes and predisposition to leukemia. Recurrent bacterial, viral and fungal infections are common. The possibility of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome should be kept in mind when investigating children with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and normal sweat tests.

  6. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: first molecular diagnosis in a Brazilian child

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Cresio; Fernandes, Julia Constança; Sampaio, Silvana; Paiva, Raquel de Melo Alves; Calado, Rodrigo Tocantins

    2013-01-01

    Herein the first molecular diagnosis of a Brazilian child with Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome is reported. A 6-year-old boy was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis at the age of 15 months due to recurrent respiratory infections, diarrhea and therapeutic response to pancreatic enzymes. Three sweat tests were negative. At the age of 5 years, he began to experience pain in the lower limbs, laxity of joints, lameness and frequent falls. A radiological study revealed metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. A complete blood cell count showed leukopenia (leukocytes: 3.1-3.5 x 103/µL), neutropenia (segmented neutrophils: 15-22%), but normal hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count. A molecular study revealed biallelic mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome gene (183-184TA-CT K62X in exon 2 and a 258+2T-C transition) confirming the diagnosis of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome. A non-pathologic, silent nucleotide A to G transition at position 201 was also found in heterozygosis in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome gene. This is the first report to describe a Brazilian child with molecular diagnosis of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, intermittent or persistent neutropenia and skeletal changes. Other characteristics include immune system, hepatic and cardiac changes and predisposition to leukemia. Recurrent bacterial, viral and fungal infections are common. The possibility of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome should be kept in mind when investigating children with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and normal sweat tests. PMID:24106450

  7. IGF-I Signaling in Osterix-Expressing Cells Regulates Secondary Ossification Center Formation, Growth Plate Maturation, and Metaphyseal Formation During Postnatal Bone Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongmei; Menendez, Alicia; Fong, Chak; ElAlieh, Hashem Z; Kubota, Takuo; Long, Roger; Bikle, Daniel D

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the role of IGF-I signaling in osterix (OSX)-expressing cells in the skeleton, we generated IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) knockout mice ((OSX)IGF-IRKO) (floxed-IGF-IR mice × OSX promoter-driven GFP-labeled cre-recombinase [(OSX)GFPcre]), and monitored postnatal bone development. At day 2 after birth (P2), (OSX)GFP-cre was highly expressed in the osteoblasts in the bone surface of the metaphysis and in the prehypertrophic chondrocytes (PHCs) and inner layer of perichondral cells (IPCs). From P7, (OSX)GFP-cre was highly expressed in PHCs, IPCs, cartilage canals (CCs), and osteoblasts (OBs) in the epiphyseal secondary ossification center (SOC), but was only slightly expressed in the OBs in the metaphysis. Compared with the control mice, the IPC proliferation was decreased in the (OSX)IGF-IRKOs. In these mice, fewer IPCs invaded into the cartilage, resulting in delayed formation of the CC and SOC. Immunohistochemistry indicated a reduction of vessel number and lower expression of VEGF and ephrin B2 in the IPCs and SOC of (OSX)IGF-IRKOs. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the mRNA levels of the matrix degradation markers, MMP-9, 13 and 14, were decreased in the (OSX)IGF-IRKOs compared with the controls. The (OSX)IGF-IRKO also showed irregular morphology of the growth plate and less trabecular bone in the tibia and femur from P7 to 7 weeks, accompanied by decreased chondrocyte proliferation, altered chondrocyte differentiation, and decreased osteoblast differentiation. Our data indicate that during postnatal bone development, IGF-I signaling in OSX-expressing IPCs promotes IPC proliferation and cartilage matrix degradation and increases ephrin B2 production to stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and vascularization. These processes are required for normal CC formation in the establishment of the SOC. Moreover, IGF-I signaling in the OSX-expressing PHC is required for growth plate maturation and osteoblast differentiation in the development of the metaphysis.

  8. Modified metaphyseal-loading anterolaterally flared anatomic femoral stem: five- to nine-year prospective follow-up evaluation and results of three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Yasuo; Uchida, Kenzo; Oki, Hisashi; Negoro, Kohei; Nagamune, Kouki; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Takeno, Kenichi; Yayama, Takafumi; Nakajima, Hideaki; Sugita, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ai; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have designed a proximal-fitting, anterolaterally flared, arc-deposit hydroxyapatite-coated anatomical femoral stem (FMS-anatomic stem; KYOCERA Medical, Osaka, Japan) for cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) for Japanese patients with dysplastic hip osteoarthritis, using a nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis simulating loading conditions. The Anatomic Fit stem was modified in the region of the arc-sprayed surface, to allow more proximal appearance of spot welds. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent THA using this stem. We reviewed 73 consecutive patients (79 hips; 13 men 16 hips; 60 women 63 hips; age at surgery, 57.6 years, range, 35-78) who underwent cementless THA using the Anatomic Fit stem, at a follow-up period of 7.1 years (range, 5.1-9.4). Harris Hip score improved from 40.7 ± 17.1 before surgery to 91.0 ± 5.2 points at follow-up. The 7.1-year stem survival rate was 100%. Radiographs at follow-up confirmed the stability of the femoral stems within the femoral canal in all cases, with sufficient bone ingrowth. None of the patients had subsidence of the stem exceeding 2.0 mm within the femoral canal or changes in varus or valgus position of more than 2.0°. The Anatomic Fit stem provided excellent results. The nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis demonstrated that the stem-bone relative motion was 10 µm at the proximal end of the stem and proximal load transfer. Our analysis confirmed reduced radiolucency around the stem, minimal subsidence, appropriate stress shielding, and promising medium-term stability within the femoral canal.

  9. Bone remodeling after total hip arthroplasty with a short stemmed metaphyseal loading implant: finite element analysis validated by a prospective DEXA investigation.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Matthias; Kurtz, Agnes; Stukenborg-Colsman, Christina; Nolte, Ingo; Weigel, Nelly; Bouguecha, Anas; Behrens, Bernd A

    2012-11-01

    In total hip arthroplasty (THA), short stemmed cementless implants are used because they are thought to stimulate physiological bone remodeling and reduce stress shielding. We performed a numerical investigation on bone remodeling after implantation of a specific short stemmed implant using finite element analysis (FEA). Overall bone mass loss was 2.8% in the entire femur. Bone mass decrease was mostly found in the proximal part of the calcar and in the greater trochanter due to the vast cross section of the implant, probably leading to stress shielding. In the diaphysis, no change in the apparent bone density was proven. The assumptions made agreed well with bone remodeling data from THA recipients who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. However, the clinical investigation revealed a bone mass increase in the minor trochanter region that was less pronounced in the FEA. Further comparisons to other stem designs must be done to verify if the relative advantages of the investigated implant can be accepted.

  10. Memories in photography and rebirth: toward a psychosocial therapy of the metaphysics of reincarnation among traditional Esan people of Southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukpokolo, Isaac E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that beyond the need for the justification of the belief in reincarnation, beyond the quest for evidences to prove its reality or otherwise, the idea of rebirth has a pragmatic role in the cultures where it is held. Using the theorization of rebirth among the Esan people of southern Nigeria as a pilot, it asserts that the idea of rebirth plays a psychosocial, therapeutic function of comfort and healing for those traumatized by the death of a loved one. This, it shall be seen, is similar to, even more reliable than, the role of photography in preserving cherished memories. The article does not, therefore, mean to join issues in the myth-reality or truth-falsehood debate on rebirth among scholars but attempts to establish the role of reincarnation, like photography, in bringing the past into the present.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Zellweger spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... a large space between the bones of the skull (fontanels) and characteristic bone spots known as chondrodysplasia ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... new recessive type of SED with progressive spinal involvement. Am J Med Genet A. 2004 May 1; ... results in severe human chondrodysplasia with progressive spinal involvement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Schwartz-Jampel syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyelids (blepharospasm). Chondrodysplasia affects the development of the skeleton, particularly the long bones in the arms and ... flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development. Most cartilage is later converted ...

  14. Raine syndrome: expanding the radiological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Koob, Mériam; Doray, Bérénice; Fradin, Mélanie; Astruc, Dominique; Dietemann, Jean-Louis

    2011-03-01

    We describe ante- and postnatal imaging of a 1-year-old otherwise healthy girl with Raine syndrome. She presented with neonatal respiratory distress related to a pyriform aperture stenosis, which was diagnosed on CT. Signs of chondrodysplasia punctata, sagittal vertebral clefting and intervertebral disc and renal calcifications were also found on imaging. This new case confirms that Raine syndrome is not always lethal. The overlapping imaging signs with chondrodysplasia punctata and the disseminated calcifications give new insights into its pathophysiology.

  15. SPERM RNA AMPLIFICATION FOR GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING BY DNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm RNA Amplification for Gene Expression Profiling by DNA Microarray Technology
    Hongzu Ren, Kary E. Thompson, Judith E. Schmid and David J. Dix, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triang...

  16. Patients' 'thingification', unexplained symptoms and response-ability in the clinical context: in response to 'Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and the metaphysical care', by Alexandra Parvan.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Thor Eirik; Kirkengen, Anna Luise

    2016-08-01

    The types of diseases, or categories of suffering, referred to as medically unexplained symptoms or syndromes (MUS) are the focus for the following commentary. Such cases seem to invite reflection. The very nature of such complex patterns of disease and suffering raises a number of fundamental epistemological and ontological issues. Furthermore, such health challenges can serve as the basis for an exploration of how the suffering person as well as the medical caretaker comes to grip with disease, incapacitation or suffering. We have structured our comments into two parts: first, we will describe medically unexplained health problems as the background for an inquiry into a process wherein patients reify their suffering in order to meet their doctors on equal terms, which carries a potential for alienation. Second, we will reflect on Alexandra Parvan's text as regards patients' 'substantialization' of their disease, the resulting 'hybrid symptom' and a proposed model for care and healing.

  17. [Achondrogenesis. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Coulon, G; Menget, A; Pageaut, G

    1979-01-01

    The authors report a new case of achondrogenesis, the study of which is principally directed towards the histopathological examination of the conjugal cartilage. A brief review of the literature recalls the main clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of this fatal chondrodysplasia transmitted by an autosomal recessive means. In addition to other features, it reveals the difficulty which may be experienced in differentiating between the two types (I and II). Finally, the differential diagnosis is briefly assessed, the problem being the elimination of other non-transmissible chondrodysplasias, in particular thanatophoric dwarfism, for the purpose of appropriate genetic counselling.

  18. Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome in siblings: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Gokulraj, Sabitha; Mohan, N.; Raj, J. Babususai; Ahamed, S. Yasmeen; Arokiaraj, C. J. Stephen; Subbulakshmi, A. Cicilia

    2016-01-01

    Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome or chondroectodermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder presenting several skeletal manifestations and congenital heart malformations. Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome comprises of a tetrad of clinical manifestations of chondrodysplasia, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cardiac defects. Here, we are presenting a very rare case of Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome in siblings. PMID:27829775

  19. A new case of fibrochondrogenesis from Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Frías, M L; García, A; Cuevas, J; Rodríguez, J I; Urioste, M

    1996-01-01

    A rare, neonatally lethal chondrodysplasia with histological characteristics was first described in 1978 and the authors named the condition fibrochondrogenesis. Here we report the eighth published case of fibrochondrogenesis. This was identified in a population of 1,158,067 consecutive livebirths, so we can assume that this figure should be the minimal prevalence for livebirths. Images PMID:8733059

  20. Adapting Clausewitz to the Information Age: How Traditional News Media and Social Networking are Combining to Expand the Triangle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    utilized. 2 In this example, the metaphysical tendencies—passion, chance, rationale calculus— find their representations in the interconnected and...error is clearly demonstrated in his graphic portrayal of “squaring the triangle.” On each side of his triangle is placed a tendency of the metaphysical ...elaborate, each of the aspects works because of its nature as a physical actor, giving the metaphysical tendencies that comprise Clausewitz‟s trinity form

  1. Crystal plasticity investigation of the microstructural factors influencing dislocation channeling in a model irradiated bcc material

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Anirban; McDowell, David L.

    2016-03-25

    We use a continuum crystal plasticity framework to study the effect of microstructure and mesoscopic factors on dislocation channeling and flow localization in an irradiated model bcc alloy. For simulated dislocation channeling characteristics we correlate the dislocation and defect densities in the substructure, local Schmid factor, and stress triaxiality, in terms of their temporal and spatial evolution. A metric is introduced to assess the propensity for localization and is correlated to the grain-level Schmid factor. We also found that localization generally takes place in grains with a local Schmid factor in the range 0.42 or higher. Surface slip step heights are computed at free surfaces and compared to relevant experiments.

  2. Plastic anisotropy and dislocation trajectory in BCC metals

    PubMed Central

    Dezerald, Lucile; Rodney, David; Clouet, Emmanuel; Ventelon, Lisa; Willaime, François

    2016-01-01

    Plasticity in body-centred cubic (BCC) metals at low temperatures is atypical, marked in particular by an anisotropic elastic limit in clear violation of the famous Schmid law applicable to most other metals. This effect is known to originate from the behaviour of the screw dislocations; however, the underlying physics has so far remained insufficiently understood to predict plastic anisotropy without adjustable parameters. Here we show that deviations from the Schmid law can be quantified from the deviations of the screw dislocation trajectory away from a straight path between equilibrium configurations, a consequence of the asymmetrical and metal-dependent potential energy landscape of the dislocation. We propose a modified parameter-free Schmid law, based on a projection of the applied stress on the curved trajectory, which compares well with experimental variations and first-principles calculations of the dislocation Peierls stress as a function of crystal orientation. PMID:27221965

  3. Plastic anisotropy and dislocation trajectory in BCC metals.

    PubMed

    Dezerald, Lucile; Rodney, David; Clouet, Emmanuel; Ventelon, Lisa; Willaime, François

    2016-05-25

    Plasticity in body-centred cubic (BCC) metals at low temperatures is atypical, marked in particular by an anisotropic elastic limit in clear violation of the famous Schmid law applicable to most other metals. This effect is known to originate from the behaviour of the screw dislocations; however, the underlying physics has so far remained insufficiently understood to predict plastic anisotropy without adjustable parameters. Here we show that deviations from the Schmid law can be quantified from the deviations of the screw dislocation trajectory away from a straight path between equilibrium configurations, a consequence of the asymmetrical and metal-dependent potential energy landscape of the dislocation. We propose a modified parameter-free Schmid law, based on a projection of the applied stress on the curved trajectory, which compares well with experimental variations and first-principles calculations of the dislocation Peierls stress as a function of crystal orientation.

  4. Plastic anisotropy and dislocation trajectory in BCC metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezerald, Lucile; Rodney, David; Clouet, Emmanuel; Ventelon, Lisa; Willaime, François

    2016-05-01

    Plasticity in body-centred cubic (BCC) metals at low temperatures is atypical, marked in particular by an anisotropic elastic limit in clear violation of the famous Schmid law applicable to most other metals. This effect is known to originate from the behaviour of the screw dislocations; however, the underlying physics has so far remained insufficiently understood to predict plastic anisotropy without adjustable parameters. Here we show that deviations from the Schmid law can be quantified from the deviations of the screw dislocation trajectory away from a straight path between equilibrium configurations, a consequence of the asymmetrical and metal-dependent potential energy landscape of the dislocation. We propose a modified parameter-free Schmid law, based on a projection of the applied stress on the curved trajectory, which compares well with experimental variations and first-principles calculations of the dislocation Peierls stress as a function of crystal orientation.

  5. Crystal plasticity investigation of the microstructural factors influencing dislocation channeling in a model irradiated bcc material

    DOE PAGES

    Patra, Anirban; McDowell, David L.

    2016-03-25

    We use a continuum crystal plasticity framework to study the effect of microstructure and mesoscopic factors on dislocation channeling and flow localization in an irradiated model bcc alloy. For simulated dislocation channeling characteristics we correlate the dislocation and defect densities in the substructure, local Schmid factor, and stress triaxiality, in terms of their temporal and spatial evolution. A metric is introduced to assess the propensity for localization and is correlated to the grain-level Schmid factor. We also found that localization generally takes place in grains with a local Schmid factor in the range 0.42 or higher. Surface slip step heightsmore » are computed at free surfaces and compared to relevant experiments.« less

  6. The Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with quantum impurity revisited: Critical line and phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taejin

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the (1 + 1) dimensional field theoretical model, which describes the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL), interacting with a static impurity at the origin of the half line. Applying the Fermi-Bose equivalence and finite conformal transformations only, we map the model onto the Schmid model. Some details of the bosonization procedure have been given. The critical line and the phase diagram of the model follow from the renormalization group analysis of the Schmid model. The obtained critical line of the model is a hyperbola in the parameter space of the two couplings of the TLL.

  7. A review of the genus Metalype Klapálek, with descriptions of three new species from China (Trichoptera, Psychomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shuang; Morse, John C.; Yan, Yun-jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Metalype from China, Metalype hubeiensis Qiu & Morse, sp. n., Metalype shexianensis Qiu & Morse, sp. n., and Metalype truncata Qiu & Morse, sp. n., are described and illustrated. Metalype uncatissima (Botosaneanu, 1970) is reported from China for the first time. The differences between genus Metalype and genus Psychomyia are discussed and four Psychomyia species are transferred to Metalype: Metalype holzenthali (Schmid, 1997); Metalype klapaleki (Malicky, 1995a); Metalype kumari (Schmid, 1997); and Metalype nithaiah (Malicky, 2014). A key to the males of Metalype species of the world is provided. PMID:28331400

  8. Drug Development of the Antimalarial Agent Artemisinin: Total Synthesis, Analog Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-15

    ozonolysis, cleavage of the olefin unit would be anticiopated. Thus, a roundabout method was employed wherein the enolate of the nor-analog 42 was... Schmid , G.; and Hofheinz.W. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 1983,105, 624. 5. Xu, X.; Zhu, J.; Huang, D.; and Zhou, W. Tetrahedron, 1986,42, 818. 6. A very, M...29. Vitorelli, P.; Winkler, T.; Hansen, H.; and Schmid , H. Helv. Chim. Acta, 1968,51, 1457; see also Rhoads, S.; and Raulins, R. Organic Reactions

  9. George Eliot and Ford Madox Ford: "Philosophical Readings."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud-Drinkwater, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Argues that some of the works of major British writers may be read as propounding simple but important views on metaphysics of the self. Contends that the work of the British Empiricists cut the ground out from under the metaphysics of Descartes, and the world subsequently came to be regarded as a flux of impressions. Reflects on the relationship…

  10. A Manifesto for Instructional Technology: Hyperpedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwight, Jim; Garrison, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Calls for digital technology in education to embrace forms of pedagogy appropriate for hypertext, challenging western metaphysics and relying on the philosophy of John Dewey to propose an alternative. The paper reviews dominant models of curriculum, especially Ralph Tyler's, revealing their concealed metaphysical assumptions; shows that the…

  11. The Sound of Violets: The Ethnographic Potency of Poetry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Saunders, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes the form of a dialogue between the two authors, and is in two halves, the first half discursive and propositional, and the second half exemplifying the rhetorical, epistemological and metaphysical affordances of poetry in critically scrutinising the rhetoric, epistemology and metaphysics of educational management discourse. The…

  12. On the Nature of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninnes, L. E.

    It is difficult to give a precise meaning to the term "concept" because to specify any sense to the term is already to be using concepts. It is impossible to talk about concepts without at the same time having made epistemological and metaphysical commitments. If the epistemological and metaphysical commitments are inadequate, then the…

  13. The (Even) Bolder Model: The Clinical Psychologist as Metaphysician-Scientist-Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donohue, William

    1989-01-01

    Examines the roles of metaphysics in science and psychotherapy. Examines the views of Karl Popper and Imre Lakatos. Concludes that psychotherapy involves metaphysics in the following ways: (1) problem choice; (2) research and therapy design; (3) observation statements; (4) resolving the Duhemian problem; and (5) including anomalous results in…

  14. Arthroscopic visualization during excision of a central physeal bar.

    PubMed

    Stricker, S

    1992-01-01

    A centrally located developmental physeal bar in the proximal tibia was removed via a metaphyseal window. The use of an arthroscope to assist in the complete removal of the bone bridge is described. The arthroscope improved visualization and allowed reduction in the size of the metaphyseal window. At 2-year follow-up, the growth plate showed no evidence of bar reformation.

  15. Looking for the Hype in Hypertext: An Essay Deconstructing Pedagogical Assumptions Associated with Online Learning and Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwight, Jim

    This paper aims to debunk the metaphysics of presence informing modernist pedagogical assumptions. Systematic instructional design, predicated on teleological and eschatological modern metaphysics, superordinates designers' goals at the expense of learners. Tracing structuralist pedagogical theory to Bobbitt (1997) and Tyler (1949), one can…

  16. Therapeutics Targeting FGF Signaling Network in Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masaru

    2016-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling through its receptors, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, or FGFR4, regulates cell fate, angiogenesis, immunity, and metabolism. Dysregulated FGF signaling causes human diseases, such as breast cancer, chondrodysplasia, gastric cancer, lung cancer, and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Recombinant FGFs are pro-FGF signaling therapeutics for tissue and/or wound repair, whereas FGF analogs and gene therapy are under development for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoarthritis. FGF traps, anti-FGF/FGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and small-molecule FGFR inhibitors are anti-FGF signaling therapeutics under development for the treatment of cancer, chondrodysplasia, and rickets. Here, I discuss the benefit-risk and cost-effectiveness issues of precision medicine targeting FGFRs, ALK, EGFR, and FLT3. FGFR-targeted therapy should be optimized for cancer treatment, focusing on genomic tests and recurrence.

  17. [Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis. Two successive cases in the same family].

    PubMed

    Boudier, E; Zurlinden, B; Cour, A; Rognon, M; Devalland-Monnin, C; Nirhy-Lanto, A; el Khadissi, H

    1991-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a rare case of fetal skeletal dysplasia. Achondrogenesis in lethal. That is a autosomal recessive fetal skeletal dysplasia. There is a very important dwarfism with extreme micromely, macrocephalia and brevity of chest. The authors enumerate the echographics, radiologics and histologics symptoms of this chondro-dysplasia. The authors comment rapidly the others diagnosis of lethal fetal skeletal dysplasia. Genetic consul is a necessity.

  18. [Achondrogenesis. Ultrasonic diagnosis and clinical and anatomopathologic comparison].

    PubMed

    Mandjee, D; Clément, F; Belin, M; Harter, S; Clamaran, E

    1991-05-01

    The authors report two cases of achondrogenesis, the first of which was diagnosed in utero. Ultrasonographic abnormalities suggested the diagnosis, which was confirmed radiographically. The diagnosis of achondrogenesis in utero made it possible to avoid a Cesarian. It is always difficult to extract the malformed fetus. The histopathology findings make it possible to codify this rare type of congenital and lethal chondrodysplasia. Achondrogenesis is probably inherited in a recessive and autosomic fashion.

  19. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Alves-Pereira, Daniela; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2009-07-01

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is a genetic disorder that was first described by Richard Ellis and Simon van Creveld in 1940. The four principal characteristics are chondrodysplasia, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and congenital heart defects. The orofacial manifestations include multiple gingivolabial musculofibrous fraenula, dental anomalies, hypodontia and malocclusion. The disease can be diagnosed at any age, even during pregnancy. The differentiation should be made between Jeune syndrome and other orofaciodigital syndromes.

  20. An Exploration of Genetic "g:" Hierarchical Factor Analysis of Cognitive Data from the Western Reserve Twin Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Dasen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Hierarchical factor analyses involving Schmid-Leiman transformations were conducted on specific cognitive abilities data collected from 148 identical and 135 fraternal twin pairs from the Western Reserve Twin Project. Model fitting results reflect genetic influences on specific abilities and suggest that environmental influences are less…

  1. An Exploratory Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Watkins, Marley W.; Brogan, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) using rigorous exploratory factor analytic and factor extraction procedures. The results of this study indicate that the RIAS is a single factor test. Despite these results, higher order factor analysis using the Schmid-Leiman procedure indicates…

  2. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: Scale Reduction via Exploratory Bifactor Modeling of the Broad Anxiety Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Reise, Steven P.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Ale, Chelsea; Regan, Jennifer; Young, John; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Weisz, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based (N = 1,060) and clinic-referred (N = 303) youth sample, the authors developed a 25-item shortened version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) using Schmid-Leiman exploratory bifactor analysis to reduce client burden and administration time and thus improve the transportability characteristics of this…

  3. INHIBITION OF NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION BY THE WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS DICHLORO-, DIBROMO-, AND BROMOCHLORO-ACETIC ACID.

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITION OF NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION BY THE WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS DICHLORO-, DIBROMO- AND BROMOCHLORO-ACETIC ACID. JE Andrews, H Nichols, J Schmid 1, and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, 1Research Support Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    ...

  4. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  5. RNA PROFILES OF EJACULATED HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    RNA Profiles of Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa

    Kary E. Thompson, Wenjun Bao, Sally D. Perreault, Hongzu Ren, John C. Rockett, Judith E. Schmid, Lillian F. Strader, David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory...

  6. First Language Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Monika S.

    2016-01-01

    Language attrition research has developed in several clearly delimited phases spanning, roughly, each of the three decades between 1982 and 2012 (see Kopke & Schmid 2004 for a more detailed overview and analysis). The first phase was an era of stocktaking, with a number of symposia, collected volumes and special issues of journals. All of…

  7. A DATABASE FOR TRACKING TOXICOGENOMIC SAMPLES AND PROCEDURES WITH GENOMIC, PROTEOMIC AND METABONOMIC COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Database for Tracking Toxicogenomic Samples and Procedures with Genomic, Proteomic and Metabonomic Components
    Wenjun Bao1, Jennifer Fostel2, Michael D. Waters2, B. Alex Merrick2, Drew Ekman3, Mitchell Kostich4, Judith Schmid1, David Dix1
    Office of Research and Developmen...

  8. 75 FR 76704 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 13307, 13544, and 14586

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... given that NMFS has issued a permit and two permit modifications to take sea turtles and marine mammals... turtles and marine mammals had been submitted by Jeanette Wyneken, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton... Jeffrey Schmid, PhD, Conservancy of Southwest Florida, Naples, FL, for sea turtle research. On April...

  9. GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE. MB Rosen, VS Wilson, JE Schmid, and LE Gray Jr. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC.

    Vinclozolin (Vi) and procymidone (Pr) are antiandrogenic fungicides. While changes in gene expr...

  10. Hierarchical Factoring Based On Image Analysis And Orthoblique Rotations.

    PubMed

    Stankov, L

    1979-07-01

    The procedure for hierarchical factoring suggested by Schmid and Leiman (1957) is applied within the framework of image analysis and orthoblique rotational procedures. It is shown that this approach necessarily leads to correlated higher order factors. Also, one can obtain a smaller number of factors than produced by typical hierarchical procedures.

  11. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical…

  12. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES OF MOUSE EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transcriptional responses of mouse embryo cultures exposed to bromochloroacetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductive Tox...

  13. GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF CD-1 DAY-8 EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLORO ACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression patterns of CD-1 day-8 embryo cultures exposed to bromochloro acetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductiv...

  14. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES AND FUTURE DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Environmental Exposures and Future Disease States

    John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Hongzu Ren, Judith E. Schmid, Jessica Stapelfeldt, Lillian F. Strader, Kary E. Thompson, Douglas B. T...

  15. Research as Pedagogy: Using Experimental Data Collection as a Course Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Virginia; Booke, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Integrating research in the classroom experience is recognized as potentially important in enhancing student learning (Price 2001; Schmid 1992). This article asks if student integration as research subjects augments their learning about political science. A quasi-experimental project focused on media usage, construction, and influences on the…

  16. ALTERED TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES OF MOUSE EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BISINDOLYLMALEIMIDE (BIS L)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altered transcriptional responses in mouse embryos exposed to bisindolylmaleimide I (Bis I) in whole embryo culture

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid*, Maria R. Blanton*and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ...

  17. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN TESTIS AND LIVER OF MICE TO IDENTIFY MODES OF ACTION OF CONAZOLE TOXICITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene Expression Profiling in Testis and Liver of Mice to Identify MODES OF ACTION OF Conazole TOXICITies

    Amber K. Goetz1, Wenjun Bao2, Judith E. Schmid2, Carmen Wood2, Hongzu Ren2, Deborah S. Best2, Rachel N. Murrell1, John C. Rockett2, Michael G. Narotsky2, Douglas C. Wol...

  18. EXPRESSION OF AHR AND ARNT MRNA IN CULTURED HUMAN ENDOMETRIAL EXPLANTS EXPOSED TO TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expression of AhR and ARNT mRNA in cultured human endometrial explants exposed to TCDD.

    Pitt JA, Feng L, Abbott BD, Schmid J, Batt RE, Costich TG, Koury ST, Bofinger DP.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Endom...

  19. DNA ARRAYS TO MONITOR GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT BLOOD AND UTERUS FOLLOWING 17-BETA-ESTRADIOL EXPOSURE: BIOMONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS USING SURROGATE TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA arrays to monitor gene expression in rat blood and uterus following 17-b-estradiol exposure - biomonitoring environmental effects using surrogate tissues
    John C. Rockett, Robert J. Kavlock, Christy R. Lambright, Louise G. Parks, Judith E. Schmid, Vickie S. Wilson, Carmen W...

  20. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF ACCESSIBLE SURROGATE TISSUES TO MONITOR MOLECULAR CHANGES IN INACCESSIBLE TARGET TISSUES FOLLOWING TOXICANT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene Expression Profiling Of Accessible Surrogate Tissues To Monitor Molecular Changes In Inaccessible Target Tissues Following Toxicant Exposure
    John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Judith E. Schmid and David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology ...

  1. Shell Nouns as Cohesive Devices in Published and ESL Student Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktas, Rahime Nur; Cortes, Viviana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of a special type of unspecific noun, called "shell nouns" [Hunston, S., & Francis, G. (1999). "Pattern grammar". Amsterdam: Benjamins; Schmid, H. (2000). "English abstract nouns as conceptual shells: From corpus to cognition". Berlin: Walter de Gruyter], which are frequently used as cohesive devices, in the written…

  2. Metallic and Ceramic Materials Research. Task Order 0005: Metallic, Materials, Methods, Characterization and Testing Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    two specimens and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) maps were plotted based on the inverse pole figure (IPF) as well as the Schmid factors for...Energy Technology IPF Inverse Pole Figure LSHR Low Solvus High Refractory OIM Orientation Imaging Microscopy R&D Research and Development SEM

  3. Migration of grain boundaries and triple junctions in high-purity aluminum during annealing after slight cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Wenhong; Wang, Weiguo; Fang, Xiaoying; Qin, Congxiang; Xing, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-15

    Grain orientations and grain boundary migrations near triple junctions in a high purity aluminum were analyzed by electron back scattered diffraction. The results indicate that there are good correlations between the Schmid factors or Taylor factors and the misorientation values of point to original point in grains near the triple junctions in a slightly deformed sample. Grains with higher Schmid factors or lower Taylor factors typically correspond to higher misorientation values near the triple junctions. In a subsequent annealing at 400 °C, both grain boundaries and triple junctions migrate, but the former leave ghost lines. During such migration, a grain boundary grows from the grain with lower Schmid factor (higher Taylor factor) into the grain with higher Schmid factor (lower Taylor factor). Usually, the amount of migration of a grain boundary is considerably greater than that of a triple junction, and the grain boundary becomes more curved after migration. These observations indicate that the triple junctions have drag effects on grain boundary migration. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline aluminum with fine grains about 30 μm were used. • Off-line in situ EBSD was used to identify TJs before and after annealing. • Grains with higher SFs have higher misorientation values near TJs after deformation. • Grain boundaries grow from hard grains into soft grains during annealing. • Triple junctions have drag effects on grain boundaries migration.

  4. EBSD analysis of (10–12) twinning activity in Mg–3Al–1Zn alloy during compression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingshu; Deng, Liping; Guo, Ning; Xu, Zeren; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-15

    The (10–12) twinning activity of Mg–3Al–1Zn magnesium alloy during uniaxial compression at room temperature has been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. The results indicated that the twinning activity was closely related with two angles: one was the angle between the c-axis and the compression direction and the other was the angle between the a-axis and the titling direction in the basal plane for a given relation between the c-axis and the compression direction. These two parameters can be used to explain which twinning variant will operate under the given strain path. For the grains containing a single (10–12) twinning variant, the (10–12) twinning variant occurred in a wide range of Schmid factor values (0 < Schmid factor < 0.5) and the Schmid factor rank of 1 or 2 was the most commonly observed. By contrast, for the grains containing two (10–12) twinning variants, the (10–12) twinning activity exhibited a stronger orientation dependence and the combinations of Schmid factor ranks 1–3 and 1–2 were the most commonly observed. - Highlights: • Twinning activity of AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated by EBSD. • (10–12) twinning shows a strong orientation dependence. • Two angles can be used to explain which twin variant will operate.

  5. MICROARRAY DATA ANALYSIS USING MULTIPLE STATISTICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray Data Analysis Using Multiple Statistical Models

    Wenjun Bao1, Judith E. Schmid1, Amber K. Goetz1, Ming Ouyang2, William J. Welsh2,Andrew I. Brooks3,4, ChiYi Chu3,Mitsunori Ogihara3,4, Yinhe Cheng5, David J. Dix1. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Researc...

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT AND MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1Lau, C., 1J.M. Rogers, 1R.G. Hanson*, 1B.D. Barbee*, 1M.G. Narotsky, 1J.E. Schmid* and 2J.H. Richards*. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, and 2Environmental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Developmental toxicity of Perfluorooctane ...

  7. Using Buttons to Better Manage Online Presence: How One Academic Institution Harnessed the Power of Flair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dority Baker, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a case study of how the University of Nebraska College of Law and Schmid Law Library use "buttons" to manage Law College faculty members' and librarians' online presence. Since Google is the primary search engine used to find information, it is important that librarians and libraries assist Web site visitors in…

  8. First Language Attrition in the Speech of Dutch-English Bilinguals: The Case of Monozygotic Twin Sisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Robert; Price, Sacha; Mennen, Ineke

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of research on attrition in L1 speech (de Leeuw, Mennen & Scobbie, in press; de Leeuw, Schmid & Mennen, 2010; Dmitrieva, Jongman & Sereno, 2010; Mennen, 2004). Adding to this line of inquiry, the present study investigates the speech of a 62-year-old bilingual monozygotic twin who emigrated to an L2-speaking…

  9. Investigating the Structure of the WJ-III Cognitive in Early School Age through Two Exploratory Bifactor Analysis Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2014-01-01

    Two exploratory bifactor methods (e.g., Schmid-Leiman [SL] and exploratory bifactor analysis [EBFA]) were used to investigate the structure of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Cognitive in early school age (age 6-8). The SL procedure is recognized by factor analysts as a preferred method for EBFA. Jennrich and Bentler recently developed an…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

  11. RNA PROFILES IN RAT AND MOUSE EPIDIDYMAL SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    RNA PROFILES IN RAT AND MOUSE EPIDIDYMAL SPERMATOZOA
    Kary E. Thompson1, Hongzu Ren1, Judith E. Schmid1 and David J. Dix1
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC.

    Mature spermatozoa are transcriptionally inactive...

  12. A DATABASE FOR TRACKING REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOGENOMIC DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Database for Tracking Reproductive Toxicogenomic Data
    Wenjun Bao, Judy Schmid, Amber Goetz, Hongzu Ren and David Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Pr...

  13. PROFILING GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN H295R ADRENOCORTICAL CARCINOMA CELLS AND RAT TESTES TO IDENTIFY PATHWAYS OF TOXICITY FOR CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Profiling Gene Expression in Human H295R Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells and Rat Testes to Identify Pathways of Toxicity for Conazole Fungicides
    Ren1, H., Schmid1, J., Retief2, J., Turpaz2, Y.,Zhang3, X.,Jones3, P., Newsted3, J.,Giesy3, J., Wolf1, D.,Wood1, C., Bao1, W., Dix1, ...

  14. What to say to a skeptical metaphysician: a defense manual for cognitive and behavioral scientists.

    PubMed

    Ross, Don; Spurrett, David

    2004-10-01

    A wave of recent work in metaphysics seeks to undermine the anti-reductionist, functionalist consensus of the past few decades in cognitive science and philosophy of mind. That consensus apparently legitimated a focus on what systems do, without necessarily and always requiring attention to the details of how systems are constituted. The new metaphysical challenge contends that many states and processes referred to by functionalist cognitive scientists are epiphenomenal. It further contends that the problem lies in functionalism itself, and that, to save the causal significance of mind, it is necessary to re-embrace reductionism. We argue that the prescribed return to reductionism would be disastrous for the cognitive and behavioral sciences, requiring the dismantling of most existing achievements and placing intolerable restrictions on further work. However, this argument fails to answer the metaphysical challenge on its own terms. We meet that challenge by going on to argue that the new metaphysical skepticism about functionalist cognitive science depends on reifying two distinct notions of causality (one primarily scientific, the other metaphysical), then equivocating between them. When the different notions of causality are properly distinguished, it is clear that functionalism is in no serious philosophical trouble, and that we need not choose between reducing minds or finding them causally impotent. The metaphysical challenge to functionalism relies, in particular, on a naïve and inaccurate conception of the practice of physics, and the relationship between physics and metaphysics.

  15. Science, conscience, consciousness.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Descartes' metaphysics lays the foundation for the special sciences, and the notion of consciousness ("conscientia") belongs to metaphysics rather than to psychology. I argue that as a metaphysical notion, "consciousness" refers to an epistemic version of moral conscience. As a consequence, the activity on which science is based turns out to be conscientious thought. The consciousness that makes science possible is a double awareness: the awareness of what one is thinking, of what one should be doing, and of the possibility of a gap between the two.

  16. Nosology, ontology and promiscuous realism.

    PubMed

    Binney, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Medics may consider worrying about their metaphysics and ontology to be a waste of time. I will argue here that this is not the case. Promiscuous realism is a metaphysical position which holds that multiple, equally valid, classification schemes should be applied to objects (such as patients) to capture different aspects of their complex and heterogeneous nature. As medics at the bedside may need to capture different aspects of their patients' problems, they may need to use multiple classification schemes (multiple nosologies), and thus consider adopting a different metaphysics to the one commonly in use.

  17. Plato's Pharmacy and Derrida's Drugstore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Chris

    2000-01-01

    In a long essay titled "Plato's Pharmacy, Jacques Derrida attacked Western metaphysics. This article undertakes to defend Western philosophy from Derrida's arguments. It is shown that Derrida's arguments are very unsatisfactory. (Author/VWL)

  18. A Classroom with a Worldview: Making Spiritual Assumptions Explicit in Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Denise; Franz, Randal S.; Wong, Kenman

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to explain spirituality by describing epistemological and metaphysical dimensions of four world views: modern, postmodern, mystical, and theistic. Outlines a Christian approach to management and ways in which spirituality rooted in Christian tradition can influence management education. (SK)

  19. The Theory of Everything and the future of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, Trishank

    2004-10-01

    This paper is a philosophical essay on metaphysics, in which we develop a justification for Algorithmic Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence by considering the relationship between the Theory of Everything and the future of life or physical eschatology.

  20. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Barry

    2012-05-01

    In Laws and Lawmakers Marc Lange climbs off the fence regarding the metaphysics of laws, landing squarely on the non-Humean side. However, his position is interestingly distinct from the standard options: facts about the laws are not metaphysically prior to facts about subjunctives, nor are they analyzed in terms of causal powers or dispositions. Instead, the law facts are analyzed in terms of subjunctive facts. In The Law-Governed Universe John Roberts reconciles the governing intuition with Humean supervenience, a feat so remarkable it suggests we are dealing not with metaphysics, but metaphysical poetry, characterized by Dr. Johnson as that in which "the most heterogeneous ideas are yoked by violence together." These are two highly original works that stake out sophisticated and genuinely novel positions in the debate. They provide essential reading for anyone interested in laws.

  1. Hegel as a Philosopher of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soll, Ivan

    1972-01-01

    In this essay author attempts to locate elements of Hegelian philosophy of education and separate them as much as is possible and desirable from the metaphysical matrices in which they are embedded. (Author/MB)

  2. The lead line in bone---a lesion apparently due to chondroclastic indigestion.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, R.; Kawanoue, S.

    1975-01-01

    The metaphyseal line of increased radiodensity which occurs in lead poisoning was studied in children and young monkeys with lead encephalopathy and in guinea pigs. The histologic lesion consists of impaired resorption of calcified metaphyseal cartilage, depressed bone deposition on cartilaginous surfaces, and the accumulation of numerous multinucleate giant cells, some containing lead inclusions. By electron microscopy, the giant cells appear to be osteoclasts and chondroclasts containing large amounts of mineralized cartilage matrix. We interpret the lead line to be the result of a lead-induced inability of cartilage-resorbing cells to degrade mineralized matrix, with a resultant impairment of metaphyseal cartilage resorption. The radiodensity of the lead line would thus be due to persistent mineralized metaphyseal cartilage and not to a primary osseous change. Some observations on lead inclusions in these cells suggest that the fibrillar component forms before the amorphous part. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figures 2 and 3 PMID:169701

  3. Le cinema policier en France (Detective Films in France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerif, Francois

    1984-01-01

    A survey of French detective films since 1908 looks at how French and other detective novels have inspired a film genre, from the original serial through classic suspense, thriller, the crime novel, and comedy to the political and metaphysical. (MSE)

  4. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  5. The Cosmology of Edgar Allan Poe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Eureka is a ``prose poem'' published in 1848, where Edgar Allan Poe presents his original cosmology. While starting from metaphysical assumptions, Poe develops an evolving Newtonian model of the Universe which has many and non casual analogies with modern cosmology. Poe was well informed about astronomical and physical discoveries, and he was influenced by both contemporary science and ancient ideas. For these reasons, Eureka is a unique synthesis of metaphysics, art and science.

  6. The contextual and modal character of quantum mechanics : a formal and philosophical analysis in the foundations of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, C.

    2011-11-01

    This doctoral dissertation contains four main elements: 1. We put forward an interpretational map of quantum mechanics in general and of the modal interpretation in particular based on metaphysical and anti-metaphysical stances. 2. In contraposition to what we characterize as the anti-metaphysical and classical metaphysical stances we collect arguments in favor of a constructive metaphysical stance. 3. We analyze the meaning of contextuality and possibility in quantum theory in general, and in the modal interpretation in particular. 4. Finally, we end up with a proposal for the development of a possible constructive metaphysical scheme based on the notion of potentiality. Although some of these problems are well known in the literature we attempt to cast new light on the discussion through the analysis of the concepts involved and their relation to the formalism. We attempt to make explicit the tension in between the theoretical conditions and the conceptual structure of the theory, in order to discuss and disclose the metaphysical ideas involved within the different interpretational problems of quantum mechanics. We believe that this analysis can help us to understand much of the implicit background of such theoretical conditions. The dissertation centers itself on the modal and contextual character of quantum mechanics. On the one hand, we discuss the contextual character of quantum possibility through the development of a Modal Kochen-Specker theorem, and on the other hand, we analyze the contextual character of quantum correlations through the distinction of properties. In the last part we discuss some more speculative ideas related to the possible metaphysical developments of quantum mechanics based on the notion of potentiality.

  7. Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.

    PubMed

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level.

  8. {11¯24} deformation twinning in commercial purity titanium at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lainé, Steven J.; Knowles, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    Definitive evidence from both electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy is shown for the existence of ? twinning as a rare deformation twinning mode in coarse-grained commercial purity titanium after room temperature ballistic impact testing at 103 s-1. Non-Schmid-based twin-type selection is demonstrated for ? and the conjugate ? deformation twinning modes in this material within grains where the c-axis is closely aligned to the loading direction. Limited Schmid-based twin variant selection is shown for ? and ? deformation twinning modes in this material. The occurrence of high area fractions of ? twinning has relevance for high strain rate plasticity modelling of grains of textured titanium, compressed parallel to their c-axes.

  9. Analysis of the different slip systems activated by tension in a {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloy in relation with local crystallographic orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Bridier, F.; Villechaise, P. . E-mail: p.villechaise@lmpm.ensma.fr; Mendez, J.

    2005-02-01

    The gliding modes of a duplex Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy were investigated through in situ (scanning electron microscopy) tensile tests. A method based on electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements was used to identify activated slip systems. The approach applied to a large number of grains allowed a statistical analysis of the nature (basal, prismatic, pyramidal) and distribution of the slip systems according to the crystallographic texture. A discussion concerning the pertinence of Schmid's law to explain the occurrence and succession of slip events is then proposed. The domain in favor of each type of slip system is finally presented by using inverse pole figures mapped with Schmid's factor iso-curves.

  10. Development and Resuscitation of a Sedated, Mature Male Miniature Swine Severe Hemorrhage Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    human and laboratory activity and trained to lie quietly in a sling with feet on the floor . The swine was hemorrhaged 60% of estimated blood volume (EBV...stopcocks were placed in all of the catheters, and the sling was lowered until the animal’s feet were on the floor . Midazolam infusion was started at 1.25...Hager P, Schmid ER. Monitoring level of sedation with bispectral EEG analysis: comparison between hypothermic and normo- thermic cardiopulmonary bypass

  11. A Military Relevant Model of Closed Concussive Head Injury: Longitudinal Studies Characterizing and Validating Single and Repetitive mTBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    may serve as indicators of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This injury model represents a mild clinically relevant injury. Briefly, PCI injury...consciousness after concussion. These findings suggest that brain cathepsin B has a role in multiple TBI models and is linked to neurological deficits...Mountney A, Deng-Bryant Y, Schmid K, Shear D, Tortella F (2014) The WRAIR projectile concussive impact model of mild traumatic brain injury: re- design

  12. Geometry, Representation Theory, and the Langlands Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0144 Geometry, Representation Theory , and the Langlands Program Kari Vilonen Northwestern University...16/6/2008-31/09/2012 Geometry, Representation Theory , and the Langlands Program FA9550-08-1-0351 Kari Vilonen Northwestern University Evanston, IL...Schmid and Vilonen have mostly carried out the program of determining the Unitary dual of reductive Lie groups using Hodge theory . Kashiwara and

  13. Study of the Melting Behavior of YAG Single Crystal by Optical Differential Thermal Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    melting point of AI2O3 as determined by the DOSMTOP agreed well with the 2055 ± 1. VIECHNICKI, D. J., and SCHMID, F. Crystal Growth Using the Heat...Exchanger Method (HEM). L Crystal Growth , v. 26, 1974, p. 162-164. 2. VIECHNICKI, D. J., and CASLAVSKY, J. L. Solid State Formation O/AW.-FJ^/JO...temperature was near the 1937 C thermoarrest temperature observed during the melting of large boules of sintered YAG material in the crystal growth

  14. The Concept of Comprehensive Security: A Distinctive Feature of a Shared Security Culture in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    John S . Duffield, World Power Forsaken: Political Culture, International Institutions, and German Security Policy after Unification (Stanford: Stanford...34 Political Culture and State Behavior: Why Germany Confounds Neorealism." International Organization 53, no. 4 (Autumn 1999): 765-803. ———. John S ...Security Culture in Europe? 6. AUTHOR( S ) Markus Thomas Schmid 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval

  15. Proceedings of the Ship Control Systems Symposium (7th) Held in Bath, England on 24-27 September 1981. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-27

    Parks, W. Schaufelberger, Chr. Schmid , H. Ungehauen, "Applications of Adaptive Control Systems", Proceedings of an International Symposium at Bochum...above, the on-board weather routing technique proposed herein consists of two techniques of calculation of the optimum roundabout routes and the route...analysis. 2.120 F~ulDbuut Hot)l~tI I Tne optimum roundabout sailing is a new and unprecedented sailing, and is defined as a "sailing along the route

  16. Molecular Engineering of Vector-Based Oncolytic and Imaging Approaches for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    be determined by pelvic lymphadenectomy5. Potential complications of this procedure include lymphoceles, lymphedema , venous thrombosis and pulmonary...third circulation: radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in the evaluation of lymphedema . J Nucl Med 44, 43-57 (2003). 15. Ikomi, F., Hanna, G.K. & Schmid...independence in immunodeficient SCID mice. Nat Med 3, 402-8 (1997). 28. Weissleder, H. & Weissleder, R. Lymphedema : evaluation of qualitative and

  17. Some Very Hard Problems in Nature (Biology-biochemistry) Solved Using Physical Algorithms that Reduce the Hardness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-18

    fumarase; MAN ) mandelate racemase; PEP ) carboxypeptidase B; CDA ) E . coli cytidine deaminase; KSI ) ketosteroid isomerase; CMU ) chorismate...resumption of respiration. A 3D model of E . coli Ndh according to Schmid and Gerloff (2004). Putative flavin-, NADH-, and membrane-binding domains are...DATE 18 SEP 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Some Very Hard Problems in Nature (Biology

  18. The Role of Twinning Deformation on the Hardening Response of Polycrystalline Magnesium from Discrete Dislocation Dynamics Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    to the basal plane leading to predominant basal slip, as shown in Fig. 4(a), since the Schmid factor on these planes is maxi - mum. The low yield...slip is the hardest slip mode. It is also observed from Fig. 3 that regardless of the loading directions, all single crystals results exhibit weak ...In Section 3.1, the dislocation forest hardening effect for single crystals was observed to be weak (see Fig. 3). Furthermore, GBs do produce

  19. An Archaeological Survey: Shoreline of Lake Darling and Proposed Burlington Dam. Flood Control Project Area, Upper Souris River, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    them. One of the lasting benefits of our profession is the chance to meet people and make new friends. The cordial acceptance of our crew by residents...Mankato ice (Lemke 1960:1). Except for some Late Cretaceous and Tertiary exposures (Lemke 1960:1), the surface drift from the Mankato advance accounts for...topography in and adjacent to the study area (Schmid 1963). Extensive swamps and abundant flora flourished. With the onset of the last North American ice

  20. Mechanism(s) of Molecular Responses in Mammalian Cells Exposed to Physical Agents (Alone and in Combination).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The bone marrow 26. H. Lai and N. P. Singh, Acute low-intensity microwave exposure micronucleus test . In Handbook of Mutageniciu Test Procedures (B. J...210 (1995). Elsevier. Amsterdam, 1984. 27 T. Sofuni. Japanese guidelines for mutagenicity testing . Environ. 33. W. Schmid, The micronucleus test ...L. Dearfield and M. C. Cimino. Mutagenicity test spontaneous micronucleus frequencies. Environ. MoL Mutagen. 23, schemes and guidelines: U.S. EPA

  1. Genomic DNA Hybridization Probe and Immunoenzymatic Color Pigment Detection Assay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-27

    example, Schmid, W. "The Micronucleus Test ", 15 Mutation Res. 31,9 (1975), Salamone, et al.,"Towards an Improved Micronucleus Test : Studies 16 on 3...found in the cytoplasm as a micronucleus . 3 In the conventional mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay, mice are exposed to a particular 4 test ...the micronucleus test ". Mutat. Research, 120:241-247; Hayashi, M, Morita, T., Kodama, Y., 11 Sofuni, T. and Ishidate, M. Jr. 1990, "The

  2. Rare Earth Boride Electron Emitter Materials Fabrication and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Schmid and D. W. Lamson, Anal. Chem. 30 (1958) 953. 10. Complexometric Titrations , G. Schwarzenbach and H. Flashka, translated by HN !Nf Irving, p. 194...melted float zone method is preferable. The only advantage of the much more costly laser and RF melt methods is the possibility of fabricating larger... titration procedure in which excess acid used for disso- lution of RB, is neutralized to pH 7, followed by addition of manitol. This converts HI BO to a

  3. On-line Monitoring of Ultrasonic Polymer Chain Scission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyüz, Ali; Giz, Ahmet; Çatalgil-Giz, Huceste

    2007-03-01

    Poly vinyl pyrrolidone in dilute aqueous solution was subjected to ultrasonic scission. The decrease of the molecular weight was monitored by light scattering via a BIMwA molecular weight analyzer. The on-line data was compared with the theoretical models of Schmid, Malhorta, Price, Madras and Berlin, Doulah,. The models were compared on the bases of χ^2 analysis and fit quality. It is seen that on-line data can discriminate among theoretical models.

  4. Influence of carbon content on cold rolling and recrystallization texture in polycrystalline 3% Si-Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, M.; Shingaki, Y.; Imamura, T.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of carbon content on cold rolling and recrystallization texture in polycrystalline 3%Si-Fe under the relatively high rolling reduction condition has been investigated. The main component of recrystallization texture was {554}<225> orientation in ultra low carbon (ULC) 3%Si-Fe and {411}<148> orientation in low carbon (LC) 3%Si-Fe. The origin of {411}<148> recrystallization texture development in LC 3%Si-Fe is discussed in terms of the rotation of deformation twin from {100}<011> to {411}<148> orientation with the generation of the slip bands inside the neighboring matrix grain {111}<011>. The rotation axis of this crystal rotation was estimated <112> axis. Assuming the single slip system activation in BCC metal, crystal rotation around <112> axis indicates an activation of {110}<111> slip system. In terms of Schmid factor, {112}<111> slip system must be activated in {100}<011> matrix. This is not in agreement with the estimation of {110}<111> slip system activation. Detailed observation on the cold rolled sample revealed that common slip plane passed through the deformation twin and surrounding deformed matrix grains. It is considered that slip plane matching (SPM) with neighboring grains activates the lower Schmid factor slip system in deformation twin. These results suggest that not only Schmid factor but also SPM with neighboring grains should be considered to decide the active slip systems in polycrystalline metals.

  5. Lethal osteochondrodysplasia and de novo autosomal translocation involving the long arm of chromosome 4

    SciTech Connect

    Fryns, J.P.; Legius, E.; Van den Berghe, H.; Moerman, P.; Vandenberghe, K.; Maroteaux, P.

    1994-06-01

    Recently, we diagnosed a de noco t(4q;11q) with apparent breakpoints at 4q23 and 11q13 [karyotype: 46,XX,t(4;11)(q23;q13)] in a first trimester female fetus with a lethal chondrodysplasia. After the observation reported by Urioste et al. (1994) the presena finding of a de novo autosomal translocation with one breakpoint in the proximal part of 4q in another fetus with lethal osteochondrodysplasia may be a further indication toward the possible location of a gene cluster in this autosomal region. 1 ref.

  6. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    PubMed Central

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Taylor, S. Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A.; Scambler, Peter J.; Ueffing, Marius; Kayserili, Hulya; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M.; Beales, Philip L.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Witman, George B.; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Asimit, Jennifer; Ayub, Mohammad; Barrett, Jeff; Barroso, Inês; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Brion, Marie-Jo; Brown, Andrew; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Smith, George Davey; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David; Flicek, Paul; Floyd, Jamie; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Chris; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Huang, Jie; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matt; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jewell, David; Chris, Joyce; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lee, Irene; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Ryan, Liu; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Massimo, Mangino; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quail, Michael A.; Quaye, Lydia; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Brent Richards, J.; Ring, Sue; Ritchie, Graham R S; Savage, David B.; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Shihab, Hashem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Smee, Carol; Soler, Artigas María; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Tim; St Pourcain, Beate; St. Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tian, Jing; Timpson, Nic; Tobin, Martin; Valdes, Ana; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Wain, Louise; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Jun; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Ellie; Whittall, Ros; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathy; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Whyte, Tamieka; ChangJiang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions. PMID:26044572

  7. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome with facial hemiatrophy.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Yasmeen J; Baba, Asif Nazir; Manzoor, Sheikh; Qayoom, Seema; Javed, Sheikh; Ajaz, Hakeem

    2010-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by chondrodysplasia and polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and congenital defects of the heart. We present here a case of a 16-year-old short-limbed dwarf with skeletal deformities and bilateral postaxial polydactyly, dysplastic nails and teeth, also having left-sided facial hemiatrophy. The diagnosis of EVC syndrome was made on the basis of clinical and radiological features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EVC syndrome with facial hemiatrophy in the medical literature from India.

  8. Expression of the Ellis-van Creveld (Evc) gene in the rat tibial growth plate.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takehito; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hirata, Azumi; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2004-08-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by short limbs, postaxial polydactyly, natal teeth, and dysplastic nails. The Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) gene, which is mutated in patients with EvC syndrome, has been identified by positional cloning. However, the physiological roles of the EVC gene have not been elucidated. Histopathological analyses of EvC syndrome have shown disturbed chondrocytic phenotypes during cartilage development. We therefore postulated that the EVC gene is a critical factor for chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. The present study focuses on the relationship between the Evc gene and chondrocytes, and examines Evc gene expression in the rat tibial growth plate at the mRNA and protein levels. Evc mRNA in tibial epiphyseal cartilage was expressed at postnatal day (P) 1, P28, and P56 by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analyses localized the Evc protein mainly in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes of the epiphyseal growth plate in the tibia during the embryonic and postnatal periods. Evc mRNA was also detected in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes by in situ hybridization. These results indicate that the Evc gene functions mainly in the prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes of the epiphyseal growth plate. The data presented here are important for future studies of the underlying mechanism of chondrodysplasia in EvC syndrome.

  9. Approach to Investigating Congenital Skeletal Abnormalities in Livestock.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, K E; Thompson, K G

    2015-09-01

    Congenital skeletal abnormalities may be genetic, teratogenic, or nutritional in origin; distinguishing among these different causes is essential in the management of the disease but may be challenging. In some cases, teratogenic or nutritional causes of skeletal abnormalities may appear very similar to genetic causes. For example, chondrodysplasia associated with intrauterine zinc or manganese deficiency and mild forms of hereditary chondrodysplasia have very similar clinical features and histologic lesions. Therefore, historical data are essential in any attempt to distinguish genetic and acquired causes of skeletal lesions; as many animals as possible should be examined; and samples should be collected for future analysis, such as genetic testing. Acquired causes of defects often show substantial variation in presentation and may improve with time, while genetic causes frequently have a consistent presentation. If a disease is determined to be of genetic origin, a number of approaches may be used to detect mutations, each with advantages and disadvantages. These approaches include sequencing candidate genes, single-nucleotide polymorphism array with genomewide association studies, and exome or whole genome sequencing. Despite advances in technology and increased cost-effectiveness of these techniques, a good clinical history and description of the pathology and a reliable diagnosis are still key components of any investigation.

  10. Neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) deficiency disrupts the Golgi secretory pathway and causes growth inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, Wilhelm; Hammels, Ina; Jenke, Bitta; Binczek, Erika; Schmidt-Soltau, Inga; Brodesser, Susanne; Schauss, Astrid; Etich, Julia; Heilig, Juliane; Zaucke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Systemic loss of neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) in mice leads to a novel form of systemic, juvenile hypoplasia (dwarfism). SMPD3 deficiency in mainly two growth regulating cell types contributes to the phenotype, in chondrocytes of skeletal growth zones to skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia, and in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons to systemic hypothalamus–pituitary–somatotropic hypoplasia. The unbiased smpd3−/− mouse mutant and derived smpd3−/− primary chondrocytes were instrumental in defining the enigmatic role underlying the systemic and cell autonomous role of SMPD3 in the Golgi compartment. Here we describe the unprecedented role of SMPD3. SMPD3 deficiency disrupts homeostasis of sphingomyelin (SM), ceramide (Cer) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the Golgi SMPD3-SMS1 (SM-synthase1) cycle. Cer and DAG, two fusogenic intermediates, modify the membrane lipid bilayer for the initiation of vesicle formation and transport. Dysproteostasis, unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis perturb the Golgi secretory pathway in the smpd3−/− mouse. Secretion of extracellular matrix proteins is arrested in chondrocytes and causes skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia. Similarly, retarded secretion of proteo-hormones in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons leads to hypothalamus induced combined pituitary hormone deficiency. SMPD3 in the regulation of the protein vesicular secretory pathway may become a diagnostic target in the etiology of unknown forms of juvenile growth and developmental inhibition. PMID:27882938

  11. Development and physical analysis of YAC contigs covering 7 Mb of Xp22.3-p22.2

    SciTech Connect

    Herrell, S.; Novo, F.J.; Charlton, R.

    1995-01-20

    A total of YAC clones have been isolated from the region of Xp22.2-p22.3 extending from the amelogenin gene locus to DXS31. Restriction analysis of these clones in association with STS contenting and end clone analysis has facilitated the construction of 6 contigs covering a total of 7 Mb in which 20 potential CpG islands have been located. Thirty new STSs have been developed from probe and YAC end clone sequences, and these have been used in the analysis of patients suffering from different combinations of chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, X-linked ichthyosis, and Kallmann syndrome. The results suggest that (1) the gene for chondrodysplasia punctata must lie between the X chromosome pseudoautosomal boundary (PABX) and DXS1145; (2) a gene for mental retardation lies between DXS1145 and the sequence tagged site GS1; and (3) the gene for ocular albinism type 1 lies proximal to the STS G13. The CpG islands within the YAC contigs constitute valuable markers for the potential positions of genes. Genes found associated with any of these potential CpG islands would be possible candidates for the disease genes mentioned above. 47 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Monistic dualism and the body electric: An ontology of disease, patient and clinician for person-centred healthcare.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2016-08-01

    Ontology is involved in medical care, because what both doctors and patients think the disease, the patient and the doctor are affects the giving and receiving of care, and hence the definition of medical care as profession. Going back to ancient philosophical views of disease as 'bounded entity' or as 'relation' (still echoed in contemporary theories and mindsets), I propose a way to think ontologically about disease that places it in necessary connection with the patient as person. Drawing on Augustine's views on disease, bodily integrity, and the human person as mind-body unit, I speak of 'monistic dualism' as the view where the unit and health of the person is continuously and personally generated by the mind's attention to and action on the body, whether the body is impaired or not. Monistic dualism is identified as the ontological position of both patients who are (or can become) healthy within illness and clinicians who are 'healthy' in their profession. It is what guides both to create what their body is in a personal state of integrity or health. This 'metaphysical body' is termed 'the body electric' in patients, and I argue that clinicians can attend properly to the diseased body by attending to patients' metaphysical body. As clinicians offer metaphysical care to themselves, employing monistic dualism to create their metaphysical body, they should not deny it to patients. Ontology cannot be part of medical care without making metaphysical care a requirement.

  13. Effect of polyphenols on calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in rat femoral tissues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Jie, Z

    2001-12-01

    The effect of various polyphenols on calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues of young rats in vitro was investigated. Bone tissues were cultured for 24 h in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing either vehicle or various polyphenols (10(-7) - 10(-4) M). The presence of genistein (10(-6) - 10(-4) M) caused a significant increase in calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues. Resveratrol (10(-4) m) decreased metaphyseal calcium content significantly, and it (10(-6) - 10(-4) M) had a significant inhibitory effect on diaphyseal enzyme activity. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg; 10(-4) M) significantly inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity in the diaphyseal and metaphyseal tissues. EGCg (10(-7) - 10(-4) M) had no effect on bone calcium content. Meanwhile, glycitein, quercetin, or catechin in the range of 10(-7) to 10(-4) ml did not have an effect on calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues. The present study suggests that a phytoestrogen genistein has a unique anabolic effect on bone calcification in vitro.

  14. Reflections on humanizing biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Marcum, James A

    2008-01-01

    Although biomedicine is responsible for the "miracles" of modern medicine, paradoxically it has also led to a quality-of-care crisis in which many patients feel disenfranchised from the health-care industry. To address this crisis, several medical commentators make an appeal for humanizing biomedicine, which has led to shifts in the philosophical boundaries of medical knowledge and practice. In this paper, the metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical boundaries of biomedicine and its humanized versions are investigated and compared to one another. Biomedicine is founded on a metaphysical position of mechanistic monism, an epistemology of objective knowing, and an ethic of emotionally detached concern. In humanizing modern medicine, these boundaries are often shifted to a metaphysical position of dualism/holism, an epistemology of subject knowing, and an ethic of empathic care. In a concluding section, the question is discussed whether these shifts in the philosophical boundaries are adequate to resolve the quality-of-care crisis.

  15. Wave-particle duality? not in optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2011-09-01

    Metaphysics has only one absolute requirement: It must account for the known physics. But many metaphysics account for light and they cannot all be right. We have only one metaphysical principle that is widely accepted (Einstein's minimum simplicity rule) and it gives no one answer. Even if we could enforce it, how would we prove its validity without a (meta)3principle? People like me who work with light are never confused about whether we are dealing with a particle or a wave. I find it useful to view light in terms even broader than the usual wave-particle description. I add a third kind of wave that is not measurable but also not restricted by the physics of the measurable. I find it difficult to account for light any other way.

  16. Must Metaethical Realism Make a Semantic Claim?

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2013-02-01

    Mackie drew attention to the distinct semantic and metaphysical claims made by meta ethical realists, arguing that although our evaluative discourse is cognitive and objective, there are no objective evaluative facts. This distinction, however, also opens up a reverse possibility: that our evaluative discourse is antirealist, yet objective values do exist. I suggest that this seemingly far-fetched possibility merits serious attention; realism seems com mitted to its intelligibility, and, despite appearances, it isn't incoherent, ineffable, inherently implausible or impossible to defend. I argue that reflection on this possibility should lead us to revise our understanding of the debate between realists and antirealists. It is not only that the realist's semantic claim is insufficient for realism to be true, as Mackie argued; it's not even necessary. Robust metaethical realism is best understood as making a purely metaphysical claim. It is thus not enough for antirealists to show that our discourse is antirealist. They must directly attack the realist's metaphysical claim.

  17. A Confucian defense of gender equity.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kelly James; Wang, Robin R

    2004-01-01

    The oppression of Chinese women is typically blamed on Confucianism. We present a version of Confucianism that relies on the metaphysics of the I Ching, one of the "canonical" Confucian texts, and on more characteristic Confucian doctrines. These metaphysical, anthropological, and ethical beliefs would, if fully implemented, replace the early Confucian hierarchy based partly on gender with a hierarchy based on virtue. This would in turn legitimate the full participation of women in society. Through the "canonical" Confucian texts we reconstruct the philosophical grounds for a Confucian vision of gender equity as grounded in a Confucian view of human nature and human excellence.

  18. Bone lesions in early congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, E U; Solomon, A

    1976-01-31

    A radiological study of bone changes in 112 children with congenital syphilis was undertaken. A similar number of normal children acted as a control group. Radiological examination of 5 syphilitic children showed that their bones were normal. Combined metaphyseal and periosteal lesions were the commonest bone disorders seen and are thus the most convincing radiological evidence of congenital syphilis. Transverse metaphyseal lucencies occur early in the disease, and with Wimburger's sign they are the prime evidence of pathology in syphilitic bone. Other radiographic changes are probably owing to minimal trauma in fragile disorganized bone. The occurrence of periosteal lesions alone has also been evaluated.

  19. Deconstructing the Brain Disconnection-Brain Death Analogy and Clarifying the Rationale for the Neurological Criterion of Death.

    PubMed

    Moschella, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    This article explains the problems with Alan Shewmon's critique of brain death as a valid sign of human death, beginning with a critical examination of his analogy between brain death and severe spinal cord injury. The article then goes on to assess his broader argument against the necessity of the brain for adult human organismal integration, arguing that he fails to translate correctly from biological to metaphysical claims. Finally, on the basis of a deeper metaphysical analysis, I offer a revised rationale for the validity of the neurological criterion of human death.

  20. Effects of spaceflight on trabecular bone in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    Alterations in trabecular bone were observed in growing male Wistar rats after 18.5 days of orbital flight on the COSMOS 1129 biosatellite. Spaceflight induced a decreased mass of mineralized tissue and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial and humeral metaphyses. The osteoblast population appeared to decline immediately adjacent to the growth cartilage-metaphyseal junction, but osteoclast numbers were unchanged. These results suggested that bone formation may have been inhibited during spaceflight, but resorption remained constant. With the exception of trabecular bone mass in the proximal tibia, the observed skeletal changes returned to normal during a 29-day postflight period.

  1. [The biolaw anthropological basis. A philosofical reflection of biolaw].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Fernández Postigo, José

    2015-01-01

    From a basic terminological clarification, we seek to examine briefly what can be acknowledged as the two biggest attempts of foundation in the Biolaw contemporary area, that of the Kantian tradition and that of the anthropological and metaphysical realism. Through a critical examination of the first one, we attempt to show that only from a freedom or an autonomy assumed from the anthropological and metaphysical realism, is possible to hold a Biolaw as a true impervious limit against the technological power regarding human life and human procreation.

  2. Well posedness and physical possibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenis, Balazs

    There is a sentiment shared among physicists that well posedness is a necessary condition for physical possibility. The arguments usually offered for well posedness have an epistemic flavor and thus they fall short of establishing the metaphysical claim that lack of well posedness implies physical impossibility. In this work we analyze the relationship of well posedness to prediction and confirmation as well as the notion of physical possibility and we devise three novel and independent argumentative strategies that may succeed where the usual epistemic arguments fail. Keywords: determinism, laws of nature, metaphysics, philosophy of physics, physical possibility, prediction, well posed problem.

  3. Generalized enchondromatosis with unusual complications of soft tissue calcifications and hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaibara, N.; Katsuki, I.; Hotokebuchi, T.; Takagishi, K.; Mitsuyasu, M.

    1982-03-01

    Generalized enchondromatosis is a newly delineated type of enchondromatosis. Radiographically there are multiple enchondromata in almost all metaphyses of the long and short tubular bones and the lesions are in almost the same stage of development with mild platyspondyly and skull deformity. The pelvic changes are characteristic and, together with the metaphyseal changes of the long and short tubular bones, are probably diagnostic of this disorder. The present case demonstrates advanced radiographic features of this disorder associated with unusual soft tissue calcifications and hemangiomas. The presence of hemangiomas in our case as well as three cases in the literature suggests this feature is more than a coincidence.

  4. Understanding the universe.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, J

    2001-12-01

    Physics constrains metaphysics but does not determine it. The central metaphysical question is that of scope; a true theory of everything must take personal experience as seriously as the impersonal. Science raises questions of intelligibility and anthropic fine-tuning that go beyond its own self-limited power to answer. Theism provides a coherent response, as well as furnishing a foundation for the human encounter with value. Evolutionary insight affords some insight in relation to problems of physical evil, but eventual cosmic futility can only find an answer in the faithfulness of a Creator whose purposes are not frustrated by death.

  5. The Use of a Human Breast Tumor Progression Series and a 3-D Culture Model to Determine if Nuclear Structure Could Provide a Molecular and Therapeutic Marker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    beta-catenin. J Cell Biol 128:959-968. cadherin-binding protein plakoglobin. Proc Natl Acad Sci Gamallo C, Palacios J, Suarez A, Pizarro A, Navarro P...USA92:4522-4526. Quintanilla M, Cano A (1993): Correlation of E-cadherin Kartenbeck J, Schmid E, Franke WW, Geiger B (1982): expression with...catenin during axis speci- nuclear domains. J Cell Sci 110:239-247. fication inXenopus. J Cell Biol 139:229-243. Lallena M-J, Martinez C, Varcarcel J

  6. The orientation imaging microscopy of lead-free Sn-Ag solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telang, A. U.; Bieler, T. R.

    2005-06-01

    Orientation imaging microscopy was used to identify solidification microstructures and early stages of damage evolution in tin-silver eutectic solder joints on copper and nickel substrates after aging, creep, and thermomechanical fatigue. A visco-plastic self-consistent plasticity model was able to simulate texture changes when work hardening occurred at higher strain rates, but not with lower rates, where grain boundary sliding dominated the deformation and slip occurred predominantly on one or two slip systems that could be predicted using a Schmid (Sachs) analysis.

  7. Flexible Ab initio boundary conditions: simulating isolated dislocations in bcc Mo and Ta.

    PubMed

    Woodward, C; Rao, S I

    2002-05-27

    We report the first ab initio density-functional study of the strain field and Peierls stress of isolated <111> screw dislocations in bcc Mo and Ta. The local dislocation strain field is self-consistently coupled to the long-range elastic field using a flexible boundary condition method. This reduces the mesoscopic atomistic calculation to one involving only degrees of freedom near the dislocation core. The predicted equilibrium core for Mo is significantly different from previous atomistic results and the Peierls stress shows significant non-Schmid behavior as expected for the bcc metals.

  8. Dislocation motion and instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yichao; Chapman, Stephen Jonathan; Acharya, Amit

    2013-08-01

    The Peach-Koehler expression for the stress generated by a single (non-planar) curvilinear dislocation is evaluated to calculate the dislocation self stress. This is combined with a law of motion to give the self-induced motion of a general dislocation curve. A stability analysis of a rectilinear, uniformly translating dislocation is then performed. The dislocation is found to be susceptible to a helical instability, with the maximum growth rate occurring when the dislocation is almost, but not exactly, pure screw. The non-linear evolution of the instability is determined numerically, and implications for slip band formation and non-Schmid behavior in yielding are discussed.

  9. An exact solution for a rotating selfgravitating gas mass with oscillatory density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, F.; Ebert, R.

    1986-01-01

    An oscillatory solution of the equations of structure of isothermal selfgravitating gas masses with stationary differential rotation is given. Both the density and the rotational velocity show oscillations. The solution is an axially symmetric analogue to a solution found by Schmid-Burgk (1967) which shows a periodic structure depending on two cartesian coordinates. It falls into two families with distinct density structures but a common rotation law. The physical meaning of the solutions is discussed. In order to draw conclusions about other configurations with differential rotation the authors consider the influence of an applied external gravitational field.

  10. Studies on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Organophosphate Poisons in Pigs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Idantlty by Woe« numb«-; Hydrolysis Of the OrganO- phosphate paraoxon was studied in Yorkshire pig, rat and human sera. Enzymatic hydrolysis ...D-A123 269 UNCLASSIFIED STUDIES ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ORGflNOPHOSPHATE 1/i POISONS IN PIGS(U) LETTERNAN ARMY INST OF RESEARCH...ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONS IN PIGS Part 1. pH and Ion Effects in Sera from Pigs, Rats, and Humans PETER SCHMID, PhD

  11. On the linear stability of swept attachment-line boundary layer flow. Part 2. Non-modal effects and receptivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, Dominik; Schmid, Peter J.

    2003-10-01

    Following the study of the spectral properties of linearized swept Hiemenz flow (see Part 1, Obrist & Schmid 2003) we investigate the potential of swept Hiemenz flow to support transiently growing perturbations owing to the non-normal nature of the underlying linear stability operator. Transient amplification of perturbation energy is found for polynomial orders higher than zero, and a catalytic role of the continuous modes in increasing transient growth is demonstrated. The adjoint stability equations are derived and used in a numerical receptivity experiment to illustrate the scattering of vortical free-stream disturbances into the least stable boundary layer mode.

  12. Study of ionospheric models for satellite orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, D.; Rawer, K.; Pallaschke, S.

    1988-01-01

    Means of improving the accuracy of the ionospheric correction of two empirical ionospheric models, the Bent (Schmid et al. 1973) and international reference ionosphere (IRI) models, have been evaluated. An improved IRI topside formula is found to minimize the tendency for the electron density profile to decrease too sharply with increasing altitude, and is shown to produce results which compare well with satellite data and ground-based incoherent scatter measurements. A model for the effective parabolic thickness is proposed for the bottomside. Comparison with results from a Meteosat tracking exercise demonstrates that the present changes improve the overall accuracy of ionospheric delays calculated using the two models.

  13. Predicting active slip systems in β-Sn from ideal shear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Y.; Matsushima, H.; Ohno, N.

    2012-04-01

    We analyse the ideal shear resistances of 15 nonequivalent slip systems in β-Sn using first-principles density functional theory. From the ideal shear resistance and Schmid's law, the orientation dependence of active slip systems in a β-Sn single crystal subjected to uniaxial tension is investigated. We find that (1\\,0\\,1)[\\bar{1}\\,0\\,1] has the lowest ideal shear resistance among the 15 slip systems. Our calculations indicate that, depending on crystal orientation, uniaxial tension activates seven nonequivalent groups of slip systems. The active slip systems for [1 0 0] and [1 1 0] orientations determined in this study agree with the experimental results.

  14. The large-scale structure of software-intensive systems

    PubMed Central

    Booch, Grady

    2012-01-01

    The computer metaphor is dominant in most discussions of neuroscience, but the semantics attached to that metaphor are often quite naive. Herein, we examine the ontology of software-intensive systems, the nature of their structure and the application of the computer metaphor to the metaphysical questions of self and causation. PMID:23386964

  15. Music Education in the Sign of Deconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyndahl, Petter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the aim is to address different forms of relationship between deconstruction, as coined by Jacques Derrida, and research perspectives on music education. Deconstruction represents a radical departure from Western ontology from Plato onward and its essentialistic notions of the metaphysics of presence. Instead, Derrida claims that…

  16. What Is "Human" in Human Capital Theory? Marking a Transition from Industrial to Postindustrial Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses educational practice as a site for the development of human capital theory. The article considers metaphysical constructions that are broadly typical of educational thought, and shows how they are amenable to economic analysis. Using different Marxist and feminist methods, it discusses pedagogy and the family as kinds of…

  17. Dualistic Thinking Underlying Students' Understanding of Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashhadi, Azam; Woolnough, Brian

    Philosophical analysis indicates that underlying much of the Western scientific world view is the metaphysical presupposition of duality, the claim being made that the world is made sense of in terms of either/or and in terms of polarities (e.g., light versus dark). By way of contrast, no concept is more important in Asian philosophical and…

  18. What It Is and that It Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannatella, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The title of this paper comes from Aristotle's "Metaphysics." It appropriately captures how he understood art education. In what follows, a considerable amount of the author's thinking is indebted to Plato's and Aristotle's understanding of art education as mimetic education. On first view, an art mimetic educational approach may appear worryingly…

  19. [Gorlin-Cohen syndrome (frontometaphyseal dysplasia)].

    PubMed

    Kleinsorge, H; Böttger, E

    1977-11-01

    The classical case of a Gorlin-Cohen-Syndrom (= fronto-metaphyseal dysplasis=FMD) is presented. The disease has been mentioned in literature for the first time in 1969 and has been described four times up to now. The characteristic features of this syndrome are very prominent supraorbital ridges with generalized bone dysplasia and joint deformities.

  20. Nature, Education and Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In this essay it is argued that the educational philosophy of John Dewey gains in depth and importance by being related to his philosophy of nature, his metaphysics. The result is that any experiental process is situated inside an event, an existence, a thing, and I try to interpret this "thing" as schools or major cultural events such…

  1. Alfred North Whitehead: Plato's Lost Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Joseph Gerard

    1978-01-01

    The author reminisces about a course, Philosophy 3b at Harvard, taught by Alfred North Whitehead in 1934, where Whitehead moved from meditations on Plato, Epicurus, and Descartes to his own metaphysical speculations. He also discusses other philosophers at Harvard, calling the 1930s the Silver Age of the Harvard Philosophy Department. (KC)

  2. The Concept of Philosophical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…

  3. The Case for Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevtsova, Maria

    1987-01-01

    A case is made for the importance of studying literature as part of the second language instructional program. Literary criticism introduces linguistics, anthropology, metaphysics, psychoanalysis, and other areas and theories and ties them into into the study of language and literature. (CB)

  4. Exostosis Bursata – Multimodality Imaging Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Praveen; Rege, Rujuta; Seena, CR; Rajesh, Saveetha

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondromas or exostosis are common benign bone tumours, commonly arising from the metaphyseal region of long bones (femur, humerus, tibia). Osteochondroma of the scapula are rare and cause mechanical irritation leading to bursal formation. We hereby report a case of 30-year-old man who presented with painful chest wall swelling and its multimodality approach to establish the diagnosis. PMID:27790547

  5. J. Hillis Miller's Virtual Reality of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosso, Kurt; Harp, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    We set out to investigate Miller's curious assertion--curious for a deconstructionist committed to a critique of the old metaphysics of presence--that literary works preexist their being written down. We find a basis for this sense of the preexistence of the literary work in Miller's insights about the performative dynamics of reading and writing.…

  6. Jacques Maritain's Philosophy of History and Philosophy of Education: A Relationship Secured Through Experience and Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    Jacques Maritain's philosophy of history and philosophy of education both deal with the singularity of experience and the universality of reason. The philosophy of history is subordinated to moral philosophy; the philosophy of education is subordinated to metaphysics. Although Maritain's philosophies reflect a Christian world view, they can make a…

  7. Mechanistic explanation, cognitive systems demarcation, and extended cognition.

    PubMed

    van Eck, Dingmar; Looren de Jong, Huib

    2016-10-01

    Approaches to the Internalism-Externalism controversy in the philosophy of mind often involve both (broadly) metaphysical and explanatory considerations. Whereas originally most emphasis seems to have been placed on metaphysical concerns, recently the explanation angle is getting more attention. Explanatory considerations promise to offer more neutral grounds for cognitive systems demarcation than (broadly) metaphysical ones. However, it has been argued that explanation-based approaches are incapable of determining the plausibility of internalist-based conceptions of cognition vis-à-vis externalist ones. On this perspective, improved metaphysics is the route along which to solve the Internalist-Externalist stalemate. In this paper we challenge this claim. Although we agree that explanation-orientated approaches have indeed so far failed to deliver solid means for cognitive system demarcation, we elaborate a more promising explanation-oriented framework to address this issue. We argue that the mutual manipulability account of constitutive relevance in mechanisms, extended with the criterion of 'fat-handedness', is capable of plausibly addressing the cognitive systems demarcation problem, and thus able to decide on the explanatory traction of Internalist vs. Externalist conceptions, on a case-by-case basis. Our analysis also highlights why some other recent mechanistic takes on the problem of cognitive systems demarcation have been unsuccessful. We illustrate our claims with a case on gestures and learning.

  8. Quantum probability, choice in large worlds, and the statistical structure of reality.

    PubMed

    Ross, Don; Ladyman, James

    2013-06-01

    Classical probability models of incentive response are inadequate in "large worlds," where the dimensions of relative risk and the dimensions of similarity in outcome comparisons typically differ. Quantum probability models for choice in large worlds may be motivated pragmatically - there is no third theory - or metaphysically: statistical processing in the brain adapts to the true scale-relative structure of the universe.

  9. From Simplicism to Complexity in Leadership Identity and Preparation: Exploring the Lineage and Dark Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; English, Fenwick

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges the largely Western, functionalist and unitary notion of the self which underlies contemporary international approaches to educational leadership preparation. It locates an alternative concept of the self as simultaneously singular and multiple in deep-rooted and persisting mythic, religious and metaphysical thinking. The…

  10. Witnessing Deconstruction in Education: Why Quasi-Transcendentalism Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Deconstruction is often depicted as a method of critical analysis aimed at exposing unquestioned metaphysical assumptions and internal contradictions in philosophical and literary language. Starting from Derrida's contention that deconstruction is not a method and cannot be transformed into one, I make a case for a different attitude towards…

  11. Educational Thoughts of Aristotle and Confucius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the philosophies of Confucius and Aristotle, stating that both subscribed to the common principles that emphasize ethical education for building individual cultivation, social harmony, and the ideal state. However, Confucius emphasized his ethical and political principles without supporting the metaphysical and epistemological theories,…

  12. A Category Mistake: Why Contemporary Australian Religious Education in Catholic Schools May Be Doomed to Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Assuming religious education to be the same as other subject areas of a Catholic school's curriculum by, for example, applying the outcomes based philosophy and language of other subject areas to religious education renders a category mistake. A prominent notion in the work of metaphysical philosopher Gilbert Ryle, a category mistake arises when…

  13. The Afrocentric Paradigm: Contours and Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2001-01-01

    Defines and describes Afrocentricity, suggesting that Afrocentricity within the academic context is best understood as a paradigm. Explains how Afrocentricity meets the definition of a paradigm, examining the affective, cognitive, and conative aspects of the Afrocentric paradigm (metaphysical and sociological) and looking at the structural and…

  14. Virtue, Reason, and the False Public Voice: Catharine Macaulay's Philosophy of Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Catharine Macaulay, an 18th century English historian, published her educational philosophy in "Letters on Education with Observations on Religious and Metaphysical Subjects" in 1790. The ultimate goal of her educational process, to "bring the human mind to such a height of perfection as shall induce the practice of the best morals", (Macaulay,…

  15. Reason, Language and Education: Philosophical Assumptions for New Curricular Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastephanou, Marianna; Koutselini, Mary

    2006-01-01

    A theory of reason, language and their interconnection constitutes a research topic of epistemological, ontological and metaphysical significance. It also represents a crucial point of contention between defenders and detractors of postmodernism. Therefore, in this article we set out to discuss its stakes and search for its most accomplished…

  16. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  17. The Unfriendly Agora and Secular Hypocrisy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felderhof, Marius C.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to commend Professor Trigg on his exposure of the warped thinking and policy-making concerning religious life and its institutions in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. However, it challenges the view that the problems he has identified are best linked to deep philosophical and metaphysical positions (e.g. relativism, non-realism…

  18. Education, Religion, and a Sustainable Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Religious pluralism led to the colonies' separation of church and state by 1776, to Mann's campaign for common schooling, and to the complete secularization of public schools by 1900. The dependence of Western theology upon untenable Greek metaphysics justifies an explanation that the evolutionary purpose of religion was to promote personal…

  19. What is ontic structural realism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsworth, Peter Mark

    In recent years a doctrine known as ontic structural realism (OSR) has achieved a degree of notoriety, but many people remain confused as to what exactly the doctrine amounts. In this paper three main variants of OSR are defined and discussed: (i) OSR1, which is the view that relations are ontologically primitive but objects and properties are not; (ii) OSR2, which is the view that objects and relations are ontologically primitive but properties are not; (iii) OSR3, which is the view that properties and relations are ontologically primitive but objects are not. Proponents of OSR claim that it is a "naturalistic" metaphysics, arguing that metaphysical views that take objects and/or properties as ontologically primitive are undermined by contemporary physics. In this paper it is argued that OSR1 and OSR2 are themselves undermined by contemporary physics. On the other hand, it is also argued that considerations about the objects of quantum mechanics and general relativity do seem to suggest that we should abandon some of our "common-sense" metaphysical intuitions, and that OSR3 is one of the metaphysical views that is compatible with what these theories seem to tell us about fundamental ontology.

  20. The Penetration of Educational Leadership Texts by Revelation and Prophecy: The Case of Stephen R. Covey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the uncritical citation of Stephen R. Covey's book, "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People," in educational administration texts undermines the social-scientific foundation of university-based administrator preparation. Asserts that the Covey's book is based on Mormon metaphysics, not social science. (Contains 41…

  1. Thinking Resources for Educational Research Methods and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the idea of a crisis in educational research. Some conventional expressions of that "crisis" are examined in terms of their assumptions about what is "proper" to educational research. The paper then affirms the role of "metaphysics" in educational research as a necessary dimension of method, as opposed to the naive assertion…

  2. Aristotle of Stagira (384-322 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist, born in Stagira. Aristotle's lectures were compiled into 150 volumes, including Physics, Metaphysics and De Caelo et Mundo (On the Heavens and Earth), in which he accepted the heavenly spheres of eudoxus, thought the Earth to be spherical and imagined a perfectly spherical, unchanging universe of spheres centred on the Earth and carrying the planets...

  3. The burning fuse model of unbecoming in time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, John D.

    2015-11-01

    In the burning fuse model of unbecoming in time, the future is real and the past is unreal. It is used to motivate the idea that there is something unbecoming in the present literature on the metaphysics of time: its focus is merely the assigning of a label "real."

  4. The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Ruth E.

    2012-10-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: quantum peculiarities; 2. The map vs the territory; 3. The original TI: fundamentals; 4. The new possibilist TI: fundamentals; 5. Challenges, replies, and applications; 6. PTI and relativity; 7. The metaphysics of possibility; 8. PTI and 'spacetime'; 9. Epilogue: more than meets the eye; Appendixes; References; Index.

  5. On Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Shahn; Connes, With contributions by Alain; Heller, Michael; Penrose, Roger; Polkinghorne, John; Taylor, Andrew

    2008-09-01

    Preface; 1. The dark universe A. N. Taylor; 2. Quantum spacetime and physical reality S. Majid; 3. Causality, quantum theory and cosmology R. Penrose; 4. On the fine structure of spacetime A. Connes; 5. Where physics meets metaphysics M. Heller; 6. The nature of time J. C. Polkinghorne; Index.

  6. Is Nature Immaterial? The Possibilities for Environmental Education without an Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary thinking is generally based on substance, as opposed to process, metaphysics: in other words, the belief that the world and the universe are best understood in terms of material rather than events. The environment, for example, is conceived of as substantial; nature as a web of interconnected, if often fragile entities. In this…

  7. Incarnation: Radicalizing Embodiment of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-01-01

    As the end result of metaphysics, the Kantian and constructivist mind is not present in the world but withdrawn into the netherworld of its representations and constructions. First phenomenology then the embodied cognition research showed how there could be no cognition without the human body. There is something unsatisfying and lacking, however,…

  8. Ethics in Language: The Case from World Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhillon, Pradeep A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the significance of a Wittgensteinian approach to the ethics of language for world Englishes. Focuses on the role of metaphysics in the ethics of language and on the significance of context in the moral use of language. Argues that morality lies not only in its content but also in its use. (Author/VWL)

  9. On Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Shahn; Polkinghorne, With contributions by John; Penrose, Roger; Taylor, Andrew; Connes, Alain; Heller, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Preface; 1. The dark universe A. N. Taylor; 2. Quantum spacetime and physical reality S. Majid; 3. Causality, quantum theory and cosmology R. Penrose; 4. On the fine structure of spacetime A. Connes; 5. Where physics meets metaphysics M. Heller; 6. The nature of time J. C. Polkinghorne; Index.

  10. Gifted Students and Philosophy: The Sound of a Tree Falling in a Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David A.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes use of the George Berkeley's philosophical writings to examine the question of whether a tree falling in the forest, with no one around, makes a sound. Examples from his readings are used to stimulate discussion of gifted students about questions of epistemology and metaphysics. Suggestions for curricular integration of this…

  11. The Sacred Circle: A Process Pedagogy of Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnier, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The process pedagogy proposed here, based on Canadian Plains Indians' Sacred Circle teaching and educational practices at an aboriginal high school, views healing as transition toward meaning, wholeness, connectedness, and balance. The paper examines Whitehead's criticism of western metaphysics, the Sacred Circle as expression of aboriginal…

  12. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  13. Consciousness in the Study of Human Life and Experience: "Higher Aspects" and Their Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witz, Klaus G.; Lee, Hyunju; Huang, Wanju

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the consciousness in a person when one tries to understand her more deeply and as a whole, as is done in studies using the "Participant as Ally-Essentialist Portraiture" approach, and focuses on "higher aspects" or moral-ethical, metaphysical, social and religious ideals, values, commitments, or inspiration in a person. The…

  14. Sport as Yoga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael

    1977-01-01

    The author has written a metaphysical sports fantasy and completed a novel which explores evolutionary transformations of the mind and body. Now he is working on a long-term research project exploring radical bodily transformations occurring in various fields of human experience. This article on sport is part of that project. (Editor/RK)

  15. William James's Moral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Wesley

    2003-01-01

    James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…

  16. The Constructs of Wisdom in Human Development and Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Vana R.

    Classical and contemporary research studies were examined to develop a definition of wisdom and explore its constructs in human development and consciousness. First, wisdom was defined as an emergent characteristic of mature adults that is built upon intelligence, experience, and reflection and includes metaphysical and cognitive components.…

  17. Relating to Nature: Deep Ecology or Ecofeminism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Freya

    1994-01-01

    This essay begins with an examination of the metaphysical axioms of deep ecology. It is argued that the axioms generate a fundamental dilemma for deep ecologists and that in attempting to resolve this dilemma, it is necessary to draw on an ethical perspective more akin to that found in ecofeminist literature. (LZ)

  18. Management of Giant Cell Tumour Radius in a Three Year old Child with an Improvised Technique

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Ajay; Gulia, Ashish; Sharma, Seema; Verma, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    Giant cell tumours of immature skeleton have a very low incidence and epi-metaphyseal location. We are presenting giant cell tumour distal radius in a skeletally immature patient; an uncontained defect with a large soft tissue component which was managed by wide excision and reconstruction with an improvised technique. PMID:25654002

  19. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  20. The Debate Continues: Further Evidence of Discontinuity in Dewey's Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prawat, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Responds to a critique of a thesis that Dewey underwent a dramatic midcareer change in his philosophy and that this change drew heavily on Pierce's metaphysics, offering additional evidence to support the claim that comparison of the 1910 and 1933 versions of "How We Think" reveals a major change in Dewey's views about inductionism. New…

  1. Philosophy of Education in a Poor Historical Moment: A Personal Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur-Zeev, Ilan

    2011-01-01

    Under the post-metaphysical sky "old" humanistic-oriented education is possible solely at the cost of its transformation into its negative, into a power that is determined to diminish human potentials for self-exaltation. Nothing less than total metamorphosis is needed to rescue the core of humanistic genesis: the quest for edifying Life and…

  2. Encyclopedia as Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallo, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the…

  3. Shaking Religious Education: A New Look at the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameniar, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of religious education practice through the literature that informs it. It engages Derrida's critique of the "metaphysics of presence" (1982a) to develop a theoretical framework for a new look at the ways in which different approaches to religious education represent religion and racial difference. The…

  4. The Tacitness of Tacitus. A Methodological Approach to European Thought. No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard

    This study measured the analysis of verbal flows by means of volume-elasticity measures and the analysis of information flow structures and their representations in the form of a metaphysical cube. A special purpose system of computer programs (PERTEX) was used to establish the language space in which the textual flow patterns occurred containing…

  5. Alienated Labor and the Quality of Teachers' Lives: How Teachers in Low-Performing Schools Experience Their Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesson, Kathleen

    This paper focuses on how teachers in city schools are experiencing the labor process. It summarizes the concept of alienation, beginning with Hegel's metaphysical teleology, which was overturned by Feuerback and found its historical materialist expression in Marx's theory of alienated labor. The paper then revisits some of the work of critical…

  6. Philosophical Foundations of Reform in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babarinde, Kola

    2008-01-01

    Kola Babarinde's article opens with a quotation on the theory of change credited to one of the master of classical tradition in the history of the idea. Heraclitus of Ephesus flourished about 500 B.C. Although, little is known about him, he became famous for his metaphysical doctrine that everything is in a state of flux, his comparing all things…

  7. Traumatic proximal tibiofibular dislocation.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J; Alvarez-Montero, R; Gonzalez-Herranz, P; Rapariz, J M

    1997-01-01

    Proximal tibiofibular dislocation is an exceptional lesion. Rarer still is its presentation in childhood. We describe the clinical case of a 6-year-old boy, the victim of a road accident. He had a tibiofibular dislocation associated with a metaphyseal fracture of the tibia.

  8. Neoliberal Ideology and Democratic Learning. A Response to "Challenging Freedom: Neoliberalism and the Erosion of Democratic Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery James; Ramirez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    In "Challenging Freedom: Neoliberalism and the Erosion of Democratic Education," the author suggests that the presumed decline of democratic learning in public schooling follows from two primary forces: (a) the metaphysical implications of Cartesian psychophysical dualism that support an ontological understanding of the self as distinct…

  9. Militarism's Killing Fields: From Gaza to Ferguson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Militarization and a military definition of life and culture have become normalized in the United States. This article explores the ways in which a military metaphysics has become the new normal for a nation not only at war abroad but also at home, especially with regards to the ongoing assaults waged by the state against youth, immigrants, and…

  10. Aristotle for nursing.

    PubMed

    Allmark, Peter

    2016-07-25

    This article aims: (1) to introduce the wider philosophy of Aristotle to nurses and healthcare practitioners; (2) to show that Aristotle's philosophical system is an interdependent whole; and (3) to defend its plausibility and usefulness despite its ancient and alien origins. Aristotle's system can be set out as a hierarchy, with metaphysics at the top and methodology running throughout. Beneath metaphysics are the sciences, with theoretical, practical and productive (or craft) sciences in hierarchical order. This hierarchy does not imply that, say, metaphysics is superior to biology or nursing, but rather that metaphysics can be understood without reference to the other two but, as we shall see, not vice versa. Two themes run through Aristotelian philosophy. The first is Aristotle's method of inquiry, central to which is that our starting point is not pure empirical data, but rather current puzzles; complementing this method is a realist philosophy. The second theme is teleology, the understanding of action in the world in terms of ends, as when we say a plant grows roots to reach water and nutrients.

  11. So, What Is the Answer? Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Don

    2005-01-01

    Leaders are barraged daily by teachers, administrators, and students seeking answers to questions ranging from the simplistic to the metaphysical in their complexity. The author is sure leaders wonder at times, "How in the world can I free up enough time to answer them all?" Well, the author states that he hates to break the news, but it is…

  12. Secular and religious: the intrinsic doubleness of analytical psychology and the hegemony of naturalism in the social sciences.

    PubMed

    Main, Roderick

    2013-06-01

    In recent years a number of prominent social theorists, including Jürgen Habermas and Charles Taylor, have voiced concern about the hegemony of naturalistic, secular assumptions in the social sciences, and in their different ways have sought to address this by establishing greater parity between secular and religious perspectives. This paper suggests that C.G. Jung's analytical psychology, which hitherto has been largely ignored by social theory, may have something to contribute on this issue as it can be understood coherently both empirically, without reference to transcendent reality, and metaphysically, with reference to transcendent reality. It is argued that, despite his denials of any metaphysical intent, Jung does in fact engage in metaphysics and that together the empirical and metaphysical vectors of his thought result in a rich and distinctive double perspective. This dual secular and religious perspective can be seen as part of Jung's own critique of the hegemony of naturalism and secularism, which for Jung has profound social as well as clinical relevance. The concern and approach that Habermas and Taylor share with Jung on this issue may provide some grounds for increased dialogue between analytical psychology and the social sciences.

  13. Language, Empathy, Archetype: Action-Metaphors of the Transcendental in Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory to explain the remarkable emotional power of our response to abstract music. It reviews and rejects metaphysical arguments derived from notions of a divine spiritual realm and from absolute forms of human reason. Its conclusion is that musical experience is always essentially inter-subjective and potentially…

  14. Is the World Local or Nonlocal? Towards an Emergent Quantum Mechanics in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walleczek, Jan; Grössing, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    What defines an emergent quantum mechanics (EmQM)? Can new insight be advanced into the nature of quantum nonlocality by seeking new links between quantum and emergent phenomena as described by self-organization, complexity, or emergence theory? Could the development of a future EmQM lead to a unified, relational image of the cosmos? One key motivation for adopting the concept of emergence in relation to quantum theory concerns the persistent failure in standard physics to unify the two pillars in the foundations of physics: quantum theory and general relativity theory (GRT). The total contradiction in the foundational, metaphysical assumptions that define orthodox quantum theory versus GRT might render inter-theoretic unification impossible. On the one hand, indeterminism and non-causality define orthodox quantum mechanics, and, on the other hand, GRT is governed by causality and determinism. How could these two metaphysically-contradictory theories ever be reconciled? The present work argues that metaphysical contradiction necessarily implies physical contradiction. The contradictions are essentially responsible also for the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. A common foundation may be needed for overcoming the contradictions between the two foundational theories. The concept of emergence, and the development of an EmQM, might help advance a common foundation - physical and metaphysical - as required for successfull inter-theory unification.

  15. Chrysalis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John

    1977-01-01

    In an outpouring of metaphysical anguish, Adrian Redman exhorts his companion, his own pilgrim self, and an uncompassionate society to forego the dichotomy of creativity/conformity--the necessity of absolute choice--in favor of spontaneity, freedom, and joy in the unique development of each individual from a (metaphorical) pupa to a butterfly.…

  16. Darwinian Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhart, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Be it metaphysics, theology, or some other unifying framework, humans have long sought to determine "first principles" underlying knowledge. Larry Arnhart continues in this vein, positing a Darwinian web of genetic, cultural, and cognitive evolution to explain our social behavior in terms of human nature as governed by biology. He leaves it to us…

  17. Distinguishing Science from Philosophy: A Critical Assessment of Thomas Nagel's Recommendation for Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammey, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to argue that while a discussion of the nature of human knowledge might be a worthy goal to pursue in public education, the science classroom is not the appropriate place for this discussion. The concern that no claims to knowledge--including scientific claims--are void of a metaphysical and epistemological…

  18. Grist to the Mill of Anti-Evolutionism: The Failed Strategy of Ruling the Supernatural out of Science by Philosophical Fiat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudry, Maarten; Blancke, Stefaan; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    According to a widespread philosophical opinion, science is strictly limited to investigating natural causes and putting forth natural explanations. Lacking the tools to evaluate supernatural claims, science must remain studiously neutral on questions of metaphysics. This (self-imposed) stricture, which goes under the name of "methodological…

  19. The Philosophical Roots of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Rosa B.

    The philosophical roots of the concept of lifelong learning are considered in relation to the views of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They pioneered in their analyses of intellectual development and in the importance of the use of the mind throughout the life span. Plato and Aristotle added metaphysical arguments to support their systems of…

  20. Acknowledging the Religious Beliefs Students Bring into the Science Classroom: Using the Bounded Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southerland, Sherry A.; Scharmann, Lawrence C.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific knowledge often appears to contradict many students' religious beliefs. Indeed, the assumptions of science appear contradictory to the metaphysical claims of many religions. This conflict is most evident in discussions of biological evolution. Teachers, in attempts to limit the controversy, often avoid this topic or teach it…

  1. Development of a Radar-Frequency Metamaterial Measurement and Characterization Apparatus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    treatises of Physics. Physics dealt with physical phenomena and Metaphysics, logically, dealt with consciousness , thought, existence of self and of God [3...principles of quantum physics. However, the popular expectations of metamaterial science imply the opposite in that the higher- level phenomena of the

  2. Kazakh Philosophy: From Abai to Shakarim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydykov, Yerlan B.; Nysanbayev, Abdumalik N.; Kurmanbaev, Erbol A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence of Shakarim--a follower of Abai--on Kazakh philosophy, his worldview and opinion of existential issues. The specifics of the problem under consideration required taking a synthetic approach to the use of various methods in this research. A synthesis of dialectical, metaphysical, rational,…

  3. The Border Pedagogy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Border pedagogy is a multicultural educational approach utilized in multicultural settings to help students understand their histories and experiences and how it affects their identities and cultures. The approach seeks to produce intellectuals that transcend physical and metaphysical boundaries. The goal of border pedagogy is to remove cultural…

  4. Future Technoscientific Education: Atheism and Ethics in a Globalizing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Colin D.

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to assess the claim that the unum necessarium in our time is the general dissemination of scientific knowledge because liberal civilization or the "good society" cannot be had in the presence of traditional religion and "metaphysics." The paper attempts to place this claim in the context of continuing globalization and…

  5. The Weberian Legacy of Thom Greenfield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie

    1996-01-01

    Traces through Thomas Greenfield's work his use of Max Weber's interpretive social analysis, including Weber's view of the individual unit of analysis, value topologies, comparative history methods, and analytical ideal topologies. Compares Greenfield's and Weber's metaphysical assumptions, ontological perspectives, and epistemological frameworks.…

  6. Children's Gestures and the Embodied Knowledge of Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Thom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    There is mounting research evidence that contests the metaphysical perspective of knowing as mental process detached from the physical world. Yet education, especially in its teaching and learning practices, continues to treat knowledge as something that is necessarily and solely expressed in ideal verbal form. This study is part of a funded…

  7. Shakespeare and the Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, D. J.

    Departing from the tendency to dwell extensively on the symbolism in Shakespeare's plays and to see the works as metaphysical formulations, studies in this book focus on his work as "plays about people"--their reactions as real people to possible situations. Four plays are examined, scene by scene: (1) "King Lear" and the Just…

  8. Social Theory, and Music and Music Education as Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of praxis, and thus the idea of music as praxis, is not widely known in the fields of music and music education. Nonetheless, musicians and music teachers typically take for granted as sacrosanct the noble sounding, metaphysical, even spiritual profundity of music hypothesized by mainstream aesthetic philosophies. Thus accounts of music…

  9. Weird Reality, Aesthetics, and Vitality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oral, Sevket Benhur

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the repercussions of a new metaphysics--speculative/weird realism--for education and pedagogy. A historic shift is taking place in present-day continental philosophy, which involves an explicit and renewed call for "realism." One of the most salient features of this development is a revitalised interest in…

  10. The Emergence of Cosmic Education. Spotlight: Cosmic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Sr. Christina Marie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the influence of Hindu, Moslem, and Buddhist metaphysics on Maria Montessori's own pedagogical philosophy of Cosmic Education, which she regarded as the core of all learning experiences, after her visit to India. Considers the relationship between Montessori's ideas of child development and Cosmic Education, and the effect of Indian…

  11. Philosophy and Gifted Students: Where Has the Time Gone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The second in a series on ways to introduce gifted students to philosophy, this article focuses on the importance of metaphysics. The nature of time is discussed through excerpts from "The Confessions" by St. Augustine and strategies are provided for engaging students in a discussion of his philosophy. (CR)

  12. The Inner (and Unavoidable?) Violence of Reason: Re-Reading Heidegger via Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agnese, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Since Plato, Western thought has framed knowing as a method within "some realm of what is" and a predetermined "sphere of objects". The roots and the consequences of this stance towards reason and truth were noted by Heidegger, who equates the history of Western thought with the history of metaphysics. Since Plato, truth has…

  13. Sophocles' "Oedipus Rex": A Deconstructive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhter, Javed; Muhammad, Khair; Naz, Naila

    2015-01-01

    Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) is the most prominent figure in contemporary philosophical and literary debate. He originates a trend-breaking theory of deconstruction. He opines the persistence in west European philosophical tradition of what he labels is logocentric metaphysics of presence. He argues that the different theories of philosophy, from…

  14. Learning about Learning: A Conundrum and a Possible Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    What is it to learn in the modern world? We can identify four "learning epochs" through which our understanding of learning has passed: a metaphysical view; an empirical view; an experiential view; and, currently, a "learning-amid-contestation" view. In this last and current view, learning has its place in a world in which, the more one learns,…

  15. Growth arrest lines and intra-epiphyseal silhouettes: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Growth arrest lines can develop within the skeleton after physiological stress or trauma. They are usually evident on radiographs as transverse lines in the metaphyses and have been used in fields from palaeontology to orthopaedics. This report consists of three cases, two of which describe growth arrest lines in an intra-epiphyseal site hitherto rarely documented, and a third demonstrating their clinical application. Case presentation Case 1 describes a 9-year-old who suffered a knee hyperflexion injury requiring anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament reattachments. She subsequently developed a marked distal femoral intra-epiphyseal arrest silhouette, as well as metaphyseal arrest lines in the femur, tibia and fibula. Case 2 describes an 8-year-old who sustained a tibial spine fracture and underwent open reduction and internal fixation. Subsequent imaging shows a further example of femoral intra-epiphyseal arrest silhouette as well as tibia and fibula metaphyseal arrest lines. Case 3 describes a 10-year-old who sustained a distal tibia fracture which was managed with open reduction and internal fixation. Subsequently the metaphyseal growth arrest line was parallel to the physis, suggesting no growth arrest (a danger with such a fracture). Conclusion This case series describes two examples of rarely described intra-epiphyseal growth arrest silhouettes and demonstrates the usefulness of arrest lines when assessing for growth plate damage. PMID:24410952

  16. The Ethical Foundation of Critical Pedagogy in Contemporary Academia: (Self)-Reflection and Complicity in the Process of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabikowska, Marta

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an ethical approach to educational methodology is discussed in relation to the philosophies of Emanuel Levinas and Robert Cox. Cox's anti-essentialist understanding of historical materialism and Levinas' metaphysical idealism are applied to an analysis of the (self)-reflective methods required today in Higher Education in the UK,…

  17. The Individualist? The Autonomy of Reason in Kant's Philosophy and Educational Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Immanuel Kant is often viewed by educational theorists as an individualist, who put education on "an individual track," paving the way for political liberal conceptions of education such as that of John Rawls. One can easily find evidence for such a view, in "Answer to the Question: "What is Enlightenment?"," as well as in his more metaphysical,…

  18. Heidegger and Nietzsche; the Question of Value and Nihilism in Relation to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a philosophical analysis of Heidegger and Nietzsche's approach to metaphysics and the associated problems of nihilism. Discusses the two philosophers offer a critique of Humanism while upholding education as the wellspring of values in society. Concludes that ethical evaluation of new forms of knowledge is crucial to human…

  19. The Art of Self-Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Metaphysically speaking, the idea of self-reflection has been the subject of discussion for thousands of years. The idea carried human beings through the Renaissance, and an entire movement tied to it sparked a sociopolitical movement called the Enlightenment. In more recent times, thought leaders such as Immanuel Kant, Karl Marx, and Sigmund…

  20. "The Social Responsibility of the Social Scientist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Bernard C.

    Although social scientists are often adjured to become more "scientific," they might well remember a phenomenon described by Arthur Lovejoy as "metaphysical pathos" or the set of sentiments with which every theory is associated and which are congruent with the mood or deep lying sentiment of its adherents. Examples from the past include the Social…

  1. The philosophy of Kitaro Nishida and current concepts of the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Ko

    2003-05-01

    The philosophy of Kitaro Nishida is a basic metaphysics that intends to have a perspective beyond both Eastern and Western traditions. Nishida holds that the fundamental reality of the world appears from "the place of the absolute nothingness." Nishida's thought can be seen to have striking relationships to certain aspects of contemporary science and philosophy.

  2. On the Origins, Stages and Prospects of the Kazakh Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydykov, Yerlan B.; Nysanbaev, Abdumalik N.; Tuleshov, Valikhan T.

    2016-01-01

    Perception of a single chain of the Kazakh history as the history of their ethnic consciousness and self-awareness, and not as a history of the events or stories of artefacts presents the most important political task, which could be solved only through the metaphysical, philosophical synthesis of views from the primitive to modern times. The…

  3. COMMUNICATION THEORY - A WHITEHEADIAN BASIS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An attempt is made to determine the adequacy of Whitehead’s metaphysical scheme in interpreting a recent theory of human communication . The theory...is offered by a trio of psychologists who arrive at their insights of human behavior via the study of human communication . (Author)

  4. Counter-Colonial and Philosophical Claims: An Indigenous Observation of Western Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Providing an indigenous opinion on anything is a difficult task. To be sure, there is a multitude of possible indigenous responses to dominant Western philosophy. My aim in this paper is to assess dominant analytic Western philosophy in light of the general insistence of most indigenous authors that indigenous metaphysics is holistic, and to make…

  5. Chiasmus as a Stylistic Device in Donne's and Vaughan's Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    I'jam, Dunya Muhammad Miqdad; Fadhil, Zahraa Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates chiasmus as a stylistic device in ten metaphysical poems (five for John Donne and five for Henry Vaughan). It aims at showing how both, Donne and Vaughan, utilize chiasmus at the different linguistic levels as a stylistic device in their poetry. Thus, to achieve this aim, it is hypothesized that chiasmus as used by Donne…

  6. Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, T.

    2009-01-01

    METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

  7. Ross Educational Philosophical Inventory (REPI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Colvin

    The introduction to the manual states that the purpose of this test is to determine a person's philosophy and measure the strength to which it is held. This is accomplished by quantifying and weighing responses to metaphysical, epistemological, and axiological statements taken from the philosophical systems of idealism, realism, pragmatism, and…

  8. The Teacher and His Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, John P.

    This book presents a case for educational philosophy and outlines the essentials of Idealism, Realism, Perennialism, Pragmatism, and Existentialism. Each system is described in detail with enough of its history to give it continuity and relate it to the classic subdivisions of philosophy, namely: metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, ethics,…

  9. Exploring Values and Personal and Social Development: Learning through Expeditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Peter; Von Wald, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Travel and overseas experiences, particularly those involving some form of outdoor education, are regarded by many young people, parents, university admissions and employers as somehow beneficial to a young person's development. Often, expedition experiences are happening at crucial times in life (the teen years) when metaphysical (rather than…

  10. Evidence for regulation of cartilage differentiation by the homeobox gene Hoxc-8

    PubMed Central

    Yueh, Y. Gloria; Gardner, David P.; Kappen, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    Homeobox genes of the Hox class are required for proper patterning of skeletal elements, but how they regulate the differentiation of specific tissues is unclear. We show here that overexpression of a Hoxc-8 transgene causes cartilage defects whose severity depends on transgene dosage. The abnormal cartilage is characterized by an accumulation of proliferating chondrocytes and reduced maturation. Since Hoxc-8 is normally expressed in chondrocytes, these results suggest that Hoxc-8 continues to regulate skeletal development well beyond pattern formation in a tissue-specific manner, presumably by controlling the progression of cells along the chondrocyte differentiation pathway. The comparison to Hoxd-4 and Isl-1 indicates that this role in chondrogenesis is specific to proteins of the Hox class. Their capacity for regulation of cartilage differentiation suggests that Hox genes could also be involved in human chondrodysplasias or other cartilage disorders. PMID:9707582

  11. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population.

    PubMed

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  12. Characterization of a gene from the EDM1-PSACH region of human chromosome 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, G.G.; Giorgi, D.; Martin, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Genetic linkage mapping has indicated that both multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (EDM1), a dominantly inherited chondrodysplasia, and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH), a skeletal disorder associated with dwarfism, map to a 2-3 Mb region of human chromosome 19p. We have isolated a partial cDNA from this region using hybrid selection, and report on progress towards the characterization of the genomic structure and transcription of the corresponding gene. Sequence analysis of the cDNA to date indicates that this gene is likely to be expressed within extracellular matrix tissues. Defects in this gene or neighboring gene family members may therefore lead to EDM1, PSACH, or other connective tissue and skeletal disorders.

  13. Living with inborn errors of cholesterol biosynthesis: lessons from adult patients.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, M L; Barbosa, M; Serra, D; Martins, E; Fortuna, A; Reis-Lima, M; Bandeira, A; Balreira, A; Marques, F

    2014-02-01

    In the last decades, nine inherited errors of the distal part of cholesterol biosynthesis have been recognized. Affected patients present complex malformation syndromes involving different organs and systems with variable degrees of severity. We report on the phenotype evolution of three patients with enzymatic defects at three distinct steps of such pathway: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata type 2 and congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects syndrome. The patients' natural history, from childhood to adulthood, is thoroughly described in order to contribute for a better knowledge of these diseases. Our ultimate goals are to contribute for a better characterization of the long-term course of these metabolic disorders and for the recognition of such diseases in older patients.

  14. Human Genetic Disorders and Knockout Mice Deficient in Glycosaminoglycan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are constructed through the stepwise addition of respective monosaccharides by various glycosyltransferases and maturated by epimerases and sulfotransferases. The structural diversity of GAG polysaccharides, including their sulfation patterns and sequential arrangements, is essential for a wide range of biological activities such as cell signaling, cell proliferation, tissue morphogenesis, and interactions with various growth factors. Studies using knockout mice of enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the GAG side chains of proteoglycans have revealed their physiological functions. Furthermore, mutations in the human genes encoding glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and related enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of GAGs cause a number of genetic disorders including chondrodysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. This review focused on the increasing number of glycobiological studies on knockout mice and genetic diseases caused by disturbances in the biosynthetic enzymes for GAGs. PMID:25126564

  15. Identification of a Novel Mutation in the COL2A1 Gene in a Chinese Family with Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Congenita

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiangjun; Deng, Xiong; Xu, Hongbo; Wu, Song; Yuan, Lamei; Yang, Zhijian; Yang, Yan; Deng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an autosomal dominant chondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short-trunk dwarfism, skeletal and vertebral deformities. Exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were performed in a Chinese Han family with typical SEDC, and a novel mutation, c.620G>A (p.Gly207Glu), in the collagen type II alpha-1 gene (COL2A1) was identified. The mutation may impair protein stability, and lead to dysfunction of type II collagen. Family-based study suggested that the mutation is a de novo mutation. Our study extends the mutation spectrum of SEDC and confirms genotype-phenotype relationship between mutations at glycine in the triple helix of the alpha-1(II) chains of the COL2A1 and clinical findings of SEDC, which may be helpful in the genetic counseling of patients with SEDC. PMID:26030151

  16. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  17. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sasalawad, Shilpa S; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Poonacha, K S; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-07-09

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome or chondroectodermal dysplasia is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic clinical manifestations. The four principal characteristics are chondrodysplasia, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and congenital heart defects. Its incidence in the general population is low. The oral manifestations of EvC syndrome include both soft tissues and teeth, but the dental literature on the subject is scarce. The present case describes the constant and variable oral findings in these patients, which can be diagnosed at any age, even during pregnancy. The presence of a variety of oral manifestations, such as fusion of upper lip to the gingival margin, presence of multiple frenula, abnormally shaped and microdontic teeth and congenitally missing teeth requires multidisciplinary dental treatment, with consideration for the high incidence of cardiac defects in these patients.

  18. Type II collagenopathies: Are there additional family members?

    SciTech Connect

    Freisinger, P.; Pontz, B.F.; Emmrich, P.; Stoess, H.; Bonaventure, J.

    1996-05-03

    The type II collagenopathies represent a group of chondrodysplasia sharing clinical and radiological manifestations which are expressed as a continuous spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from perinatally lethal to very mild conditions. Their common molecular bases are mutations in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). We describe one case of lethal platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type, and a variant of lethal Kniest dysplasia, neither of which has been reported as a type II collagenopathy. Biochemical studies of cartilage collagens and morphological analysis of cartilage sections suggest that abnormalities of type II collagen structure and biosynthesis are the main pathogenetic factors in both cases. Thus, the phenotypic spectrum of type II collagenopathies might be greater than hitherto suspected. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  19. A specific collagen type II gene (COL2A1) mutation presenting as spondyloperipheral dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, B.; Hilbert, K.; Spranger, J.; Winterpacht, A.; Stoeb, H.; Superti-Furga, A.

    1996-05-03

    We report on a patient with a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, spondylo-epiphyseal involvement, and brachydactyly E-like changes. This condition has been described as spondyloperipheral dysplasia and the few published cases suggest autosomal dominant inheritance with considerable clinical variability. We found our sporadic case to be due to a collagen type II defect resulting from a specific COL2A1 mutation. This mutation is the first to be located at the C-terminal outside the helical domain of COL2A1. A frameshift as consequence of a 5 bp duplication in exon 51 leads to a stop codon. The resulting truncated C-propeptide region seems to affect helix formation and produces changes of chondrocyte morphology, collagen type II fibril structure and cartilage matrix composition. Our case with its distinct phenotype adds another chondrodysplasia to the clinical spectrum of type II collagenopathies. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    PubMed Central

    Enderle, A

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and achondroplasia. Most of those with gigantism had pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. Brothers and sisters or parents and their children provided evidence of mendelian inheritance of some of these disorders. The cards suggest that being put on show provided, at least in some cases, social benefits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9764085