Science.gov

Sample records for school climate effects

  1. Expectancy Climate and School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; Bloom, Susan

    Two questionnaire surveys of 89 Kansas public elementary and secondary schools examined, first, the relationship between school expectancy climate--teachers' expectations that their efforts would lead to positive student results--and school effectiveness, and, second, the change in that relationship through the school year. School effectiveness…

  2. School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; And Others

    Chapter 8 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter defines school climate and suggests ways to improve the learning environment at the school building level. School climate is defined as the feeling an individual gets from experiences within a school system. More specifically, climate is the composite of norms, expectations, and…

  3. Improving School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Edgar A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    School climate improvements rely either on changes in the school's culture or changes in perceptions of the climate held by the school's employees and clients. To maintain and develop a culture that is supportive of school effectiveness, it is important to monitor the influence of the school's climate on student outcomes. The National Association…

  4. Measuring School Climate: Using Existing Data Tools on Climate and Effectiveness to Inform School Organizational Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Rachel E.; Bettencourt, Amie; Connolly, Faith

    2014-01-01

    Despite--or perhaps due to--the lack of consensus on its definition, there is abundant interest in and research on school climate. Researchers have determined that improving school climate is one way to increase academic achievement, school safety, school completion, teacher retention, healthy social interactions, and student well-being (Cohen,…

  5. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs.

  6. Assessing School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan; Pickeral, Terry; McCloskey, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Compelling empirical research shows that a positive and sustained school climate promotes students' academic achievement and healthy development. Not surprisingly, a positive school climate also promotes teacher retention, which itself enhances student success. Yet the knowledge of the effects of school climate on learning has not been translated…

  7. Parsonian Influence and the Effect of School Climate and Bureaucracy on the Perceived Effectiveness in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVey, Deidre

    2009-01-01

    School climate is a significant way to predict school achievement as a positive correlation to students' standardized test scores and also teachers' perceptions of bureaucratic effectiveness and empowerment (Hoy, Tarter & Kottkamp, 1991; Sweetland & Hoy, 2000). Enabling bureaucracies are positively related to teacher empowering; however,…

  8. The Moderating Effects of School Climate on Bullying Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research…

  9. The Critical Role of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Swearer, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social…

  10. School Climate, Family Structure, and Academic Achievement: A Study of Moderation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Eklund, Katie

    2015-01-01

    School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family…

  11. The Effects of School Culture and Climate on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Angus J.; Prater, Doris L.; Busch, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Exemplary, Recognized and Acceptable schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory. Significant differences were found on all 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory, with Exemplary schools out-performing Acceptable…

  12. The Effects of School Climate Change on Student Success in a Fifth and Sixth Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kim M.

    2011-01-01

    The significance of the study was to examine intentional strategies to improve school climate relative to student school success as measured by academic achievement, attendance, and student behavior. It was important to understand how student school success was affected by factors related to school climate improvement such as leadership and change…

  13. Principals' Response to Change in Schools and Its Effect on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Steve; Johnson, Shirley; Robles-Piña, Rebecca; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the researchers examined principal behaviors related with change in school climate. That is, the manner in which principals managed change within their schools and the impact of these change behaviors on the school climate was investigated. Through use of the Leadership Profile (Johnson, 2003) and the Organizational Health Inventory…

  14. Climate Change Schools Project...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools…

  15. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  16. Assessing School Climate: An Important Step for Enhancing School Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witcher, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Current research supports the importance of positive school climate and the use of school-climate measures as school-effectiveness predictors. This article describes several instruments, including the Organizational Climate Index, the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire, the Effective School Battery, the Charles F. Kettering Ltd.…

  17. School climate, family structure, and academic achievement: a study of moderation effects.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L; Eklund, Katie

    2015-03-01

    School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family structure (i.e., two-parent, one-parent, foster-care, and homeless households), and academic performance (i.e., self-reported [grade point average] GPA). The present sample consisted of 902 California public high schools, including responses from over 490,000 students in Grades 9 and 11. Results indicated that, regardless of family structure, students with more positive school climate perceptions self-reported higher GPAs. Youths with two-parent, one-parent, and homeless family structures displayed stepwise, linear improvements in self-reported GPA as perceptions of climate improved. Foster-care students' positive school climate perceptions had a weaker effect on their self-reported GPA compared with students living in other family structures. A unique curvilinear trend was found for homeless students, as the relationship between their school climate perceptions and self-reported GPA was stronger at lower levels. Overall, the moderation effect of positive school climate perceptions on self-reported GPA was strongest for homeless youth and youth from one-parent homes, suggesting that school climate has a protective effect for students living in these family structures. A protective effect was not found for youth in foster-care. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  18. The Effects of Teacher Perceptions of Administrative Support, School Climate, and Academic Success in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lakishia N.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher turnover refers to major changes in teachers' assignments from one school year to the next. Past research has given an overview of several factors of teacher turnover. These factors include the school environment, teacher collaborative efforts, administrative support, school climate, location, salary, classroom management, academic…

  19. Academic Optimism and Organizational Climate: An Elementary School Effectiveness Test of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jonathan Bart

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two climate constructs in academic optimism and organizational climate as each relates to school effectiveness. Academic optimism is an academic environment comprised of three dimensions: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). The Organizational Climate…

  20. Educators' Perceptions of the Effects of School Uniforms on School Climate in a Selected Metropolitan Disciplinary Alternative Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chime, Emmanuel Onoh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine educators' perceptions regarding the effects of school uniforms on school climate in a selected metropolitan disciplinary alternative education program. More specifically, this study investigated the influence of the variables group status, gender, ethnicity, age and years of experience on the perceptions…

  1. Improvement of School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Sands Unified School District, Ridgecrest, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: As a part of its School Improvement Program, James Monroe Junior High School planned to improve its school climate. Since the physical school environment was devoid of landscaping and did not provide places for student socialization, all interested groups (PTSA, student council, students, staff, and…

  2. Summary of Existing School Climate Instruments for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, A.; Hanson, T.

    2012-01-01

    This information memo provides an annotated list of extant surveys used to assess school climate, classroom climate, or teacher effectiveness that are designed for use in middle schools. The purpose is to assist educators to select or design surveys to assess school climate in middle schools, with a particular focus on assessing student engagement…

  3. Relation of peer effects and school climate to substance use among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ryabov, Igor

    2015-07-01

    Using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Asian American late adolescents/young adults (ages 18-26), this article investigates the link between peer effects, school climate, on the one hand, and substance use, which includes tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit mood altering substance. The sample (N = 1585) is drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and III). The study is set to empirically test premises of generational, social capital and stage-environment fit theories. The exploratory variables include individual-level (immigrant generation status, ethnic origin, co-ethnic and co-generational peers - peers from the same immigrant generation) as well as school-level measures (average school socio-economic status and school climate). Multilevel modeling (logistic and negative binomial regression) was used to estimate substance use. Results indicate that preference for co-generational friends is inversely associated with frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use and preference for co-ethnic peers is inversely associated with other illicit drug use. We also find that school climate is a strong and negative predictor of frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use as well as of heavy episodic drinking. In terms of policy, these findings suggest that Asian American students should benefit from co-ethnic and co-generational peer networks in schools and, above all, from improving school climate.

  4. The Black Box Revelation: In Search of Conceptual Clarity regarding Climate and Culture in School Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houtte, Mieke; Van Maele, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1970s, school effectiveness research has looked for process-variables filling the black box between mainly structural school features and cognitive outcomes in students. Two concepts came to the fore: school climate and school culture. Both concepts are currently used interchangeably, although it is open to debate whether both are…

  5. The Effect of Community Involvement through PENCIL Partners on School Climate and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that community partnerships could have on school climate and, ultimately, student achievement. Specifically, community partnerships that were formed through the PENCIL (Public Education Needs Community Involvement and Leadership) Foundation in Nashville, Tennessee were researched to determine…

  6. The Relationship between School Climate, Trust, Enabling Structures, and Perceived School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayerson, Deborah R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of Deborah R. Mayerson was to assess the relative impact of climate, trust, and bureaucratic structure upon teachers' perceptions of organizational effectiveness. An existing data set compiled by Nancy Casella (2006) for her dissertation was analyzed. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of a random sample of 220 public school…

  7. Functions of parental involvement and effects of school climate on bullying behaviors among South Korean middle school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung

    2012-08-01

    This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a) bridging the negative experiences within the family with bullying behaviors at schools, and (b) influencing school climate. Bullying behaviors were measured by a modified Korean version of Olweus' bully/victim questionnaire (reliability range: .78-.84) from 1,238 randomly selected Korean middle school students in 2007. Findings from structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses showed that (a) individual traits are one of the most important influence on bullying, (b) negative experiences in the family do not have direct influence on bullying behaviors at school, (c) parental involvement influences school climate, and (d) positive school climate was negatively related to bullying behaviors.

  8. The Effects of School Climate on Student Achievement in Lower and Higher Performing Public and Charter Elementary Schools in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Aszure Emond

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of charter schools that exist has occurred due, in part, to expectations that are aimed toward producing better results through student achievement, as compared to traditional public schools. An abundance of professional literature has supported the concept that school climate is important in the effort to improve student…

  9. School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te

    2009-01-01

    The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating…

  10. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Effects on Pennsylvania High School Achievement, Discipline, and Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jon David

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and administrators are faced with managing the behaviors of students while preparing for the high stakes testing associated with the No Child Left Behind Act. One program that has demonstrated positive results at the elementary and middle school level is the school-wide positive behavior support model (SWPBS). Limited research is…

  11. LGB and questioning students in schools: the moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L; Koenig, Brian

    2009-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam, J School Health 62(7):352-357, 1992). This study examined how school contextual factors such as homophobic victimization and school climate influence negative outcomes in LGB and questioning middle school students. Participants were 7,376 7th and 8th grade students from a large Midwestern county (50.7% Female, 72.7% White, 7.7% Biracial, 6.9% Black, 5.2% Asian, 3.7% Hispanic, and 2.2% reported "other"). LGB and sexually questioning youth were more likely to report high levels of bullying, homophobic victimization, and various negative outcomes than heterosexual youth. Students who were questioning their sexual orientation reported the most bullying, the most homophobic victimization, the most drug use, the most feelings of depression and suicidality, and more truancy than either heterosexual or LGB students. A positive school climate and a lack of homophobic victimization moderated the differences among sexual orientation status and outcomes. Results indicate that schools have the ability to lessen negative outcomes for LGB and sexually questioning students through creating positive climates and reducing homophobic teasing.

  12. Alienation from Secondary School: The Effect of School Climate on Arab Israeli Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avi-Itzhak, Tamara E.

    1987-01-01

    Among Arab students in Israel, alienation is more closely related to their perceptions than to objective measures. Arab students, teachers, and principals from 36 schools were interviewed. The following four factors were used to measure alienation: (1) powerlessness, (2) meaninglessness, (3) misfeasance, and (4) self-estrangement. (LHW)

  13. Preparing Middle School Teachers to Use Science Models Effectively when Teaching about Weather and Climate Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarker, M. B.; Stanier, C. O.; Forbes, C.; Park, S.

    2012-12-01

    According to the National Science Education Standards (NSES), teachers are encouraged to use science models in the classroom as a way to aid in the understanding of the nature of the scientific process. This is of particular importance to the atmospheric science community because climate and weather models are very important when it comes to understanding current and future behaviors of our atmosphere. Although familiar with weather forecasts on television and the Internet, most people do not understand the process of using computer models to generate weather and climate forecasts. As a result, the public often misunderstands claims scientists make about their daily weather as well as the state of climate change. Therefore, it makes sense that recent research in science education indicates that scientific models and modeling should be a topic covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. The purpose of this research study is to describe how three middle school teachers use science models to teach about topics in climate and weather, as well as the challenges they face incorporating models effectively into the classroom. Participants in this study took part in a week long professional development designed to orient them towards appropriate use of science models for a unit on weather, climate, and energy concepts. The course design was based on empirically tested features of effective professional development for science teachers and was aimed at teaching content to the teachers while simultaneously orienting them towards effective use of science models in the classroom in a way that both aids in learning about the content knowledge as well as how models are used in scientific inquiry. Results indicate that teachers perceive models to be physical representations that can be used as evidence to convince students that the teacher's conception of the concept is correct. Additionally, teachers tended to use them as ways to explain an idea to

  14. Functions of Parental Involvement and Effects of School Climate on Bullying Behaviors among South Korean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a)…

  15. Perceptions of School Climate as a Function of Bullying Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Singleton, Demian; Schnurr, Britton; Collen, Mary Helen

    2014-01-01

    From a social-ecological perspective, bullying exists within the larger context of school climate. In this study, 2,240 middle and high school students participated in a districtwide effort to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying and cyberbullying, as well as perceptions of school climate. Students reported positive school climate…

  16. Gauging the System: Trends in School Climate Measurement and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Katz, Kristin; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and educators are giving increasing scrutiny to systems-level constructs that contribute to safe, supportive, and effective schools, including school climate. School climate is a multifaceted construct that is commonly conceptualized as school community members' subjective experiences of the structural and contextual elements of a…

  17. A Safe School Climate: A Systemic Approach and the School Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Thomas J.; Seem, Susan R.

    2004-01-01

    The climate of the school is central to the educational mission of a school (Anderson, 1998; Sherman et al., 1997; Jenkins, 1997; Lockwood, 1997). Anderson surveyed recent school safety research and found that altering a school's internal climate can have a significant positive effect on the feeling of safety in the school community. Gottfredson…

  18. The Effects of Motivational Climate Interventions on Psychobiosocial States in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio; Vitali, Francesca; Filho, Edson; Robazza, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of task- and ego-involving climate manipulations on students' climate perception and psychobiosocial (PBS) states in a physical education setting. Method: Two subsamples of female students (N = 108, 14-15 years of age) participated in 12 lessons on either a task-or an ego-involving…

  19. Educator Effectiveness Series: Assessing School Climate. Q&A with Jonathan Cohen, Ph.D. REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar discussed the elements in a positive school climate and shared different methods for assessing school data, including the Comprehensive School Climate Inventory. The Q&A presented in this document address the questions participants had for Dr. Cohen following the webinar. The webinar recording and PowerPoint…

  20. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed.

  1. Assessing School and Classroom Climate. A Consumer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arter, Judith A.

    School and classroom climate is often cited in effective schools research as being important for student achievement. This consumer guide is intended to help educators evaluate their own educational climate by providing reviews and descriptions of the major tests and surveys used to assess climate. Section 2 presents reasons for examining school…

  2. School Climate and Leadership: Levers for School Improvement Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Lois

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study considers which aspects of school climate support or inhibit student achievement as each aspect relates to school leadership and school reform efforts. Due to the increased responsibility and accountability which schools face during these challenging times, school climate and the role of the school principal formed the basis…

  3. School Climate as a Predictor of Incivility and Bullying among Public School Employees: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Joshua E.; Powell, Anna L.; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed public school educators on the workplace incivility and workplace bullying they experienced and obtained their ratings of the organizational climate of the school. We used multilevel modeling to determine the effects of individual-level and school-level predictors. Ratings of school climate were significantly related to incivility and…

  4. School Climate and Academic Achievement in Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulak, Tracey N.

    2016-01-01

    School climate research has indicated a relationship between the climate of a school and academic achievement. The majority of explanatory models have been developed in urban schools with less attention given to suburban schools. Due to the process of formation of suburban schools, there is a likelihood these campuses differ from the traditional…

  5. The "Basics" Relative to School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallich, Lynn R.

    School climate is defined as the norms, beliefs, and attitudes reflected in institutional patterns and practices that enhance or impede student achievement. Research findings support the notion that school learning climate is an important factor in determining academic outcomes. School climate is largely dependent on the leadership of the…

  6. Five Climate Control Techniques for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maurice J.

    1963-01-01

    There are many reasons for air-conditioning schools and among them are--(1) the improvement of learning and teaching efficiency, (2) effective use of the educational plant for a greater part of the year, and (3) more efficient use of space through compact building design. Five climate control techniques are cited as providing optimum…

  7. Academic self-efficacy mediates the effects of school psychological climate on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovač, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested.

  8. Teacher Safety and Authoritative School Climate in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Anne; Cornell, Dewey; Fan, Xitao

    2012-01-01

    Most research on school climate focuses on student well-being, with less attention on the safety of school faculty. The current study examined the relationship between an authoritative school climate (characterized by high levels of student support and disciplinary structure) and both teacher reports of victimization and school records of threats…

  9. Academic Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of School Psychological Climate on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…

  10. A Psychometric Evaluation of a Revised School Climate Teacher Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Ding, Cody; Berkowitz, Marvin W.; Bier, Melinda C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of school climate has been an important topic for education and it has been studied extensively over the past several decades. One of the challenges in such a research effort is to develop instruments that effectively and efficiently measure the construct. Literature has documented a number of school climate instruments, most of which…

  11. Inequalities in School Climate in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.; Huang, Kevin; Hanson, Thomas L.; Austin, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: School climate, or the physical and social conditions of the learning environment, has implications for academic achievement. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors examine how school climate varies by school-level characteristics in California using administrative data and the California School…

  12. Creating a Positive School Climate at the Junior High Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Vincent F.

    One of the seven correlates of an effective school, as identified by the Effective Schools Research, is a positive school climate: a positive attitude on the part of the entire staff and student body exhibited through overt behavior that creates a warm, orderly learning environment. Development of such an environment depends upon: (1) strong…

  13. The Relationship between School Climate, PATS Program Participation, and Organizational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Gordon E.; Butler, E. Dean

    In 1987, a school-university collaborative project, Positive Attitudes in Tennessee Schools (PATS), was established to improve school-learning environments. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the effect of school participation in PATS on school climate. A secondary focus was to determine which school-climate variables could…

  14. Authoritative School Climate and High School Dropout Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high…

  15. School Climate: Perceptual Differences between Students, Parents, and School Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Christine M.; Spira, Adam P.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Rebok, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that school climate can have a great impact on student, teacher, and school outcomes. However, it is often assessed as a summary measure, without taking into account multiple perspectives (student, teacher, parent) or examining subdimensions within the broader construct. In this study, we assessed school climate from the…

  16. Students' Perceptions of the School Climate: Implications for School Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Newcity, Janet

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed school climate for both interpersonal and intrapersonal character traits and examined the links between school climate and students' perceptions of safety at school. Sixty-four elementary and 159 secondary students completed questionnaires in the spring. Findings revealed that character traits were reliably assessed for both…

  17. Developing a Positive School Climate. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

    2009-01-01

    School leaders are often placed on the "hot seat" when negative images of the school, its staff, or its students appear in the local media. Such reports can strongly affect a school's public and image and, in turn, impact the climate both in the community and within the school itself. Sometimes these perceptions are not based on fact; however,…

  18. A Large Scale Study of the Assessment of the Social Environment of Middle and Secondary Schools: The Validity and Utility of Teachers' Ratings of School Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and Safety Problems for Understanding School Effects and School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D.; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young…

  19. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  20. The Effect of Improved School Climate over Time on Fifth-Grade Students' Achievement Assessment Scores and Teacher Administered Grade Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of improved school climate, as teachers' beliefs changed from negative to positive over time, on students' reading, math, and writing assessment scores and teacher administered grade scores in reading, math, and writing. Overall, findings indicate that lose, maintain, or improve…

  1. School Climate and Students' Early Mathematics Learning: Another Search for Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodovski, Katerina; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Walsh, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K)--a large, nationally representative sample of US elementary school students, we employed multilevel analysis to answer the following research questions: (a) Does students' mathematics achievement growth in grades K-3 vary among schools? (b) To what extent does…

  2. The Effect of a Zoo-Based Experiential Academic Science Program on High School Students' Math and Science Achievement and Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulkerrin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 11th-grade and 12th-grade zoo-based academic high school experiential science program compared to a same school-district school-based academic high school experiential science program on students' pretest and posttest science, math, and reading achievement, and student perceptions of…

  3. Empathy and Effortful Control Effects on Early Adolescents' Aggression: When Do Students' Perceptions of Their School Climate Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanova, Milena; Loukas, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the social emotional learning framework, this study examined whether early adolescents' social awareness (empathic concern, perspective taking) and self-management (effortful control) would uniquely contribute to early adolescents' subsequent forms of aggression, and whether perceptions of their school climate (friction, cohesion,…

  4. School Climate for Academic Success: A Multilevel Analysis of School Climate and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Darren; Davis, Jonathan Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationship between school climate and academic achievement. Using the Educational Longitudinal Survey (ELS, 2002), and a sample of 16,258 students and 1954 schools nationwide, we found that student-level perception of school climate--especially the student learning environment--was highly predictive of academic…

  5. Climate Change: Creating an Integrated Framework for Improving School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report from the Alliance finds that schools that struggle most with providing a positive school climate more often disproportionately serve students of color and low-income students. It also confirms that students of color and students from low-income families are less likely to have access to rigorous course work and experienced teachers,…

  6. The Impact of School Climate on School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, J. Eric; Garner, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide insight into an elementary school whose climate issues appear to plague and impact it's performance as measured by it's Annually Yearly Progress (AYP). The Northwest Georgia elementary school is located in a rural school system approximately 50 miles northwest of Atlanta, Georgia. A review of the…

  7. Toward a Knowledge Base for School Climate in Cyprus's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashiardis, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to explore and analyze secondary school students' (8th grade) perceptions about school climate in three areas, namely: the physical environment of the school, the social environment and the learning environment Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire, which was designed and pilot-tested around the…

  8. LGB and Questioning Students in Schools: The Moderating Effects of Homophobic Bullying and School Climate on Negative Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam,…

  9. Schools of the Pacific rainfall climate experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postawko, S. E.; Morrissey, M. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Mouginis-Mark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The SPaRCE program is a cooperative rainfall climate field project involving high school and college level students and teachers from various Pacific island and atoll nations. The goals of the SPaRCE program are: (1) to foster interest and increase understanding among Pacific-area students and teachers of climate and climate change; (2) to educate the students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall in the Pacific area to climate studies; (3) to provide the students and teachers an opportunity of making a major contribution to the global climate research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific rainfall data; and (4) to incorporate collected rainfall observations into a comprehensive Pacific daily rainfall data base to be used for climate research purposes. Schools participating in SPaRCE have received standard raingauges with which to measure rainfall at their sites. Students learned to site and use their raingauges by viewing a video produced at the University of Oklahoma. Four more videos will be produced which will include information on Earth's atmosphere, global climate and climate change, regional climate and implications of climate change, and how to analyze and use the rainfall data they are collecting. The videos are accompanied by workbooks which summarize the main points of each video, and contain concrete learning activities to help the student better understand climate and climate change. Following each video, interactive sessions are held with the students using the PEACESAT (Pan-Pacific Education And Communication Experiments by Satellite) satellite radio communication system.

  10. Self-Regulatory Climate: A Positive Attribute of Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Ware, Jordan K.; Miskell, Ryan C.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the development of a positive framework for effective public schools in 2 ways. First, it advances the construct self-regulatory climate as consisting of 3 generative school norms--collective faculty trust in students, collective student trust in teachers, and student-perceived academic emphasis. The authors argue these…

  11. School Climate: Research, Policy, Practice, and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan; McCabe, Libby; Michelli, Nicholas M.; Pickeral, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Educators have written about and studied school climate for 100 years. School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is based on patterns of people's experiences of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational…

  12. Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; McGuire, Jenifer K; Russell, Stephen T

    2012-02-01

    Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined student- and school-level effects on students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers. We found that older students, bisexual youth, Latino youth, and youth who experienced school violence perceived their gender nonconforming male peers to be less safe. Similarly, we found that older students and students who experienced school violence and harassment due to gender nonconformity perceived their gender nonconforming female peers to be less safe. At the school-level, we found that when schools included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in the curriculum and had a Gay-Straight Alliance, students perceived their schools as safer for gender nonconforming male peers.

  13. Reducing School Violence: School-Based Curricular Programs and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.

  14. Interplay among School Climate, Gender, Attitude toward Mathematics, and Mathematics Performance of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namok; Chang, Mido

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the important factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students in middle schools by hierarchically specifying the personal and contextual variables. The study focused on the effect of school climate at the class level and the effects of student gender, attitude toward mathematics, educational aspiration, parent…

  15. Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Lifelines project aims to establish a network of practicing high school teachers actively using climate change curricula by creating professional learning communities (PLCs) of teachers who, through remote meetings and workshops, maintain ongoing communication and sharing of best practices among colleagues to strengthen knowledge and promote effective teaching strategies. The project explores techniques to achieve the most effective teleconferencing meetings and workshops. This promotes not only teaching about minimizing environmental impacts of human activity, but minimizes environmental impacts of professional development — practicing what we preach. To date, Lifelines PLCs have set up websites and e-mail lists for sharing information. Teleconferences and webinars have been held using services such as Skype, ReadyTalk, and Wiggio. Many of the meetings have been recorded and archived for the benefit of members who could not attend in real-time.

  16. Teachers' Perspectives on School Climate at a Low-Performing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Paul Kit

    2012-01-01

    A number of research studies have indicated that issues with school climate may be a source of the low academic and social success of students in the public school system. A poor school climate is often associated with low-performing schools; a positive school climate can increase student achievement and other indicators of school success such as…

  17. Peer Victimization and Authoritative School Climate: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    School climate is widely recognized as an important influence on peer victimization in schools. The purpose of this study is to examine how authoritative school climate theory provides a framework for conceptualizing 2 key features of school climate--disciplinary structure and student support--that are associated with 3 measures of peer…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Principals' Motivating Language and Public School Climates in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the overall climate in a school can encourage or deter learning. One significant factor promoting a positive climate is the use of motivational language by school leaders. This article presents empirical evidence of teachers' perceptions of motivational language used by school principals and the effects of this language on…

  19. Australian Secondary School Students' Understanding of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated 438 Year 10 students (15 and 16 years old) from Western Australian schools, on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and climate change, and the sources of their information. Results showed that most students have an understanding of how the greenhouse effect works, however, many students merge the processes of the…

  20. Working While in Middle School: Student Perceptions of School Climate & Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sabrena

    2016-01-01

    Does working during the school year result in lowered perceptions of school climate and connectedness for middle school students? According to outcomes from a Rocky Mountain Region School District's (RMRSD) school climate survey, 20% of their middle school student population works during the school year. Existing literature on youth employment…

  1. Effects of "Safe School" Programs and Policies on the Social Climate for Sexual-Minority Youth: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Whitney W.; Fedewa, Alicia L.; Gonzalez, Kirsten A.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are a vulnerable population--a status that can be attributed to a hostile social climate at school. Intervention strategies, such as educational policies, programs, and a supportive environment, improve the social climate for LGBT students in secondary schools and…

  2. Transformational Leadership Related to School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarley, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between teacher perceptions of the degree to which a principal displays the factors of transformational leadership (idealized attributes, idealized behaviors, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulations, and individual considerations) and the perceived school climate (supportive principal behavior,…

  3. Improving School Climate to Reduce Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Bullying harms kids in nearly every way imaginable. It disrupts their learning; it causes them to suffer anxiety and depression; and it undermines their feelings of safety and connection to school. New understandings of bullying are based on relationships and connect directly to the growing appreciation of the role of the social climate within…

  4. The Effect of a Case-Based Reasoning Instructional Model on Korean High School Students' Awareness in Climate Change Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyoungbum; Chae, Dong-hyun; Kim, Eunjeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the case-based reasoning instructional model on learning about climate change unit. Results suggest that students showed interest because it allowed them to find the solution to the problem and solve the problem for themselves by analogy from other cases such as crossword puzzles in an…

  5. Volcanic effects on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

  6. Bullying and School Climate: Associations and Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biernbaum, Mark A.; Lotyczewski, Bohdan S.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is an international public health problem that school climate could help prevent or promote. The present paper contains an analysis of an anonymous school climate survey, completed by 9554 students, in grades 5-12 (response rate 87%). Links in the literature between school climate and bullying lack specificity. We examined associations…

  7. Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

    2012-12-01

    Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1

  8. Chinese high school students' academic stress and depressive symptoms: gender and school climate as moderators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-10-01

    In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms.

  9. School Climate and Teachers' Perceptions on Climate Factors: Research into Nine Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunbayi, Ilhan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the difference in the levels of the variables related to the school climate factors among the teachers teaching social science courses, the teachers teaching natural science courses, and the teachers teaching art, music and physical education. As a result of the analyzes, all the teachers reported open climate in relation to…

  10. What Greek Secondary School Students Believe about Climate Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…

  11. Impact of Experience Corps(®) participation on school climate.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Jeanine M; Ramsey, Christine M; Carlson, Michelle C; Xue, Qian-Li; Huang, Jin; Romani, William A; McGill, Sylvia; Seeman, Teresa E; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Barron, Jeremy; Tan, Erwin J; Gruenewald, Tara L; Diibor, Ike; Fried, Linda P; Rebok, George W

    2015-07-01

    We examined the impact of the Experience Corps(®) (EC) program on school climate within Baltimore City public elementary schools. In this program, teams of older adult volunteers were placed in high intensity (>15 h per week), meaningful roles in public elementary schools, to improve the educational outcomes of children as well as the health and well-being of volunteers. During the first year of EC participation, school climate was perceived more favorably among staff and students in EC schools as compared to those in comparison schools. However, with a few notable exceptions, perceived school climate did not differ for staff or students in intervention and comparison schools during the second year of exposure to the EC program. These findings suggest that perceptions of school climate may be altered by introducing a new program into elementary schools; however, research examining how perceptions of school climate are impacted over a longer period is warranted.

  12. Effects of Single Gender Classrooms and Coeducational Classrooms on Student Achievement and School Climate for Middle School Students in a Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Nickalous A.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared student achievement and student attitudes for students in single-gender classrooms and students in coeducational classrooms in the seventh grade. The study utilized the TCAP reading and math tests and the Renaissance reading and math formative assessments for the measures on student achievement. The school district's climate…

  13. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems during the Middle School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…

  14. Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

  15. A Brief Measure of Adolescent Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Nick; La Salle, Tamika; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Meyers, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Student perceptions of school climate represent the ways students feel about the school environment. These include perceptions regarding safety, teaching and learning, and relationships within the school. It has been found that student perceptions of school climate are positively correlated with academic achievement (Brookover et al., 1978), and…

  16. Testing the Causal Links between School Climate, School Violence, and School Academic Performance: A Cross-Lagged Panel Autoregressive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Roziner, Ilan; Wrabel, Stephani L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the causal link between school climate, school violence, and a school's general academic performance over time using a school-level, cross-lagged panel autoregressive modeling design. We hypothesized that reductions in school violence and climate improvement would lead to schools' overall improved academic performance.…

  17. Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools…

  18. Identity Development and School Climate: The Role of the School Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Karvonen, Meagan; Perez, Theresa R.; Abrams, Lyndon P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined aspects of school climate pertaining to issues of diversity at 2 elementary schools, conducting focus groups with students, school personnel, and parents. Findings indicated that degree of parental involvement and interaction regarding issues of diversity affect the school climate. Recommendations for school counselors are…

  19. Advocating for Safe Schools, Positive School Climate, and Comprehensive Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Katherine C.; Vaillancourt, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, CT (USA) has brought the conversation about how to reduce violence, make schools safer, improve school climate, and increase access to mental health services to the forefront of the national conversation. Advocating for comprehensive initiatives to address school safety, school climate, and…

  20. Examination of Principals' Perceptions on School Climate in Metropolitan Nashville Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Constance L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the school climate of the Metropolitan Nashville Public Elementary Schools through the lenses of the principals. Principals' perceptions of their school climates was studied using independent variables of principal gender, years of experience as principal, tenure at present school, enrollment size of school,…

  1. Examining the Relationship between Principal Leadership and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the relationship between transformative school principal leadership and school climate. The population of this study consisted of two middle schools with grades ranging from six through eight and one high school with grades ranging from nine through twelve. These schools are within the state of…

  2. An Evaluation of Instructional Coaching at Selected High Schools in North Louisiana and Its Effect on Student Achievement, Organizational Climate, and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high schools in north Louisiana to determine if the presence or absence of instructional coaches influenced student achievement, organizational climate, and/or teacher efficacy in any significant manner. The 11 high schools in north Louisiana utilizing instructional coaches were matched to 11 high schools…

  3. Aspects of School Climate: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Anne Marie

    1997-01-01

    This literature review addresses four variables related to school climate: teacher efficacy, collegiality (as promoted by the principal, shared decision making, and staff development), student achievement, and parent involvement. Schools attempting reform should consider how each of these variables can contribute to a positive school climate and…

  4. How School Climate Influences Teachers’ Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiuping; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Li, Xiying; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guanyu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers’ emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p–12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers’ use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China. PMID:26457713

  5. Health Effects of Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Climate defines health concerns such as the direct effects of excess heat or cold, the lack ... nih.gov/climatereport ) examined the state of the science on effects of climate change on human health. ...

  6. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  7. Our Children, Our Schools: Seeking Solutions for Improving the Climate in Urban Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Ronald A.; Harrington, Sonja Y.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative study the researchers examined perceptions regarding school climate of parents with children who attend urban schools, based on several dimensions: quality of the instructional program, support for learning, school climate/environment for learning, parent/school relationships, and resource management. Of the 150 administered…

  8. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems During the Middle School Years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-03-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents' perceptions of school climate.

  9. Improving School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John, Ed.; Mortimore, Peter, Ed.

    School effectiveness is an issue that has preoccupied researchers and policymakers for 3 decades. To study how ineffective schools become effective and what constitutes an effective school, the Improving School Effectiveness Project was carried out in Scotland from 1995 to 1997. This project forms the basis of discussion in this book, which has 11…

  10. School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2009-2010, the survey was distributed to approximately 85,000 parents, 45,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…

  11. School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2011-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools. In 2011-2012, the survey was distributed to approximately 93,000 parents, 52,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 24,000 staff. This report summarizes…

  12. School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2010-2011, the survey was distributed to approximately 92,000 parents, 48,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…

  13. School Climate Factors 2009. Research Brief. Volume 0807

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2008-2009, the survey was distributed to approximately 90,200 parents, 54,200 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. In…

  14. School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2008-2009, the survey was distributed to approximately 90,200 parents, 54,200 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…

  15. The Talent Development Middle School. Creating a Motivational Climate Conducive to Talent Development in Middle Schools: Implementation and Effects of Student Team Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Plank, Stephen B.

    Central East Middle School in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), an urban school with about 45% Hispanic enrollment, and the Center for Research on the Education of Children Placed at Risk are working together to implement a Talent Development Middle School model of schooling. Part of this effort includes use of the Student Team Reading (STR) Program,…

  16. Students' perceptions of school climate in the U.S. and China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C; Huang, Xishan

    2013-03-01

    Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States. Differences in school climate between the two countries were examined in this study. The sample consisted of 10,400 American and 3,435 Chinese students across three grade levels (elementary, middle, and high school) in 85 American and 22 Chinese schools. Factor structure and measurement invariance across countries were first established for the Modified-Delaware School Climate Survey-Student. Differences in latent means were then tested. Across all three grade levels Chinese students scored significantly higher than American students on all four subscales (Teacher-Student Relations, Student-Student Relations, School Liking, and Fairness of School Rules). Effects sizes tended to be smallest in elementary schools and largest in middle schools. Significant differences between American and Chinese students exist in their perceptions of school climate. It is likely that those differences can be attributed to cultural differences in respect of authority, academic and social values, self-regulation and peer-regulation of behaviors, and teachers' classroom management.

  17. Teachers as Builders of Respectful School Climates: Implications for Adolescent Drug Use Norms and Depressive Symptoms in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria D.; Romer, Daniel; Selman, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Positive school climates have been found to have favorable effects on adolescent health risk behaviors and mental health outcomes. However, the mechanisms by which teacher behavior may promote such effects in high schools have not been extensively studied. Based on social control theory and a social developmental-contextual model, it was predicted…

  18. School Reviews: Pursuing Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesse, Ken

    1984-01-01

    The school review program includes evaluation of the principal's performance, observation of all teachers and programs, school climate analysis, parental preferences and suggestions, and recommendations and planning reports. Recommendations fall into three categories: maintenance, consideration, and problem areas. The program is used in the Red…

  19. School climate and the institutionalization of the CATCH program.

    PubMed

    Parcel, Guy S; Perry, Cheryl L; Kelder, Steven H; Elder, John P; Mitchell, Paul D; Lytle, Leslie A; Johnson, Carolyn C; Stone, Elaine J

    2003-08-01

    School climate refers to various physical and psychosocial structures that shape schools' social and physical environments. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study provided an opportunity to study how aspects of school climate are associated with continued implementation of the CATCH program. Nutrient analysis of menus, observations of physical education (PE) classes, and teacher and staff self-reports were used to measure CATCH program components. Results of this study indicate that aspects of school climate were associated with continued implementation of the CATCH classroom component but not the CATCH food service or PE components. These findings have implications for how we plan for the progression of innovative school health promotion programs from the initial trial stage to institutionalization. Measures of school climate may be useful in determining a school's readiness to adopt and implement an innovative health promotion curriculum.

  20. School Social Capital and School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kwok-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…

  1. School Climate and the Safe School: Seven Contributing Factors. Safety in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, James

    2005-01-01

    Accepting that few lists are comprehensive, but acknowledging that they still have value, here then are seven important factors that contribute to a healthy school climate: (1) Models: Adults are teachers in more ways than one, and the way that has the greater impact is less what they say than what they do; (2) Consistency: The school staff must…

  2. Correlational Analysis of Servant Leadership and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Glenda Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method research study was to determine the extent that servant leadership was correlated with perceptions of school climate to identify whether there was a relationship between principals' and teachers' perceived practice of servant leadership and of school climate. The study employed a mixed-method approach by first…

  3. Measuring School Climate: An Overview of Measurement Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Diane; Recchia, Sophie; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Background: School climate is a heterogeneous concept with a multitude of standardised and validated instruments available to measure it. Purpose: This overview of measurement scales aims to provide researchers with short summaries of some of the self-report instruments in existence, especially in relation to the link between school climate and…

  4. Critical Climate: Relations among Sexual Harassment, Climate, and Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…

  5. Learning Climate in Schools: Part II. Teacher Views of the Learning and Organizational Climate in Schools. Evaluation Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Carolyn

    Part I of the Learning Climate in Schools evaluation brief looked at violence and disruptive behavior in the North Carolina public schools from several perspectives, including that of teachers expressed in an annual survey. Part II examines teacher perceptions of learning and organizational climates using another set of teacher responses to the…

  6. Authoritative School Climate, Aggression toward Teachers, and Teacher Distress in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Juliette K.; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less…

  7. School Leadership and Its Impact on Student Achievement: The Mediating Role of School Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Vartika; Sahney, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of teacher job satisfaction and school climate in mediating the relative effects of principals' instructional and transformational leadership practices on student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Guided by strong evidence from theories on school leadership and work psychology, the…

  8. Classroom climate and the mental health of primary school children.

    PubMed

    Somersalo, Heidi; Solantaus, Tytti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine associations between classroom climate and pupils' mental health in primary school, and whether pupils who had emotional and behavioural problems in the second grade are more vulnerable to the effects of a poor classroom climate 4 years later. The study was carried out by means of questionnaires to teachers. The students (n = 861) were surveyed in the second (aged 8 years, Time 1) and sixth grade (aged 12 years, Time 2). The Rutter Teacher Questionnaire (RB2) at Time 1 and the Teacher Report Form (TRF) at Time 2 were used to measure internalizing, externalizing and total problem scores. Classroom climate was measured using a composite variable at Time 2. The results show associations between poor sixth-grade classroom climate and an increase in emotional and behavioural problems in both boys and girls. In addition, the girls who were overall poorly adjusted, particularly those who had externalizing problems in the second grade, were especially vulnerable to a poor classroom climate in the sixth grade.

  9. Nevada's Climate Change High School Science Fair Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, P.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this 3 year project funded by NSF (GEO 1035049) is to increase the climate change science content knowledge and teaching effectiveness of in-service high school science teachers and increase the numbers of quality of high school geoscience projects competing in Nevada's three regional Intel ISEF (International Science & Engineering Fair) affiliated science fairs. In year 1 of the project participants consisted of six female and three male high school teachers from across Nevada. Eight of the participants were white and one was Asian. Five participants taught in Clark County, two taught in Owyhee, one taught in Elko and one taught in Spring Creek. Over 20% of the projects were noted (by the teachers) as being submitted by underrepresented students; however, this information is not reliable as most students did not provide this data themselves. Pre-and post- content tests were given. Teachers improved from an average of eight missed on the pre-test to an average of only four items missed on the post-test. Participants were also asked to evaluate their own teaching efficacy. In general, participants had a strong science efficacy. The item on which there was the most discrepancy among participants was on #10, the one stating that "The low achievement of some students cannot generally be blamed on their teachers." Most teachers completed an end of year program evaluation. All but one of the participants felt that the pace of the workshop was comfortable. All participants who used faculty mentors in helping their students rated their faculty mentors very highly. All participants rated the program content very highly in terms of clarity, organization, relevance, helpfulness and usefulness. All participants gave the program a very high rating overall and stated they would likely use the information to mentor future students and in instruction in future classes. The science fairs are the culmination of the program. Teachers were required to have at least one

  10. Attitude of Secondary Level Students towards Their School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musheer, Zainab; Govil, Punita; Gupta, Swati

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to know the attitude of secondary school students towards their school climate. It explores their attitude with reference to certain demographic variables like gender, medium of instruction in the school and educational level of parents. The study has been conducted on the sample of 358 students studying at various…

  11. Heteronormativity, School Climates, and Perceived Safety for Gender Nonconforming Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined…

  12. Examining the Relationship between Teacher Leadership and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ali Çagatay

    2014-01-01

    Teacher leadership has recently become the centre of educational research on improving educational practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between primary school teachers' perceptions of school climate and teacher leadership. The study sample consisted of 259 primary school teachers who participated in an educational…

  13. Taking a Strengths-Based Focus Improves School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Tschannen-Moran, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn whether focusing on strengths through appreciative inquiry would be related to measurable changes in school climate and trust within a small urban school district. The district studied was a beleaguered, underperforming school district in the Midwest Rust Belt. Through an appreciative inquiry initiative, the…

  14. Measuring School Climate: Let Me Count the Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberg, H. Jerome

    1998-01-01

    Describes how schools used three measuring instruments--student-concerns surveys, entrance and exit interviews, and ambient-noise checklists--to measure school climate and identify areas needing improvement. This feedback process allows students to become citizens, not tourists, in their school, as they realize they have a chance to participate in…

  15. Students' perceptions of school climate during the middle school years: associations with trajectories of psychological and behavioral adjustment.

    PubMed

    Way, Niobe; Reddy, Ranjini; Rhodes, Jean

    2007-12-01

    A cross-domain latent growth curve model was used to examine the trajectories of change in student perceptions of four critical dimensions of school climate (i.e., teacher support, peer support, student autonomy in the classroom, and clarity and consistency in school rules and regulations) among 1,451 early adolescents from the beginning of sixth through the end of eighth grade; and the effects of such trajectories on the rate of change in psychological and behavioral adjustment. Findings indicated that all of the dimensions of perceived school climate declined over the 3 years of middle school. Furthermore, declines in each of the dimensions of perceived school climate were associated with declines over time in psychological and behavioral adjustment. Moreover, the direction of effects between each dimension of perceived school climate and psychological or behavioral adjustment were often unidirectional rather than bi-directional, underscoring the role of perceived school climate in the psychological and behavioral health of early adolescents. Gender and socioeconomic class differences in these patterns are noted.

  16. Opinions and knowledge about climate change science in high school students.

    PubMed

    Harker-Schuch, Inez; Bugge-Henriksen, Christian

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of knowledge on opinions about climate change in the emerging adults' age group (16-17 years). Furthermore, the effects of a lecture in climate change science on knowledge and opinions were assessed. A survey was conducted in Austria and Denmark on 188 students in national and international schools before and after a lecture in climate change science. The results show that knowledge about climate change science significantly affects opinions about climate change. Students with a higher number of correct answers are more likely to have the opinion that humans are causing climate change and that both individuals and governments are responsible for addressing climate change. The lecture in climate change science significantly improved knowledge development but did not affect opinions. Knowledge was improved by 11 % after the lecture. However, the percentage of correct answers was still below 60 % indicating an urgent need for improving climate change science education.

  17. Applying Corporate Climate Principles to Dental School Operations.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michelle A; Reddy, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    Decades of research have shown that organizational climate has the potential to form the basis of workplace operations and impact an organization's performance. Culture is related to climate but is not the same. "Culture" is the broader term, defining how things are done in an organization, while "climate" is a component of culture that describes how people perceive their environment. Climate can be changed but requires substantial effort over time by management and the workforce. Interest has recently grown in culture and climate in dental education due to the humanistic culture accreditation standard. The aim of this study was to use corporate climate principles to examine how organizational culture and, subsequently, workplace operations can be improved through specific strategic efforts in a U.S. dental school. The school's parent institution initiated a climate survey that the dental school used with qualitative culture data to drive strategic planning and change in the school. Administration of the same survey to faculty and staff members three times over a six-year period showed significant changes to the school's climate occurred as a new strategic plan was implemented that focused on reforming areas of weakness. Concentrated efforts in key areas in the strategic plan resulted in measurable improvements in climate perception. The study discovered that culture was an area previously overlooked but explicitly linked to the success of the organization.

  18. Alpbach Summer School 2010 - proposed missions to understand climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejci, D.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Kern, K.; Romano, P.; Topham, R.; Weitnauer, C.

    2011-12-01

    The theme of the Alpbach Summer School 2010 was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change". At present, climate change studies face many uncertainties that need to be solved and quantified. The unprecedented effects and consequences of climate change on our planet are causing serious concerns amongst the scientific community, that witnesses the transformations our environment is suffering. In order to reduce them, Earth Observation from space is a really interesting and affordable alternative. A group of sixty young science and engineering students both undergraduate and graduate, dealt with the task of designing space missions aiming to better understand climate change. The participants were split into four teams which were encouraged to design innovative new missions, that could potentially help to increase our understanding on climate change by introducing new observation parameters, methods and technology. They were also encouraged to focus on different approaches so no scientific case was duplicated. The resulting proposals comprised a wide range of climate change topics: AVALON (Atmospheric water Vapour from an Active Limb-sounding Observing Network) a mission using a novel active limb-sounding instrument to measure water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere; ERICC (Evolution and Radiative Impact of Contrail Cirrus) the first space mission dedicated to the study of contrails and their impact on climate change; VESTA a mission designed to derive data on CO2 emissions from biomass burning in the tropics and DROP (Dual Retrieval of Precipitation) a mission to improve the understanding of regional and global water cycles. This presentation will provide an introduction towards the four missions designed with the goal of contributing towards better understanding climate change and its causes. The scientific cases will be presented, as well as the engineering designs needed to meet these scientific requirements on a preliminary level

  19. The Influence of Classroom Disciplinary Climate of Schools on Reading Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Bo; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Yang, Xiangdong; Gielen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in research and practice in the effect of classroom disciplinary climate of schools on academic achievement, little is known about the generalizability of this effect over countries. Using hierarchical linear analyses, the present study reveals that a better classroom disciplinary climate in a school is significantly…

  20. Impact of Function, Experience, and Training of School District Police on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the impact that function, experience, and training of Independent School District School Resource Officers (ISD SROs) have on school climate. The participants were ISD SROs (n = 172) and teachers (n = 162) located in middle and high schools in Texas. Method: The Role of Law…

  1. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  2. School Climate, Sense of Efficacy and Israeli Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion of Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisel, Amatzia; Dror, Orit

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effects of school organizational and educational climate, and a teacher's sense of efficacy, on general education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion of students with special needs. The sample included 139 teachers from 17 elementary schools in the Northern District of Israel. The results of Pearson correlation and…

  3. The Meriden School Climate Survey-Student Version: Preliminary Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Larson, Alvin; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    School climate has been linked with myriad positive student outcomes and the measurement of school climate is widely advocated at the national and state level. However, districts have little guidance about how to define and measure school climate. This study examines the psychometric properties of a district-developed school climate measure that…

  4. Four Commentaries: The Policy Climate for After-School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligson, Michelle E.; Brown, Cynthia G.; Barnes-O'Connor, Kimberly L.; Walker, Gary C.

    1999-01-01

    Four essays by policy analysts approach programs for school-age children from differing perspectives, each identifying the key forces that influence the policy climate and directions for the future. (Author/SLD)

  5. Effective Schools Require Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

  6. Changes in School Climate in a Long-Term Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallestad, Jan Helge

    2010-01-01

    In a previous report five school climate instruments were explored (1983 and 1985), and four scales were regarded as meaningful climate measures according to suggested criteria. These scales were re-inspected in the present study (1997 and 1998) by analyses of internal consistency, estimates of reliability (unit and aggregated reliability), and…

  7. Measuring School Climate in High Schools: A Focus on Safety, Engagement, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2014-01-01

    Background: School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model.…

  8. Multilevel Multi-Informant Structure of the Authoritative School Climate Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis; Meyer, Patrick; Lacey, Anna; Nekvasil, Erin; Heilbrun, Anna; Shukla, Kathan

    2014-01-01

    The Authoritative School Climate Survey was designed to provide schools with a brief assessment of 2 key characteristics of school climate--disciplinary structure and student support--that are hypothesized to influence 2 important school climate outcomes--student engagement and prevalence of teasing and bullying in school. The factor structure of…

  9. School Climate and Psychosomatic Health: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the importance of aspects of the school climate for adolescents' psychosomatic health using multilevel modelling. Analyses were based on 18,571 ninth-grade students distributed over 1,026 classes and 284 schools in the greater Stockholm area in 2004 and 2006. Both individual- and contextual-level associations between aspects of…

  10. The Impact of Visual Impairment on Perceived School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schade, Benjamin; Larwin, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation examines whether visual impairment has an impact on a student's perception of the school climate. Using a large national sample of high school students, perceptions were examined for students with vision impairment relative to students with no visual impairments. Three factors were examined: self-reported level of…

  11. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls' physical activity in middle school girls. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers' and boys' behaviors,…

  12. The Relationship of the Principal's Soft Skills to School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    School Climate has been identified by a large body of literature as having a direct relationship on student achievement (Johnson, & Stevens, 2000; Kezar & Eckel, 2007; West, 1985), and) and numerous other components used to determine the success and safety of both students and teachers in schools (Finnan, Schnepel, & Anderson, 2003;…

  13. The Relationship between Transformational School Leadership and Ethical Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagnak, Mesut

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between transformational school leadership and ethical climate. The participants were 764 teachers in 50 elementary schools in Nigde during the 2008/2009 academic year. Two distinct instruments were used in this study. The Principal Leadership Style Inventory developed by Leithwood and Jantzi (1991)…

  14. The Relationship of Principal Conflict Management Style and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Miriam Miley

    2013-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined conflict management styles of elementary school principals in South Carolina and the relationship of conflict management style and school climate. The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form B, which identifies five styles of managing conflict, was used to determine principal conflict…

  15. The Ethical Climate of Public Schooling under New Public Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Neil; Freakley, Mark; Parry, Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Today's competitive climate is pressuring public school educators to improve schools in an environment dominated by parent and consumer choice. This article draws on two studies involving Australian principals that illustrate difficult ethical situations. Most participants found the values of marketing and economic rationalism to be inconsistent…

  16. Students' perceptions of school climate and trait test anxiety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang Yang

    2012-12-01

    In a sample of 916 Chinese high school students, the relations among the students' perceptions of school climate and their trait test anxiety were examined. The results indicated that students' perceptions of teacher-student relationships and student-student relationships negatively predicted their trait test anxiety. Furthermore, girls had higher scores on trait test anxiety than boys.

  17. Adolescent Perception of Family Climate and Adaptation to Residential Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Prechter, Eti

    1989-01-01

    Changes in adolescents' perceptions of the family as they adapt to residential schooling were studied for 51 residential and 57 nonresidential tenth graders in a school in Israel. No differences in the perception of family climate were found between the groups, suggesting no change with the individual's act of leaving. (SLD)

  18. In-School Sustainability Action: Climate Clever Energy Savers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, John; Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The mandate for living sustainably is becoming increasingly urgent. This article reports on the Climate Clever Energy Savers (CCES) Program, a student-centred, problem- and project-based program in New South Wales, Australia, aimed at enabling school students to identify ways of reducing their schools' electricity consumption and costs. As part of…

  19. School Climate and Exposure to Bullying: A Multilevel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Östberg, Viveca; Modin, Bitte

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates associations between aspects of school climate, measured by students' assessments aggregated to the class level, and exposure to bullying, measured at the individual level. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey of 2006-2010 with information from 16,418 ninth-grade students (aged 15-16 years) distributed…

  20. Working Together: Collaborative School Leadership Fosters a Climate of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ginger Kelley

    2005-01-01

    In Montessori schools, the best way to strengthen the climate of success by the administrators is called "transformational leadership". Leadership theorist James McGregor Burns identifies transformational leadership as a mutual belief and value system, and a commitment between a principal and teachers to focus on what works best for their school.…

  1. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls’ Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls’ physical activity in middle school girls. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers’ and boys’ behaviors, respectively, fit the data well in both sixth and eighth graders. SEM detected a positive, significant direct association of the teacher factor, but not the boy factor, with girls’ self-reported physical activity. Conclusions School climate for girls’ physical activity is a measurable construct, and preliminary evidence suggests a relationship with physical activity. PMID:15899688

  2. Climatic Effects on Planning Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Kostakos, Vassilis; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    What mechanism links climate change and social change? Palaeoanthropological analysis of human remains suggests that abrupt climate change is linked to societal restructuring, but it has been challenging to reliably identify the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. Here we identify one potential mechanism that can link climate to behavior change, and underpins many of the reported findings on social restructuring. Specifically, we show that daily weather is linked to human planning behavior, and this effect is moderated by climate. Our results demonstrate that as weather gets colder, humans increase their planning in cold regions and decrease planning in warm regions. Since planning has previously been linked to group efficiency, cooperation, and societal organization, our work suggests planning is one mechanism that can link climate change to societal restructuring. PMID:25993567

  3. Measuring Inviting School Climate: A Case Study of a Public Primary School in an Urban Low Socioeconomic Setting in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okaya, Tom Mboya; Horne, Marj; Lamig, Madeleine; Smith, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R) (Smith, 2005b, 2013) based on Invitational Theory and Practice (Purkey & Novak, 2008) to examine the school climate of a public primary school in a low urban socio-economic setting in Kenya. School climate was defined as the perceptions of primary school teachers and pupils…

  4. Middle School Students' Understandings About Anthropogenic Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009; Golden & Francis, 2013), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which

  5. Peace Education: Cooling the Climate of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Rhonda B.; Harris, Ian M.

    This paper discusses peace education curriculum in the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public School district. The peace education promotion has been in existence for 10 years and was created in response to rising levels of violence. Specifically examined are the uses of peace education at Fritsche Middle School, a school that has proven the positive…

  6. Student Leadership Camp for Improving School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, J. Michael; Hammond, Janice M.

    1982-01-01

    Junior and senior high schools in Garden City (Michigan) restored school spirit with a retreat where student leaders and building administrators could meet in an informal settings, get to know each other, and make plans to improve the schools. (Author/JM)

  7. Relationship between the Leadership Style of a Junior High School Principal and the School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sistrunk, Walter E.

    This paper examines the relationships among school climate, leadership styles, and group interaction as perceived by teachers, selected parents, and selected students in a medium-sized Mississippi Delta school district. Parent dissatisfaction with the behavior of a junior high school principal provoked this study. The total sample consisted of 86…

  8. Safe Schools Facilities Planner. Improving School Climate and Order through Facilities Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Researchers, consulting professionals, and advocating agencies agree that school facility design is one essential component to a safe and successful school. This document addresses design-related concepts that can positively affect school climate and order. It describes and provides facility planning guidelines for crime prevention through…

  9. The Relationships among School Types, Teacher Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Climate: Perspective from Asian Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Wan Har; Klassen, Robert M.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella; Kates, Allison Diane

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored how prior student achievement, through school types, predicted teacher self- and collective efficacy and perceived academic climate of 222 middle school teachers in Singapore. Teachers assigned to high-track and regular middle schools differed in their perception of self- and collective efficacy to promote organizational…

  10. Promoting an equitable and supportive school climate in high schools: the role of school organizational health and staff burnout.

    PubMed

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    In response to persistent racial disparities in academic and behavioral outcomes between Black and White students, equitable school climate has drawn attention as a potential target for school reform. This study examined differences in Black and White students' experiences of school climate and explored whether indicators of school organizational health and staff burnout moderated differences in students' school experiences by race. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 18,397 Black students (n=6228) and White students (n=12,169) and 2391 school staff in 53 schools, we found a consistent pattern of racial inequalities, such that Black students reported less positive experiences than White students across three indicators of school climate (caring γ=-0.08, p<.001; equity γ=-0.05, p=.007; and engagement γ=-0.05, p<.001). In addition, we found significant, positive associations between aggregated staff-report of school organizational health and student-reported school climate (e.g., staff affiliation and student-perceived equity, γ=0.07, p<.001). Surprisingly, a number of school organizational health indicators were more strongly associated with positive perceptions of school climate among White students than Black students, translating into greater racial disparities in perceived school climate at schools with greater organizational health (e.g., supportive leadership by race on student-perceived engagement, γ=-0.03, p=.042). We also found negative associations between staff-reported burnout and students' experience of equity, such that the racial gap was smaller in schools with high ratings of burnout (γ=0.04, p=.002). These findings have implications for educators and education researchers interested in promoting school social contexts that equitably support student engagement and success.

  11. Evaluation of the Alliance for Climate Education's national high school edutainment program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappe, M.; Flora, J.; Saphir, M.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Alliance for Climate Education educates high school students on the science of climate change and inspires them to create effective solutions. Since 2009, ACE has reached over 1.6 million students nationwide with its multi media assembly presentation. In this paper, we evaluate the climate science knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, behavior and communication impact of the ACE Assembly program in a random sample of 49 schools (from population of 779) and a panel of 1,241 high school students. Pre and post assembly surveys composed of questions from the Global Warming Six Americas segmentation and intervention specific questions were administered in classrooms. We demonstrate that exposure to climate science in an engaging edutainment format changes youths' beliefs, involvement, and behavior positively and moves them to more climate science literate audience segments. The net impact of scaled and engaging programs for youth could be a population shift in climate science literacy and positive engagement in the issue of climate change. In addition, such programs can empower youth for deeper engagement in school programs, personal action, political and consumer advocacy.

  12. Tracking Middle Grades Climate Data to Inform School Change. REL West Research Digest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory West, 2015

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that positive school climate is a key lever for students' academic and social development and success. This research digest shows how an alliance of California schools and districts, school climate experts, and state education agency personnel have teamed up to use school climate data to drive a continuous cycle of…

  13. Student Perceptions of School Climate as Predictors of Office Discipline Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Larson, Alvin; Sugai, George; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that school climate influences students' academic, social, and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, improving school climate provides a promising avenue for preventing academic, social, and behavioral difficulties. Research has examined school-level measurement of school climate, but few studies have examined student-level responses…

  14. The Assessment of School Climate: Review and Appraisal of Published Student-Report Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramelow, Daniela; Currie, Dorothy; Felder-Puig, Rosemarie

    2015-01-01

    School climate measurement is a long-standing topic in educational research. This review article provides an overview and appraisal of school climate measures published between 2003 and 2013 in scientific journals. A search for published school climate instruments for secondary school students was made in three databases. Twelve articles meeting…

  15. Multilevel Factor Structure and Concurrent Validity of the Teacher Version of the Authoritative School Climate Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Konold, Timothy; Meyer, Joseph P.; Lacey, Anna; Nekvasil, Erin K.; Heilbrun, Anna; Shukla, Kathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: School climate is well recognized as an important influence on student behavior and adjustment to school, but there is a need for theory-guided measures that make use of teacher perspectives. Authoritative school climate theory hypothesizes that a positive school climate is characterized by high levels of disciplinary structure and…

  16. Integrating School Indicators, School Effectiveness, and School Improvement Research: The Louisiana School Effectiveness Pilot (SEAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    Six papers discuss the Louisiana School Effectiveness and Assistance Pilot (SEAP) program, an ongoing 3-year research project associated with a legislatively mandated school and district accountability program. In three phases, the project joins school indicators, school effectiveness, and school improvement initiatives. The following papers are…

  17. Climate Control. Secondary School Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPlantis, Ernest P.

    This course guide is oriented toward developing skills in air conditioning and refrigeration installation and service. Although primarily designed as a 2-year program for high school students at the junior and senior levels, it is equally acceptable for the post high school student as an occupational training program, or as a refresher course for…

  18. Does Leadership Matter?: The Relationship of School Leadership to a Safe School Climate, Bullying, and Fighting in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there is a relationship between transformational principal leadership style, a safe school climate, and school safety (specifically, the number of reported fights and reported bullying incidents) in Broward County, Florida's middle schools. This study also investigated if a relationship…

  19. Relationships between Supervisory Behaviors and School Climate as Perceived by Secondary School Teachers in the State of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhajeri, Salem

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of secondary school teachers of their principals' supervisory behaviors and of their schools' climate. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between supervisory behaviors and school climate in Kuwaiti secondary schools. Data was collected using two surveys. Bulach, Boothe, and…

  20. The Relationship between Perceptions of School Climate and Student Achievement in Schools That Use Jostens' Renaissance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Amy Yarborough

    2012-01-01

    Each school has unique attributes and a personality that gives the school a distinct climate. Psychological qualities that schools possess might include trust, collaboration, cooperation, teaching attributes, expectations, community involvement, and engagement (Rhodes, Camic, Milburn, & Lowe, 2009). Given information regarding school climate,…

  1. Playing Fair: The Contribution of High-Functioning Recess to Overall School Climate in Low-Income Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Rebecca A.; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy,…

  2. Authoritative school climate, aggression toward teachers, and teacher distress in middle school.

    PubMed

    Berg, Juliette K; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-03-01

    Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less distress. The sample of 9,134 teachers in 389 middle schools came from the Virginia Secondary School Climate Survey, a statewide survey administered to all public schools with 7th and 8th grade enrollment. The majority of teachers (75%) were female. More than half (53%) reported that they had more than 10 years of teaching experience; 23% reported 6 to 10 years; 24% reported 1 to 5 years. Students reported on the degree to which their schools were structured and supportive. Teachers reported on their experiences of aggression by students, their level of distress, and their feelings of safety. Staff-related infractions computed from Department of Education records were also used. Multilevel modeling revealed that teachers in authoritative schools experienced less aggression and felt safer and less distressed. Lower aggression by students mediated the association between more authoritative schools and lower distress such that more structured and supportive schools had greater teacher safety and, in turn, less distress. The findings support the idea that more structured and supportive schools relate to greater safety for teachers and, in turn, less distress. Research limitations and implications for practice are discussed.

  3. A Cross-Grade Comparison to Examine the Context Effect on the Relationships among Family Resources, School Climate, Learning Participation, Science Attitude, and Science Achievement Based on TIMSS 2003 in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shin-Feng; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Jing-Ru; Lin, Sheau-Wen; Kao, Huey-Lien

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether the relationships among family resources, school climate, learning participation, science attitude, and science achievement are different between primary school students and junior high school students within one educational system. The subjects included 4,181 Grade 4 students and 5,074 Grade 8 students who…

  4. Using NASA climate data to improve effectiveness of undergraduate-level climate change education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, R. M.; Droser, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing society today, and yet the science of global climate change and the potential effects are poorly understood by the general population. Through a NASA Innovations in Climate Education grant, UC Riverside is addressing this disconnect by fully redesigning the undergraduate level Earth Sciences courses, which serve over 3,000 students every year. The majority of these students are not Earth Sciences majors and so these changes in the climate change education curriculum reach a very broad range of students. This new curriculum centers around a new website that hosts online activities that allows students to utilized and manipulate NASA climate data sets in order to directly observe changes in the global climate system. All lower division Earth Sciences courses will include online activities and a unit on global climate change. In addition to this general improvement in climate change education, we have restructured our lower division Climate Change course (GEO 11) to focus on these online activities in order to give students first-hand experience with both global and local climate data. Because these activities are hosted online, they can be seemlessly integrated with other online resources, accessed from school or home and be viewed on a variety of devices, thus vastly increasing student accessibility. In the future, these activities will be available to other institutions. UC Riverside is an ideal institution at which to launch a broad-reaching climate change education program like this. As one of the most socioeconomically and ethnically diverse universities and one of only two federally-designated Hispanic Serving Research Institutions, UC Riverside primarily educates undergraduate students from the portions of society that will be most heavily impacted by the effects of climate change. GEO 11 and the other lower division courses produce climate-literate students of different majors and backgrounds, who

  5. Student Engagement, School Climate, and Future Expectations in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudley, Cynthia; Daoud, Annette; Polanco, Ted; Wright-Castro, Rosina; Hershberg, Rachel

    Engagement is a potentially useful construct for organizing strategies to support adjustment, achievement and retention in school, particularly among our most vulnerable student populations. Even if high quality schooling is available, high levels of achievement will implicitly demand engagement on the part of students. This initial analysis,…

  6. School climate and delinquency among Chinese adolescents: analyses of effortful control as a moderator and deviant peer affiliation as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency.

  7. Outcome Measures--School Climate: Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Louise E.; Peck, Hugh I.

    This study assesses whether or not there is a significant difference in school climate, as reported by students' affective attitudes, toward curriculum and instruction for a cohort from one academic year to the next when intervention programs have been introduced. In the fall of 1989, the Program of Research and Evaluation for Public Schools…

  8. A Cultural-Ecological Model of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Salle, Tamika P.; Meyers, Joel; Varjas, Kristen; Roach, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    School climate has been established as an important construct to measure because of its connections to student psychological, social, and academic outcomes (Anderson, 1982; Koth, Bradshaw, & Leaf, 2008; Kuperminc, Leadbeater, Emmons, & Blatt, 1997). Prior research has also established relationships between student perceptions of school…

  9. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  10. [Techniques to Improve the Educational Climate in Your School].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braukmann, William T.

    This presentation was based on the assumption that developing the art of making teachers and students feel good about themselves is of paramount importance in helping youngsters to learn. The author offers and elaborates on 12 tips to help principals improve school climate: (1) Be aware that the principal's most important function is getting…

  11. Transforming School Climate and Learning: Beyond Bullying and Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preble, Bill; Gordon, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Most educators agree that children learn better in an honoring and respectful culture. They also know that top-down imposed change rarely sticks. In "Transforming School Climate and Learning", Bill Preble and Rick Gordon show how to accomplish lasting results by engaging both teachers and students in the five-step SafeMeasures[TM] process, a…

  12. Perceptions of School Climate and Student Achievement in Middle and Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Alicia L.; Brown, Neil L.

    The relationship of middle school climate to academic achievement was examined. Participants were members of eight 6th grade classes. Four of the classes were in elementary settings, and four in middle school settings. Classes were matched as closely as possible on economic status and ethnic composition. Entered into correlational analyses were…

  13. Schools Learning from Other Schools: Co-operation in a Climate of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudduck, Jean; Berry, Mary; Brown, Nick; Frost, David

    2000-01-01

    Describes how several schools participated in a school improvement project that helped them learn from each other in a competitive climate, noting issues influencing teachers' readiness to collaborate. It proved important to identify issues engaging with fundamental aspects of teaching and learning that were powerful enough to involve other…

  14. Relationships among Servant Leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Climate in Alabama High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between servant leadership of the principal with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and school climate. Servant leadership, a leadership behavior that emphasizes personal growth of followers, has a useful research history in business but limited exposure in public schools. Organizational Citizenship…

  15. Best Practices: Creating an LGBT-Inclusive School Climate. A Teaching Tolerance Guide for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    Schools are places of learning and also miniature societies. The climate of a school has a direct impact on both how well students learn and how well they interact with their peers. Teachers and administrators work hard to make their classrooms welcoming places where each student feels included. But despite these efforts, students who are--or who…

  16. Positive School Climate: What It Looks Like and How It Happens. Nurturing Positive School Climate for Student Learning and Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tami Kopischke; Connolly, Faith; Pryseski, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    The term "school climate" has been around for more than a hundred years to explore the idea of school environmental or contextual factors that might have an impact on student learning and academic success. During the past three decades there has been growing research to support the importance of a positive school climate in promoting…

  17. A Safer Place? LGBT Educators, School Climate, and Implications for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffany E.; Smith, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Over an 8-year span, two survey studies were conducted to analyze LGBT -teachers' perceptions of their school climate and the impact of school leaders on that climate. This article presents nonparametric, descriptive, and qualitative results of the National Survey of Educators' Perceptions of School Climate 2011 compared with survey results from…

  18. The Development and Validation of the Elementary School Ethical Climate Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, Kay A.; Schulte, Laura E.

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument that measures the ethical climate of elementary schools. To create the Elementary School Ethical Climate Index (ESECI), we adapted the ethical climate index for middle and high schools. The ESECI assesses student and teacher interactions and relationships through the application…

  19. Measures of School Climate: Needed Improvements Suggested by a Review of the Organizational Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockard, Jean

    Researchers who use the concept of school climate in their research should be aware of the ways in which climate can be measured and what the different methods of measurement imply. Among the typical kinds of measures of school climate currently in use are normative approaches that focus on students' and teachers' perceptions of school norms,…

  20. QSL: A Social System's Intervention To Improve Elementary School/Classroom Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelkun, Ruth F.; And Others

    The drive for improved school and classroom climate, for increased teacher and student involvement in decision-making, and for more positive teacher and student expectations are becoming prime areas for joint educational and behavioral science efforts. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a year-long classroom social competence training…

  1. Middle School Improvement and Reform: Development and Validation of a School-Level Assessment of Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert; Shim, Minsuk; Seitsinger, Anne; Dumas, Thaddeus

    2003-01-01

    Examines the structure of perceived school climate and the relationship of climate dimensions to adaptation of students who attend middle-grade-level schools. The climate scales exhibited a stable dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability. Ratings of multiple climate dimensions were associated…

  2. The Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern, offers a specialised M.Sc. and a Ph.D. study programme in climate sciences. The graduate school has a highly interdisciplinary profile involving not only natural sciences, but also humanities/history, economics and law. The ten participating institutes with a total of 45 academics provide expertise in long-term climate variability, climate modelling, climate reconstruction, predictability of the future climate and extreme events, the impact of climate change on ecosystems and climate risks for society and economy. The graduate school is fully compliant with the Bologna Accords and collaborates closely with the sister institution C2SM at ETH Zurich by, e.g., jointly organised lectures. There are currently 23 master and 37 doctoral students in the programme. These originate from the University of Bern (28 %), from other Swiss universities (30 %) and from foreign universities (42 %). Comprehensive information about the Graduate School of Climate Sciences is available at http://www.climatestudies.unibe.ch . The M.Sc. in Climate Sciences programme (120 ECTS credits) is designed to attract students from all disciplines in natural sciences and offers them a tailor-made curriculum to reach their career aspirations. The students make their own course selection according to their profile envisaged (specialised versus broad education) and ideally already guided by a job perspective. Selecting the courses and the topic of the master thesis they specialise in one of five fields: climate and earth system science; atmospheric science; economics; economic, social and environmental history; statistics. Several courses are organised jointly with public authorities and the private industry, e.g. from experts working in the insurance business, in weather forecasting or in environmental pollution control. This provides the students hands-on experience and contacts to future employers. The master thesis (60 ECTS) involves the

  3. Effective Strategies for School Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blauvelt, Peter D.

    This handbook offers administrators specific advice on developing the skills, knowledge, and techniques needed for coping with problems of school crime and violence. The guide begins by advising administrators that having security information available at all times helps determine the climate of the school. Instructions are given for preparing…

  4. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to participate in this discourse. The purpose of this study was to examine Western Australian high school students' understanding of climate change and the greenhouse effect, in order to identify their alternative conceptions about climate change science and provide a baseline for more effective teaching. A questionnaire designed to elicit students' understanding and alternative conceptions was completed by 438 Year 10 students (14-15 years old). A further 20 students were interviewed. Results showed that students know different features of both climate change and the greenhouse effect, however not necessarily all of them and the relationships between. Five categories of alternative conceptions were identified. The categories were (1) the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer; (2) types of greenhouse gases; (3) types of radiation; (4) weather and climate and (5) air pollution. These findings provide science educators a basis upon which to develop strategies and curriculum resources to improve their students' understanding and decision-making skills about the socioscientific issue, climate change.

  5. A Climate for Self-Efficacy: The Relationship between School Climate and Teacher Efficacy for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosford, Susan; O'Sullivan, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Teacher efficacy represents a key construct in exploring successful implementation of inclusive policy. Teachers' impression of school climate is shown to relate to teacher efficacy; however, few studies pay due deference to its context/specific conceptualisation, with a particular lacuna in research noted in an Irish mainstream primary school…

  6. Delaware School Climate Survey--Student: Its Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…

  7. Motivation, Engagement, and Social Climate: An International Study of Boarding Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Most educational climate research is conducted among (day school) students who spend the bulk of their young lives outside of school, potentially limiting the amount of climate variance that can be captured. Boarding school students, on the other hand, spend much of their lives at school and thus offer a potentially unique perspective on…

  8. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  9. Relationships between School Climate and Adolescent Students' Self-Reports of Ethnic and Moral Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jill M.; Ala'i, Kate G.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports research into associations between students' perceptions of the school climate and self-reports of ethnic and moral identity in high schools in Western Australia. An instrument was developed to assess students' perceptions of their school climate (as a means of monitoring and guiding schools as they are challenged to become…

  10. School Climate and Bullying Victimization: A Latent Class Growth Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Prykanowski, Debra A.; Larson, Alvin

    2014-01-01

    Researchers investigating school-level approaches for bullying prevention are beginning to discuss and target school climate as a construct that (a) may predict prevalence and (b) be an avenue for school-wide intervention efforts (i.e., increasing positive school climate). Although promising, research has not fully examined and established the…

  11. Recognizing Community Voice and a Youth-Led School-Community Partnership in the School Climate Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ice, Megan; Thapa, Amrit; Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of school improvement research suggests that engaging all members of the school community, including community members and leaders, provides an essential foundation to successful school improvement efforts. School climate surveys to date tend to recognize student, parent/guardian, and school personnel voice but not the voice of…

  12. Climatic Effects of Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzyk, T. M.; Frederick, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    Urban areas around the world have been increasing in size and population density in recent decades. The United Nations reports that in 1900, urbanites comprised 14% of the world's population. This value has increased to 47% in the year 2000, and is expected to grow to 60% by 2030. The goal of this study is to isolate the effects of urbanization on surface radiation balance components and meteorology. Data are recorded from urban and rural locations with a net radiometer and weather station. Instruments record incoming and outgoing solar and thermal radiation, and meteorological variables such as air temperature and pressure, relative humidity and wind speed. Data are incorporated into an energy balance model for urban and natural surfaces to compute heat fluxes due to solar and thermal infrared (longwave) radiation (QSOL and QLW); sensible heat transport (QSENS); evaporation (QEVAP); and conduction (QCONDUC). These fluxes comprise the heating and cooling elements for the different sites. After sunset, the urban surface to air temperature differential (TS - TA) is lower than that in the rural area, and wind speed is decreased due to increased surface roughness, so QSENS is lower. This value decreases even more in an urban canyon environment. Wind speeds in urban canyons are recorded to be up to 15 mph less than regional ones. Urban heat islands are generally assumed to be constant phenomena, existing as much during daytime as at night, but this is not always the case. Rural air temperatures can be greater than or equal to urban ones during the day, which is a reflection of the low specific heats of rural surfaces, but cooling rates are lower in urban areas after sunset, due to their surfaces' high heat capacities, causing these areas to be warmer at night, resulting in the formation of an urban heat island (UHI). UHIs in this respect are cyclical phenomena that occur diurnally. Results show that urban cooling rates can be half as much as rural ones, resulting in

  13. Relationships among School Climate, School Safety, and Student Achievement and Well-Being: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Klinger, Don A.; Hussain, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    School climate, safety and well-being of students are important antecedents of academic achievement. However, school members do not necessarily experience school climate in the same way; rather, their subjective perceptions of the environment and personal characteristics influence individual outcomes and behaviours. Therefore, a closer look at the…

  14. Organizational Effectiveness of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil

    1982-01-01

    Because organizational effectiveness of schools is difficult to define, a model is needed to explain the complexities of the concept. Two models offer some promise. One is the goal model, which defines effectiveness as the degree to which organizations meet or surpass their goals (either official or operational). The other is the system resource…

  15. State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscatelli, Jennifer; Lee, Chiqueena

    2011-01-01

    The National School Climate Center (NSCC) completed a 50-state policy scan on state school climate and anti-bullying policies to better understand the current state policy infrastructure supporting the development of positive school climates. This policy brief examines the current status of school climate and anti-bullying policies in each state,…

  16. The Racial School Climate Gap: Within-School Disparities in Students' Experiences of Safety, Support, and Connectedness.

    PubMed

    Voight, Adam; Hanson, Thomas; O'Malley, Meagan; Adekanye, Latifah

    2015-12-01

    This study used student and teacher survey data from over 400 middle schools in California to examine within-school racial disparities in students' experiences of school climate. It further examined the relationship between a school's racial climate gaps and achievement gaps and other school structures and norms that may help explain why some schools have larger or smaller racial disparities in student reports of climate than others. Multilevel regression results problematized the concept of a "school climate" by showing that, in an average middle school, Black and Hispanic students have less favorable experiences of safety, connectedness, relationships with adults, and opportunities for participation compared to White students. The results also show that certain racial school climate gaps vary in magnitude across middle schools, and in middle schools where these gaps are larger, the racial achievement gap is also larger. Finally, the socioeconomic status of students, student-teacher ratio, and geographic location help explain some cross-school variation in racial climate gaps. These findings have implications for how school climate in conceptualized, measured, and improved.

  17. School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

  18. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Components of School Climate and Leadership Behaviors on Student Achievement: Urban School Districts in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Karmen J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate the relationship between the components of school climate and leadership behaviors on student achievement in an urban school district in the mid-atlantic region. School climate and leadership behaviors for the participating school districts was determined by the School Climate Survey (Corner…

  19. What Effective Schools Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Finn, Amy S.; Kraft, Matthew A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Research has been showing that the most important development in K-12 education over the past decade has been the emergence of a growing number of urban schools that have been convincingly shown to have dramatic positive effects on the achievement of disadvantaged students. Those with the strongest evidence of success are oversubscribed charter…

  20. Organizational Climate, Faculty Trust: Predicting Student Bullying--An Elementary School Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Tenna

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem among students. Research linking school climate and trust as to bullying is minimal. This study examined elements of school climate and trust in relation to bullying and protection using Hoy and Smith's (2004) climate study and Smith and Birney's (2005) trust study. Trust was found to be the significant predictor of…

  1. High School Teachers and Students Knowledge and Views about Climate Change, a Nice NASA Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    One factor for some Americans being confused about climate change is their lack of understanding its underlying science concepts (Somerville & Hassol, 2011). In spite of this, climate change has been under-emphasized in school curricula (Bardsley & Bardsley, 2007). This is an important challenge for science educators, especially given the increasing public awareness of climate change impacts in their everyday lives (NCADAC, 2013).One way to address this challenge is to involve teachers in professional learning projects with the expectation that their enhanced content and pedagogical knowledge about climate change will transfer into more effective instruction resulting in increased student learning. For teacher educators, this translates into providing vibrant professional learning activities that energize and engage science teachers to develop interesting lessons that stimulate their students to learn important science concepts and develop positive attitudes to science. This study examined content knowledge and views about climate change of 33 high school science teachers and their1050 students who participated in lessons developed in a NASA-funded professional learning project. The teachers participated in a seven-day climate change summer institute and received in-classroom follow-up support throughout the school year. Teacher data sources included a background survey (undergraduate majors, number of years teaching science), science teaching self-efficacy (STEBI-A) scores, Climate Science Inventory of Knowledge (CSIK), and Six-America's Views on Climate Change. Student data included journal entries, and pre-post measures using the CSIK and Six-Americas instruments. T-tests and ANOVA showed that both students and their teachers increased in climate science knowledge. Teachers' views about climate change were more aligned to climate scientists' views. Teachers also increased in their science teaching self-efficacy and those with higher self-efficacy demonstrated

  2. Climate Change: Implementing School Discipline Practices That Create a Positive School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardichon, Jessica; Roc, Martens

    2013-01-01

    Middle and high school students subjected to harsh school discipline policies and practices such as suspensions and expulsions are more likely to disengage from the classroom and course work, and increases their chances of dropping out, according to this new report from the Alliance for Excellent Education. The report recommends implementing…

  3. Students' Perceptions of School Climate in the U.S. and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G.; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C.; Huang, Xishan

    2013-01-01

    Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States.…

  4. Transformational Leadership Related to School Climate: A Multi-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarley, Troy A.; Peters, Michelle L.; Decman, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Across the nation, quality leadership and positive school climate are critical to the success of every principal, student, and school. As a result, this study examined the relationship between teacher perceptions of the degree to which a principal displays the factors of transformational leadership and the perceived school climate. A purposeful…

  5. A Multilevel View of Predictors of Children's Perceptions of School Interpersonal Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Juliette K.; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given to the role of a positive school interpersonal climate in children's school functioning and social-emotional development. Children's perceptions are commonly used to measure the interpersonal school climate, but the individual and contextual characteristics that contribute to variation in children's perceptions…

  6. Caring Climate, Empathy, and Student Social Behaviors in High School Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalama, Susana M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore connections among perceived caring climate, empathy, and student social behaviors in high school bands. Nine high school band directors (N = 9 schools), along with their students (N = 203), completed an electronic questionnaire for variables of caring climate, cognitive empathy, affective empathy, social…

  7. Classroom Climate and Students' Goal Structures in High-School Biology Classrooms in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucherah, Winnie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined classroom climate and student goal structures in high-school biology classrooms in Kenya. Participants included 891 students and their teachers in Grades 10 and 11 from two same-sex boarding schools--one for boys and the other for girls. School differences were found on all classroom climate aspects except teacher support and…

  8. A Correlational Study: The Relationship between School Climate, Connectedness, and Reading Achievement of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanford, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational research study was to develop an understanding of the relationship between the quality of school climate and connectedness as perceived by 3rd- to 5th-grade students and their teachers, and the level and of reading achievement of 3rd- to 5th-grade students in one district in the Northwestern United…

  9. Strengthening Assessments of School Climate: Lessons from the NYC School Survey. Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; McCormick, Meghan; Kemple, James J.

    2013-01-01

    More and more cities and states are using surveys to collect information about school climate from students, teachers and parents. These surveys have the potential to shed light on critical aspects of the learning environment, and they are being incorporated into a growing number of public and privately funded education initiatives. The US…

  10. Catholic School Leadership: School Climate and Culture and the Influence on Principal Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckley, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    Today's Catholic educators face a very different world, creating a change in the role and responsibility of the principal. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the culture and climate affect satisfaction in the principal's role that warrants becoming and remaining a principal in today's Catholic schools. This…

  11. The Direct and Moderating Role of School Interpersonal Climate on Children's Academic Outcomes in the Context of Whole-School, Social-Emotional Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Juliette K.; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    A positive school climate is characterized by a supportive, orderly, and fair interpersonal climate. Children's perceptions of interpersonal climate and school safety are associated with several academic and behavioral adjustment outcomes. The current study has two goals: (1) to better understand the contribution of school interpersonal climate to…

  12. School Processes Mediate School Compositional Effects: Model Specification and Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hongqiang; Van Damme, Jan; Gielen, Sarah; Van Den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    School composition effects have been consistently verified, but few studies ever attempted to study how school composition affects school achievement. Based on prior research findings, we employed multilevel mediation modeling to examine whether school processes mediate the effect of school composition upon school outcomes based on the data of 28…

  13. Taking Action on Climate Change--Inside and Outside Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippe, Denise; Kool, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Without experience, students struggle to understand climate change. Uses the school environment as a starting point to explain the causes of climate change and involves students in activities concerning indoor and outdoor environments. (YDS)

  14. In the Face of Anti-LGBQ Behaviour: Saskatchewan High School Students' Perceptions of School Climate and Consequential Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Melanie A.; Jewell, Lisa; McCutcheon, Jessica; Cochrane, Donald B.

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, there is a dearth of research on school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) students. Using social networking, 60 students from high schools in Saskatchewan participated in a climate survey. Results indicated that anti-LGBQ speech was widespread, as were other forms of harassment. The more victimization that was…

  15. The Impact of School Climate on the Achievement of Elementary School Students Who Are Economically Disadvantaged a Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Gina W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of school climate on the achievement of third and fourth grade students who are economically disadvantaged in Mathematics and Reading/Language Arts. Students' perception of school climate was studied using the "Tripod Survey" variables of a caring, captivating, and academically…

  16. Hiring Effective Secondary School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlothlin, Jason M.; Miller, Lynne Guillot

    2008-01-01

    Today's effective school counselors are integral in education reform, school leadership, and student achievement. It is typically the responsibility of building principals to hire effective school counselors. This article builds on previous literature and provides principals with questions to ask and information to gather that may be helpful in…

  17. The relation between bullying and subclinical psychotic experiences and the influence of the bully climate of school classes.

    PubMed

    Horrevorts, Esther M B; Monshouwer, Karin; Wigman, Johanna T W; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to examine the association between the bully climate of school classes and the prevalence of subclinical psychotic experiences among students who are involved in bullying (either as bully or as victim). Data were derived from the Dutch health behavior in school-aged children survey of 2005, a nationally representative cross-sectional study with a total of 5,509 adolescents between the age of 12 and 16. The data were analyzed using a multilevel regression analysis. The study revealed that both bullying and being bullied in school classes was associated with an increased level of subclinical psychotic experiences. The bully climate of a school class moderates this effect, i.e., the higher risk for bully-victims on subclinical psychotic experiences was less strong in classes with a higher percentage of classmates involved in bullying. Thus, bully climate has to be taken into account when studying the psychological experiences associated with being bullied.

  18. The Relationship between Students' Perception of Being Safe in School, Principals' Perception of School Climate and Science Achievement in TIMSS 2007: A Comparison between Urban and Rural Public School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulifa, Khalid; Kaaouachi, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the assessment of the effects of Index of Principals' Perception of School Climate (PPSC), intimidation of students and gender in Moroccan public schools on student performance in science. The study focused on fourth grade students who participated in the TIMSS 2007. The objective of this study is to answer the following…

  19. Who Is Learning About Climate Change in American Schools? An Analysis of Climate Change in Curriculum Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, B. W.; Francis, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to answer the question "how much, if any, climate change, exists in middle and high school curricula in the United States?" A necessary first step towards this answer involves an examination of Global Climate Change (GCC) coverage in the requisite standards documents. Until recently, each state had its own science framework, with four states (at the time of writing) having already adopted the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve, Inc, 2013). This work reports on an analysis of the extent to which GCC exists within the content frameworks of each state, including the NGSS. The analysis began with a word search for such content as "climate change", "greenhouse effect", and "global warming". We then searched through the remainder of the documents in question to understand the nuance of each framework. Each framework was then scored on a scale form zero (no mention of climate change) to four (climate change is explicit, an anthropogenic potential cause is emphasized, and GCC appears within at least one standard of its own). Eighteen states scored a zero, while only five states scored a four. This is particularly troubling, in light of recent statements of scientific consensus (AAAS, 2006; 2009; AGU, 2013; IPCC, 2007). While the NGSS scored well, it is unclear what this means in terms of actual students encountering the subject of climate change in actual classroom. Attention is given to some still-problematic aspects of GCC content are addressed, including its focus largely within courses not required for graduation, as well as the murky details of the yet-to-be determined processes by which individual states will choose to test, or not to test, the subject matter. The authors conclude that as of 2013, there is little evidence that students in most states are required to take courses which include significant aspects of GCC in their curricula.

  20. Classroom Management, School Staff Relations, School Climate, and Academic Achievement: Testing A Model with Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Lindsey T.; Polk, Elizabeth; Keys, Christopher B.; McMahon, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    Urban learning environments pose distinct instructional challenges for teachers and administrators, and can lead to lower achievement compared to suburban or rural schools. Today's educational climate increasingly emphasises a need for positive academic outcomes, often measured by standardised tests, on which student educational opportunities,…

  1. Reciprocal associations between interpersonal and values dimensions of school climate and peer victimization in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Smith, David; Bowen, François

    2015-01-01

    We examine longitudinal relations among children's and parents' reports of peer victimization and their perceptions of school climate dimensions reflecting school interpersonal relationships (relationships among children and their teachers and peers, and of parents and principals) and values (fairness and equity of access to resources). Children were in Grades 3 and 4 at Time 1 (Mage = 9.32, SDage = .74; 49% boys). Bidirectional influences of school climate and reports of peer victimization were investigated in path models across grade (Time 1 to Time 2) and within a grade (Time 2 to Time 3). Child and parent reports of school climate dimensions showed considerable stability. Hypothesized reciprocal relationships between each of the school climate dimensions and peer victimization were significant. Child-reported frequency of parent involvement in school activities was associated with lower levels of peer victimization within a school year. Parent perceptions of involvement in school activities and the schools' connection with the community were unrelated to the children's reports of peer victimization. Children's negative cognitions or "worldviews" coupled with peer victimization may fuel problems with school connectedness, safety, and help seeking. Findings shed light on possible pathways for reducing peer victimization by leveraging specific aspects of the social climate within schools.

  2. Profiles of School Anxiety: Differences in Social Climate and Peer Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Ingles, Candido J.; Trianes, Maria V.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: School anxiety is often defined as a set of symptoms grouped into cognitive, psychophysiological and motor responses emitted by an individual in school situations that can be perceived as threatening and/or dangerous. School anxiety may be influenced--among other relevant school variables - by the perception of social climate and the…

  3. School and Teacher Effectiveness. Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, William E.

    Four papers presented at the National Council on Measurement in Education meeting are critiqued. G. R. Mandeville and H. Heidari (1988), in a study of unusually effective schools, asked if correlations among cohorts of schools differ depending on the method of analysis used. It is suggested that it would be better to ask whether schools identified…

  4. How Are Middle School Climate and Academic Performance Related across Schools and over Time? REL 2017-212

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Adam; Hanson, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of educators concur that, in order to improve student academic performance, schools need to focus not only on students' academic needs but also on their social, emotional, and material needs (Piscatelli & Lee, 2011). As a result, school climate--the social, emotional, and physical characteristics of a school community (Cohen,…

  5. Changing the School Climate Is the First Step to Reform in Many Schools with Federal Improvement Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    School Improvement Grants (SIGs) financed through the economic stimulus package are intended to spur dramatic change in persistently low-performing schools. Many state and local officials charged with implementing SIGs view the creation of a safe, orderly, collegial, and productive school climate as an essential step in raising student…

  6. The Perception of School Climate in Two Secondary Schools during the Implementation of a Peer Support Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Soledad Andres; Gaymard, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The problem of school violence has been studied in the last decades from different perspectives, especially focused on bullying conflicts. Whole school approaches have been recommended by many experts in the field. The aim of the present study is to assess climate changes in two secondary schools that implement a peer support…

  7. Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2015-01-01

    Background Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation. Methods This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts) were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model. Results None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = <0.001) higher score in the post-test after adjusting for pre-test score and other covariates in a multi-level linear regression model. Conclusions These results suggest that school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level

  8. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, C.; Haberle, R. M.; McKay, C. P.; Titov, D. V.

    This chapter reviews the theory of the greenhouse effect and climate feedback. It also compares the theory with observations, using examples taken from all four known terrestrial worlds with substantial atmospheres: Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. The greenhouse effect traps infrared radiation in the atmosphere, thereby increasing surface temperature. It is one of many factors that affect a world's climate. (Others include solar luminosity and the atmospheric scattering and absorption of solar radiation.) A change in these factors — defined as climate forcing — may change the climate in a way that brings other processes — defined as feedbacks — into play. For example, when Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, warming the surface, the water vapor content of the atmosphere increases. This is a positive feedback on global warming because water vapor is itself a potent greenhouse gas. Many positive and negative feedback processes are significant in determining Earth's climate, and probably the climates of our terrestrial neighbors.

  9. School Climate and Student Absenteeism and Internalizing and Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendron, Marisa; Kearney, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether school climate variables were directly and inversely related to absenteeism severity and key symptoms of psychopathology among youths specifically referred for problematic attendance (N = 398). Adolescents in our sample completed the School Climate Survey Revised Edition, which measured sharing of resources, order and…

  10. School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception in Traditional and Cyberbullying Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Yusuf; Ucanok, Zehra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in perceptions of school social climate and peers in terms of bullying status, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception Scales. The students participated from six different cities in Turkey were in…

  11. Contribution of Hardiness and School Climate to Alienation Experienced by Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, William C.; Wendt, Janice C.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined relationships between hardiness and school climate in contributing to student teacher alienation. Survey results from 106 student teachers indicated that hardiness significantly affected alienation. Alienation levels of high-hardy students decreased in more supportive school climates. Low-hardy students increased in alienation…

  12. The Impact of a Principal's Sex on the Climate of Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenton, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a leader's sex on the climate of alternative schools. Specifically, the problem was "Does a principal's sex have an impact on the climate of alternative schools?" The research attempted to answer the following questions: (1) Do differences with regard to a principal's sex exist within the following…

  13. School Climate: A Review of the Construct, Measurement, and Impact on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    The construct of school climate has received attention as a way to enhance student achievement and reduce problem behaviors. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the existing literature on school climate and to bring to light the strengths, weakness, and gaps in the ways researchers have approached the construct. The central information in…

  14. Psychometric Support for an Abbreviated Version of the California School Climate and Safety Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebelez, Jennica L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The California School Climate and Safety Survey-Short Form (CSCSS-SF) was developed as a streamlined version (54 items) of the original CSCSS (102 items) for school safety teams to gather information regarding student perceptions of campus climate, safety, and experience of victimization. Using a longitudinal dataset, this study implemented…

  15. Students' Perceptions of School Climate as Determinants of Wellbeing, Resilience and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.; Fozdar, Farida; Ala'i, Kate; Earnest, Jaya; Afari, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations between school climate variables and students' feeling of wellbeing, life satisfaction, ethnic identity, moral identity and resilience. Furthermore, the study also examined the interrelationships between these five outcome variables. Six aspects of the school climate were measured: teacher support, peer…

  16. An Analysis of the Relation between Secondary School Organizational Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaofu, Pan; Qiwen, Qin

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates and analyzes the relation between the secondary school organizational climate and teacher job satisfaction using a self-designed school organizational climate scale based on studies in China and abroad. The findings show that except for interpersonal factors there are significant correlations between the various factors of…

  17. Differences in Assessments of Organizational School Climate between Teachers and Adminsitrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Brandy Kinlaw

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the organizational school climate perceptions of teachers and principals and to ascertain the extent to which their perceptions differed. This causal comparative study used the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire for Elementary Schools (OCDQ-RE) as the survey instrument for data…

  18. School Climate of Educational Institutions: Design and Validation of a Diagnostic Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    School climate is recognized as a relevant factor for the improvement of educative processes, favoring the administrative processes and optimum school performance. The present article is the result of a quantitative research model which had the objective of psychometrically designing and validating a scale to diagnose the organizational climate of…

  19. Assessing School Citizenship Education Climate: Implications for the Social Studies. CIRCLE Working Paper 48

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homana, Gary; Barber, Carolyn; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the School Citizenship Education Climate Assessment and examines its implications for the social studies. The assessment tool was developed from a variety of research fields and disciplines related to school and classroom climate and educational practices including civic education, educational psychology and service-learning.…

  20. The Influence of Effortful Control and Empathy on Perception of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorza, Juan P.; Marino, Julián; Mesas, Alberto Acosta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive power of effortful control (EC) and empathy for perception of school climate. Self-report measures of EC, dispositional empathy, and perception of school climate were obtained for 398 students (204 females) aged 12 to 13. Sociometric status was peer-evaluated, and academic achievement was…

  1. Predicting Teacher Commitment: The Impact of School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether school climate and social-emotional learning impact teacher commitment. The sample included 664 public schoolteachers from British Columbia and Ontario in Canada. Participants completed an online questionnaire about teacher commitment, school climate, and social-emotional learning. Binary logistic…

  2. Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…

  3. Neighborhood crime and school climate as predictors of elementary school academic quality: a cross-lagged panel analysis.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Roy, Amanda L; Sirkman, Gabriel M

    2013-09-01

    Past research has found negative relationships between neighborhood structural disadvantage and students' academic outcomes. Comparatively little work has evaluated the associations between characteristics of neighborhoods and schools themselves. This study explored the longitudinal, reciprocal relationships between neighborhood crime and school-level academic achievement within 500 urban schools. Results revealed that higher neighborhood crime (and particularly violent crime) predicted decreases in school academic achievement across time. School climate emerged as one possible mechanism within this relationship, with higher neighborhood crime predicting decreases in socioemotional learning and safety, but not academic rigor. All three dimensions of school climate were predictive of changes in academic achievement. Although this research supports a primarily unidirectional hypothesis of neighborhoods' impacts on embedded settings, additional work is needed to understand these relationships using additional conceptualizations of neighborhood climate.

  4. Climate Change and Agriculture: Effects and Adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document is a synthesis of science literature on the effects of climate change on agriculture and issues associated with agricultural adaptation to climate change. Information is presented on how long-term changes in air temperatures, precipitation, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide wi...

  5. The social construction of communication climate: An analysis of at-risk students in alternative high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Tasha Jean

    1998-12-01

    Alternative high schools affect more potential high school dropouts than any other school or program and are designed to meet the needs of students who have had difficulty in conventional schools. This study examines the communication climate and constructions of caring in an alternative school for at-risk students by using a qualitative analysis grounded in the theoretical perspective of social constructionism. Observations and interviews were conducted over a six month time period. The first two chapters provide a review of literature and a detailed account of the methods used to conduct the study. Chapter Three describes the socially constructed nature of the school and the participants and the dialectical tensions of communication climate revealed from the analysis. The six dialectical tensions of communication climate are: (1) freedom/restraint, (2) disengagement/engagement, (3) personal communication/impersonal communication, (4) disconfirmation/confirmation, (5) equality/inequality, and (6) ambiguity/clarity. Although the school climate is comprised of each of these tensions, the data suggest that the interaction within the majority of classes created some common characteristics of the general communication climate at the school and can be characterized as one of freedom, disengagement, personal communication, disconfirmation, equality, and ambiguity. Chapter Four describes how caring was constructed and communicated. Although some students perceived some teachers as caring about students and about student learning, half of the students interviewed thought they were not learning or not learning much. Finally, Chapter Five provides a summary of the findings and a discussion of the results. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of the social construction of communication climate and caring in general, and within an alternative school for at-risk students, in specific. The results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of the

  6. Cultural Diversity Climate and Psychological Adjustment at School-Equality and Inclusion Versus Cultural Pluralism.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Maja K; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Eckstein, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural pluralism. Longitudinal multilevel analyses based on 386 early adolescent immigrant students (Mage  = 10.49 years) in 44 ethnically heterogeneous classrooms in Germany revealed that the manifestations of both types of policies promote psychological school adjustment (i.e., better well-being and fewer psychological and behavioral problems) at the individual level. However, they differ in their effects on acculturation orientations. At the classroom level, equality and inclusion promote assimilation. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.

  7. The Validity of Characteristics of Effective Schools across Contexts and Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel, W. G. R.; Scheerens, J.

    An inventory was made of reliable characteristics of effective schools within and across contexts, including a comparison of results of effective-schools research from different nations. A five-factor model of school effectiveness is discussed, which gives the following characteristics: (1) academic goal consensus; (2) safe and orderly climate;…

  8. Climate targets and cost-effective climate stabilization pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, H.

    2015-08-01

    Climate economics has developed two main tools to derive an economically adequate response to the climate problem. Cost benefit analysis weighs in any available information on mitigation costs and benefits and thereby derives an "optimal" global mean temperature. Quite the contrary, cost effectiveness analysis allows deriving costs of potential policy targets and the corresponding cost- minimizing investment paths. The article highlights pros and cons of both approaches and then focusses on the implications of a policy that strives at limiting global warming to 2 °C compared to pre-industrial values. The related mitigation costs and changes in the energy sector are summarized according to the IPCC report of 2014. The article then points to conceptual difficulties when internalizing uncertainty in these types of analyses and suggests pragmatic solutions. Key statements on mitigation economics remain valid under uncertainty when being given the adequate interpretation. Furthermore, the expected economic value of perfect climate information is found to be on the order of hundreds of billions of Euro per year if a 2°-policy were requested. Finally, the prospects of climate policy are sketched.

  9. Evaluation of authentic science projects on climate change in secondary schools: a focus on gender differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Background and purpose This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from scientists about the global carbon cycle. This study focuses in particular on differences between male and female students, as female students normally like traditional school science less than male students. Sample and design Data, drawn from 1370 students from 60 secondary schools across Europe, were collected through questionnaires taken at the end of the projects. The evaluated aspects were: organization; enjoyment; difficulty; and impact of the projects. Results The findings suggest that authentic science education is appreciated very much by both male students and even more by female students. The projects had positive impacts on climate change ideas, in particular for female students. Female students felt that they had learned many new things more often than male students. Conclusions Both male and female students have positive opinions about the authentic science projects. The results further point to positive effects of activities in which students have an active role, like hands-on experiments or presentation of results. The findings are placed in the international context of science education and their implications for policy are discussed.

  10. Perceived School Climate across the Transition from Elementary to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nir; Cohen-Malayev, Maya

    2016-01-01

    The implications of the transition from elementary to middle school are of major concern for educators and researchers worldwide. Previous studies have yielded ambiguous findings; some have indicated negative outcomes of school transition, whereas others have demonstrated null or even positive effects. The aim of the current research was to…

  11. Evaluation of Six School Effectiveness Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Dorren Rafael

    School effectiveness programs were evaluated at six urban schools (five elementary and one junior high schools) in Louisiana for the 1986-87 school year. Focus was on providing principals with information to improve their school effectiveness programs for the 1987-88 school year. Subjects were 3,006 students, for whom scores on the California…

  12. Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

    With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

  13. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  14. Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

  15. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students' Perspectives on Bullying and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Mary T.; Day, Stefanie J.; Galvan, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Student perspectives reflect school climate. The study examined perspectives among deaf and hard of hearing students in residential and large day schools regarding bullying, and compared these perspectives with those of a national database of hearing students. The participants were 812 deaf and hard of hearing students in 11 U.S. schools. Data…

  16. Influence of School Climate on Students' Achievement and Teachers' Productivity for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeogun, A. A.; Olisaemeka, Blessing U.

    2011-01-01

    The study covers ten secondary schools in Lagos State of Nigeria. The purpose is to ascertain the relationship between school climate and student achievements and teachers' productivity for sustainable development. A total sample of 150 respondents was taken. Ten principals, seven teachers and seven students were randomly picked per school. This…

  17. Coordinating Social-Emotional and Character Development (SECD) Initiatives Improves School Climate and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; DeFini, Jennifer; Bergmann, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Many schools attempt to implement multiple programs to promote positive young adolescent development; however, these programs are often fragmented and lack coordination. The authors describe an initiative designed to help schools coordinate their social-emotional and character development (SECD) efforts to improve school climate and help students…

  18. Creating Effective Dialogue Around Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehl, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Communicating climate change to people from diverse sectors of society has proven to be difficult in the United States. It is widely recognized that difficulties arise from a number of sources, including: basic science understanding, the psychologically affect laden content surrounding climate change, and the diversity of value systems that exist in our society. I explore ways of working with the affect that arises around climate change and describe specific methods to work with the resistance often encountered when communicating this important issue. The techniques I describe are rooted in psychology and group process and provide means for creating more effective narratives to break through the barriers to communicating climate change science. Examples are given from personal experiences in presenting climate change to diverse groups.

  19. Relationship between the Quality of Educational Facilities, School Climate, and School Safety of High School Tenth Graders in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Darnell Brushawn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the relationships among facility conditions, school climate, and school safety of high school tenth graders in the United States. Previous research on the quality of educational facilities influence on student achievement has varied. Recent research has suggested that the quality of educational facilities…

  20. Student-Perceived School Climate is Associated with ADHD Medication Treatment among Adolescents in Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Susanna N.; Kramer, Dennis; Snyder, Angela B.; Sebian, Joyce; McGiboney, Garry; Handler, Arden

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the relationship between school climate and ADHD medication treatment among adolescents in Medicaid in Georgia (GA). Methods School climate and Medicaid claims data were aggregated for 159 GA counties. County-level school climate percentile and medicated ADHD prevalence were calculated. T-tests and regression evaluated the relationship between school climate, medicated ADHD, and demographics, weighted by county population. Poorer 2008 school climate (<25th percentile) was regressed on 2011 medicated ADHD prevalence, controlling for potential confounders. Results The prevalence of medicated ADHD was 7.8% among Medicaid-enrolled GA adolescents. The average county-level prevalence of medicated ADHD was 10.0% (SD=2.9%). Poorer school climate was associated with lower rates of medicated ADHD (p<0.0001) and with demographics accounted for 50% of the county variation in medicated ADHD. Conclusions School climate is associated with medicated ADHD among adolescents in Medicaid. Additional research may reveal whether high medicated ADHD may reflect a lack of access to non-pharmacological therapies. PMID:25710947

  1. Teaching climate change: Pressures and practice in the middle school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crayne, Jennifer A.

    What are middle school science teachers teaching their students about climate change? And why? This qualitative study examined the experience of middle school science teachers from western Oregon, finding that while participating teachers accept the science of climate change and express concern about it, many teachers are reluctant to make the topic a priority in their classrooms. When they do include the subject, teachers frequently address "both sides." They also report that students have persistent doubts and misconceptions about climate change. What accounts for these trends? I argue that the way teachers address climate change is a result of complex interactions between structural pressures, emotional pressures, and cultural pressures. I conclude that, in order to promote the inclusion of sound climate science instruction in public schools, advocates of climate change education need to address challenges at all these levels: structural, emotional, and cultural.

  2. The Effectiveness of a Geospatial Technologies-Integrated Curriculum to Promote Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A. M.; Peffer, T.; Sahagian, D. L.; Cirucci, L.

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial technologies - integrated climate change curriculum (http://www.ei.lehigh.edu/eli/cc/) to promote climate literacy in an urban school district. Five 8th grade Earth and Space Science classes in an urban middle school (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) consisting of three different ability level tracks participated in the study. Data gathering methods included pre/posttest assessments, daily classroom observations, daily teacher meetings, and examination of student produced artifacts. Data was gathered using a climate change literacy assessment instrument designed to measure students' climate change content knowledge. The items included distractors that address misunderstandings and knowledge deficits about climate change from the existing literature. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to compare the pre- and post-test assessment results. The results of these analyses were used to compare overall gains as well as ability level track groups. Overall results regarding the use of the climate change curriculum showed significant improvement in urban middle school students' understanding of climate change concepts. Effect sizes were large (ES>0.8) and significant (p<0.001) for the entire assessment and for each ability level subgroup. Findings from classroom observations, assessments embedded in the curriculum, and the examination of all student artifacts revealed that the use of geospatial technologies enable middle school students to improve their knowledge of climate change and improve their spatial thinking and reasoning skills.

  3. Teachers' Views of Their School Climate and Its Relationship with Teacher Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study, in part, was to confirm the factor structure of the School-Level Environment Questionnaire, which assesses six school climate factors that can be considered important for improving schools. The study also tested a research model of the relationships between the school climate, teachers' self-efficacy and job…

  4. The Appropriateness of a California Student and Staff Survey for Measuring Middle School Climate. REL 2014-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Thomas; Voight, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of states and school districts use school climate assessments in progress reporting systems and are interested in incorporating these assessments into accountability systems. This analysis of response data from middle school students and teachers on the California School Climate, Health, and Learning Survey examines the…

  5. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    Forces of societal change have placed new demands on school administrators for skills to manage schools. The result has been an increasing realization of the need for improved university preparation programs and for more effective Human Resource Development (HRD) for practicing administrators. A growing body of research shows a very positive…

  6. Principals' Perceptions of Superintendents' Leadership Practices and Its Impact on School Climate in Selected South Florida Public School District Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This research study sought to determine the leadership practices of area superintendents in selected South Florida public school district areas based on principals' perceptions and assess school climate impact using descriptive and inferential approaches. Methodology: The "Leadership Practices Inventory" ("LPI") 360…

  7. The National School Climate Survey 2001: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students and Their Experiences in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network, New York, NY.

    This report presents findings from the 2001 National School Climate Survey related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students' experiences and feelings of safety in school. A total of 904 LGBT students from 48 states and the District of Columbia participated. Results indicated that the overwhelming majority of students heard…

  8. A School-University Research Partnership to Identify Disengaged Students: A Descriptive Case Analysis of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biag, Manuelito D.; Sanchez, Monika A.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Much of the literature on school-university research partnerships has focused on collaborations that address curriculum, instruction, and leadership. Less scholarly attention has been paid to how practitioners and academics work together to improve school climate. Purpose: We seek to deepen understanding of how educators and…

  9. The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

  10. Eighth-Grade Students' Perceptions of School Climate Based on School Diversity, Ethnicity, Educational Category, Socioeconomic Status, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…

  11. Differences between Secondary Schools: A Study about School Context, Group Composition, School Practice, and School Effects with Special Attention to Public and Catholic Schools and Types of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Van Damme, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The results indicate that in Flanders secondary schools of different denomination and of different school type (based on their curriculum offerings) differ with respect to several characteristics. With respect to the educational framework, learning environment and learning climate differences between schools are small and differences are more…

  12. The Effects of Dress on School Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Norman L.

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the effects of student dress on behavior while at school. The study took place at 5 high schools, 4 junior high schools, and 10 elementary schools during the 2000-01 school year. The total enrollment of the schools was 8,194. The study involved two or three sets consisting of three days…

  13. School climate and bullying victimization: a latent class growth model analysis.

    PubMed

    Gage, Nicholas A; Prykanowski, Debra A; Larson, Alvin

    2014-09-01

    Researchers investigating school-level approaches for bullying prevention are beginning to discuss and target school climate as a construct that (a) may predict prevalence and (b) be an avenue for school-wide intervention efforts (i.e., increasing positive school climate). Although promising, research has not fully examined and established the social-ecological link between school climate factors and bullying/peer aggression. To address this gap, we examined the association between school climate factors and bullying victimization for 4,742 students in Grades 3-12 across 3 school years in a large, very diverse urban school district using latent class growth modeling. Across 3 different models (elementary, secondary, and transition to middle school), a 3-class model was identified, which included students at high-risk for bullying victimization. Results indicated that, for all students, respect for diversity and student differences (e.g., racial diversity) predicted within-class decreases in reports of bullying. High-risk elementary students reported that adult support in school was a significant predictor of within-class reduction of bullying, and high-risk secondary students report peer support as a significant predictor of within-class reduction of bullying.

  14. Beyond Standardized Test Scores: An Examination of Leadership and Climate as Leading Indicators of Future Success in the Transformation of Turnaround Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Judy Jackson; Sanders, Eugene T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Districts throughout the nation are engaged in comprehensive transformation to "turn around" low performing schools. Standardized test scores are used to gauge student achievement; however, academic gains may lag behind leading indicators such as improved school climate and effective leadership. This study examines 16 underperforming…

  15. Combining Knowledge and Beliefs in High School Climate Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Teachers face a seemingly insurmountable task when asked to address the science of climate change with the general public. This topic is unique because of its complexity, political implications and urgency for action. Developing tools that teachers need to address the National Science Standards begin with comprehensive professional development. After one year's implementation of our program (after participation in UCAR's NASA-funded Research Experiences for Teachers Institute), we are beginning to see evidence that with intentional delivery and preparation of climate science curriculum it is possible to combine knowledge and beliefs in order to nurture a desire for action. Teachers need to acquire an appreciation and understanding for the level of connectedness between disciplines used to study climate and repeatedly present the scientific process as a way of gathering evidence to arrive at factual conclusions. This emphasis on scientific process is important in dealing with the difference between personal beliefs and knowledge. In students' everyday lives their beliefs often matter much more to them than scientific facts. Today's media frequently gives opinions as much clout as verifiable data. Therefore, science teachers need to become anthropologists in order to navigate between cultures, traditions, economic realities and foundational beliefs to effect a change in attitude. Climate change affects us all whether we like it or not, and the challenge is finding a personal connection for each student that supports their journey instead of polarizing each other into the "believers" and "non-believers". It is important to listen to those whose worldview is not best explained by science in order to address the problem with the least resistance. At the end of a program that implemented techniques described above the student's overwhelming response was not: "climate change is a hoax" but instead "ok, I get it, NOW WHAT?" This is the million-dollar question that we

  16. Using transformational change to improve organizational culture and climate in a school of nursing.

    PubMed

    Springer, Pamela J; Clark, Cynthia M; Strohfus, Pamela; Belcheir, Marcia

    2012-02-01

    A positive organizational culture and climate is closely associated with an affirming workplace and job satisfaction. Especially during a time of faculty shortages, academic leaders need to be cognizant of the culture and climate in schools of nursing. The culture of an organization affects employees, systems, and processes, and if the culture becomes problematic, transformational leadership is essential to create change. The purpose of this article is to describe an 8-year journey to change the culture and climate of a school of nursing from one of dissatisfaction and distrust to one of high employee satisfaction and trust. Kotter's model for transformational change was used to frame a longitudinal study using the Cultural and Climate Assessment Scale to transform the organizational culture and climate of a school of nursing.

  17. Bringing Global Climate Change Education to Alabama Middle School and High School Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Mitra, C.; Percival, E.; Thomas, A.; Lucy, T.; Hickman, E.; Cox, J.; Chaudhury, S. R.; Rodger, C.

    2013-12-01

    A NASA-funded Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program has been launched in Alabama to improve high school and middle school education in climate change science. The overarching goal is to generate a better informed public that understands the consequences of climate change and can contribute to sound decision making on related issues. Inquiry based NICE modules have been incorporated into the existing course of study for 9-12 grade biology, chemistry, and physics classes. In addition, new modules in three major content areas (earth and space science, physical science, and biological science) have been introduced to selected 6-8 grade science teachers in the summer of 2013. The NICE modules employ five E's of the learning cycle: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend and Evaluate. Modules learning activities include field data collection, laboratory measurements, and data visualization and interpretation. Teachers are trained in the use of these modules for their classroom through unique partnership with Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) and the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Certified AMSTI teachers attend summer professional development workshops taught by ASIM and AMSTI specialists to learn to use NICE modules. During the school year, the specialists in turn deliver the needed equipment to conduct NICE classroom exercises and serve as an in-classroom resource for teachers and their students. Scientists are partnered with learning and teaching specialists and lead teachers to implement and test efficacy of instructional materials, models, and NASA data used in classroom. The assessment by professional evaluators after the development of the modules and the training of teachers indicates that the modules are complete, clear, and user-friendly. The overall teacher satisfaction from the teacher training was 4.88/5.00. After completing the module teacher training, the teachers reported a strong agreement that the content developed in the NICE

  18. The Impact of School Climate on Student Achievement in the Middle Schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia: A Quantitative Analysis of Existing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, David Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study was designed to be an analysis of the relationship between school climate and student achievement through the creation of an index of climate-factors (SES, discipline, attendance, and school size) for which publicly available data existed. The index that was formed served as a proxy measure of climate; it was analyzed…

  19. Teachers' Perception of School Climate in Independent Jewish Day Schools in Relation to Change and Transition of Leadership Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafo, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between turnover of school leadership personnel and school climate as perceived by teachers. The study focused on Jewish day schools in the United States in different cities and states. Fifty Jewish day schools (ranging from preschool age to high school) participated in the study with 200 teachers from these…

  20. ASK Florida; a climate change education professional development program for middle school teachers in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    A series of professional development workshops covering the fundamentals of climate change have been developed and facilitated for two groups of middle school science teachers in three Florida counties. The NASA-supported joint venture between Florida State University's Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) and the University of South Florida's (USF's) Coalition for Science Literacy, ASK Florida, focuses on expanding and deepening teachers' content knowledge of a wide range of climate change topics, connecting local and regional changes to the global picture, and supporting classroom implementation and effective teaching practices. Education experts from USF, climate scientists from COAPS, and Hillsborough county teachers and science coaches coordinated and developed the workshop content, which is based on Florida's Next Generation Sunshine State Standards in science, science curriculum guides for 6th grade, and teacher interest. Several scientists have facilitated activities during the workshop, including professors in meteorology and climatology, research scientists in the field, a NOAA program manager, the state climatologists for Florida, and others. Having these climate scientists present during the workshop provides teachers an opportunity to interact directly with the scientists and gain insight into the climatology field. Additionally, we host an open-forum discussion panel during which teachers can ask the experts about any topics of interest. Activities are designed to enhance the scientific skill level of the teachers. Introductory activities reinforce teachers' abilities to distinguish facts from opinions and to evaluate sources. Other activities provide hands-on experience using actual scientific data from NASA and other agencies. For example, teachers analyze precipitation data to create distributions of Florida rainfall, examine sea level trends at various locations, identify Atlantic hurricane frequencies during the phases of ENSO

  1. Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change Science into High School and Community College Energy Course Offerings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, C.

    2013-05-01

    In reviewing studies evaluating trends in greenhouse gasses, weather, climate and/or ecosystems, it becomes apparent that climate change is a reality. It has also become evident that the energy sector accounts for most of the greenhouse gas emissions with worldwide emissions of carbon dioxide increasing by 31 percent from 1990 to 2005, higher than in the previous thousands of years. While energy courses and topics are presented in high school and community college classes the topic of Climate Change Science is not always a part of the conversation. During the summer of 2011 and 2012, research undergraduates conducted interviews with a total of 39 national community college and 8 high school instructors who participated in a two week Sustainable Energy Education Training (SEET) workshop. Interview questions addressed the barriers and opportunities to the incorporation of climate change as a dimension of an energy/renewable energy curriculum. Barriers found included: there is not enough instruction time to include it; some school administrators including community members do not recognize climate change issues; quality information about climate change geared to students is difficult to find; and, most climate change information is too scientific for most audiences. A Solution to some barriers included dialogue on sustainability as a common ground in recognizing environmental changes/concerns among educators, administrators and community members. Sustainability discussions are already supported in school business courses as well as in technical education. In conclusion, we cannot expect climate change to dissipate without humans making more informed energy and environmental choices. With global population growth producing greater emissions resulting in increased climate change, we must include the topic of climate change to students in high school and community college classrooms, preparing our next generation of leaders and workforce to be equipped to find solutions

  2. Mental health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.

  3. Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools Located along the Thai-Cambodian Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitratporn, Poonsook; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to measure the Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools located along the Thai-Cambodian borders. The study intended to measure the relationship between the two underlying variables quality of work life and organizational climate. Simple random sample of 384 respondents were administrators and teachers…

  4. Students' Academic Climate Perception of the School of Business of a Mexican University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdés-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodríguez, Javier Arturo; Sánchez-Franco, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses student perception of the academic climate of the School of Business in a private university in Tijuana, México. With the participation of 257 students out of 348 enrolled in five academic programs, the survey results show that students perceive that the criteria that make up the academic climate occur "Always" in…

  5. The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

  6. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

    This guide contains recommendations for designing high performance, energy efficient schools located in hot and dry climates. A high performance checklist for designers is included along with several case studies of projects that successfully demonstrated high performance design solutions for hot and dry climates. The guide's 10 sections…

  7. School Instructional Climate and Student Achievement: An Examination of Group Norms for Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Yvonne; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between school instructional climate and students' fifth-grade mathematics and reading achievement, with a particular emphasis on norms for practice consistent with differentiated instruction. Using data from a stratified random sample of Michigan elementary schools, we employed…

  8. Evaluation of Authentic Science Projects on Climate Change in Secondary Schools: A Focus on Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from…

  9. A Brazilian Portuguese Survey of School Climate: Evidence of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Holst, Bruna; Lisboa, Carolina; Chen, Dandan; Yang, Chunyan; Chen, Fang Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence of the validity and reliability of scores for the newly developed Brazilian Portuguese version of the Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (Brazilian DSCS-S). The sample consisted of 378 students, grades 5 through 9, attending four private and three public schools in southern Brazil. Confirmatory factor analyses…

  10. Pedagogical and Social Climate in School Questionnaire: Factorial Validity and Reliability of the Teacher Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the factorial structure of the Pedagogical and Social Climate in School (PESOC) questionnaire among 307 teachers in Bulgaria. The teacher edition of PESOC consists of 11 scales (i.e., Expectations for Students, Unity Among Teachers, Approach to Students, Basic Assumptions About Students' Ability to Learn, School-Home…

  11. Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Developing positive school climates and improving school discipline policies and practices are critical steps to raising academic achievement and supporting student success. However, there is no single formula for doing so. Rather, the growing body of research and best practices in the field should inform locally developed approaches to improving…

  12. Perceived Motivational Climates and Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Norwegian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…

  13. High School Students' Metaphors towards "Climate" Concept According to Gender Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Mucahit

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the metaphors of high school students towards "climate" concept according to gender variable. A total of 108 students in two high schools in Karabuk City participated in the research in 2009-2010 academic years. The data of the research were gathered from the students' completing the…

  14. A Correlational Study Examining Demonstrated Emotional Intelligence and Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Chris James

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative study with a correlational design, this research investigated whether certified teachers' ratings of their school leader's demonstrated emotional intelligence behaviors correlated with the teacher's perceptions of school climate. A sample of 42 graduate and post baccalaureate students from a Mid-Atlantic region college accessed a…

  15. "I Don't Want Your Nasty Pot of Gold": Urban School Climate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Charles M.

    Few of the current major efforts to improve urban schools adequately appreciate the extent to which the problematic social climate of urban schools can undermine the implementation of even very good ideas. As a result, programs often come and go with little lasting impact. This paper uses ethnographic fieldwork to illustrate the ways dysfunctional…

  16. Cultural Diversity Climate and Psychological Adjustment at School-Equality and Inclusion versus Cultural Pluralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…

  17. Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Piljae

    2009-01-01

    A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the…

  18. A Study of the Perceived Relationships between the Leadership Style of Elementary Administrators and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    As national and state demands continue to mandate school improvement, leaders in schools have continued to seek answers from leadership theory and research to improve and sustain the culture and climate that has been created in order for diverse populations to meet academic excellence. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship…

  19. The Relationship between School's Organizational Climate and Teacher's Job Satisfaction: Malaysian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghavifekr, Simin; Pillai, Nova Sheila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between school organizational climate and teachers' job satisfaction. A quantitative survey method was applied, and three broadly hypothesized relationships were tested with a sample of 245 teachers from six government secondary schools in district of Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia. The…

  20. Does Leadership Matter? Examining the Relationship among Transformational Leadership, School Climate, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy; Grigsby, Bettye; Peters, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership, school climate, and student mathematics and reading achievement. Survey data were collected from a purposeful sample of elementary school principals and a convenience sample of his or her respective teachers located in a small suburban…

  1. Establishing and Monitoring a School and Classroom Climate That Promotes Desired Behavior and Academic Achievement. CASE/CCBD Mini-Library Series on Safe, Drug-Free, and Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Richard

    This monograph explores the social context of the school and how this context influences, for better or worse, the academic and social behavior of students. It reviews how most student behavior serves a meaningful purpose for the student and how similar behaviors may serve distinctly different functions for various students. It also explores how…

  2. Validation of a Brief Measure of Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate: Relations to Student Achievement and Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Yang, Chunyan; Pell, Megan; Gaskins, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Based on theory and research on learning environments, the Delaware School Climate Survey-Teacher/Staff (DSCS-T/S) was developed to provide schools with a brief, psychometrically sound measure of teachers' perceptions of school climate. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 5,781 teachers, support staff,…

  3. Perceived School Climate and Chinese Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Role of Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Background: School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep…

  4. Psychometric Support of the School Climate Measure in a Large, Diverse Sample of Adolescents: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…

  5. Accelerated School Programmes: Assessing Their Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziel, Haim

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of Accelerated School Programs (ASPs) on the basis of a study of four comprehensive schools in Israel. Assesses the influence of ASPs upon internal school processes, such as school goals, structures, and cultures, as perceived by school staff. Determines the project's impact on staff and parents' attitudes, and examines…

  6. Children's well-being at schools: Impact of climatic conditions and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Salthammer, Tunga; Uhde, Erik; Schripp, Tobias; Schieweck, Alexandra; Morawska, Lidia; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; He, Congrong; Buonanno, Giorgio; Querol, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-09-01

    Human civilization is currently facing two particular challenges: population growth with a strong trend towards urbanization and climate change. The latter is now no longer seriously questioned. The primary concern is to limit anthropogenic climate change and to adapt our societies to its effects. Schools are a key part of the structure of our societies. If future generations are to take control of the manifold global problems, we have to offer our children the best possible infrastructure for their education: not only in terms of the didactic concepts, but also with regard to the climatic conditions in the school environment. Between the ages of 6 and 19, children spend up to 8h a day in classrooms. The conditions are, however, often inacceptable and regardless of the geographic situation, all the current studies report similar problems: classrooms being too small for the high number of school children, poor ventilation concepts, considerable outdoor air pollution and strong sources of indoor air pollution. There have been discussions about a beneficial and healthy air quality in classrooms for many years now and in recent years extensive studies have been carried out worldwide. The problems have been clearly outlined on a scientific level and there are prudent and feasible concepts to improve the situation. The growing number of publications also highlights the importance of this subject. High carbon dioxide concentrations in classrooms, which indicate poor ventilation conditions, and the increasing particle matter in urban outdoor air have, in particular, been identified as primary causes of poor indoor air quality in schools. Despite this, the conditions in most schools continue to be in need of improvement. There are many reasons for this. In some cases, the local administrative bodies do not have the budgets required to address such concerns, in other cases regulations and laws stand in contradiction to the demands for better indoor air quality, and sometimes

  7. Deaf and hard of hearing students' perspectives on bullying and school climate.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Mary T; Day, Stefanie J; Galvan, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Student perspectives reflect school climate. The study examined perspectives among deaf and hard of hearing students in residential and large day schools regarding bullying, and compared these perspectives with those of a national database of hearing students. The participants were 812 deaf and hard of hearing students in 11 U.S. schools. Data were derived from the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire (Olweus, 2007b), a standardized self-reported survey with multiple-choice questions focusing on different aspects of bullying problems. Significant bullying problems were found in deaf school programs. It appears that deaf and hard of hearing students experience bullying at rates 2-3 times higher than those reported by hearing students. Deaf and hard of hearing students reported that school personnel intervened less often when bullying occurred than was reported in the hearing sample. Results indicate the need for school climate improvement for all students, regardless of hearing status.

  8. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes)…

  9. Effects of climate change on croplands

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will describe likely changes in temperature and precipitation expected in the northwestern US with global climate change, and their potential impacts on Oregon croplands. The focus will be on the effects of temperature and carbon dioxide on crop productivity, weed cont...

  10. Effective Schools: Mirror or Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Tommy M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes characteristics which are frequently mentioned as contributing to effective schools. Among the characteristics are that they improve the effectiveness and efficiency of students' work by organizing material and/or instruction, increase the amount of work students perform per unit of time, reduce distractions, and encourage…

  11. Climatic Effects of Regional Nuclear War

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke D.

    2011-01-01

    We use a modern climate model and new estimates of smoke generated by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the response of the climate system to a regional nuclear war between emerging third world nuclear powers using 100 Hiroshima-size bombs (less than 0.03% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) on cities in the subtropics. We find significant cooling and reductions of precipitation lasting years, which would impact the global food supply. The climate changes are large and longlasting because the fuel loadings in modern cities are quite high and the subtropical solar insolation heats the resulting smoke cloud and lofts it into the high stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow. While the climate changes are less dramatic than found in previous "nuclear winter" simulations of a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers, because less smoke is emitted, the changes seem to be more persistent because of improvements in representing aerosol processes and microphysical/dynamical interactions, including radiative heating effects, in newer global climate system models. The assumptions and calculations that go into these conclusions will be described.

  12. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.

  13. Effective Climate Communication with Difficult Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  14. Climatic and landscape controls on effective discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, S.; Frascati, A.; Marani, M.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.

    2015-10-01

    The effective discharge constitutes a key concept in river science and engineering. Notwithstanding many years of studies, a full understanding of the effective discharge determinants is still challenged by the variety of values identified for different river catchments. The present paper relates the observed diversity of effective discharge to the underlying heterogeneity of flow regimes. An analytic framework is proposed, which links the effective ratio (i.e., the ratio between effective discharge and mean streamflow) to the empirical exponent of the sediment rating curve and to the streamflow variability, resulting from climatic and landscape drivers. The analytic formulation predicts patterns of effective ratio versus streamflow variability observed in a set of catchments of the continental United States and helps in disentangling the major climatic and landscape drivers of sediment transport in rivers. The findings highlight larger effective ratios of erratic hydrologic regimes (characterized by high flow variability) compared to those exhibited by persistent regimes, which are attributable to intrinsically different streamflow dynamics. The framework provides support for the estimate of effective discharge in rivers belonging to diverse climatic areas.

  15. Effects of nontropical forest cover on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Chou, M.-D.; Arking, A.

    1984-01-01

    The albedo of a forest with snow on the ground is much less than that of snow-covered low vegetation such as tundra. As a result, simulation of the Northern Hemisphere climate, when fully forested south of a suitably chosen taiga/tundra boundary (ecocline), produces a hemispheric surface air temperature 1.9 K higher than that of an earth devoid of trees. Using variations of the solar constant to force climate changes in the GLAS Multi-Layer Energy Balance Model, the role of snow-albedo feedback in increasing the climate sensitivity to external perturbations is reexamined. The effect of snow-albedo feedback is found to be significantly reduced when a low albedo is used for snow over taiga, south of the fixed latitude of the ecocline. If the ecocline shifts to maintain equilibrium with the new climate - which is presumed to occur in a prolonged perturbation when time is sufficient for trees to grow or die and fall - the feedback is stronger than for a fixed ecocline, especially at high latitudes. However, this snow/vegetation-albedo feedback is still essentially weaker than the snow-albedo feedback in the forest-free case. The loss of forest to agriculture and other land-use would put the present climate further away from that associated with the fully forested earth south of the ecocline and closer to the forest-free case. Thus, the decrease in nontropical forest cover since prehistoric times has probably affected the climate by reducing the temperatures and by increasing the sensitivity to perturbations, with both effects more pronounced at high latitudes.

  16. NASA/JPL CLIMATE DAY: Middle and High School Students Get the Facts about Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Annie; Callery, Susan; Srinivasan, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    In 2007, NASA Headquarters requested that Earth Science outreach teams brainstorm new education and public outreach activities that would focus on the topic of global climate change. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Annie Richardson, outreach lead for the Ocean Surface Topography missions came up with the idea of a "Climate Day", capitalizing on the popular Earth Day name and events held annually throughout the world. JPL Climate Day would be an education and public outreach event whose objectives are to provide the latest scientific facts about global climate change - including the role the ocean plays in it, the contributions that NASA/JPL satellites and scientists make to the body of knowledge on the topic, and what we as individuals can do to promote global sustainability. The primary goal is that participants get this information in a fun and exciting environment, and walk away feeling empowered and capable of confidently engaging in the global climate debate. In March 2008, JPL and its partners held the first Climate Day event. 950 students from seven school districts heard from five scientists; visited exhibits, and participated in hands-on-activities. Pleased with the outcome, we organized JPL Climate Day 2010 at the Pasadena Convention Center in Pasadena, California, reaching more than 1700 students, teachers, and members of the general public over two days. Taking note of this successful model, NASA funded a multi-center, NASA Climate Day proposal in 2010 to expand Climate Day nation-wide. The NASA Climate Day proposal is a three-pronged project consisting of a cadre of Earth Ambassadors selected from among NASA-affiliated informal educators; a "Climate Day Kit" consisting of climate-related electronic resources available to the Earth Ambassadors; and NASA Climate Day events to be held in Earth Ambassador communities across the United States. NASA/JPL continues to host the original Climate Day event and in 2012 held its 4th event, at the Pasadena

  17. Prejudice in Schools: Promotion of an Inclusive Culture and Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessel, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    Public schools represent the pluralism of American society. Unfortunately, many children experience their public school environment as unwelcoming or even violent. Prejudicial attitudes contribute to problematic intergroup relations in public school settings. Furthermore, teachers are often unprepared to work with the diversity of class,…

  18. The Violence Continuum: Creating a Safe School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manvell, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    We expect schools to be a safe haven, but after more than a decade of targeted school violence prevention laws and safety plans, students are still marginalized and bullied to the point of despondence, retaliation, and even suicide. This thoughtful exploration of what makes a school a safe place is based on the understanding that violence is a…

  19. Magnets Adjust to New Climate of School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Once considered a way to help integrate racially divided districts, magnet schools today have been forced to evolve, given increasing pressure to provide more public school choices and legal barriers against using race to determine school enrollment. In a post-desegregation era, many large districts like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Baltimore County…

  20. Improving Middle School Climate through Teacher-Centered Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Jean E.; Camic, Paul M.; Milburn, Michael; Lowe, Sarah R.

    2009-01-01

    A collaborative school-based intervention aimed at modifying relationships among administrators and teachers was implemented in three middle and junior high schools. Across the intervention schools, teachers were active collaborators in identifying problems and then articulating and implementing customized interventions to redress those problems.…

  1. High School Identity Climate and Student Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Yisrael; Schachter, Elli P.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated whether schools characterized by high school students as being rich in identity promoting features contribute to student identity development. A theoretical model posited that student perceptions of teachers as caring role models and their school as cultivating the whole student will foster student exploration and…

  2. Effects of School Characteristics on Grades in Compulsory School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekholm, Alli Klapp

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate effects of different school and teacher characteristics, such as municipal and independently-operated schools and teacher certification on grades in compulsory school, and the extent to which parental education confounds the relations between such characteristics and grades. Multilevel, multivariate,…

  3. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  4. Measuring School Effectiveness Using Hierarchical Linear Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Heidari, Khosrow

    Two major groups of researchers focus on identifying schools that have been unusually effective in terms of their students' achievement: (1) "effective schools" researchers; and (2) those charged with the responsibility of identifying schools for special recognition. However, all legitimate attemps to operationalize school effectiveness…

  5. School Climate in Urban Elementary Schools: Its Role in Predicting Low-Income Children's Transition from Early Educational RCT to Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Amy E.; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.; Zhai, Fuhua; Pess, Rachel A.

    2011-01-01

    Past research on school-level factors that predict children's development has focused largely on associations between a limited number of characteristics, such as school size and school resources, and children's academic achievement. Few studies take a more comprehensive look at the measurement of school climate or examine its relationship to…

  6. Teaching about Climate Change: Cool Schools Tackle Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Tim, Ed.; Littlejohn, Gail, Ed.

    Within the last couple of decades, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased significantly due to human activities. Today climate change is an important issue for humankind. This book provides a starting point for educators to teach about climate change, although there are obstacles caused by the industrialized…

  7. Models for Determining School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, John R.

    A major purpose of the Search for Effective Schools Project has been to explore the truth of the following two propositions: that both pupil response to instruction and the delivery of instruction are functions of pupil background, prior knowledge and level of achievement. That is, the project sought to demonstrate the existence of effective…

  8. Effective School Management. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everard, K.B.; Morris, Geoffrey; Wilson, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to help teachers with senior management responsibilities, and the schools and colleges that they work in, to become more effective. It is a book by practitioners for practitioners. They authors believe their book is unique, because there are so few people who have had enough management responsibility and training…

  9. The Relationship between Teachers' Five Perceived Factors of School Climate and Their Satisfaction at Selected (K-8) School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitar, Maysa H.

    2012-01-01

    This non-experimental quantitative study followed a correlational design that examined the relationship between five factors of school climate: a) leadership, b) professional development, c) salary, d) working condition, and e) teacher collaboration as measured by the modified version of Teacher's Perception of Factors Leading to Attrition (TPFLA)…

  10. Assessing Students' Views of School Climate: Developing and Validating the What's Happening in This School? (WHITS) Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jill; Ala'I, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a six-scale survey to assess school climate in terms of students' perceptions of the degree to which they feel welcome and connected, together with a scale to assess students' perceptions of bullying. The development of each survey involved a multi-stage approach, including: 1) an extensive…

  11. The Role of the School Climate in High School Students' Mental Health and Identity Formation: A South Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riekie, Helen; Aldridge, Jill M.; Afari, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    The well-documented increase in student mental health issues in Australia and growing recognition of the need for education to play a part in students' identity formation prompted this study. The research reported in this article sought to identify specific elements of the school climate that were likely to influence the interplay of adolescent…

  12. The biotic effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Lister, Adrian M

    2009-02-01

    Humans are part of the biosphere and dependent upon it. The impact of climate change on 'ecosystem services' is therefore of extreme concern. Many studies demonstrate unequivocally that global warming is shifting the distribution of animal and plant species, affecting the composition not only of natural ecosystems but of agricultural ones as well, and also altering the range and impact of pathogenic organisms. The future trajectory of such complex processes is hard to map accurately, but even conservative estimates predict substantial species extinctions and changes in regional productivity. There is still a chance to significantly mitigate these effects, however, if urgent measures are taken. The biotic effects of climate change are strongly exacerbated by ongoing habitat destruction, which no less urgently needs to be halted or reversed by concerted international action. In terms of its rate and its human causation, the present crisis is not analogous to past 'natural' events.

  13. Assessment of High-school Students Engaged in the EarthLabs Climate Modules using the Climate Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K.; Dunlap, C.; Bardar, E. W.; Youngman, E.

    2015-12-01

    Instructors must have on hand appropriate assessments that align with their teaching and learning goals in order to provide evidence of student learning. We have worked with curriculum developers and scientists to develop the Climate Concept Inventory (CCI), which meets goals of the EarthLabs Climate on-line curriculum. The developed concept inventory includes 19 content-driven multiple choice questions, six affective-based multiple choice questions, one confidence question, three open-ended questions, and eight demographic questions. Our analysis of the instrument applies item response theory and uses item characteristic curves. We have assessed over 500 students in nearly twenty high school classrooms in Mississippi and Texas that have engaged in the implementation of the EarthLabs curriculum and completed the CCI. Results indicate that students had pre-post gains on 9 out of 10 of the content-based multiple choice questions with positive gains in answer choice selection ranging from 1.72% to 42%. Students significantly reported increased confidence with 15% more students reporting that they were either very or fairly confident with their answers. Of the six affective questions posed, 5 out of 6 showed significant shifts towards gains in knowledge, awareness, and information about Earth's climate system. The research has resulted in a robust and validated climate concept inventory for use with advanced high school students, where we have been able to apply its use within the EarthLabs project.

  14. Assessing effects of variation in global climate data sets on spatial predictions from climate envelope models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romanach, Stephanie; Watling, James I.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Speroterra, Carolina; Bucklin, David N.; Brandt, Laura A.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Escribano, Yesenia; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change poses new challenges for natural resource managers. Predictive modeling of species–environment relationships using climate envelope models can enhance our understanding of climate change effects on biodiversity, assist in assessment of invasion risk by exotic organisms, and inform life-history understanding of individual species. While increasing interest has focused on the role of uncertainty in future conditions on model predictions, models also may be sensitive to the initial conditions on which they are trained. Although climate envelope models are usually trained using data on contemporary climate, we lack systematic comparisons of model performance and predictions across alternative climate data sets available for model training. Here, we seek to fill that gap by comparing variability in predictions between two contemporary climate data sets to variability in spatial predictions among three alternative projections of future climate. Overall, correlations between monthly temperature and precipitation variables were very high for both contemporary and future data. Model performance varied across algorithms, but not between two alternative contemporary climate data sets. Spatial predictions varied more among alternative general-circulation models describing future climate conditions than between contemporary climate data sets. However, we did find that climate envelope models with low Cohen's kappa scores made more discrepant spatial predictions between climate data sets for the contemporary period than did models with high Cohen's kappa scores. We suggest conservation planners evaluate multiple performance metrics and be aware of the importance of differences in initial conditions for spatial predictions from climate envelope models.

  15. Classroom Climate, Teacher Control Behavior, and Student Self-Control: Urban Public and Military High Schools Compared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenburg, Fred C.; Sartori, Mary Ann; Bauske, Terri

    In this study, teachers' control behavior, classroom climate, and student self-control were investigated. Differences between urban public and military high schools concerning these variables were also examined. Participants were 102 high school students from an urban public school and 94 students from an urban 4-year military high school. The…

  16. The Effectiveness of the Geospatial Curriculum Approach on Urban Middle-Level Students' Climate Change Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change science is a challenging topic for student learning. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote climate change science understandings in an urban school district with eighth-grade students and investigated whether teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students'…

  17. Population effects of increased climate variation.

    PubMed

    Drake, John M

    2005-09-07

    Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation increases. This results from the fact that population growth is a multiplicative process and that long-run population growth rate is the geometric mean of growth rates over time, which is always less than the arithmetic mean. However, when population growth rates for unstructured populations are related nonlinearly to environmental drivers, increasing environmental variation can increase a population's long-run growth rate. This suggests that patterns of environmental variation associated with different aspects of climate change may affect population dynamics in different ways. Specifically, increasing variation in rainfall might result in diminished long-run growth rates for many animal species while increasing variation in temperature might result in increased long-run growth rates. While the effect of rainfall is theoretically well understood and supported by data, the hypothesized effect of temperature is not. Here, I analyse two datasets to study the effect of fluctuating temperatures on growth rates of zooplankton. Results are consistent with the prediction that fluctuating temperatures should increase long-run growth rates and the frequency of extreme demographic events.

  18. Measuring School Climate for Gauging Principal Performance: A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Publicly Accessible Measures. A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Menon, Roshni; Gangi, Tracy; Condon, Christopher; Hornung, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This policy brief provides principal evaluation system designers information about the technical soundness and cost (i.e., time requirements) of publicly available school climate surveys. The authors focus on the technical soundness of school climate surveys because they believe that using validated and reliable surveys as an outcomes measure can…

  19. Middle School Climate: A Study of Attitudes. Fastback 455.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joshua M.; Rotter, Joseph C.; Holmes, George R.; Motes, Patricia S.

    This fastback document presents the results of an opinion survey of middle-school students, parents, and teachers in South Carolina. Because no surveys in the literature had combined responses from these three groups, researchers asked 4,940 students, 735 teachers, and 2,576 parents about their attitudes toward school, students, and teachers. The…

  20. School Vouchers in a Climate of Political Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lenford C.; King, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Legal scrutiny of school voucher policies initially focused on the establishment clause concerning with allocating public dollars to schools sponsored by religious organizations. In recent years, advocates asserted that the exclusion of faith-based organizations from voucher plans that permit expenditures in secular private organizations violates…

  1. Questioning the Centipede: Sources of Climate in a Magnet School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Mary Haywood

    This paper reports on a study of a desegregated Individually Guided Education (IGE) middle school which drew volunteers from throughout a large, midwestern city. Findings are based on participant observation and interviews by the author. The author concludes that the school failed to incorporate all the features of IGE, which calls for alterations…

  2. School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

  3. Influence of Classroom and School Climate on Teacher Perceptions of Student Problem Behavior.

    PubMed

    O'Brennan, Lindsey M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Furlong, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Reducing student problem behavior remains a leading concern for school staff, as disruptive and aggressive behavior interferes with student achievement and the school climate. However, the multi-systemic nature of schools makes it difficult for researchers and practitioners to identify factors influencing to students' behavior. The current study examined student problem behavior through an ecological lens by taking into account individual (e.g., gender, ethnicity, prosocial behavior), classroom (e.g., class size, average classroom behavior), and school-level factors (e.g., location, school climate). Using data from 37 elementary schools, 467 classrooms, and 8,750 students, a series of hierarchical linear models was tested. Multilevel analyses revealed that while individual student characteristics had the largest influence on problem behavior, average prosocial behavior and concentration problems of students within the classroom, as well as teacher perceptions of the school climate significantly related to how students behaved. These findings support the use of classroom-based intervention programs to reduce student problem behavior.

  4. Influence of Classroom and School Climate on Teacher Perceptions of Student Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    O’Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing student problem behavior remains a leading concern for school staff, as disruptive and aggressive behavior interferes with student achievement and the school climate. However, the multi-systemic nature of schools makes it difficult for researchers and practitioners to identify factors influencing to students’ behavior. The current study examined student problem behavior through an ecological lens by taking into account individual (e.g., gender, ethnicity, prosocial behavior), classroom (e.g., class size, average classroom behavior), and school-level factors (e.g., location, school climate). Using data from 37 elementary schools, 467 classrooms, and 8,750 students, a series of hierarchical linear models was tested. Multilevel analyses revealed that while individual student characteristics had the largest influence on problem behavior, average prosocial behavior and concentration problems of students within the classroom, as well as teacher perceptions of the school climate significantly related to how students behaved. These findings support the use of classroom-based intervention programs to reduce student problem behavior. PMID:25346779

  5. Collaborative Leadership for Promoting Effective School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Bennat; And Others

    1994-01-01

    When initiating major structural change in schools, collaboration among educators, community members, and business persons is vital. This publication describes the efforts of the Ysleta (Texas) Independent School District, which successfully used collaboration to promote effective school change. Within the district, the Del Valle High School has…

  6. Effective Hand Washing in an Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel, Linda; Bartlett, Connie; Hileman, Judy Willis; Dillon, Lisa; Cessna, Tamara

    2000-01-01

    Elementary school is the perfect place to teach and reinforce the lifelong skill of effective handwashing for students and adults. One collaboration between an elementary school and a nursing education program to augment school health services without taxing the school budget is described. Nursing students spent 260 professional nursing service…

  7. Reducing the Negative Effects of Large Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Daniel L.; Trautvetter, Sara

    This report presents an overview of recent efforts to promote small schools by first reviewing the rationale for small schools based on recent studies linking school size and various educational outcomes, followed by arguments supporting larger schools. Succeeding sections explore the following four ways to reduce the negative effects of school…

  8. Designing Effective Tools for Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E.; Todd, A.

    2005-12-01

    The current debate about climate change reveals gaps in public knowledge about causes and effects of global warming. This points to a need for updated educational models for increasing public understanding of climate change. The results from a series of surveys given to primarily non-science undergraduates from diverse backgrounds indicate that a majority of these students harbor significant misconceptions about the basic science related to global warming, and the relationship between global warming and ozone depletion. This interdisciplinary project seeks to frame new directions for environmental education, in particular developing pedagogical tools for increasing environmental awareness both in the classroom and also as part of public outreach programs. Initial directions include inquiry based learning and personal environmental impact as a motivator for learning.

  9. Leadership for Safe and Inclusive Schools: An Examination of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Educators' Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Effective school leaders work to assist students and staff alike in feeling safe within the school environment. Educators need to feel safe in order to successfully carry out their professional responsibilities. Historically and presently, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) educators have felt unsafe in school settings, even though…

  10. Leadership Effects: School Principals and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelli, Michael; Green, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graduation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the…

  11. Classroom climate and science-related attitudes of junior high school students in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bao-Shan; Crawley, Frank E., III

    Differences in classroom climate and science related attitudes were investigated among junior high school science classes and students in Taiwan. The sample consisted of 1,269 students enrolled in 40 science classes distributed equally among ten junior high schools, five metropolitan and five rural. Classes were further classified according to sex (21 boys and 19 girls classes) and ability (19 high and 21 low ability classes). Using the Learning Environment Inventory (Anderson, Walberg, & Fraser, 1982) to measure climate, science classes in metropolitan schools, more than rural, were found to be characterized by Speed, Friction, Favoritism, Difficulty, Cliqueness, and Competitiveness. No differences were found in the classroom climates of classes in which students were grouped according to sex or ability. Using the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981), students in science classes in metropolitan schools, in contrast to rural, expressed more positive attitudes toward the Social Implications of Science, Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, and Attitude to Scientific Inquiry. Boys more than girls recorded high scores on Leisure Interest in Science and Career Interest in Science. High ability students were found to have higher scores on Attitude to Scientific Inquiry than did low ability students. When examining the relationship between the 15 subscale scores of the LEI and the seven subscale scores of the TOSRA for the 40 classes, only 9 out of 105 correlations proved to be significant. Most differences in climate, attitude, and their interactions were attributed to school location rather than to student characteristics.

  12. Airborne viable fungi in school environments in different climatic regions - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.

  13. e-Leadership of School Principals: Increasing School Effectiveness by a School Data Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Ina; Presser, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, school management systems have become an important tool for effective e-leadership and data-based decision making. School management systems emphasize information flow and e-communication between teachers, students and parents. This study examines e-leadership by secondary-school principals through the Mashov school management…

  14. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback condition…

  15. Perceptions of MBA Students towards Learning Climate for Managerial Knowledge: A Study of Business School in Lahore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raza, Ahmad; Murad, Hasan; Kayani, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore different cultural dimensions of the learning climate at a business school located at Lahore, Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports the result of an empirical study of the learning climate for managerial knowledge at a business school, located in Lahore, Pakistan. A sample of 150…

  16. The Cultural Climate of the Arts in Schools: Beyond the Color Wheel and the Bust of Beethoven Using Ethnographic Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Robin Ruth

    The document discusses a study to describe, analyze, and interpret the cultural climate of an elementary school in Texas which has a special fine arts program. Cultural climate is defined as the atmosphere that surrounds an arts program as defined by comments and actions of school administrators, art teachers, classroom teachers, students,…

  17. To What Extent Is Behaviour a Problem in English Schools? Exploring the Scale and Prevalence of Deficits in Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydn, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The working atmosphere in the classroom is an important variable in the process of education in schools, with several studies suggesting that classroom climate is an important influence on pupil attainment. There are wide differences in the extent to which classroom climate is considered to be a problem in English schools. Some…

  18. School Climate: Applied to Integration and Access of Special Education Children in Full Learning Environments. A Ho'okoho Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Irena; Yoneshige, Dora

    The module is intended to help educators understand the components of school climate and its influence on the integration of students with handicaps. Three competencies are addressed: (1) to develop an understanding of the concept of school climate, identify its components and analyze its relationship to educational goals; (2) to develop an…

  19. The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

    2006-01-01

    This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school…

  20. Tapping into the Power of School Climate to Prevent Bullying: One Application of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann

    2014-01-01

    Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…

  1. Using Rasch Measurement To Evaluate the Organizational Climate Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borkan, Bengu; Capa, Yesim; Figueiredo, Claudia; Loadman, William E.

    School climate has been acknowledged as a construct with impact on important aspects of educational outcomes, such as student achievement, school effectiveness, and school completion. The Organizational Climate Index was an instrument developed to measure school climate (W.Hoy, 2001). This study evaluated this instrument by using Rasch…

  2. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  3. Effects of climate on reproduction in cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Gwazdauskas, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Animal environment is affected by climatic factors that include temperature, humidity, radiation, and wind. Extremes in climate alter energy transfer between the animal and its environment and can affect deleteriously reproduction. Seasonal variation of environment, nutrition, and management alters estrous activity and duration of estrus. Conception rates are reduced under stress of heat and cold. Endocrine functions are altered by climatic extremes. In hyperthermia, adrenal function is reduced, and this may allow the animal to cope with the environment because of the lower calorigenic actions of glucocorticoids. Estrogens are lower during the proestrus to metestrus period of the estrous cycle and during late gestation and appear to manifest their physiological actions through shorter duration of estrus and lower calf birth weights, respectively. Season alters endocrine profiles and influences fertility of males. Spermatogenesis is impaired, and testosterone is lower during early exposure to hyperthermia. Environmental modifications can alleviate stress of heat and cold to some extent. Experimentation using indices of environmental measures is needed to assess interactive effects of environment on reproduction.

  4. Making Schools Safe and Inclusive: Gay-Straight Alliances and School Climate in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) have become widespread in Ontario schools and, starting in 2012, all schools are required to permit students to form GSAs. While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact on school safety and inclusion, there is little research on the impact of GSAs in Canadian schools. This study, based on a survey…

  5. School Climate Factors Contributing to Student and Faculty Perceptions of Safety in Select Arizona Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley

    2011-01-01

    Background: To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Methods: Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected…

  6. School Climate and Dropping Out of School in the Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotok, Stephen; Ikoma, Sakiko; Bodovski, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09)--a large nationally representative sample of US high school students--we employed multilevel structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationship between school characteristics and the likelihood that a student will drop out of high school. We used a multifaceted…

  7. Exploring the School Climate--Student Achievement Connection: Making Sense of Why the First Precedes the Second

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Albert; Shindler, John

    2016-01-01

    Many educators view school climate and student achievement as separate considerations. For some, the idea of promoting a high quality climate can seem like a luxury in the face of the current high stakes assessment climate in which student achievement gains are the paramount consideration. However, the results of this study suggest that climate…

  8. Conceptual Change regarding middle school students' experience with Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, B. W.; Lutz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the

  9. Considering Students' Out-of-School Lives and Values in Designing Learning Environments for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, E.; Tsurusaki, B.

    2012-12-01

    What are the implications of social controversy for the teaching and learning of climate change science? How do the political dimensions of this controversy affect learners' attitudes towards and reasoning about climate change and climate science? Case studies from a pilot enactment of an ecological impacts of climate change curriculum explore these questions by describing how five high school students' understandings of climate change science developed at the intersection of political and scientific values, attitudes, and ways of knowing. Case studies combine qualitative, ethnographic methods including interviews and classroom video observations with quantitative pre/post-assessments of student conceptual understandings and weekly surveys of student engagement. Data indicate that students had initial perceptions of climate change informed by the media and their families—both supporting and rejecting the scientific consensus—that influenced how they engaged with the scientific evidence. While students who were initially antagonistic to anthropogenic climate change did develop conceptual understandings of the scientific evidence for human-influences on climate change, this work was challenging and at times frustrating for them. These case studies demonstrate the wide range of initial attitudes and understandings that students bring to the study of climate change. They also demonstrate that it is possible to make significant shifts in students' understandings of climate change science, even in students who were initially resistant to the idea of anthropogenic climate change. Finally, multiple case studies discuss ways that the learning that occurred in the classroom crossed out of the classroom into the students' homes and family talk. This work highlights how learners' pathways are shaped not only by their developing understanding of the scientific evidence but also by the political and social influences that learners navigate across the contexts of their lives

  10. Development of a Climate Concept Inventory and Assessment of High-school Students Engaged in the EarthLabs Climate Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, E.

    2013-12-01

    The development of climate change education materials and curriculum is necessary to support educators in implementing easily accessible, reliable and accurate information for the classroom. Developers must design materials that are effective at reaching their learning goals. They also must use appropriate assessments that align with these goals and the content being taught in order to provide evidence of efficacy. EarthLabs consists of three on-line climate modules: Climate and the Cryosphere, Climate and the Biosphere, and Climate and the Carbon Cycle, where students engage in hands-on, visualization, and inquiry activities in each ~3 week module in their classroom. The project includes curriculum development, teacher professional development, research on student learning, and project evaluation components. In this presentation, we emphasize the research on student learning conducted in the classroom. We have worked with curriculum developers and scientists to develop a climate concept inventory which meets curriculum goals and is scientifically valid. We have completed the first phase of the climate concept inventory and assessed over 230 students in nine high school classrooms in Mississippi and Texas pre- and post-implementation of EarthLabs. The developed concept inventory included 10 content-driven multiple choice questions, six affective-based multiple choice questions, one confidence question, six open-ended questions, and eight demographic questions. Results indicate that students had gains on 9 out of the 10 of the content based multiple choice questions with positive gains in answer choice selection ranging from 1.72% to 42%. In regard to the confidence question, students significantly reported increased confidence with 15% more student reporting that they were either very or fairly confident with their answers. Of the six affective questions posed, 5 of 6 showed significant shifts towards gains in knowledge, awareness, and information about Earth

  11. Exploring the Competitive Effects of Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Medina, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Central to the debate over school choice has been the question of how public schools respond to market-based competition. Many choice advocates suggest that competition can spur public schools to become more effective and efficient, but the evidence regarding the effect of competition from charters is comparably sparse and mixed. This article…

  12. The evolution of climate. [climatic effects of polar wandering and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, W. L.; Shaw, D.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation is made of the climatic effects of polar wandering plus continental drift in order to determine wether this mechanism alone could explain the deterioration of climate that occurred from the warmth of Mesozoic time to the ice age conditions of the late Cenozoic. By way of procedure, to investigate the effect of the changing geography of the past on climate Adem's thermodynamic model was selected. The application of the model is discussed and preliminary results are given.

  13. The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Middle School Students: Findings from the 2007 National School Climate Survey. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) conducted the fifth National School Climate Survey (NSCS), a biennial survey of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) secondary school students. The NSCS examines the experiences of LGBT youth in U.S. middle and high schools, documenting bias and behaviors that make schools…

  14. Professional Learning Communities: Do Leadership Practices Impact Implementation and Sustainability and What Is the Relationship between a School's PLC and a School's Climate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that a theoretical framework known as a professional learning community can make a positive difference in schools. This mixed-method study examines teacher perceptions of school leadership and climate in two rural elementary schools in South Carolina. Using interviews, focus group sessions and a survey, the researcher answers…

  15. Positive Educative Programme. A Whole School Approach to Supporting Children's Well-Being and Creating a Positive School Climate: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfrink, Teuntje R.; Goldberg, Jochem M.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Clarke, Aleisha M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a process and impact evaluation of the Positief Educatief Programma (Positive Education Programme (PEP)), a whole school approach to supporting children's well-being and creating a positive school climate in primary schools in the Netherlands. PEP adopts a competence skill enhancement approach…

  16. The Principalship: Essential Core Competencies for Instructional Leadership and Its Impact on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Dorrell J.; Cozzens, Jeffry A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of principals' leadership behaviors influencing the schools' climate according to Green's (2010) ideologies of the 13 core competencies within the four dimensions of principal leadership. Data from the "Leadership Behavior Inventory" (Green, 2014) suggest 314…

  17. Principals' Performance in Promoting Learning Climate in Ebonyi State Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egwu, Sarah Oben

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine principals' performance in promoting learning climate in Ebonyi State secondary schools. A sample of 630 teachers completed a 12-item questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 630 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 606 copies representing about 96.2% return rate were properly completed and returned.…

  18. Middle School Students' Conceptual Change in Global Climate Change: Using Argumentation to Foster Knowledge Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Barry W.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the "framework theory" of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not…

  19. Classroom Disciplinary Climate in Secondary Schools in England: What Is the Real Picture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew; Ueno, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses international data from a range of sources, principally the 2013 round of the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS 2013), to provide new information on classroom disciplinary climate in secondary schools in England. The paper advances the literature in three distinct ways. Firstly, the data show that teachers in…

  20. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence of Principals and the Overall Organizational Climate of Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juma, Dalal Sabri

    2013-01-01

    In this study the researcher examined the influence between a principal's self-perceived emotional intelligence and the overall organizational climate of one public elementary school as perceived by the principal's followers. These followers included teaching and non-teaching staff. It was not known how self-perceived emotional intelligence of a…

  1. The Development of the Classroom Social Climate during the First Months of the School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainhard, M. Tim; Brekelmans, Mieke; den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo

    2011-01-01

    In this study the mean stability of classroom social climates during the first months of the school year and the deviation of individual classrooms (N = 48) and students (N = 1208) from this general trend were investigated by taping students' interpersonal perceptions of their teachers. Multilevel growth modeling was used to identify the average…

  2. How Does School Climate Impact Academic Achievement? An Examination of Social Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina

    2017-01-01

    In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…

  3. A Multilevel Perspective on the Climate of Bullying: Discrepancies among Students, School Staff, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Pas, Elise T.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Although many bullying prevention programs aim to involve multiple partners, few studies have examined perceptual differences regarding peer victimization and the broader bullying climate among students, staff, and parents. The present study utilized multilevel data from 11,674 students, 960 parents, and 1,027 staff at 44 schools to examine the…

  4. Creating Climate Change Awareness in South African Schools through Practical Chemistry Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunassee, Suthananda N.; Young, Ryan M.; Sewry, Joyce D.; Harrison, Timothy G.; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements for the National Curriculum Statement for both Life sciences and Physical sciences and the importance of community engagement in Higher Education in South Africa, this paper described the use of the lecture-demonstration "A Pollutant's Tale" to create climate change awareness amongst school learners.…

  5. Remediating Misconception on Climate Change among Secondary School Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Chandrakesan, Kasturi

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies report on secondary school students' misconceptions related to climate change; they also report on the methods of teaching as reinforcing misconceptions. This quasi-experimental study was designed to test the null hypothesis that a curriculum based on constructivist principles does not lead to greater understanding and fewer…

  6. School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning: Predicting Teacher Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Teaching Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables--teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction--and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job…

  7. The climatic effects of nuclear war

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various US-USSR nuclear-exchange scenarios on global climate are investigated by means of computer simulations, summarizing the results of Turco et al. (1983) and follow-up studies using 3D global-circulation models. A nuclear-scenario model is used to determine the amounts of dust, smoke, radioactivity, and pyrotoxins generated by a particular type of nuclear exchange (such as a general 5,000-Mt exchange, a 1,000-Mt limited exchange, a 5,000-Mt hard-target counterforce attack, and a 100-Mt attack on cities only): a particle-microphysics model predicts the evolution of the dust and smoke particles; and a radiative-convective climate model estimates the effects of the dust and smoke clouds on the global radiation budget. The findings are presented in graphs, diagrams, and a table. Thick clouds blocking most sunlight over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes for weeks or months and producing ground-temperature reductions of 20-40 C, disruption of global circulation patterns, and rapid spread of clouds to the Southern Hemisphere are among the 'nuclear-winter' effects predicted for the 5,000-Mt baseline case. The catastrophic consequences for plant, animal, and human populations are considered, and the revision of superpower nuclear strategies is urged.

  8. Multiculturalism as a dimension of school climate: the impact on the academic achievement of Asian American and Hispanic youth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Janet; Le, Thao N

    2010-10-01

    Multiculturalism constitutes an important element of school climate, but the relation between perceived multiculturalism and academic achievement has not been widely studied. This study examined the influence of students' perceptions of school support for multiculturalism on academic achievement among 280 Asian American and Hispanic youth, including ethnic identity and ethnocultural empathy as potential mediators. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that perceived multiculturalism was significantly positively related to ethnocultural empathy for Asian Americans and Hispanics, and that ethnocultural empathy, in turn, was predictive of academic achievement for Hispanics only. Results of bootstrapping to test for mediation effects revealed ethnocultural empathy to be a salient mediator for Hispanic youth. Although ethnic identity did not mediate the link between multiculturalism and academic achievement, ethnic identity was significantly predictive of achievement for Hispanics. On the whole, these findings suggest that fostering a school climate supportive of multiculturalism may improve empathy toward ethnic out-groups. Furthermore, schools that promote compassion and tolerance for diverse ethnic groups may achieve better academic outcomes among Hispanic youth.

  9. California Turnaround Schools: An Analysis of School Improvement Grant Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Khalil N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of School Improvement Grants (SIGs) in the state of California (CA) in increasing student achievement using the turnaround implementation model. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) included educational priorities focused on fixing America's lowest achieving schools.…

  10. Implementing Effective Schools Research: The Audit Process High School Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Hal; Partin, Ron

    During May of 1985, an external audit team was engaged by the Lorain (Ohio) City Schools to assess implementation of the seven correlates of an effective school. The correlates, developed by the Ohio State Department of Education, included: (1) a sense of mission; (2) strong building leadership; (3) high expectations for all students and staff;…

  11. Evaluating Changes in Climate Literacy among Middle and High School Students who Participate in Climate Change Education Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWaters, J.; Powers, S.; Dhaniyala, S.; Small, M.

    2012-12-01

    Middle school (MS) and high school (HS) teachers have developed and taught instructional modules that were created through their participation in Clarkson University's NASA-funded Project-Based Global Climate Change Education project. A quantitative survey was developed to help evaluate the project's impact on students' climate literacy, which includes content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral attributes. Content objectives were guided primarily by the 2009 document, Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The survey was developed according to established psychometric principles and methodologies in the sociological and educational sciences which involved developing and evaluating a pool of survey items, adapted primarily from existing climate surveys and questionnaires; preparing, administering, and evaluating two rounds of pilot tests; and preparing a final instrument with revisions informed by both pilot assessments. The resulting survey contains three separate subscales: cognitive, affective, and behavioral, with five self-efficacy items embedded within the affective subscale. Cognitive items use a multiple choice format with one correct response; non-cognitive items use a 5-point Likert-type scale with options generally ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" (affective), or "almost always" to "hardly ever" (behavioral). Three versions of the survey were developed and administered using an on-line Zoomerang™ platform to college students/adults; HS students; and MS students, respectively. Instrument validity was supported by using items drawn from existing surveys, by reviewing/applying prior research in climate literacy, and through comparative age-group analysis. The internal consistency reliability of each subscale, as measured by Cronbach's alpha, ranges from 0.78-0.86 (cognitive), 0.87-0.89 (affective) and 0.84-0.85 (behavioral), all satisfying generally accepted criteria for internal reliability of

  12. Supportive school climate and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence.

    PubMed

    Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Fan, Xitao

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the relations between student perceptions of support and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence in a sample of 7318 ninth-grade students from 291 high schools who participated in the Virginia High School Safety Study. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that students who perceived their teachers and other school staff to be supportive were more likely to endorse positive attitudes toward seeking help for bullying and threats of violence. In schools with more perceived support, there was less of a discrepancy in help-seeking attitudes between girls and boys. Findings suggest that efforts by school staff to provide a supportive climate are a potentially valuable strategy for engaging students in the prevention of bullying and threats of violence.

  13. Climate Change Effects: Issues for International and US National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    resist the overture of well-funded extremists to provide schools , hospitals, health care, and food (CNA 2007). Disaster preparedness and response...Climate Change, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available at: http://www.nap.edu...290, Committee on Climate Change and U.S. Transportation, Transportation Research Board Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council

  14. The Control of Teacher Conduct: Impacts on School Social Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delon, Floyd G.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the status of legal authority relative to control of teacher conduct before the 1960s and analyzes subsequent developments in the areas of constitutional rights, civil rights, State courts' protection of teachers' privacy, and collective bargaining. Considers how legal restrictions affect the extent of school officials' authority.…

  15. School Climate for Gay and Lesbian Students and Staff Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John D.

    1994-01-01

    In high schools, a conspiracy of silence shrouds the sexual orientation issue. Although the social atmosphere is vaguely supportive, fear and the realities of life cause most gays and lesbians to keep their sexual identities hidden. Homophobia can be addressed through staff development, support staff and services, inclusion of homosexual issues in…

  16. The North Park Project: Effective Schools/Effective Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lawrence M.

    The staff of North Park School, a small urban/suburban primary school (K-3) in Wheeling, West Virginia, made their school more effective by implementing well planned and coordinated changes based on current research. The belief that all students can learn is an important characteristic of an effective school. Therefore, the goal of the North Park…

  17. Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: Advancing the Science of Climate Change in the Public Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Smith, J. S.; Wood, E. J.; Filippelli, G. M.

    2007-12-01

    The importance of K-12 educational programs and resources that seek to share the science of climate change has recently come into focus. During the fall 2006 AGU meeting, we presented the conceptual framework used to guide both the curriculum and year-one programs of Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: The Global Warming Road Show. Currently this dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program selects and empowers a diverse population of 11th and 12th grade students from a large urban high school in the Midwest to teach a curriculum on climate change to 7th graders from a local feeder school. In December 2007 we will complete year-one of the program and will present an overview of 1) students' conceptual representations of climate change, 2) the most recent curriculum and programs, and 3) the ongoing program evaluation. We will synthesize these three areas and reflect on how to improve upon year-two of both the curriculum and the program. During various stages of the program, students have constructed concept maps, written in journals, created lesson plans, and participated in focus group interviews. These materials are being analyzed to provide a brief overview of high school students' initial conceptualizations of climate change. During the intensive 2007 summer workshop, these 11th and 12th grade students were supported by university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators as they attempted to better understand climate change and as they reflected on how to effectively teach this topic to 7th graders. During the fall semester of 2007, the workshop graduates are scheduled to teach 25 to 30 7th graders a five week climate unit. The program will culminate with the 11th and 12th grade student-mentors working with the 7th graders to create a "Road Show," which will be presented to other 7th and 8th graders within the same school district. To ensure that this program is current, a team of

  18. Effect of global climate on termites population. Effect of termites population on global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin

    2010-05-01

    The global climate is under control of factors having both earth and space origin. Global warming took place from XVII century till 1997. Then global cold snap began. This dynamics had effect on global distribution of some animals including termites. Direct human effect on climate is not significant. At the same time man plays role of trigger switching on significant biosphere processes controlling climate. The transformation of marginal lands, development of industry and building, stimulated increase of termite niche and population. Termite role in green house gases production increases too. It may have regular effect on world climate. The dry wood is substrate for metabolism of termites living under symbiosis with bacteria Hypermastigina (Flagellata). The use of dry wood by humanity increased from 18 *108 ton in XVIII to 9*109 to the middle of XX century. Then use of wood decreased because of a new technology development. Hence termite population is controlled by microevolution depending on dry wood and climate dynamics. Producing by them green house gases had reciprocal effect on world climate. It is possible to describe and predict dynamic of termite population using methods of mathematical ecology and analogs with other well studied insects (Colorado potatoes beetle, Chrisomelid beetle Zygogramma and so on). Reclamation of new ecological niche for such insects as termites needs 70 - 75 years. That is delay of population dynamics in relation to dynamics of dry wood production. General principles of population growth were described by G.Gause (1934) and some authors of the end of XX century. This works and analogs with other insects suggest model of termite distribution during XXI century. The extremum of population and its green house gases production would be gotten during 8 - 10 years. Then the number of specimens and sum biological mass would be stabilized and decreased. Termite gas production is not priority for climate regulation, but it has importance as

  19. School climate and teachers' beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol

    2008-12-01

    Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support.

  20. Game Based Learning as a Means to Teach Climate Literacy in a High School Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, M. K.; Tedesco, L.; Katz, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    As part of RPI's GK-12 graduate fellowship program (which involves graduate STEM fellows in K-12 education) a climate change board game activity was developed and implemented at inner city Troy High School in Troy, New York. The goal was to engage and teach two classes of the Earth Science General Repeat (GR) tenth grade students about climate change through a game-based leaning module. Students placed in the GR course had previously failed Earth Science, and had never passed a general science class in high school. In the past, these students have responded positively to hands-on activities. Therefore, an interactive board game activity was created to teach students about climate, explore how humans impact our environment, and address the future of climate change. The students are presented with a draft version of the game, created by the graduate fellow, and are asked to redesign the game for their peers in the other GR class. The students' version of the game is required to include certain aspects of the original game, for example, the climate change Trivia and Roadblock cards, but the design, addition of rules and overall layout are left to the students. The game-based learning technique allows the students to learn through a storyline, compete against each other, and challenge themselves to perfect their learning and understanding of climate change. The climate change board game activity also incorporates our cascade learning model, in which the graduate fellow designs the activity, works with a high school teacher, and implements the game with high school students. In addition, the activity emphasizes peer-to-peer learning, allowing each classroom to design the game for a different group of students. This allows the students to take leadership and gives them a sense of accomplishment with the completed board game. The nature of a board game also creates a dynamic competitive atmosphere, in which the students want to learn and understand the material to succeed

  1. Facilitators to Promoting Health in Schools: Is School Health Climate the Key?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucarelli, Jennifer F.; Alaimo, Katherine; Mang, Ellen; Martin, Caroline; Miles, Richard; Bailey, Deborah; Kelleher, Deanne K.; Drzal, Nicholas B.; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools can promote healthy eating in adolescents. This study used a qualitative approach to examine barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in schools. Methods: Case studies were conducted with 8 low-income Michigan middle schools. Interviews were conducted with 1 administrator, the food service director, and 1 member of the…

  2. Effective Schools Report. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Michael

    Achievement in reading and mathematics of students at elementary schools participating in the Columbus (Ohio) 1989 School Improvement Program (SIP) has improved for the seventh year in a row, but achievement of low income students remains below that of other students. The goal of SIP, an effective schools project, is to improve the academic…

  3. Effective Leadership Makes Schools Truly Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    There's been much commitment and extensive legislation intended to make schools inclusive for all students but not much real progress in improving student outcomes. The authors review and assess several schools that have succeeded at making schools inclusive and effective for all students, including those with disabilities and draw some inferences…

  4. The International Baccalaureate Diploma Program's Impacting High School Culture and Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, George

    2013-01-01

    School reformers are often searching for a program that will have a positive and far-reaching effect on a school campus. Researchers and writers have described the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program (IB DP) as a largely positive influence on a school campus, providing a rigorous and standards-based curriculum to IB DP students. However,…

  5. Estimating Contrail Climate Effects from Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Duda, David P.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Bedka, Sarah T.; Boeke, Robyn; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Chee, Thad; Bedka, Kristopher T.

    2011-01-01

    An automated contrail detection algorithm (CDA) is developed to exploit six of the infrared channels on the 1-km MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites. The CDA is refined and balanced using visual error analysis. It is applied to MODIS data taken by Terra and Aqua over the United States during 2006 and 2008. The results are consistent with flight track data, but differ markedly from earlier analyses. Contrail coverage is a factor of 4 less than other retrievals and the retrieved contrail optical depths and radiative forcing are smaller by approx.30%. The discrepancies appear to be due to the inability to detect wider, older contrails that comprise a significant amount of the contrail coverage. An example of applying the algorithm to MODIS data over the entire Northern Hemisphere is also presented. Overestimates of contrail coverage are apparent in some tropical regions. Methods for improving the algorithm are discussed and are to be implemented before analyzing large amounts of Northern Hemisphere data. The results should be valuable for guiding and validating climate models seeking to account for aviation effects on climate.

  6. Teacher-student relationship climate and school outcomes: implications for educational policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C

    2012-03-01

    In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

  7. The Effectiveness of the Geospatial Curriculum Approach on Urban Middle-Level Students' Climate Change Understandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong

    2014-08-01

    Climate change science is a challenging topic for student learning. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote climate change science understandings in an urban school district with eighth-grade students and investigated whether teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students' climate change knowledge achievement. The participants included 12 science teachers and 956 eighth-grade students. Data included a pre- and posttest climate change assessment measures for both teachers and students and a teacher measure of Geospatial Science-Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Paired-sample t tests revealed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest on their climate change knowledge ( p < .001; effect sizes being large on multiple-choice items and medium on the open-ended response assessment). Both ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression and 2-level hierarchical linear modeling found that students' initial climate change knowledge and gender were significant predictors for students' posttest scores, p < .05. Students' pretest scores were the strongest significant predictor of the posttest scores, p < .001. Neither the teachers' climate change knowledge nor their Geospatial Science-Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge had significant association with the students' posttest scores. Teaching years was a significant predictor for students' posttest scores in OLS regression ( p < .001). The findings provide support that a geospatial curriculum approach is an effective science curriculum approach for learners in urban middle-level education.

  8. Variable Effects of Climate on Forest Growth in Relation to Climate Extremes, Disturbance, and Forest Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Itter, Malcolm S; Finley, Andrew O; D'Amato, Anthony W; Foster, Jane R; Bradford, John B

    2017-02-09

    Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics-changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth responses to climate is particularly important given stand structure and composition can be modified through management to increase forest resistance and resilience to climate change. To inform such adaptive management, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian state space model in which climate effects on tree growth are allowed to vary over time and in relation to past climate extremes, disturbance events, and forest dynamics. The model is an important step toward integrating disturbance and forest dynamics into predictions of forest growth responses to climate extremes. We apply the model to a dendrochronology data set from forest stands of varying composition, structure, and development stage in northeastern Minnesota that have experienced extreme climate years and forest tent caterpillar defoliation events. Mean forest growth was most sensitive to water balance variables representing climatic water deficit. Forest growth responses to water deficit were partitioned into responses driven by climatic threshold exceedances and interactions with insect defoliation. Forest growth was both resistant and resilient to climate extremes with the majority of forest growth responses occurring after multiple climatic threshold exceedances across seasons and years. Interactions between climate and disturbance were observed in a subset of years with insect defoliation increasing forest growth sensitivity to water availability. Forest growth was particularly

  9. Guarding against climate change: the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    Many trace gases in the atmosphere can absorb and retain solar energy and may eventually cause inadvertent climate change with catastrophic consequences. If the release of these gases to the atmosphere from man's activities causes significant global warming, results might be flooding due to melting polar ice, loss of productive farmland to desert, and ultimately, famine. The most publicized of these solar energy traps is carbon dioxide, but the combined effect of increases in nitrous oxide, methane, and other gases could equal that of carbon dioxide. Global pollutants are vexing because they require action on a global scale, and the citizens of different countries view their priorities differently. As global threats like carbon dioxide buildup (exacerbated by coal burning) become more clearly defined, we may be forced to reevaluate the costs and benefits of nuclear power.

  10. Effects of climate change on polar bears.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Born, Erik W

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we review the effects on polar bears of global warming that have already been observed, and try to evaluate what may happen to the polar bears in the future. Many researchers have predicted a wide range of impacts of climate change on polar bear demography and conditions. A predicted major reduction in sea ice habitat will reduce the availability of ice associated seals, the main prey of polar bears, and a loss and fragmentation of polar bear habitat will ultimately lead to large future reductions in most subpopulations. It is likely that polar bears will be lost from many areas where they are common today and also that the total population will change into a few more distinctly isolated populations.

  11. Predicting climate effects on Pacific sardine.

    PubMed

    Deyle, Ethan R; Fogarty, Michael; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Kaufman, Les; MacCall, Alec D; Munch, Stephan B; Perretti, Charles T; Ye, Hao; Sugihara, George

    2013-04-16

    For many marine species and habitats, climate change and overfishing present a double threat. To manage marine resources effectively, it is necessary to adapt management to changes in the physical environment. Simple relationships between environmental conditions and fish abundance have long been used in both fisheries and fishery management. In many cases, however, physical, biological, and human variables feed back on each other. For these systems, associations between variables can change as the system evolves in time. This can obscure relationships between population dynamics and environmental variability, undermining our ability to forecast changes in populations tied to physical processes. Here we present a methodology for identifying physical forcing variables based on nonlinear forecasting and show how the method provides a predictive understanding of the influence of physical forcing on Pacific sardine.

  12. Predicting climate effects on Pacific sardine

    PubMed Central

    Deyle, Ethan R.; Fogarty, Michael; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Kaufman, Les; MacCall, Alec D.; Munch, Stephan B.; Perretti, Charles T.; Ye, Hao; Sugihara, George

    2013-01-01

    For many marine species and habitats, climate change and overfishing present a double threat. To manage marine resources effectively, it is necessary to adapt management to changes in the physical environment. Simple relationships between environmental conditions and fish abundance have long been used in both fisheries and fishery management. In many cases, however, physical, biological, and human variables feed back on each other. For these systems, associations between variables can change as the system evolves in time. This can obscure relationships between population dynamics and environmental variability, undermining our ability to forecast changes in populations tied to physical processes. Here we present a methodology for identifying physical forcing variables based on nonlinear forecasting and show how the method provides a predictive understanding of the influence of physical forcing on Pacific sardine. PMID:23536299

  13. America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverman, D. M.; McConnell, M. C.; Raven, P.

    2010-12-01

    At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study examines information needs and recommends ways the federal government can better inform responses by enhancing climate change and greenhouse gas information and reporting systems and by improving climate communication and education. Demand for better information to support climate-related decisions has grown rapidly as people, organizations, and governments have moved ahead with plans and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. To meet this demand, good information systems and services are needed. Without such systems, decision makers cannot evaluate whether particular policies and actions are achieving their goals or should be modified. Although the many non-federal efforts to reduce emissions and/or adapt to future climate changes carry considerable potential to reduce risks related to climate change, there is currently no comprehensive way to assess the effectiveness of those efforts. In addition, the diverse climate change responses to date have resulted in a patchwork of regional, state, and local policies that has prompted many state and business leaders to call for the development of a more predictable and coherent policy environment at the federal level. This report demonstrates that the nation lacks comprehensive, robust, and credible information and reporting systems to inform climate choices and evaluate their effectiveness. This report also argues that decision makers can benefit from a systematic and iterative framework for responding to climate change, in which decisions and policies can be revised in light of new information and experience and that improved information and reporting systems allow for ongoing evaluation of responses to climate risks. The

  14. Health Education: Effects on Classroom Climate and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstathiou, Nicholas T.; Risvas, Grigorios S.; Theodoraki, Eleni-Maria M.; Galanaki, Evangelia P.; Zampelas, Antonios D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between classroom psychological climate and the physical and sedentary behaviour of primary school students after the implementation of an innovative education programme regarding nutrition and physical activity. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Study…

  15. Enabling the use of climate model data in the Dutch climate effect community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; Plieger, Maarten

    2010-05-01

    Within the climate effect community the usage of climate model data is emerging. Where mostly climate time series and weather generators were used, there is a shift to incorporate climate model data into climate effect models. The use of climate model data within the climate effect models is difficult, due to missing metadata, resolution and projection issues, data formats and availability of the parameters of interest. Often the climate effect modelers are not aware of available climate model data or are not aware of how they can use it. Together with seven other partners (CERFACS, CNR-IPSL, SMHI, INHGA, CMCC, WUR, MF-CNRM), KNMI is involved in the FP7 IS ENES (http://www.enes.org) project work package 10/JRA5 ‘Bridging Climate Research Data and the Needs of the Impact Community. The aims of this work package are to enhance the use of Climate Research Data and to enhance the interaction with climate effect/impact communities. Phase one is to define use cases together with the Dutch climate effect community, which describe the intended use of climate model data in climate effect models. We defined four use cases: 1) FEWS hydrological Framework (Deltares) 2) METAPHOR, a plants and species dispersion model (Wageningen University) 3) Natuurplanner, an Ecological model suite (Wageningen University) 4) Land use models (Free University/JRC). Also the other partners in JRA5 have defined use cases, which are representative for the climate effect and impact communities in their country. Goal is to find commonalities between all defined use cases. The common functionality will be implemented as e-tools and incorporated in the IS-ENES data portal. Common issues relate to e.g., need for high resolution: downscaling from GCM to local scale (also involves interpolation); parameter selection; finding extremes; averaging methods. At the conference we will describe the FEWS case in more detail: Delft FEWS is an open shell system (in development since 1995) for performing

  16. Is School Vision Screening Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawn, Barbara P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study followed children retrospectively from kindergarten through 12th grade to examine incidence of abnormal school vision screening tests and rates of follow-up by specialists. School vision screening provided first indication of abnormal visual acuity in 76% of the children. Results support the notion that school vision screening is…

  17. Climatic Effects of Marine Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Y.; Gantt, B.; Ghan, S. J.; Nenes, A.; Liu, X.; Easter, R. C.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that the emissions of primary organic matter (POM) of marine biogenic origin and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from phytoplankton-produced volatile organic compounds can lead to changes of chemical composition and size distribution of marine aerosol, thus modifying the cloud droplet activation potential and affecting climate. In this study, the effects of marine organic aerosol emissions and the dissolved marine organic aerosol components as surfactant are explored using the National Center of Atmospheric Research’s Community Atmosphere Model, coupled with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Modal Aerosol Model (CAM-MAM). Primary marine organic aerosol emissions are separated into sub- and super-micron modes, and calculated based on wind speed-dependent sea-spray mass flux and remotely-sensed surface chlorophyll-a concentration. Two distinct sea spray emission functions used in this study yield different amounts and spatial distributions of sub-micron marine POM mass flux. The super-micron sea-spray flux is determined based on simulated sea-spray number flux. Both sub and super-micron marine POM are assumed to be mostly water-insoluble and added in the accumulation mode and coarse sea-salt mode, respectively. A prescribed soluble mass fraction of 50% is assumed for marine SOA, formed from phytoplankton-emitted isoprene and allowed to be condensed on existing aerosols in different modes. Surfactant effects from the soluble part of sub-micron marine POM are included in the cloud droplet activation parameterization by some modifications based on the mass fraction of dissolved marine POM. 10 year model simulations are conducted to examine the effects of marine organic aerosols on cloud microphysical and optical properties. Analyses of model results show that different marine aerosol emissions and cloud droplet activation mechanisms can yield 9% to 16% increase in global maritime mean cloud droplet number concentration. Changes

  18. Middle and High School Students' Conceptions of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofferding, Laura; Kloser, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Both scientists and policy-makers emphasize the importance of education for influencing pro-environmental behavior and minimizing the effects of climate change on biological and physical systems. Education has the potential to impact students' system knowledge--their understanding of the variables that affect the climate system--and action…

  19. Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bin Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir

    2015-01-01

    Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that…

  20. Measuring School Improvement Implementation: Validation of the School Effectiveness Structural Components Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Sheree P.; And Others

    The School Effectiveness Structural Components Inventory (SESCI) was designed to assess structural elements in a school environment that contribute to effectiveness. The preliminary validation took place in 12 elementary schools in or near a large metropolitan school district. The schools were classified by overall school socioeconomic status, as…

  1. School Climate for Transgender Youth: A Mixed Method Investigation of Student Experiences and School Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Jenifer K.; Anderson, Charles R.; Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    Transgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260,…

  2. Annual Report of School Climate and Student Conduct in Delaware Schools: 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Francine Simmons; Houston, Ronald L.

    This report provides information on the conduct of students in Delaware public schools during the 1999-2000 school year. The focus of the analysis is on reported incidence of serious student conduct offenses as defined by Delaware Code or as defined by Delaware State Board of Education regulations and reported incidence of student suspensions and…

  3. A Resource Aid Packet on School Engagement, Disengagement, Learning Supports, & School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Most policy makers and administrators know that by itself good instruction delivered by highly qualified teachers is not enough to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed at school. Schools continue to suffer from high dropout rates of students and staff, an achievement gap that resists closure, a high incidence of schools…

  4. The School Counsellor: An Essential Partner in Today's Coordinated School Health Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jean; McNab, Warren; Coker, J. Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Youth today face many health, educational, and social challenges not experienced at such epidemic levels by previous generations of young people. By providing collaborative, comprehensive services that address student needs and promote learning and healthy development, a coordinated school health team can help students succeed in school, as well…

  5. Strengthening Assessments of School Climate: Lessons from the NYC School Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; McCormick, Meghan; Kemple, James J.

    2013-01-01

    The New York City Department of Education's (DOE) annual survey of parents, students, and teachers is the largest of its kind in the United States. The DOE relies on the survey to identify schools' strengths and to target areas for improvement. School Survey scores, along with attendance, are also the only non-academic indicators used in the DOE's…

  6. Blocking the Bullies: Has South Carolina's Safe School Climate Act Made Public Schools Safer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Troy M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent news in the national media about two students' deaths as a result of harassment in school has highlighted a renewed desire for educators to address the culture of bullying and harassment in public schools, especially when the victims are targeted for their real or perceived differences. South Carolina's legislature responded to this need in…

  7. A Meta Analytical Approach Regarding School Effectiveness: The True Size of School Effects and the Effect Size of Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosker, Roel J.; Witziers, Bob

    School-effectiveness research has not yet been able to identify the factors of effective and noneffective schools, the real contribution of the significant factors, the true sizes of school effects, and the generalizability of school-effectiveness results. This paper presents findings of a meta analysis, the Dutch PSO programme, that was used to…

  8. Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft report reviews available literature on climate change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state level AIS management activities. This draft report assesses the state of the science of climate change effects on AIS and examines state level AIS management activities.

  9. Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy at the High School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, B.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy (CCCL) is a research and development project designed to help high school students grasp the range of temporal and spatial scales at which climate can be defined and at which Earth system processes occur. CCCL includes three lab-based climate curriculum modules and a strong professional development component that helps partner teachers strengthen their own understanding of climate literacy and develop into climate literacy professional development providers. The research and evaluation components of this 4-year project provide essential guidance as they probe the efficacy of the evolving curriculum units, the professional development component, and the teamwork that is essential to the success of the project. In this session we will review the three curriculum modules, covering the Cryosphere, Weather and Climate, and Carbon, which comprise the CCCL sequence now being pilot-tested. We will identify ways in which we address some of the well-know misconceptions about climate and the Earth system that impede student understanding, as well as the approaches we are using to strengthen students grasp of the challenging range of temporal and spatial scales at which Earth system processes and climate occur. We will describe the professional development component of the program, which draws teachers from Mississippi and Texas into a partnership with curriculum developers to contribute to the curriculum modules, pilot test the modules in their classrooms, and eventually lead professional development workshops for their peers. We will also identify the key research questions around student learning that we will be exploring when the teachers engaged in the professional development implement the revised modules in their classrooms.

  10. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  11. Effects of Climate Change on Salmonella Infections

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Luma; Reddy, Remata S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Climate change and global warming have been reported to increase spread of foodborne pathogens. To understand these effects on Salmonella infections, modeling approaches such as regression analysis and neural network (NN) were used. Methods: Monthly data for Salmonella outbreaks in Mississippi (MS), Tennessee (TN), and Alabama (AL) were analyzed from 2002 to 2011 using analysis of variance and time series analysis. Meteorological data were collected and the correlation with salmonellosis was examined using regression analysis and NN. Results: A seasonal trend in Salmonella infections was observed (p<0.001). Strong positive correlation was found between high temperature and Salmonella infections in MS and for the combined states (MS, TN, AL) models (R2=0.554; R2=0.415, respectively). NN models showed a strong effect of rise in temperature on the Salmonella outbreaks. In this study, an increase of 1°F was shown to result in four cases increase of Salmonella in MS. However, no correlation between monthly average precipitation rate and Salmonella infections was observed. Conclusion: There is consistent evidence that gastrointestinal infection with bacterial pathogens is positively correlated with ambient temperature, as warmer temperatures enable more rapid replication. Warming trends in the United States and specifically in the southern states may increase rates of Salmonella infections. PMID:25496072

  12. Teacher Perception of School Culture and School Climate in the "Leader in Me" Schools and Non "Leader in Me" Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Brian Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In 1989 Dr. Stephen Covey wrote "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" which revealed seven habits that people should integrate into their lives that would help them on the two levels of relationships. First, it would help people to establish a better relationship personally. Secondly, it would help people to improve their…

  13. Is There a School Mix Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses the notion of "pathological" social science, wherein large claims to knowledge are made on the basis of very small differences in the data, to consider the notion of the school mix effect. It describes a variety of plausible alternative explanations for the same sets of findings, including the school mix effect, but also errors in…

  14. Methodology for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Piljae

    A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the accelerated dissemination of energy efficient design. For the development of the toolkit, first, a survey was performed to identify high performance measures available today being implemented in new K-5 school buildings. Then an existing case-study school building in a hot and humid climate was selected and analyzed to understand the energy use pattern in a school building and to be used in developing a calibrated simulation. Based on the information from the previous step, an as-built and calibrated simulation was then developed. To accomplish this, five calibration steps were performed to match the simulation results with the measured energy use. The five steps include: (1) Using an actual 2006 weather file with measured solar radiation, (2) Modifying lighting & equipment schedule using ASHRAE's RP-1093 methods, (3) Using actual equipment performance curves (i.e., scroll chiller), (4) Using the Winkelmann's method for the underground floor heat transfer, and (5) Modifying the HVAC and room setpoint temperature based on the measured field data. Next, the calibrated simulation of the case-study K-5 school was compared to an ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code-compliant school. In the next step, the energy savings potentials from the application of several high performance measures to an equivalent ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code-compliant school. The high performance measures applied included the recommendations from the ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDG) for K-12 and other high performance measures from the literature review as well as a daylighting strategy and solar PV and thermal systems. The results show that the net

  15. UWHS Climate Science: Uniting University Scientists and High School Teachers in the Development and Implementation of a Dual-Credit STEM-Focused Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, M. A.; Thompson, L.; Ackerman, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Washington is adapting a popular UW Atmospheric Sciences course on Climate and Climate Change for the high school environment. In the process, a STEM-focused teaching and learning community has formed. With the support of NASA Global Climate Change Education 20 teachers have participated in an evolving professional development program that brings those actively engaged in research together with high school teachers passionate about bringing a formal climate science course into the high school. Over a period of several months participating teachers work through the UW course homework and delve deeply into specific subject areas. Then, during a week-long summer institute, scientists bring their particular expertise (e.g. radiation, modeling) to the high school teachers through lectures or labs. Together they identify existing lectures, textbook material and peer-reviewed resources and labs available through the internet that can be used to effectively teach the UW material to the high school students. Through this process the scientists learn how to develop teaching materials around their area of expertise, teachers engage deeply in the subject matter, and both the university and high school teachers are armed with the tools to effectively teach a STEM-focused introductory course in climate science. To date 12 new hands-on modules have been completed or are under development, exploring ice-cores, isotopes, historical temperature trends, energy balance, climate models, and more. Two modules have been tested in the classroom and are ready for peer-review through well-respected national resources such as CLEAN or the National Earth Science Teachers Association; three others are complete and will be implemented in a high school classroom this year, and the remainder under various stages of development. The UWHS ATMS 211 course was piloted in two APES (Advanced Placement Environmental Science classrooms) in Washington State in 2011/2012. The high school

  16. Not Just Numbers: Creating a Partnership Climate to Improve Math Proficiency in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Steven B.; Epstein, Joyce L.; Galindo, Claudia L.

    2010-01-01

    Although we know that family involvement is associated with stronger math performance, little is known about what educators are doing to effectively involve families and community members, and whether this measurably improves math achievement at their schools. This study used data from 39 schools to assess the effects of family and community…

  17. The Social Environment of Schools and Adolescent Nutrition: Associations between the School Nutrition Climate and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from 96…

  18. The 2011 National School Climate Survey: Key Findings on the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

  19. Multilevel Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Test-Retest Reliability of the High School Teacher Version of the Authoritative School Climate Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2016-01-01

    Although school climate has long been recognized as an important factor in the school improvement process, there are few psychometrically supported measures based on teacher perspectives. The current study replicated and extended the factor structure, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability of the teacher version of the Authoritative…

  20. Integrating climate-smart rice agriculture into secondary-level curriculum: lessons from three high schools in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Manalo, Jaime A; Balmeo, Katherine P; Berto, Jayson C; Saludez, Fredierick M; Villaflor, Jennifer D; Pagdanganan, Argie M

    2016-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is an urgent and highly relevant topic that must be integrated into the school curriculum. Literature on CC integration, however, is scarce, let alone literature on integrating climate-smart rice agriculture (CSRA). Bringing CSRA lessons into the classroom means the chance is higher that climate-smart technologies on rice will reach even the most far-flung areas of the Philippines, which stand to be among the most vulnerable as regards the negative impacts of CC. This paper shares experiences drawn from three high schools in the Philippines on integrating CSRA into their curriculum. The research centers on appropriate teaching tools/strategies, push and exogenous factors in CSRA integration, and the types of information that are likely to be shared by the students with their farmer-parents or other farmers in their communities. Surveys among participating students (n = 155) and three focus group discussions among key school officials were conducted. Different teaching methods and/or tools were found to be generally useful in various contexts. Photos and videos, however, emerged as the most effective tools across sites. The livelihood source of the students does have a bearing on the complexity of messages that they can convey. Students from rice-farming households can competently discuss even highly complex adaptation and mitigation information with their farmer-parents or other farmers. Thorough message-framing is necessary to maximize student involvement as well as to increase production of education-entertainment (edutainment) materials to be utilized in teaching. This study, in general, contributes to CC education by bringing in best-fit practices in teaching tools and strategies to mobilize students to act on urgent matters relating to the impacts of CC. It also advises on considering exogenous factors that might affect CC education by taking into account those that are equally capable of shaping students' perception and knowledge.

  1. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    1982-01-01

    Describes a human resources development program for school administrators, including training in management functions, leader behavior skills, instructional leadership skills, and more traditional topics. (Author/JM)

  2. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    PubMed Central

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33–43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between −25 and −2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha−1year−1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971–2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions. PMID:27432777

  3. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33-43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between -25 and -2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha-1year-1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971-2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  4. Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2003 AGU Emiliani Lecture, I proposed the 'early anthropogenic hypothesis' --the idea that major anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gases and climate occurred thousands of years before the industrial era. In the decade since then, several dozen published papers have argued its pros and cons. In the 2013 Tyndall History of Global Change Lecture I will update where matters now stand. I will show figures from the 2003 Climate Change paper that laid out the initial hypothesis, and then update subsequent evidence from ice-core drilling, archeology, and land-use histories. The primary claims in the 2003 hypothesis were these: (1) the CH4 rise since 5000 years ago is anthropogenic; (2) the CO2 rise since 7000 years ago is also anthropogenic; (3) the amount of carbon emitted from preindustrial deforestation was roughly twice the amount released during the industrial era; (4) global temperature would have been cooler by about 0.8oC by the start of the industrial era if agricultural CO2 and CH4 emissions had not occurred; (5) early anthropogenic warming prevented the inception of new ice sheets at high northern latitudes; and (6) pandemics and other population catastrophes during the last 2000 years caused CO2 decreases lasting decades to centuries. The new evidence shows that these claims have held up well. The late-Holocene CO2 and CH4 rises are anomalous compared to average gas trends during previous interglaciations of the last 800,000 years. Land-use models based on historical data simulate pre-industrial CO2 carbon releases more than twice the industrial amounts. Archeological estimates of CH4 emissions from expanding rice irrigation account for much of the late Holocene CH4 rise, even without including livestock emissions or biomass burning. Model simulations show that the large pre-industrial greenhouse-gas emissions indicated by these historical and archeological estimates would have warmed global climate by more than 1oC and prevented northern glacial

  5. Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n?=?20). This includes analysis of the…

  6. Textbooks of Doubt: Using Systemic Functional Analysis to Explore the Framing of Climate Change in Middle-School Science Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Román, Diego; Busch, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Middle school students are learning about climate change in large part through textbooks used in their classes. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the language employed in these materials frames this topic. To this end, we used systemic functional analysis to study the language of the chapters related to climate change in four sixth grade…

  7. Understanding school climate, aggression, peer victimization, and bully perpetration: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Low, Sabina K; Jimerson, Shane R

    2014-09-01

    Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying and other aggressive behavior requires consideration of the broader social ecology of the school community. However, studies to date have predominantly been cross-sectional in nature, or have failed to reflect the social-ecological framework in their measurement or analytic approach. Thus, there have been limited efforts to parse out the relative contribution of student, classroom, and organizational-level factors. This special topic section emphasizes a departure from a focus on student attitudes and behaviors, to a social-contextual approach that appreciates how much features of the school environment can mitigate or perpetuate aggression. This collection of articles reflects innovative and rigorous approaches to further our understanding of climate, and has implications for theory, measurement, prevention, and practice. These studies highlight the influence of school climate on mental health, academic achievement, and problem behavior, and will hopefully stimulate interest in and further scholarship on this important topic.

  8. Determining climate effects on US total agricultural productivity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, You; Chambers, Robert G.; Schmoldt, Daniel L.; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chaoshun; Liu, Yan-An; Sun, Chao; Kennedy, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity of agricultural productivity to climate has not been sufficiently quantified. The total factor productivity (TFP) of the US agricultural economy has grown continuously for over half a century, with most of the growth typically attributed to technical change. Many studies have examined the effects of local climate on partial productivity measures such as crop yields and economic returns, but these measures cannot account for national-level impacts. Quantifying the relationships between TFP and climate is critical to understanding whether current US agricultural productivity growth will continue into the future. We analyze correlations between regional climate variations and national TFP changes, identify key climate indices, and build a multivariate regression model predicting the growth of agricultural TFP based on a physical understanding of its historical relationship with climate. We show that temperature and precipitation in distinct agricultural regions and seasons explain ∼70% of variations in TFP growth during 1981–2010. To date, the aggregate effects of these regional climate trends on TFP have been outweighed by improvements in technology. Should these relationships continue, however, the projected climate changes could cause TFP to drop by an average 2.84 to 4.34% per year under medium to high emissions scenarios. As a result, TFP could fall to pre-1980 levels by 2050 even when accounting for present rates of innovation. Our analysis provides an empirical foundation for integrated assessment by linking regional climate effects to national economic outcomes, offering a more objective resource for policy making. PMID:28265075

  9. Determining climate effects on US total agricultural productivity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wu, You; Chambers, Robert G; Schmoldt, Daniel L; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chaoshun; Liu, Yan-An; Sun, Chao; Kennedy, Jennifer A

    2017-03-21

    The sensitivity of agricultural productivity to climate has not been sufficiently quantified. The total factor productivity (TFP) of the US agricultural economy has grown continuously for over half a century, with most of the growth typically attributed to technical change. Many studies have examined the effects of local climate on partial productivity measures such as crop yields and economic returns, but these measures cannot account for national-level impacts. Quantifying the relationships between TFP and climate is critical to understanding whether current US agricultural productivity growth will continue into the future. We analyze correlations between regional climate variations and national TFP changes, identify key climate indices, and build a multivariate regression model predicting the growth of agricultural TFP based on a physical understanding of its historical relationship with climate. We show that temperature and precipitation in distinct agricultural regions and seasons explain ∼70% of variations in TFP growth during 1981-2010. To date, the aggregate effects of these regional climate trends on TFP have been outweighed by improvements in technology. Should these relationships continue, however, the projected climate changes could cause TFP to drop by an average 2.84 to 4.34% per year under medium to high emissions scenarios. As a result, TFP could fall to pre-1980 levels by 2050 even when accounting for present rates of innovation. Our analysis provides an empirical foundation for integrated assessment by linking regional climate effects to national economic outcomes, offering a more objective resource for policy making.

  10. Developing the climate schools: ecstasy module--a universal Internet-based drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Kathyrn L

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Schools: Ecstasy module is a universal harm-minimisation school-based prevention program for adolescents aged 14 to 16 years. The program was developed to address the need for Ecstasy prevention given the increasing use of Ecstasy use among young Australians. The core content of the program is delivered over the Internet using cartoon storylines to engage students, and the teacher-driven activities reinforce the core information. The three-lesson program is embedded within the school health curriculum and is easy to implement with minimal teacher training required. The program was developed in 2010 through extensive collaboration with students (n = 8), teachers (n = 10) and health professionals (n = 10) in Sydney, Australia. This article describes the formative research and process of planning that formed the development of the program and the evidence base underpinning the approach.

  11. School Climate, Teacher-Child Closeness, and Low-Income Children's Academic Skills in Kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Amy E; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M; Pess, Rachel A

    In this study we used data on a sample of children in the Chicago Public Schools in areas of concentrated poverty-related disadvantage to examine associations between school climate and low-income children's language/literacy and math skills during the transition to kindergarten. We also explored whether teacher-child closeness moderated these associations. Multilevel modeling analyses conducted using a sample of 242 children nested in 102 elementary schools revealed that low adult support in the school was significantly associated with children's poorer language/literacy and math skills in kindergarten. Teacher-child closeness predicted children's higher language/literacy and math scores and moderated the association between low adult support and children's academic skills. Among children who were high on closeness with their teacher, those in schools with high levels of adult support showed stronger language/literacy and math skills. There were no significant associations between adult support and the academic skills of children with medium or low levels of teacher-child closeness. Results shed light on the importance of adult support at both school and classroom levels in promoting low-income children's academic skills during the transition to kindergarten.

  12. Effect of climate change on marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikebo, F. B.; Sundby, S.; Aadlandsvik, B.; Fiksen, O.

    2003-04-01

    As a part of the INTEGRATION project, headed by Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, funded by the German Research Council, the impact of climate change scenarios on marine fish populations will be addressed on a spesific population basis and will focus on fish populations in the northern North Atlantic with special emphasis on cod. The approach taken will mainly be a modelling study supported by analysis of existing data on fish stocks and climate. Through down-scaling and nesting techniques, various climate change scenarios with reduced THC in the North Atlantic will be investigated with higher spatial resolution for selected shelf areas. The hydrodynamical model used for the regional ocean modeling is ROMS (http://marine.rutgers.edu/po/models/roms/). An individual based model will be implemented into the larval drift module to simulate growth of the larvae along the drift paths.

  13. Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gerald C; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-03-04

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  14. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  15. Using TIMSS 2007 data to examine STEM school effectiveness in an international context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanco, Gabrielle

    Because results from TIMSS 2007 showed a gap in mathematics and science achievement between students in the United States and those in the top-performing countries, TIMSS 2007 data were used to investigate how school effectiveness factors known to be strongly associated with higher STEM achievement operated in the United States compared to Chinese Taipei, the Czech Republic, Singapore, and Slovenia. In each of the five countries, multilevel modeling was used to examine STEM achievement in relation to 11 school effectiveness factors associated with school resources, fidelity of curriculum implementation, and school climate, controlling for student home resources. A secondary purpose of this dissertation research was to help the TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center prepare for multilevel modeling planned for the TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 data. Findings from this research showed that across the five countries, there were differences in how important school effectiveness factors operated. Teacher preparation, teaching the curriculum, and using instructional strategies involving reasoning and inquiry all were important school characteristics related to STEM achievement in some countries. A school environment conducive to learning emerged as being strongly associated with high STEM achievement in three of the countries, including the United States. Both absence of discipline and attendance problems as well as a school climate supportive of academic success were important predictors of student STEM achievement. This dissertation research also showed the potential of using TIMSS data as a basis for conducting school effectiveness analyses across different country contexts.

  16. Schools of the Pacific Rainfall Climate Experiment: The Benefits and Challenges of Student Participation in Scientific Research Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, M. L.; Postawko, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Schools of the Pacific Rainfall Climate Experiment (SPaRCE) is a cooperative field project involving elementary, middle school, high school, college and trade school students, along with personnel from Pacific Island meteorological services, in expanding and enhancing the climate observation network across the Pacific Basin. The goals of the program are to: 1. foster interest and increase awareness among students, teachers, and local island meteorologists as to the importance of cooperation between nations in investigating potential climate change, 2. to educate students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall (particularly in the Pacific region) to climate studies, 3. to increase the observations of climate variable across the Pacific, and to incorporate the collected observations into a comprehensive Pacific database to be used for climate research purposes 4. to make a major contribution to the global climate research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific climate data, 5. and to encourage scientific and cultural exchange. The SPaRCE program has been working with students, teachers, and meteorological service personnel on various Pacific islands and atolls since 1991. Much of the data collected has been incorporated into the Comprehensive Pacific Rainfall Database and has been used as verification data for several satellite rainfall studies. In addition, several students who got involved in the SPaRCE program at their school have gone on to work at their local meteorological service upon graduation. Significant advances in the technological capabilities in most of the Pacific island countries have taken place over the years. These advances have been both a help and a hindrance in getting schools involved in making accurate, reliable, long-term climate observations and getting students excited about analyzing these data. One challenge that has remained fairly constant over the years is that of teacher turn-over in these developing island nations.

  17. Space Agency Workshop Considers Effect of Climate Change on Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Brown, Molly

    2009-10-01

    Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: NASA Mission and Infrastructure; Kennedy Space Center, Florida, 28-30 July 2009; With centers located throughout the country, NASA could experience a range of climate change hazards. Depending on the region, these hazards are likely to include more extreme and frequent high temperatures, more frequent and intense precipitation events, changing water availability, and sea level rise. These changing climate hazards could undermine key NASA missions by damaging operations and critical infrastructure assets. The specific effects of climate change may include shifting availability, reliability, and cost of water and energy; and changes in safety and operations related to more extreme events (e.g., floods, fire).

  18. Study of Climate effect on evapotranspiration change procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asady, A.; Sharifan, H.

    2009-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the most important of parameters in water cycle. This parameter changes in climate different conditions. In this manner the probability of ET is important for design of irrigation systems. This study investigated climate effect on evapotranspiration changes procedure. Thus ET was estimated by Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) method in the some of regions: Gorgan(semi wet,), Gonbad (semi dry) , Maraveh-Tappeh (semi dry to dry). Then diagrams of ET were drawn for different probabilities. Investigation shown that if climate was drier, irrigation periods increased and difference of ET averages decreased. Keyword : Evapotranspiration, Probability, Hargreave-Samani method, Climate, water use.

  19. Approaches to Climate Change & Health in Cuba: Guillermo Mesa MD MPhil, Director, Disasters & Health, National School of Public Health. Paulo Ortiz MS PhD, Senior Researcher, Climate Center, Cuban Meteorology Institute.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Guillermo; Ortiz, Paulo; Gorry, Conner

    2015-04-01

    The US National Institutes of Health predict climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths between 2030 and 2050, with damages to health costing US$2-$4 billion by 2030. Although much debate still surrounds climate change, island ecosystems-such as Cuba's-in the developing world are arguably among the most vulnerable contexts in which to confront climate variability. Beginning in the 1990s, Cuba launched research to develop the evidence base, set policy priorities, and design mitigation and adaptation actions specifically to address climate change and its effects on health. Two researchers at the forefront of this interdisciplinary, intersectoral effort are epidemiologist Dr Guillermo Mesa, who directed design and implementation of the nationwide strategy for disaster risk reduction in the Cuban public health system as founding director of the Latin American Center for Disaster Medicine (CLAMED) and now heads the Disasters and Health department at the National School of Public Health; and Dr Paulo Ortiz, a biostatistician and economist at the Cuban Meteorology Institute's Climate Center (CENCLIM), who leads the research on Cuba's Climate and Health project and is advisor on climate change and health for the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

  20. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blaustein, Andrew R.; Walls, Susan C.; Bancroft, Betsy A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Searle, Catherine L.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, climate change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. Climate change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. Climate change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in climate can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  1. Differential effects of school experiences on active citizenship among German and Turkish-origin students.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter

    2016-12-14

    While research suggests that schools can foster active citizenship among youth, studies have not tested whether ethnic minority youth may benefit differently from school experiences than ethnic majority youth. In this study of 219 students (138 German majority and 81 Turkish-origin minority; Mage  = 18.26; 55% females), we examined the association between different experiences at school and 4 indicators of youth active citizenship, controlling for various socio-demographic characteristics. Although value of social studies was associated with three out of four active citizenship indicators among both ethnic groups, the effects of the other school-related variables on active citizenship were moderated by ethnicity. Specifically, indicators of classroom climate, such as open classroom climate and classroom community, were only associated with greater active citizenship among Turkish-minority youth, while participatory factors, such as engagement in school decisions, were only associated with active citizenship among native German youth.

  2. Great Lakes Climate and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes climate and water movement. Students learn about land-sea…

  3. Student Perceptions of School Climate: A Validity and Data Use Study of a District-Developed Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Glenn, Mya L.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, researchers have consistently reported that students' perceptions of their school's climate can have a measurable impact on their level of engagement in school, motivation to learn, social development, and, ultimately, their academic achievement. In light of the continued emphasis on education reform and school…

  4. The Relationship between Student Voice and Perceptions of Motivation, Attachment, Achievement and School Climate in Davidson and Rutherford Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Sharon Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which there were statistically significant relationships between school administrators' systemic implementation of student voice work and student perceptions (i.e. achievement, motivation, attachment and school climate) and PLAN performance. Student voice was defined as students being equal partners in school…

  5. Sharing the Data along with the Responsibility: Examining an Analytic Scale-Based Model for Assessing School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shindler, John; Taylor, Clint; Cadenas, Herminia; Jones, Albert

    This study was a pilot effort to examine the efficacy of an analytic trait scale school climate assessment instrument and democratic change system in two urban high schools. Pilot study results indicate that the instrument shows promising soundness in that it exhibited high levels of validity and reliability. In addition, the analytic trait format…

  6. How Students' Perceptions of the School Climate Influence Their Choice to Upstand, Bystand, or Join Perpetrators of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferráns, Silvia Diazgranados; Selman, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this article, Silvia Diazgranados Ferráns and Robert Selman, use an emergent framework to explore how the rules of the school culture at different perceived school climates affect early adolescents' decisions to upstand, bystand, or join the perpetrators when they witness peer aggression and bullying. Through a grounded theory…

  7. A Developmental Examination of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Elementary School: Behavior Patterns, School Climate, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betters-Bubon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) programs integrate research-based practice within a three-tier approach of prevention and intervention to impact change within school systems. Research suggests positive changes in student outcomes with the implementation of SWPBS. Supported by social-ecological and behavioral theory, this longitudinal…

  8. Achievement and Climate Outcomes for the Knowledge Is Power Program in an Inner-City Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Alberg, Marty; McSparrin-Gallagher, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a whole school reform, the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP), specifically designed to raise academic achievement of at-risk urban middle school students by establishing an extended school day and year, a rigorous curriculum, after-school access to teachers, and increased family-school connections.…

  9. Disaggregating Pupil Performance Scores: Evaluating School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Henriette L.; Tadlock, James A.

    This report describes various components of the process of disaggregating student achievement data and provides examples of each component. Information is provided to allow school districts to conduct their own school effectiveness evaluation. Results of the California Achievement Tests form one of the bases of the analysis. The underlying…

  10. Do Some Schools Narrow the Gap? Differential School Effectiveness Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little research has explored whether schools differ in their effectiveness for different group of pupils (e.g. by ethnicity, poverty or gender), for different curriculum subjects (e.g. English, mathematics or science) or over time (different cohorts). This paper uses multilevel modelling to analyse the national test results at age 7 and…

  11. Changing climates of conflict: A social network experiment in 56 schools.

    PubMed

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Shepherd, Hana; Aronow, Peter M

    2016-01-19

    Theories of human behavior suggest that individuals attend to the behavior of certain people in their community to understand what is socially normative and adjust their own behavior in response. An experiment tested these theories by randomizing an anticonflict intervention across 56 schools with 24,191 students. After comprehensively measuring every school's social network, randomly selected seed groups of 20-32 students from randomly selected schools were assigned to an intervention that encouraged their public stance against conflict at school. Compared with control schools, disciplinary reports of student conflict at treatment schools were reduced by 30% over 1 year. The effect was stronger when the seed group contained more "social referent" students who, as network measures reveal, attract more student attention. Network analyses of peer-to-peer influence show that social referents spread perceptions of conflict as less socially normative.

  12. Online and Blended Climate Change Courses for Secondary School Educators from the American Museum of Natural History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, R. V.; Contino, J.; Kinzler, R. J.; Mathez, E. A.; Randle, D. E.; Schmidt, G. A.; Shindell, D. T.

    2012-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) has created both online and blended climate change education courses directed toward secondary school educators. The online course carries graduate credit and is authored by leading scientists at AMNH and at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. It focuses on weather and climate; sources of climate change; the response of the climate system to input; modeling, theory and observation; what we can learn from past climates; and potential consequences, risks and uncertainties. The blended course includes an abbreviated version of the online course along with additional activities, many suitable for classroom use. Both the online and blended course experiences will be reviewed, including the use of an educational version of NASA's Global Climate Model. Attendees will be provided with a DVD of Climate Change videos and data visualizations from the American Museum of Natural History.

  13. Online and Blended Climate Change Courses for Secondary School Educators from the American Museum of Natural History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) has created both online and blended climate change education courses directed toward secondary school educators. The online course carries graduate credit and is authored by leading scientists at AMNH and at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. It focuses on weather and climate; sources of climate change; the response of the climate system to input; modeling, theory and observation; what we can learn from past climates; and potential consequences, risks and uncertainties. The blended course includes an abbreviated version of the online course along with additional activities, many suitable for classroom use. Both the online and blended course experiences will be reviewed, including the use of an educational version of NASA's Global Climate Model. Attendees will be provided with a DVD of Climate Change videos and data visualizations from the American Museum of Natural History.

  14. Closing the Gap: Modeling Within-School Variance Heterogeneity in School Effect Studies. CSE Report 689

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kilchan; Kim, Junyeop

    2006-01-01

    Effective schools should be superior in both enhancing students' achievement levels and reducing the gap between high- and low-achieving students in the school. However, the focus has been placed mainly on schools' achievement levels in most school effect studies. In this article, we attend to the school-specific achievement dispersion as well as…

  15. Closing the Gap: Modeling Within-School Variance Heterogeneity in School Effect Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Junyeop; Choi, Kilchan

    2008-01-01

    Effective schools should be superior in both enhancing students' achievement levels and reducing the gap between high- and low-achieving students in the school. However, the focus has been placed mainly on schools' achievement levels in most school effect studies. In this article, we focused our attention upon the school-specific achievement…

  16. Time variation of effective climate sensitivity in GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. D.; Ingram, W. J.; Gregory, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Effective climate sensitivity is often assumed to be constant (if uncertain), but some previous studies of General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations have found it varying as the simulation progresses. This complicates the fitting of simple models to such simulations, as well as having implications for the estimation of climate sensitivity from observations. This study examines the evolution of the feedbacks determining the climate sensitivity in GCMs submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Apparent centennial-timescale variations of effective climate sensitivity during stabilisation to a forcing can be considered an artefact of using conventional forcings which only allow for instantaneous effects and stratospheric adjustment. If the forcing is adjusted for processes occurring on timescales which are short compared to the climate stabilisation timescale then there is little centennial timescale evolution of effective climate sensitivity in any of the GCMs. We suggest that much of the apparent variation in effective climate sensitivity identified in previous studies is actually due to the comparatively fast forcing adjustment. Persistent differences are found in the strength of the feedbacks between the coupled atmosphere - ocean (AO) versions and their atmosphere - mixed-layer ocean (AML) counterparts, (the latter are often assumed to give the equilibrium climate sensitivity of the AOGCM). The AML model can typically only estimate the equilibrium climate sensitivity of the parallel AO version to within about 0.5K. The adjustment to the forcing to account for comparatively fast processes varies in magnitude and sign between GCMs, as well as differing between AO and AML versions of the same model. There is evidence from one AOGCM that the forcing adjustment may take a couple of decades, with implications for observationally based estimates of equilibrium climate sensitivity. We suggest that at least some of the spread in 21st century global

  17. Climate change and wildlife health: direct and indirect effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik; Rogall, Gail Moede; Wesenberg, Katherine; Abbott, Rachel; Work, Thierry; Schuler, Krysten; Sleeman, Jonathan; Winton, James

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, habitat destruction and urbanization, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and pollution—all affect ecosystem and human health. Climate change can also be viewed within the context of other physical and climate cycles, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (El Niño), the North Atlantic Oscillation, and cycles in solar radiation that have profound effects on the Earth’s climate. The effects of climate change on wildlife disease are summarized in several areas of scientific study discussed briefly below: geographic range and distribution of wildlife diseases, plant and animal phenology (Walther and others, 2002), and patterns of wildlife disease, community and ecosystem composition, and habitat degradation.

  18. Effective Climate Refugia for Cold-water Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, J. L.; Morelli, T. L.; Torgersen, C.; Isaak, D.; Keenan, D.; Labiosa, R.; Fullerton, A.; Massie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change threatens to create fundamental shifts in in the distributions and abundances of endothermic organisms such as cold-water salmon and trout species (salmonids). Recently published projected declines in mid-latitude salmonid distributions under future climates range from modest to severe, depending on modeling approaches, assumptions, and spatial context of analyses. Given these projected losses, increased emphasis on management for ecosystem resilience to help buffer cold-water fish populations and their habitats against climate change is emerging. Using terms such as "climate-proofing", "climate-ready", and "climate refugia", such efforts stake a claim for an adaptive, anticipatory planning response to the climate change threat. To be effective, such approaches will need to address critical uncertainties in both the physical basis for projected landscape changes in water temperature and streamflow, as well as the biological responses of organisms. Recent efforts define future potential climate refugia based on projected streamflows, air temperatures, and associated water temperature changes. These efforts reflect the relatively strong conceptual foundation for linkages between regional climate change and local hydrological responses and thermal dynamics. Yet important questions remain. Drawing on case studies throughout the Pacific Northwest, we illustrate some key uncertainties in the responses of salmonids and their habitats to altered hydro-climatic regimes currently not well addressed by physical or ecological models. Key uncertainties include biotic interactions, organismal adaptive capacity, local climate decoupling due to groundwater-surface water interactions, the influence of human engineering responses, and synergies between climatic and other stressors. These uncertainties need not delay anticipatory planning, but rather highlight the need for identification and communication of actions with high probabilities of success, and targeted

  19. Authoritative School Climate and High School Student Risk Behavior: A Cross-sectional Multi-level Analysis of Student Self-Reports.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis

    2016-11-01

    Many adolescents engage in risk behaviors such as substance use and aggression that jeopardize their healthy development. This study tested the hypothesis that an authoritative school climate characterized by strict but fair discipline and supportive teacher-student relationships is conducive to lower risk behavior for high school students. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional, student-report survey data from a statewide sample of 47,888 students (50.6 % female) in 319 high schools. The students included ninth (26.6 %), tenth (25.5 %), eleventh (24.1 %) and twelfth (23.8 %) grade with a racial/ethnic breakdown of 52.2 % White, 18.0 % Black, 13.1 % Hispanic, 5.9 % Asian, and 10.8 % reporting another or two or more race/ethnicities. Schools with an authoritative school climate had lower levels of student-reported alcohol and marijuana use; bullying, fighting, and weapon carrying at school; interest in gang membership; and suicidal thoughts and behavior. These results controlled for demographic variables of student gender, race, grade, and parent education level as well as school size, percentage of minority students, and percentage of low income students. Overall, these findings add new evidence that an authoritative school climate is associated with positive student outcomes.

  20. The Influence of School Climate on Students' Experiences of Peer Sexual Harassment in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…