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Sample records for schrodinger cat states

  1. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  2. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  3. Entangled Schrodinger cats in circuit QED: Experimental Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Yvonne Y.; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, Reinier W.; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    The development of quantum information technology relies on creating and controling entanglement over an increasingly large Hilbert space. Superconducting cavities offer high-dimensional spaces for quantum states in a low-loss and hardware-efficient fashion, making it an ideal memory of quantum information and an important element towards fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this talk we present a cQED architecture that allows quantum control over the coherent state basis of two superconducting cavities with millisecond coherence. In particular, we show deterministic entanglement of coherent-state microwave fields in two superconducting cavities of the form: 1/√{ 2}βaβa +/- -βa -βa . We engineer the capability to measure the joint photon number parity to achieve complete state tomography of the two-cavity state. Following widespread efforts of realizing ``Schrodinger's cat''-like mesoscopic superposition in various physical systems, this experiment demonstrates mesoscopic entanglement between two ``Schrodinger's cats''.

  4. Entangled Schrodinger cats in circuit QED: Joint Wigner Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yvonne Y.; Wang, Chen; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, Reinier W.; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    Creating and controlling entanglement of quantum states over large Hilbert space is an important element of quantum information processing. Using the cQED architecture consisting of two long-lived superconducting cavities dispersively coupled to a transmon qubit, we successfully created an entangled coherent-state microwave fields in two superconducting cavities. In this talk, we will present the full joint Wigner tomography of the state, measured using the method of joint photon number parity measurement introduced in the previous talk. Furthermore, we will show the redundant encoding and efficient read-out of two logical bits of information in such entangled state and hence demonstrating that the entangled ``Schrodinger cats'' is a viable candidate as an error-correctable quantum memory as well as a valuable platform for implementation of two-qubit logical operations.

  5. Entanglement, Einstein Podolsky Rosen correlations and Schrodinger cat state generation by quantum-injected optical parametric amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMartini, Francesco; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the multi-photon quantum superposition state generated by the quantum-injected high-gain optical parametric amplification of a single photon. The physical configurations based on the optimal universal and on the phase-covariant quantum cloning have been adopted. The theoretical results are supported by a set of experiments leading to the generation of an average number of clones in excess of 103.

  6. Phase Engineering of Entangled Number States (aka Schr"odinger cats) in Gaseous Bose-Einstein Condensates in ``Two," and ``Many" Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, William

    2006-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that a phase offset may be imprinted on ``part'' of a single ground state Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), and that such a phase imprint can then, via the natural subsequent dynamics of the condensate, generate both solitons and vortices. A similar phase imprint on one or more wells of a coherently connected (Josephson regime) set of BECs yields, again simply from the natural time evolution of the condensate ground state following the phase imprinting, highly entangled number states, the extreme version of which would be the macroscopic N-body superposition state: |N,0,0,0>+|0,N,0,0>+|0,0,N,0>+|0,0,0N,.> + with appropriate normalization. The notation is intended to indicate that all N particles are in all wells simultaneously. A simple physical model is introduced for the two well case allowing control of both the extremity and sharpness of the number entangled states. Less extreme states are rather more robust than the extreme superposition illustrated above. Similar results are found in systems with 3,4, and 8 wells indicating the generality of the proposed methods, although visualization of the results becomes progressively more difficult, and the computations become intractable surprisingly quickly. Extension of the Bose-Hubbard model where fully coupled GP wavefuctions are combined with exact solution of the correlation problem for the two mode system shows the importance of strong mean-field effects in the understanding and modeling of such systems. Time allowing, a discussion of ``detection'' of such states may be included. The author delightedly acknowledges collaboration with Heidi Perry, Khan Mahmud, Mary Ann Leung and David Masiello.

  7. Quantum Optics with Superconducting Circuits: From Single Photons to Schrodinger Cats

    SciTech Connect

    Schoelkopf, Rob

    2013-01-09

    Over the last decade and a half, superconducting circuits have advanced to the point where we can generate and detect highly-entangled states, and perform universal quantum gates. Meanwhile, the coherence properties of these systems have improved more than 10,000-fold. I will describe recent experiments, such as the latest advance in coherence using a three-dimensional implementation of qubits interacting with microwave cavities, called “3D circuit QED.” The control and strong interactions possible in superconducting circuits make it possible to generate non-classical states of light, including large superpositions known as “Schrodinger cat” states. This field has many interesting prospects both for applications in quantum information processing, and fundamental investigations of the boundary between the macroscopic classical world and the microscopic world of the quantum.

  8. State of cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  9. Schrodinger Leopards in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.

    2008-03-01

    We present the complex quantum dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well via exact diagonalization of a discretized Hamiltonian. When the barrier is high, vortices evolve into macroscopic superposition (NOON) states of a vortex in either well -- a Schrodinger cat with spots. Such Schrodinger leopard states are more robust than previously proposed NOON states, which only use two single particle modes of the double well potential.

  10. Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators.

  11. Short-lived two-soliton bound states in weakly perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger equation.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Shigenari, Takeshi

    2002-06-01

    Resonant soliton collisions in the weakly discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation are studied numerically. The fractal nature of the soliton scattering, described in our previous works, is investigated in detail. We demonstrate that the fractal scattering pattern is related to the existence of the short-lived two-soliton bound states. The bound state can be regarded as a two-soliton quasiparticle of a new type, different from the breather. We establish that the probability P of a bound state with the lifetime L follows the law P approximately L(-3). In the frame of a simple two-particle model, we derive the nonlinear map, which generates the fractal pattern similar to that observed in the numerical study of soliton collisions. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Atomic Schroedinger cat-like states

    SciTech Connect

    Enriquez-Flores, Marco; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2010-10-11

    After a short overview of the basic mathematical structure of quantum mechanics we analyze the Schroedinger's antinomic example of a living and dead cat mixed in equal parts. Superpositions of Glauber kets are shown to approximate such macroscopic states. Then, two-level atomic states are used to construct mesoscopic kittens as appropriate linear combinations of angular momentum eigenkets for j = 1/2. Some general comments close the present contribution.

  13. Quantum cellular biology: a curious example of a cat.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, M

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, as a curious example of Schrodinger's cat, quantum cellular biology describes the similarity between a 'Schrodinger's cat' and a 'Schrodinger's cat-like state' of a single cell made by the microcell fusion method. Mutations result from quantum processes involving molecules that cross over an energy barrier from one stable configuration to a different stable configuration. As we allow in principle for the aspects of this phenomena, this insight may suggest a new quantum cellular biology.

  14. Deterministic Creation of Macroscopic Cat States

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Daniel; Twamley, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Despite current technological advances, observing quantum mechanical effects outside of the nanoscopic realm is extremely challenging. For this reason, the observation of such effects on larger scale systems is currently one of the most attractive goals in quantum science. Many experimental protocols have been proposed for both the creation and observation of quantum states on macroscopic scales, in particular, in the field of optomechanics. The majority of these proposals, however, rely on performing measurements, making them probabilistic. In this work we develop a completely deterministic method of macroscopic quantum state creation. We study the prototypical optomechanical Membrane In The Middle model and show that by controlling the membrane’s opacity, and through careful choice of the optical cavity initial state, we can deterministically create and grow the spatial extent of the membrane’s position into a large cat state. It is found that by using a Bose-Einstein condensate as a membrane high fidelity cat states with spatial separations of up to ∼300 nm can be achieved. PMID:26345157

  15. Multi-referenced excited states and intermolecular forces from the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrodinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Erica J.

    Strong correlation due to multi-referenced electronic states of quantum chemical systems are crucial for a proper understanding of important phenomena including excited states, bond breakage and formation, singlet fission and biological transport. By solving for the 2-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) directly via the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrodinger equation (ACSE) we provide a balanced treatment of single and multi-referenced correlation effects without utilizing the N-electron wave function. This significantly reduces the computational expense while still maintaining near full configuration interaction accuracy when available. When provided with an initial 2-RDM guess from an active-space multi-configuration self consistent field wave function the ACSE scales as [special characters omitted] where ra is the number of active molecular orbitals (MOs) and ra is the number of external MOs. This work demonstrates the energetic accuracy of ACSE calculations with several small multi-referenced systems and presents a novel approach for investigating intermolecular interactions, using a simple dimer test case. In this monomer-optimized basis set approach we compute each monomer's properties in isolation and obtain a set of natural orbitals that best describe the monomer. We then remove or truncate orbitals deemed excessive as a function of occupation number, defining a monomer molecular orbital basis uniquely suited to that monomer. Combining two such monomers yields a super-system expressed in the monomer basis which we then rotate to a dimer basis at a desired geometry before creating a new initial 2-RDM for the final optimization by an ACSE calculation. It is found that the intermolecular properties calculated in this fashion from larger atomic basis sets maintain their high accuracy but at a fraction of the computational cost. Furthermore this basis set optimization is free of basis set superposition error, circumventing the need for an expensive

  16. Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality

    PubMed Central

    Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators. PMID:26611724

  17. q -deformed noncommutative cat states and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib

    2015-02-01

    We study several classical-like properties of q -deformed nonlinear coherent states as well as nonclassical behaviors of q -deformed version of the Schrödinger cat states in noncommutative space. Coherent states in q -deformed space are found to be minimum uncertainty states together with the squeezed photon distributions unlike the ordinary systems, where the photon distributions are always Poissonian. Several advantages of utilizing cat states in noncommutative space over the standard quantum mechanical spaces have been reported here. For instance, the q -deformed parameter has been utilized to improve the squeezing of the quadrature beyond the ordinary case. Most importantly, the parameter provides an extra degree of freedom by which we achieve both quadrature squeezed and number squeezed cat states at the same time in a single system, which is impossible to achieve from ordinary cat states.

  18. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cats Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... hand washing whenever you play or work with cats Wash your hands with soap and running water ...

  19. Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2015-12-09

    Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms.

  20. Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2015-12-01

    Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms.

  1. Magnetic field sensors using 13-spin cat states

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Stephanie; Karlen, Steven D.; Jones, Jonathan A.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Morton, John J. L.

    2010-08-15

    Measurement devices could benefit from entangled correlations to yield a measurement sensitivity approaching the physical Heisenberg limit. Building upon previous magnetometric work using pseudoentangled spin states in solution-state NMR, we present two conceptual advancements to better prepare and interpret the pseudoentanglement resource. We apply these to a 13-spin cat state to measure the local magnetic field with a 12.2 sensitivity increase over an equivalent number of isolated spins.

  2. Atomic Schrödinger cat-like states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez-Flores, Marco; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2010-10-01

    After a short overview of the basic mathematical structure of quantum mechanics we analyze the Schrödinger's antinomic example of a living and dead cat mixed in equal parts. Superpositions of Glauber kets are shown to approximate such macroscopic states. Then, two-level atomic states are used to construct mesoscopic kittens as appropriate linear combinations of angular momentum eigenkets for j = 1/2. Some general comments close the present contribution.

  3. Wehrl information entropy and phase distributions of Schrödinger cat and cat-like states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranowicz, A.; Bajer, J.; Wahiddin, M. R. B.; Imoto, N.

    2001-05-01

    The Wehrl information entropy and its phase density, the so-called Wehrl phase distribution, are applied to describe Schrödinger cat and cat-like (kitten) states. The advantages of the Wehrl phase distribution over the Wehrl entropy in a description of the superposition principle are presented. The entropic measures are compared with a conventional phase distribution from the Husimi Q-function. Compact-form formulae for the entropic measures are found for superpositions of well separated states. Examples of Schrödinger cats (including even, odd and Yurke-Stoler coherent states), as well as the cat-like states generated in the Kerr medium, are analysed in detail. It is shown that, in contrast to the Wehrl entropy, the Wehrl phase distribution properly distinguishes between different superpositions of unequally weighted states with respect to their number and phase-space configuration.

  4. Counterfactual distribution of Schrödinger cat states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy-Hejamadi, Akshata; Srikanth, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the counterfactual cryptography scheme proposed by Noh, the sender Alice probabilistically transmits classical information to the receiver Bob without the physical travel of a particle. Here we generalize this idea to the distribution of quantum entanglement. The key insight is to replace their classical input choices with quantum superpositions. We further show that the scheme can be generalized to counterfactually distribute multipartite cat states.

  5. Quantum error correction against photon loss using multicomponent cat states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Marcel; van Loock, Peter

    2016-10-01

    We analyze a generalized quantum error-correction code against photon loss where a logical qubit is encoded into a subspace of a single oscillator mode that is spanned by distinct multicomponent cat states (coherent-state superpositions). We present a systematic code construction that includes the extension of an existing one-photon-loss code to higher numbers of losses. When subject to a photon loss (amplitude damping) channel, the encoded qubits are shown to exhibit a cyclic behavior where the code and error spaces each correspond to certain multiples of losses, half of which can be corrected. As another generalization we also discuss how to protect logical qudits against photon losses, and as an application we consider a one-way quantum communication scheme in which the encoded qubits are periodically recovered while the coherent-state amplitudes are restored as well at regular intervals.

  6. Experimental Generation of Squeezed Cat States with an Operation Allowing Iterative Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etesse, Jean; Bouillard, Martin; Kanseri, Bhaskar; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    We present what is, to our knowledge, the first implementation of a "cat breeding" operation, which allows an iterative growth of cat states. We thus report the experimental generation of a squeezed cat state from two single photon Fock states, which can be seen as cat states with zero amplitude. These Fock states are mixed on a symmetrical beam splitter, and the generation is heralded by a homodyne measurement in one of the two output arms. The output state has a fidelity of 61% with an even squeezed cat state of amplitude α =1.63 . This hybrid operation opens up new prospects in quantum optics, as the protocol depicted here can be iterated in order to produce new kinds of mesoscopic states.

  7. Experimental generation of squeezed cat States with an operation allowing iterative growth.

    PubMed

    Etesse, Jean; Bouillard, Martin; Kanseri, Bhaskar; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2015-05-15

    We present what is, to our knowledge, the first implementation of a "cat breeding" operation, which allows an iterative growth of cat states. We thus report the experimental generation of a squeezed cat state from two single photon Fock states, which can be seen as cat states with zero amplitude. These Fock states are mixed on a symmetrical beam splitter, and the generation is heralded by a homodyne measurement in one of the two output arms. The output state has a fidelity of 61% with an even squeezed cat state of amplitude α=1.63. This hybrid operation opens up new prospects in quantum optics, as the protocol depicted here can be iterated in order to produce new kinds of mesoscopic states.

  8. Creation of a six-atom `Schrödinger cat' state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibfried, D.; Knill, E.; Seidelin, S.; Britton, J.; Blakestad, R. B.; Chiaverini, J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Reichle, R.; Wineland, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    Among the classes of highly entangled states of multiple quantum systems, the so-called `Schrödinger cat' states are particularly useful. Cat states are equal superpositions of two maximally different quantum states. They are a fundamental resource in fault-tolerant quantum computing and quantum communication, where they can enable protocols such as open-destination teleportation and secret sharing. They play a role in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and enable improved signal-to-noise ratios in interferometry. Cat states are very sensitive to decoherence, and as a result their preparation is challenging and can serve as a demonstration of good quantum control. Here we report the creation of cat states of up to six atomic qubits. Each qubit's state space is defined by two hyperfine ground states of a beryllium ion; the cat state corresponds to an entangled equal superposition of all the atoms in one hyperfine state and all atoms in the other hyperfine state. In our experiments, the cat states are prepared in a three-step process, irrespective of the number of entangled atoms. Together with entangled states of a different class created in Innsbruck, this work represents the current state-of-the-art for large entangled states in any qubit system.

  9. Engineering of Schroedinger cat states by a sequence of displacements and photon additions or subtractions

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2011-04-15

    A method to generate Schroedinger cat states in free propagating optical fields based on the use of displaced states (or displacement operators) is developed. Some optical schemes with photon-added coherent states are studied. The schemes are modifications of the general method based on a sequence of displacements and photon additions or subtractions adjusted to generate Schroedinger cat states of a larger size. The effects of detection inefficiency are taken into account.

  10. The Schrodinger Eigenvalue March

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.

    2011-01-01

    A simple numerical method for the determination of Schrodinger equation eigenvalues is introduced. It is based on a marching process that starts from an arbitrary point, proceeds in two opposite directions simultaneously and stops after a tolerance criterion is met. The method is applied to solving several 1D potential problems including symmetric…

  11. Effect of altered thyroid state on the in situ mechanical properties of adult cat soleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Hodgson, J. A.; Grossman, E. J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the responsiveness of cat hindlimb muscles to thyroid manipulation, adult female cats were made hypothyroid (thyroidectomy plus tapazole treatment), hyperthyroid (synthroid pellets), or maintained euthyroid. After 4 months, the hypothyroid soleus had slower time-to-peak (TPT, 80%) and half-relaxation (HRT) times, whereas the hyperthyroid soleus had faster TPT (20%) and HRT than euthyroid cats. The tension at low stimulation frequencies (5-15 Hz) was higher in hypothyroid and lower in hyperthyroid cats compared to euthyroid cats. Muscle weight, maximum twitch and tetanic (Po) tensions, and maximum rates of shortening (Vmax) were similar across groups. The soleus of hypothyroid cats was more fatigable than normal. The myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition, based on gel electrophoresis, was unaffected by thyroid hormone manipulation. Based on the reaction of monoclonal antibodies for specific MHCs, some fast fibers in the hypothyroid cats coexpressed developmental MHC. These data indicate that 4 months of an altered thyroid state result in changes in the isometric twitch speed properties of the cat soleus, but not the tension-related or isotonic properties. Further, a chronic decrease in thyroid hormone had a greater impact than a chronic increase in thyroid hormone on the mechanical properties of the adult cat soleus. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Generation of optical `Schrödinger cats' from photon number states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Jeong, Hyunseok; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-08-01

    Schrödinger's cat is a Gedankenexperiment in quantum physics, in which an atomic decay triggers the death of the cat. Because quantum physics allow atoms to remain in superpositions of states, the classical cat would then be simultaneously dead and alive. By analogy, a `cat' state of freely propagating light can be defined as a quantum superposition of well separated quasi-classical states-it is a classical light wave that simultaneously possesses two opposite phases. Such states play an important role in fundamental tests of quantum theory and in many quantum information processing tasks, including quantum computation, quantum teleportation and precision measurements. Recently, optical Schrödinger `kittens' were prepared; however, they are too small for most of the aforementioned applications and increasing their size is experimentally challenging. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a protocol that allows the generation of arbitrarily large squeezed Schrödinger cat states, using homodyne detection and photon number states as resources. We implemented this protocol with light pulses containing two photons, producing a squeezed Schrödinger cat state with a negative Wigner function. This state clearly exhibits several quantum phase-space interference fringes between the `dead' and `alive' components, and is large enough to become useful for quantum information processing and experimental tests of quantum theory.

  13. Minimum Copies of Schrödinger’s Cat State in the Multi-Photon System

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yiping; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Multi-photon entanglement has been successfully studied by many theoretical and experimental groups. However, as the number of entangled photons increases, some problems are encountered, such as the exponential increase of time necessary to prepare the same number of copies of entangled states in experiment. In this paper, a new scheme is proposed based on the Lagrange multiplier and Feedback, which cuts down the required number of copies of Schrödinger’s Cat state in multi-photon experiment, which is realized with some noise in actual measurements, and still keeps the standard deviation in the error of fidelity unchanged. It reduces about five percent of the measuring time of eight-photon Schrödinger’s Cat state compared with the scheme used in the usual planning of actual measurements, and moreover it guarantees the same low error in fidelity. In addition, we also applied the same approach to the simulation of ten-photon entanglement, and we found that it reduces in priciple about twenty two percent of the required copies of Schrödinger’s Cat state compared with the conventionally used scheme of the uniform distribution; yet the distribution of optimized copies of the ten-photon Schrödinger’s Cat state gives better fidelity estimation than the uniform distribution for the same number of copies of the ten-photon Schrödinger’s Cat state. PMID:27576585

  14. Detector Imperfections of Schrödinger Cat Generation with Ancillary Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuta; Inoue, Shuichiro; Komatsu, Shinichi

    2016-12-01

    Measurement-induced nonlinear operation in linear optics is a promising technique to realize quantum computation and communications. Such an operation has been demonstrated via the generation of photon-subtracted squeezed states, namely, Schrödinger-cat states. Nielsen and Mølmer have proposed an efficient scheme to generate the cat states with larger amplitudes relative to previous experimental results. We present a simple experimental implementation of their scheme and analyze it while considering experimental imperfections. Our study indicates that the current photon detection technology meets the conditions necessary for their operation.

  15. Schrödinger cat and Werner state disentanglement simulated by trapped ion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittencourt, Victor A. S. V.; Bernardini, Alex E.

    2017-04-01

    Disentanglement and loss of quantum correlations due to one global collective noise effect are described for two-qubit Schrödinger cat and Werner states of a four level trapped ion quantum system. Once the Jaynes–Cummings ionic interactions are mapped onto a Dirac spinor structure, the elementary tools for computing quantum correlations of two-qubit ionic states are provided. With two-qubit quantum numbers related to the total angular momentum and to its projection onto the direction of an external magnetic field (which lifts the degeneracy of the ion’s internal levels), a complete analytical profile of entanglement for the Schrödinger cat and Werner states is obtained. Under vacuum noise (during spontaneous emission), the two-qubit entanglement in the Schrödinger cat states is shown to vanish asymptotically. Otherwise, the robustness of Werner states is concomitantly identified, with the entanglement content recovered by their noiseless-like evolution. Most importantly, our results point to a firstly reported sudden transition between classical and quantum decay regimes driven by a classical collective noise on the Schrödinger cat states, which has been quantified by the geometric discord.

  16. Generalized Schrödinger cat states and their classical emulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander; Ramos-Prieto, Irán; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that superpositions of coherent states and displaced Fock states, also referred to as generalized Schrödinger cat states, can be generated by application of a deformed Glauber displacement operator on number states, coherent states, and displaced Fock states. Based on such a deformed displacement operator we introduce a deformed version of the so-called Glauber photonic lattices. These novel lattices are endowed with alternating positive and negative coupling coefficients and give rise to classical analogs of Schrödinger cat states. Finally, we show that the analytic propagator of these new Glauber-Fock arrays explicitly contains the Wigner operator opening the possibility to emulate Wigner functions of the quantum harmonic oscillator in the classical domain.

  17. Cat-states in the framework of Wigner-Heisenberg algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, A.; Mojaveri, B.; Shirin, S.; Saedi, M.

    2015-11-01

    A one-parameter generalized Wigner-Heisenberg algebra (WHA) is reviewed in detail. It is shown that WHA verifies the deformed commutation rule [ x ˆ ,pˆλ ] = i(1 + 2 λ R ˆ) and also highlights the dynamical symmetries of the pseudo-harmonic oscillator (PHO). The present article is devoted to the study of new cat-states built from λ-deformed Schrödinger coherent states, which according to the Barut-Girardello scheme are defined as the eigenstates of the generalized annihilation operator. Particular attention is devoted to the limiting case where the Schrödinger cat states are obtained. Nonclassical features and quantum statistical properties of these states are studied by evaluation of Mandel's parameter and quadrature squeezing with respect to the λ-deformed canonical pairs (x ˆ ,pˆλ) . It is shown that these states minimize the uncertainty relations of each pair of the su(1 , 1) components.

  18. The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States.

    PubMed

    Loss, Scott R; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic threats, such as collisions with man-made structures, vehicles, poisoning and predation by domestic pets, combine to kill billions of wildlife annually. Free-ranging domestic cats have been introduced globally and have contributed to multiple wildlife extinctions on islands. The magnitude of mortality they cause in mainland areas remains speculative, with large-scale estimates based on non-systematic analyses and little consideration of scientific data. Here we conduct a systematic review and quantitatively estimate mortality caused by cats in the United States. We estimate that free-ranging domestic cats kill 1.4-3.7 billion birds and 6.9-20.7 billion mammals annually. Un-owned cats, as opposed to owned pets, cause the majority of this mortality. Our findings suggest that free-ranging cats cause substantially greater wildlife mortality than previously thought and are likely the single greatest source of anthropogenic mortality for US birds and mammals. Scientifically sound conservation and policy intervention is needed to reduce this impact.

  19. Finite-time quantum-to-classical transition for a Schroedinger-cat state

    SciTech Connect

    Paavola, Janika; Hall, Michael J. W.; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2011-07-15

    The transition from quantum to classical, in the case of a quantum harmonic oscillator, is typically identified with the transition from a quantum superposition of macroscopically distinguishable states, such as the Schroedinger-cat state, into the corresponding statistical mixture. This transition is commonly characterized by the asymptotic loss of the interference term in the Wigner representation of the cat state. In this paper we show that the quantum-to-classical transition has different dynamical features depending on the measure for nonclassicality used. Measures based on an operatorial definition have well-defined physical meaning and allow a deeper understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our analysis shows that, for most nonclassicality measures, the Schroedinger-cat state becomes classical after a finite time. Moreover, our results challenge the prevailing idea that more macroscopic states are more susceptible to decoherence in the sense that the transition from quantum to classical occurs faster. Since nonclassicality is a prerequisite for entanglement generation our results also bridge the gap between decoherence, which is lost only asymptotically, and entanglement, which may show a ''sudden death''. In fact, whereas the loss of coherences still remains asymptotic, we emphasize that the transition from quantum to classical can indeed occur at a finite time.

  20. Utilizing photon number parity measurements to demonstrate quantum computation with cat-states in a cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, A.; Ofek, N.; Vlastakis, B.; Sun, L.; Leghtas, Z.; Heeres, R.; Sliwa, K. M.; Mirrahimi, M.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-03-01

    Realizing a working quantum computer requires overcoming the many challenges that come with coupling large numbers of qubits to perform logical operations. These include improving coherence times, achieving high gate fidelities, and correcting for the inevitable errors that will occur throughout the duration of an algorithm. While impressive progress has been made in all of these areas, the difficulty of combining these ingredients to demonstrate an error-protected logical qubit, comprised of many physical qubits, still remains formidable. With its large Hilbert space, superior coherence properties, and single dominant error channel (single photon loss), a superconducting 3D resonator acting as a resource for a quantum memory offers a hardware-efficient alternative to multi-qubit codes [Leghtas et.al. PRL 2013]. Here we build upon recent work on cat-state encoding [Vlastakis et.al. Science 2013] and photon-parity jumps [Sun et.al. 2014] by exploring the effects of sequential measurements on a cavity state. Employing a transmon qubit dispersively coupled to two superconducting resonators in a cQED architecture, we explore further the application of parity measurements to characterizing such a hybrid qubit/cat state architecture. In so doing, we demonstrate the promise of integrating cat states as central constituents of future quantum codes.

  1. Nonintegrable Schrodinger discrete breathers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Floría, L M; Peyrard, M; Bishop, A R

    2004-12-01

    In an extensive numerical investigation of nonintegrable translational motion of discrete breathers in nonlinear Schrödinger lattices, we have used a regularized Newton algorithm to continue these solutions from the limit of the integrable Ablowitz-Ladik lattice. These solutions are shown to be a superposition of a localized moving core and an excited extended state (background) to which the localized moving pulse is spatially asymptotic. The background is a linear combination of small amplitude nonlinear resonant plane waves and it plays an essential role in the energy balance governing the translational motion of the localized core. Perturbative collective variable theory predictions are critically analyzed in the light of the numerical results.

  2. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: In this study, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among resistant enterococci from dogs and cats in the United States were determined. Methods and Results: Enterococci resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin,...

  3. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY CATASTROPHIC (CAT) LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM: DEMOGRAPHICS, ECONOMIC SECURITY, AND SOCIAL EQUITY.

    PubMed

    Muller, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The California State University (CSU) Chancellor's Office reached an agreement with all CSU collective bargaining units and Employee Relations on a uniform Catastrophic (CAT) Leave Donation Program in 1992. The CAT Leave Donation Program allows employees to donate sick and/or vacation leave credits to employees who are incapacitated due to a catastrophic illness or injury and have exhausted all of their own leave credits. This also extends to employees with whom family illnesses are deemed catastrophic, thus requiring the employee to care for an immediate family member. Stakeholders include union represented employees who accrue leave credits as well as any employee who receives or donates hours of leave credits in the program. Other stakeholders include the family members and program administrators.

  4. A sensitive electrometer based on a Rydberg atom in a Schrödinger-cat state.

    PubMed

    Facon, Adrien; Dietsche, Eva-Katharina; Grosso, Dorian; Haroche, Serge; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Brune, Michel; Gleyzes, Sébastien

    2016-07-14

    Fundamental quantum fluctuations caused by the Heisenberg principle limit measurement precision. If the uncertainty is distributed equally between conjugate variables of the meter system, the measurement precision cannot exceed the standard quantum limit. When the meter is a large angular momentum, going beyond the standard quantum limit requires non-classical states such as squeezed states or Schrödinger-cat-like states. However, the metrological use of the latter has been so far restricted to meters with a relatively small total angular momentum because the experimental preparation of these non-classical states is very challenging. Here we report a measurement of an electric field based on an electrometer consisting of a large angular momentum (quantum number J ≈ 25) carried by a single atom in a high-energy Rydberg state. We show that the fundamental Heisenberg limit can be approached when the Rydberg atom undergoes a non-classical evolution through Schrödinger-cat states. Using this method, we reach a single-shot sensitivity of 1.2 millivolts per centimetre for a 100-nanosecond interaction time, corresponding to 30 microvolts per centimetre per square root hertz at our 3 kilohertz repetition rate. This highly sensitive, non-invasive space- and time-resolved field measurement extends the realm of electrometric techniques and could have important practical applications: detection of individual electrons in mesoscopic devices at a distance of about 100 micrometres with a megahertz bandwidth is within reach.

  5. Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.

    1996-01-01

    The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.

  6. Population characteristics of feral cats admitted to seven trap-neuter-return programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jennifer L; Levy, Julie K

    2006-08-01

    Internationally, large populations of feral cats constitute an important and controversial issue due to their impact on cat overpopulation, animal welfare, public health, and the environment, and to disagreement about what are the best methods for their control. Trap-neuter-return (TNR) programs are an increasingly popular alternative to mass euthanasia. The objective of this study was to determine the population characteristics of feral cats admitted to large-scale TNR programs from geographically diverse locations in the United States. Data from 103,643 feral cats admitted to TNR programs from 1993 to 2004 were evaluated. All groups reported more intact females (53.4%) than intact males (44.3%); only 2.3% of the cats were found to be previously sterilized. Overall, 15.9% of female cats were pregnant at the time of surgery. Pregnancy was highly seasonal and peaked between March and April for all of the groups. The average prenatal litter size was 4.1+/-0.1 fetuses per litter. Cryptorchidism was observed in 1.3% of male cats admitted for sterilization. A total of 0.4% of cats was euthanased because of the presence of debilitating conditions, and 0.4% died during the TNR clinics. Remarkably similar populations of cats with comparable seasonal variability were seen at each program, despite their wide geographical distribution. These results suggest that it is feasible to safely sterilize large numbers of feral cats and that the experiences of existing programs are a consistent source of information upon which to model new TNR programs.

  7. Stabilizing the phase of superpositions of cat states in a cavity using real-time feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofek, N.; Petrenko, A.; Heeres, R.; Reinhold, P.; Liu, Y.; Leghtas, Z.; Vlastakis, B.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    In a superconducting cQED architecture, a hardware efficient quantum error correction (QEC) scheme exists, called the cat code, which maps a qubit onto superpositions of cat states in a superconducting resonator, by mapping the occurrence of errors, or single photon jumps, onto unitary rotations of the encoded state. By tracking the parity of the encoded state, we can count the number of photon jumps and are able to apply a correcting unitary transformation. However, the situation is complicated by the fact that photon jumps do not commute with the deterministic anharmonic time evolution of a resonator state, or Kerr, inherited by the resonator from its coupling to a Josephson junction. As predicted in, a field in the resonator will inherit an overall phase θ = KT in IQ space each time a photon jumps that is proportional to the Kerr K and the time T at which the jump occurs. Here I will present how we can track the errors in real time, take them into account together with the time they occur and make it possible to stabilize the qubit information. Please place my talk right after the talk of Andrei Petrenko.

  8. Lower bounds on the size of general Schrödinger-cat states from experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröwis, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Experimental progress with meso- and macroscopic quantum states (i.e. general Schrödinger-cat states) was recently accompanied by theoretical proposals on how to measure the merit of these efforts. So far, experiment and theory have been disconnected as theoretical analysis of actual experimental data was missing. Here, we consider a proposal for macroscopic quantum states that measures the extent of quantum coherence present in the system. For this, the quantum Fisher information is used. We calculate lower bounds from real experimental data. The results are expressed as an ‘effective size’, that is, relative to ‘classical’ reference states. We find remarkable numbers of up to 70 in photonic and atomic systems.

  9. Steady Schrödinger cat state of a driven Ising chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camalet, Sébastien

    2013-04-01

    For short-range interacting systems, no Schrödinger cat state can be stable when their environment is in thermal equilibrium. We show, by studying a chain of two-level systems with nearest-neighbour Ising interactions, that this is possible when the surroundings consists of two heat reservoirs at different temperatures, or of a heat reservoir and a monochromatic field. The asymptotic state of the considered system can be a pure superposition of mesoscopically distinct states, the all-spin-up and all-spin-down states, at low temperatures. The main feature of our model leading to this result is the fact that the Hamiltonian of the chain and the dominant part of its coupling to the environment obey the same symmetry.

  10. Astronomy CATS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Prather, Edward E.; Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education's (CAE's) NSF-funded Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program is a grassroots multi-institutional effort to increase the capacity for astronomy education research and improve science literacy in the United States.Our primary target population is the 500,000 college students who each year enroll in an introductory general education (a breadth requirement for non-science majors) Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science (EASS) course (Fraknoi 2001, AGI 2006).An equally important population for our efforts is the individuals who are, or will be, teaching these students. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the goals of CAE and CATS, the varied personnel that make up the CATS collective, the diverse projects we've undertaken, and the many challenges we have had to work through to make CATS a success.

  11. Cat-Scratch Disease in the United States, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christina A; Saha, Shubhayu; Mead, Paul S

    2016-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is mostly preventable. More information about the epidemiology and extent of CSD would help direct prevention efforts to those at highest risk. To gain such information, we reviewed the 2005-2013 MarketScan national health insurance claims databases and identified patients <65 years of age with an inpatient admission or outpatient visit that included a CSD code from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Incidence of CSD was highest among those who lived in the southern United States (6.4 cases/100,000 population) and among children 5-9 years of age (9.4 cases/100,000 population). Inpatients were significantly more likely than outpatients to be male and 50-64 years of age. We estimate that each year, 12,000 outpatients are given a CSD diagnosis and 500 inpatients are hospitalized for CSD. Prevention measures (e.g., flea control for cats) are particularly helpful in southern states and in households with children.

  12. Cat-Scratch Disease in the United States, 2005–2013

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Shubhayu; Mead, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is mostly preventable. More information about the epidemiology and extent of CSD would help direct prevention efforts to those at highest risk. To gain such information, we reviewed the 2005–2013 MarketScan national health insurance claims databases and identified patients <65 years of age with an inpatient admission or outpatient visit that included a CSD code from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Incidence of CSD was highest among those who lived in the southern United States (6.4 cases/100,000 population) and among children 5–9 years of age (9.4 cases/100,000 population). Inpatients were significantly more likely than outpatients to be male and 50–64 years of age. We estimate that each year, 12,000 outpatients are given a CSD diagnosis and 500 inpatients are hospitalized for CSD. Prevention measures (e.g., flea control for cats) are particularly helpful in southern states and in households with children. PMID:27648778

  13. Generation of macroscopic Schrödinger cat state in diamond mechanical resonator.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qizhe; Yang, Wanli; Chen, Changyong; Yin, Zhangqi

    2016-11-23

    We propose a scheme to generate macroscopic Schrödinger cat state (SCS) in diamond mechanical resonator (DMR) via the dynamical strain-mediated coupling mechanism. In our model, the direct coupling between the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center and lattice strain field enables coherent spin-phonon interactions in the quantum regime. Based on a cyclic Δ-type transition structure of the NV center constructed by combining the quantized mechanical strain field and a pair of external microwave fields, the populations of the different energy levels can be selectively transferred by controlling microwave fields, and the SCS can be created by adjusting the controllable parameters of the system. Furthermore, we demonstrate the nonclassicality of the mechanical SCS both in non-dissipative case and dissipative case. The experimental feasibility and challenge are justified using currently available technology.

  14. Generation of macroscopic Schrödinger cat state in diamond mechanical resonator

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qizhe; Yang, Wanli; Chen, Changyong; Yin, Zhangqi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to generate macroscopic Schrödinger cat state (SCS) in diamond mechanical resonator (DMR) via the dynamical strain-mediated coupling mechanism. In our model, the direct coupling between the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center and lattice strain field enables coherent spin–phonon interactions in the quantum regime. Based on a cyclic Δ-type transition structure of the NV center constructed by combining the quantized mechanical strain field and a pair of external microwave fields, the populations of the different energy levels can be selectively transferred by controlling microwave fields, and the SCS can be created by adjusting the controllable parameters of the system. Furthermore, we demonstrate the nonclassicality of the mechanical SCS both in non-dissipative case and dissipative case. The experimental feasibility and challenge are justified using currently available technology. PMID:27876846

  15. Generation of macroscopic Schrödinger cat state in diamond mechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qizhe; Yang, Wanli; Chen, Changyong; Yin, Zhangqi

    2016-11-01

    We propose a scheme to generate macroscopic Schrödinger cat state (SCS) in diamond mechanical resonator (DMR) via the dynamical strain-mediated coupling mechanism. In our model, the direct coupling between the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center and lattice strain field enables coherent spin–phonon interactions in the quantum regime. Based on a cyclic Δ-type transition structure of the NV center constructed by combining the quantized mechanical strain field and a pair of external microwave fields, the populations of the different energy levels can be selectively transferred by controlling microwave fields, and the SCS can be created by adjusting the controllable parameters of the system. Furthermore, we demonstrate the nonclassicality of the mechanical SCS both in non-dissipative case and dissipative case. The experimental feasibility and challenge are justified using currently available technology.

  16. Generation of macroscopic Schroedinger's cat states in qubit-oscillator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin-Feng; Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    We study a scheme to generate macroscopic Schroedinger's cat states in a quantum oscillator (electromagnetic field or mechanical resonator) coupled to a quantum bit (two-level system) via a conditional displacement mechanism. By driving the qubit monochromatically, the oscillation of the qubit state modifies the effective frequency of the driving force acting on the oscillator, and a resonant or near resonant driving on the oscillator can be achieved. The displacement of the oscillator is then significantly enhanced due to the small detuning of the driving force and can exceed that of the zero-point fluctuation. This effect can be used to prepare quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct coherent states in the oscillator. We present detailed studies on this state generation scheme in both closed and open system cases. This approach can be implemented in various experimenta J.F.H. is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 11447102 and No. 11505055. J.Q.L and L.T. are supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. NSF-DMR-0956064 and the DARPA ORCHID program through AFOSR.

  17. Schrödinger cat states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double well potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Heidi

    2003-05-01

    Using the two-mode approximation given in Ref.[1] for a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double-well potential, we are able to obtain the complete set of eigenstates of the system and thus investigate the correlation of coherent and fragmented states[3]. We present a scheme for creating a Schrödinger cat state in this system. By examining the Husimi projection of the quantum state in phase-number space, we can interpret the wavefunctions[3] in terms of the classical phase space of a physical pendulum[2,3]. A phase can be imprinted on the double-well condensate by shining a laser on one well only[4]. By pi-phase shifting the coherent ground state of the double well BEC, we place it on a seperatrix of the corresponding classical phase-space. The state will then evolve into a superposition of Fock states, and if the barrier height between the wells is raised appropriately, will remain in this "cat state." By introducing a loss of particles we can test the robustness of the cat states so created[4]. [1] R.W. Spekkens and J.E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3868(1999). [2] S. Raghavan et. al, Phys. Rev. A. 59,620 (1999). [3] William P. Reinhardt and Heidi Perry, e-print: arXive.org/cond-mat/0302131. [4] K.W. Mahmud, H. Perry, and W.P. Reinhardt, to be submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

  18. Coherence and entanglement in the ground state of a bosonic Josephson junction: From macroscopic Schroedinger cat states to separable Fock states

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzarella, G.; Toigo, F.; Salasnich, L.; Parola, A.

    2011-05-15

    We consider a bosonic Josephson junction made of N ultracold and dilute atoms confined by a quasi-one-dimensional double-well potential within the two-site Bose-Hubbard model framework. The behavior of the system is investigated at zero temperature by varying the interatomic interaction from the strongly attractive regime to the repulsive one. We show that the ground state exhibits a crossover from a macroscopic Schroedinger-cat state to a separable Fock state through an atomic coherent regime. By diagonalizing the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we characterize the emergence of the macroscopic cat states by calculating the Fisher information F, the coherence by means of the visibility {alpha} of the interference fringes in the momentum distribution, and the quantum correlations by using the entanglement entropy S. Both Fisher information and visibility are shown to be related to the ground-state energy by employing the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. This result, together with a perturbative calculation of the ground-state energy, allows simple analytical formulas for F and {alpha} to be obtained over a range of interactions, in excellent agreement with the exact diagonalization of the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. In the attractive regime the entanglement entropy attains values very close to its upper limit for a specific interaction strength lying in the region where coherence is lost and self-trapping sets in.

  19. Properties of a calicivirus isolated from cats dying in an agitated state.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Ohe, K; Fukuyama, M; Furuhata, K; Kishikawa, S; Sakai, S; Kiuchi, A; Hara, M; Watanabe, T; Ishikawa, Y; Taneno, A

    In June 1993, two of five pet cats kept in Yokohama city in Japan suddenly became agitated and died. Feline calicivirus (FCV) was isolated from them. One strain (FCV-S) was isolated from the spinal cord, lung and tonsil of cat 1, another (FCV-B) from the ileum, medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord of cat 2, and a third (FCV-SAKURA) from the oral cavity of one of the three surviving cats which showed no clinical signs. These three strains were equally resistant to pH 3.0 and serologically similar to each other, but distinct from strain F9. A genetic analysis, using a 208 base pair fragment from region E of the capsid, showed that FCV-Ari had a 70.4 per cent nucleotide and 77.3 per cent amino acid homology and FCV-F9 had a 68.6 per cent nucleotide and 73.9 per cent amino acid homology with the three strains, indicating that these two strains were genetically distinct from the three new isolates. Unvaccinated cats and cats which had been vaccinated against FCV-F9 developed watery diarrhoea but did not become agitated after the administration of FCV-S. The FCV-S strain did not induce signs of excitability after it was administered orally to specific pathogen-free cats.

  20. Owner experiences in treating dogs and cats diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Aptekmann, Karina P; Armstrong, Jane; Coradini, Marcia; Rand, Jacquie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report owner experiences and satisfaction in treating a pet with diabetes mellitus using a descriptive report from an Internet-based survey. Descriptive analysis of results was performed, χ(2) tests were used to detect differences in responses between dog and cat owners, and correlations were assessed using the nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. A total of 834 owners participated in the survey. More diabetic dogs (97%) than cats (82%) were treated with insulin injections. Insulin was administered twice daily in 87% of dogs and 73% of cats. Porcine lente and neutral protamine Hagedorn were the most commonly administered insulins in dogs. In cats, glargine and protamine zinc insulin were the most commonly used insulins. Most pets were not fed a prescribed diabetes diet. More cat (66%) than dog (50%) owners were satisfied with the diabetic control achieved. Cat owners were more likely to use home blood glucose monitoring. Treatment was considered expensive by the majority of owners. Few published reports follow diabetic pets after diagnosis or report owner satisfaction. The results of this study provide useful information that may help veterinarians better educate owners and set expectations regarding diabetes treatment and quality of life for diabetic pets.

  1. Molecular detection of Leishmania sp. in cats (Felis catus) from Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Langoni, Helio; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2011-03-10

    The aim of this work was to molecularly detect Leishmania species in 52 cats from Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The direct parasitological test was performed by using imprints of poplited lymph node, bone marrow and spleen to verify amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. The samples that were positive parasitological tests were subjected to molecular analysis (PCR) and sequencing. Infection was detected for 5.76% (3/52) of the examined cats and two had presence of amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. in lymph nodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of kinetoplast minicircle DNA, indicated positive amplification for samples of spleen and lymph nodes and the sequencing resulted in 97% similarity with Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This study proved the occurrence of infection with Leishmania (L.) chagasi in felines from Andradina municipality, São Paulo State.

  2. Molecular detection of feline arthropod-borne pathogens in cats in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, central-western region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Natasha Gandolfi; Gavioli, Fernando Antonio; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2013-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas), Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis are prominent pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts. The present study aimed to detect the presence of DNA from hemoplasmas, Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis, and then confirm it by means of sequencing, in blood samples from cats in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. From February 2009 to February 2011, blood samples with added EDTA were collected from 163 cats that were being housed in four different animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil and from 15 cats that were admitted to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT). Out of the 178 cats sampled, 15 (8.4%) were positive for hemoplasmas: four (2.2%) for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 12 (6.7%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (0.5%) for 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One cat (0.5%), a patient that was attended at the veterinary hospital, was coinfected with M. haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis', based on sequencing confirmation. Four cats were positive for Bartonella spp.: three (1.7%) for B. henselae and one (0.5%) for B. clarridgeiae. None of the animals showed Cytauxzoon sp. or Hepatozoon sp. DNA in their blood samples. This study showed that cats housed in animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, are exposed to hemoplasmas and Bartonella species.

  3. Does the speed of shortening affect steady-state force depression in cat soleus muscle?

    PubMed

    Leonard, T R; Herzog, W

    2005-11-01

    It has been stated repeatedly for the past 50 years that the steady-state force depression following shortening of an activated muscle depends on the speed of shortening. However, these statements were based on results from experiments in which muscles were shortened at different speeds but identical activation levels. Therefore, the force during shortening was changed in accordance with the force-velocity relationship of muscles: that is, increasing speeds of shortening were associated with decreasing forces, and vice versa. Consequently, it is not possible at present to distinguish whether force depression is caused by the changes in speed, as frequently stated, or the associated changes in force, or both. The purpose of this study was to test if force depression depends on the speed of shortening. We hypothesized that force depression was dependent on the force but not the speed of contraction. Our prediction is that the amount of force depression after shortening contractions at different speeds could be similar if the force during contraction was controlled at a similar level. Cat soleus muscles (n=7) were shortened by 9 or 12 mm at speeds of 3, 9, and 27 mm/s, first with a constant activation during shortening (30Hz), then with activation levels that were reduced (<30Hz) for the slow speeds (3 and 9 mm/s) to approximate the shortening forces of the fast speed contractions (27 mm/s). If done properly, force depression could be precisely matched at the three different speeds, indicating that force depression was related to the force during the shortening contraction but not to the speed. However, in order to match force depression, the forces during shortening had to be systematically greater for the slow compared to the fast speeds of shortening, suggesting that force depression also depends on the level of activation, as force depression at constant activation levels can only be matched if the force during shortening, evaluated by the mechanical work, is

  4. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Apolinário, Juliana de Carvalho; Coelho, Natalia Marinho Dourado; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33) dogs and 94.2% (49/52) cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were found in 63.6% (21/33) and 30.3% (10/33) of dogs, respectively. Considering cats, 67.3% (35/52) were parasitized by A. braziliense, 21.1% (11/52) by A. caninum, and 9.6% (5/52) by A. tubaeforme. Forty-two canine fecal samples were collected from public environments, including 23 squares/gardens and 19 streets/sidewalks. Positive samples for Ancylostoma spp. accounted for 64.3% (27/42); squares/gardens had 60.9% (14/23) positive samples, and streets and sidewalks, 68.4% (13/19). No association was observed between the number of Ancylostoma spp parasites and age, sex and breed of the animals and also the ratio of EPG counts and the parasitic intensity observed at necropsy (p > 0.05). Based on the high occurrence of hookworm in dogs and cats in this study, the treatment with anti helminthics are needed even in those animals with negative stool tests, besides adopting control of the number of animals in public places, in order to decrease the likelihood of environmental contamination, since this parasite represents a potential hazard to human and animal health.

  5. Entanglement transfer from two-mode continuous variable SU(2) cat states to discrete qubits systems in Jaynes-Cummings Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Du; Hu, Chang-Sheng; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-01-01

    We study the entanglement transfer from a two-mode continuous variable system (initially in the two-mode SU(2) cat states) to a couple of discrete two-state systems (initially in an arbitrary mixed state), by use of the resonant Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction. We first quantitatively connect the entanglement transfer to non-Gaussianity of the two-mode SU(2) cat states and find a positive correlation between them. We then investigate the behaviors of the entanglement transfer and find that it is dependent on the initial state of the discrete systems. We also find that the largest possible value of the transferred entanglement exhibits a variety of behaviors for different photon number as well as for the phase angle of the two-mode SU(2) cat states. We finally consider the influences of the noise on the transferred entanglement. PMID:27553881

  6. [A method for assessing the functional state of an animal (cat) during the modelling of neurotic pathology].

    PubMed

    Lavrov, V V

    1993-01-01

    The study was aimed to accumulate and classify the data on different degrees of experimental neurotic pathology. Experiments were carried out with cats using the method of food-procuring conditioning. Behavioural, vegetative reactions and a set of electrophysiological characteristics were recorded. The experimental neurotization was evoked by different factors: acute emotional stress, chronic stress, artificially increased and lowered brain activation. Classification of the facts obtained allowed to create a scale of parameters corresponding to different degrees of pathology (weak, middle, deep). Every characteristic may be quantitatively estimated using the scale. The summarized evaluation was used to determine the functional state of an experimental animal.

  7. Device-independent quantum key distribution with generalized two-mode Schrödinger cat states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Curtis J.; Marshall, Kevin; Weedbrook, Christian; Howell, John C.

    2015-11-01

    We show how weak nonlinearities can be used in a device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol using generalized two-mode Schrödinger cat states. The QKD protocol is therefore shown to be secure against collective attacks and for some coherent attacks. We derive analytical formulas for the optimal values of the Bell parameter, the quantum bit error rate, and the device-independent secret key rate in the noiseless lossy bosonic channel. Additionally, we give the filters and measurements which achieve these optimal values. We find that, over any distance in this channel, the quantum bit error rate is identically zero, in principle, and the states in the protocol are always able to violate a Bell inequality. The protocol is found to be superior in some regimes to a device-independent QKD protocol based on polarization entangled states in a depolarizing channel. Finally, we propose an implementation for the optimal filters and measurements.

  8. Molecular characterisation of Bartonella species in cats from São Luís, state of Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Maria do Socorro Costa de Oliveira; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; André, Marcos Rogério; Bortoli, Caroline Plácidi de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that predominantly infect mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells and cause long-lasting bacteraemia in their reservoir hosts. Reports that describe the epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil are limited. This study aimed to detect and characterise Bartonella spp DNA from cat blood samples in São Luís, Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil. Among 200 cats tested for multiple genes, nine (4.5%) were positive for Bartonella spp: six cats for Bartonella henselae and three for Bartonella clarridgeiae. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of four genes, the B. henselae strain matched strains previously observed in Brazil and was positioned in the same clade as B. henselae isolates from the United States of America. Moreover, sequence alignment demonstrated that the B. clarridgeiae strain detected in the present study was the same as the one recently detected in cats from southern Brazil.

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites in rural dogs and cats in Selangor and Pahang states in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Lee, Soo Ching; Yap, Nan Jiun; Tan, Tiong Kai; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Chua, Kek Heng; Aziz, Shafie; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan; Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Mahmud, Rohela; Lian, Yvonne Lim Ai

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the current prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs and cats, a total of 105 fresh faecal samples were collected from rural areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Each faecal sample was examined for the presence of GI parasites by microscopic examination after formalin-ether concentration technique and for protozoa, trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were employed. The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infection was 88.6% (95% CI = 82.5-94.7) in which 88.3% of dogs and 89.3% of cats were infected with at least one parasites species, respectively. There were 14 different GI parasites species (nematodes, cestodes and protozoa) detected, including Ancylostoma spp. (62.9%), Toxocara spp. (32.4%), Trichuris vulpis (21.0%), Spirometra spp. (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (5.7%), Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Ascaris spp. (2.9%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.0%) and others. General prevalence of GI parasites showed a significant difference between helminth (84.4%) and protozoa (34.3%) infections. Monoparasitism (38.1%) was less frequent than polyparasitism (46.7%). As several of these GI parasites are recognized as zoonotic agents, the results of this investigation revealed that local populations may be exposed to a broad spectrum of zoonotic agents by means of environmental contamination with dogs and cats faeces and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. Prevention and control measures have to be taken in order to reduce the prevalence rates especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities where animals live in close proximity to people, poor levels of hygiene and overcrowding together with a lack in veterinary attention and zoonotic awareness.

  10. Efficient numerical methods for nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao

    The nonlinear Schrodinger equations are widely used to model a number of important physical phenomena, including solitary wave propagations in optical fibers, deep water turbulence, laser beam transmissions, and the Bose-Einstein condensation, just to mention a few. In the field of optics and photonics, the systems of nonlinear Schrodinger equations can be used to model multi-component solitons and the interaction of self-focusing laser beams. In three spatial dimensions, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is known as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which models the soliton in a low-cost graded-index fiber. Recently, research on nonlinear space fractional Schrodinger equations, which capture the self-similarity in the fractional environment, has become prevalent. Our study includes the systems of multi-dimensional nonlinear space fractional Schrodinger equations. To solve the systems of multi-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equations efficiently, several novel numerical methods are presented. The central difference and quartic spline approximation based exponential time differencing Crank-Nicolson method is introduced for solving systems of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equations. A local extrapolation is employed to achieve fourth-order accuracy in time. The numerical examples include the transmission of a self-focusing laser beam. The local discontinuous Galerkin methods combined with the fourth-order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization are studied for solving the systems of nonlinear Schrodinger equations with hyperbolic terms, which are critical in modeling optical solitons in the birefringent fibers. The local discontinuous Galerkin method is able to achieve any order of accuracy in space, thanks to the usage of piecewise polynomial spaces. The exponential time differencing methods are employed to deal with the coupled nonlinearities for the reason that there is no need to solve nonlinear systems at every time step

  11. M Times Photon Subtraction-Addition Coherent Superposition Operated Odd-Schrődinger-cat State: Nonclassicality and Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li; Guo, Qin; Jiang, Li-ying; Chen, Ge; Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Wen

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a new non-Gaussian state (MCSO-OSCS), generated by m times coherent superposition operation acos θ + a †sin θ (MCSO) on odd-Schrődinger-cat state | α 0> - | - α 0>(OSCS), whose normalized constant is shown to be related to Hermite polynomials. We investigate the nonclassical properties of the MCSO-OSCS through Mandel's Q-parameter, quadrature squeezing, the photocount distribution and Wigner function (WF), which is turned out to be influenced by parameters m, θ and α 0. Especially the volume of negative region of WF could increase through controlling the parameters m, θ and α 0. We also investigate the decoherence of the MCSO-OSCS in terms of the fadeaway of the negativity of WF in a thermal environment.

  12. Evaluation of the Cerebral State Index in Cats under Isoflurane Anaesthesia: Dose-Effect Relationship and Prediction of Clinical Signs

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Joana R.; Ribeiro, Lénio; Ferreira, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the cerebral state index (CSI) in reflecting different levels of isoflurane anaesthesia was evaluated in ten cats subjected to four end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (EtIso), each maintained for 15 minutes (0.8%, 1.2%, 1.6%, or 2.0% EtIso). The CSI, hemodynamic data, ocular reflexes, and eye position were recorded for each EtIso concentration. Pharmacodynamic analysis of CSI with EtIso was performed, as well as prediction probability analysis with a clinical scale based on the eye reflexes. The CSI values showed great variability. Between all parameters, burst suppression ratio showed the better fitting with the sigmoidal concentration-effect model (R2 = 0.93) followed by CSI (R2 = 0.82) and electromyographic activity (R2 = 0.79). EtIso was the variable with better prediction of the clinical scale of anaesthesia (prediction probability value of 0.94). Although the CSI values decrease with increasing isoflurane concentrations, the huge variability in CSI values may be a strong limitation for its use in cats and it seems to be no better than EtIso as a predictor of clinical signs. PMID:24616823

  13. Littlewood-Paley Theorem for Schrodinger Operators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-26

    26 JUL 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Littlewood -Paley theorem for Schrodinger operators...associated with H are well defined. We further give a Littlewood -Paley characterization of Lp spaces in terms of dyadic functions of H. This generalizes...unclassified c THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 LITTLEWOOD -PALEY THEOREM FOR SCHRÖDINGER

  14. A Total Measure of Multi-Particle Quantum Correlations in Atomic Schrödinger Cat States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Ram Narayan

    2017-04-01

    We propose a total measure of multi-particle quantum correlation in a system of N two-level atoms (N qubits). We construct a parameter that encompasses all possible quantum correlations among N two-level atoms in arbitrary symmetric pure states and define its numerical value to be the total measure of the net atom-atom correlations. We use that parameter to quantify the total quantum correlations in atomic Schrödinger cat states, which are generated by the dispersive interaction in a cavity. We study the variation of the net amount of quantum correlation as we vary the number of atoms from N=2 to N=100 and obtain some interesting results. We also study the variation of the net correlation, for fixed interaction time, as we increase the number of atoms in the excited state of the initial system, and notice some interesting features. We also observe the behaviour of the net quantum correlation as we continuously increase the interaction time, for the general state of N two-level atoms in a dispersive cavity.

  15. Prevalence of upper respiratory pathogens in four management models for unowned cats in the Southeast United States.

    PubMed

    McManus, C M; Levy, J K; Andersen, L A; McGorray, S P; Leutenegger, C M; Gray, L K; Hilligas, J; Tucker, S J

    2014-08-01

    Upper respiratory infection (URI) is a pervasive problem in cats and impacts the capacity and cost of sheltering programs. This study determined the pattern of respiratory pathogens in cats with and without clinical signs of URI in four different models for managing unowned cats, namely, (1) short-term animal shelters (STS), (2) long-term sanctuaries (LTS), (3) home-based foster care programs (FCP), and (4) trap-neuter-return programs for community cats (TNR). Conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs from 543 cats, approximately half of which showed clinical signs of URI, were tested for feline herpes virus-1 (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), Chlamydia felis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma felis, and canine influenza virus by real-time PCR. FHV (59%, 41%) and B. bronchiseptica (33%, 24%) were more prevalent in both clinically affected and nonclinical cats, respectively, in STS than other management models. FCV (67%, 51%) and M. felis (84%, 86%) were more prevalent in LTS than any other management model. Clinically affected cats in FCP were more likely to carry FHV (23%, 6%), C. felis (24%, 10%), or M. felis (58%, 38%) than were nonclinical cats. Clinically affected cats in TNR were more likely to carry FCV (55%, 36%) or C. felis (23%, 4%) than were nonclinical cats. The prevalence of individual pathogens varied between different management models, but the majority of the cats in each model carried one or more respiratory pathogens regardless of clinical signs. Both confined and free-roaming cats are at risk of developing infectious respiratory disease and their health should be protected by strategic vaccination, appropriate antibiotic therapy, effective biosecurity, feline stress mitigation, and alternatives to high-density confinement.

  16. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  17. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

  18. The Epidemiological Importance of Bats in the Transmission of Rabies to Dogs and Cats in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, Between 2005 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Castilho, J G; de Souza, D N; Oliveira, R N; Carnieli, P; Batista, H B C R; Pereira, P M C; Achkar, S M; Macedo, C I

    2016-11-12

    In Brazil, rabies control in dogs and cats was pioneered by the state of São Paulo with the adoption of the Pan American Health Organization recommendations for prophylaxis and control, which led to a reduction in rabies cases from 1994 onwards. As a result of these measures, the rabies virus (RABV) genetic lineage associated with dogs has not been found in the state since 1998, and all the cases in domestic animals reported since then have been caused by bat-associated lineages of RABV. In the light of this, this study sought to investigate rabies cases in dogs and cats in the state of São Paulo between 2005 and 2014 and identify the associated transmission cycles by characterizing the RABV lineages responsible for these cases. Nine samples from dogs (n = 5) and from cats (n = 4) were collected between 2005 and 2014. The tenth animal, a rabid cat, was analysed by a different laboratory. The N gene nucleotide sequences obtained were analysed with the neighbor-joining algorithm and Kimura 2-parameter model using the MEGA 6 program. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genetic lineages identified in all the samples were those circulating in Brazilian bats. The findings of this study demonstrate that bats play an important role in the transmission of rabies to domestic animals in São Paulo state and that emphasis should be placed on the implementation of public policies to support surveillance of chiropterans for rabies.

  19. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  20. Assessment of Schrodinger Eigenmaps for target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorado Munoz, Leidy P.; Messinger, David W.; Czaja, Wojtek

    2014-06-01

    Non-linear dimensionality reduction methods have been widely applied to hyperspectral imagery due to its structure as the information can be represented in a lower dimension without losing information, and because the non-linear methods preserve the local geometry of the data while the dimension is reduced. One of these methods is Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE), which assumes that the data lies on a low dimensional manifold embedded in a high dimensional space. LE builds a nearest neighbor graph, computes its Laplacian and performs the eigendecomposition of the Laplacian. These eigenfunctions constitute a basis for the lower dimensional space in which the geometry of the manifold is preserved. In addition to the reduction problem, LE has been widely used in tasks such as segmentation, clustering, and classification. In this regard, a new Schrodinger Eigenmaps (SE) method was developed and presented as a semi-supervised classification scheme in order to improve the classification performance and take advantage of the labeled data. SE is an algorithm built upon LE, where the former Laplacian operator is replaced by the Schrodinger operator. The Schrodinger operator includes a potential term V, that, taking advantage of the additional information such as labeled data, allows clustering of similar points. In this paper, we explore the idea of using SE in target detection. In this way, we present a framework where the potential term V is defined as a barrier potential: a diagonal matrix encoding the spatial position of the target, and the detection performance is evaluated by using different targets and different hyperspectral scenes.

  1. Quantum information in cavity quantum electrodynamics: logical gates, entanglement engineering and 'Schrödinger-cat states'.

    PubMed

    Haroche, S

    2003-07-15

    In cavity-quantum-electrodynamics experiments, two-level Rydberg atoms and single-photon microwave fields can be seen as qubits. Quantum gates based on resonant and dispersive atom-field effects have been realized, which implement various kinds of conditional dynamics between these qubits. We have also studied the interaction between a single atom and coherent fields stored in the cavity. By progressively increasing the number of photons in these fields, we have explored various aspects of the quantum-classical boundary. We have realized a complementarity experiment demonstrating the continuous evolution of an apparatus from a quantum to a classical behaviour. We have also prepared 'Schrödinger-cat'-like states of the field made of a few photons, and observed their decoherence. We present a brief review of these experiments along with a proposal to study larger systems, i.e. coherent fields with more photons. Fundamental limits to the size of mesoscopic superpositions of field states in a cavity will be briefly discussed.

  2. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Andrade, Müller Ribeiro; Uzêda, Rosângela Soares; Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Lindsay, David Scott; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil.

  3. Evidence for the conjecture that sampling generalized cat states with linear optics is hard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Peter P.; Motes, Keith R.; Knott, Paul A.; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Munro, William J.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Boson sampling has been presented as a simplified model for linear optical quantum computing. In the boson-sampling model, Fock states are passed through a linear optics network and sampled via number-resolved photodetection. It has been shown that this sampling problem likely cannot be efficiently classically simulated. This raises the question as to whether there are other quantum states of light for which the equivalent sampling problem is also computationally hard. We present evidence, without using a full complexity proof, that a very broad class of quantum states of light—arbitrary superpositions of two or more coherent states—when evolved via passive linear optics and sampled with number-resolved photodetection, likely implements a classically hard sampling problem.

  4. Cat Got Your Tongue? Using the Tip-of-the-Tongue State to Investigate Fixed Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A.; Bull, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that they play a prominent role in everyday speech, the representation and processing of fixed expressions during language production is poorly understood. Here, we report a study investigating the processes underlying fixed expression production. "Tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) states were elicited for well-known idioms…

  5. Arik-Coon q-oscillator cat states on the noncommutative complex plane ℂq‑1 and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, H.; Sayyah-Fard, M.

    The normalized even and odd q-cat states corresponding to Arik-Coon q-oscillator on the noncommutative complex plane ℂq‑1 are constructed as the eigenstates of the lowering operator of a q-deformed su(1, 1) algebra with the left eigenvalues. We present the appropriate noncommutative measures in order to realize the resolution of the identity condition by the even and odd q-cat states. Then, we obtain the q-Bargmann-Fock realizations of the Fock representation of the q-deformed su(1, 1) algebra as well as the inner products of standard states in the q-Bargmann representations of the even and odd subspaces. Also, the Euler’s formula of the q-factorial and the Gaussian integrals based on the noncommutative q-integration are obtained. Violation of the uncertainty relation, photon antibunching effect and sub-Poissonian photon statistics by the even and odd q-cat states are considered in the cases 0 < q < 1 and q > 1.

  6. Cat got your tongue? Using the tip-of-the-tongue state to investigate fixed expressions.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A; Bull, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that they play a prominent role in everyday speech, the representation and processing of fixed expressions during language production is poorly understood. Here, we report a study investigating the processes underlying fixed expression production. "Tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) states were elicited for well-known idioms (e.g., hit the nail on the head) and participants were asked to report any information they could regarding the content of the phrase. Participants were able to correctly report individual words for idioms that they could not produce. In addition, participants produced both figurative (e.g., pretty for easy on the eye) and literal errors (e.g., hammer for hit the nail on the head) when in a TOT state, suggesting that both figurative and literal meanings are active during production. There was no effect of semantic decomposability on overall TOT incidence; however, participants recalled a greater proportion of words for decomposable rather than non-decomposable idioms. This finding suggests there may be differences in how decomposable and non-decomposable idioms are retrieved during production.

  7. Power spectral analysis of EEG activity obtained from cortical and subcortical sites during the vigilance states of the cat.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Stern, W C; Leahy, J P; Morgane, P J

    1976-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the raphé system and the region of the nucleus tractus solitarious (NTS), including the area postrema, play significant roles in slow-wave sleep mechanisms and in EEG synchronization. Studies of the interactions between these systems and the neocortex are much needed. If neuronal activity in these lower brainstem regions regulates the degree of cortical synchrony then a high degree of correspondence between the EEG of the area postrema or raphé complex with that of the cortex might be expected. In order to quantitate the reequency characteristics of the EEG obtained from these subcortical sites (nucleus raphé dorsalis, area postrema, as well as anatomical controls adjacent to these regions) during the different vigilance states (waking, slow-wave sleep, REM sleep) in the cat, power spectral analyses techniques were employed. Comparison of these subcortical spectral characteristic with those obtained from cortical (frontal and occipital) sites during the same vigilance state, show that the spectral measures elicited from the region of the area postrema closely correspond to that of the cortex, particularly during slow-wave sleep. On the other hand, the EEG of the anterior portion of the raphé region, although exhibiting a substantial low frequency component during slow-wave sleep in comparison to wakefulness does not show a statistically significant shift to low frequencies such as occurs in the area postrema or the cortex. These results suggest that the increases in the low frequency content of the cortical EEG sites during slow-wave sleep results from synchronizing inputs from the area postrema to a greater extent than from the raphé complex.

  8. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  9. Induction of a systemic antiviral state in vivo in the domestic cat with a class A CpG oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Robert-Tissot, Céline; Meli, Marina L; Riond, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2012-11-15

    The evolution of cats as a solitary species has pressured feline viruses to develop highly efficient transmission strategies, the ability to persist within the host for long periods of time and the aptitude to adapt to natural and vaccine-induced immunological pressures. These characteristics render feline viruses particularly dangerous in catteries, shelters and rescue homes, were cats from different backgrounds live in close proximity. The possibility to induce short-term resistance of newcomer cats to a broad variety of viruses could help prevent the dissemination of viruses both within and outside such facilities. Oligonucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated cytosine phosphate guanosine (CpG) motifs stimulate innate immune responses in mammals. We have previously shown that ODN 2216, a class A CpG ODN, promotes the expression by feline immune cells of potent antiviral molecules that increase resistance of feline fibroblastic and epithelial cell lines to five common feline viruses. With the aim to test the safety and extent of the biological effects of ODN 2216 in the domestic cat, we performed an initial in vivo experiment in which two cats were injected the molecule once subcutaneously and two additional cats received control treatments. No side effects to administration of ODN 2216 were observed. Moreover, this molecule induced the expression of the myxovirus resistance (Mx) gene, a marker for the instigation of innate antiviral processes, in blood as well as in oral, conjunctival and rectal mucosa cells, indicating systemic biological activity of the molecule with protective potential at viral entry sites. Mx mRNA levels were already elevated in blood 6h post injection of ODN 2216, reached peak levels within 24h and returned to basal values by 96-192 h after administration of the molecule. Similar induction patterns were observed in all analyzed mucosal cells. Plasma collected from treated cats at regular intervals until 96-192 h could moreover induce Mx m

  10. Notes on the Modified Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzo, N. E.; Melville, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we present the derivation of a modified Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (MNLSE) based on variational calculus. Using weakly nonlinear theory we derive an averaged Lagrangian, which in turn yields a slightly modified version of the MNLSE that conserves wave action. We also explore ramifications of the MNLSE with respect to the coupling between mean currents and non-uniform radiation stresses. We present this in the context of breaking waves and the free long waves they generate (Kristian Dysthe, personal communication). It has been noted in laboratory experiments (Meza et al, 1999) that breaking waves transfer some energy to modes far below the peak frequency of the spectrum. The transfer mechanism is widely believed to be the result of nonlinear four wave resonant interactions; however, the coupling between breaking-induced non-uniform radiation stresses and long wave radiation suggests a potential alternative explanation. Through direct numerical simulations, along with the theory, we test the feasibility of this mechanism by comparing it to data from wave tank experiments (Drazen et al., 2008).

  11. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  12. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  13. Least-Squares Linear Regression and Schrodinger's Cat: Perspectives on the Analysis of Regression Residuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Jeffrey B.

    The analysis of regression residuals and detection of outliers are discussed, with emphasis on determining how deviant an individual data point must be to be considered an outlier and the impact that multiple suspected outlier data points have on the process of outlier determination and treatment. Only bivariate (one dependent and one independent)…

  14. Massively Parallel Algorithms for Solution of Schrodinger Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Barhen, Jacob; Toomerian, Nikzad

    1994-01-01

    In this paper massively parallel algorithms for solution of Schrodinger equation are developed. Our results clearly indicate that the Crank-Nicolson method, in addition to its excellent numerical properties, is also highly suitable for massively parallel computation.

  15. Efficient State Tomography for Continuous Variable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chao; Jiang, Luyao; Krastanov, Stefan; Albert, Victor V.; Heeres, Reinier; Vlastakis, Brian; Schoelkopf, Rob; Jiang, Liang

    2015-03-01

    We propose an efficient and error robust scheme for state tomography of a continuous variable system, which is dispersively coupled to a two-level system. Our adaptive tomography protocol offers a significant speed up compared to the conventional Wigner tomography for a practically interesting class of states, such as Schrodinger cat states. In the presence of typical experimental errors, the number of measurements required is still close to the information theoretic limit. Our proposals can be readily implemented in platforms such as superconducting transmon qubit inside a microwave cavity.

  16. Cat scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... t scratch and bite. Don't allow a cat to lick your skin, eyes, mouth, or open wounds or scratches. Use flea control measures to lower the risk your cat develops the disease. Don't touch feral cats. ...

  17. Structure of a Nudix hydrolase (MutT) in the Mg(2+)-bound state from Bartonella henselae, the bacterium responsible for cat scratch fever.

    PubMed

    Buchko, Garry W; Edwards, Thomas E; Abendroth, Jan; Arakaki, Tracy L; Law, Laura; Napuli, Alberto J; Hewitt, Stephen N; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Stewart, Lance J; Staker, Bart L; Myler, Peter J

    2011-09-01

    Cat scratch fever (also known as cat scratch disease and bartonellosis) is an infectious disease caused by the proteobacterium Bartonella henselae following a cat scratch. Although the infection usually resolves spontaneously without treatment in healthy adults, bartonellosis may lead to severe complications in young children and immunocompromised patients, and there is new evidence suggesting that B. henselae may be associated with a broader range of clinical symptoms then previously believed. The genome of B. henselae contains genes for two putative Nudix hydrolases, BH02020 and BH01640 (KEGG). Nudix proteins play an important role in regulating the intracellular concentration of nucleotide cofactors and signaling molecules. The amino-acid sequence of BH02020 is similar to that of the prototypical member of the Nudix superfamily, Escherichia coli MutT, a protein that is best known for its ability to neutralize the promutagenic compound 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine triphosphate. Here, the crystal structure of BH02020 (Bh-MutT) in the Mg(2+)-bound state was determined at 2.1 Å resolution (PDB entry 3hhj). As observed in all Nudix hydrolase structures, the α-helix of the highly conserved `Nudix box' in Bh-MutT is one of two helices that sandwich a four-stranded mixed β-sheet with the central two β-strands parallel to each other. The catalytically essential divalent cation observed in the Bh-MutT structure, Mg(2+), is coordinated to the side chains of Glu57 and Glu61. The structure is not especially robust; a temperature melt obtained using circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that Bh-MutT irreversibly unfolds and precipitates out of solution upon heating, with a T(m) of 333 K.

  18. The innate antiviral immune system of the cat: molecular tools for the measurement of its state of activation.

    PubMed

    Robert-Tissot, Céline; Rüegger, Vera L; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L; Riond, Barbara; Gomes-Keller, Maria Alice; Vögtlin, Andrea; Wittig, Burghardt; Juhls, Christiane; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2011-10-15

    The innate immune system plays a central role in host defence against viruses. While many studies portray mechanisms in early antiviral immune responses of humans and mice, much remains to be discovered about these mechanisms in the cat. With the objective of shedding light on early host-virus interactions in felids, we have developed 12 real-time TaqMan(®) qPCR systems for feline genes relevant to innate responses to viral infection, including those encoding for various IFNα and IFNω subtypes, IFNβ, intracellular antiviral factor Mx, NK cell stimulator IL-15 and effectors perforin and granzyme B, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 8. Using these newly developed assays and others previously described, we measured the relative expression of selected markers at early time points after viral infection in vitro and in vivo. Feline embryonic fibroblasts (FEA) inoculated with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) indicated peak levels of IFNα, IFNβ and Mx expression already 6h after infection. In contrast, Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CrFK) cells inoculated with feline herpes virus (FHV) responded to infection with high levels of IFNα and IFNβ only after 24h, and no induction of Mx could be detected. In feline PBMCs challenged in vitro with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), maximal expression levels of IFNα, β and ω subtype genes as well as IL-15 and TLRs 3, 7 and 8 were measured between 12 and 24h after infection, whereas expression levels of proinflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 were consistently downregulated until 48h post inoculation. A marginal upregulation of granzyme B was also observed within 3h after infection. In an in vivo experiment, cats challenged with FIV exhibited a 2.4-fold increase in IFNα expression in blood 1 week post infection. We furthermore demonstrate the possibility of stimulating feline immune cells in vitro with various immune response modifiers (IRMs) already known for their immunostimulatory properties in mice and humans, namely

  19. Fractional revivals, multiple-Schrödinger-cat states, and quantum carpets in the interaction of a qubit with N qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Shane; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2014-07-01

    We study the dynamics of a system comprised of a single qubit interacting equally with N qubits (a "spin star" system). Although this model can be solved exactly, the exact solution does not give much intuition for the dynamics of the model. Here, we find an approximation that gives some insight into the dynamics for a particular class of initial spin-coherent states of the N qubits. We find an effective Hamiltonian for the system that is a finite Kerr (one-axis twisting) Hamiltonian for the N +1 qubits. The initial spin-coherent state evolves to spin-squeezed states on short time scales, and to "multiple-Schrödinger-cat" states (superpositions of many spin-coherent states) on longer time scales, a manifestation of the phenomenon of fractional revivals of the initial state. The evolution of the system is visualized with phase-space plots (Q functions) that, when plotted against time, reveal a "quantum carpet" pattern. Of particular interest is the fact that our approximation captures the qualitative features of the model even for small values of N. This suggests the possibility of observing the phenomenon of fractional revival in this model for systems of few qubits.

  20. Toxoplasmosis in Sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates and Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, the State of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Pas, An; Rajendran, C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Hebel, C; Hammer, S; Su, C

    2010-09-20

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid found in sand and stone deserts ranging from the north of Africa to Asia, with the Arabian Peninsula as its centre of distribution. The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recently recognized as one of the causes of this mortality. In the present study, one 18-month-old Sand cat (FM019) died of acute toxoplasmosis-associated hepatitis and pneumonitis acquired after birth; Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in histological sections which reacted with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). T. gondii DNA was found by PCR of extracted DNA from liver and lung tissues of this cat. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in serum examined in 1:1600 dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT); its 2-year-old cage mate seroconverted (MAT titer 1:3200) at the same time. Another Sand cat (FM017) was euthanized because of ill health when 3 years old; its MAT titer was >1:3200, and T. gondii tissue cysts were found in brain, heart, ocular muscles and skeletal muscle, confirmed by IHC. Viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassays in mice inoculated with tissues of another chronically infected Sand cat (FM002); T. gondii was not found in histological sections of this cat. T. gondii antibodies were found in several species of animals tested, notably in 49 of 57 wild felids at BCEAW. A 7-year-old Sand cat (3657) from Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Doha, State of Qatar died of acute visceral toxoplasmosis with demonstrable T. gondii tachyzoites by IHC, and T. gondii DNA by PCR, and a MAT titer of >3200. T. gondii antibodies were found in 21 of 27 of wild felids at AWWP. PCR-RFLP genotyping at 10 genetic loci revealed that these T. gondii isolates from Sand cat (FM002 and FM019) at BCEAW have an atypical genotype, which was previously reported in T

  1. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  2. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  3. Preparation of Schrödinger cat states of a cavity field via coupling to a superconducting charge qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Dagoberto S.; Nemes, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    We extend the approach in Ref. 5 [Y.-X. Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 71 (2005) 063820] for preparing superposition states of a cavity field interacting with a superconducting charge qubit. We study effects of the nonlinearity on the creation of such states. We show that the main contribution of nonlinear effects is to shorten the time necessary to build the superposition.

  4. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... have diabetes or those who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cat-scratch disease is also called cat-scratch fever. ... You can also get the bacteria in your eyes if you pet a cat that has the bacteria on its fur and ...

  5. CATS Featured Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

      CATS Featured Articles       A Slice of Cirrus: Image of ... just hours before by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. Nighttime View of Raung Volcanic Plume : Natural Hazards  - The CATS instrument slices through darkness to reveal the vertical structure of a ...

  6. Presence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of cats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Michael R; Hawley, Jennifer

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of feral cats without evidence of skin disease that were housed in Alabama (n = 24), Florida (n = 27) and Colorado (n = 32). Samples were assessed by use of polymerase chain reaction assays. The Bartonella species IgG prevalence was also determined. While Bartonella species DNA was not amplified from any sample from Colorado cats, it was commonly amplified from blood (56.9%), skin (31.4%), claws (17.6%) and gingiva (17.6%) of the 51 cats housed in Alabama and Florida. All 10 flea groups assessed in this study were infected with a Bartonella species or R. felis. Bartonella species IgG titres did not accurately predict bacteraemia (positive predictive value = 57.1%; negative predictive value = 82.1%). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from blood of cats with and without C. felis. Rickettsia felis DNA was only detected in or on the skin of one cat and the gingiva of an additional cat. It was concluded that cats can be an occupational health risk for veterinarians, particularly in areas with high prevalence of Ctenocephalides felis. Further study is required to determine whether Bartonella species or Rickettsia species infections of cats are associated with dermatological disease. The combination of Bartonella species serological test results with Bartonella species PCR or culture is likely to give the most accurate information concerning the current infection status of individual cats.

  7. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida.

    PubMed

    Luria, Brian J; Levy, Julie K; Lappin, Michael R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Legendre, Alfred M; Hernandez, Jorge A; Gorman, Shawn P; Lee, Irene T

    2004-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in Northern Florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. Blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or PCR assays. Male cats were at higher risk for FIV, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and M. haemominutum. Infection with either FeLV or FIV was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, M. haemofelis, or M. haemominutum. Bartonella henselae had the highest prevalence and was the only organism that did not have any associated risk for coinfection with other organisms. Feral cats in this study had similar or lower prevalence rates of infections than those published for pet cats in the United States. Thus, feral cats assessed in this study appear to be of no greater risk to human beings or other cats than pet cats.

  8. Instability of standing waves for a class of nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Ji; Zhang, Jian

    2007-03-01

    This paper discusses a class of nonlinear Schrodinger equations with different power nonlinearities. We first establish the existence of standing wave associated with the ground states by variational calculus. Then by the potential well argument and the concavity method, we get a sharp condition for blowup and global existence to the solutions of the Cauchy problem and answer such a problem: how small are the initial data, the global solutions exist? At last we prove the instability of standing wave by combing those results.

  9. Solution of the Schro''dinger equation for the time-dependent linear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, I.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper I have drawn out the steps to be followed in order to derive the exact Schro''dinger wave function for a particle in a general one-dimensional time-dependent linear potential. To this end I have used the so-called Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method, which is based on finding an exact quantum-mechanical invariant in whose eigenstates the exact quantum states are found. In particular, I have obtained the wave functions of a particle in the linear potential well, driven by a monochromatic electric field.

  10. Variation in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 rRNA genomic regions of Cytauxzoon felis from bobcats and pumas in the eastern United States and comparison with sequences from domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Shock, Barbara C; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Patton, Laura L; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Cunningham, Mark W; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-11-23

    Cytauxzoon felis, a tick-borne protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats in the United States. The natural reservoir for this parasite is the bobcat (Lynx rufus), which typically does not develop clinical signs. Although not likely important reservoirs, C. felis has also been detected in pumas (Puma concolor) in Florida and Louisiana. Recent studies suggest that specific genotypes of C. felis that circulate in domestic cats may be associated with variable clinical outcomes and specific spatial locations. In the current study, we investigated the intraspecific variation of the C. felis internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 rRNA regions from 145 wild felids (139 bobcats and six pumas) from 11 states (Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania). Unambiguous ITS-1 and ITS-2 data were obtained for 144 and 112 samples, respectively, and both ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were obtained for 111 (77%) samples. For the ITS-1 region, sequences from 65 samples collected from wild felids were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats, while the other 79 sequences were unique. C. felis from 45 bobcats and one puma had ITS-1 sequences identical to the most common sequence reported from domestic cats. Within the ITS-2 region, sequences from 49 bobcats were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats and 63 sequences were unique (with some occurring in more than one bobcat). The most common ITS-2 sequence from domestic cats was also common in wild felids (31 bobcats and a puma). Samples from three pumas from Florida and two bobcats from Missouri had a 40- or 41-bp insert in the ITS-2 similar to one described previously in a domestic cat from Arkansas. Additionally, a previously undescribed 198- or 199-bp insert was detected in the ITS-2 sequence from four bobcats. Collectively, based on combined ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, five

  11. Approximation solution of Schrodinger equation for Q-deformed Rosen-Morse using supersymmetry quantum mechanics (SUSY QM)

    SciTech Connect

    Alemgadmi, Khaled I. K. Suparmi; Cari; Deta, U. A.

    2015-09-30

    The approximate analytical solution of Schrodinger equation for Q-Deformed Rosen-Morse potential was investigated using Supersymmetry Quantum Mechanics (SUSY QM) method. The approximate bound state energy is given in the closed form and the corresponding approximate wave function for arbitrary l-state given for ground state wave function. The first excited state obtained using upper operator and ground state wave function. The special case is given for the ground state in various number of q. The existence of Rosen-Morse potential reduce energy spectra of system. The larger value of q, the smaller energy spectra of system.

  12. A comparison of cat-related risk perceptions and tolerance for outdoor cats in Florida and Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Wald, Dara M; Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Jacobson, Susan K; Cox, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    Risk perceptions and attitudes toward animals often explain tolerance for wildlife and management preferences. However, little is understood about how these relationships vary across different geographic regions and stakeholder groups. To address this gap in knowledge, we compared differences in acceptance capacity, risk perceptions, perceived enjoyment from outdoor cats, and experiences with outdoor cats among 3 groups (general public, conservation community, and animal-welfare community) in Hawaii and Florida, two states with large conservation challenges. We combined independently collected data from Florida and Hawaii, to determine how perception of the risks presented by outdoor cats, group membership, and state of residence influenced people's tolerance for outdoor cats. Florida respondents were significantly more tolerant of outdoor cats and less concerned about cat-related risks than Hawaii respondents (p < 0.05). In both states, animal-welfare group members reported greater enjoyment seeing cats and perceived a smaller increase in the cat population and lower levels of risk than other groups (p < 0.05). All groups exhibited similar relationships between acceptance capacity and enjoyment and the perceived increase in the cat population. Our results suggest public tolerance for cats varied due to the influence of local or geographical concerns, but that strongly held beliefs, risk perceptions, and feelings about cats explained more of the variance in stakeholder tolerance.

  13. Cat scratch encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Silver, B E; Bean, C S

    1991-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually benign, self-limited and without sequelae. Margileth has established four clinical criteria, three of which must be satisfied to make the diagnosis: 1) a history of animal exposure, usually kitten, with primary skin or ocular lesions; 2) regional chronic adenopathy without other apparent cause; 3) a positive cat scratch disease antigen skin test; and 4) lymph node biopsy demonstrating noncaseating granulomas and germinal center hyperplasia. Central nervous system involvement in cat scratch disease has been previously reported, although it is extremely uncommon. In a several-month period, we encountered two cases of cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy. The intents of this paper are twofold: 1) to briefly review the current literature on cat scratch disease, 2) to demonstrate that cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy presents acutely with seizures, posturing and coma and resolves rapidly with supportive care.

  14. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    OF COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY Paragraph 1.1 ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND MARKET OF CAT Paragraph 1.2 EQUIPMENT Chapter 2 OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLE OF A CT...DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY 1.1 Origin, development and marketing of the CAT The origin of the CAT goes back to 1961 when...count on wide commercial possibilities, in the international market . In particular, EMI entered, very forcefully, the American market , always

  15. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  16. A Schrödinger cat living in two boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Yvonne Y.; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, R. W.; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Reagor, Matthew; Blumoff, Jacob; Sliwa, K. M.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as “cat states,” have been an elegant demonstration of Schrödinger’s famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum nondemolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. The ability to manipulate such multicavity quantum states paves the way for logical operations between redundantly encoded qubits for fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication.

  17. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  18. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  19. Opinions from the Front Lines of Cat Colony Management Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, M. Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  20. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  1. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  2. Light-Front Holography and the Light-Front Schrodinger Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy

    2012-08-15

    One of the most important nonperturbative methods for solving QCD is quantization at fixed light-front time {tau} = t+z=c - Dirac's 'Front Form'. The eigenvalues of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian predict the hadron spectrum and the eigensolutions provide the light-front wavefunctions which describe hadron structure. More generally, we show that the valence Fock-state wavefunctions of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian satisfy a single-variable relativistic equation of motion, analogous to the nonrelativistic radial Schrodinger equation, with an effective confining potential U which systematically incorporates the effects of higher quark and gluon Fock states. We outline a method for computing the required potential from first principles in QCD. The holographic mapping of gravity in AdS space to QCD, quantized at fixed light-front time, yields the same light front Schrodinger equation; in fact, the soft-wall AdS/QCD approach provides a model for the light-front potential which is color-confining and reproduces well the light-hadron spectrum. One also derives via light-front holography a precise relation between the bound-state amplitudes in the fifth dimension of AdS space and the boost-invariant light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons in physical space-time. The elastic and transition form factors of the pion and the nucleons are found to be well described in this framework. The light-front AdS/QCD holographic approach thus gives a frame-independent first approximation of the color-confining dynamics, spectroscopy, and excitation spectra of relativistic light-quark bound states in QCD.

  3. Giardia infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda

    2010-08-01

    The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.

  4. Towards A Classical Re-Interpretation of the Schrodinger Equation According to Stochastic Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechoum, K.; Franca, H. M.; Malta, C. P.

    We study the statistical evolution of a charged particle moving in phase space under the action of vacuum fluctuations of the zero-point electromagnetic field. Our starting point is the Liouville equation, from which we derive a classical stochastic Schrodinger like equation for the probability amplitude in configuration space. It should be stressed that we are not deriving the Schrodinger wave equation. An equation formally identical to the Schrodinger equation used in Quantum Mechanics is obtained as a particular case of the classical stochastic Schrodinger like equation. An inconsistency appearing in the standard Schrodinger equation, when vacuum electromagnetic fluctuations and radiation reaction are taken into account, is clearly identified and explained. The classical stochastic Schrodinger like equation, however, is consistently interpreted within the realm of Stochastic Electrodynamics.

  5. 77 FR 61468 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Balthus: Cats and Girls”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Balthus: Cats and Girls'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Balthus: Cats and Girls,'' imported from abroad for...

  6. Pharmacokinetics of amantadine in cats.

    PubMed

    Siao, K T; Pypendop, B H; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in cats, after both i.v. and oral administration. Six healthy adult domestic shorthair female cats were used. Amantadine HCl (5 mg/kg, equivalent to 4 mg/kg amantadine base) was administered either intravenously or orally in a crossover randomized design. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to amantadine administration, and at various times up to 1440 min following intravenous, or up to 2880 min following oral administration. Plasma amantadine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and plasma amantadine concentration-time data were fitted to compartmental models. A two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment best described the disposition of amantadine administered intravenously in cats, and a one-compartment model best described the disposition of oral amantadine in cats. After i.v. administration, the apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment and apparent volume of distribution at steady-state [mean ± SEM (range)], and the clearance and terminal half-life [harmonic mean ± jackknife pseudo-SD (range)] were 1.5 ± 0.3 (0.7-2.5) L/kg, 4.3 ± 0.2 (3.7-5.0) L/kg, 8.2 ± 2.1 (5.9-11.4) mL·min/kg, and 348 ± 49 (307-465) min, respectively. Systemic availability [mean ± SEM (range)] and terminal half-life after oral administration [harmonic mean ± jackknife pseudo-SD (range)] were 130 ± 11 (86-160)% and 324 ± 41 (277-381) min, respectively.

  7. Cat tongue Velcro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  8. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  9. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  10. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  11. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  12. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  13. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  14. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems.

  15. Hearing disorders in cats.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2017-03-01

    Practical relevance: Auditory function is a sense that is central to life for cats - being important in situational awareness of potential predators, pursuit of prey, and for communication with conspecifics, humans and other species. Deafness in cats is most frequently the result of a genetic disorder, strongly associated with white fur and blue eyes, but may also result from acquired causes such as advancing age, ototoxic drugs, infection, environmental noise and physical trauma. Deafness can be sensorineural, where there is loss of cochlear hair cells, or conductive, where sound is muffled on its way to the inner ear. Clinical challenges: Establishing whether a cat is deaf can be difficult as behavioral testing of hearing is subjective and does not reliably detect unilateral deafness. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing is an objective measure but is limited in its availability. Currently, sensorineural deafness is irreversible because no treatments are available to restore lost hair cells. Conductive hearing loss can usually be treated, although full hearing recovery following otitis media may take weeks as the body clears the middle ear of debris. Evidence base: The author draws on the published literature and his extensive research on clinical aspects and molecular genetics of deafness, principally in companion animals, to review types and forms of deafness in cats. He also discusses current diagnostic approaches and provides brief advice for managing cats with hearing loss.

  16. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  17. Numerical Solution of Time-Dependent Gravitational Schr"odinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianto, Vic; Rapoport, Diego L.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2009-11-01

    In recent years, there are attempts to describe quantization of planetary distance based on time-independent gravitational Schr"odinger equation, including Rubcic & Rubcic's method and also Nottale's Scale Relativity method. Nonetheless, there is no solution yet for time-dependent gravitational Schr"odinger equation (TDGSE). In the present paper, a numerical solution of time-dependent gravitational Schr"odinger equation is presented, apparently for the first time. This numerical solution leads to gravitational Bohr-radius, as expected. In the subsequent section, we also discuss plausible extension of this gravitational Schr"odinger equation to include the effect of phion condensate via Gross-Pitaevskii equation, as described recently by Moffat. Alternatively one can consider this condensate from the viewpoint of BogoliubovdeGennes theory, which can be approximated with coupled time-independent gravitational Schr"odinger equation. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

  18. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  19. Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter.

    PubMed

    Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9 km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake.

  20. Approximate solution of Schrodinger equation in D-dimensions for Scarf trigonometry potential using Nikiforov-Uvarov method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deta, U. A.; Suparmi, Cari

    2013-09-01

    The approximate analytical solution of Schrodinger equation in D-Dimensions for Scarf trigonometry potential were investigated using Nikiforov-Uvarov method. The bound state energy are given in the close form and the corresponding wave function for arbitary l-state in D-dimensions are formulated in the form of generalized Jacobi Polynomials. The example of bound state energy and wave function in 3, 4, and 5 dimensions presented in condition of ground state to second excited state. The existence of arbitrary dimensions increase bound state energy and the amplitude of the wave function of this potential. The effect of the presence of Scarf trigonometry potential increase the energy spectrum of this potential.

  1. Dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergen concentrations in homes of asthmatic children in the northeastern United States: impact of socioeconomic factors and population density.

    PubMed

    Leaderer, Brian P; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth; Holford, Theodore; Gold, Diane R; Kim, Young; Jankun, Thomas; Ren, Ping; McSharry Je, Jean-ellen; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Chapman, Martin D; Bracken, Michael B

    2002-04-01

    Home exposures to aeroallergens are an important environmental factor in allergic sensitization and in the development and exacerbation of asthma. We assessed variations in home concentrations of dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens in dust collected in the main living areas of asthmatics' homes by family income, mother's education, dwelling type, population density, household population density, and ethnicity in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts. Dust samples were collected at the time of home interview in 999 homes as part of an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study of 1,002 infants and their asthmatic siblings. The analysis employed lower and upper cut points for group 1 dust mite (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10 microg/g), cockroach (> or = 1.0 U/g and > or = 4.0 U/g), cat (> or = 1.0 microg/g and > or = 8.0 ug/g), and dog (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10.0 microg/g) allergens. Subject residences were geocoded to assess population density from the U.S. Census, and multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounding. The portion of homes at the lower cut point for dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens were 46.9%, 24.9%, 42.2%, and 35.6%, respectively; the upper cut point for each of the allergens was reached in 22.4%, 13.4%, 21.0%, and 22.9% of the homes, respectively. In all, 86.0% of the homes had at least one allergen at the lower cut point, and 58.0% had at least one allergen at the upper cut point. Forty-nine percent of the homes had two or more allergens at the lower cut point, and 19.7% had two or more allergens at the upper cut point. Higher education of the mother, higher household income, living in a single-family home in a less densely populated area with fewer people per room, and being a white household were associated with elevated dust mite, cat, and dog allergens and low cockroach allergen. In contrast, low income, living in a multifamily home in a high population density area with a higher occupancy

  2. [Parasitism by Amblyomma triste in domestic cat].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; da Silva, Marcos K; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma triste is an ixodidae, ectoparasite of several mammals' species, with occurrence reported in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. The aim of this work was to register the parasitism by A. triste in domestic cat (Felis catus) in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

  3. Presumptive sialadenosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Boydell, P; Pike, R; Crossley, D

    2000-12-01

    A cat was presented with signs associated with enlargement of the mandibular salivary glands. Histological findings were normal, consistent with a diagnosis of sialadenosis, and the cat responded to symptomatic treatment with oral phenobarbitone.

  4. Qubit-oscillator systems in the ultrastrong-coupling regime and their potential for preparing nonclassical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nori, Franco; Ashhab, Sahel

    2011-03-01

    We consider a system composed of a two-level system (i.e. a qubit) and a harmonic oscillator in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the coupling strength is comparable to the qubit and oscillator energy scales. We explore the possibility of preparing nonclassical states in this system, especially in the ground state of the combined system. The nonclassical states that we consider include squeezed states, Schrodinger-cat states and entangled states. We also analyze the nature of the change in the ground state as the coupling strength is increased, going from a separable ground state in the absence of coupling to a highly entangled ground state in the case of very strong coupling. Reference: S. Ashhab and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042311 (2010). We thank support from DARPA, AFOSR, NSA, LPS, ARO, NSF, MEXT, JSPS, FIRST, and JST.

  5. Cat sensitivity: 7-yr audit in children attending a paediatric allergy clinic in North Italy.

    PubMed

    Pescollderungg, L; Pietrobelli, A; Boner, A L

    2000-11-01

    Sensitivity to cats and exposure to cat allergen is a common cause of asthma exacerbation in children. To date, there is no data on the prevalence of cat sensitivity in children living in North Italy. Therefore, a 7-yr survey was performed in patients attending an allergy clinic for the first time. Skin prick tests (SPT) for perennial allergens and for pollens relevant to the region were performed in 4,957 children attending the outpatient clinic 1992-1998. A questionnaire on present or past cat ownership was presented to all cat-skin prick test positive children. An evaluation of cat ownership on the general population was made by telephone interview on a random sample of 1,268 families living in the same area. With a 3-mm wheal as a positive cut-off 439 (8.85%) children had a positive SPT to cats. Of these 103 (23.4%) had a cat at home and 336 (76.6%) never had a cat in the house. With a greater positive cut-off(a wheal diameter > or =4 mm) 140 (2.8%) showed a positive SPT to cats of these 35 (25%) had a cat at home and 105 (75%) had only an indirect exposure to the pet. Of the telephone interviewed families; 16% stated they had a cat at home. Cat sensitivity is less prevalent in Italy, in this hospital based population, compared with other European countries and this is in agreement with a lower rate of cat ownership. Cat sensitivity was three times more frequent in children who never had a cat at home, than in children living with cats, when the selected positive cut-off was either a wheal diameter of 3 mm or > or =4 mm. Thus in a population with a low prevalence of cat ownership public exposure seems to be more important than domestic exposure for the development of sensitivity.

  6. Should Dogs and Cats be Given as Gifts?

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Emily; Dolan, Emily D.; Garrison, Laurie; Hong, Julie; Slater, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Policies that state pets should not be adopted as gifts are prevalent at animal welfare organizations, despite the fact that this belief is unfounded. Denying adopters who intend to give the animals as gifts may unnecessarily impede the overarching goal of increasing adoptions of pets from our nations’ shelter system. We found that receiving a dog or cat as a gift was not associated with impact on self-perceived love/attachment, or whether the dog or cat was still in the home. These results suggest there is no increased risk of relinquishment for dogs and cats received as a gift. Abstract Policies that state dogs and cats should not be adopted as gifts are prevalent at animal welfare organizations, despite the fact that this belief is unfounded. Denying adopters who intend to give the animals as gifts may unnecessarily impede the overarching goal of increasing the rate of live-releases of dogs and cats from our nations’ shelter system. The results of this brief survey show that receiving a dog or cat as a gift was neither significantly associated with impact on self-perceived love/attachment, nor was it associated with whether or not respondents still had the dog or cat in the home. The results from this survey add to a growing body of literature that suggests there is no increased risk of relinquishment for dogs and cats received as a gift. PMID:26479748

  7. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A What's in ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  8. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  9. On the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with nonzero boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerstrom, Emily

    This thesis is concerned with the study of the nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation, which is important both from a physical and a mathematical point of view. In physics, it is a universal model for the evolutions of weakly nonlinear dispersive wave trains. As such it appears in many physical contexts, such as optics, acoustics, plasmas, biology, etc. Mathematically, it is a completely integrable, infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, and possesses a surprisingly rich structure. This equation has been extensively studied in the last 50 years, but many important questions are still open. In particular, this thesis contains the following original contributions: NLS with real spectral singularities. First, the focusing NLS equation is considered with decaying initial conditions. This situation has been studied extensively before, but the assumption is almost always made that the scattering coefficients have no real zeros, and thus the scattering data had no poles on the real axis. However, it is easy to produce example potentials with this behavior. For example, by modifying parameters in Satsuma-Yajima's sech potential, or by choosing a "box" potential with a particular area, one can obtain corresponding scattering entries with real zeros. The inverse scattering transform can be implemented by formulating the modified Jost eigenfunctions and the scattering data as a Riemann Hilbert problem. But it can also be formulated by using integral kernels. Doing so produces the Gelf'and-Levitan-Marchenko (GLM) equations. Solving these integral equations requires integrating an expression containing the reflection coefficient over the real axis. Under the usual assumption, the reflection coefficient has no poles on the real axis. In general, the integration contour cannot be deformed to avoid poles, because the reflection coefficient may not admit analytic extension off the real axis. Here it is shown that the GLM equations may be (uniquely) solved using a principal value

  10. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats.

  11. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats.

    PubMed

    Caney, S M; Holt, P E; Day, M J; Rudorf, H; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1998-03-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis.

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vasha; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2010-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is best known as the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis of horses in the Americas. Domestic cats ( Felis domesticus ) were the first animals described as an intermediate host for S. neurona . However, S. neurona -associated encephalitis has also been reported in naturally infected cats in the United States. Thus, cats can be implicated in the life cycle of S. neurona as natural intermediate hosts. The present study examined the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to merozoites of S. neurona in populations of domestic cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Overall, sera or plasma from 441 cats (Virginia = 232, Pennsylvania = 209) were tested by an indirect immunofluorescent assay at a 1ratio50 dilution. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 32 (7%) of 441 cats. Of these, 22 (9%) of the 232 cats from Virginia and 10 (5%) of the 209 cats from Pennsylvania were seropositive for S. neurona .

  13. A Large Class of Exact Solutions to the One-Dimensional Schrodinger Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaoglu, Bekir

    2007-01-01

    A remarkable property of a large class of functions is exploited to generate exact solutions to the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation. The method is simple and easy to implement. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  14. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  15. Occurrence of OXA-48 Carbapenemase and Other β-Lactamase Genes in ESBL-Producing Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli from Dogs and Cats in the United States, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Thungrat, Kamoltip; Boothe, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) and carbapenemases among ESBL-producing multidrug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli from dogs and cats in the United States. Methods: Of 2443 E.coli isolated from dogs and cats collected between August 2009 and January 2013, 68 isolates were confirmed as ESBL-producing MDR ones. PCR and sequencing were performed to identify β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, and shed light on the virulence gene profiles, phylogenetic groups and ST types. Results: Phylogenic group D and B2 accounted for 69.1% of the isolates. 50 (73.5%) isolates carried CTX-M ESBL gene, and the most predominant specific CTX-M subtype identified was blaCTX−M−15 (n = 33), followed by blaCTX−M−1 (n = 32), blaCTX−M−123 (n = 27), blaCTX−M−9 (n = 19) and blaCTX−M−14 (n = 19), and blaCTX−M−123 was firstly reported in E. coli isolates in the United States alone or in association. Other β-lactamase genes blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA−48, and blaCMY−2 were detected in 41.2, 29.4, 19.1, and 17.6% of 68 ESBL-producing MDR isolates, respectively. The blaTEM and blaSHV genes were classfied as ESBLs with the exception of the blaTEM−1 gene. Additionally, 42.6% (29/68) of isolates co-expressed blaCTX−M−15 and PMQR gene aac(6′)-Ib-c. The overall occurrence of virulence genes ranged from 11.8 (ireA) to 88.2% (malX), and most of virulence genes were less frequent among CTX-M-producing isolates than non-CTX-M isolates with the exception of malX and iutA. The 68 isolates analyzed were assigned to 31 STs with six being novel. Three pandemic clonal lineages ST131 (n = 10), ST648 (n = 9), and ST405 (n = 9) accounted for more than 41% of the investigated isolates, and ST648 and ST405 of phylogenetic D were firstly reported in E. coli from dogs and cats in the United States. Conclusion

  16. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population.

  17. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  18. The legal status of cats in New Zealand: a perspective on the welfare of companion, stray, and feral domestic cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Dye, Nicholson G; Keown, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Pinpointing and safeguarding the welfare status of domestic cats is problematic, especially in New Zealand where cats are introduced predators with significant impact on indigenous fauna. Usually the identification of welfare status depends on conservational, legal, and public attitudes that are often contrasting. Cats may rapidly transgress definitions placed on them, confounding attempts to categorize them. In 1 generation, cats can move from a human-dependent state ("stray" or "companion") to wild ("feral"). Often this categorization uses arbitrary behavioral and or situational parameters; consequent treatment and welfare protection for these cats are similarly affected. Terminology used to describe cats is not equitable across research. However, the New Zealand Animal Welfare (Companion Cats) Code of Welfare 2007 seeks to create a new definition of the terms companion, stray, and feral. It distinguishes between cats who live within and without human social constructs. This legislation mandates that cats in human environments or indirectly dependent on humans cannot be classified as feral. Such definitions may prove vital when safeguarding the welfare of free-living domestic cats and cat colonies.

  19. From Pedigree Cats to Fluffy-Bunnies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunningham, Jacob; Rau, Alexander; Burnett, Keith

    2005-02-01

    We consider two distinct classes of quantum mechanical entanglement. The first ``pedigree'' class consists of delicate highly entangled states, which hold great potential for use in future quantum technologies. By focusing on Schrödinger cat states, we demonstrate not only the possibilities these states hold but also the difficulties they present. The second ``fluffy-bunny'' class is made up of robust states that arise naturally as a result of measurements and interactions between particles. This class of entanglement may be responsible for the classical-like world we see around us.

  20. Management Practices of Cats Owned by Faculty, Staff, and Students at Two Midwest Veterinary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding cat owners' housing, care, and management practices is important for promoting cat welfare. A survey study was conducted on the housing and management practices used for cats by students, faculty, and staff of The Ohio State University and Purdue University veterinary colleges. Subjects were 138 cat-owner dyads. Most cats (74%) were housed strictly indoors in keeping with common US veterinary recommendations. However, many did not implement best practices outlined for behavior and other welfare needs of indoor cats. The percentage of respondents placing resources where cats could be disrupted while using them was 31%, 53%, and 30% for resting areas, food/water dishes, and litter boxes, respectively. Many cats were not provided a litter box in a private area (35%), in multiple areas of the house (51%), or that was regularly washed (73%). Horizontal scratching opportunities were not provided to 38% of cats; 32% were not provided toys that mimic prey and 91% of cats were fed a diet consisting of >75% dry food. These findings suggest a need for more concerted efforts to educate owners about meeting their cats' welfare needs so as to attenuate risks and improve cat physical and behavioral welfare outcomes. PMID:28090571

  1. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-01-22

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats.

  2. Raccoonpox in a Canadian cat.

    PubMed

    Yager, Julie A; Hutchison, Lisa; Barrett, John W

    2006-12-01

    Poxvirus infections affecting the skin of cats are extremely rare in North America, in contrast to Europe where cowpox virus is well recognized as an accidental pathogen in cats that hunt small rodents. The virus or viruses responsible for the anecdotal cases in North America have never been characterized. This paper reports a case of raccoonpox infection in a Canadian cat. Biopsy of the initial ulcerative lesion on the forepaw revealed ballooning degeneration of surface and follicular keratinoctyes. Infected cells contained large eosinophilic type A inclusions. Electron microscopic examination revealed virions of an orthopoxvirus, subsequently identified as raccoonpox by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing. The cat made a full recovery.

  3. External hydrocephalus in two cats.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Curtis W; Coates, Joan R; Ducoté, Julie M; Stefanacci, Joseph D; Walker, Michael A; Marino, Dominic J

    2003-01-01

    External hydrocephalus describes an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the cerebral hemispheres and the overlying arachnoid membrane, rather than within the lateral ventricles. Two young cats with encephalopathic signs were diagnosed with external hydrocephalus, one via magnetic resonance imaging and one via computed tomography. Both cats had abnormally large, broad heads, with no evidence of open fontanelles. A surgical shunt was placed in each cat to divert the accumulated CSF within the cranial cavity to the peritoneal space. Both cats improved dramatically soon after surgical shunting was performed, and they continue to do well clinically, approximately 42 months and 8 months postoperatively, respectively.

  4. Non-Conservative Variational Approximation for Nonlinear Schrodinger Equations and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Julia M.

    Recently, Galley [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 174301 (2013)] proposed an initial value problem formulation of Hamilton's principle applied to non-conservative systems. Here, we explore this formulation for complex partial differential equations of the nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) type, using the non-conservative variational approximation (NCVA) outlined by Galley. We compare the formalism of the NCVA to two variational techniques used in dissipative systems; namely, the perturbed variational approximation and a generalization of the so-called Kantorovitch method. We showcase the relevance of the NCVA method by exploring test case examples within the NLS setting including combinations of linear and density dependent loss and gain. We also present an example applied to exciton-polariton condensates that intrinsically feature loss and a spatially dependent gain term. We also study a variant of the NLS used in optical systems called the Lugiato-Lefever (LL) model applied to (i) spontaneous temporal symmetry breaking instability in a coherently-driven optical Kerr resonator observed experimentally by Xu and Coen in Opt. Lett. 39, 3492 (2014) and (ii) temporal tweezing of cavity solitons in a passive loop of optical fiber pumped by a continuous-wave laser beam observed experimentally by Jang, Erkintalo, Coen, and Murdoch in Nat. Commun. 6, 7370 (2015). For application (i) we perform a detailed stability analysis and analyze the temporal bifurcation structure of stationary symmetric configurations and the emerging asymmetric states as a function of the pump power. For intermediate pump powers a pitchfork loop is responsible for the destabilization of symmetric states towards stationary asymmetric ones while at large pump powers we find the emergence of periodic asymmetric solutions via a Hopf bifurcation. For application (ii) we study the existence and dynamics of cavity solitons through phase-modulation of the holding beam. We find parametric regions for the manipulation of

  5. Ulcerative pododermatitis in a cat associated with Anatrichosoma sp.

    PubMed

    Ramiro-Ibañez, F; Winston, J; O'Donnell, E; Mansell, J

    2002-01-01

    A 9-year-old castrated male Chartreaux cat was presented for an ulcerative pododermatitis of all 4 paws. A clinical exam was inconclusive and supportive therapy did not improve the condition. Histologic examination revealed an ulcerative and eosinophilic dermatitis associated with epidermal and dermal nematodes and ova consistent with the aphasmid Anatrichosoma sp. Treatment with ivermectin completely resolved the skin lesions. Anatrichosomiasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative pododermatitis in cats, at least in the southwestern United States.

  6. Efferent inhibition of carotid body chemoreception in chronically hypoxic cats.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, S; Smatresk, N; Pokorski, M; Barnard, P; Mokashi, A

    1983-11-01

    The effects of chronic hypoxia on carotid chemoreceptor afferent activity before and after sectioning the carotid sinus nerves (CSN) were studied in cats exposed to 10% O2 for 21-49 days in a chamber at sea level. For comparison, chronically normoxic cats at sea level were also studied. The cats were anesthetized, paucifiber preparation for the measurement of carotid chemosensory activity from a small slip of CSN was made, and their steady-state responses to 4-5 levels of arterial pressure of O2 (PaO2) at a constant PaCO2 and to 3-4 levels of PaCO2 in hyperoxia were measured before and after sectioning the CSN. The chemosensory response to hypoxia in the cats with intact CSN after chronic exposure to hypoxia was not reduced relative to the cats that breathed room air at sea level. Sectioning the CSN significantly augmented the chemosensory responses to hypoxia in all the chronically hypoxic but not significantly in the normoxic cats. The responses to moderate hypercapnia during hyperoxia were not significantly changed by cutting the CSN in either group. We conclude that there is a significant CSN efferent inhibition of chemosensory activity due to chronic hypoxia in the cat. This implies that without the efferent inhibition the hypoxic chemosensitivity is increased by chronic hypoxia.

  7. Adrenergic mechanisms in oxygen chemoreception in the cat aortic body.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, E; Lahiri, S; Mokashi, A; Matsumoto, S; McGregor, K H

    1986-03-01

    Sixteen cats were studied to test the hypothesis that oxygen chemoreception in the cat aortic body is dependent on the beta-adrenergic mechanism. The chemoreceptor activity was measured from a few aortic chemoreceptor afferents in each cat, anesthetized with alpha-chloralose (60 mg X kg-1). Three types of experiments were conducted. Aortic chemoreceptor responses to steady-state hypoxia (PaO2 range, 100-30 Torr) were measured (a) before and during intravenous infusion of the beta-receptor agonist, isoproterenol (0.5 micrograms X kg-1) in nine spontaneously breathing cats, and (b) before and after intravenous injection of the beta-receptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg X kg-1) in seven cats which were paralyzed and artificially ventilated. In the third category (c) the stimulatory effect of hypotension on aortic chemoreceptor activity was measured in six of the seven cats in group (b) before and after propranolol injection. Isoproterenol infusion only moderately stimulated aortic chemoreceptor activity. This stimulation was blocked by propranolol. However, propranolol did not attenuate aortic chemoreceptor responses to hypoxia or to hypotension. We conclude that the beta-receptor adrenergic mechanism does not mediate oxygen chemoreception in the cat aortic body.

  8. Systemic cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Min; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chi, Hsin; Wang, Nieu-Lu; Chen, Be-Fong

    2006-08-01

    Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD) is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitish-tan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  9. Effects of stressors on the behavior and physiology of domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Stella, Judi; Croney, Candace; Buffington, Tony

    2013-01-31

    Feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) is a chronic pain syndrome of domestic cats. Cats with FIC have chronic, recurrent lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) and other comorbid disorders that are exacerbated by stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioral and physiological responses of healthy cats and cats diagnosed with FIC after exposure to a five day stressor. Ten healthy cats and 18 cats with FIC were housed at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSUVMC) vivarium. All cats were housed in enriched cages for at least one year prior to the experiment. Cats had daily play time and socialization outside of the cage, food treats and auditory enrichment. The daily husbandry schedule was maintained at a consistent time of day and cats were cared for by two familiar caretakers. During the test days, cats were exposed to multiple unpredictable stressors which included exposure to multiple unfamiliar caretakers, an inconsistent husbandry schedule, and discontinuation of play time, socialization, food treats, and auditory enrichment. Sickness behaviors (SB), including vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia or decreased food and water intake, fever, lethargy, somnolence, enhanced pain-like behaviors, decreased general activity, body care activities (grooming), and social interactions, were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected in the morning, before and after the stress period, for measurement of serum cortisol concentration, leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil: lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and mRNA for the cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Overall, the short term stressors led to a significant increase in SB in both healthy cats and cats with FIC, whereas lymphopenia and N:L changes occurred only in FIC cats. Daily monitoring of cats for SB may be a noninvasive and reliable way to assess stress responses and overall welfare of cats housed in cages.

  10. Hypertensive retinopathy in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Van Boxtel, Sherry A.

    2003-01-01

    A 12-year-old cat presented for sudden blindness was diagnosed with hypertensive retinopathy on the basis of ophthalmologic and ultrasonic examination. Renal failure due to a large intranephric cyst obstructing the right ureter and renal artery was the suggested cause of the systemic hypertension. The cat died 8 hours after unilateral nephrectomy. PMID:12650046

  11. Oral masses in two cats.

    PubMed

    Bock, P; Hach, V; Baumgärtner, W

    2011-07-01

    Incisional biopsies from the oral cavity of 2 adult cats were submitted for histological investigation. Cat No. 1 showed a solitary well-circumscribed neoplasm in the left mandible. Cat No. 2 demonstrated a diffusely infiltrating neoplasm in the left maxilla. Both tumors consisted of medium-size epithelial cells embedded in a fibrovascular stroma. The mitotic index was 0 to 1 mitosis per high-power field. The epithelial cells showed an irregular arrangement forming nests or streams in cat No. 1, whereas a palisading growth was noted in cat No. 2. Both tumors, especially that of cat No. 1, showed multifocal accumulations of amyloid as confirmed by Congo red staining and a distinct green birefringence under polarized light, which lacked cytokeratin immunoreactivity as well as and AL and AA amyloid immunoreactivity. In addition, the amyloid in cat No. 2 was positive for the odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein, formerly termed APin. In sum, both cats suffered from an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor, but their tumors varied with respect to morphology and type of amyloid produced.

  12. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  13. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  14. Acceptance of Domestic Cat Mitochondrial DNA in a Criminal Proceeding

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.; Grahn, Robert A.; Kun, Teri J.; Netzel, Linda R.; Wictum, Elizabeth E.; Halverson, Joy L.

    2014-01-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  15. Acceptance of domestic cat mitochondrial DNA in a criminal proceeding.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Kun, Teri J; Netzel, Linda R; Wictum, Elizabeth E; Halverson, Joy L

    2014-11-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence.

  16. Bats, cats, and rabies in an urban community.

    PubMed

    Hoff, G L; Mellon, G F; Thomas, M C; Giedinghagen, D H

    1993-10-01

    Bats are the primary vectors of rabies in humans in the United States. In the urban environment they generally are found within buildings where they may bite people or be attacked by cats or dogs. Given the high probability that any bat that bites a person may be rabid, antirabies prophylaxis should be administered as soon as possible after the incident. This should not be delayed pending laboratory results on the bat. Children should be taught to avoid contact with moribund bats. Cats are more likely to be involved with rabid bats than dogs, but they are less likely to be vaccinated against rabies. The occasional rabid cat in an urban community may have acquired its infection from a bat. Therefore, it is vital that communities enforce rabies vaccination for cats as well as dogs.

  17. How cats lap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Roman; Reis, Pedro; Jung, Sunghwan; Aristoff, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    We studied the lapping of the domestic cat (Felis catus) by combining high-speed photography with a laboratory model of lapping. We found that Felis catus laps by a subtle mechanism based on water adhesion to the dorsal side of the tongue and the creation of a liquid column, exploiting inertia to defeat gravity and pull liquid into the mouth. The competition between inertia and gravity controls the pinch-off time of the column, determining the optimal lapping frequency, f. Felis catus was found to operate near the optimum and theoretical analysis yielded a scaling, f ˜M-1/6, of lapping frequency with animal mass, M. This prediction was verified by measuring lapping frequency across felids, from ocelots to lions, suggesting that the lapping mechanism is conserved among felines.

  18. Solution of the Schrodinger Equation for One-Dimensional Anharmonic Potentials: An Undergraduate Computational Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddard, Godfrey S.

    2011-01-01

    A method of solving the Schrodinger equation using a basis set expansion is described and used to calculate energy levels and wavefunctions of the hindered rotation of ethane and the ring puckering of cyclopentene. The calculations were performed using a computer algebra package and the calculations are straightforward enough for undergraduates to…

  19. Kmonodium, a Program for the Numerical Solution of the One-Dimensional Schrodinger Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Celestino; Borini, Stefano; Cimiraglia, Renzo

    2005-01-01

    A very simple strategy for the solution of the Schrodinger equation of a particle moving in one dimension subjected to a generic potential is presented. This strategy is implemented in a computer program called Kmonodium, which is free and distributed under the General Public License (GPL).

  20. Solution of the Schrodinger Equation for a Diatomic Oscillator Using Linear Algebra: An Undergraduate Computational Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasyna, Zbigniew L.

    2008-01-01

    Computational experiment is proposed in which a linear algebra method is applied to the solution of the Schrodinger equation for a diatomic oscillator. Calculations of the vibration-rotation spectrum for the HCl molecule are presented and the results show excellent agreement with experimental data. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  1. Pemphigus foliaceus in a cat.

    PubMed

    Kofod, H

    1993-01-16

    The author's cat started to develop the signs of pemphigus foliaceus one month after he returned home after six months absence. The initial signs included dry coughing and difficulty with purring and swallowing, followed by typical changes of the skin. The cat was treated by a combination of chrysotherapy and systemic glucocorticoid injections, and remained free of clinical signs for one and a half years. The cat then relapsed and showed the initial signs except that coughing was not observed. It was treated as before but after a second relapse and the same treatment it slowly developed a general weakness and was euthanased.

  2. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: PRISM

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset represents climate observations throughout the years 2008-09 within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the Composite Topographic Index (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms). PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data were summarized to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  3. [Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats].

    PubMed

    van Doorn, D C K; de Bruin, M J; Jorritsma, R A; Ploeger, H W; Schoormans, A

    2009-09-01

    Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for, Tritrichomonas foetus among cats in the Netherlands. A total of 154 faecal samples were collected from three groups of cats: cats with diarrhoea (n=53), cattery cats (n=47), and healthy pet cats (n=54). Faecal samples were examined with a T. foetus specific real-time PCR. All PCR-positive samples were run on gel electrophoresis for definitive diagnosis. The prevalence of T. foetus was 2% among cats with diarrhoea and 4% among cattery cats; T. foetus was not prevalent among pet cats (none of the samples tested positive). Questionnaires had been distributed to cat and cattery owners to determine risk factors for T. foetus, but the low prevalence precluded statistical analysis of the questionnaire results.

  4. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: PRISM Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset represents climate observations within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape layer were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics. (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms) PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data are summarized by local catchment and by watershed to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  5. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: PRISM Normals Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset represents climate observations within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape layer were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics. (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms) PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data are summarized by local catchment and by watershed to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  6. Cat eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361

  7. Cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-05-19

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome.

  8. Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation from the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Feynman's Path Integral Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time-dependent Schrodinger equation may be simply derived from the dynamical postulate of Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics. Schrodinger's own published derivations of quantum wave equations, the first of which was also based on the Hamilton-Jacobi…

  9. Survival of a feline isolate of Tritrichomonas foetus in water, cat urine, cat food and cat litter.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Ripley, Allyson; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Blagburn, Byron L; Grant, David C; Lindsay, David S

    2012-04-30

    Feline intestinal trichomoniasis caused by Tritrichomonas foetus is associated with large bowel diarrhea in cats from many parts of the world. It has long been recognized as an economically important sexually transmitted disease that causes early abortion in cattle. Isolates of T. foetus from cattle are infectious for the large intestine of cats and isolates of T. foetus from cats are infectious for the reproductive system of cattle. The parasite is maintained by fecal-oral transmission in cats. The present study was conducted to examine the survival of a feline isolate of T. foetus, AUTf-12, under various conditions that are relevant to fecal-oral transmission in cats. Trophozoites were grown in TYM medium and then exposed to water, cat urine, dry cat food, canned cat food, clumping cat litter, or filter paper for various lengths of time and then re-cultured in TYM medium. Trophozoites survived exposure to distilled or tap water for 30 but not 60 min, while they survived for at least 180 min in urine. Trophozoites survived for 30 min on dry cat food but survived for 120-180 min in canned cat food. No survival of trophozoites was observed on cat litter but trophozoites survived for 15 min when placed on filter paper. Our results indicate that T. foetus can survive and be potentially infectious in water, urine, dry cat food and canned cat food.

  10. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  11. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  12. Cross-linked polyvinyl polymers versus polyureas as designed supports for catalytically active M(0) nanoclusters. Part III. Nanometer scale structure of the cross-linked polyurea support EnCat 30 and of the Pd(II)/EnCat 30 and Pd(0)/EnCat 30NP catalysts.

    PubMed

    Centomo, P; Zecca, M; Zoleo, A; Maniero, A L; Canton, P; Jerábek, K; Corain, B

    2009-05-28

    The cross-linked polyurea support EnCat 30, its related macromolecular complex Pd(II)/EnCat 30 and its related Pd(0)/EnCat 30NP nanocomposite are thoroughly investigated with SEM, TEM, ISEC and ESR in the solid state (SEM and TEM) and swollen state in THF (ISEC and ESR). Pd(II)/EnCat 30 and its related Pd(0)/EnCat 30NP are obtained by microencapsulation of palladium acetate in a polyurea framework, which is formed upon hydrolysis/condensation of mixtures of multi-functional oligo-arylisocyanates in dichloroethane. Most remarkably, both Pd(II)/EnCat and Pd(0)/EnCat 30NP turn out to be far more (nano)porous and swellable materials than the blank polyurea matrix (EnCat 30). It is proposed that there is a strong nanostructural effect exerted by Pd(II) species due to its interaction with functional groups (amines stemming from the hydrolysis of the isocyanato groups or ureido groups belonging to the polymer chains) during the growth of the cross-linked polymer framework. As a consequence, the catalytic species in both Pd(II)/EnCat 30 and Pd(0)/EnCat 30NP are much more accessible to molecules diffusing from liquid phases in contact with the materials and, hence, are better catalysts than expected from the morphology of blank polyurea EnCat 30.

  13. Rabies: What If I Receive Treatment Outside the United States?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  14. Four cats with fungal rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Beth L; Broussard, John; Stefanacci, Joseph D

    2005-02-01

    Fungal rhinitis is uncommon in the cat and cases of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis have been rarely reported. Signs of fungal rhinitis include epistaxis, sneezing, mucopurulent nasal discharge and exophthalmos. Brachycephalic feline breeds seem to be at increased risk for development of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis. Computed tomography (CT) imaging and rhinoscopy are useful in assessing the extent of the disease and in obtaining diagnostic samples. Fungal culture may lead to false negative or positive results and must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests. Serological testing was not useful in two cats tested. The cats in this study were treated with oral itraconazole therapy. When itraconazole therapy was discontinued prematurely, clinical signs recurred. Hepatotoxicosis is a possible sequel to itraconazole therapy.

  15. Treatment of experimentally induced cytauxzoonosis in cats with parvaquone and buparvaquone.

    PubMed

    Motzel, S L; Wagner, J E

    1990-02-01

    The efficacy of parvaquone (Clexon) and buparvaquone (Butalex) in treating experimentally induced feline cytauxzoonosis was explored. Domestic cats were inoculated subcutaneously with blood from a cat infected with Cytauxzoon felis and treated daily with either 20 or 30 mg kg-1 parvaquone, or 5 or 10 mg kg-1 buparvaquone, beginning on either the first day parasites were detected in peripheral blood, or 2 days after the onset of parasitemia. Fifteen cats were treated and all but one died due to the infection. Unexpectedly, one of two non-treated, infected control cats survived. Although parvaquone and buparvaquone are the treatments of choice for a related hemoprotozoan parasite causing theileriosis in African cattle, wer concluded that at the dosages and regimes tested, these drugs are not effective treatments for feline cytauxzoonosis. Blood from the two surviving cats was inoculated into naive cats and in these animals clinical disease or death were not observed. The latter two naive recipient cats were then inoculated with a lethal dose of viable, frozen C. felis and both died, thereby indicating that blood from surviving cats did not induce an infectious state that resulted in immunity. The two cats that survived the acute infection were subsequently challenged with a lethal inoculum of C. felis; they showed no clinical signs of cytauxzoonosis and were obviously immune to reinfection.

  16. Human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats: a continuing public health concern in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, E R; Lind, L R; Long, J M; Moll, M E; Rankin, J T; Martin, K F; Deasy, M P; Dato, V M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    Rabid free-ranging cats have been a public health concern in Pennsylvania since raccoon variant rabies first was recognized in the state in the early 1980s. Over the last decade, between 1.5 and 2.5% of cats submitted to Pennsylvania's state laboratories for rabies testing have been positive. In this report, we describe the extent of rabies in free-ranging cats in Pennsylvania. We also present two examples of human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats that occurred in Pennsylvania during 2010-2011 and the public health actions taken to address rabies exposure in the humans and animals. We then describe the concerns surrounding the unvaccinated and free-ranging cat population in Pennsylvania and possible options in managing this public and animal health problem.

  17. Grooming and control of fleas in cats.

    PubMed

    Eckstein; Hart

    2000-05-10

    Oral grooming is common in cats, as in rodent and bovid species where grooming has been shown to be effective in removing lice and ticks. In Experiment 1, we examined the effectiveness of oral grooming in removing fleas which are the main ectoparasite of cats. Elizabethan collars (E-collars) which prevented grooming were fitted on nine cats in a flea-infested household and 3 weeks later, flea numbers on these cats were compared with nine control cats in the same household. Flea numbers dropped in the control cats reflecting an apparent drop in adult fleas in the environment, but in the E-collar cats, flea numbers did not drop, and were about twice as numerous as in control cats. The significantly greater number of fleas on the E-collar cats was attributed to their inability to groom off fleas. In Experiment 2, videotaping of nine different cats from the flea-infested household revealed that these cats groomed at about twice the rate of 10 similarly videotaped control cats from a flea-free colony. These results reveal that flea exposure can increase grooming rate in cats and that grooming is effective in removing fleas.

  18. [Transformation of neuronal activity in the cat lateral geniculate body].

    PubMed

    Silakov, V L

    1976-05-01

    The neuronal activity transformations were studied in the cat LGB under the action of nembutal, light stimulation, and micropolarization of geniculate cells. The transformation of single spike activity into bursts was found to reflect the inhibitory state of the neurons. Their excitation entailed a reverse transformation. Short feed-back connections functioning within the microsystems of LGB neurons are supposed to underlie the transformations.

  19. Community Attitudes and Practices of Urban Residents Regarding Predation by Pet Cats on Wildlife: An International Comparison.

    PubMed

    Hall, Catherine M; Adams, Nigel A; Bradley, J Stuart; Bryant, Kate A; Davis, Alisa A; Dickman, Christopher R; Fujita, Tsumugi; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Lepczyk, Christopher A; McBride, E Anne; Pollock, Kenneth H; Styles, Irene M; van Heezik, Yolanda; Wang, Ferian; Calver, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    International differences in practices and attitudes regarding pet cats' interactions with wildlife were assessed by surveying citizens from at least two cities in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the USA, China and Japan. Predictions tested were: (i) cat owners would agree less than non-cat owners that cats might threaten wildlife, (ii) cat owners value wildlife less than non-cat owners, (iii) cat owners are less accepting of cat legislation/restrictions than non-owners, and (iv) respondents from regions with high endemic biodiversity (Australia, New Zealand, China and the USA state of Hawaii) would be most concerned about pet cats threatening wildlife. Everywhere non-owners were more likely than owners to agree that pet cats killing wildlife were a problem in cities, towns and rural areas. Agreement amongst non-owners was highest in Australia (95%) and New Zealand (78%) and lowest in the UK (38%). Irrespective of ownership, over 85% of respondents from all countries except China (65%) valued wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas. Non-owners advocated cat legislation more strongly than owners except in Japan. Australian non-owners were the most supportive (88%), followed by Chinese non-owners (80%) and Japanese owners (79.5%). The UK was least supportive (non-owners 43%, owners 25%). Many Australian (62%), New Zealand (51%) and Chinese owners (42%) agreed that pet cats killing wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas was a problem, while Hawaiian owners were similar to the mainland USA (20%). Thus high endemic biodiversity might contribute to attitudes in some, but not all, countries. Husbandry practices varied internationally, with predation highest where fewer cats were confined. Although the risk of wildlife population declines caused by pet cats justifies precautionary action, campaigns based on wildlife protection are unlikely to succeed outside Australia or New Zealand. Restrictions on roaming protect wildlife and benefit cat welfare, so welfare is a

  20. Community Attitudes and Practices of Urban Residents Regarding Predation by Pet Cats on Wildlife: An International Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Nigel A.; Bradley, J. Stuart; Bryant, Kate A.; Davis, Alisa A.; Fujita, Tsumugi; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    International differences in practices and attitudes regarding pet cats' interactions with wildlife were assessed by surveying citizens from at least two cities in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the USA, China and Japan. Predictions tested were: (i) cat owners would agree less than non-cat owners that cats might threaten wildlife, (ii) cat owners value wildlife less than non-cat owners, (iii) cat owners are less accepting of cat legislation/restrictions than non-owners, and (iv) respondents from regions with high endemic biodiversity (Australia, New Zealand, China and the USA state of Hawaii) would be most concerned about pet cats threatening wildlife. Everywhere non-owners were more likely than owners to agree that pet cats killing wildlife were a problem in cities, towns and rural areas. Agreement amongst non-owners was highest in Australia (95%) and New Zealand (78%) and lowest in the UK (38%). Irrespective of ownership, over 85% of respondents from all countries except China (65%) valued wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas. Non-owners advocated cat legislation more strongly than owners except in Japan. Australian non-owners were the most supportive (88%), followed by Chinese non-owners (80%) and Japanese owners (79.5%). The UK was least supportive (non-owners 43%, owners 25%). Many Australian (62%), New Zealand (51%) and Chinese owners (42%) agreed that pet cats killing wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas was a problem, while Hawaiian owners were similar to the mainland USA (20%). Thus high endemic biodiversity might contribute to attitudes in some, but not all, countries. Husbandry practices varied internationally, with predation highest where fewer cats were confined. Although the risk of wildlife population declines caused by pet cats justifies precautionary action, campaigns based on wildlife protection are unlikely to succeed outside Australia or New Zealand. Restrictions on roaming protect wildlife and benefit cat welfare, so welfare is a

  1. [Echocardiographic reference ranges of sedated cats].

    PubMed

    Dümmel, C; Neu, H; Hüttig, A; Failing, K

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this study was to get echocardiographic values of sedated healthy cats of the race European short hair for further reference. After the preliminary examinations checking on the state of health (anamnesis, general and special clinical examinations, ECG, X-ray of thorax and preparation of selected laboratory parameters), 74 sedated animals and additionally 33 cats without sedation were echocardiographically measured. For sedatives we used ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine in order to minimize defending movements of the animals and to reduce the heart rate, which facilitated the echocardiographical measurements. The covariance analysis of the measured values showed a statistically significant dependence on the weight. This did not hold for the two calculated values of the fractional shortening (FS) and the quotient of left atrium and aorta (LA/Ao), where the weight-dependence of each component was compensated by the calculation of the quotient. All stated weight-dependent reference values refer to an average bodyweight of 4.0 kg. A dependence on the age did not show in the covariance analysis. Due to the sedation, the diameter of the left atrium (LA) and the diameter of the left ventricular lumen in the diastole (LVDd) as well as the fractional shortening decreased significantly.

  2. Axillary temperature measurement: a less stressful alternative for hospitalised cats?

    PubMed

    Girod, M; Vandenheede, M; Farnir, F; Gommeren, K

    2016-02-20

    Rectal temperature measurement (RTM) can promote stress and defensive behaviour in hospitalised cats. The aim of this study was to assess if axillary temperature measurement (ATM) could be a reliable and less stressful alternative for these animals. In this prospective study, paired rectal and axillary temperatures were measured in 42 cats, either by a veterinarian or a student. To assess the impact of these procedures on the cat's stress state, their heart rate was checked and a cat stress score (CSS) was defined and graded from 1 (relaxed) to 5 (terrified). A moderate correlation was found between RTM and ATM (r=0.52; P<0.0001). RTM was on average 0.9 °C (1.6 °F) higher than ATM (P<0.0001), although a wide variation was found in the difference between these two measurements (-2.1 °C to 3.6 °C (-3.8 °F to 6.5 °F)). ATM failed to identify hypothermia in 25 per cent of the cases and hyperthermia in 19 per cent of the cases but may be considered less stressful than RTM. Indeed, RTM induced a mildly greater increase in heart rate (+6 bpm; P=0.01) and in CSS (+0.2; P=0.001) than ATM. The results were not affected by operator type. In conclusion, RTM should remain the standard method to obtain accurate temperatures in cats.

  3. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Lehman, R.M.; Shiels, W.E.; Blaney, S.M.

    1985-08-01

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis.

  4. Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in three cats.

    PubMed

    Tomsa, Kamil; Glaus, Tony M; Zimmer, Cindy; Greene, Craig E

    2003-05-15

    Localized infection of the nasal or paranasal cavities caused by Aspergillus spp or Penicillium spp was diagnosed in 3 cats. Clinical signs included chronic mucopurulent nasal discharge, epistaxis, and mandibular lymphadenopathy. Rhinoscopic and diagnostic imaging findings were compatible with severe inflammation of the nasal mucosa and destruction of the turbinates. Fungal plaques were observed rhinoscopically in 2 cats, and histologic examination of biopsy specimens revealed fungal colonies with surrounding inflammatory infiltrates in all 3. Results of fungal culture were negative for all 3 cats. Results of serum immunoelectrophoresis for antibodies against Aspergillus spp were positive in 2 cats. Treatment with itraconazole was effective in controlling clinical signs in 1 cat, but hepatotoxicosis developed. A single intranasal infusion of clotrimazole subsequently led to long-term resolution of clinical signs in this cat. Localized aspergillosis-penicilliosis is clinically indistinguishable from other pathologic conditions of the nasal and paranasal cavities in cats and should be considered when examining cats with chronic nasal discharge.

  5. Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats. PMID:10203525

  6. [Lameness of the hindlimbs of the cat].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V

    1989-08-01

    About six to seven per cent of cats presented at the clinic show neurological signs. The largest group consists of traumatized cats. A complete neurological examination is essential for localizing the lesion and establishing a prognosis. Differential diagnosis for paraparesis/paraplegia of pelvic limbs in cats are discussed. Cats are demonstrated which had spinal cord trauma, disc protrusion, aortic thromboembolism and lumbosacral stenosis and the importance of the evaluation of x-rays, cerebrospinal fluid examination and myelography is stressed.

  7. Function Spaces Associated with Schrodinger Operators: the PoEschl-Teller Potential

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-30

    30 JAN 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Function spaces associated with Schrodinger operators...sech2x, n ∈ N, which is called the Pöschl-Teller potential [B99, G89]. The study of H with this potential is related to linearization of nonlinear wave...and Schrödinger equations . In this paper, Date: January 30, 2006. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary: 42B25; Secondary: 35P25, 35J10. Key

  8. Localization in physical systems described by discrete nonlinear Schrodinger-type equations.

    PubMed

    Bishop, A R; Kalosakas, G; Rasmussen, K O; Kevrekidis, P G

    2003-06-01

    Following a short introduction on localized modes in a model system, namely the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, we present explicit results pertaining to three different physical systems described by similar equations. The applications range from the Raman scattering spectra of a complex electronic material through intrinsic localized vibrational modes, to the manifestation of an abrupt and irreversible delocalizing transition of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in two-dimensional optical lattices, and to the instabilities of localized modes in coupled arrays of optical waveguides.

  9. The Shannon entropy information for mixed Manning Rosen potential in D-dimensional Schrodinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparmi, A.; Cari, C.; Nur Pratiwi, Beta; Arya Nugraha, Dewanta

    2017-01-01

    D dimensional Schrodinger equation for the mixed Manning Rosen potential was investigated using supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We obtained the energy eigenvalues from radial part solution and wavefunctions in radial and angular parts solution. From the lowest radial wavefunctions, we evaluated the Shannon entropy information using Matlab software. Based on the entropy densities demonstrated graphically, we obtained that the wave of position information entropy density moves right when the value of potential parameter q increases, while its wave moves left with the increase of parameter α. The wave of momentum information entropy densities were expressed in graphs. We observe that its amplitude increase with increasing parameter q and α

  10. An Exact Mapping from Navier-Stokes Equation to Schr"odinger Equation via Riccati Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianto, Vic; Smarandache, Florentin

    2010-03-01

    In the present article we argue that it is possible to write down Schr"odinger representation of Navier-Stokes equation via Riccati equation. The proposed approach, while differs appreciably from other method such as what is proposed by R. M. Kiehn, has an advantage, i.e. it enables us extend further to quaternionic and biquaternionic version of Navier-Stokes equation, for instance via Kravchenko's and Gibbon's route. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

  11. Finding the Real Wave Equation Sought by Schrodinger for a Nonconservative System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Robert L. W.

    2004-05-01

    Schrodinger believed that a proper quantum mechanical wave equation should be a real wave equation rather than a complex one. The use of some modern mathematical works that did not exist in his time- a theorem in Courant & Hilbert Vol. II among others- enable us to (1) show that there is indeed a problem with the complex wave equation for the case of a nonconservative system, and (2) obtain a satisfactory real wave equation, applicable to conservative as well as nonconservative systems. The difference in results from the existing theory is significant for particles of very small mass.

  12. Cryosurgery of eosinophilic ulcers in cats.

    PubMed

    Willemse, A; Lubberink, A A

    1978-10-15

    The use of cryosurgery in treatment of eosinophilic granuloma in cats is described. Satisfactory results were obtained in 14 of 19 cats and 4 of the 5 cats which did not respond favorably, had multiple lesions. The simplicity of the technique and the rapidity of healing make cryosurgery a useful alternative to previous methods of treatment.

  13. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  14. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  15. CATS Data and Information Page

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-10

    ... of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS).   CATS will provide vertical profiles at three ... (day-to-night) changes in cloud and aerosol effects from space by observing the same spot on Earth at different times each day. ...

  16. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs. PMID:16048015

  17. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  18. [Poxvirus infection in a cat].

    PubMed

    Ballauf, B; Linckh, S; Lechner, J

    1989-01-01

    For the first time, a poxvirus infection was diagnosed as an etiologic agent of dermal disease in a living domestic cat in Germany. A literature survey, the clinical symptoms of the infection and the diagnostic procedures are described. Poxvirus infections should be considered as a differential diagnosis in feline dermatologic problems.

  19. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  20. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you…

  1. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kristin

    2005-06-01

    A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs.

  2. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  3. GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity

    PubMed Central

    Phipps-Yonas, Hannah; Semik, Vikki; Hastings, Karen Taraszka

    2013-01-01

    MHC class II-restricted Ag processing requires protein degradation in the endocytic pathway for the activation of CD4+ T cells. Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) facilitates Ag processing by reducing protein disulfide bonds in this compartment. Lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) contains disulfide bonds and mediates essential steps in MHC class II-restricted processing, including proteolysis of large polypeptides and cleavage of the invariant chain. We sought to determine whether GILT’s reductase activity regulates CatS expression and function. Confocal microscopy confirmed that GILT and CatS colocalized within lysosomes of B cells. GILT expression posttranscriptionally decreased the steady-state protein expression of CatS in primary B cells and B-cell lines. GILT did not substantially alter the expression of other lysosomal proteins, including H2-M, H2-O, or CatL. GILT’s reductase active site was necessary for diminished CatS protein levels, and GILT expression decreased the half-life of CatS, suggesting that GILT-mediated reduction of protein disulfide bonds enhances CatS degradation. GILT expression decreased the proteolysis of a CatS selective substrate. This study illustrates a physiologic mechanism that regulates CatS and has implications for fine tuning MHC class II-restricted Ag processing and for the development of CatS inhibitors, which are under investigation for the treatment of autoimmune disease. PMID:23012103

  4. Growth and decay of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger breathers interacting with internal modes or standing-wave phonons

    PubMed

    Johansson; Aubry

    2000-05-01

    We investigate the long-time evolution of weakly perturbed single-site breathers (localized stationary states) in the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The perturbations we consider correspond to time-periodic solutions of the linearized equations around the breather, and can be either (i) spatially localized or (ii) spatially extended. For case (i), which corresponds to the excitation of an internal mode of the breather, we find that the nonlinear interaction between the breather and its internal mode always leads to a slow growth of the breather amplitude and frequency. In case (ii), corresponding to interaction between the breather and a standing-wave phonon, the breather will grow provided that the wave vector of the phonon is such that the generation of radiating higher harmonics at the breather is possible. In other cases, breather decay is observed. This condition yields a limit value for the breather frequency above which no further growth is possible. We also discuss another mechanism for breather growth and destruction which becomes important when the amplitude of the perturbation is non-negligible, and which originates from the oscillatory instabilities of the nonlinear standing-wave phonons.

  5. Idiopathic generalised tremor syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Mauler, Daniela A; Van Soens, Iris; Bhatti, Sofie F; Cornelis, Ine; Martlé, Valentine A; Van Ham, Luc M

    2014-04-01

    Two male neutered domestic shorthair cats were evaluated for generalised tremors. On neurological examination both cats showed whole-body tremors, worsening with stress. A mainly cerebellar disorder was suspected. Blood examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrophysiological examination of both cats and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in one cat were normal. Idiopathic generalised tremor syndrome (IGTS) was suspected owing to the exclusion of underlying causes and the clinical similarities with the syndrome in dogs. Treatment as recommended for dogs was initiated and resulted in improvement. This report describes the first cases of IGTS in cats.

  6. Improving the Utility of the CATs Video Cam and Tri-axial Accelerometer for Examining Foraging in Top Marine Predators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Improving the Utility of the CATs Video Cam and Tri-axial...is to test the second generation of CATS camera tags, a state-of-the-art archival inertial measurement tag with HD video and satellite for...measurements of foraging and swimming performance in marine vertebrates. The CATS units are capable of recording motion with 9-degrees of freedom at high

  7. Lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease in six cats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennipher E; Dhupa, Sarit

    2008-01-01

    Medical records of six cats diagnosed with lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease were reviewed. Clinical signs included reluctance to jump, low tail carriage, elimination outside the litter box, reluctance to ambulate, pelvic-limb paresis, urinary incontinence, and constipation. All cats had lumbosacral hyperpathia on palpation. Computed tomography in four cats revealed evidence of extradural spinal cord compression at the seventh lumbar (L(7)) to first sacral (S(1)) vertebral interspace. Compression was confirmed via myelography in three of these four cats, with confirmation in the fourth cat at the time of decompressive laminectomy. Each of the six cats underwent dorsal decompressive laminectomy at the L(7) to S(1) interspace. Postoperative clinical follow-up lasted 3 to 35 months, with most cats having excellent outcomes.

  8. Collaborative Assessment Tool (CAT) - Assessing scientific practices in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, Paul

    2017-01-01

    An important learning goal of Projects and Practices in Physics (P3) , the transformed introductory mechanics course at Michigan State University, is the development of scientific practices. The design team, as part of the P3 course construction, made clear attempts to assess learning goals that can often be perceived as being a part of the hidden curriculum or considered difficult to assess (e.g., learning to work productively in a group) by developing a collaborative assessment tool (CAT). The CAT is a formative assessment tool that provides students with a numerical grade for how they participated in their learning group on a weekly basis while also providing feedback in the form of written commentary and suggestions on how they might improve at a particular collaborative practice. In this presentation, we demonstrate the CAT tool from two perspectives: 1) how the CAT tool is used within the P3 context and 2) how the formative feedback has affected changes in student interactions in class. We will present the case studies of 3 students who had differing reactions to the feedback they received. We will explore the role the feedback had in their interactions over a four-week period from an in-class perspective and a reflected perspective through interviews and observations. The analysis will also be presented from a tutor and group perspective, which will highlight the affordances the CAT can have in creating a productive learning group. The research on the CAT shows promise in encouraging growth in students' collaborative skills, but this research is still in its infancy and needs to be expanded to include different contexts.

  9. Hematological values associated to the serological and molecular diagnostic in cats suspected of Ehrlichia canis infection.

    PubMed

    Braga, Isis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Jaune, Felipe Wolf; Ziliani, Thaysa Felfili; Girardi, Angela Ferronatto; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2013-01-01

    The literature contains several studies on feline ehrlichiosis. However, information about the characteristics of Ehrlichia infection in cats is still scanty. This study evaluated the association between Ehrlichia spp. infection and the hematologic data of 93 cats treated at the Federal University of Mato Grosso Veterinary Hospital in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of or exposure to Ehrlichia spp. infection was evaluated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the dsb and 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia, and by detection of anti-Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA), respectively. Eight (8.6%) cats tested positive by PCR and the partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products was a 100% match to E. canis. Forty-two (45.1%) cats showed antibody reactivity against Ehrlichia spp. Hematological alterations such as low erythrocyte count, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and monocytosis were observed in PCR positive cats. Among them, low erythrocyte counts were associated with IgG antibody titers of 40 to 640 and five cats also tested positive by PCR. Furthermore, PCR-positive cats showed a tendency to be lymphopenic. No correlation was found between age and sex, and no ticks were observed in any of the examined cats.

  10. Guardians' Perceptions of Cats' Welfare and Behavior Regarding Visiting Veterinary Clinics.

    PubMed

    Mariti, Chiara; Bowen, Jonathan E; Campa, Sonia; Grebe, Gabriele; Sighieri, Claudio; Gazzano, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the welfare of cats at the veterinary clinic and how caregivers and veterinarians affect it, a survey of Italian cat guardians (n = 1,111) was conducted using a 28-item multichoice questionnaire. Most cats showed impaired welfare during all stages of a clinic visit: before entering, in the waiting room, moving to the examination room, on the examination table, and after returning home. A relationship was found between welfare states in each stage. Stress worsened with further experience and had negative effects on traveling and handling in other situations. Restraint, pain, and anxiety led to aggression toward vets and guardians. Guardians showed a positive attitude toward their cats' health and welfare, and the veterinarians' behavior toward the cats was a reason for changing the veterinarian. One in 10 veterinarians examined the cat immediately, without stroking, talking, or offering food. However, the use of food was effective only if cats were not already stressed. Educating guardians and veterinarians to minimize stress during every stage of a clinic visit is the best approach to improving welfare for cats visiting the clinic.

  11. Isolation of Tritrichomonas foetus from cats sampled at a cat clinic, cat shows and a humane society in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Hosein, Ansarah; Kruth, Stephen A; Pearl, David L; Richardson, Danielle; Maggs, Jocelyn C; Peach, Hillary A; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2013-08-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that has been associated with chronic diarrhea in cats. This study aimed to determine (i) the prevalence of T foetus shedding in cats from three different populations in southern Ontario, and (ii) associations between the presence of T foetus and potential cat management, health and demographic risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 140 cats from a cat clinic in Guelph, 46 cats from a humane society in Guelph and 55 cats from two cat shows. Risk factor information was assessed through a questionnaire. The InPouch TF (feline) culture method was used to determine the presence of T foetus in all samples. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted on all samples positive by the InPouch TF, as well as 132 negative samples. The assays were interpreted in series and the prevalence of T foetus shedding and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated at 0.7% (95% CI: 0.0-3.9%; n = 140) from the cat clinic, 0% (95% CI: 0.0-7.7%; n = 46) from the humane society and 23.6% (95% CI: 13.2-37.0%; n = 55) from the cat shows. 'Attendance at cat shows' was the only variable significant in both the univariable and multivariable analyses (P <0.05). No significant association was found between the presence of T foetus and diarrhea at the time of sampling or having a history of diarrhea in the past 6 months. The prevalence of T foetus was highly variable among populations of cats in southern Ontario, with shedding being most common in show cats.

  12. [Platelet count in the cat].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Hoffmann, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of collecting blood samples is primarily responsible for the appearance of platelet-agglomeration in cats. Blood obtained by the conventional way ("one syringe technology", drips of blood) caused in 52% of the cases an activation of the large and therefore active thrombocytes however. Rejection of the first 2-5 ml blood for the platelet count ("two syringe technology") reduced the rate of platelet-agglomeration significantly. No big differences in platelet-agglomeration were found with regard to the place used for collecting blood (V. cephalica antebrachii/V. jugularis). Platelet-agglutination was observed with Li-Heparin, K-EDTA, Na-Citrat or ACD anticoagulated blood samples. Citrat (Na-Citrat, ACD) seemed to have a stabilizing effect on feline thrombocytes as has been described for human thrombocytes. The platelet count in cats should be performed within 30 minutes.

  13. Myeloproliferative disease in a cat

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, R.W.; Weller, R.E.; Feldman, B.F.

    1984-10-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders, a complex of cytologic abnormalities arising in the bone marrow, are among domestic animals most frequently recognized in cats but are relatively uncommon. A 4-year-old female Siamese, with splenomegaly and weight loss, was listless, anorectic, pale and dehydrated. A hemogram showed severe, macrocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis and reticulocytosis, with abnormally high numbers of nucleated RBC and undifferentiated blast cells. Bone marrow smears contained predominantly undifferentiated blast cells, RBC precursors and myeloblasts. The fluorescent antibody test for FeLV was positive. The cat died 66 days later despite a blood transfusion and chemotherapy. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, with hepatic and splenic invasion. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  14. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats.

  15. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat.

  16. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, Émilie; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24 h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48 h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24 h and 48 h respectively. At 1 h post-contact, five fleas were found on the receiver cats, with three cats having one flea and one cat, two fleas. The number of fleas recovered on receiver cats increased towards the end of the study. At 24 h, 20% of the fleas were found on the receiver cats, and at 48 h, 23%. In a second experiment, the six flea-free cats were put in contact with the six donor cats which were each infested by 100 fleas 48 h before. Fewer fleas were found on the receiver cats (n = 15), representing 3.8% of all fleas recovered (n = 403). All the observed fleas had fed. The fleas collected on receiving cats comprised 10 males and 5 females, and 4 of the 5 females were engorged and contained eggs. The fleas collected on donor cats comprised 153 males and 235 females, they were all fed and all females contained eggs. This experiment demonstrated that gravid female fleas have a tendency to become permanently but not exclusively parasitic. Nevertheless, a few can change their cat host in as little as 1 h, which may play a role in the rapid introduction of a new flea population into a cat environment. PMID:24309021

  17. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-11-01

    A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of ototoxicity in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows one to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy.

  18. Cat Scratch Disease: Expanded Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Hassan A.; Plesec, Thomas P.; Sabella, Camille; Udayasankar, Unni K.; Singh, Arun D.

    2016-01-01

    Background To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. Methods Case report. Results A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7.5 × 3.8 mm lesion with a possible 6.3 mm of retrolaminar extension into the substance of the optic nerve. Brain MRI did not show evidence of optic nerve involvement but revealed a 6-mm nodule of the pineal gland suggestive of a pineoblastoma. Enucleation was performed and histopathology revealed a suppurative granulomatous inflammation suggestive of Bartonella infection. Upon further questioning, the patient had recent exposure to kittens with areas of cat scratches along both of his arms. He was subsequently referred to and treated with a 2-week course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and rifampin by the pediatric infectious disease specialist. Repeat brain MRI showed interval total resolution of enlarged pineal gland. Conclusion: Optic nerve granulomas are a rare presentation of cat scratch disease and could potentially masquerade as retinoblastoma. PMID:27843905

  19. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    PubMed

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (< 2.5 mg/dL) subsequent to enteral alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  20. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  1. Strategies of retrovirus survival in the cat.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, O

    1999-09-01

    Retroviruses establish persistent infections in their hosts which often lead to serious and fatal diseases after a long incubation period. The molecular basis of this persistence is the integration of a copy of the viral genome into cellular chromosomal DNA. At the level of the whole animal, however, each retrovirus genus has evolved a different strategy to ensure its survival. This variety is well illustrated in the cat. Feline leukaemia virus, an oncovirus, has a simple genomic structure and survives in its host by suppressing the immune response to the virus. As a result, this virus is antigenically highly conserved. By contrast, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline foamy virus, representatives of the lentiviruses and spumaviruses, respectively, have more complex genomes which include genes responsible for maintaining the virus in a latent state thereby avoiding elimination in the face of a powerful antiviral immune response. In the lentiviruses, this response drives the selection of viruses exhibiting variation in antigenicity and pathogenicity.

  2. An implicit fast Fourier transform method for integration of the time dependent Schrodinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.E.; Ritchie, A.B.

    1997-12-31

    One finds that the conventional exponentiated split operator procedure is subject to difficulties when solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for Coulombic systems. By rearranging the kinetic and potential energy terms in the temporal propagator of the finite difference equations, one can find a propagation algorithm for three dimensions that looks much like the Crank-Nicholson and alternating direction implicit methods for one- and two-space-dimensional partial differential equations. The authors report investigations of this novel implicit split operator procedure. The results look promising for a purely numerical approach to certain electron quantum mechanical problems. A charge exchange calculation is presented as an example of the power of the method.

  3. Simulating the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation with a quantum lattice-gas algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezkuta, Zachary; Coffey, Mark

    2007-03-01

    Quantum computing algorithms promise remarkable improvements in speed or memory for certain applications. Currently, the Type II (or hybrid) quantum computer is the most feasible to build. This consists of a large number of small Type I (pure) quantum computers that compute with quantum logic, but communicate with nearest neighbors in a classical way. The arrangement thus formed is suitable for computations that execute a quantum lattice gas algorithm (QLGA). We report QLGA simulations for both the linear and nonlinear time-dependent Schr"odinger equation. These evidence the stable, efficient, and at least second order convergent properties of the algorithm. The simulation capability provides a computational tool for applications in nonlinear optics, superconducting and superfluid materials, Bose-Einstein condensates, and elsewhere.

  4. Efficient Massively-Parallel Approach for Soving the Time-Dependent Schrodinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, B. I.; Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.

    2006-05-01

    A variety of problems in physics and chemistry require the solution of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation (TDSE), including atoms and molecules in oscillating electromagnetic fields, atomic collisions, ultracold systems, and materials subjected to external forces. We describe an approach in which the Finite Element Discrete Variable Representation (FEDVR) is combined with the Real-Space Product (RSP) algorithm to generate an efficient and highly accurate method for the solution of both the linear and nonlinear TDSE. The FEDVR provides a highly-accurate spatial representation using a minimum number of grid points (N) while the RSP algorithm propagates the wavefunction in O(N) operations per time step. Parallelization of the method is transparent and is implemented by distributing one or two spatial dimension across the available processors within the Message-Passing-Interface (MPI) scheme. The complete formalism and a number of three-dimensional (3D) examples are given.

  5. Higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equations for simulations of surface wavetrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slunyaev, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Numerous recent results of numerical and laboratory simulations of waves on the water surface claim that solutions of the weakly nonlinear theory for weakly modulated waves in many cases allow a smooth generalization to the conditions of strong nonlinearity and dispersion, even when the 'envelope' is difficult to determine. The conditionally 'strongly nonlinear' high-order asymptotic equations still imply the smallness of the parameter employed in the asymptotic series. Thus at some (unknown a priori) level of nonlinearity and / or dispersion the asymptotic theory breaks down; then the higher-order corrections become useless and may even make the description worse. In this paper we use the higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation, derived in [1] (the fifth-order NLS equation, or next-order beyond the classic Dysthe equation [2]), for simulations of modulated deep-water wave trains, which attain very large steepness (below or beyond the breaking limit) due to the Benjamin - Feir instability. The results are compared with fully nonlinear simulations of the potential Euler equations as well as with the weakly nonlinear theories represented by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the classic Dysthe equation with full linear dispersion [2]. We show that the next-order Dysthe equation can significantly improve the description of strongly nonlinear wave dynamics compared with the lower-order asymptotic models. [1] A.V. Slunyaev, A high-order nonlinear envelope equation for gravity waves in finite-depth water. JETP 101, 926-941 (2005). [2] K. Trulsen, K.B. Dysthe, A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation for broader bandwidth gravity waves on deep water. Wave Motion 24, 281-289 (1996).

  6. Triglyceride response following an oral fat tolerance test in Burmese cats, other pedigree cats and domestic crossbred cats.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Elissa K; Hardman, Chloë; Govendir, Merran; Baral, Randolph M; Sullivan, David R; Snow, David; Malik, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Primary lipid disorders causing fasting triglyceridaemia have been documented infrequently in Burmese cats. Due to the known increased risk of diabetes mellitus and sporadic reports of lipid aqueous in this breed, the aim of this study was to determine whether healthy Burmese cats displayed a more pronounced pre- or post-prandial triglyceridaemia compared to other cats. Serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were determined at baseline and variably at 2, 4 and 6h after ingestion of a high-fat meal (ie, an oral fat tolerance test) in a representative sample of Burmese and non-Burmese cats. The median 4 and 6h serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in Burmese cats (4h - 2.8mmol/l; 6h - 8.2mmol/l) than in other pedigree and domestic crossbred cats (4h - 1.5mmol/l; 6h - 1.0mmol/l). The non-Burmese group had post-prandial TG concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 3.9mmol/l. Seven Burmese cats had post-prandial TG concentrations between 6.6 and 19.0mmol/l, five had concentrations between 4.2 and 4.7mmol/l, while the remaining 15 had post-prandial concentrations between 0.5 and 2.8mmol/l. None of these Burmese cats had fasting triglyceridaemia. Most Burmese cats with a 4 h TG > 6.0 mmol/l had elevated fasting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. This study demonstrates that a proportion of Burmese cats in Australia have delayed TG clearance compared to other cats. The potential repercussions of this observation with reference to lipid aqueous, pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus in Burmese cats are discussed.

  7. Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus) Do Not Show Signs of Secure Attachment to Their Owners

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Alice; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Ainsworth Strange Situation Test (SST) has been widely used to demonstrate that the bond between both children and dogs to their primary carer typically meets the requirements of a secure attachment (i.e. the carer being perceived as a focus of safety and security in otherwise threatening environments), and has been adapted for cats with a similar claim made. However methodological problems in this latter research make the claim that the cat-owner bond is typically a secure attachment, operationally definable by its behaviour in the SST, questionable. We therefore developed an adapted version of the SST with the necessary methodological controls which include a full counterbalance of the procedure. A cross-over design experiment with 20 cat-owner pairs (10 each undertaking one of the two versions of the SST first) and continuous focal sampling was used to record the duration of a range of behavioural states expressed by the cats that might be useful for assessing secure attachment. Since data were not normally distributed, non-parametric analyses were used on those behaviours shown to be reliable across the two versions of the test (which excluded much cat behaviour). Although cats vocalised more when the owner rather the stranger left the cat with the other individual, there was no other evidence consistent with the interpretation of the bond between a cat and its owner meeting the requirements of a secure attachment. These results are consistent with the view that adult cats are typically quite autonomous, even in their social relationships, and not necessarily dependent on others to provide a sense of security and safety. It is concluded that alternative methods need to be developed to characterise the normal psychological features of the cat-owner bond. PMID:26332470

  8. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection in domestic cats in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Nadia R; Danelli, Maria G M; da Silva, Lucia H P; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Mazur, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Peripheral blood smears of 1094 domestic cats were collected and tested by indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay for p27 antigen in cells to study the prevalence and risk factors for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Sex, age, breed, outdoor access, neutering status, type of habitation (household, shelter, veterinary clinics and other places), number of household cats and clinical signs were registered on a form. Among the tested samples, 11.52% were positive. Risk factors for FeLV infection included outdoor access, age range between 1 and 5 years old, and cohabitation with numerous cats.

  9. Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 in a cat with a supernumerary kidney.

    PubMed

    Pedrassani, Daniela; Wendt, Hamilton; Rennau, Erley Alexandre; Pereira, Samuel Tibes; Wendt, Simone Balão Taques

    2014-03-01

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyme renale in a supernumerary kidney and abdominal cavity of a female cat in Brazil. The three-year-old cat of indeterminate breed presented abdominal distension and was taken to the University of Contestado Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, state of Santa Catarina, since the owner suspected pregnancy. An ultrasound scan did not confirm pregnancy but revealed parasitism in the kidney. This case is worth reporting because domestic cats are rarely hosts of this nematode species.

  10. A review of feral cat control.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution.

  11. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  12. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-21

    dogs and a cat . Vet Pathol 1987;24:192-194. 4. Migaki G, Casey HW, Bayles WB. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a dog . J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987;191(8):997...IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic

  13. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease.

  14. Pulmonary transcription of CAT-2 and CAT-2B but not CAT-1 and CAT-2A were upregulated in hemorrhagic shock rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jen; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Yang, Chen-Hsien; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Stevens, Bruce R; Skimming, Jeffrey W; Pan, Wynn H T

    2004-11-01

    Hemorrhagic shock stimulates nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis through upregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. Trans-membrane l-arginine transportation mediated by the isozymes of cationic amino acid transporters (e.g. CAT-1, CAT-2, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B) is one crucial regulatory mechanism that regulates iNOS activity. We sought to assess the effects of hemorrhage and resuscitation on the expression of these regulatory enzymes in hemorrhage-stimulated rat lungs. Twenty-four rats were randomized to a sham-instrumented group, a sustained shock group, a shock with blood resuscitation group, or a shock with normal saline resuscitation group. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood to maintain MAP between 40 and 45mmHg for 60min. Resuscitation by infusing blood/saline mixtures (blood resuscitation group) or saline alone (saline resuscitation group) was then performed. At the end of the experiment (300min after hemorrhage began), rats were sacrificed and enzymes expression as well as pulmonary NO biosynthesis and lung injuries were assayed. Our data revealed that hemorrhage-induced pulmonary iNOS, CAT-2, and CAT-2B transcription which was associated with pulmonary NO overproduction and subsequent lung injury. Resuscitation significantly attenuated the hemorrhage-induced enzyme upregulation, pulmonary NO overproduction, and lung injury. Blood/saline mixtures were superior to saline as a resuscitation solution in treating hemorrhage-induced pulmonary NO overproduction and lung injury. Hemorrhage and/or resuscitation, however, did not affect the expression of pulmonary CAT-1 and CAT-2A. It is, therefore, concluded that the expression of pulmonary iNOS, CAT-2, and CAT-2B is inducible and that of CAT-1 and CAT-2A is constitutive in hemorrhagic shock rat lungs.

  15. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact.

  16. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  17. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  18. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  19. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  20. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  1. [Asthma caused by allergy to cat fur].

    PubMed

    May, K L; Hofman, T

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity to cats fur alergen, Fel. d. 1 is presented as the second most important cause, after allergy to mites, of perennial atopic asthma. The authors collected the data from literature concerning the concentrations of Fel. d. 1 in homes and public places. Further the structure and production of Fel d. 1 also its cross reactivity and the methods of it's elimination from the environment are described and discussed. Authors own observations of 20 cases of cats fur asthma and atopic dermatitis support the opinion that only half of the patients suspect cats as the cause of their illness and cats fur sensitivity is always accompanied by inhalant or food allergy.

  2. Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Jens; Luis Fuentes, Virginia; Wess, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats, and it can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Cats are often screened for HCM because of the presence of a heart murmur, but screening for breeding purposes has also become common. These cats are usually purebred cats of breeding age, and generally do not present with severe disease or with any clinical signs. This type of screening is particularly challenging because mild disease may be difficult to differentiate from a normal phenotype, and the margin for error is small, with potentially major consequences for the breeder. This article reviews HCM screening methods, with particular emphasis on echocardiography.

  3. Solution of three dimensional Schrodinger equation for Eckart and Manning-Rosen non-central potential using asymptotic iteration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farizky, M. N.; Suparmi, A.; Cari, C.; Yunianto, M.

    2016-11-01

    Solution of Schrodinger equation in three dimensions for Eckart and Manning-Rosen potential has been obtained by using the asymptotic iteration method. Energy spectrum and wave function for these potentials was obtained. It is known that the wave function for the corresponding potentials contains hypergeometric series due to the type of Schrodinger equation. However, the wave function for radial part is not normalizable, due to its equation that reaches to infinity when r equals to zero. The energy spectrum and wave function for corresponding potentials had also been analyzed with the help of Matlab R2013a software.

  4. Study of vortex ring dynamics in the nonlinear Schrodinger equation utilizing GPU-accelerated high-order compact numerical integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Ronald Meyer

    We numerically study the dynamics and interactions of vortex rings in the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). Single ring dynamics for both bright and dark vortex rings are explored including their traverse velocity, stability, and perturbations resulting in quadrupole oscillations. Multi-ring dynamics of dark vortex rings are investigated, including scattering and merging of two colliding rings, leapfrogging interactions of co-traveling rings, as well as co-moving steady-state multi-ring ensembles. Simulations of choreographed multi-ring setups are also performed, leading to intriguing interaction dynamics. Due to the inherent lack of a close form solution for vortex rings and the dimensionality where they live, efficient numerical methods to integrate the NLSE have to be developed in order to perform the extensive number of required simulations. To facilitate this, compact high-order numerical schemes for the spatial derivatives are developed which include a new semi-compact modulus-squared Dirichlet boundary condition. The schemes are combined with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme in order to keep the overall method fully explicit. To ensure efficient use of the schemes, a stability analysis is performed to find bounds on the largest usable time step-size as a function of the spatial step-size. The numerical methods are implemented into codes which are run on NVIDIA graphic processing unit (GPU) parallel architectures. The codes running on the GPU are shown to be many times faster than their serial counterparts. The codes are developed with future usability in mind, and therefore are written to interface with MATLAB utilizing custom GPU-enabled C codes with a MEX-compiler interface. Reproducibility of results is achieved by combining the codes into a code package called NLSEmagic which is freely distributed on a dedicated website.

  5. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  6. The first record of American visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alba Valéria Machado; de Souza Cândido, Claudia Dias; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first to report visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A relatively high seroprevalence of 25% was observed although none of them have presented any symptom. Our results support the observation of previous authors, suggesting that cats may be considered as alternative domestic hosts of visceral leishmaniasis and should be included in serological investigations performed in endemic areas.

  7. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  8. Retrospective study to characterize post-obstructive diuresis in cats with urethral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Francis, Brenda J; Wells, Raegan J; Rao, Sangeeta; Hackett, Timothy B

    2010-08-01

    Urethral obstruction is a common medical emergency in cats. Frequency of post-obstruction diuresis in cats following resolution of urethral obstruction is unknown. The objective of this study was to document frequency and associated clinical features of post-obstruction diuresis in cats. The records of 32 cats undergoing 33 admissions to the Colorado State University Veterinary Hospital for urethral obstruction were reviewed. Signalment, admission blood values, fluid therapy, and urine output were recorded. Diuresis was defined as urine output greater than 2ml/kg/h. Post-obstructive diuresis occurred in 46% (13/28) of cats within the first 6h of treatment. Occurrence of post-obstructive diuresis was statistically more likely in cats with venous pH<7.35 on admission. Urine production following resolution of urethral obstruction should be monitored so that fluid therapy can be adjusted to the individual patient, as many cats will have a higher fluid requirement secondary to post-obstruction diuresis.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles in P. multocida strains isolated from cats

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; de Gobbi, Debora Dirani Sena; Moreno, Marina; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2015-01-01

    Cats are often described as carriers of Pasteurella multocida in their oral microbiota. This agent is thought to cause pneumonia, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, gingivostomatitis, abscess and osteonecrosis in cats. Human infection with P. multocida has been described in several cases affecting cat owners or after cat bites. In Brazil, the cat population is approximately 21 million animals and is increasing, but there are no studies of the presence of P. multocida in the feline population or of human cases of infection associated with cats. In this study, one hundred and ninety-one healthy cats from owners and shelters in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for the presence of P. multocida in their oral cavities. Twenty animals were positive for P. multocida , and forty-one strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. The P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes and resistance profile. A total of 75.6% (31/41) of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 24.4% (10/41) of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA, tbpA or pfhA genes. The frequencies of the other genes tested were variable, and the data generated were used to build a dendrogram showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. The most common resistance profile observed was against sulfizoxazole and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. PMID:26221117

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles in P. multocida strains isolated from cats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; de Gobbi, Debora Dirani Sena; Moreno, Marina; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2015-03-01

    Cats are often described as carriers of Pasteurella multocida in their oral microbiota. This agent is thought to cause pneumonia, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, gingivostomatitis, abscess and osteonecrosis in cats. Human infection with P. multocida has been described in several cases affecting cat owners or after cat bites. In Brazil, the cat population is approximately 21 million animals and is increasing, but there are no studies of the presence of P. multocida in the feline population or of human cases of infection associated with cats. In this study, one hundred and ninety-one healthy cats from owners and shelters in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for the presence of P. multocida in their oral cavities. Twenty animals were positive for P. multocida , and forty-one strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. The P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes and resistance profile. A total of 75.6% (31/41) of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 24.4% (10/41) of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA, tbpA or pfhA genes. The frequencies of the other genes tested were variable, and the data generated were used to build a dendrogram showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. The most common resistance profile observed was against sulfizoxazole and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.

  11. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom.

  12. The Solutions of the D-dimensional Schrodinger Equation for the Potential V(r) = ar-6+br-5+cr-4+dr-3+er-2+fr-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyulianti; Suparmi; Cari; Anwar, Fuad

    2017-01-01

    The solutions of the D-dimensional Schrodinger equation was solved by using Wavefunction Ansatz method. We used the form of potential as V(r) = ar-6+br-5+cr-4+dr-3+ er-2+fr-1 . The D-dimensional Schrodinger equation was separated to radial part and angular part. The radial part of D-dimensional Schrodinger equation solved using Wavefunction Ansatz method. We obtained the energy equation and the radial wavefunctions.

  13. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to an Electronic Containment System on the Behaviour and Welfare of Domestic Cats

    PubMed Central

    Kasbaoui, Naïma; Cooper, Jonathan; Mills, Daniel S.; Burman, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Free-roaming cats are exposed to a variety of risks, including involvement in road traffic accidents. One way of mitigating these risks is to contain cats, for example using an electronic boundary fence system that delivers an electric ‘correction’ via a collar if a cat ignores a warning cue and attempts to cross the boundary. However, concerns have been expressed over the welfare impact of such systems. Our aim was to determine if long-term exposure to an electronic containment system was associated with reduced cat welfare. We compared 46 owned domestic cats: 23 cats that had been contained by an electronic containment system for more than 12 months (AF group); and 23 cats with no containment system that were able to roam more widely (C group). We assessed the cats’ behavioural responses and welfare via four behavioural tests (unfamiliar person test; novel object test; sudden noise test; cognitive bias test) and an owner questionnaire. In the unfamiliar person test, C group lip-licked more than the AF group, whilst the AF group looked at, explored and interacted more with the unfamiliar person than C group. In the novel object test, the AF group looked at and explored the object more than C group. No significant differences were found between AF and C groups for the sudden noise or cognitive bias tests. Regarding the questionnaire, C group owners thought their cats showed more irritable behaviour and AF owners thought that their cats toileted inappropriately more often than C owners. Overall, AF cats were less neophobic than C cats and there was no evidence of significant differences between the populations in general affective state. These findings indicate that an electronic boundary fence with clear pre-warning cues does not impair the long term quality of life of cats. PMID:27602572

  14. A Masterpiece in a New Genre: The Rhetorical Negotiation of Two Audiences in Schrodinger's "What Is Life?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceccarelli, Leah

    1994-01-01

    Argues that, by identifying physicist Erwin Schrodinger's book "What is Life?" as inspirational community-forming discourse, it is possible to recognize the rhetorical artistry of his negotiation between two audiences. Notes that the book builds common ground, applies productive ambiguity at a key point of collision, and skillfully…

  15. Chronic progressive polyarthritis in a female cat.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, Eiji; Yamada, Kazutaka; Oohashi, Mirai; Ueda, Junji

    2010-04-01

    Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis is a rare immune-mediated disease that has only previously been reported in male cats. A one-year-old female cat was presented with anorexia, lassitude and lameness. The tarsal, carpal and elbow joints revealed swelling, pain, stiffness, crepitus and regional lymphadenopathy, and fever was present. The cat was clinically diagnosed with chronic progressive polyarthritis based on the fever, swelling of joints, imaging of erosive proliferative periosteal polyarthritis, positivity for antinuclear antibody, synovial fluid analyses and urinalyses. Both feline leukemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody were positive. Using hair root DNA, polymerase chain reaction amplification targeting the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome gene amplified the fragment of DNA from a normal male cat, but not amplified from a normal female cat or the present cat. Accordingly, the present cat was classified as genetically female. Cyclosporine treatment was started, and the general condition and movement quickly improved and continued for 8 months post-diagnosis. This is the first report of chronic progressive polyarthritis in a female cat.

  16. Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    ... observing platform. CATS provides in-space demonstration of technologies for future satellite missions while demonstrating build-to-cost ... (CPL) on the ER-2 on Feb 10, 17, 20 and 21. For more information, please see the CATS homepage  or the attached  presentation ...

  17. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  18. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  19. Dirofilaria immitis in cats: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C Thomas

    2008-07-01

    Imaging and laboratory studies can help with the diagnosis of heartworm disease in cats, but no test is definitive. Furthermore, even when the diagnosis can be reliably established, therapy directed at the heartworms does little to help the cat. Rather, management is directed at alleviating clinical signs, with an emphasis on prevention for all.

  20. Bradyarrhythmia in an anaesthetised, elderly, hypertensive cat.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, Kim; Zaki, Sanaa; Maddern, Kieren; Lingard, Amy; Barrs, Vanessa; Malik, Richard

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old neutered male domestic shorthaired cat was presented to the University Veterinary Centre Sydney for evaluation and treatment of dental disease. This cat developed an unusual bradyarrhythmia under anaesthesia. The possible causes and treatment of the dysrythmia are discussed.

  1. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture. PMID:12001504

  2. Shock wave dynamics in a discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with internal losses

    PubMed

    Salerno; Malomed; Konotop

    2000-12-01

    Propagation of a shock wave (SW), converting an energy-carrying domain into an empty one, is studied in a discrete version of the normal-dispersion nonlinear Schrodinger equation with viscosity, which may describe, e.g., an array of optical fibers in a weakly lossy medium. It is found that the SW in the discrete model is stable, as well as in its earlier studied continuum counterpart. In a strongly discrete case, the dependence of the SWs velocity upon the amplitude of the energy-carrying background is found to obey a simple linear law, which differs by a value of the proportionality coefficient from a similar law in the continuum model. For the underdamped case, the velocity of the shock wave is found to be vanishing along with the viscosity constant. We argue that the latter feature is universal for long but finite systems, both discrete and continuum. The dependence of the SW's width on the parameters of the system is also discussed.

  3. Experimental signatures of semiclassical gravity and the many-body Schrodinger-Newton equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helou, Bassam

    2015-04-01

    In semiclassical gravity, the many-body Schrodinger-Newton (SN) equation, which governs the evolution of a many-particle system under self gravity, predicts that classical and quantum eigenfrequencies of a macroscopic mechanical oscillator are different. For high- Q and low-frequency (~ 10s of mHz) torsional pendulums made with atoms with small internal motion fluctuations, such as Tungsten or Platinum, this difference can be considerably larger than the classical eigenfrequency of the pendulum. We exploit this split in the design of an optomechanics experiment which, in contrast with experiments that test for quantum gravity, is feasible with current technology and which distinguishes, at low temperatures and within about a year, between the predictions of the SN equation and standard quantum mechanics. Specifically, we propose using light to probe the motion of such oscillators. Moreover, the nonlinearity induced by the SN equation forces us to revisit the wavefunction collapse postulate, resulting in two proposed prescriptions for how the measurement of the light is performed. Each predict a noticeable feature in the spectrum of the outgoing light that is separate from the features of classical force noise.

  4. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the cat.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-08-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a syndrome caused by an insufficient amount of pancreatic digestive enzymes in the small intestine. Clinical signs most commonly reported in cats with EPI are weight loss, loose and voluminous stools, steatorrhea, polyphagia, and in some cases a greasy soiling of the hair coat in the perianal region. Serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity concentration is the diagnostic test of choice for the diagnosis of affected cats. Treatment of cats with EPI consists of enzyme supplementation with either a powdered pancreatic extract or raw pancreas. Most cats with EPI also have severely decreased serum cobalamin concentrations and may require lifelong parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Most cats respond well to therapy and can have a normal life expectancy and quality of life.

  5. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  6. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.

  7. Therapeutic serum phenobarbital concentrations obtained using chronic transdermal administration of phenobarbital in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Delamaide Gasper, Joy A; Barnes Heller, Heidi L; Robertson, Michelle; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2015-04-01

    Seizures are a common cause of neurologic disease, and phenobarbital (PB) is the most commonly used antiepileptic drug. Chronic oral dosing can be challenging for cat owners, leading to poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine if the transdermal administration of PB could achieve serum PB concentrations of between 15 and 45 μg/ml in healthy cats. Nineteen healthy cats were enrolled in three groups. Transdermal PB in pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) was applied to the pinnae for 14 days at a dosage of 3 mg/kg q12h in group 1 (n = 6 cats) and 9 mg/kg q12h in group 2 (n = 7 cats). Transdermal PB in Lipoderm Activemax was similarly applied at 9 mg/kg q12h for 14 days in group 3 (n = 6 cats). Steady-state serum PB concentrations were measured at trough, and at 2, 4 and 6 h after the morning dose on day 15. In group 1, median concentrations ranged from 6.0-7.5 μg/ml throughout the day (observed range 0-11 μg/ml). Group 2 median concentrations were 26.0 μg/ml (observed range 18.0-37.0 μg/ml). For group 3, median concentrations ranged from 15.0-17.0 μg/ml throughout the day (range 5-29 μg/ml). Side effects were mild. One cat was withdrawn from group 2 owing to ataxia and sedation. These results show therapeutic serum PB concentrations can be achieved in cats following chronic transdermal administration of PB in PLO at a dosage of 9 mg/kg q12h. More individual variation was noted using Lipoderm Activemax. Transdermal administration may be an alternative for cats that are difficult to medicate orally.

  8. Not another type of potato: MC1R and the russet coloration of Burmese cats.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, N A; Gandolfi, B; Lyons, L A

    2017-02-01

    The Burmese is a breed of domestic cat that originated in Southeast Asia and was further developed in the United States. Variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) causes common coat colour phenotypes in a variety of mammalian species but only limited colour variation in the domestic cat. Known as the extension (E) locus, melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) interacts with the agouti locus to produce the eumelanin and pheomelanin pigments. Recently, a novel reddish coloration, which is termed russet, was identified in the Burmese cat breed. Because this russet Burmese coloration changes with aging, MC1R was suggested as candidate gene. The similar colouration in specific lineages of Norwegian Forest cat known as amber (e) (c.250G>A; p.Asp84Asn) was excluded for this Burmese phenotype. The complete 954-bp coding region of MC1R was directly sequenced in russet Burmese and suspected carriers. A 3-bp deletion (c.439_441del) associated with the deletion of a phenyalanine (p.Phe146del) in the protein sequence was identified. All russet coloured cats were homozygous for the variant, and all obligate carriers were heterozygous, confirming that the deletion segregated concordantly with colouring in Burmese cats from the New Zealand foundation lineage. The variant was not identified in 442 cats from 26 different breeds and random-bred cats. Twenty-six Burmese from the USA did not have the variant. This MC1R variant defines a unique coloration and the second breed-specific MC1R variant in cats. The interactions of the two recessive feline MC1R alleles (E  >  e, e(r) ) is unknown.

  9. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  10. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  11. Renal morphology in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Benali, S; Coppola, L; Guscetti, F; Ackermann, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Aresu, L

    2014-11-01

    In humans, diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important cause of renal damage, with glomerular lesions being predominant. In cats, although diabetes is a common endocrinopathy, it is yet unknown whether it leads to renal damage. The aim of the study was to compare renal histologic features and parameters of renal function in diabetic cats against a control population matched for age, gender, breed, and body weight. Thirty-two diabetic and 20 control cats were included. Kidney sections from paraffin-embedded kidney samples were stained and examined with optical microscopy to identify glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions and to assess their frequency and severity. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations were also compared. Glomerular lesions were observed in 29 cats overall, with mesangial matrix increase being more common (19 cats). Tubulointerstitial lesions were observed in 42 cats, including lymphocytic infiltration (29), fibrosis (22), or tubular necrosis (21). Vascular lesions were observed in 5 cases. The frequency and severity of histologic lesions did not differ between diabetic and control cats; however, among diabetics, those that survived longer after diagnosis had more glomerular and vascular lesions. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations were similar between groups; in diabetic cats median creatinine was 109 μmol/l (range, 51-1200) and urea was 12 mmol/l (range, 4-63), and in controls creatinine was 126 μmol/l (range, 50-875) and urea 11 mmol/l (range, 3-80). The results suggest that DM in cats does not lead to microscopically detectable kidney lesions or clinically relevant renal dysfunction. The authors hypothesize that the short life expectancy of diabetic cats may be the main reason for the difference from human diabetics.

  12. Feline Epitheliotropic Mastocytic Conjunctivitis in 15 Cats.

    PubMed

    Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.

  13. Spontaneous emission of Schrödinger cats in a waveguide at ultrastrong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheeraert, Nicolas; Bera, Soumya; Florens, Serge

    2017-02-01

    Josephson circuits provide a realistic physical setup where the light–matter fine structure constant can become of order one, allowing to reach a regime dominated by non-perturbative effects beyond standard quantum optics. Simple processes, such as spontaneous emission, thus acquire a many-body character, that can be tackled using a new description of the time-dependent state vector in terms of quantum-superposed coherent states. We find that spontaneous atomic decay at ultrastrong coupling leads to the emission of spectrally broad Schrödinger cats rather than of monochromatic single photons. These cats states remain partially entangled with the emitter at intermediate stages of the dynamics, even after emission, due to a large separation in time scales between fast energy relaxation and exponentially slow decoherence. Once decoherence of the qubit is finally established, quantum information is completely transfered to the state of the emitted cat.

  14. Shock following a cat scratch.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Umpei; Kunita, Mutsumi; Mohri, Masahiro

    2013-01-11

    A 49-year-old man with fever, pain in both legs, purpuras and cyanosis was admitted to hospital. He was a heavy drinker, but did not have diabetes or other immunosuppressive disease. On admission, he was in shock, with haematological findings suggestive of disseminated intravascular coagulation, and liver and kidney failure. The presence of a scratch wound on his face caused by a cat, and linear, Gram-negative rods phagocytosed by polynuclear leucocytes on peripheral blood smear suggested Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection. On day 1, antibiotics (ampicillin/sulbactam) and catecholamines were initiated. The patient required haemodialysis three times per week for 3 weeks. His toes became necrotic but improved and amputation was not necessary. On day 52, he was discharged from hospital with only mild sensory impairment of the legs.

  15. CAT — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The CAT gene product, catalase, occurs in the peroxisome of almost all respiring organismÃÆ'¢â‚¬â„¢s cells. Catalase is a heme enzyme that converts the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, diminishing the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide on the cell. Catalase promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia cells, melanoma cells, mastocytoma cells and normal and transformed fibroblast cells. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with decreases in catalase activity but, to date, acatalasemia is the only disease known to be caused by this gene.

  16. Interspecies transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) in the wild.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Y; Goto, Y; Yoneda, K; Endo, Y; Mizuno, T; Hamachi, M; Maruyama, H; Kinoshita, H; Koga, S; Komori, M; Fushuku, S; Ushinohama, K; Akuzawa, M; Watari, T; Hasegawa, A; Tsujimoto, H

    1999-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild.

  17. Attitudes toward jaguars and pumas and the acceptability of killing big cats in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: An application of the Potential for Conflict Index2.

    PubMed

    Engel, Monica T; Vaske, Jerry J; Bath, Alistair J; Marchini, Silvio

    2017-02-10

    We explored the overall acceptability of killing jaguars and pumas in different scenarios of people-big cat interactions, the influence of attitudes toward big cats on acceptability, and the level of consensus on the responses. Data were obtained from 326 self-administered questionnaires in areas adjacent to Intervales State Park and Alto Ribeira State Park. Overall, people held slightly positive attitudes toward jaguars and pumas and viewed the killing of big cats as unacceptable. However, individuals that held negative attitudes were more accepting of killing. As the severity of people-big cat interactions increased, the level of consensus decreased. Knowing whether killing a big cat is acceptable or unacceptable in specific situations allows managers to anticipate conflict and avoid illegal killing of big cats.

  18. Two routes to the one-dimensional discrete nonpolynomial Schrodinger equation.

    PubMed

    Gligorić, G; Maluckov, A; Salasnich, L; Malomed, B A; Hadzievski, Lj

    2009-12-01

    The Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), confined in a combination of the cigar-shaped trap and axial optical lattice, is studied in the framework of two models described by two versions of the one-dimensional (1D) discrete nonpolynomial Schrodinger equation (NPSE). Both models are derived from the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation (3D GPE). To produce "model 1" (which was derived in recent works), the 3D GPE is first reduced to the 1D continual NPSE, which is subsequently discretized. "Model 2," which was not considered before, is derived by first discretizing the 3D GPE, which is followed by the reduction in the dimension. The two models seem very different; in particular, model 1 is represented by a single discrete equation for the 1D wave function, while model 2 includes an additional equation for the transverse width. Nevertheless, numerical analyses show similar behaviors of fundamental unstaggered solitons in both systems, as concerns their existence region and stability limits. Both models admit the collapse of the localized modes, reproducing the fundamental property of the self-attractive BEC confined in tight traps. Thus, we conclude that the fundamental properties of discrete solitons predicted for the strongly trapped self-attracting BEC are reliable, as the two distinct models produce them in a nearly identical form. However, a difference between the models is found too, as strongly pinned (very narrow) discrete solitons, which were previously found in model 1, are not generated by model 2-in fact, in agreement with the continual 1D NPSE, which does not have such solutions either. In that respect, the newly derived model provides for a more accurate approximation for the trapped BEC.

  19. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. PMID:27774506

  20. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats.

  1. The Chediak-Higashi syndrome of cats.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J W; Davis, W C; Prieur, D J

    1977-05-01

    Initial clinical, genetic, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies have characterized the Chediak-Higashi syndrome in cats. Three cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome were found in a single line of 27 Persian cats, and three additional affected cats were produced from two prospective breedings of the original line. The disorder was characterized genetically as an autosomal recessive condition. All cats in the line with the combination of yellow eye color and "blue smoke" hair color exhibited the disorder. Four of the five cats examined had bilateral nuclear cataracts as early in life as 3 months of age. No increased susceptibility to infectious disease was observed. A bleeding tendency was noted. Abnormally large eosinophilic, sudanophilic, peroxidase-containing granules were observed in the neutrophils of the granulocytic series of blood and bone marrow by electron and light microscopy. Granules of eosinophils and basophils were also enlarged. Light microscopic studies of hair and skin revealed enlarged melanin granules. These manifestations were similar to those in man, mink, cattle, mice, and the killer whale with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Cats are the sixth species in which this genetic disease has been reported.

  2. Urate excretion by the cat kidney.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Jung, D K; Jung, J S; Lee, S H

    1992-08-01

    1. The renal handling of urate by the cat kidney was investigated during continuous infusion of urate. 2. Fractional urate excretion (FE(UA)) in cats was 0.57 +/- 0.04, indicating net reabsorption of urate. In contrast, FE(UA) in rabbits was 1.76 +/- 0.08, reflecting net secretion of urate. 3. Fractional PAH excretion (FE(PAH)) was 3.94 +/- 0.26 in cats and 4.12 +/- 0.76 in rabbits, showing net secretion in both species. 4. FE(UA) in cats was dependent on urine flow, but was independent of plasma urate concentration. 5. The urate excretion in cats was enhanced by probenecid, but was insensitive to PAH and PZA. 6. The PAH excretion in cats was reduced by probenecid, but was unaltered by urate and PZA. 7. These results indicate that urate is handled in the cat kidney by a unique transport system which is distinct from that for organic anions.

  3. Hookworms of feral cats in Florida.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tara Creel; Foster, Garry W; Forrester, Donald J

    2003-07-10

    Thirty feral cats (Felis catus) from Alachua county (northern Florida) and 30 from Palm Beach county (southern Florida) were examined for hookworms. Two species, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Ancylostoma braziliense, were identified. Forty-five cats (75%) were infected with A. tubaeforme, with a mean intensity of 48 hookworms per cat. Twenty cats (33%) were infected with A. braziliense, with a mean intensity of 28 worms per cat. The prevalence of A. tubaeforme was greater than that of A. braziliense in Alachua (P=0.002) and Palm Beach (P=0.004) counties. The intensity of A. tubaeforme infections was higher in Palm Beach county than Alachua county (P=0.013). The intensities of A. tubaeforme and A. braziliense were positively correlated (increased together) in Palm Beach county (P=0.011). These hookworms have also been identified in bobcats (Felis rufus), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Florida. The prevalence of A. tubaeforme was significantly greater in feral cats than those reported in bobcats (P<0.001). The prevalence of A. braziliense was significantly greater in feral cats than in those reported in gray foxes (P=0.008). The hookworm that infects Florida panthers and bobcats, A. pluridentatum, was not found.

  4. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation.

  5. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.

  6. Cytogenetic investigation of cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walknowska, J; Peakman, D; Weleber, R G

    1977-10-01

    Using multiple chromosomal banding techniques, we studied a child with typical cat-eye syndrome and ocular retraction syndrome. Although the mother was was chromosomally normal, other maternal relatives showed features of the cat-eye syndrome, suggesting the basic abnormality is heritable. The abnormal chromosome in our case was most likely the product of reciprocal translocation where short arm plus centromeric chromatin from two separate acrocentric chromosomes fused together. The chromosomes involved were probably No. 22 and either Nos. 13 or 14. The basic underlying defect in cat-eye syndrome may be a heritable fragile site or some other predisposition leading to complex chromosomal interchange.

  7. Aspergillus species cystitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Paitaki, C G; Rallis, T S; Tontis, D

    2001-03-01

    A Persian male cat with a history of lower urinary tract disease was presented because of polydipsia, polyuria, constipation and nasal discharge. Ten weeks before admission, the cat had been treated for lower urinary tract disease by catheterisation and flushing of the bladder. The animal was thin, dehydrated, anaemic and azotaemic. Urine culture revealed Aspergillus species cystitis. Antibodies against Aspergillus nidulans were identified in serum. Fluconazole was administered orally (7.5 mg/kg, q 12 h) for 10 consecutive weeks. The azotaemia was resolved, the kidney concentrating ability was recovered and the cat has remained healthy without similar problems.

  8. Earliest "Domestic" Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat 'domestic' relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat's 'domestic' status, however, appears to have been short-lived--its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris.

  9. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  10. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  11. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  12. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  13. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  14. BASINs 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (CAT): Supporting ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the report, BASINS 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (CAT): Supporting Documentation and User's Manual. This report was prepared by the EPA's Global Change Research Program (GCRP), an assessment-oriented program, that sits within the Office of Research and Development, that focuses on assessing how potential changes in climate and other global environmental stressors may impact water quality, air quality, aquatic ecosystems, and human health in the United States. The Program’s focus on water quality is consistent with the Research Strategy of the U.S. Climate Change Research Program—the federal umbrella organization for climate change science in the U.S. government—and is responsive to U.S. EPA’s mission and responsibilities as defined by the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act. A central goal of the EPA GCRP is to provide EPA program offices, Regions, and other stakeholders with tools and information for assessing and responding to any potential future impacts of climate change. In 2007, the EPA Global Change Research Program (GCRP), in partnership with the EPA Office of Water, supported development of a Climate Assessment Tool (CAT) for version 4 of EPA’s BASINS modeling system. This report provides supporting documentation and user support materials for the BASINS CAT tool. The purpose of this report is to provide in a single document a variety of documentation and user support materials supporting the use

  15. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred.

  16. The rectal microbiota of cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and uninfected controls.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S; Nichols, J; Jalali, M; Litster, A

    2015-10-22

    Rectal swabs were collected from 31 cats, 16 with FIV infection and 15 uninfected controls, to evaluate and compare the rectal bacterial microbiota in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection and uninfected controls. The rectal microbiota was characterized via next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene (V4 region) polymerase chain reaction products. Eighteen different phyla were identified. Firmicutes dominated in both groups, followed by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, but there were no significant differences between groups. When predominant orders are compared, FIV-infected cats had significant higher median relative abundances of Bifidobacteriales (P=0.022), Lactobacillales (P=0.022) and Aeromonadales (P=0.043). No differences were identified in the 50 most common genera when adjusted for false discovery rate. There were significant differences in community membership (Jaccard index, unifrac P=0.008, AMOVA P<0.001) and community structure (Yue&Clayton index, unifrac P=0.03, AMOVA P=0.005) between groups. However, only one metacommunity (enterotype) was identified. The rectal microbiota differed between cats with FIV infection and uninfected controls. Some of the changes that were noted have been associated with 'dysbiosis' and proinflammatory states in other species, so it is possible that subclinical alteration in the intestinal microbiota could influence the health of FIV-infected cats. Evaluation of the reasons for microbiota alteration and the potential impact on cat health is required.

  17. Solution of the Time-dependent Schrodinger Equation via Complex Quantum Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Yair

    Ever since the advent of Quantum Mechanics, there has been a quest for a trajectory based formulation of quantum theory that is exact. In the 1950's, David Bohm, building on earlier work of Madelung and de Broglie, developed an exact formulation of quantum mechanics in which trajectories evolve in the presence of the usual Newtonian force plus an additional quantum force. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in Bohmian Mechanics as a numerical tool because of its apparently local dynamics, which could lead to significant computational advantages for the simulation of large quantum systems. However, closer inspection of the Bohmian formulation reveals that the non-locality of quantum mechanics has not disappeared --- it has simply been swept under the rug into the quantum force. In the first part of the thesis we present several new formulations, inspired by Bohmian mechanics, in which the quantum action, S, is taken to be complex. The starting point of the formulations is the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Although this equation is equivalent to the time-dependent Schrodinger equation it has been relatively unexplored in comparison with other quantum mechanical formulations. In all the formulations presented, we propagate trajectories that do not communicate with their neighbors, allowing for local approximations to the quantum wavefunction. Importantly, we show that the new formulations allow for the description of nodal patterns as a sum of the contribution from several crossing trajectories. The new formulations are applied to one- and two-dimensional barrier scattering, thermal rate constants and the calculation of eigenvalues. In the second part of the thesis we explore a new mapping procedure developed for use with the mapped Fourier method. The conventional procedure uses the classical action function to generate a coordinate mapping that equalizes the spacing between extrema and nodal positions of the specified wavefunction

  18. Acute monocytic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, N; Kano, R; Hirai, A; Yamazaki, J; Inoue, C; Hisasue, M; Moore, P F; Hasegawa, A

    2005-09-17

    A three-year-old cat with lymphadenopathy, non-regenerative anaemia and marked leucocytosis (171.3 x 10(9) white blood cells/l) was diagnosed with monocytic leukaemia and treated with a combination of anticancer drugs. A number of mature and immature monocyte-like cells were detected in the peripheral blood and bone marrow; they proved to be monocytic cells by cytochemical examination and an analysis of their cell surface phenotype, indicating that the cat suffered from acute myeloid leukaemia, subclassified as monocytic leukaemia (M5). Treatment with cytarabine, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone greatly reduced the number of blast cells in the cat's peripheral blood and bone marrow. The cat was in partial remission for 67 days and survived for 95 days after it was first examined.

  19. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in two cats.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A M; Battersby, I A; Faena, M; Fews, D; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L

    2005-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease characterised by infiltration of the myocardium by adipose and fibrous tissue. The disease is an important cause of sudden death in humans, but has rarely been described in animals. This report describes ARVC in two cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. One cat had also experienced previous episodes of syncope. Standard six-lead and 24-hour (Holter) electrocardiogram recording revealed complete atrioventricular block and multiform ventricular ectopics in both cats, with the addition of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bigeminy and R-on-T phenomenon in one of them. On echocardiography, the right ventricle and atrium were massively dilated and hypokinetic. The survival times of the cats were three days and 16 days following diagnosis. Histopathology in one case revealed fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricular free wall.

  20. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in three cats

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Case 1 involved a 4-month-old intact male Somali cat in which peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPS) was recognized after a cardiac murmur remained following patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Case 2, which involved a 1-year-old neutered male Norwegian Forest cat, and Case 3, which involved a 6-month-old intact female American Curl cat, were referred, because of cardiac murmurs. Grades III to IV/VI systolic heart murmurs were auscultated at the left heart base in all 3 cats. All cases showed bilateral pulmonary artery stenosis, although there were no associated clinical signs. In Cases 1 and 2, the pressure gradient through the stenosis decreased after treatment with atenolol. PMID:25650057

  1. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  2. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  3. Prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Germinal J; Guerrero, Roberto I; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P<0.01), between season and ectoparasites load, more fleas were obtained in the summer and autumn than in the winter and spring; however, no statistical difference was observed for endoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094).

  4. Prevalence of Fleas and Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Roaming Cats in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Germinal J.; Guerrero, Roberto I.; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M.; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P<0.01), between season and ectoparasites load, more fleas were obtained in the summer and autumn than in the winter and spring; however, no statistical difference was observed for endoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282

  5. Discriminative stimulus effects of S(-)-methcathinone (CAT): a potent stimulant drug of abuse.

    PubMed

    Young, R; Glennon, R A

    1998-12-01

    Methcathinone ("CAT") is a CNS stimulant that is a very significant drug of abuse in the former Soviet Union. It has also appeared on the clandestine market in the United States and has been recently classified as a Schedule I substance. In the present study, S(-)-methcathinone [S(-)-CAT, 0.50 mg/kg, IP] was employed as the training drug in a two-lever drug discrimination task in rats. Once established, the S(-)-CAT stimulus was shown to have a rapid onset to action (within 5 min) and a duration of effect of approximately 60-90 min. In tests of stimulus generalization (substitution), the S(-)-CAT (ED50 = 0.11 mg/kg) stimulus generalized to S(+)-methamphetamine (ED5 = 0.17 mg/kg), S(-)-cathinone (ED50 = 0.19 mg/kg), S(+)-amphetamine (ED50 = 0.23 mg/kg), aminorex (ED50 = 0.27 mg/kg), (+/-)-CAT (ED50 = 0.25 mg/kg), (+/-)-cathinone (ED50 = 0.41 mg/kg), R(+)-CAT (ED50 = 0.43 mg/kg), cis-4-methylaminorex (ED50 = 0.49 mg/kg), methylphenidate (ED50 = 0.83 mg/kg), and cocaine (ED50= 1.47 mg/kg). S(-)-CAT-stimulus generalization did not occur to fenfluramine, a structurally related nonstimulant anorectic. Lastly, haloperidol (AD50 = 0.18 mg/kg), a dopamine receptor antagonist, potently antagonized the S(-)-CAT stimulus. It is concluded that S(-)-methcathinone is a very potent CNS stimulant, which appears to produce its stimulus effect, at least in part, via a dopaminergic mechanism.

  6. Second order Horner's syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    De Risio, Luisa; Fraser McConnell, James

    2009-08-01

    This case report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 3.5-year-old, male neutered, domestic shorthair cat with second order Horner's syndrome as the only clinical abnormality. The neuroanatomical pathway of the sympathetic innervation to the eye, differential diagnoses for Horner's syndrome in cats, and the interpretation of pharmacological testing are reviewed. The unusual MRI findings and the value of fat-suppressed MRI sequences are discussed.

  7. [Spectacles for dogs and cats (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stades, F C

    1978-08-01

    Indications for using spectacles in dogs and cats are reviewed. These indications are classified into the following categories: (1) correction of visual acuity, (2) protection against external irritants such as ultraviolet rays and wind, (3) prevention of self-mutilation and (4) psychological reasons. The only justifiable indications for the use of spectacles or sun-glasses in dogs or cats consist in the treatment or prevention of some ophthalmic disorders.

  8. [Splenic abscess and cat-scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Valdesoiro Navarrete, L; Pineda Solas, V; Martín Martín, C; Sanfeliu Sala, I; Cabezas Maspoch, R M; Sánchez Oespina, M

    2001-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease is caused by a Gram-negative bacillus known as Bartonella henselae. This disease is usually benign and causes regional adenitis that does not require treatment. However, some patients develop more serious atypical forms of the disease including prolonged systemic illness with hepatic and splenic abscesses.A 14-year-old girl was admitted to hospital with a 12-day history of persistent high fever and abdominal pain. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed splenic abscesses. These findings, together with an antecedent of cat exposure, led to the suspicion of cat-scratch disease, which was confirmed by serology. The girl was treated with intramuscular ceftriaxone and clinical evolution was favorable. Splenic cat-scratch disease is infrequent. Cat-scratch disease sometimes presents as fever of unknown origin and consequently this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prolonged fever. Although evolution is usually favorable, antibiotic therapy is recommended in systemic manifestations of cat-scratch disease.

  9. Constitutive expression of catABC genes in the aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus species AN-22: production, purification, characterization and gene analysis of CatA, CatB and CatC.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Eitaro; Sakai, Masashi; Hayashi, Katsuaki; Murakami, Shuichiro; Takenaka, Shinji; Aoki, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    The aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus sp. AN-22 was found to constitutively synthesize CatB (cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase) and CatC (muconolactone isomerase) in its cells growing on non-aromatic substrates, in addition to the previously reported CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase). The bacterium maintained the specific activity of the three enzymes at an almost equal level during cultivation on succinate. CatB and CatC were purified to homogeneity and characterized. CatB was a monomer with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. The enzyme was activated by Mn2+, Co2+ and Mg2+. Native CatC was a homo-octamer with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. The enzyme was stable between pH 7.0 and 10.5 and was resistant to heating up to 90 degrees C. Genes coding for CatA, CatB and CatC were cloned and named catA, catB and catC respectively. The catABC genes were transcribed as one operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of CatA, CatB and CatC showed high identities with those from other Gram-positive micro-organisms. A regulator gene such as catR encoding a regulatory protein was not observed around the cat gene cluster of Rhodococcus sp. AN-22, but a possible relic of catR was found in the upstream region of catA. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and primer extension analyses showed that the transcriptional start site of the cat gene cluster was located 891 bp upstream of the catA initiation codon in the AN-22 strain growing on both aniline and succinate. Based on these data, we concluded that the bacterium constitutively transcribed the catABC genes and translated its mRNA into CatA, CatB and CatC.

  10. Effect of single-cat versus multi-cat home history on perceived behavioral stress in domestic cats (Felis silvestrus catus) in an animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Broadley, Heidi M; McCobb, Emily C; Slater, Margaret R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of living with other cats in a prior home on stress levels of cats recently surrendered to an animal shelter. A total of 63 cats was evaluated using a Cat-Stress-Score and an approach test. Cats were categorized in terms of previous home history with or without other cats. No significant difference was found in stress scores between cats from single-cat households and those from multiple-cat households, although single cats that had been in the shelter less than 4 days demonstrated higher stress levels. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of approach results. Results of this study suggest that, in traditional individual cage settings, cats that are not accustomed to living with other cats may experience more stress in the initial few days of attempting to adjust to shelter existence. Through the use of such assessments, shelter personnel may develop an increased awareness to the needs of these cats and attempt to provide measures to improve their well-being within the shelter environment.

  11. Pulsed-wave Doppler tissue imaging velocities in normal geriatric cats and geriatric cats with primary or systemic diseases linked to specific cardiomyopathies in humans, and the influence of age and heart rate upon these velocities.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kerry E; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A; Shaw, Darren J; French, Anne T; Dukes-McEwan, Joanna; Moran, Carmel M; Corcoran, Brendan M

    2009-04-01

    Pulsed-wave Doppler tissue imaging (pw-DTI) techniques allow the non-invasive assessment of myocardial dynamics. pw-DTI has demonstrated regional and global diastolic impairment in various forms of human and feline cardiomyopathy. We hypothesise that in geriatric cats with systemic diseases that have been linked to specific cardiomyopathies in human beings, the myocardial velocity profile will be altered when compared to either normal or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cats; and that both age and heart rate have a significant affect upon pw-DTI velocities. The aims of this study were to determine whether the feline M-mode or myocardial velocity profile is altered in geriatric cats with disease states that have been linked to specific cardiomyopathies in humans when compared to normal geriatric cats or geriatric cats with HCM and to determine whether age or heart rate has a significant effect upon pw-DTI velocities within these groups of cats. Sixty-six cats aged 8 years or above were included in the study, and were divided as follows: Unaffected (n=8), basilar septal bulge (BSB) (17), HCM (14), hyperthyroid (HiT(4)) (12) and chronic renal failure (CRF) (15). Systolic blood pressure was normal in all the cats. pw-DTI systolic (S'), early (E') and late diastolic (A') velocities were assessed from standardised sites within the myocardium, and the relationships between these and disease group, age and heart rate were then assessed. In cats with HCM, the E' velocity was decreased at various sites. Conversely, the HiT(4) cats demonstrated increased S' velocities. The only site at which the age of the cat was significantly related to myocardial velocities was the S' velocity from the apical mid-septum. There were also significant positive relationships between heart rate and the magnitude of myocardial S', E' and A' velocities of radial motion and S' and A' velocities of longitudinal motion. pw-DTI detected diastolic dysfunction in untreated cats with HCM and increased

  12. Exact results for Schrödinger cats in driven-dissipative systems and their feedback control

    PubMed Central

    Minganti, Fabrizio; Bartolo, Nicola; Lolli, Jared; Casteels, Wim; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    In quantum optics, photonic Schrödinger cats are superpositions of two coherent states with opposite phases and with a significant number of photons. Recently, these states have been observed in the transient dynamics of driven-dissipative resonators subject to engineered two-photon processes. Here we present an exact analytical solution of the steady-state density matrix for this class of systems, including one-photon losses, which are considered detrimental for the achievement of cat states. We demonstrate that the unique steady state is a statistical mixture of two cat-like states with opposite parity, in spite of significant one-photon losses. The transient dynamics to the steady state depends dramatically on the initial state and can pass through a metastable regime lasting orders of magnitudes longer than the photon lifetime. By considering individual quantum trajectories in photon-counting configuration, we find that the system intermittently jumps between two cats. Finally, we propose and study a feedback protocol based on this behaviour to generate a pure cat-like steady state. PMID:27244292

  13. Exact results for Schrödinger cats in driven-dissipative systems and their feedback control.

    PubMed

    Minganti, Fabrizio; Bartolo, Nicola; Lolli, Jared; Casteels, Wim; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2016-05-31

    In quantum optics, photonic Schrödinger cats are superpositions of two coherent states with opposite phases and with a significant number of photons. Recently, these states have been observed in the transient dynamics of driven-dissipative resonators subject to engineered two-photon processes. Here we present an exact analytical solution of the steady-state density matrix for this class of systems, including one-photon losses, which are considered detrimental for the achievement of cat states. We demonstrate that the unique steady state is a statistical mixture of two cat-like states with opposite parity, in spite of significant one-photon losses. The transient dynamics to the steady state depends dramatically on the initial state and can pass through a metastable regime lasting orders of magnitudes longer than the photon lifetime. By considering individual quantum trajectories in photon-counting configuration, we find that the system intermittently jumps between two cats. Finally, we propose and study a feedback protocol based on this behaviour to generate a pure cat-like steady state.

  14. THE TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYST FROM CAT FECES

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, J. P.; Miller, Nancy L.; Frenkel, J. K.

    1970-01-01

    Coccidian oocysts resembling those of Isospora bigemina were excreted by cats fed Toxoplasma. In order to identify these oocysts with Toxoplasma infectivity a number of critical comparisons were made. The appearance of oocysts and Toxoplasma infectivity was simultaneous in the feces of 23 of 24 adult cats, 3–5 days after feeding of Toxoplasma cysts; in the feces of 4 out of 9 cats, 7–10 days after feeding of trophozoites; and in 8 out of 17 cats, 20–24 days after feeding of cat feces containing oocysts. Oocysts and infectivity were present in similar numbers, and they disappeared simultaneously from the feces of cats. Oocysts and infectivity were also observed simultaneously in the feces of 9 kittens, 1–2 days old, fed Toxoplasma cysts. Oocysts could not be separated from infectivity by filtration, by continuous particle electrophoresis, or by density gradient centrifugation. Excystation of oocysts was followed by an increase in titer of Toxoplasma infectivity. Unsporulated oocysts in fresh cat feces were noninfectious to mice, but oocyst sporulation was associated quantitatively with the development of infectivity at different temperatures and conditions of oxygenation. Maximum oocyst sporulation at 48 hr correlated with the development of maximum Toxoplasma infectivity. 1 and 2% sulfuric acid, and 2.5% potassium dichromate were found to be the best preservatives for sporulation of oocysts and for the development of Toxoplasma infectivity. Low sporulation rates in 0.1% formalin, 20% ethanol, and in water were associated with low infectivity in these reagents. Neither Toxoplasma infectivity nor oocysts developed in 0.3% formalin, 1% ammonium hydroxide, or 1% iodine in 20% ethanol. Oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites were stained specifically with Toxoplasma antibody in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Typical coccidian stages, schizonts, and male and female gametocytes were found in the epithelium of the small intestine of kittens fed Toxoplasma

  15. The Toxoplasma gondii oocyst from cat feces.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Miller, N L; Frenkel, J K

    1970-10-01

    Coccidian oocysts resembling those of Isospora bigemina were excreted by cats fed Toxoplasma. In order to identify these oocysts with Toxoplasma infectivity a number of critical comparisons were made. The appearance of oocysts and Toxoplasma infectivity was simultaneous in the feces of 23 of 24 adult cats, 3-5 days after feeding of Toxoplasma cysts; in the feces of 4 out of 9 cats, 7-10 days after feeding of trophozoites; and in 8 out of 17 cats, 20-24 days after feeding of cat feces containing oocysts. Oocysts and infectivity were present in similar numbers, and they disappeared simultaneously from the feces of cats. Oocysts and infectivity were also observed simultaneously in the feces of 9 kittens, 1-2 days old, fed Toxoplasma cysts. Oocysts could not be separated from infectivity by filtration, by continuous particle electrophoresis, or by density gradient centrifugation. Excystation of oocysts was followed by an increase in titer of Toxoplasma infectivity. Unsporulated oocysts in fresh cat feces were noninfectious to mice, but oocyst sporulation was associated quantitatively with the development of infectivity at different temperatures and conditions of oxygenation. Maximum oocyst sporulation at 48 hr correlated with the development of maximum Toxoplasma infectivity. 1 and 2% sulfuric acid, and 2.5% potassium dichromate were found to be the best preservatives for sporulation of oocysts and for the development of Toxoplasma infectivity. Low sporulation rates in 0.1% formalin, 20% ethanol, and in water were associated with low infectivity in these reagents. Neither Toxoplasma infectivity nor oocysts developed in 0.3% formalin, 1% ammonium hydroxide, or 1% iodine in 20% ethanol. Oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites were stained specifically with Toxoplasma antibody in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Typical coccidian stages, schizonts, and male and female gametocytes were found in the epithelium of the small intestine of kittens fed Toxoplasma cysts. The

  16. Effect of cognitive enrichment on behavior, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease of shelter cats rated as frustrated on arrival.

    PubMed

    Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-09-01

    Acquisition of resources and opportunity to engage in natural behaviors has been shown to reduce frustration-related behaviors and enhance health in nondomestic felids kept in zoos, but little is known about whether there are similar effects in domestic cats living in confinement in animal shelters. Fifteen cats rated as Frustrated during the first hour of confinement to a cage at an animal shelter were assigned to either a Treatment (n=7) or Control (n=8) group. Treatment cats were taken from their cages to a separate room four times daily for 10min each time over a 10 d period, where they took part in training sessions to learn a novel behavior (paw-hand contact with a researcher). Changes in emotional states and mucosal immune response were evaluated over 10days. Infectious status was determined upon admission and incidence of upper respiratory was determined up to day 40 based on clinical signs. Treated cats were more likely to be rated as Content than Control cats and had greater concentrations of S-IgA (537μg/g) in feces than Control cats (101μg/g). Within the Treatment group, cats that responded positively had greater concentrations of S-IgA (925μg/g) than those that responded negatively (399μg/g). Control cats were more likely to develop respiratory disease over time compared to cats that received treatment (Hazard Ratio: 2.37, Confidence Interval: 1.35-4.15). It is concluded that there is prima facie evidence that cognitive enrichment of cats exhibiting frustration-related behaviors can elicit positive affect (contentment), stimulate secretion of IgA and reduce incidence of respiratory disease, which is worthy of further study.

  17. Implementing CBT for Traumatized Children and Adolescents after September 11: Lessons Learned from the Child and Adolescent Trauma Treatments and Services (CATS) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Trauma Treatments and Services Consortium (CATS) was the largest youth trauma project associated with the September 11 World Trade Center disaster. CATS was created as a collaborative project involving New York State policymakers; academic scientists; clinical treatment developers; and routine practicing clinicians,…

  18. Water transport in limestone by X-ray CAT scanning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossoti, Victor G.; Castanier, Louis M.

    1989-01-01

    The transport of water through the interior of Salem limestone test briquettes can be dynamically monitored by computer aided tomography (commonly called CAT scanning in medical diagnostics). Most significantly, unless evaporation from a particular face of the briquette is accelerated by forced air flow (wind simulation), the distribution of water in the interior of the briquette remains more or less uniform throughout the complete drying cycle. Moreover, simulated solar illumination of the test briquette does not result in the production of significant water gradients in the briquette under steady-state drying conditions.

  19. Cat-eye syndrome with isolated idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ryusuke; Shimizu, Chikara; Nagai, So; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Umetsu, Masaaki; Kimura, Yasunori; Atsumi, Toshiya; Yoshioka, Narihito; Kubo, Mitsumasa; Koike, Takao

    2005-10-01

    A 34-year-old Japanese man diagnosed as having cat-eye syndrome (CES) with isolated idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) was treated at our university. He showed preauricular pits/tags, downward slanting palpebral fissures, ocular hypertelorism, and strabismus. However, ocular coloboma and anal atresia, major characteristic features of CES, were negative. Chromosomal analysis revealed malformation in chromosome 22 and eunuchoid features and a low grade development of secondary sexual characteristics were also evident. Endocrinological examinations revealed that this patient was in a state of isolated IHH. Although CES with IHH is extremely rare, endocrine disorders should be given due attention.

  20. The temperature sensitivity of the Type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors in cats and monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Duclaux, Roland; Kenshalo, Dan R.

    1972-01-01

    1. The sensitivity of Type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors in cat and monkey skin to temperature and changes in temperature was investigated. 2. Multiple receptors innervated by a single axon appeared to be more frequent in the monkey than in the cat skin. 3. The responses of these receptors to thermal stimulation at static skin temperatures from 27 to 40° C were similar in cats and monkeys. At 43° C the monkey receptors showed a higher steady-state activity than the cat receptors. 4. A maximum steady-state frequency of 5·5 impulses/sec occurred in both the cat and monkey receptors at a static skin temperature of 37° C. 5. The maximum dynamic response to cooling occurred at a skin temperature of 40° C. The response was near its maximum at 2° C cooling and increased but little with further increases in the intensity of cooling. 6. Dynamic responses to cooling disappeared after the skin had been heated to 51° C for 35 sec and to mechanical stimulation after heating to 53° C for 35 sec. Excitation by either mechanical or thermal stimulation did not reappear within 1-2 hr. 7. The response characteristics of the Type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors to temperature and temperature changes differ from those of specific cold receptors. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4627267

  1. Risk factors for feline infectious peritonitis in Australian cats.

    PubMed

    Worthing, Kate A; Wigney, Denise I; Dhand, Navneet K; Fawcett, Anne; McDonagh, Phillip; Malik, Richard; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patient signalment (age, breed, sex and neuter status) is associated with naturally-occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats in Australia. A retrospective comparison of the signalment between cats with confirmed FIP and the general cat population was designed. The patient signalment of 382 FIP confirmed cases were compared with the Companion Animal Register of NSW and the general cat population of Sydney. Younger cats were significantly over-represented among FIP cases. Domestic crossbred, Persian and Himalayan cats were significantly under-represented in the FIP cohort, while several breeds were over-represented, including British Shorthair, Devon Rex and Abyssinian. A significantly higher proportion of male cats had FIP compared with female cats. This study provides further evidence that FIP is a disease primarily of young cats and that significant breed and sex predilections exist in Australia. This opens further avenues to investigate the role of genetic factors in FIP.

  2. Contractile properties of extraocular muscle in Siamese cat.

    PubMed

    Lennerstrand, G

    1979-01-01

    Siamese cats are albinos with poor visual resolution and severely impaired binocular vision. Eey muscle phyiology was studied in Siamese cats as a part of a more extensive project on eye muscle properties in cats with deficient binocular vision. Isometric contractions of the inferior oblique muscle were recorded in response to single and repetitive muscle nerve stimulation. Speed of contraction, measured as twitch contraction time, fusion frequency and rate of tetanic tension rise, was lower in Siamese than in normal cats. Eye muscles of Siamese cats fatiqued more easily to continuous activation than normal cat eye mucle. These functional changes have also been found in cats with binocular defects from monocular lid suture, but were much more marked in Siamese cats. It is suggested that the eye muscle changes represent muscular adaptations to genetically caused impairments of binocular vision and visual resolution in Siamese cats.

  3. Ultrasonographic measurements of adrenal glands in cats with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Peremans, Kathelijne; Daminet, Sylvie; Saunders, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Feline hyperthyroidism is potentially associated with exaggerated responsiveness of the adrenal gland cortex. The adrenal glands of 23 hyperthyroid cats were examined ultrasonographically and compared to the adrenal glands of 30 control cats. Ten hyperthyroid cats had received antithyroid drugs until 2 weeks before sonography, the other 13 were untreated. There was no difference in adrenal gland shape between healthy and hyperthyroid cats: bean-shaped, well-defined, hypoechoic structures surrounded by a hyperechoic halo in 43/60 (71.6%) healthy cats and 34/46 (73.9%) hyperthyroid cats; more ovoid in 13/60 (21.6%) healthy cats and 9/46 (19.6%) hyperthyroid cats while more elongated in 4/60 (6.7%) healthy cats, 3/46 (6.5%) hyperthyroid cats. Hyperechoic foci were present in 9/23 (39.1%) hyperthyroid cats and 2/30 (6.7%) healthy cats. The adrenal glands were significantly larger in hyperthyroid cats, although there was overlap in size range. The mean difference between hyperthyroid cats and healthy cats was 1.6 and 1.7 mm in left and right adrenal gland length, 0.8 and 0.9 mm in left and right cranial adrenal gland height, and 0.4 and 0.9 mm in left and right caudal adrenal gland height. There was no significant difference between the adrenal gland measurements in treated and untreated hyperthyroid cats. The adrenomegaly was most likely associated with the hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex documented in hyperthyroid cats. Hyperthyroidism should be an alternative to hyperadrenocorticism, hyperaldosteronism, and acromegaly in cats with bilateral moderate adrenomegaly.

  4. Familial cardiomyopathy in Norwegian Forest cats.

    PubMed

    März, Imke; Wilkie, Lois J; Harrington, Norelene; Payne, Jessie R; Muzzi, Ruthnea A L; Häggström, Jens; Smith, Ken; Luis Fuentes, Virginia

    2015-08-01

    Norwegian Forest cats (NFCs) are often listed as a breed predisposed to cardiomyopathy, but the characteristics of cardiomyopathy in this breed have not been described. The aim of this preliminary study was to report the features of NFC cardiomyopathy based on prospective echocardiographic screening of affected family groups; necropsy findings; and open-source breed screening databases. Prospective examination of 53 NFCs revealed no murmur or left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction in any screened cat, though mild LV hypertrophy (defined as diastolic LV wall thickness ≥5.5mm) was present in 13/53 cats (25%). Gross pathology results and histopathological sections were analysed in eight NFCs, six of which had died of a cardiac cause. Myocyte hypertrophy, myofibre disarray and interstitial fibrosis typical of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were present in 7/8 cats, but endomyocardial fibrosis suggestive of restrictive cardiomyopathy was also present in the same cats. Pedigree data analysis from 871 NFCs was supportive of a familial cardiomyopathy in this breed.

  5. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.

  6. Diffusion of water in cat ventricular myocardium

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The rates of diffusion of tritiated water (THO) and [14C]sucrose across cat right ventricular myocardium were studied at 23 degrees C in an Ussing-type diffusion cell, recording the time-course of increase in concentration of tracer in one chamber over 4--6 h after adding tracers to the other. Sucrose data were fitted with a model for a homogeneous sheet of uneven thickness in which the tissue is considered to be an array of parallel independent pathways (parallel pathway model) of varying length. The volume of the sucrose diffusion space, presumably a wholly extracellular pathway, was 23% of the tissue or 27.4 +/-1.7% (mean +/- SEM; n=11) of the tissue water. The effective intramyocardial sucrose diffusion coefficient, D8, was 1.51 +/- 0.19 X 10(-6)cm2.s-1 (n=11). Combining these data with earlier data, D8 was 22.6 +/- 1.1% (n=95) of the free diffusion coefficient in aqueous solution D degrees 8. The parallel pathway model and a dead-end pore model, which might have accounted for intracellular sequestration of water, gave estimates of DW/D degrees W (observed/free) of 15%. Because hindrance to water diffusion must be less than for sucrose (where D8/D degrees 8=22.6%), this showed the inadequacy of these models to account simultaneously for the diffusional resistance and the tissue water content. The third or cell-matrix model, a heterogeneous system of permeable cells arrayed in the extracellular matrix, allowed logical and geometrically reasonable interpretations of the steady-state data and implied estimates of DW in the cellular and extracellular fluid of approximately 25% of the aqueous diffusion coefficient. PMID:722277

  7. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging.

  8. Solutions of the Schrodinger Equation Using Approximate Nucleon-Nucleon and Lambda-Nucleon Potentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, S. N.; Chakraborty, S. N.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the outline of an approach related to the teaching of the chapter on bound and scattering states in a short-range potential, which forms a standard part of an undergraduate quantum mechanics course or nuclear physics course. (HM)

  9. MarsCAT: Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, Edgar Andrew; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Li, Liming; Jackson, David; Chen, Ji; Reed, Helen; Moldwin, Mark; Kasper, Justin; Sheehan, J. P.; Forbes, James Richard; Heine, Thomas; Case, Anthony; Stevens, Michael; Sibeck, David G.

    2015-11-01

    The MarsCAT (Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster) Mission is a two 6U CubeSat mission to study the ionosphere of Mars proposed for the NASA SIMPLeX opportunity. The mission will investigate the plasma and magnetic structure of the Martian ionosphere, including transient plasma structures, magnetic field structure and dynamics, and energetic particle activity. The transit plan calls for a piggy back ride with Mars 2020 using a CAT burn for MOI, the first demonstration of CubeSat propulsion for interplanetary travel. MarsCAT will make correlated multipoint studies of the ionosphere and magnetic field of Mars. Specifically, the two spacecraft will make in situ observations of the plasma density, temperature, and convection in the ionosphere of Mars. They will also make total electron content measurements along the line of sight between the two spacecraft and simultaneous 3-axis local magnetic field measurements in two locations. Additionally, MarsCAT will demonstrate the performance of new CubeSat telemetry antennas designed at the University of Houston that are designed to be low profile, rugged, and with a higher gain than conventional monopole (whip) antennas. The two MarsCAT CubeSats will have five science instruments: a 3-axis DC magnetometer, adouble-Langmuir probe, a Faraday cup, a solid state energetic particle detector (Science Enhancement Option), and interspacecraft total electron content radio occulation experiment. The MarsCAT spacecraft will be solar powered and equipped with a CAT thruster that can provide up to 4.8 km/s of delta-V, which is sufficient to achieve Mars orbit using the Mars 2020 piggyback. They have an active attitude control system, using a sun sensor and flight-proven star tracker for determination, and momentum wheels for 3-axis attitude control.

  10. MarsCAT: Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A., III; Pinsky, L.; Li, L.; Jackson, D. R.; Chen, J.; Reed, H.; Moldwin, M.; Kasper, J. C.; Sheehan, J. P.; Forbes, J.; Heine, T.; Case, A. W.; Stevens, M. L.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The MarsCAT (Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster) Mission is a two 6U CubeSat mission to study the ionosphere of Mars proposed for the NASA SIMPLeX opportunity. The mission will investigate the plasma and magnetic structure of the Martian ionosphere, including transient plasma structures, magnetic field structure and dynamics, and energetic particle activity. The transit plan calls for a piggy back ride with Mars 2020 using a CAT burn for MOI, the first demonstration of CubeSat propulsion for interplanetary travel. MarsCAT will make correlated multipoint studies of the ionosphere and magnetic field of Mars. Specifically, the two spacecraft will make in situ observations of the plasma density, temperature, and convection in the ionosphere of Mars. They will also make total electron content measurements along the line of sight between the two spacecraft and simultaneous 3-axis local magnetic field measurements in two locations. Additionally, MarsCAT will demonstrate the performance of new CubeSat telemetry antennas designed at the University of Houston that are designed to be low profile, rugged, and with a higher gain than conventional monopole (whip) antennas. The two MarsCAT CubeSats will have five science instruments: a 3-axis DC magnetometer, adouble-Langmuir probe, a Faraday cup, a solid state energetic particle detector (Science Enhancement Option), and interspacecraft total electron content radio occulation experiment. The MarsCAT spacecraft will be solar powered and equipped with a CAT thruster that can provide up to 4.8 km/s of delta-V, which is sufficient to achieve Mars orbit using the Mars 2020 piggyback. They have an active attitude control system, using a sun sensor and flight-proven star tracker for determination, and momentum wheels for 3-axis attitude control.

  11. Covariance Analysis Tool (G-CAT) for Computing Ascent, Descent, and Landing Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Bayard, David S.

    2013-01-01

    G-CAT is a covariance analysis tool that enables fast and accurate computation of error ellipses for descent, landing, ascent, and rendezvous scenarios, and quantifies knowledge error contributions needed for error budgeting purposes. Because GCAT supports hardware/system trade studies in spacecraft and mission design, it is useful in both early and late mission/ proposal phases where Monte Carlo simulation capability is not mature, Monte Carlo simulation takes too long to run, and/or there is a need to perform multiple parametric system design trades that would require an unwieldy number of Monte Carlo runs. G-CAT is formulated as a variable-order square-root linearized Kalman filter (LKF), typically using over 120 filter states. An important property of G-CAT is that it is based on a 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) formulation that completely captures the combined effects of both attitude and translation errors on the propagated trajectories. This ensures its accuracy for guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) analysis. G-CAT provides the desired fast turnaround analysis needed for error budgeting in support of mission concept formulations, design trade studies, and proposal development efforts. The main usefulness of a covariance analysis tool such as G-CAT is its ability to calculate the performance envelope directly from a single run. This is in sharp contrast to running thousands of simulations to obtain similar information using Monte Carlo methods. It does this by propagating the "statistics" of the overall design, rather than simulating individual trajectories. G-CAT supports applications to lunar, planetary, and small body missions. It characterizes onboard knowledge propagation errors associated with inertial measurement unit (IMU) errors (gyro and accelerometer), gravity errors/dispersions (spherical harmonics, masscons), and radar errors (multiple altimeter beams, multiple Doppler velocimeter beams). G-CAT is a standalone MATLAB- based tool intended to

  12. Effect of locomotor training in completely spinalized cats previously submitted to a spinal hemisection.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marina; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Leblond, Hugues; Rossignol, Serge

    2012-08-08

    After a spinal hemisection in cats, locomotor plasticity occurring at the spinal level can be revealed by performing, several weeks later, a complete spinalization below the first hemisection. Using this paradigm, we recently demonstrated that the hemisection induces durable changes in the symmetry of locomotor kinematics that persist after spinalization. Can this asymmetry be changed again in the spinal state by interventions such as treadmill locomotor training started within a few days after the spinalization? We performed, in 9 adult cats, a spinal hemisection at thoracic level 10 and then a complete spinalization at T13, 3 weeks later. Cats were not treadmill trained during the hemispinal period. After spinalization, 5 of 9 cats were not trained and served as control while 4 of 9 cats were trained on the treadmill for 20 min, 5 d a week for 3 weeks. Using detailed kinematic analyses, we showed that, without training, the asymmetrical state of locomotion induced by the hemisection was retained durably after the subsequent spinalization. By contrast, training cats after spinalization induced a reversal of the left/right asymmetries, suggesting that new plastic changes occurred within the spinal cord through locomotor training. Moreover, training was shown to improve the kinematic parameters and the performance of the hindlimb on the previously hemisected side. These results indicate that spinal locomotor circuits, previously modified by past experience such as required for adaptation to the hemisection, can remarkably respond to subsequent locomotor training and improve bilateral locomotor kinematics, clearly showing the benefits of locomotor training in the spinal state.

  13. Taste rejection of nonnutritive sweeteners in cats.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M; Jacobs, H L; Nichols, T L; Hoff, L A; Ryckman, J J

    1975-10-01

    Cats reject saccharin and cyclamate and are indifferent to dulcin, although they, like other mammals, prefer sucrose. The rejection threshold for saccharin found in this experiments, .0001 M, is about 2 log steps lower than a previously reported rejection threshold for sodium saccharin. Water produces a taste in cats adapted to their own saliva. The high sodium saccharin threshold may have resulted because the taste of the sodium saccharin was masked by the taste of the water solvent; however, saccharin may also be somewhat more aversive to the cat than sodium saccharin. Saccharin may produce an aversive taste because it stimulates receptor sites sensitive to substances bitter to man as well as those sensitive to sugars. In addition, saccharin may not be an effective stimulus for all sugar-sensitive sites.

  14. Treatment of cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Conrad, D A

    2001-02-01

    Cat-scratch disease is an infection caused by Bartonella henselae, a fastidious gram-negative bacillus acquired from exposure to an infected kitten or cat. The most common manifestation of human disease is lymphadenitis. Atypical forms of infection include Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, stellate neuroretinitis, persistent fever without localizing signs, hepatosplenic infection, encephalopathy, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis. Immunocompromised individuals with B. hensalae infection may develop bacillary angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis, and relapsing bacteremia with fever syndrome. The bacillus is susceptible to several antibacterial agents in vitro, including penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, and rifampin. Greatest clinical efficacy has been observed following treatment with rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin, and azithromycin. In one placebo-controlled study, azithromycin therapy was associated with more rapid diminution in size of infected lymph nodes. The majority of cases of cat-scratch disease occurring in normal hosts do not require anti-infective therapy for resolution of infection.

  15. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  16. X monosomy in a virilized female cat.

    PubMed

    Szczerbal, I; Nizanski, W; Dzimira, S; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Ochota, M; Switonski, M

    2015-04-01

    An infertile Siamese female cat was subjected for clinical, histological, cytogenetic and molecular studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (vulva, vagina, rudimentary penis and scrotum-like structure) and masculine behaviour. An elevated oestrogen activity and a detectable level of testosterone were found. The cat underwent laparotomy. The gonads and the uterus were removed and subjected for histological studies, which showed ovaries with corpora lutea and a some primordial follicles. Chromosome studies of lymphocyte and fibroblast cultures, with the use of Giemsa staining, G-banding and whole X chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed pure X monosomy. Molecular analysis showed the absence of the SRY gene. Our study revealed for the first time that X monosomy in cats may be associated with virilization, in spite of the lack of the SRY gene.

  17. Genetics of pigmentation in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Kaelin, Christopher B; Barsh, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in companion animals has long been of interest to the breeding and scientific communities. Simple traits, like black versus brown or yellow versus black, have helped to explain principles of transmission genetics and continue to serve as models for studying gene action and interaction. We present a molecular genetic review of pigmentary variation in dogs and cats using a nomenclature and logical framework established by early leaders in the field. For most loci in which molecular variants have been identified (nine in dogs and seven in cats), homologous mutations exist in laboratory mice and/or humans. Exceptions include the K locus in dogs and the Tabby locus in cats, which give rise to alternating stripes or marks of different color, and which illustrate the continued potential of coat color genetics to provide insight into areas that transcend pigment cell biology.

  18. Malformations and the Manx Syndrome in Cats

    PubMed Central

    DeForest, M. E.; Basrur, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    Breeding experiments were conducted on cats with congenital taillessness, to test the dissemination pattern of taillessness in their offspring. Clinical evaluation, radiographic analysis of the vertebral column and histological studies of the digestive tract and central nervous tissue were conducted to determine the association of malformations of these systems in cats born with different degrees of taillessness noted in the rumpy and stumpy cats. The mode of transmission of the tailless (Manx) condition assumed to be through an autosomal dominant factor (M) was confirmed by this investigation. It is hypothesized that the problems associated with the tailless condition such as spina bifida, urinary and faecal incontinence and locomotor disturbances of the pelvic limbs may all be related to a disturbance affecting the development of the central nervous system in the early embryonic life. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:393376

  19. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; Trepte, Chip; Vaughan, Mark; Colarco, Peter; da Silva, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  20. Numbers and Characteristics of Cats Admitted to Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Shelters in Australia and Reasons for Surrender.

    PubMed

    Alberthsen, Corinne; Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne

    2016-03-16

    Despite high numbers of cats admitted to animal shelters annually, there is surprisingly little information available about the characteristics of these cats. In this study, we examined 195,387 admissions to 33 Australian RSPCA shelters and six friends of the RSPCA groups from July 2006 to June 2010. The aims of this study were to describe the numbers and characteristics of cats entering Australian RSPCA shelters, and to describe reasons for cat surrender. Data collected included shelter, state, admission source, age, gender, date of arrival, color, breed, reproductive status (sterilized or not prior to admission), feral status and surrender reason (if applicable). Most admissions were presented by members of the general public, as either stray animals or owner-surrenders, and more kittens were admitted than adults. Owner-related reasons were most commonly given for surrendering a cat to a shelter. The most frequently cited owner-related reason was accommodation (i.e., cats were not allowed). Importantly, although the percentage of admissions where the cat was previously sterilized (36%) was the highest of any shelter study reported to date, this was still lower than expected, particularly among owner-surrendered cats (47%). The percentage of admissions where the cat was previously sterilized was low even in jurisdictions that require mandatory sterilization.

  1. Age, breed designation, coat color, and coat pattern influenced the length of stay of cats at a no-kill shelter.

    PubMed

    Brown, William P; Morgan, Kelsey T

    2015-01-01

    Adoption records from the Tompkins County Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, an open-admission, no-kill shelter in New York State, were examined to determine if various physical attributes influenced the length of stay (LOS) of cats and kittens. Similar reports from other no-kill shelters have not been published. LOS averaged 61.2 days for cats and kittens combined and ranged from less than 1 day to 730 days. Based on mixed models that accounted for lack of independence among attributes, younger, lighter-colored cats were generally adopted more quickly than older, more darkly colored cats, but yellow-colored cats had the greatest LOS. Coat color did not influence LOS for kittens. Coat patterning and breed designation influenced LOS in both cats and kittens. Male cats and kittens had a shorter LOS than female cats and kittens, respectively. Studies from traditional shelters also demonstrated the importance of physical characteristics to adopters. Given adopter preferences for companion animals with certain characteristics, methods to reduce the LOS for cats with the longest potential residences at the shelter require continued development.

  2. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishida, T; Washizu, T; Toriyabe, K; Motoyoshi, S; Tomoda, I; Pedersen, N C

    1989-01-15

    A seroepidemiologic survey for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection was conducted in Japan. Between June and December 1987, individual sera (n = 3,323) were submitted by veterinary practitioners from many parts of the country. Specimens were from 1,739 cats with clinical signs suggestive of FIV infection and from 1,584 healthy-appearing cats seen by the same practitioners. The overall FIV infection rate among cats in Japan was 960/3,323 cats (28.9%). The infection rate was more than 3 times higher in the clinically ill cats, compared with that in the healthy cats of the same cohort (43.9 vs 12.4%). Male cats were 1.5 times as likely to be infected as were females. Almost all FIV-infected cats were domestic cats (as opposed to purebred cats). Complete clinical history was available for 700 of 960 FIV-infected cats. Of these 700 FIV-infected cats, 626 (89.4%) were clinically ill, and the remainder did not have clinical signs of disease. The mean age at the time of FIV diagnosis for the 700 cats was 5.2 years, with younger mean age for males (4.9 years) than for females (5.8 years). Most of the infected cats (94.7%) were either allowed to run outdoors or had lived outdoors before being brought into homes. The mortality for FIV-infected cats during the 6 months after diagnosis was 14.7%, and the mean age at the time of death was 5.7 years. Concurrent FeLV infection was seen in 12.4% of the FIV-infected cats, but this was not much different from the historical incidence of FeLV infection in similar groups of cats not infected with FIV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    PubMed

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-03-07

    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions.

  4. Lateral bias and temperament in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris).

    PubMed

    McDowell, Louise J; Wells, Deborah L; Hepper, Peter G; Dempster, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Research points to a relationship between lateralization and emotional functioning in humans and many species of animal. The present study explored the association between paw preferences and emotional functioning, specifically temperament, in a species thus far overlooked in this area, the domestic cat. Thirty left-pawed, 30 right-pawed, and 30 ambilateral pet cats were recruited following an assessment of their paw preferences using a food-reaching challenge. The animals' temperament was subsequently assessed using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). Cats' owners also completed a purpose-designed cat temperament (CAT) scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between lateral bias and FTP and CAT scale scores. Ambilateral cats had lower positive (FTP+) scores, and were perceived as less affectionate, obedient, friendly, and more aggressive, than left or right-pawed animals. Left and right pawed cats differed significantly on 1 trait on the CAT scale, namely playfulness. The strength of the cats' paw preferences was related to the animals' FTP and CAT scores. Cats with a greater strength of paw preference had higher FTP+ scores than those with a weaker strength of paw preference. Animals with stronger paw preferences were perceived as more confident, affectionate, active, and friendly than those with weaker paw preferences. Results suggest that motor laterality in the cat is strongly related to temperament and that the presence or absence of lateralization has greater implications for the expression of emotion in this species than the direction of the lateralized bias. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  6. Learning to Look, Learning to Read: Dr. Seuss'"The Cat in the Hat."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodmer, George

    1997-01-01

    States that "The Cat in the Hat" (1957), written from a basic 225 word list, explores the level of activity that a child needs to keep secret from the adult world, and is a picture book which is also nominally a "reader" and not a storybook. Includes questions for stimulating student response; encapsulates classic elements in…

  7. Assessing the Usability of WorldCat Local: Findings and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertot, John Carlo; Berube, Katy; Devereaux, Peter; Dhakal, Kerry; Powers, Stephen; Ray, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    A number of academic, public, regional, and state libraries use WorldCat Local (WCL) as a resource location tool that enables users to search, find, and gain access to a range of print and electronic resources. This article describes a study undertaken to assess a Research I university's implementation of WCL. The study sought to understand the…

  8. Web life: Faraday's Cage Is Where You Put Schrödinger's Cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    Faraday's Cage Is Where You Put Schrödinger's Cat (FCIWYPSC) is a blog written by Cherish Bauer-Reich, who is pursuing a PhD in geophysics at the University of Minnesota while also working part-time as a research engineer at North Dakota State University (NDSU), some 250 miles away.

  9. Sézary syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Wood, Casey; Almes, Kelli; Bagladi-Swanson, Mary; Debey, Brad; Andrews, Gordon; Nietfeld, Jerome; Wilkerson, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    Sézary syndrome is an uncommon leukemic variant of cutaneous lymphoma in cats. This cat had recurrent dermatitis with erythematous, pruritic plaques. Multiple skin imprints and biopsy samples were obtained over a 6-month period, and histopathological findings were consistent initially with eosinophilic miliary dermatitis and later with erythema multiforme. One week before death, Sézary cells were identified in the peripheral blood that expressed cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and CD8 antigens. Massive infiltration of CD3+ lymphocytes was noted in the skin and multiple internal tissues by histopathological examination. This case demonstrates the difficulty in diagnosing cutaneous lymphoma early in the disease course.

  10. Cerebral vascular hamartoma in a geriatric cat

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Vaquero, Paula; Moore, Sarah A; Wolk, Kendra E; Oglesbee, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old castrated male domestic medium hair cat was presented with neurological signs consistent with a right thalamocortical lesion. Computed tomography (CT) images revealed a heterogeneously, hyperattenuating, poorly contrast enhancing intra-axial mass within the right lateral ventricle. The histological diagnosis at post-mortem examination was vascular hamartoma with hemorrhage and necrosis. This is the first report of a vascular hamartoma affecting the thalamocortex in a geriatric cat. Also, this is the first time that CT images of a feline cerebral vascular hamartoma have been reported. PMID:21277244

  11. Plasma Cell Pododermatitis in a Cat

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, R.; Bernard, J.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma cell pododermatitis, an uncommon disease of unknown etiology, is described in a six year old male domestic short-haired cat. The cat was referred with a history of lameness associated with swelling, softness and ulceration of the foot pads. The history suggested a seasonal occurrence of the condition. The dermis and subcutis of the foot pads were infiltrated by inflammatory cells which were mainly plasma cells. The large number of plasma cells present in the lesions suggests an immunological basis for the condition. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422486

  12. Amputation for histiocytic sarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Takahiro; Hata, Takashi; Nezu, Yoko; Michishita, Masaki; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Mizutani, Hisashi; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2012-02-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with a skin lesion of the left tarsus. The lesion was biopsied and, based on the microscopic appearance and immunohistochemical characteristics, histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed. Amputation was performed with improved demeanor seen postoperatively. However, between 44 and 60 days following the surgery, relapse of skin lesions appeared in multiple locations, including at the previous amputation site, and euthanasia was elected. This is the first report of a histiocytic sarcoma treated with amputation in a cat.

  13. [A case of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takuya; Suzuki, Takashi; Shinoda, Masataka; Takashi, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Suzuki, Takahisa; Miyake, Nobuyuki; Kamiya, Tohru

    2006-09-01

    A 43-year-old man was admitted with idiopathic fever. Abdominal ultrasonogram demonstrated multiple hypoechoic lesions in the spleen. Abdominal CT scan showed multiple hypodense lesions in the liver and spleen. The patient had a cat in his house, and the presence of a very high serous antibody titer for Bartonella henselae led to the diagnosis of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease. It is important to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic fever when multiple lesions are detected in the liver and spleen.

  14. Septic lens implantation syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dalesandro, Nicole; Stiles, Jean; Miller, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    A 13-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented initially for a change in the appearance of the left eye. On initial examination, a small penetrating wound was suspected as the cause for a corneal scar, an anterior cortical incipient cataract and mild iritis. The cat was not re-presented until 1 year later at which time ocular pain was marked. Severe anterior uveitis and glaucoma were diagnosed and the eye enucleated. Histopathology documented intralenticular coccoid bacteria and septic lens implantation syndrome.

  15. Lead in tissue of cats fed pine voles from lead arsenate-treated orchards

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmartin, J.E.; Alo, D.K.; Richmond, M.E.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    Lead arsenate has been used for many years for control of insects in apple orchards in the United States. In an earlier study, it was shown that such orchard soils may contain very high concentrations of lead and that orchards voles and mice inhibating such soils accumulate inordinately high levels of lead. It is of interest to learn the possible extent of deposition of lead in higher carnivores that may consume such orchard animals. In the work reported, cats were fed pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) captured in lead arsenate-treated orchards located in the vicinity of New Paltz, New York. Following sacrifice, the lead content of cat tissues was determined.

  16. 78 FR 13889 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... no. 19765a). In 1943, L.F. Brady donated three Hopi prayer sticks (cat nos. E-1787-1789) to the Arizona State Museum. In 1958, Father Victor Stoner donated a Snake Dance kilt (cat no. E-3606) to the... part of an exchange. In 1965, the Arizona State Museum purchased a polychrome medicine bowl (cat no....

  17. Solutions of D-dimensional Schrodinger equation for Woods-Saxon potential with spin-orbit, coulomb and centrifugal terms through a new hybrid numerical fitting Nikiforov-Uvarov method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknam, A.; Rajabi, A. A.; Solaimani, M.

    2016-03-01

    Solution of the radial Schrodinger equation for the Woods-Saxon potential together with spin-orbit interaction, coulomb and centrifugal terms by using usual Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method is not possible. Here, we have presented a new NU procedure with which we are able to solve this Schrodinger equation and any other one-dimensional ones with any shape of the potential profile. For this purpose, we have combined the NU method with numerical fitting schema. The energy eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions for various values of n, l, and j quantum numbers have been obtained. Good agreement with experimental values is also achieved. We have calculated the 1/2+ state energy with more accuracy (our absolute error = 0.023 MeV and Hagen et al. absolute error = 0.0918 MeV), while Hagen et al. have calculated the 5/2+ state energy with higher accuracy (our absolute error = 0.71 MeV and Hagen et al. absolute error = 0.0337 MeV). Our wave functions are in agreement with Kim et al.'s work, too.

  18. Selkirk Rex: morphological and genetic characterization of a new cat breed.

    PubMed

    Filler, Serina; Alhaddad, Hasan; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kurushima, Jennifer D; Cortes, Alejandro; Veit, Christine; Lyons, Leslie A; Brem, Gottfried

    2012-01-01

    Rexoid, curly hair mutations have been selected to develop new domestic cat breeds. The Selkirk Rex is the most recently established curly-coated cat breed originating from a spontaneous mutation that was discovered in the United States in 1987. Unlike the earlier and well-established Cornish and Devon Rex breeds with curly-coat mutations, the Selkirk Rex mutation is suggested as autosomal dominant and has a different curl phenotype. This study provides a genetic analysis of the Selkirk Rex breed. An informal segregation analysis of genetically proven matings supported an autosomal, incomplete dominant expression of the curly trait in the Selkirk Rex. Homozygous curl cats can be distinguished from heterozygous cats by head and body type, as well as the presentation of the hair curl. Bayesian clustering of short tandem repeat (STR) genotypes from 31 cats that represent the future breeding stock supported the close relationship of the Selkirk Rex to the British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Persian, and Exotic Shorthair, suggesting the Selkirk as part of the Persian breed family. The high heterozygosity of 0.630 and the low mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.057 suggest that Selkirk Rex has a diverse genetic foundation. A new locus for Selkirk autosomal dominant Rex, SADRE, is suggested for the curly trait.

  19. Quantitative resolution of spectroscopic systems using computer-assisted target factor analysis (CAT).

    PubMed

    Meinrath, G; Lis, S

    2001-01-02

    Factor analysis (FA) is widely applicable in analytical chemistry. For suitable data structures, the generality of the approach is a strong point of FA. Using target testing procedures, a wealth of specific informations on the components in a chemical system can be extracted without stating a specific model. Target testing, however, is time-consuming and often heuristic. In the following, application of a computer-assisted target factor analysis (CAT) algorithm is described. CAT estimates a rotation matrix that transforms abstract factors into physically meaningful informations by using general constraints, i.e. non-negativity of absorptions and/or concentrations. Thus, the rotation step in factor analysis is automated and allows application of target factor analysis to situations where none or only very limited information on the real factors and their respective contributions is available. Thus, a target testing procedure of guessing physically meaningful factors and iteratively adapting these factors is performed automatically. Nevertheless, CAT is not a black box procedure. The relative importance of different optimization constraints is balanced interactively. CAT can be applied to all situations where factor analysis can be used. CAT is demonstrated using UV-Vis absorption spectra of a Nd(III) polyoxometalate cryptate system and the system U(VI)-CO2-H2O as examples.

  20. Selkirk Rex: Morphological and Genetic Characterization of a New Cat Breed

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rexoid, curly hair mutations have been selected to develop new domestic cat breeds. The Selkirk Rex is the most recently established curly-coated cat breed originating from a spontaneous mutation that was discovered in the United States in 1987. Unlike the earlier and well-established Cornish and Devon Rex breeds with curly-coat mutations, the Selkirk Rex mutation is suggested as autosomal dominant and has a different curl phenotype. This study provides a genetic analysis of the Selkirk Rex breed. An informal segregation analysis of genetically proven matings supported an autosomal, incomplete dominant expression of the curly trait in the Selkirk Rex. Homozygous curl cats can be distinguished from heterozygous cats by head and body type, as well as the presentation of the hair curl. Bayesian clustering of short tandem repeat (STR) genotypes from 31 cats that represent the future breeding stock supported the close relationship of the Selkirk Rex to the British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Persian, and Exotic Shorthair, suggesting the Selkirk as part of the Persian breed family. The high heterozygosity of 0.630 and the low mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.057 suggest that Selkirk Rex has a diverse genetic foundation. A new locus for Selkirk autosomal dominant Rex, SADRE, is suggested for the curly trait. PMID:22837475

  1. Primary bacterial septic peritonitis in cats: 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Ruthrauff, Cassandra M; Smith, Julie; Glerum, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the signalment, clinical signs, laboratory results, culture results, and response to treatment for primary septic peritonitis in cats. This is a retrospective study of 12 client-owned animals. Medical records were reviewed for clinical findings, laboratory results, microbial culture results, radiographic findings, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. The overall mortality rate for this group of cats was 31%, consistent with previous reports of septic peritonitis in cats. All cats that were both bradycardic and hypothermic on presentation did not survive. Other clinicopathological findings were consistent with previously reported cases of septic peritonitis in cats. Results suggest that clinicopathological findings and outcomes in cats with primary septic peritonitis are similar to those in cats with septic peritonitis from a determined cause. A specific mechanism of inoculation has yet to be determined, but an oral source of bacteria is suggested for cats with primary bacterial septic peritonitis.

  2. Bird Flu Strain May Have Jumped from Cat to Human

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162717.html Bird Flu Strain May Have Jumped From Cat to ... would be the first known transmission of this bird flu strain from cat to human, officials said. ...

  3. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  4. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  5. Triggering Respirofermentative Metabolism in the Crabtree-Negative Yeast Pichia guilliermondii by Disrupting the CAT8 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Pichia guilliermondii is a Crabtree-negative yeast that does not normally exhibit respirofermentative metabolism under aerobic conditions, and methods to trigger this metabolism may have applications for physiological study and industrial applications. In the present study, CAT8, which encodes a putative global transcriptional activator, was disrupted in P. guilliermondii. This yeast's ethanol titer increased by >20-fold compared to the wild type (WT) during aerobic fermentation using glucose. A comparative transcriptional analysis indicated that the expression of genes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain was repressed in the CAT8-disrupted (ΔCAT8) strain, while the fermentative pathway genes were significantly upregulated. The respiratory activities in the ΔCAT8 strain, indicated by the specific oxygen uptake rate and respiratory state value, decreased to one-half and one-third of the WT values, respectively. In addition, the expression of HAP4, a transcriptional respiratory activator, was significantly repressed in the ΔCAT8 strain. Through disruption of HAP4, the ethanol production of P. guilliermondii was also increased, but the yield and titer were lower than that in the ΔCAT8 strain. A further transcriptional comparison between ΔCAT8 and ΔHAP4 strains suggested a more comprehensive reprogramming function of Cat8 in the central metabolic pathways. These results indicated the important role of CAT8 in regulating the glucose metabolism of P. guilliermondii and that the regulation was partially mediated by repressing HAP4. The strategy proposed here might be applicable to improve the aerobic fermentation capacity of other Crabtree-negative yeasts. PMID:24747899

  6. A Flea on Schrödinger's Cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, N. P. (Klaas); Reuvers, Robin

    2013-03-01

    We propose a technical reformulation of the measurement problem of quantum mechanics, which is based on the postulate that the final state of a measurement is classical; this accords with experimental practice as well as with Bohr's views. Unlike the usual formulation (in which the post-measurement state is a unit vector in Hilbert space), our version actually opens the possibility of admitting a purely technical solution within the confines of conventional quantum theory (as opposed to solutions that either modify this theory, or introduce unusual and controversial interpretative rules and/or ontologies). To that effect, we recall a remarkable phenomenon in the theory of Schrödinger operators (discovered in 1981 by Jona-Lasinio, Martinelli, and Scoppola), according to which the ground state of a symmetric double-well Hamiltonian (which is paradigmatically of Schrödinger's Cat type) becomes exponentially sensitive to tiny perturbations of the potential as ħ→0. We show that this instability emerges also from the textbook wkb approximation, extend it to time-dependent perturbations, and study the dynamical transition from the ground state of the double well to the perturbed ground state (in which the cat is typically either dead or alive, depending on the details of the perturbation). Numerical simulations show that adiabatically arising perturbations may (quite literally) cause the collapse of the wave-function in the classical limit. Thus, at least in the context of a simple mathematical model, we combine the technical and conceptual virtues of decoherence (which fails to solve the measurement problem but launches the key idea that perturbations may come from the environment) with those of dynamical collapse models à la grw (which do solve the measurement problem but are ad hoc), without sharing their drawbacks: single measurement outcomes are obtained (instead of merely diagonal reduced density matrices), and no modification of quantum mechanics is needed.

  7. The evolution of the knowledge of cat and dog coccidia.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    2009-10-01

    Before the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii as a coccidium of the cat in 1970, cat and dog coccidia were classified in the genus Isospora and considered of little clinical or zoonotic significance. Since 1970, several new (Hammondia sp., Neospora sp.) and previously described species, including Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, and Cryptosporidium have been found as coccidians of cats and dogs with clinical and zoonotic significance. In the present paper I review salient features of the evolution of cat and dog coccidia.

  8. Effect of neutering on two groups of feral cats.

    PubMed

    Neville, P F; Remfry, J

    1984-05-05

    Two colonies of urban feral cats were subjected to a programme of population control by trapping, neutering and returning to site. The behaviour of individual cats and the stability of the groups was studied before and after the programme, which was then assessed in terms of its humaneness and effectiveness as a means of control. The method was satisfactory on both counts and may be recommended for controlling feral cat colonies where the welfare of the cats can be assured after their return.

  9. Presumptive acute lung injury following multiple surgeries in a cat.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Masaaki; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Rieko; Sasaki, Jun; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Uzuka, Yuji; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Nezu, Yoshinori

    2013-04-01

    A 12-year-old, 3.5-kg spayed female domestic shorthair cat had a tracheal mass identified as malignant B-cell lymphoma. The cat had tracheal resection and subsequently developed laryngeal paralysis. Due to multiple episodes of respiratory distress the cat subsequently had tracheal surgeries. Finally, the cat had a sudden onset of severe respiratory distress and collapsed. Computed tomography imaging and arterial blood gas analysis supported a diagnosis of acute lung injury.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  11. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Urban Domestic Cats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Miranda, Júlia Bahia; Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Silva de Oliveira, Jaqueline; Pinheiro, Mariana Siqueira; Gonçalves, Stefanne Aparecida; Pimenta dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2017-01-01

    We investigated possible vaccinia virus (VACV) in urban house cats in Brazil. Serum samples from 6 cats were positive for VACV by PCR, indicating likely VACV circulation among house cats in urban areas of Brazil. This finding highlights the importance of epidemiologic surveillance to avoid outbreaks among urban human populations. PMID:28098542

  12. Do Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) Improve Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottell, Philip; Harwood, Elaine

    1998-01-01

    In a study of effectiveness of classroom assessment techniques (CATs) on student learning, two college accounting teachers each taught two classes, one using CATs and one not using them. Course results did not suggest greater learning in CATs classes, better student participation, or more positive attitudes. Further research is recommended on the…

  13. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maureen A; Laverty, Peter H; Soiderer, Emily E

    2005-03-01

    Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes.

  14. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes. PMID:15884646

  15. Hepatozoon species infection in domestic cats: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Baneth, G; Aroch, I; Tal, N; Harrus, S

    1998-10-01

    Hepatozoon sp. is a protozoan parasite of peripheral blood neutrophils in cats. Feline hepatozoonosis has been reported infrequently and little is known about the pathogenesis of this infection. In order to further clarify clinicopathological characteristics of hepatozoonosis in domestic cats, a retrospecitve study of hepatozoonosis in cats admitted during 1989-1995 to the Hebrew University School of Veterinary Medicine was conducted. The study population comprised all the cats whose medical records included a complete blood count with a microscopical examination of a blood smear during this 7-year period (n=1229). Hepatozoon gametocytes were identified in seven cats (0.57%) ranging from 1 to 6 years of age. Infected cats were mostly males (6/7) of mixed breed (5/7) with a variety of complaints and clinical signs. The clinicopathological findings included increased activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (5/6) and creatine kinase (CK) (5/6). The elevated enzymes detected in cats with hepatozoonosis are suggestive of muscular damage. Sixty-seven percent (4/6) of the cats with hepatozoonosis which were tested for a retroviral disease were found infected either in FIV or FELV. In addition, 2/7 cats were co-infected with Hemobartonella felis. In conclusion, parasitemia with Hepatozoon sp. is a rare finding in cats from Israel. The over-representation of cats with a retroviral disease among the cats with hepatozoonosis indicates a possible association between immunosupression and the development of Hepatozoon infection.

  16. When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

  17. Computed tomographic findings of fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Ketaki; Reichle, Jean K; Fischetti, Anthony J; Goggin, Justin M

    2009-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings of fungal rhinitis/sinusitis in cats were characterized. The CT images of 10 cats ranging in age from 7 to 13 years were examined. The mean age was 10.8 years and all were neutered males. Nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed in five cats, cryptococcosis in three cats, hyalohyphomycosis in one cat, and trichosporonosis in one cat. Bilateral disease was present in eight cats, seven had abnormal soft tissue attenuation in two-thirds of the nasal cavity, and six had turbinate lysis. Seven cats had also lysis of the hard palate, nasal septum, or frontal bone. One cat had lysis of the cribriform plate. Five of the nine cats whose lymph nodes were imaged had lymph node enlargement. There was contrast medium enhancement in the nasal cavity in all cats, with either a primarily peripheral rim or heterogeneous pattern. There appears to be an overlap of clinical signs, age, and CT features of cats with nasal neoplasia and those with fungal rhinitis/ sinusitis.

  18. Eosinophilia in a cat with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Cornelia; Forzán, María; Drew, Anne; Vernau, William

    2011-09-01

    A 4-year-old castrated male domestic shorthaired cat with a history of vomiting and anorexia was diagnosed with leukemia with marked hepatic and splenic infiltration and concurrent eosinophilia with marked tissue infiltration. Despite thorough immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the cell lineage of the leukemia was not identified.

  19. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    PubMed

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  20. Dermatophilus congolensis in a feral cat.

    PubMed

    Barger, Anne M; Weedon, G Robert; Maddox, Carol W; Galloway, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    A young adult feral cat presented to the Champaign County Humane Society with a subcutaneous mass near the stifle. The mass was aspirated. Chains of paired cocci organisms were identified, consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis. The identity of these organisms was confirmed by culture and polymerase chain reaction.

  1. Inflammatory oral cavity diseases of the cat.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C

    1992-11-01

    There is a great deal of frustration among veterinarians about the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity of the cat. This frustration is due to both the high frequency of feline oral inflammatory lesions and our poor understanding of their causes. This poor understanding can be blamed on several things: (1) a rapidly emerging, but still relatively poor, understanding of feline diseases in general and nutrition in particular; (2) a tendency to lump rather than separate specific oral inflammations; (3) a tendency not to use a thorough and systematic approach to diagnosing oral cavity disease; and (4) the reluctance of veterinarians to apply what is already known about human oral cavity diseases to cats. When problems 2 through 4 are adequately addressed, it becomes apparent that we really know more about oral cavity disease in the cat than we thought we knew and that great progress has been made. The task ahead is to define, in precise medical terms, those remaining disease entities of the oral cavity that pose the greatest health risk to cats, to apply what has been already been discovered from human disease counterparts, and to study them systematically.

  2. Kipling's Cat: Learning from the New Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Richard

    1996-01-01

    International schools can benefit from new students' fresh vision. Some students exhibit "culture shock" on arrival, while others, like Kipling's cat, act as though "all places are alike to them." This article examines the newcomer's adjustment process by proposing a model of personal identity development and poses questions to test the theory…

  3. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Schober, K E; Kent, A M; Aeffner, F

    2014-03-01

    A 10-year-old male castrated Domestic Shorthair cat was evaluated for an asymptomatic tachyarrhythmia noted two weeks prior. Electrocardiography revealed a normal sinus rhythm with atrial premature complexes and paroxysms of supraventricular tachycardia with a heart rate between 300 and 400 min-1. Echocardiography was unremarkable, and concentrations of circulating cardiac troponin I, T4, and blood taurine were within reference ranges. The cat was treated with sotalol (2.1 mg/kg q12h, PO) but the arrhythmia was insufficiently controlled as determined during several re-examinations within a two-year time period. Twenty four months after initial presentation atrial fibrillation with fast ventricular response rate (200 to 300 min-1) was diagnosed, along with severe eccentric chamber remodeling and systolic dysfunction. The cat developed congestive heart failure and cardiogenic shock and was euthanized nearly 27 months after the first exam. Gross and histopathologic findings ruled out commonly seen types of primary myocardial disease in cats. The persistent nature of the tachyarrhythmia, the progressive structural and functional cardiac changes, and comparative gross and histopathologic post-mortem findings are consistent with the diagnosis of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

  4. Making a Cat's Eye in a Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovsek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Three plain mirrors, perpendicular to each other, reflect a beam of light back into the direction it came from. An activity is suggested where pupils can employ this feature of perpendicular mirrors and make their own corner cube retroreflector--a kind of cat's eye. (Contains 7 figures and 1 footnote.)

  5. CAT-ASVAB Technical Bulletin Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Bodzin , 1986) was used. It consisted of an IBM PC-Compatible computer, the Datacopy 700 Optical Scanner, the Word Image Processing System (WIPS...delivery vehicle for CAT-ASVAB. Chapter 5 - Hardware Selection, Software Development, and Acceptance Testing 5-35 References Bodzin , L.J. (1986

  6. [Ocular leishmaniasis in a cat: case report].

    PubMed

    Verneuil, M

    2013-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease common to humans as well as wild and domestic animals. When it affects pets, it primarily involves dogs, which constitute a parasitic reservoir. This disease is observed in Africa, Asia, and America and around the entire Mediterranean coast. We report an ocular form of leishmaniasis in a cat from the Var region.

  7. Look What the Cat Brought In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erslev, Carole

    1984-01-01

    The small, uneaten, slate-gray, pointed-nose animal that is distasteful to the cat because of foul-tasting scent glands is the shrew. Describes the short-tailed shrew's physical characteristics, lifespan, habitat, eating habits, and senses. (ERB)

  8. Eosinophilia in a cat with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gilroy, Cornelia; Forzán, María; Drew, Anne; Vernau, William

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old castrated male domestic shorthaired cat with a history of vomiting and anorexia was diagnosed with leukemia with marked hepatic and splenic infiltration and concurrent eosinophilia with marked tissue infiltration. Despite thorough immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the cell lineage of the leukemia was not identified. PMID:22379202

  9. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A.; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; Takahashi, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains. PMID:11329473

  10. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  11. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  12. Inspecting Hollow Parts With a CAT Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhr, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    Technique well known in medicine, used on manufactured objects. As it passes through a part, beam of X-rays or other radiation attenuated and scattered. Computer records variations in beam as part rotated and constructs cross section for display on video monitor. Computeraided tomography (CAT) measures wall thickness and detecting flaws in hollow turbine blades or other curved parts.

  13. Schrödinger's cat and the firewall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    It has been argued that when black holes are treated as quantum systems there are implications at the horizon and not just the singularity. Infalling observers will meet a firewall of high energy quanta. We argue that the question of whether an observer falling into a black hole experiences a smooth horizon or a firewall is identical to the question of whether Schrödinger's cat is either in a definite state, alive or dead, or in a superposition of the two. Since experience with real macro-systems indicate the former, the black hole state vector is seen to describe a set of decoherent alternatives each with a smooth horizon and the entanglement puzzle is thereby side stepped.

  14. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role.

  15. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  16. CaTs Lab (CHAOS and Thermal Sciences Laboratory)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teate, Anthony A.

    2002-01-01

    The CHAOS and Thermal Sciences Laboratory (CaTs) at James Madison University evolved into a noteworthy effort to increase minority representation in the sciences and mathematics. Serving ten students and faculty directly, and nearly 50 students indirectly, CaTs, through recruitment efforts, workshops, mentoring programs, tutorial services and research and computational laboratories, fulfilled its intent to initiate an academically enriched research program aimed at strengthening the academic and self-actualization skills of undergraduate students with potential to pursue doctoral study in the sciences. The stated goal of the program was to increase by 5% the number of enrolled mathematics and science students into the program. Success far exceeded the program goals by producing 100% graduation rate of all supported recipients during its tenure, with 30% of the students subsequently in pursuit of graduate degrees. Student retention in the program exceeded 90% and faculty participation exceeded the three members involved in mentoring and tutoring, gaining multi-disciplinary support. Aggressive marketing of the program resulted in several paid summer internships and commitments from NASA and an ongoing relationship with CHROME, a nationally recognized organization which focuses on developing minority students in the sciences and mathematics. Success of the program was only limited by the limited fiscal resources at NASA which resulted in phasing out of the program.

  17. Radioactivity of neutron-irradiated cat's-eye chrysoberyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.

    1999-04-01

    The recent report of marketing of radioactive chrysoberyl cat's-eyes in South-East Asian markets has led us to use an indirect method to estimate the threat to health these color-enhanced gemstones may pose if worn close to skin. We determined the impurity content of several cat's-eye chrysoberyls from Indian States of Orissa and Kerala using PIXE, and calculated the radioactivity that would be generated from these impurities and the constitutional elements if a chrysoberyl was irradiated by neutrons in a nuclear reactor for color enhancement. Of all the radioactive nuclides that could be created by neutron irradiation, only four ( 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn and 59Fe) would not have cooled down within a month after irradiation to the internationally accepted level of specific residual radioactivity of 2 nCi/g. The radioactivity of 46Sc, 51Cr and 59Fe would only fall to this safe limit after 15 months and that of 54Mn could remain above this limit for several years.

  18. Hypokalaemia in a hyperthyroid domestic shorthair cat with adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Fryers, Adele; Elwood, Clive

    2014-10-01

    A 13-year-old female domestic shorthair cat presented with polyphagia and weight loss. Marked systolic hypertension was found on examination. Elevated total thyroxine levels confirmed hyperthyroidism, and hypokalaemia was also documented. A euthyroid state and normotension were achieved following 4 weeks of treatment with carbimazole and amlodipine. Despite potassium supplementation, the hypokalaemia worsened. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed left adrenomegaly. Plasma aldosterone concentrations were initially in the lower half of the reference interval and, when repeated 2 months later, were undetectable. Urea and creatinine remained in the lower half of the reference interval throughout treatment, and urine specific gravity suggested good urine concentrating ability. The fractional excretion of potassium confirmed a renal source of potassium loss. Blood gas analysis was unremarkable. It was theorised that an aldosterone precursor was causing signs of mineralocorticoid excess and undetectable plasma aldosterone levels. Treatment with an aldosterone receptor antagonist successfully increased the serum potassium concentration. Owing to difficulties administering medication and associated effects on life quality the cat was euthanased. Adrenal hyperplasia was apparent on post-mortem histopathology.

  19. Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Bethards, L.A.; Scandalios, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using (/sup 32/P)-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed.

  20. Numbers and Characteristics of Cats Admitted to Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Shelters in Australia and Reasons for Surrender

    PubMed Central

    Alberthsen, Corinne; Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary National Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) shelter admission data were utilized to examine cats presented to Australian animal shelters and reasons for surrender. This study reports the most commonly cited reasons for an owner to surrender and found lower than expected sterilized cats. Abstract Despite high numbers of cats admitted to animal shelters annually, there is surprisingly little information available about the characteristics of these cats. In this study, we examined 195,387 admissions to 33 Australian RSPCA shelters and six friends of the RSPCA groups from July 2006 to June 2010. The aims of this study were to describe the numbers and characteristics of cats entering Australian RSPCA shelters, and to describe reasons for cat surrender. Data collected included shelter, state, admission source, age, gender, date of arrival, color, breed, reproductive status (sterilized or not prior to admission), feral status and surrender reason (if applicable). Most admissions were presented by members of the general public, as either stray animals or owner-surrenders, and more kittens were admitted than adults. Owner-related reasons were most commonly given for surrendering a cat to a shelter. The most frequently cited owner-related reason was accommodation (i.e., cats were not allowed). Importantly, although the percentage of admissions where the cat was previously sterilized (36%) was the highest of any shelter study reported to date, this was still lower than expected, particularly among owner-surrendered cats (47%). The percentage of admissions where the cat was previously sterilized was low even in jurisdictions that require mandatory sterilization. PMID:26999223

  1. Using simultaneous diagonalization and trace minimization to make an efficient and simple multidimensional basis for solving the vibrational Schrodinger equation.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Richard; Carrington, Tucker

    2006-02-07

    In this paper we improve the product simultaneous diagonalization (SD) basis method we previously proposed [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 134101 (2005)] and applied to solve the Schrodinger equation for the motion of nuclei on a potential surface. The improved method is tested using coupled complicated Hamiltonians with as many as 16 coordinates for which we can easily find numerically exact solutions. In a basis of sorted products of one-dimensional (1D) SD functions the Hamiltonian matrix is nearly diagonal. The localization of the 1D SD functions for coordinate qc depends on a parameter we denote alphac. In this paper we present a trace minimization scheme for choosing alphac to nearly block diagonalize the Hamiltonian matrix. Near-block diagonality makes it possible to truncate the matrix without degrading the accuracy of the lowest energy levels. We show that in the sorted product SD basis perturbation theory works extremely well. The trace minimization scheme is general and easy to implement.

  2. Tachyzoite-induced life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    2002-08-01

    The tachyzoite-induced cycle of Toxoplasma gondii was studied in 46 cats. Tachyzoites of the M-7741 or Me-49 strain of T. gondii were administered orally to cats by pouring into the mouth or by stomach tube, or by intraintestinal inoculation. Ten weaned cats that had been inoculated with tachyzoites directly in the intestine were killed 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 25 days later, and their tissues were studied histologically and bioassayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrable in the blood of 8 cats and in other tissues of all these 10. Four out of five 1- to 8-day-old cats fed tachyzoites by stomach tube became infected with T. gondii, and 1 became ill because of toxoplasmosis. All 19 weaned cats fed tachyzoites (poured into the mouth) became infected, and 6 died of acute toxoplasmosis 9-15 days after being fed T. gondii. Six out of 12 weaned cats fed tachyzoites by stomach tube became infected but were asymptomatic. Overall, 12 out of 26 cats observed for 19 days or more shed oocysts with a prepatent period (pp) of 19 days or more, with the sole exception of 1 cat that shed oocysts with a pp of 5 days. Enteroepithelial stages of T. gondii were not found in any cat before oocysts were shed. Cats shed up to 360 million oocysts in a day, and oocysts were shed for 4-6 days.

  3. Generation of cloned transgenic cats expressing red fluorescence protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xi Jun; Lee, Hyo Sang; Yu, Xian Feng; Choi, Eugene; Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun; Lee, Young S; Cho, Su Jin; Jin, Guang Zhen; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Nam Hyung; Kong, Il Keun

    2008-03-01

    A method for engineering and producing genetically modified cats is important for generating biomedical models of human diseases. Here we describe the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce cloned transgenic cats that systemically express red fluorescent protein. Immature oocytes were collected from superovulating cat ovaries. Donor fibroblasts were obtained from an ear skin biopsy of a white male Turkish Angora cat, cultured for one to two passages, and subjected to transduction with a retrovirus vector designed to transfer and express the red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene. A total of 176 RFP cloned embryos were transferred into 11 surrogate mothers (mean = 16 +/- 7.5 per recipient). Three surrogate mothers were successfully impregnated (27.3%) and delivered two liveborn and one stillborn kitten at 65 to 66 days of gestation. Analysis of nine feline-specific microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned cats were genetically identical to the donor cat. Presence of the RFP gene in the transgenic cat genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Whole-body red fluorescence was detected 60 days after birth in the liveborn transgenic (TG) cat but not in the surrogate mother cat. Red fluorescence was detected in tissue samples, including hair, muscle, brain, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, bronchus, lung, stomach, intestine, tongue, and even excrement of the stillborn TG cat. These results suggest that this nuclear transfer procedure using genetically modified somatic cells could be useful for the efficient production of transgenic cats.

  4. Post-anesthetic cortical blindness in cats: twenty cases.

    PubMed

    Stiles, J; Weil, A B; Packer, R A; Lantz, G C

    2012-08-01

    The medical records of 20 cats with post-anesthetic cortical blindness were reviewed. Information collected included signalment and health status, reason for anesthesia, anesthetic protocols and adverse events, post-anesthetic visual and neurological abnormalities, clinical outcome, and risk factors. The vascular anatomy of the cat brain was reviewed by cadaver dissections. Thirteen cats were anaesthetised for dentistry, four for endoscopy, two for neutering procedures and one for urethral obstruction. A mouth gag was used in 16/20 cats. Three cats had had cardiac arrest, whereas in the remaining 17 cases, no specific cause of blindness was identified. Seventeen cats (85%) had neurological deficits in addition to blindness. Fourteen of 20 cats (70%) had documented recovery of vision, whereas four (20%) remained blind. Two cats (10%) were lost to follow up while still blind. Ten of 17 cats (59%) with neurological deficits had full recovery from neurological disease, two (12%) had mild persistent deficits and one (6%) was euthanased as it failed to recover. Four cats (23%) without documented resolution of neurological signs were lost to follow up. Mouth gags were identified as a potential risk factor for cerebral ischemia and blindness in cats.

  5. Serological survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in cats in Japan

    PubMed Central

    TSUKADA, Ryusuke; OSAKA, Yuki; TAKANO, Tomomi; SASAKI, Mizuki; INOSE, Mitsuhiro; IKADAI, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using E. cuniculi PTP2 recombinant protein from serum samples that had been collected from a total of 295 cats in Japan. Of these samples, 6.1% (18/295) had antibodies against E. cuniculi, which included 6.3% (6/96) of the male cats and 6.0% (12/199) of the female cats. The incidence was slightly higher in feral cats (8.3%, 11/132) compared to domesticated cats (4.3%, 7/163). This suggests the possibility that the cats of our country have become a reservoir of E. cuniculi. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence of E. cuniculi infection in cats in Japan. PMID:27320966

  6. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hohnen, Rosemary; Tuft, Katherine; McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Radford, Ian J.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account. PMID:27655024

  7. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity.

    PubMed

    Hohnen, Rosemary; Tuft, Katherine; McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Radford, Ian J; Johnson, Christopher N

    The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account.

  8. Artificial insemination in domestic cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshihiko

    2006-07-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) in cats represents an important technique for increasing the contribution of genetically valuable individuals in specific populations, whether they be highly pedigreed purebred cats, medically important laboratory cats or endangered non-domestic cats. Semen is collected using electrical stimulation, with an artificial vagina or from intact or excised cauda epididymis. Sperm samples can be used for AI immediately after collection, after temporary storage above 0 degrees C or after cryopreservation. There have been three and five reports on intravaginal and intrauterine insemination, respectively, and one report on tubal insemination with fresh semen. In studies using fresh semen, it was reported that conception rates of 50% or higher were obtained by intravaginal insemination with 10-50x10(6) spermatozoa, while, in another report, the conception rate was 78% after AI with 80x10(6) spermatozoa. After intrauterine insemination, conception rates following deposition of 6.2x10(6) and 8x10(6) spermatozoa were reported to be 50 and 80%, respectively. With tubal insemination, the conception rate was 43% when 4x10(6) spermatozoa were used, showing that the number of spermatozoa required to obtain a satisfactory conception rate was similar to that of cats inseminated directly into the uterus. When frozen semen was used for intravaginal insemination the conception rate was rather low, but intrauterine insemination with 50x10(6) frozen/thawed spermatozoa resulted in a conception rate of 57%. Furthermore, in one report, conception was obtained by intrauterine insemination of frozen epididymal spermatozoa. Overall, there have been few reports on artificial insemination in cats. The results obtained to date show considerable variation, both within and among laboratories depending upon the type and number of spermatozoa used and the site of sperm deposition. Undoubtedly, future studies will identify the major factors required to consistently obtain

  9. Aortic and carotid body chemoreception in prolonged hyperoxia in the cat.

    PubMed

    Mokashi, A; Lahiri, S

    1991-11-01

    Carotid body chemosensory response to hypoxia is attenuated as a result of prolonged normobaric hyperoxia (NH) in the cat. The effect of NH is likely to be due to high cellular PO2 and O2-related free radicals. Accordingly, the effect would be less if O2 delivery to the chemoreceptor tissue could be compromised. The aortic bodies, which appear to have less of a circulatory O2 delivery, as suggested by their vigorous responses to a slight compromise of O2 flow compared with those of the carotid body, could provide a suitable testing material for the hypothesis. We tested the hypothesis by studying both aortic and carotid body chemoreceptors in the same cats (n = 6) which were exposed to nearly 100% O2 for about 60 h. These chemoreceptor organs were also studied in 6 control cats which were maintained in room air at sea-level. The cats were anesthetized and their carotid and aortic chemosensory fibers were identified by the usual procedure, and their responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia and to bolus injections (i.v.) of cyanide and nicotine were measured. In the NH cats, the carotid but not aortic chemosensory responses to hypoxia and cyanide were attenuated and to hypercapnia (both onset and steady state) augmented. The aortic chemoreceptors were stimulated by hypoxia, hypercapnia, cyanide and nicotine both in the NH and the control cats similarly. The results support the hypothesis that it is presumably a higher tissue blood flow and hence a higher concentration of O2-related free radicals which ultimately led to the specific attenuation of O2 chemoreception in the carotid body.

  10. Observation and Modeling of Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenger, M.; Mayoraz, L.; Stauch, V.; Sharman, B.; Polymeris, J.

    2012-04-01

    CAT represents a very relevant phenomenon for aviation safety. It can lead to passenger injuries, causes an increase in fuel consumption and, under severe intensity, can involve structural damages to the aircraft. The physical processes causing CAT remain at present not fully understood. Moreover, because of its small scale, CAT cannot be represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In this study, the physical processes related to CAT and its representation in NWP models is further investigated. First, 134 CAT events over Europe are extracted from a flight monitoring data base (FDM), run by the SWISS airline and containing over 100'000 flights. The location, time, and meteorological parameters along the turbulent spots are analysed. Furthermore, the 7-km NWP model run by the Swiss National Weather Service (Meteoswiss) is used to calculate model-based CAT indices, e.g. Richardson number, Ellrod & Knapp turbulence index and a complex/combined CAT index developed at NCAR. The CAT indices simulated with COSMO-7 is then compared to the observed CAT spots, hence allowing to assess the model's performance, and potential use in a CAT warning system. In a second step, the meteorological conditions associated with CAT are investigated. To this aim, CAT events are defined as coherent structures in space and in time, i.e. their dimension and life cycle is studied, in connection with jet streams and upper-level fronts. Finally, in a third step the predictability of CAT is assessed, by comparing CAT index predictions based on different lead times of the NWP model COSMO-7

  11. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats.

  12. Monitoring of basophil sensitization to antigens of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis): a new tool for the diagnosis of feline flea bite hypersensitivity?

    PubMed

    Stuke, K; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Dreesman, J; Mencke, N; Schnieder, T; Leibold, W

    2008-09-01

    Suitability of blood basophils for in vitro diagnosis of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) or flea bite hypersensitivity was studied in cats. A functional in vitro test (FIT) for sensitized type I allergic effector cells was used to evaluate the degree and kinetics of in vivo basophil sensitization against flea antigens in cats under long-term flea exposure. FIT results were compared with intradermal (IDT) and serological testing. Before, during, and after weekly repeated exposure to Ctenocephalides felis; 14 cats were repetitively FIT-assessed for general and flea-specific sensitization. In three cats, flea-specific sensitization was seen before and throughout flea exposure. Five cats, although generally sensitized, never developed a flea-specific sensitization. Six cats initially FIT-negative became sensitized for flea antigen during flea infestation. Induction, upregulation, and binding of C. felis-specific sensitizing antibodies to basophils during flea challenge may explain the developing sensitization in these cats. Strong discrepancies between the levels of flea-specific circulating IgE and basophil sensitization contrasted comparable results for basophil and mast cell sensitization using FIT and IDT, respectively. Hence, the FIT might provide an immunological supplement to the clinical diagnosis of FAD in cats by elucidating the state of basophil-sensitization to flea antigens. And it may be a comfortable alternative to IDT.

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Leishmania spp. infections and risk factors for cats from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; Apolinário, Juliana de Carvalho; Coelho, Natalia Marinho Dourado; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2011-10-01

    The seroprevalence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Leishmania spp. was detected through an indirect immunofluorescence in 70 cats from the Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Anti-T. gondii antibodies (titer >64) were detected in 15.7% (11/70) of animals, whereas positivity for N. caninum (titer 16) was not observed in any animal. Of the cats from urban and rural areas, 10.4% (5/48) and 27.2% (6/22) were positive for T. gondii, respectively. Breed, age, food, and contact with animals of other species were significant for considering the positivity for T. gondii (P ≤ 0.0001). Cats having access to streets (17.1%, 11/64), cats cohabiting with rats (19.6%, 10/51), and cats feeding on homemade food and raw milk (27.2%, 6/22) were positive for T. gondii. In addition, 4.2% (3/70) of the cats were positive for Leishmania spp. by ELISA technique and negative by IFAT without coinfection with T. gondii and Leishmania spp. There was no serological positivity against feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukemia virus. In conclusion, T. gondii infection in part of the feline population from Andradina is not linked to immunosuppressions or coinfections but probably to postnatal infection in association with the type of diet and presence of rats.

  14. Speed of kill efficacy and efficacy of flavored spinosad tablets administered orally to cats in a simulated home environment for the treatment and prevention of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Meyer, Katherine A; Wiseman, Scott; Trout, Candace M; Young, David R

    2013-09-23

    The efficacy of spinosad against adult fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on cats was evaluated in two separate controlled, blinded studies-one to determine flea knockdown and speed of flea kill (SOFK) on experimentally infested cats, another to assess the ability of spinosad to prevent flea infestations in a simulated home environment (SHE) study design. In each study, pre-treatment live flea counts were used as a blocking factor to randomize cats to treatment, and treated in the fed state, with flavored tablets containing either no active ingredient (control) or spinosad (50-100mg/kg in the SOFK study; 50-75 mg/kg body weight in the SHE study). In the SOFK study, 6 cats per group were infested with unfed adult fleas on Day -1. Groups 1-5 received control tablets; groups 6-10 received spinosad tablets. Flea counts were conducted at 0.5, 2, 4, 8 and 24h post-dosing. In the SHE study, 12 flea-free cats per group, treated on Days 0, 30 and 60, were maintained in solid-sided cages with solid carpeted floors. Each cat was infested on Days 1, 7 and 14 with 100 unfed adult fleas. Individual flea comb counts were performed on Days 3, 9, 16, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 and 95. After each count, except Day 95, up to 300 live fleas were replaced on each cat. To augment flea challenge, the carpeted area in each cage was sprinkled weekly with larval flea growth media (dried blood, yeast). In the SOFK study, reductions in mean flea counts in the spinosad groups were observed at all post-treatment assessments, beginning at 0.5h post-infestation with significant differences (p<0.0001) from vehicle-treated cats from 2h post-treatment when efficacy was >90%, through the final flea counts 24h post-infestation when no fleas were found on spinosad treated cats. In the SHE study, GM post-treatment flea counts in the control group ranged between 38.9 and 107.0 (arithmetic means 58.8-118.1); no live fleas were combed from spinosad-treated cats (100% effectiveness) at any time

  15. Serological survey of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens in pet cats and cats from animal shelters and feral colonies.

    PubMed

    Case, Joseph Brad; Chomel, Bruno; Nicholson, William; Foley, Janet E

    2006-04-01

    Although cats and their arthropod parasites can sometimes be important sources of zoonotic diseases in humans, the extent of exposure among various cat populations to many potential zoonotic agents remains incompletely described. In this study, 170 domestic cats living in private homes, feral cat colonies, and animal shelters from California and Wisconsin were evaluated by serology to determine the levels of exposure to a group of zoonotic vector-borne pathogens. Serological positive test results were observed in 17.2% of cats for Rickettsia rickettsii, 14.9% for R akari, 4.9% for R typhi, 11.1% for R felis, and 14.7% for Bartonella henselae. Although vector-borne disease exposure has been documented previously in cats, the evaluation of multiple pathogens and diverse cat populations simultaneously performed here contributes to our understanding of feline exposure to these zoonotic pathogens.

  16. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  17. [Blood group typing in the cat].

    PubMed

    Haarer, M; Grünbaum, E G

    1993-08-01

    Blood group serological diagnosis in cats is clinically relevant for the prophylaxis of blood group incompatibility reactions. In permanent blood donors, cats used for breeding and recipients with a history of prior blood transfusions, testing should consist of blood typing and antibody detection. As test sera and test cells are not commercially available and since parallel tests for various antibody qualities are necessary, they are usually performed in specialized laboratories. Incompatibility testing has a practical clinical relevance in finding a serological diagnosis before each blood transfusion and in cases of kitten mortality. In emergency situations, cross matching can be performed on slides as a screening test. Negative slide test results then should be verified using the more sensitive test tube or microtiter plate tests.

  18. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  19. Coccidioidomycosis in dogs and cats: a review.

    PubMed

    Graupmann-Kuzma, Angela; Valentine, Beth A; Shubitz, Lisa F; Dial, Sharon M; Watrous, Barbara; Tornquist, Susan J

    2008-01-01

    The dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are the causative agents of coccidioidomycosis. Dogs and cats residing in and visiting endemic areas are at risk of exposure to infectious arthrospores. The primary infection is pulmonary and frequently results in chronic cough. Disseminated disease is common and causes cutaneous, osseous, cardiac, ocular, nervous system, or other organ disease. Radiographic changes include a variable degree of interstitial pulmonary infiltration, hilar lymphadenopathy, and osseous lesions. Serological titers support the diagnosis, but definitive diagnosis relies on identification of Coccidioides in cytological or tissue samples. Coccidioidomycosis should be considered in any dog or cat that has been potentially exposed during the previous 3 years and is presented with chronic illness, respiratory signs, lameness, lymphadenopathy, nonhealing cutaneous lesions, or neurological, ocular, or cardiac abnormalities.

  20. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation in obese cats alters carnitine metabolism and decreases ketosis during fasting and induced hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Géraldine; Paragon, Bernard M; Milliat, Fabien; Lutton, Claude

    2002-02-01

    This study was designed to determine whether dietary carnitine supplement could protect cats from ketosis and improve carnitine and lipid metabolism in experimental feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). Lean spayed queens received a diet containing 40 (CL group, n = 7) or 1000 (CH group, n = 4) mg/kg of L-carnitine during obesity development. Plasma fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate and carnitine, and liver and muscle carnitine concentrations were measured during experimental induction of FHL and after treatment. In control cats (CL group), fasting and FHL increased the plasma concentrations of fatty acids two- to threefold (P < 0.0001) and beta-hydroxybutyrate > 10-fold (from a basal 0.22 +/- 0.03 to 1.70 +/- 0.73 after 3 wk fasting and 3.13 +/- 0.49 mmol/L during FHL). In carnitine-supplemented cats, these variables increased significantly (P < 0.0001) only during FHL (beta-hydroxybutyrate, 1.42 +/- 0.17 mmol/L). L-Carnitine supplementation significantly increased plasma, muscle and liver carnitine concentrations. Liver carnitine concentration increased dramatically from the obese state to FHL in nonsupplemented cats, but not in supplemented cats, which suggests de novo synthesis of carnitine from endogenous amino acids in control cats and reversible storage in supplemented cats. These results demonstrate the protective effect of a dietary L-carnitine supplement against fasting ketosis during obesity induction. Increasing the L-carnitine level of diets in cats with low energy requirements, such as after neutering, and a high risk of obesity could therefore be recommended.

  1. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  2. CAT: the INGV Tsunami Alert Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.

    2014-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the tsunami threat posed by large earthquakes occurring in the Mediterranean sea was formally taken into account by many countries around the Mediterranean basin. In the past, large earthquakes that originated significant tsunamis occurred nearly once per century (Maramai et al., 2014, Annals of Geophysics). The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO) received a mandate from the international community to coordinate the establishment of the ICG/NEAMTWS (http://neamtic.ioc-unesco.org) through Resolution IOC-XXIII-14. Since then, several countries (France, Turkey, Greece) have started operating as candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) in the Mediterranean. Italy started operating as cTWP on October 1st, 2014. The Italian cTWP is formed by INGV ("Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)", DPC ("Dipartimento di Protezione Civile") and ISPRA ("Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale"). INGV is in charge of issuing the alert for potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes, ISPRA provides the sea level recordings and DPC is in charge of disseminating the alert. INGV established the tsunami alert center (CAT, "Centro di Allerta Tsunami") at the end of 2013. CAT is co-located with the INGV national seismic surveillance center operated since many years. In this work, we show the technical and personnel organization of CAT, its response to recent earthquakes, and the new procedures under development for implementation. (*) INGV-CAT WG: Amato A., Basili R., Bernardi F., Bono A., Danecek P., De Martini P.M., Govoni A., Graziani L., Lauciani V., Lomax, A., Lorito S., Maramai A., Mele F., Melini D., Molinari I., Nostro C., Piatanesi A., Pintore S., Quintiliani M., Romano F., Selva J., Selvaggi G., Sorrentino D., Tonini R.

  3. Tissue Doppler imaging and gradient echo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in normal cats and cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kristin A; Kittleson, Mark D; Garcia-Nolen, Tanya; Larson, Richard F; Wisner, Erik R

    2006-01-01

    Cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) often develop diastolic dysfunction, which can lead to development of left congestive heart failure. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiography has emerged as a useful, noninvasive method for assessing diastolic function in cats. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) has been performed in cats and accurately quantifies left ventricular (LV) mass in normal cats. However, assessment of cardiac function in cats by cMRI has not been performed. Six normal Domestic Shorthair cats and 7 Maine Coon cats with moderate to severe HCM were sedated, and TDI of the lateral mitral annulus was performed. Peak early diastolic velocity (Em) was measured from 5 nonconsecutive beats. Cats were anesthetized with propofol and electrocardiogram-gated gradient echo cMRI was performed during apnea after hyperventilation. Short-axis images of the LV extending from the mitral annulus to the apex were obtained throughout the cardiac cycle. LV mass at end systole and LV volumes throughout the cardiac cycle were quantified according to Simpson's rule. To assess the possible influence of propofol on diastolic function, TDI was performed on the 7 cats with HCM while sedated and then while anesthetized with propofol. Em was significantly lower in cats with HCM than normal cats (6.7 +/- 1.3 cm/s versus 11.6 +/- 1.9 cm/s, P < .001, respectively). There was no difference in the cMRI indices of diastolic function in normal and HCM cats. Propofol did not reduce diastolic function (Em) in cats with HCM but mildly reduced systolic myocardial velocity (S) in Maine Coon cats with HCM that were anesthetized with propofol (P = .87 and P = .03, respectively).

  4. COMPARISON OF LUNG ATTENUATION AND HETEROGENEITY BETWEEN CATS WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ALLERGIC ASTHMA, NATURALLY OCCURRING ASTHMA AND NORMAL CATS.

    PubMed

    Masseau, Isabelle; Banuelos, Alina; Dodam, John; Cohn, Leah A; Reinero, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Airway remodeling is a prominent feature of feline allergic asthma but requires biopsy for characterization. Computed tomography (CT) has appeal as a minimally invasive diagnostic test. The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to compare indices of airway remodeling between cats with experimentally induced, spontaneous asthma and healthy unaffected cats using CT. We hypothesized that experimental and spontaneous feline asthma would have similar CT airway remodeling characteristics and that these would be significantly different in healthy cats. Experimentally induced asthmatic research cats (n = 5), spontaneously asthmatic pet cats (n = 6), and healthy research cats (n = 5) were scanned unrestrained using a 64-detector row CT scanner. Inspiratory breath-hold CT scans were also performed in experimentally induced asthmatic and healthy cats. Mean ± extent variation of lung attenuation for each cat was determined using an airway inspector software program and CT images were scored for lung heterogeneity by a board-certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of cat group status. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA (unrestrained scans) and the Student's t-test (anesthetized scans) with significance defined as P < 0.10. Experimentally asthmatic and spontaneously asthmatic cats had significantly (P = 0.028 and P = 0.073, respectively) increased lung attenuation compared to healthy cats. Heterogeneity scores were higher in experimentally induced asthmatic cat than in healthy cats. Objective quantification of lung heterogeneity and lung volume did not differ among the three groups (P = 0.311, P = 0.181, respectively). Findings supported our hypothesis. Inspiratory breath-hold anesthetized CT scans facilitated discrimination between asthmatic and healthy cats in comparison to unrestrained CT scans.

  5. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel.

    PubMed

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  6. A population genetic database of cat breeds developed in coordination with a domestic cat STR multiplex.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Weir, Bruce S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    A simple tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based typing system developed for the genetic individualization of domestic cat samples has been used to generate a population genetic database of domestic cat breeds. A panel of 10 tetranucleotide STR loci and a gender-identifying sequence tagged site (STS) were co-amplified in genomic DNA of 1043 individuals representing 38 cat breeds. The STR panel exhibits relatively high heterozygosity in cat breeds, with an average 10-locus heterozygosity of 0.71, which represents an average of 38 breed-specific heterozygosities for the 10-member panel. When the entire set of breed individuals was analyzed as a single population, a heterozygosity of 0.87 was observed. Heterozygosities obtained for the 10 loci range from 0.72 to 0.96. The power for genetic individualization of domestic cat samples of the multiplex is high, with a probability of match (p(m)) of 6.2E-14, using a conservative θ = 0.05.

  7. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)

    PubMed Central

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat ‘domestic’ relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat’s ‘domestic’ status, however, appears to have been short-lived—its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris. PMID:26799955

  8. A Population Genetic Database of Cat Breeds Developed in Coordination with a Domestic Cat STR Multiplex*

    PubMed Central

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A.; Weir, Bruce S.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based typing system developed for the genetic individualization of domestic cat samples has been used to generate a population genetic database of domestic cat breeds. A panel of 10 tetranucleotide STR loci and a gender-identifying sequence tagged site (STS) were co-amplified in genomic DNA of 1043 individuals representing 38 cat breeds. The STR panel exhibits relatively high heterozygosity in cat breeds, with an average 10-locus heterozygosity of 0.71, which represents an average of 38 breed-specific heterozygosities for the 10-member panel. When the entire set of breed individuals was analyzed as a single population, a heterozygosity of 0.87 was observed. Heterozygosities obtained for the 10 loci range from 0.72 to 0.96. The power for genetic individualization of domestic cat samples of the multiplex is high, with a probability of match (pm) of 6.2E-14, using a conservative θ = 0.05. PMID:22268511

  9. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  10. BioCAT undulator beamline at APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, G. B.; Irving, T.; Black, E.; Zhang, K.; Fischetti, R.; Wang, S.; Stepanov, S.

    1997-07-01

    The Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) project will be an outstanding research facility for biological small angle scattering, non-crystalline diffraction, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Labs. BioCAT operates as an NIH Research Resource under a cooperative agreement with NIH. BioCat has an aggressive program of core and collaborative research, service, and training. Central to the facility is the undulator beam line (designed by G. Rosenbaum, Argonne National Labs) capable of delivering ca. 1013-1014 ph/s to the sample. Focusing optics will allow focal spot ranges from 1.5×3.5 mm to 30×80 micron, independently adjustable in the vertical and horizontal direction. Up to 8 m camera lengths can be accommodated in the 12m experimental enclosure. The accessible beam energy range will be from 3.5-13 keV using the undulator fundamental and 10-40 keV using the third harmonic. Energy resolution will exceed 2×10-4 ΔE/E. Detectors will include image plates, CCD detectors and some novel detectors designed to accommodate the high count rates expected at the APS. The multi-element detector will be a very high count-rate (up to 109 ph/s global), one dimensional detector optimized for scattering applications. We are also developing a multilayer analyzer detector which maximizes solid angle of collection with high background rejection for biological spectroscopy applications.

  11. Biplane transesophageal echocardiography in the normal cat.

    PubMed

    Kienle, R D; Thomas, W P; Rishniw, M

    1997-01-01

    Eight healthy, adult cats were examined with biplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Cats were sedated with a combination of diazepam and propofol and were examined using a 5 mm x 80 cm pediatric biplane TEE probe. Consistent images were obtained at three imaging depths within the esophagus. The caudal position provided satisfactory short-axis images of the left ventricle and heart base. The middle position provided the best long-axis views of the left atrium, left ventricle, and aorta and allowed Doppler examination of transmitral left ventricular inflow. The cranial position provided satisfactory imaging of the aorta and pulmonary artery and allowed Doppler examination of right ventricular and left ventricular outflow. Biplane TEE provides an additional method of imaging the feline heart which is complimentary to other imaging techniques and the images obtained were similar to those reported for dogs. Although TEE offers a slight advantage over transthorcic imaging for Doppler examination, the quality of the images of heart base structures was not as consistently superior to transthoracic images in cats as reported in dogs.

  12. Cats exhibit the Franssen Effect illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Micheal L.; Tollin, Daniel J.; Yin, Tom C. T.

    2004-11-01

    The Franssen Effect (FE) is a striking auditory illusion previously demonstrated only in humans. To elicit the FE, subjects are presented with two spatially-separated sounds; one a transient tone with an abrupt onset and immediate ramped offset and the other a sustained tone of the same frequency with a ramped onset which remains on for several hundred ms. The FE illusion occurs when listeners localize the tones at the location of the transient signal, even though that sound has ended and the sustained one is still present. The FE illusion occurs most readily in reverberant environments and with pure tones of ~1-2.5 kHz in humans, conditions where sound localization is difficult in humans. Here, we demonstrate this illusion in domestic cats using, for the first time, localization procedures. Previous studies in humans employed discrimination procedures, making it difficult to link the FE to sound localization mechanisms. The frequencies for eliciting the FE in cats were higher than in humans, corresponding to frequencies where cats have difficulty localizing pure tones. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that difficulty in accurately localizing sounds is the basis for the FE. .

  13. Complex adaptive therapeutic strategy (CATS) for cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Woo; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, In-San

    2014-02-10

    Tumors begin with a single cell, but as each tumor grows and evolves, it becomes a wide collection of clones that display remarkable heterogeneity in phenotypic features, which has posed a big challenge to current targeted anticancer therapy. Intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity is attributable in part to genetic mutations but also to adaptation and evolution of tumors to heterogeneity in tumor microenvironments. If tumors are viewed not only as a disease but also as a complex adaptive system (CAS), tumors should be treated as such and a more systemic approach is needed. Some of many tumors therapeutic strategies are discussed here from a view of a tumor as CAS, which can be collectively called a complex adaptive therapeutic strategy (CATS). The central theme of CATS is based on three intermediate concepts: i) disruption of artifacts, ii) disruption of connections, and iii) reprogramming of cancer-immune dynamics. Each strategy presented here is a piece of the puzzle for CATS. Although each piece by itself may be neither novel nor profound, an assembled puzzle could be a novel and innovative cancer therapeutic strategy.

  14. Parasitic infections of domestic cats, Felis catus, in western Hungary.

    PubMed

    Capári, B; Hamel, D; Visser, M; Winter, R; Pfister, K; Rehbein, S

    2013-02-18

    During 2011, faeces from 235 owned domestic cats from a rural area in western Hungary were examined using standard coproscopical techniques. The overall prevalence of cats with endoparasites was 39.6% (95% CI 33.3-46.1). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 17.4%; Toxascaris 7.2%), followed by those of Aelurostrongylus lungworms (14.5%), hookworms (11.1%), taeniid cestodes (4.7%), Cystoisospora coccidians (4.3%), and capillarids (3.8%). Single and multiple infections with up to five parasites concurrently were founded in 24.7% and 14.9% of the cats, respectively. Mixed endoparasite infections were recorded more frequently (p=0.0245) in cats greater than one year old compared to younger cats. Young cats (≤ 1 year) were parasitized more frequently (p<0.05) with ascarids and Cystoisospora spp. but demonstrated infections of hookworms, lungworms and taeniid cestodes less often than the older cats. Cats with taeniid infection were more likely (p<0.05) to harbour Toxocara, hookworm, Aelurostrongylus, and capillarid infections than cats without taeniid cestodes. Cats of owners who claimed the use of wormers were less frequently helminth-positive compared to cats whose owners did not use anthelmintics (21.2% vs. 44.4%; p=0.001). A subset of 115 faecal samples screened by a coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia-specific antigen in 37.4% samples. Giardia cysts were found by immunofluorescent staining in 30 of the 43 samples tested positive for Giardia by ELISA. In addition, ectoparasites collected from 82 cats by body search and combing were identified. Fleas (1-30 per cat), biting lice (Felicola subrostratus), and ticks (1-5 per cat) were isolated from 58, 1 and 43 cats, respectively. Ctenocephalides felis was identified on all flea infested cats while single specimens of C. canis and Pulex irritans were recovered from three and two cats, respectively. All but one tick collected were adult Ixodes ricinus; the single other tick was a

  15. Identification of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malheiros, J; Costa, M M; do Amaral, R B; de Sousa, K C M; André, M R; Machado, R Z; Vieira, M I B

    2016-07-01

    Dogs and cats are often infected with vector-borne pathogens and play a crucial role as reservoirs and hosts in their life cycles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and cats in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. One hundred and ten blood samples were collected from dogs (n=80) and cats (n=30). Laboratory analysis were carried out through stained blood smears, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis (only for dogs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aiming the detection of pathogens. The following pathogens were screened by PCR among dogs and cats: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene for dogs and 16S rRNA gene for cats) and Bartonella spp. (nuoG gene only for cats). Using blood smears structures morphologically compatible with piroplasms were found in 5.45% (6/110) of the samples. Anti-B. vogeli and anti-E. canis antibodies were detected in 91% (73/80) and 9% (7/80) of the dogs, respectively. All the seropositive dogs to E. canis were also to B. vogeli. Nineteen (17.3%) animals were positive to hemoparasites by PCR. After sequencing Rangelia vitalii 6/80 (7.5%), B. vogeli 3/80 (4%), Hepatozoon spp. 1/80 (1%), and Anaplasma spp. 1/80 (1%) were found in the dogs, and B. vogeli 2/30 (7%) and Bartonella spp. 6/30 (20%) were detected in the screened cats. No sample was positive for genes dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia spp. Only those animals which were positive for R. vitalii showed findings compatible with rangeliosis, such as anemia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), jaundice (50%), external bleeding (50%), and anorexia (50%). This is the first time that B. vogeli detected among cats in Southern Brazil.

  16. Radiographic characterization of the os penis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Piola, Valentina; Posch, Barbara; Aghte, Petra; Caine, Abby; Herrtage, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The os penis in the cat has not been described radiographically, as compared with the dog. However, a small linear bony radiopacity is sometimes detected in the perineal area of male cats. We hypothesized that the feline os penis might be visible on survey radiographs of the pelvis, and we aimed to investigate the frequency of its visualization using analog and computed radiography (CR) system. One hundred radiographs of the pelvis of 99 male cats were reviewed retrospectively (50 were obtained with a CR system and 50 with an analog system). Age, breed, neutering status, and reason for presentation were recorded, as well as the visualization of the os penis. An os penis was detected in 19/50 (38%) cats with CR and in eight of 50 (16%) cats with analog radiography; this difference was statistically significant. With CR, the median age of cats with a visible os penis was significantly higher than in cats where the os penis was not seen. In one cat with a visible os penis examined with CR and analog radiography, the os penis was only visible on CR images. The penile tissues were examined histopathologically in one cat and well-differentiated bone was found but there were no pathologic findings detected in surrounding tissues. Thus, the os penis can be detected on radiographs of cats and this should not be mistaken for a pathologic finding such as urolithiasis or dystrophic mineralization.

  17. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young adult and geriatric cats.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M; McGee, Kain A

    2017-03-01

    Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made for subjective comparison with DPOAE responses. No differences in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at any tested frequency in geriatric cats compared to control cats, reflecting an apparent absence of loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. No linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude versus age in geriatric cats, despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss in other species. The absence of reductions in response at any of the tested frequencies in cats within the age span where cats are considered to be geriatric indicates that age-related hearing loss, if it does develop in cats, begins later in the life span of cats than in dogs or human beings.

  18. Hypofractionated radiation therapy of oral melanoma in five cats.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, John; Denman, David L; Hohenhaus, Ann E; Patnaik, Amiya K; Bergman, Philip J

    2004-01-01

    Five cats with melanoma involving the oral cavity were treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT). Cobalt photons were used to administer three fractions of 8.0 Gray (Gy) for a total dose of 24 Gy. Four cats received radiation on days 0, 7, and 21 and one cat received radiation on days 0, 7, and 13. One of the cats received additional irradiation following the initial treatment course. Two cats received chemotherapy. Their age ranged from 11 to 15 years with a median age of 12 years. Three cats had a response to radiation, including one complete response and two partial responses. All five cats were euthanized due to progression of disease, with one cat having evidence of metastatic disease at the time of euthanasia. The median survival time for the five cats was 146 days (range 66-224 days) from the start of RT. The results of this study suggest that oral melanoma in cats may be responsive to hypofractionated RT, but response does not seem to be durable.

  19. Body condition of feral cats and the effect of neutering.

    PubMed

    Scott, Karen C; Levy, Julie K; Gorman, Shawn P; Newell, Susan M

    2002-01-01

    Considerable debate exists regarding the most appropriate methods for controlling feral cat populations, both from humane and logistical points of view. The physical condition of feral cats has not been reported, and it is not known if these cats benefit from neutering. This study investigates the body condition of feral cats by measuring body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS; Burkholder, 2000; Laflamme, Kealy, & Schmidt, 1994), and falciform fat pad. The study includes lateral abdominal radiographs taken at the time of neutering of 105 adult feral cats for measurement of falciform fat pad depth and area. At that time we also assessed BW and BCS. One year later we assessed the effects of neutering on body condition by evaluating a subsample of 14 cats. At the time of surgery, the cats were lean but not emaciated (BW 3.1 +/- 0.9 kg; BCS 4 +/- 1; based on a 1 to 9 scale ranging from 1 [emaciated] to 9 [grossly obese]). Falciform fat pad depth and area averaged 7.1 mm and 197.4 mm2, respectively, indicating a small amount of fat. Fourteen cats, reevaluated 1 year after neutering, increased 260% + 90% in falciform fat pad depth, 420% +/- 390% in fat pad area, 40% +/- 4% in BW, and 1 level in BCS ranking (1 to 9 scale; all differences p <.001). Similar to confined socialized cats, feral cats gained significant weight and body fat after neutering.

  20. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Andrey A.; David, Victor A.; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  1. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris).

  2. Computed tomography of nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Krystina; O'Brien, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Upper airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening problem in cats and for which a noninvasive, sensitive method rapid diagnosis is needed. The purposes of this prospective study were to describe a computed tomography (CT) technique for nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction, CT characteristics of obstructive diseases, and comparisons between CT findings and findings from other diagnostic tests. Ten cats with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited for the study. Four cats with no clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited as controls. All cats underwent computed tomography imaging without sedation or anesthesia, using a 16-slice helical CT scanner and a previously described transparent positional device. Three-dimensional (3D) internal volume rendering was performed on all CT image sets and 3D external volume rendering was also performed on cats with evidence of mass lesions. Confirmation of upper airway obstruction was based on visual laryngeal examination, endoscopy, fine-needle aspirate, biopsy, or necropsy. Seven cats were diagnosed with intramural upper airway masses, two with laryngotracheitis, and one with laryngeal paralysis. The CT and 3D volume-rendered images identified lesions consistent with upper airway disease in all cats. In cats with mass lesions, CT accurately identified the mass and location. Findings from this study supported the use of CT imaging as an effective technique for diagnosing upper airway obstruction in nonanesthetized cats.

  3. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  4. Effects of hypercapnia on variability of normal respiratory behavior in awake cats.

    PubMed

    Szlyk, P C; Jennings, D B

    1987-03-01

    Resting quiet awake cats breathing air in a steady state have a range of respiratory behavior, and this encompasses nonpurring and purring (D. B. Jennings and P. C. Szlyk, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 63: 148-154, 1985). On a given study day, individual cats usually breathed in a limited part of their potential respiratory range. Respiratory pattern, such as average breath frequency (f) and average tidal volume (VT) utilized for a given level of ventilation (V), could be predicted when cats breathed air; as well, inspiratory (TI) and expiratory (TE) times were specific for a given breath f. Inhalation of 2% and 4% CO2 in air caused an average increase in ventilation of 16 and 100%, respectively but breath-to-breath variability of V, f, and VT persisted at each fractional concentration of inspired CO2 (FICO2). The range of different V utilized breath to breath when breathing 2% CO2 overlapped with V during air control studies. Substantial overlap with control V also occurred in three of six cats when breathing 4% CO2. The most consistent effect of progressive hypercapnia was to increase VT and decrease f at a given level of V; increase in V during hypercapnia was accounted for by an increase in mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI). Hypercapnia also caused the fraction of breathing cycle devoted to inspiration (TI/TT) to increase at low f but not at high f.

  5. CAT Guide and Beamline Directory. A key to APS Collaborative Access Teams

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-08

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a national user facility for synchrotrons radiation research, is located at Argonne National Laboratory, approximately 25 miles southwest of Chicago, Illinois. The APS is considered a third-generation synchrotrons radiation facility (specifically designed to accommodate insertion devices to serve as radiation sources) and is one of three such facilities in the world. Currently, it is the most brilliant source in the United States for research in such diverse fields as biology, medicine, materials science, chemistry, geology, agriculture and soil science, physics, and manufacturing technology. Researchers use the APS either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATS) or as Independent Investigators (IIs). CATS are responsible for designing, building, and operating beamlines in one or more sectors, each sector consisting of an insertion-device (ID) beamline and a bending-magnet (BM) beamline. Each beamline is designed to accommodate a specific type of research program(s) and is optimized accordingly. CAT members are entitled to use 75% of the available beam time to pursue CAT research goals. The remaining 25% of the available beam time must be made available to IIs. This document was written to help prospective IIs determine which beamlines are suitable for their specific experiments.

  6. Characterization of Cat-2t, a radiation-induced dominant cataract mutation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Graw, J.; Bors, W.; Gopinath, P.M.; Merkle, S.; Michel, C.; Reitmeir, P.; Schaeffer, E.S.; Summer, K.H.; Wulff, A. )

    1990-07-01

    A dominant cataract mutation was detected recently among the offspring of x-ray-irradiated male mice. The mutation, which causes total lens opacity, has provisionally been designated by the gene symbol Cat-2t. In the lenses of heterozygous and homozygous Cat-2t mutants, the epithelial and fiber cells were swollen and the lens capsule was ruptured. The histologic analysis demonstrated a complete destruction of the cellular organization of the lens, which might be caused by its altered developmental processes. The data derived from biochemical investigations indicate that biochemistry of the cataractous Cat-2t lenses is affected: the osmotic state as indicated by the increased water content and increased Na(+)-K(+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity; the energy state as indicated by the decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration; and the redox state as indicated by the enhanced content of oxidized glutathione. Additionally, the lenticular protein composition is altered because of the presence of vimentin in the water-soluble fraction. This cannot be explained by the enhanced crosslinking activity of transglutaminase. The changes of the osmotic, energy, and redox states are considered to be secondary in relation to the altered lenticular development. In contrast, the variations concerning vimentin and transglutaminase might be a biochemical indication of the changed development. Possible similarities to other dominantly expressed murine cataract mutants are discussed.

  7. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies.

  8. Meningomyelitis due to nematode infection in four cats.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M; Mieres, M; Moroni, M; Mora, A; Barrios, N; Simeone, C; Lindsay, D S

    2010-06-24

    Spinal cord parasitic migrations in cats are uncommon. This report describes four cases of chronic hindlimb paraparesis in cats associated with nematode infection. Complete neurologic, hematologic, serum chemistry and radiographic examination was performed on all animals. Computed tomographic (CT)-myelographic examination at the lumbar area in one cat showed a slight swelling of the spinal cord. Necropsy examination of the spinal cord revealed generalized edema and marked submeningeal hemorrhage at the thoracic region in three cats. On histopathologic examination, numerous sections of adult nematodes and eggs were present in histological sections of the affected spinal cord segments in all cats. The morphologic features of the nematode, location and appearance of the lesions suggest that the parasite responsible for the paralysis in these cats is Gurltia paralysans.

  9. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    SciTech Connect

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-03-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma /sup 59/Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished.

  10. Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trifonov, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.

  11. Identifying removable radioactivity on the surface of cats during the first week after treatment with iodine 131.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, H J; Scrivani, Peter V; Dykes, Nathan L; Erb, Hollis N; Hobbs, J M; Hubble, Lorna J

    2006-01-01

    Because radioiodine (1-131) is excreted in urine and saliva, treated cats can accumulate I-131 on their coats from contacting soiled litter and grooming. This could result in removable radioactivity, which is a potential source of human exposure to radiation and specifically to internal contamination. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is removable radioactivity on cats treated with I-131. Daily wipe tests were performed for 7 days at two sites (both flanks, one site; and all four paws, one site) on six hyperthyroid cats treated with I-131. A y counter was used to determine the counts per minute (cpm) of the samples, which were converted to disintegrations per minute (dpm) to estimate activity. The results were compared to the New York State limits of removable activity for a non-controlled area (<1000dpm/100 cm2) to determine if the amount of removable activity was acceptable for a member of the public. The median value of removable activity was 241 dpm (range from 34 to 4184 dpm) for the flanks, and 308 dpm (range from 60 to 1890 dpm) for the paws. The amount of removable radioactivity on the surface of hospitalized cats treated with I-131 during the first week after treatment, occasionally and without obvious pattern, exceeded the New York State limit. Sporadic activity as high as 4148 dpm was found. It is prudent to advise owners to observe routine hygiene when handling cats after discharge to minimize the risk of internal contamination.

  12. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human–cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500–4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560–5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ13C and δ15N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

  13. Faecal Microbiota of Cats with Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Erin T.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M.; Cook, Audrey K.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Mansfield, Caroline S.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  14. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  15. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O'Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  16. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  17. Comparison of periodontal pathogens between cats and their owners.

    PubMed

    Booij-Vrieling, H E; van der Reijden, W A; Houwers, D J; de Wit, W E A J; Bosch-Tijhof, C J; Penning, L C; van Winkelhoff, A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2010-07-29

    The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals was compared with those in humans in earlier studies, but no studies are available on the comparison of the oral microflora from pets and their respective owners. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of these bacteria in the oral microflora of cats and their owners, since animal to human transmission, or vice versa, of oral pathogens could have public health implications. This study investigated the prevalence of Porphyromonas gulae, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythia in the oral microflora of cats and their owners, using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All Porphyromonas isolates from cats (n=64) were catalase positive, whereas the Porphyromonas isolates from owners (n=7) were catalase negative, suggesting that the isolates from cats were P. gulae whereas those from the owners were P. gingivalis. T. forsythia was recovered from both cats (n=63) and owners (n=31); the proportion of T. forsythia relative to the total CFU was higher in cats with periodontitis than in cats without periodontal disease. Genotyping of T. forsythia isolates (n=54) in six cat/owner couples showed that in one cat/owner couple the T. forsythia isolates (n=6) were identical. These T. forsythia isolates were all catalase positive, which led us to hypothesize that transmission from cats to owners had occurred and that cats may be a reservoir of T. forsythia.

  18. Cat flea infestation in a hospital: a case report.

    PubMed

    Leelavathi, Muthupalaniappen; Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-03-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome.

  19. Discharge patterns of hindlimb motoneurons during normal cat locomotion.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, J A; O'Donovan, M J; Pratt, C A; Loeb, G E

    1981-07-24

    Long-term recording from single lumbar motoneurons of intact cats revealed activation patterns fundamentally different from those seen in decerebrate preparations. In intact cats, motoneuron bursts showed marked rate modulation without initial doublets. Each unit's frequencygram generally resembled the envelope of the gross electromyogram simultaneously recorded from the corresponding muscle. Average and peak discharge rates increased for faster gaits. These findings suggest that, in cat locomotion, rate modulation is a more important contributor to force regulation than was previously thought.

  20. Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Mathiason, Candace K; Nalls, Amy V; Seelig, Davis M; Kraft, Susan L; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A

    2013-02-01

    Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (Fel(CWD)) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature.

  1. Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

    2009-01-01

    An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

  2. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

    PubMed

    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  3. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-07

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats.

  4. Appendicular arterial tumor embolization in two cats with pulmonary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ibarrola, Patricia; German, Alexander J; Stell, Anneliese J; Fox, Richard; Summerfield, Nuala J; Blackwood, Laura

    2004-10-01

    A 13-year-old neutered male Persian cat and an 11-year-old neutered female Persian cat were examined because of an acute onset of lameness. In both cats, conscious proprioception and reflexes were diminished in the affected limb. In 1 cat, no blood flow was detected in the left brachial artery with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector, whereas blood flow in the right brachial artery was easily documented. In the other cat, the right femoral pulse was not palpable. Neither cat had any echocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease. In both cats, treatment was primarily supportive. One cat died, and the other was euthanatized. At necropsy, lung lobe consolidation was seen. Microscopically, there was multifocal infiltration of the lung parenchyma with cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells. Neoplastic epithelial cells of similar morphology were identified in nodular masses in sections of muscle, and intravascular tumor emboli were identified obliterating small and large arterioles. Immunohistochemical staining of pulmonary and muscular tissue for pan-cytokeratin antigen revealed intense cytoplasmic staining of neoplastic cells. Staining for factor VIII-related antigen confirmed that clusters of neoplastic cells represented intravascular emboli. Clinical signs in the cats were attributed to arterial occlusion by tumor emboli.

  5. Prevalence of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI mutations in Siamese cats.

    PubMed

    Crawley, A C; Muntz, F H; Haskins, M E; Jones, B R; Hopwood, J J

    2003-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), a lysosomal storage disease, is one of the more prevalent inherited diseases in cats and is commonly found in cats with Siamese ancestry. The prevalence of 2 known MPS VI mutations in cats was investigated in 101 clinically normal Siamese cats, in 2 cats with clinical signs of MPS VI, and in 202 cats from 4 research colonies. The mutation L476P which causes a severe clinical phenotype, was present on both alleles in the known MPS VI cats from Italy and North America and was present in all research colonies that originated from North America. However, LA76P was not detected in the Siamese population screened. In contrast, the mutation D520N, which causes a mild clinical phenotype, was identified in 23 of 202 (11.4%) alleles tested in Siamese cats from 3 continents, 2 of which were homozygous for D520N. Thus, the D520N mutation was widespread, and it is likely that cats inheriting both mutations (LA76P/D520N compound heterozygotes) would be in the general Siamese population, particularly in North America. Practitioners should note the high incidence of degenerative joint disease in these animals.

  6. Molecular detection of feline hemoplasmas in feral cats in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yu, Do-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Desai, Atul R; Han, In-Ae; Li, Ying-Hua; Lee, Mi-Jin; Kim, In-Shik; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' exist in Korea. Three hundreds and thirty one feral cats were evaluated by using PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fourteen cats (4.2%) were positive for M. haemofelis, 34 cats (10.3%) were positive for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 18 cats (5.4%) were positive for both species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were closely (>98%) related to those from other countries. This is the first molecular detection of feline hemoplasmas in Korea.

  7. Systemic uptake of buprenorphine by cats after oral mucosal administration.

    PubMed

    Robertson, S A; Taylor, P M; Sear, J W

    2003-05-31

    The plasma concentration of buprenorphine was measured by radioimmunoassay in six female cats after the administration of 0.01 mg/kg (0.033 ml/kg) buprenorphine hydrochloride solution into the side of the cat's mouth. Blood samples were taken through a preplaced jugular catheter before and one, two, four, six, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes, and two, four, six, 12 and 24 hours after the dose was administered. The buprenorphine was accepted well by all the cats and did not cause salivation or vomiting. Its median peak plasma concentration was 7.5 ng/ml and was reached after 15 minutes. The pharmacokinetic data were similar to the pharmacokinetic data obtained after the intramuscular and intravenous administration of buprenorphine to cats from the same colony, suggesting that the mucosal route of administration should be as effective as intravenous and intramuscular injections. In addition, the pH of the oral cavity of 26 cats was measured with pH paper, and 100 cat owners were asked their preferred method of administering drugs to cats. The pH of the cats' mouths was between 8 and 9, and the technique preferred by the cat owners was the use of drops placed in the mouth.

  8. Catheter-induced urethral trauma in cats with urethral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Corgozinho, Katia B; de Souza, Heloisa J M; Pereira, Adriana N; Belchior, Cristiane; da Silva, Michel A; Martins, Marina C L; Damico, Cristiane B

    2007-12-01

    Fifteen cats were evaluated with urethral obstruction. Penile trauma by catheterization was the major indication for perineal urethrostomy. Ten cats had developed a urethral stricture and five had rupture of the urethra following medical management. All cats had abnormalities in penis and/or prepuce and/or scrotal sacs including hyperemia or swelling. Perineal urethrostomy was performed in all cases and they were evaluated for 6 months after surgery. Few complications were noted. Urinary tract infection was the most frequent complication observed. The clients considered their cats to have a good quality of life following surgery.

  9. High-performance parallel solver for 3D time-dependent Schrodinger equation for large-scale nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainullin, I. K.; Sonkin, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    A parallelized three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) solver for one-electron systems is presented in this paper. The TDSE Solver is based on the finite-difference method (FDM) in Cartesian coordinates and uses a simple and explicit leap-frog numerical scheme. The simplicity of the numerical method provides very efficient parallelization and high performance of calculations using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). For example, calculation of 106 time-steps on the 1000ṡ1000ṡ1000 numerical grid (109 points) takes only 16 hours on 16 Tesla M2090 GPUs. The TDSE Solver demonstrates scalability (parallel efficiency) close to 100% with some limitations on the problem size. The TDSE Solver is validated by calculation of energy eigenstates of the hydrogen atom (13.55 eV) and affinity level of H- ion (0.75 eV). The comparison with other TDSE solvers shows that a GPU-based TDSE Solver is 3 times faster for the problems of the same size and with the same cost of computational resources. The usage of a non-regular Cartesian grid or problem-specific non-Cartesian coordinates increases this benefit up to 10 times. The TDSE Solver was applied to the calculation of the resonant charge transfer (RCT) in nanosystems, including several related physical problems, such as electron capture during H+-H0 collision and electron tunneling between H- ion and thin metallic island film.

  10. CT and MRI evaluation of skull bones and soft tissues in six cats with presumed acromegaly versus 12 unaffected cats.

    PubMed

    Fischetti, Anthony J; Gisselman, Kelly; Peterson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Feline acromegaly is predominantly caused by an adenoma of the pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) secretion. In advanced cases, cats will display prominent facial features and upper airway congestion secondary to bony and soft tissue proliferation. The purpose of this study was to describe CT and MRI characteristics of soft tissues and skull bones in six cats with presumed acromegaly and to compare findings with those observed in 12 unaffected cats. In the five acromegalic cats with CT or MRI evidence of a pituitary tumor, frontal bone thickness was greater than age-matched controls with and without a history of upper airway disease. These five cats also had evidence of soft tissue accumulation in the nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx. One cat with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, elevated IGF-1, and a normal pituitary size did not have evidence of frontal bone thickening or upper airway congestion.

  11. Diuretic renal scintigraphy in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Silke; Lane, India F; Daniel, Gregory B; Morandi, Federica; Sharp, Dorothy E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for diuretic renal scintigraphy (renography) in cats and describe normal findings. 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy was performed twice in 10 healthy cats. Furosemide or saline were injected 4.5 min after radiopharmaceutical administration for the diuretic or control scan, respectively. A dynamic acquisition was performed for 8 min. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) global and individual glomerular filtration rate (GFR); (2) shape of the time-activity curve (TAC); (3) time of peak (TOP); (4) individual kidney excretion half-time (T1/2) of the radiopharmaceutical; (5) percentage of maximum activity measured at the end of the study. Global GFR in the control studies (2.79 +/- 0.83 ml/min/kg, mean +/- SD) did not differ significantly from the diuretic scans (2.34 +/- 0.51 ml/min/kg). The shape of most (16/ 20) TAC of diuretic renograms was similar to those of control renograms. The TOP of the diuretic renogram curves was 3.06 +/- 0.58 min, and did not differ from that of the control scans (3.01 +/- 0.61 min). T1/2 of the diuretic renograms was significantly shorter (5.15 +/- 0.83 min) than that of the control renograms (6.31 +/- 1.50 min). A significantly lower percentage of maximum activity was present at the end of the study in diuretic renograms (median: 47.25%; range: 33.60-59.60%) compared with control renograms (63.40%; 30.00-69.40%). Diuretic renal scintigraphy is a noninvasive and fast procedure to perform in cats. The applicability of this technique needs to be investigated in patients with significantly impaired renal function and obstructive uropathies.

  12. Ascarid infections of cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J C

    1987-11-01

    The ascarids Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, and Toxascaris leonina are probably the most common gastrointestinal helminths encountered in small animal practice. Both T. canis and T. cati can cause serious disease in kittens and puppies; T. leonina is generally less pathogenic. Prenatal transmission assures that virtually all puppies are born infected with T. canis. Transmammary transmission is probably the major route of infection for kittens with T. cati. In addition, all three species of worm produce resistant eggs and use paratenic hosts to facilitate transmission. Much is now known about the complex biology and life history of T. canis. However, many questions, such as those concerning the mechanisms of larval survival within host tissues and of larval reactivation and migration during pregnancy, await further study. The mechanism of resistance to ascarid infections in cats and dogs has not been clearly defined. Ascariasis is traditionally thought to be a disease of young animals, with older animals being considered immune. However, at least in the case of T. canis, adult dogs can be repeatedly infected. A wide range of anthelmintics is available with extremely high efficacy against patent ascarid infections. The problem of prenatal infection with T. canis may be overcome by strategic use of the newer benzimidazole-carbamates, and the production of ascarid-free puppies now seems possible. However, complete larvicidal activity against somatic stages has not been convincingly demonstrated. Visceral larva migrans-like syndromes are now being recognized in dogs and cats. In addition, visceral larva migrans in children due to T. canis continues to be a significant zoonotic disease in North America and underscores the need for the veterinary profession to control ascarid infections in cats and dogs at every opportunity.

  13. Cat-scratch disease and bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Ismaili-Alaoui, Nadia; Vuong, Valerie; Marcu-Marin, M; Sergent-Alaoui, Aline; Chevallier, Bertrand; de Labriolle-Vaylet, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Cat-scratch disease is a bacterial infection caused by Bartonella henselae. Bone involvement is rare. We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy with a systemic form of the disease. He presented with a 15-day history of fever, altered general condition, weight loss and cough, associated with back pain, and right-sided coxalgia. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate showed spinal involvement, the iliac crest, the right ankle, and the right first metatarsal. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed these locations. He was positive for anti-Bartonella henselae. The fever regressed before treatment with rifampicin began, and he made a full recovery.

  14. Cat eye syndrome with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Masukawa, H; Ozaki, T; Nogimori, T

    1998-10-01

    A 17-year-old male diagnosed as having Cat Eye Syndrome (CES) with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism showed short stature and no development of secondary sex characteristics. Exogeneous gonadotropin replacement therapy combining human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) was started. As a result, the short stature and androgen deficiency were relieved. The critical region of CES was tetrasomy of 22 pter-->q11. Abnormalities of other chromosomes which cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may exist, thus further investigation is needed.

  15. Error Generation in CATS-Based Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a methodology for generating errors from a model of nominally preferred correct operator activities, given a particular operational context, and maintaining an explicit link to the erroneous contextual information to support analyses. It uses the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) model as the basis for error generation. This report describes how the process works, and how it may be useful for supporting agent-based system safety analyses. The report presents results obtained by applying the error-generation process and discusses implementation issues. The research is supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention Element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  16. An internet survey of breeders' and cat rescue organisations' opinions about early castration of cats.

    PubMed

    Pernestål, Karin; Axnér, Eva

    2012-12-01

    There has been concern that early castration of pedigree kittens may lead to a depletion of gene pools. Web-based questionnaires on early castration were distributed to breeders and cat rescue organisations. One of the reasons that breeders used early castration was to counteract what they considered irresponsible breeding, such as overuse of strains within the breed or production of cross-breeds. Of all pedigree kittens, 45.1% were kept intact while 54.9% were neutered before re-homing. Nineteen (65.5%) of the cat rescue organisations believed that early castration could be beneficial in reducing the number of homeless cats, but only six (20.6%) had applied early castration. Three organisations replied that their veterinarian declined to do early castration and two believed that it was not safe for the kittens. There does not, necessarily, seem to be conflicting interests between keeping genetic variation in pedigree breeds and the possibility of limiting the population of homeless cats.

  17. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  18. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

  19. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Esther A; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-10-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to which the cat's metabolism has adapted. The present study aimed to derive the dietary nutrient profile of free-living cats. Studies reporting the feeding habits of cats in the wild were reviewed and data on the nutrient composition of the consumed prey items obtained from the literature. Fifty-five studies reported feeding strategy data of cats in the wild. After specific exclusion criteria, twenty-seven studies were used to derive thirty individual dietary nutrient profiles. The results show that feral cats are obligatory carnivores, with their daily energy intake from crude protein being 52 %, from crude fat 46 % and from N-free extract only 2 %. Minerals and trace elements are consumed in relatively high concentrations compared with recommended allowances determined using empirical methods. The calculated nutrient profile may be considered the nutrient intake to which the cat's metabolic system has adapted. The present study provides insight into the nutritive, as well as possible non-nutritive aspects of a natural diet of whole prey for cats and provides novel ways to further improve feline diets to increase health and longevity.

  20. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae bacteremia, the causative agent of cat scratch disease, in an Australian cat population.

    PubMed

    Branley, J; Wolfson, C; Waters, P; Gottlieb, T; Bradbury, R

    1996-08-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of Bartonella henselae becteremia in an Australian cat population we examined blood cultures on a group of Sydney cats. Cats referred to the Concord Animal Hospital for euthanasia were selected randomly for blood culture and serum sampling. Blood samples were lysed and centrifuged and then cultured for up to five weeks. Suspicious colonies were identified biochemically as probable B. henselae. Selected isolates were confirmed as B. henselae using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the cats accrued throughout Sydney, 27/77 (35%) were culture positive for B. henselae, of these 24/59 (40%) were feral cats and 3/18 (16%) were domestic. Most cats in the study were younger than one year (mean 9.9 months). Our study demonstrates that bacteremia with B. henselae is common in the metropolitan cat population and suggests that it is particularly prevalent among feral animals. By contrast Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is a relatively uncommon clinical diagnosis in the Australian population. Explanations for this discrepancy may include poor transmission, low bacterial virulence and underdiagnosis. It is possible that feral animals are a greater potential risk source for this infection than domestic cats.