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Sample records for sciades herzbergii ariidae

  1. Metazoan parasite community of blue sea catfish, Sciades guatemalensis (Ariidae), from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Guerrero, Salvador Gil

    2009-10-01

    The seasonal dynamic of the metazoan parasite community of the blue sea catfish (Sciades guatemalensis) from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico, was studied at the component community and infracommunity levels. A total of 382 fish were collected during the regional dry and rainy seasons (a total of seven seasons) between April 2000 and September 2007. Nine helminths were collected: Neotetraonchus sp., Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Clinostomum complanatum, Metadena sp., Pseudoleptorhynchoides lamothei, Neoechinorhynchus cf. golvani, Hysterothylacium perezi, and Contracaecum sp. The infection dynamics of some dominant helminths was influenced by environmental changes generated by the dry/rainy season cycle. Nested (non-random) species composition was observed in the infracommunities during almost all of the sample period. Variation in the intensity of nestedness was attributed to a sequential colonization process over time by the dominant helminths.

  2. Cytogenetic analysis of three sea catfish species (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae) with the first report of Ag-NOR in this fish family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family. PMID:21637480

  3. Cytogenetic analysis of three sea catfish species (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae) with the first report of Ag-NOR in this fish family.

    PubMed

    Nirchio, Mauro; Martinez, Emanuel Ricardo Monteiro; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2010-04-01

    Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family.

  4. Movement patterns of catfishes (Ariidae) in a tropical semi-arid estuary.

    PubMed

    Dantas, D V; Barletta, M; Costa, M F; Barbosa-Cintra, S C T; Possatto, F E; Ramos, J A A; Lima, A R A; Saint-Paul, U

    2010-06-01

    From December 2005 to November 2006, 216 samples were taken from the main channel of the Goiana Estuary, representing a total sampled area of 23 ha. Ariidae species were the most abundant in density (1600 individuals ha(-1), 53%) and biomass (18,813 g ha(-1), 63%). Cathorops spixii was the most abundant in density (1340 individuals ha(-1)) and biomass (14,203 g ha(-1)). The variables: number of species, total density and biomass, showed significant interactions between the factors of areas and seasons (P < 0.01). The highest total density (7394 individuals ha(-1)) and biomass (70,292 g ha(-1)) occurred in the middle and upper estuaries, respectively, during the early-rainy season. The density of C. spixii differed significantly between areas and seasons (P < 0.01), while Cathorops agassizii differed significantly only between seasons (P < 0.01). The biomass differed significantly for the species C. spixii, C. agassizii and Sciades herzbergii between seasons, and C. spixii and C. agassizii between areas. Also, the density and biomass of C. spixii and C. agassizii showed interaction between areas and seasons. Only the biomass of S. herzbergii showed interaction between areas and seasons (P < 0.01). This indicates that seasonal variations influenced the distribution of Ariidae species in the different areas of the Goiana Estuary. Moreover, canonical correspondence analysis highlighted a strongly significant correlation (P < 0.01) between the seasonal variations of the environmental gradients (salinity and water temperature) and distribution of catfishes. The management and conservation of estuaries should take into account the life cycle of these species in different estuarine areas and hydrological seasons.

  5. In situ assessment of two catfish species (pisces, Ariidae) to evaluate pollution in a harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Junior, Audalio Rebelo Torres; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; de Sousa de Oliveira Mota Andrade, Ticianne; Torres, Hetty Salvino; da Silva Castro, Jonatas; da Silva de Almeida, Zafira; Santos, Débora Martins Silva; Tchaicka, Lígia

    2016-12-01

    A histopathological and biometric database for the catfish Sciades herzbergii and Bagre bagre from São Luís Island (Harbor area) and Caranguejos Island (reference area) in Brazil is presented. Branchial and hepatic lesions were classified into three reaction patterns: 1) circulatory or inflammatory disturbances; 2) regressive changes; 3) progressive changes. The total length (Lt), standard length (Ls), furcal length (Lf), total weight (Wt), and gonad weight (Wg) of each fish were recorded. As expected, most populations of catfish considered in this study are highly heterogeneous, with lengths and weights deviating from the reference sample. No histopathological lesions were observed in Sciades herzbergii examined at the reference site (Caranguejos Island). In contrast, 90% of the catfish S. herzbergii from sites located in the Harbor Area (São Luís Island) had one or more types of branchial and hepatic lesions. As opposed to what was observed in S. herzbergii, more than 86.33% of Bagre bagre individuals showed histopathological alterations in both areas. The utility of histopathological lesions and biometric data as sensitive indicators of the health of wild catfish populations has been demonstrated. Sciades herzbergii proved to be a better species for biomonitoring because it was able to differentiate one impacted site (Port Area/ São Luís Island) from a region relatively free of contaminants (Reference Area/ Caranguejos Island).

  6. Changes in Glutathione S-Transferase Activity and Parental Care Patterns in a Catfish (Pisces, Ariidae) as a Biomarker of Anthropogenic Impact in a Brazilian Harbor.

    PubMed

    Fortes Carvalho Neta, Raimunda Nonata; Barbosa, Gleyciane Lobato; Torres, Hetty Salvino; Pinheiro Sousa, Débora Batista; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Santos, Débora Martins Silva; Tchaicka, Lígia; Almeida, Zafira da Silva de; Teixeira, Erivania Gomes; Torres, Audalio Rebelo

    2017-01-01

    Catfish have been used as a model system for studying biochemical mechanisms of biotransformation. The main goal of this study was to identify alterations in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and changes in the parental care pattern of a mouth-brooding catfish, Sciades herzbergii, as a biomarker of anthropogenic impact in a port area on the northeastern coast of Brazil. The fish were sampled from a natural reserve (A1 = reference site) and from an industrialized port area (A2 = impacted site). Two analyses were carried out: hepatic GST activity and mouth-brooding behavior of males. Catfish collected from the A1 site displayed all stages of gonadal maturation, and some of the adult males were mouth brooding 12-30 embryos. Not all gonadal maturation stages of the catfish were represented at the A2 site, and no mouth-brooding males were observed. GST activity in the liver of S. herzbergii was significantly higher in fish from the impacted site compared with fish from the reference site. Values for the enzymatic activity increased progressively in fish sampled from the reserve area as they became more reproductively mature (immature ≤ maturing ≤ mature ≤ spent). However, the greatest values for GST activity (2.84 ± 0.31 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1)) among fish sampled from the impacted area were found in (immature) juveniles. These data suggest that changes in hepatic GST activity and mouth-brooding behavior of S. herzbergii can be used as biomarkers of anthropogenic impact.

  7. A new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae) from the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Sanaa E; Kora, Mahmoud A; Sallam, Hesham M; Claeson, Kerin M; Seiffert, Erik R; Antar, Mohammed S

    2017-01-01

    Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae), Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right dentary, left suspensorium, two opercles, left pectoral girdle and spine, nuchal plates, first and second dorsal spines, Weberian apparatus and a disassociated series of abdominal vertebrae. All of the elements belong to the same individual and some of them were found articulated. Qarmoutus gen. nov. is the oldest and the most complete of the Paleogene marine catfishes unearthed from the Birket Qarun Formation. The new genus exhibits distinctive features not seen in other African Paleogene taxa, such as different sculpturing on the opercle and pectoral girdle with respect to that on the neurocranium and nuchal plates, denticulate ornamentation on the skull bones arranged in longitudinal rows and forming a radiating pattern on the sphenotic, pterotic, extrascapular and the parieto-supraoccipital, indentations or pitted ornamentation on the nuchal plates as well as the parieto-supraoccipital process, strut-like radiating pattern of ornamentation on the opercle from the proximal articulation to margins, longitudinal, curved, reticulate ridges and tubercular ornamentations on the cleithrum, sinuous articulation between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the anterior nuchal plate, long, narrow, and arrowhead shaped nuchal shield, very small otic capsules restricted to the prootic. Multiple parsimony and Bayesian morphological phylogenetic analyses of Ariidae, run with and without "molecular scaffolds", yield contradictory results for the placement of Qarmoutus; the genus is either

  8. A new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae) from the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae), Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right dentary, left suspensorium, two opercles, left pectoral girdle and spine, nuchal plates, first and second dorsal spines, Weberian apparatus and a disassociated series of abdominal vertebrae. All of the elements belong to the same individual and some of them were found articulated. Qarmoutus gen. nov. is the oldest and the most complete of the Paleogene marine catfishes unearthed from the Birket Qarun Formation. The new genus exhibits distinctive features not seen in other African Paleogene taxa, such as different sculpturing on the opercle and pectoral girdle with respect to that on the neurocranium and nuchal plates, denticulate ornamentation on the skull bones arranged in longitudinal rows and forming a radiating pattern on the sphenotic, pterotic, extrascapular and the parieto-supraoccipital, indentations or pitted ornamentation on the nuchal plates as well as the parieto-supraoccipital process, strut-like radiating pattern of ornamentation on the opercle from the proximal articulation to margins, longitudinal, curved, reticulate ridges and tubercular ornamentations on the cleithrum, sinuous articulation between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the anterior nuchal plate, long, narrow, and arrowhead shaped nuchal shield, very small otic capsules restricted to the prootic. Multiple parsimony and Bayesian morphological phylogenetic analyses of Ariidae, run with and without “molecular scaffolds”, yield contradictory results for the placement of Qarmoutus; the genus is

  9. Systematics and biogeography of New World sea catfishes (Siluriformes: Ariidae) as inferred from mitochondrial, nuclear, and morphological evidence.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Acero P, Arturo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Cooke, Richard

    2007-10-01

    Ariid or sea catfishes include around 150 species that inhabit marine, brackish, and freshwater environments along world's tropical and subtropical continental shelves. Phylogenetic relationships for 46 New World and three Old World species of ariids were hypothesized using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference reconstruction criteria on 2842 mitochondrial (cytochrome b, ATP synthase 8 and 6, ribosomal 12S and 16S) and 978 nuclear (rag2) nucleotide sites. The molecular topologies were compared to a previously compiled morphological dataset that was expanded herein to a total of 25 ariid species and 55 characters. Mitochondrial data yielded clades highly resolved at subfamilial, generic, and intrageneric levels. Nuclear rag2 reconstructions showed poor resolution at supra- and intrageneric levels, but provided support for the monophyly of most genera (except Ariopsis and Cathorops) as well as for the subfamilial clades. The hypothesized phylogeny derived from the morphological data was congruent with the molecular topologies at infrafamilial and generic levels. As indicated by the statistical tests of topological congruence, Kailola's phylogenetic hypothesis of ariids based on anatomical data is significantly different from our molecular trees. All reconstructions agree in the division of the Ariidae into two subfamilies, the Ariinae and the monogeneric Galeichthyinae. Basal ariine resolution was negligible suggesting that early diversification events occurred rapidly. The three Indo-Pacific taxa were grouped into a clade, but New World ariines were never recovered as monophyletic. We provide a revised classification for New World ariines examined, which is consistent with the molecular and the morphological evidence. Our classification scheme includes the genera Ariopsis, Bagre, Cathorops, Notarius, Potamarius, and Sciades, and the description of two new genus-level taxa (Occidentarius n. gen and Precathorops n. subgen.). We also hypothesize plausible

  10. Cathorops festae (Boulenger 1898) (Siluriformes; Ariidae), a valid species from Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Marceniuk, Alexandre P; Marchena, José; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-09-22

    Over the past decade, the Sea Catfish (Ariidae) genus Cathorops has been the focus of a major taxonomic review, which has resulted in the revalidation of five synonymized nominal species, and the recognition of seven new species. With 21 valid species, Cathorops is currently the most species-rich genus of Ariidae in the New World. The principal lacuna in the taxonomic knowledge of genus species is the uncertain status of Arius festae Boulenger, 1898, described from Naranjal, in the Guayas River basin of Ecuador. In the present study Cathorops festae is redescribed as a valid species based on morphological and molecular data.

  11. Fish biomarkers for environmental monitoring: An integrated model supporting enzyme activity and histopathological lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo

    2014-10-01

    We present a mathematical model describing the association between glutathione-S-transferase activity and brachial lesions in the catfish, Sciades herzbergii (Ariidae) from a polluted port. The catfish were sampled from a port known to be contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds and from a natural reserve in São Marcos Bay, Brazil. Two biomarkers, hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and histopathological lesions, in gills tissue were measured. The values for GST activity were modeled with the occurrence of branchial lesions by fitting a third order polynomial. Results from the mathematical model indicate that GST activity has a strong polynomial relationship with the occurrence of branchial lesions in both the wet and the dry seasons, but only at the polluted port site. The model developed in this study indicates that branchial and hepatic lesions are initiated when GST activity reaches 2.15 μmol min-1 mg protein-1. Beyond this limit, GST activity decreased to very low levels and irreversible histopathological lesions occurred. This mathematical model provides a realistic approach to analyze predictive biomarkers of environmental health status.

  12. New morphological data and first description of gravid female of Cucullanus bagre Petter, 1974 (Seuratoidea: Cucullanidae) from Bagre bagre (Linnaeus, 1766) (Siluriformes: Ariidae) off Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Vieira, Fabiano M; Luque, José L

    2014-03-01

    Cucullanus bagre Petter, 1974 (Cucullanidae) is redescribed based on the examination of newly collected material and the revaluation of type specimens, using light and for the first time scanning electron microscopy. Parasite specimens were collected from the intestine of the coco sea catfish Bagre bagre (Linnaeus) (Ariidae) off the South Atlantic coast, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Detailed morphological analysis revealed the presence of an unpaired papilla just anterior to the cloacal protrusion in male, that was overlooked in the original description. Descriptions of the adult female and eggs are provided for the first time; these gravid specimens have the general morphometry quite similar to that of juveniles. Additionally, detailed description and illustration of sclerotized plates present on the oesophastome is provided. The far posterior location of the excretory pore with thick-walled excretory duct, the conspicuous protrusions present on both anal and cloacal regions and the number and arrangement of caudal papillae in males are considered to be important diagnostic features for C. bagre. All the specimens from type material were together in one vial and not separated in two vials as stated in the original description, making it impossible to determine which is the holotype, allotype or paratypes. This is the first report of C. bagre in Brazil, which expands its geographical distribution to South Atlantic waters.

  13. Population Dynamics and Diet of the Madamango Sea Catfish Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829) (Siluriformes: Ariidae) in a Tropical Bight in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Denadai, Márcia; Pombo, Maíra; Santos, Flávia Borges; Bessa, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adriana; Turra, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The madamango sea catfish, Cathorops spixii (Siluriformes: Ariidae), is often among the most abundant fishes on the South American Atlantic coast. In the present study, conducted in shallow, non-estuarine coastal areas of Caraguatatuba Bight in southeastern Brazil, collections of this species, the most abundant member of the ichthyofauna, included primarily medium-sized individuals, indicating that the area may play a specific role in their development. Although studies of the local ichthyofauna have been much neglected, the area is economically important and its ecological significance is undervalued. This study primarily treats habitat use by C. spixii, assessing certain population parameters and the dietary composition. Monthly samples were taken from August 2003 through October 2004, with three trawls in two areas, corresponding to depths of about 1 to 4 m. The catfish showed two main peaks of abundance in the area, in April/May and July 2004. A mode around 9 cm SL persisted through time, and the entrance of younger recruits peaked from January to April. The low estimate for body-growth parameters (K = 0.16) corroborates some K-strategist characteristics of the species. The asymptotic length was 27.3 cm SL and total mortality (Z) was 1.01 yr−1. Cathorops spixii showed an omnivorous feeding habit, preying mainly upon polychaetes, copepods and bivalves, with considerable seasonality in its diet. PMID:24282575

  14. Evolution of opercle bone shape along a macrohabitat gradient: species identification using mtDNA and geometric morphometric analyses in neotropical sea catfishes (Ariidae).

    PubMed

    Stange, Madlen; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Cooke, Richard G; Barros, Tito; Salzburger, Walter; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2016-08-01

    Transitions between the marine and freshwater macrohabitat have occurred repeatedly in the evolution of teleost fishes. For example, ariid catfishes have moved from freshwater to marine environments, and vice versa. Opercles, a skeletal feature that has been shown to change during such transitions, were subjected to 2D geometric morphometric analyses in order to investigate evolutionary shape changes during habitat transition in ariid catfishes and to test the influence of habitat on shape changes. A mtDNA marker, which proved useful in previous studies, was used to verify species identities. It greatly improved the assignment of specimens to a species, which are difficult to assign by morphology alone. The application of a mtDNA marker confirmed the occurrence of Notarius biffi in Central America, South of El Salvador. Molecular identification together with principal component analysis (PCA) and further morphological inspection of neurocrania indicated the existence of a cryptic species within Bagre pinnimaculatus. Principal component (PC) scores of individual specimens clustered in morphospace by genus rather than by habitat. Strong phylogenetic structure was detected using a permutation test of PC scores of species means on a phylogenetic tree. Calculation of Pagel's λ suggested that opercle shape evolved according to a Brownian model of evolution. Yet canonical variate analysis (CVA) conducted on the habitat groups showed significant differences in opercle shapes among freshwater and marine species. Overall, opercle shape in tropical American Ariidae appears to be phylogenetically constrained. This verifies the application of opercle shape as a taxonomic tool for species identification in fossil ariid catfishes. At the same time, adaptation to freshwater habitats shows characteristic opercle shape trajectories in ariid catfishes, which might be used to detect habitat preferences in fossils.

  15. Long-term stability of tidal and diel-related patterns in mangrove creek fish assemblages in North Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos-Galindo, G. A.; Krumme, U.

    2014-08-01

    Intertidal fish assemblages are thought to respond to tidal and diel rhythms although the assumption that these patterns are stable over long time scales (>1 year) is largely untested. Testing the validity of this assumption is necessary to assess whether short-term temporal patterns, once established, can be extrapolated over time and give a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of fish assemblages in coastal habitats. Here, we compare the fish assemblage structure from two intertidal mangrove creeks in North Brazil (Bragança Peninsula, Caeté estuary) sampled with the same sampling methodology (block nets), effort (two lunar cycles) and design (accounting for the combination of tidal and diel cycle) in the rainy seasons of 1999 and 2012 to evaluate the persistence, stability and recurrence of short-term patterns in the fish community organization. The interaction of tidal and diel cycles (inundations at spring tide-night, spring tide-day, neap tide-night, neap tide-day), found to be stable after 13 years, resulted in recurrent and stable intertidal mangrove fish assemblage compositions. The intertidal mangrove creek fish assemblage consisted of a persistent number of dominant species (seven). However, there were notable changes in fish catch mass, abundance and species dominance between 1999 and 2012. The most severe drought in North Brazil in 30 years, linked to lower precipitation and river runoff in the rainy season of 2012, may have resulted in (1) lower abundance of small juveniles of several dominant species in this assemblage (especially Ariidae - Cathorops agassizii and Sciades herzbergii) and (2) increased dominance of large-sized specimens of the tetraodontid Colomesus psittacus. Our findings highlight: (1) the overriding importance and stability of the interactive pulse of the tidal and diel cycles in determining short-term temporal patterns in intertidal mangrove fish assemblages in neotropical macrotidal estuaries despite the occurrence of

  16. Revision of the amphiamerican Neotetraonchus Bravo-Hollis, 1968 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with a description of N. vegrandis n. sp. from the gill lamellae of the blue sea catfish Ariopsis guatemalensis (Siluriformes: Ariidae) off the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Bullard, Stephen A; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2009-09-01

    Neotetraonchus Bravo-Hollis, 1968 is revised and reassigned to the Dactylogyridae Bychowsky, 1933 based on examinations of specimens representing four species from the gill lamellae of sea catfishes (Ariidae). The monotypic Neotetraonchidae Bravo-Hollis, 1968 is placed in synonymy with the Dactylogyridae. Neotetraonchus bychowskyi Bravo-Hollis, 1968 (type-species), is redescribed from the tete sea catfish Ariopsis seemanni (Günther) (type-host) in the eastern Pacific Ocean off Panama (new geographical record). Neotetraonchus vegrandis n. sp. is described from the blue sea catfish A. guatemalensis (Günther) off the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Neotetraonchus bravohollisae Paperna, 1977 is redescribed from the hardhead sea catfish A. felis (L.) in the Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula. Neotetraonchus felis (Hargis, 1955) Paperna, 1977 is redescribed from A. felis in the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and the Yucatan Peninsula (new geographical record). Morphological similarities between species of Neotetraonchus suggest the likely presence of geminate species pairs flanking the Isthmus of Panama.

  17. An integrated model supporting histological and biometric responses as predictive biomarkers of fish health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    In this work, an experimental system of histological (branchial lesions) biomarkers and biometric data in catfish (Sciades herzbergii) was modeled. The fish were sampled along known pollution areas (S1) and from environmental protect areas (S2) in São Marcos' Bay, Brazil. Gills were fixed in 10% formalin and usual histological techniques were used in the first gill arch right. The lesions were observed by light microscopy. There were no histopathological changes in animals captured at reference site (S1). However, in the catfish collected in the potentially contaminated area (S2) was observed several branchial lesions, such as lifting of the lamellar epithelium, fusion of some secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of epithelial cells and lamellar aneurysm. The analysis using the biometric data showed significant differences, being highest in fish analyzed in the reference area. This approach revealed spatial differences related with biometric patterns and morphological modifications of catfish.

  18. An integrated model supporting histological and biometric responses as predictive biomarkers of fish health status

    SciTech Connect

    Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-06

    In this work, an experimental system of histological (branchial lesions) biomarkers and biometric data in catfish (Sciades herzbergii) was modeled. The fish were sampled along known pollution areas (S1) and from environmental protect areas (S2) in São Marcos' Bay, Brazil. Gills were fixed in 10% formalin and usual histological techniques were used in the first gill arch right. The lesions were observed by light microscopy. There were no histopathological changes in animals captured at reference site (S1). However, in the catfish collected in the potentially contaminated area (S2) was observed several branchial lesions, such as lifting of the lamellar epithelium, fusion of some secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of epithelial cells and lamellar aneurysm. The analysis using the biometric data showed significant differences, being highest in fish analyzed in the reference area. This approach revealed spatial differences related with biometric patterns and morphological modifications of catfish.

  19. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    PubMed

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration.

  20. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2017-09-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  1. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2016-10-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  2. Ultrastructure of the ampullary organs of Plicofollis argyropleuron (Siluriformes: Ariidae).

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Darryl L; Gauthier, Arnault R G; Cameron, Rochae M E; Perutz, Marion; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of ampullary organs in Plicofollis argyropleuron, collected from a southeast Queensland estuary, was examined by light and electron microscopy to assess the morphological characteristics of teleost ampullary organs in environments with fluctuating salinities. This catfish possesses both macroampullae and microampullae. Both have the typical teleost arrangement of an ampullary pore linked by a canal to a single ampulla that is lined with receptor and supportive cells. The canal wall of macroampullae consists of a collagen sheath, a basement membrane, and two layers of squamous epithelial cells adjacent to the lumen, joined by desmosomes and tight junctions near the surface of the epithelium. Ampullary pore diameters are similar in range for both the macroampullae and the microampullae, with microampullae always arising from the larger pores within a single region of the head. Canal length of the macroampullae is longer than those of the microampullae. Macroampullae also contain approximately 10 times as many receptor cells compared with the microampullae. In both organs, these pear-shaped receptor cells alternate with supportive cells along the entire luminal surface of the ampulla. The apical region of receptor cells extends into the lumen and bears numerous microvilli. The basal region of receptor cells adjoins to either individual or multiple unmyelinated neural terminals. The coexistence of two markedly different ampullary organ morphologies within a single species support theories concerning the possible multifunctionality of these sensory organs.

  3. Structure and Possible Functions of Constant-Frequency Calls in Ariopsis seemanni (Osteichthyes, Ariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Jörg; Esser, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s, Tavolga conducted a series of experiments in which he found behavioral evidence that the vocalizations of the catfish species Ariopsis felis may play a role in a coarse form of echolocation. Based on his findings, he postulated a similar function for the calls of closely related catfish species. Here, we describe the physical characteristics of the predominant call-type of Ariopsis seemanni. In two behavioral experiments, we further explore whether A. seemanni uses these calls for acoustic obstacle detection by testing the hypothesis that the call-emission rate of individual fish should increase when subjects are confronted with novel objects, as it is known from other vertebrate species that use pulse-type signals to actively probe the environment. Audio-video monitoring of the fish under different obstacle conditions did not reveal a systematic increase in the number of emitted calls in the presence of novel objects or in dependence on the proximity between individual fish and different objects. These negative findings in combination with our current understanding of directional hearing in fishes (which is a prerequisite for acoustic obstacle detection) make it highly unlikely that A. seemanni uses its calls for acoustic obstacle detection. We argue that the calls are more likely to play a role in intra- or interspecific communication (e.g. in school formation or predator deterrence) and present results from a preliminary Y-maze experiment that are indicative for a positive phonotaxis of A. seemanni towards the calls of conspecifics. PMID:23741408

  4. Reproductive biology of two marine catfishes (Siluriformes, Ariidae) in the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Iracema David; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2004-03-01

    Marine catfish are abundant in the Sepetiba Bay, a 305 km2 area in Southeast Brazilian coast (Lat. 22 degrees 54' - 23 degrees 04' S: Long. 43 degrees 44' - 44 degrees 10' W), but the knowledge on their biology is still scanty. The reproductive biology of Sciadeichthys luniscutis (Valenciennes 1840) and Genidens genidens (Valenciennes 1839) was studied through monthly sampling, from October 1998 to September 1999. Fishes were caught with a standardized otter trawl, in the interior of Sepetiba Bay, and near to the confluence with a major freshwater contributor. Six gonadal stages were described, based on macroscopic observations of gonad form, size, weight, color and oocyte diameter, and microscopic observations of differences in size and staining in the nucleus and cytoplasm structures, as viewed through a light microscope. Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and in stages of gonadal development showed what S. luniscutis spawned in Spring, while G. genidens spawned in Summer. Total spawning was shown for both species as indicated by high concentration of post-ovulatory follicles in spent stages. Fecundity was low (14-38 vitellogenic oocytes for S. luniscutis and 6-24 for G. genidens). when compared with other teleosts. Low fecundity and separation in spawning period suggest that both species are k-strategist, able to avoid interspecific competition in early stages of life cycle to optimize the use of the available niche.

  5. Oxidative stress enzyme and histopathological lesions in Colossoma macropomum (pisces, ariidae) for environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Dantas, Janaina Gomes; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    This study used oxidative stress enzyme (Glutathione S-Transferase and Catalase), histopathological lesions (Branchial lesions) and biometric data in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in an Environmental Protection Area at São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations (A1 = contaminated area and A2 = reference site) within the protected area on four occasions. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in C. macropomum was compared with biometric data and histopathological lesions. Results have shown that biometric data decreased significantly in fish (p<0.05) at the contaminated site. The activity of CAT was higher in fish specifically caught in A1. A significant difference was observed in the GST activity in the liver of C. macropomum when comparing fish from the contaminated site and those from the reference site (p<0.05).

  6. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-06

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  7. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Kevin P.; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A.; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D.; Wells, Randall S.

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating consumption of the posterior portion of the fish without the head. PMID:28704486

  8. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ronje, Errol I; Barry, Kevin P; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A; Barros, Nélio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D; Wells, Randall S

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating consumption of the posterior portion of the fish without the head.

  9. Early development of marine catfishes (Ariidae): from mouth brooding to the release of juveniles in nursery habitats.

    PubMed

    Lima, A R A; Barletta, M; Dantas, D V; Ramos, J A A; Costa, M F

    2013-06-01

    The development and allometric growth patterns of the ariid catfishes Cathorops spixii and Cathorops agassizii were studied from neurula embryos to juveniles. The ontogenetic sequence revealed that prior to hatching, embryos of both species are well developed, and their axial and appendicular skeletons are well ossified. Embryos of both species grow slowly longitudinally, but positively allometric growth (growth coefficient, β1 > 1) was observed in head width and eye diameter. It is hypothesized that these growth patterns might be related to functional priorities for the development of sensory organs, such as the inner ears (otoliths), the Weberian apparatus, eyes and nostrils, during the embryonic period. The first appearance of vertebrae and otoliths, as well as the ossification of otoliths and the Weberian apparatus, occur earlier in embryos of C. agassizii than in embryos of C. spixii. After hatching, mouth-brooded free embryos of both species grow isometrically. Negatively allometric growth was observed in head width and eye diameter during the yolk-sac period, which is expected given that the sensory organs are already formed. Free embryos of C. agassizii are distinguishable from those of C. spixii by their larger eyes, longer snouts, longer heads and heavier yolk sacs. The end of the yolk-sac period is characterized by a direct change from free embryo to juvenile, without a true larval period. The juveniles of the two species can also be distinguished from each other by the larger eyes of C. agassizii compared with C. spixii, as in adult fishes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  11. Morphology of the teleost ampullary organs in marine salmontail catfish Neoarius graeffei (Pisces: Ariidae) with comparative analysis to freshwater and estuarine conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Arnault R G; Whitehead, Darryl L; Bennett, Michael B; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that due to the relative conductivity of the environment, and to maintain sensory function, ampullary organs of marine Neoarius graeffei would differ morphologically from those described previously for estuarine and freshwater conspecifics. Unlike the ampullary systems of N. graeffei from freshwater and estuarine habitats, the ampullary pores of marine specimens occur in two distinct patterns; numerous pores seemingly randomly scattered on the head and ventro-lateral regions of the body, and pores arranged in distinctive vertical lines above the lateral line on the dorso-lateral body of the fish. Light and electron microscopy revealed that the ampullary organs also differed morphologically from estuarine and freshwater specimens in the presence of longer ampullary canals, a hitherto unreported canal wall composition, and in the collagen sheath surrounding both the canal and the ampulla proper within dermal connective tissues. Ampullary pores were wider in marine individuals and opened to the longest ampullary canals reported for this species. The canal wall was lined by cuboidal and squamous epithelial cells. Each ampullary canal opened into a single ampulla proper containing significantly more receptor cells than estuarine and freshwater conspecifics. The distribution of ampullary pores as well as the microstructure of the ampullary organs indicates that the electrosensory system of marine N. graeffei differs from those of estuarine and freshwater specimens in ways that would be expected to maintain the functionality of the system in a highly conductive, fully marine environment, and reveals the remarkable plasticity of this species' ampullary system in response to habitat conductivity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ecotoxicological effects of POPs on ariidae Ariopsis felis (Linnaeus, 1766) from three coastal ecosystems in the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Pérez, Omar; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Olmos, Mónica Roca; Pérez, María Teresa; Río-García, Marcela Del; Yarto, Mario; Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Ize-Lema, Ana-Irina; Gavilán-García, Arturo; Felipe, Sánchez-Teyer L; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo

    2007-08-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are still used for agricultural and disease vector control, as well as for industrial purposes. In the last decades, various studies have shown that fish are sensitive to the toxicological effects of certain POPs, including a large class of endocrine- disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In the present study, the relationship between of POPs and their effects using vitellogenin gene expression as biomarker of effect in hardhead catfish Ariopsis felis (Linnaeus, 1766) from three ecosystems in the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula are discussed. Contaminant results showed that median concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, DDTs and Chlordanes were higher in Laguna de Terminos with respect to Celestun and Dzilam. In the same way, the vitellogenin gene expression was clearly over-expressed in fish collected from Terminos Lagoon. Principal Component Analysis showed that vitellogenin gene expression is related to the concentrations of total DDTs and PCBs, and negatively related to total Drins. Overall, this study represents the first tests exploring changes in molecular diagnostic indicators following exposure of several organic compounds in our country. Vitellogenin gene expressions associated with some endocrine disruptors detected in Terminos Lagoon were measured and we can now report clear changes in fish exposed.

  13. Scientists Teach Science in Elementary Schools: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexal, J. G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on two case studies of the Science Advisor (SCIAD) Program. Goals of this program include improving science and technology literacy, and increasing the number of highly qualified scientists. Contains 14 references. (DDR)

  14. Diversity and distribution of fishes in tropical estuary Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jalal, K C A; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Arshad, A; Ara, R; Rahman, M F

    2012-06-15

    A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H') was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30 degrees C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm(-1)), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L(-1)), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L(-1)), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 microg L(-1)), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L(-1)), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L(-1)), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the

  15. Checklist of the continental fishes of the state of Chiapas, Mexico, and their distribution

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Veláquez, Ernesto; López-Vila, Jesús Manuel; Gómez-González, Adán Enrique; Romero-Berny, Emilio Ismael; Lievano-Trujillo, Jorge Luis; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the distribution of fishes that inhabit the continental waters of the Mexican state of Chiapas is presented. The state was compartmentalized into 12 hydrological regions for the purpose of understanding the distribution of fish fauna across a state with large physiographic variance. The ichthyofauna of Chiapas is represented by 311 species distributed in two classes, 26 orders, 73 families, and 182 genera, including 12 exotic species. The families with the highest number of species were Cichlidae, Poeciliidae, Sciaenidae, Carangidae, Ariidae, Gobiidae, and Haemulidae. This study attempts to close gaps in knowledge of the distribution of ichthyofauna in the diverse hydrological regions of Chiapas, Mexico. PMID:27920608

  16. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) chetumalensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from the Mayan sea catfish, Ariopsis assimilis, off the Caribbean coast of México.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2002-08-01

    Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) chetumalensis n. sp. is described from the stomach and intestine of the Mayan sea catfish Ariopsis assimilis (Günther, 1864), from the Bay of Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México. It is characterized by bifurcate deirids; males have 3 pairs of preanal papillae, 6 pairs of postanal papillae, 2 pairs of transverse elongate adanal papillae surrounding the cloacal aperture, wide caudal alae, spicules of unequal length, and a gubernaculum, and females have a rounded tail bearing a digit-like process terminating in 2 spines. This is the seventh Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) species reported from fishes in Mexico and the first one recorded in sea catfishes of the Ariidae.

  17. Diagnostic imaging of injuries caused by venomous and traumatogenic catfish.

    PubMed

    Negreiros, Marcos Mendes de Barros; Yamashita, Seizo; Sardenberg, Trajano; Fávero, Edson Luiz; Ribeiro, Felipe Augusto Horácio; Haddad, William Teixeira; Haddad, Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by fish are common in marine and freshwater environments. Catfish of the Ariidae and Pimelodidae families cause about 80% of those injuries. One of the complications of injuries caused by fish is the retention of fragments of the stinger in the wounds. Here we report five cases (of a total of 127 injuries caused by catfish in the Brazilian coast) in which the retained fragments were detected by radiological examination. Retained fragments should be considered in patients stung by catfish. A simple X-ray is sufficient to detect fragments of stingers in the wounds.

  18. Checklist of the continental fishes of the state of Chiapas, Mexico, and their distribution.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Veláquez, Ernesto; López-Vila, Jesús Manuel; Gómez-González, Adán Enrique; Romero-Berny, Emilio Ismael; Lievano-Trujillo, Jorge Luis; Matamoros, Wilfredo A

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of the distribution of fishes that inhabit the continental waters of the Mexican state of Chiapas is presented. The state was compartmentalized into 12 hydrological regions for the purpose of understanding the distribution of fish fauna across a state with large physiographic variance. The ichthyofauna of Chiapas is represented by 311 species distributed in two classes, 26 orders, 73 families, and 182 genera, including 12 exotic species. The families with the highest number of species were Cichlidae, Poeciliidae, Sciaenidae, Carangidae, Ariidae, Gobiidae, and Haemulidae. This study attempts to close gaps in knowledge of the distribution of ichthyofauna in the diverse hydrological regions of Chiapas, Mexico.

  19. Molecular phylogenetics supports multiple evolutionary transitions from marine to freshwater habitats in ariid catfishes.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, R

    2010-04-01

    Transitions between the marine and freshwater environments represent an extraordinary ecological shift that has promoted diversification in many groups of aquatic organisms. Here, molecular phylogenetics is utilized to investigate habitat transitions in a group of catfishes (Ariidae) that includes species inhabiting marine and brackish waters (>110 species) as well as freshwater environments (approximately 40 species). The Ariidae is nested within the Otophysi, the largest clade of primary freshwater fishes with four orders and 67 families. Optimizations of habitat transitions (freshwater vs. marine) onto a previously inferred phylogeny suggest a single invasion of marine waters at the root of the ariid tree followed by 10-15 events of freshwater colonization, implying reversion to the primitive otophysan condition. Thus, ariids provide an extraordinary example of bidirectional habitat transitions in fishes. Freshwater recolonization has occurred in all major provinces where ariids are present, such as the New World (Mesoamerica and South America), Madagascar, Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Sahul continent (Australia and New Guinea). The remarkable diversity of freshwater ariids in Australia-New Guinea and Mesoamerica is presumed to have been facilitated by the originally depauperate freshwater ichthyofaunas in both regions, particularly the low diversity of primary otophysan families in Mesoamerica and their absence in Australia and New Guinea. The lack of phylogenetic resolution among basal Sahul lineages coupled with their extraordinary level of morphological divergence and trophic diversity suggests an ancient rapid radiation promoted by freshwater colonization. For this reason, Sahul ariids represent an excellent system for studying diversification associated with habitat transitions. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA barcoding reveals high levels of genetic diversity in the fishes of the Itapecuru Basin in Maranhão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, M H S; Almeida, M S; Veira, M N S; Limeira Filho, D; Lima, R C; Barros, M C; Fraga, E C

    2016-08-29

    DNA barcoding is a useful complementary tool for use in traditional taxonomic studies due to its ability to detect cryptic species, and may be particularly efficient in the identification of fish species. The fish fauna of the Itapecuru River represents an important fishery resource in the Brazilian State of Maranhão, although it is currently suffering increasing degradation as a result of anthropogenic impacts. Therefore, DNA barcoding was used in the present study to identify fish species and establish a database of the rich freshwater fish fauna of Maranhão. A total of 440 specimens were analyzed, corresponding to 64 species belonging to 59 genera, 31 families, and 10 orders. Overall, 92.19% of these species could be identified by DNA barcoding, and were characterized by low levels (average 0.80%) of intra-specific divergence. However, five species (Anableps anableps, Gymnotus carapo, Sciades couma, Pseudauchenipterus nodosus, and Leporinus piau) presented values of mean genetic divergence above 3%, indicating the existence of cryptic diversity in these fishes. The DNA barcoding approach permitted the analysis of a large number of specimens and facilitated the discrimination and identification of closely related fish species in the Itapecuru Basin.

  1. Fishes as indicators of untreated sewage contamination in a Mexican coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo M; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Kidd, Karen A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Curry, R Allen; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan R

    2016-12-15

    Lagoons are important nursery habitats for fishes but are often sites of intense human activity including wastewater discharges. The goal of this research was to compare stable nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) isotopes, total mercury (THg) and other metal levels in four selected fish species among sites with different levels of untreated sewage discharge inside Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon in the Mexican Pacific. Three species from sites heavily impacted by sewage showed higher δ(15)N and δ(13)C compared to those from non-impacted sites. In addition, the highest concentrations of THg were present in fish of two species (Sciades guatemalensis and Diapterus brevirostris) collected at the two most impacted sites, and exceeded the 0.2μg/g ww threshold believed to be protective of adult and juvenile fish. No individuals of Achirus mazatlanus and Mugil curema exceeded this threshold, and liver somatic index and condition did not distinguish high from low impacted sites for all species. In general, the metal levels differed among species but not sites, and were lower than what has been measured in fishes elsewhere. The study also provides the first information on several fish species for coastal areas of Mexico, suggests that THg and isotopes can distinguish sewage-impacted sites, and can serve as a baseline for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

  3. Host-parasite relationships of Rhabdochona kidderi Pearse, 1936 (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) in fishes of the Lacantún River in the Lacandon rain forest of Chiapas State, southern Mexico, with a key to Mexican species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; González-Solís, David; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan M

    2012-05-01

    For the first time, the nematode Rhabdochona kidderi kidderi Pearse, 1936 (Rhabdochonidae) was recorded from fishes of the Lacantún River (Usumacinta River basin) in the Lacandon rain forest, Chiapas State, southern Mexico. Amphilophus nourissati (Allgayer) and Theraps irregularis Günther (both Perciformes: Cichlidae) were found to be the only definitive hosts in the locality, whereas Eugerres mexicanus (Steindachner) (Perciformes: Gerreidae), Ariopsis sp., Cathorops aguadulce (Meek) and Potomarius nelsoni (Evermann & Goldsborough) (all Siluriformes: Ariidae), Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes) (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae) and Strongylura hubbsi Collette (Beloniformes: Belonidae) all harboured the nematode's fourth-stage larva and only served as paratenic hosts. All these fish species represent new host records for this parasite. The morphology of both adults and larvae was studied in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy, and some conspecific museum specimens from three other host species were also examined for comparison. Rhabdochona ictaluri Aguilar-Aguilar, Rosas-Valdez & Pérez-Ponce de León, 2010 is considered here to be a junior synonym of R. kidderi kidderi. A high degree of the variability of some morphological and biometrical features (deirid shape, left spicule length) and an unusually wide range of hosts suggest that R. kidderi may represent a species complex, but further studies are necessary in this respect. A key to Rhabdochona species and subspecies occurring in Mexico is provided.

  4. Redescription of Spinitectus tabascoensis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) from fishes of the Lacandon rain forest in Chiapas, southern Mexico, with remarks on Spinitectus macrospinosus and S. osorioi.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan M; González-Solís, David

    2009-12-01

    Two little-known species of Spinitectus (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) were, for the first time, recorded from fishes of the Lacantún River (Usumacinta River basin) in the Lacandon rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico: S. tabascoensis Moravec, Garcia-Magaña et Salgado-Maldonado, 2002 in intestines of Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes) (Ictaluridae) (adults and juveniles), Cathorops aguadulce (Meek) and Potamarius nelsoni (Evermann et Goldsborough) (both Ariidae) (in both only juveniles), and S. osorioi Choudhury et Pérez-Ponce de León, 2001 in Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo) (Atherinopsidae) (adults in intestine) and Eugerres mexicanus (Steindachner) (Gerreidae) (adults and juveniles in stomach). Eugerres mexicanus, C. aguadulce and P. nelsoni represent new host records. Detailed light and electron microscopical studies of S. tabascoensis revealed some taxonomically important, previously not observed features, such as cuticular spines arranged in four sectors, the cephalic structure, the number (2) of ventral precloacal ridges or the structure of the male caudal end. Therefore, Spinitectus tabascoensis is redescribed. Spinitectus macrospinosus Choudhury et Perryman, 2003, described from ictalurids in Canada and the USA, is considered its junior synonym. Spinitectus tabascoensis seems to be a specific parasite of Ictalurus spp., whereas C. aguadulce and P. nelsoni, as well as some other fishes, serve only as its paratenic hosts. The definitive hosts of S. osorioi are atherinopsid fish (A. alvarezi, Chirostoma spp.), whereas the gerreid E. mexicanus probably serves only as its postcyclic host.

  5. Molecular clocks provide new insights into the evolutionary history of Galeichthyine sea catfishes.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Armbruster, Jonathan W

    2009-05-01

    Intercontinental distributions in the southern hemisphere can either be the result of Gondwanan vicariance or more recent transoceanic dispersal. Transoceanic dispersal has come into vogue for explaining many intercontinental distributions; however, it has been used mainly for organisms that can float or raft between the continents. Despite their name, the Sea Catfishes (Ariidae) have limited dispersal ability, and there are no examples of nearshore ariid genera with a transoceanic distribution except for Galeichthys where three species occur in southern Africa and one in the Peruvian coast. A previous study suggested that the group originated in Gondwana, and that the species arrived at their current range after the breakup of the supercontinent in the Early Cretaceous. To test this hypothesis, we infer molecular phylogenies (mitochondrial cytochrome b, ATP synthase 8/6, 12S, and 16S; nuclear rag2; total approximately 4 kb) and estimate intercontinental divergence via molecular clocks (penalized-likelihood, Bayesian relaxed clock, and universal clock rates in fishes). Age ranges for cladogenesis of African and South American lineages are 15.4-2.5 my, far more recent than would be suggested by Gondwanan vicariance; thus, the distribution of galeichthyines must be explained by dispersal or more recent vicariant events. The nested position of the Peruvian species (Galeichthys peruvianus) within the African taxa is robust, suggesting that the direction of the dispersal was from Africa to South America. The progenitor of the Peruvian species likely arrived at its current distribution with the aid of ocean currents, and several scenarios are discussed.

  6. [Phylogeny of chinese catfishes inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences].

    PubMed

    Peng, Zuo-Gang; Zhang, Yao-Guang; He, Shun-Ping; Chen, Yi-Yu

    2005-02-01

    The mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was sequenced from 27 catfish species representing 11 families and 24 genera catfishes in China. Aligning with cytochrome b sequences of eight catfish species from North America and Africa retrieved from GenBank, and selecting Astyanax mexicanu, Cyprinus carpio, and Sardinops melanostictus as outgroups, we constructed a matrix of 38 DNA sequences. The phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Bayesian method and Maximum Parsimony (MP) method. The results showed that (1) there are three base pair deletions of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene compared with Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Clupeiformes; (2) the representatives of Chinese catfish species form a monophyletic group; and (3) the molecular phylogenetic trees constructed with both methods suggest that the families Sisoridae, Akysidae and Amblycipitidae form a monophyletic group, and the families Clariidae, Schilbidae, Ariidae, Ictaluridae, Cranoglanididae, Pangasiidae, Siluridae, Claroteidae, and Bagridae also form a monophyletic group. The families Cranoglanididae from China and Ictaluridae from North America form a sister-group relationship, and the families Clariidae, Ictaluridae, Siluridae, and Sisoridae are obviously monophyletic groups. But the position of the family Plotosidae was not resolved by Bayesian analysis and maximum parsimony inference.

  7. Apparent signal of competition limiting diversification after ecological transitions from marine to freshwater habitats.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Ortí, Guillermo; Stein, Ariel M; Marceniuk, Alexandre P; Alexander Pyron, R

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive radiations are typically triggered when a lineage encounters a significant range of open niche space (ecological opportunity), stemming from colonisation of new areas, extinction of competitors or key innovations. The most well-known of these is the colonisation of new areas, through either dispersal into new regions or the invasion of novel ecological regimes. One aspect of ecological opportunity that has rarely been studied, however, is the extent to which pre-existent competitors act to limit diversification in newly colonised adaptive zones. Herein, we show that in multiple geographically independent invasions of freshwaters by marine Sea Catfishes (Ariidae), rates of both morphological disparification and lineage diversification are inversely related to the presence and diversity of other freshwater fish lineages. Only in one region (Australia-New Guinea) with an otherwise depauperate freshwater fauna, has an ariid invasion gained any substantial traction. This is true at both regional and community scales, suggesting that competitive constraints may be an important factor regulating adaptive radiation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Bupropion for the treatment of apathy in Huntington’s disease: A multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Gelderblom, Harald; Wüstenberg, Torsten; McLean, Tim; Mütze, Lisanne; Fischer, Wilhelm; Saft, Carsten; Hoffmann, Rainer; Süssmuth, Sigurd; Schlattmann, Peter; van Duijn, Erik; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Priller, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bupropion in the treatment of apathy in Huntington’s disease (HD). Methods In this phase 2b multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, individuals with HD and clinical signs of apathy according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy—Dementia (SCIA-D), but not depression (n = 40) were randomized to receive either bupropion 150/300mg or placebo daily for 10 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was a significant change of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score after ten weeks of treatment as judged by an informant (AES-I) living in close proximity with the study participant. The secondary outcome parameters included changes of 1. AES scores determined by the patient (AES-S) or the clinical investigator (AES-C), 2. psychiatric symptoms (NPI, HADS-SIS, UHDRS-Behavior), 3. cognitive performance (SDMT, Stroop, VFT, MMSE), 4. motor symptoms (UHDRS-Motor), 5. activities of daily function (TFC, UHDRS-Function), and 6. caregiver distress (NPI-D). In addition, we investigated the effect of bupropion on brain structure as well as brain responses and functional connectivity during reward processing in a gambling task using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the clinical primary and secondary outcome parameters. At endpoint, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups for all clinical primary and secondary outcome variables. Study participation, irrespective of the intervention, lessened symptoms of apathy according to the informant and the clinical investigator. Conclusion Bupropion does not alleviate apathy in HD. However, study participation/placebo effects were observed, which document the need for carefully controlled trials when investigating therapeutic interventions for the neuropsychiatric symptoms of HD. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov 01914965 PMID:28323838

  9. Bupropion for the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease: A multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, Harald; Wüstenberg, Torsten; McLean, Tim; Mütze, Lisanne; Fischer, Wilhelm; Saft, Carsten; Hoffmann, Rainer; Süssmuth, Sigurd; Schlattmann, Peter; van Duijn, Erik; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Priller, Josef

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bupropion in the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease (HD). In this phase 2b multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, individuals with HD and clinical signs of apathy according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy-Dementia (SCIA-D), but not depression (n = 40) were randomized to receive either bupropion 150/300mg or placebo daily for 10 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was a significant change of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score after ten weeks of treatment as judged by an informant (AES-I) living in close proximity with the study participant. The secondary outcome parameters included changes of 1. AES scores determined by the patient (AES-S) or the clinical investigator (AES-C), 2. psychiatric symptoms (NPI, HADS-SIS, UHDRS-Behavior), 3. cognitive performance (SDMT, Stroop, VFT, MMSE), 4. motor symptoms (UHDRS-Motor), 5. activities of daily function (TFC, UHDRS-Function), and 6. caregiver distress (NPI-D). In addition, we investigated the effect of bupropion on brain structure as well as brain responses and functional connectivity during reward processing in a gambling task using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the clinical primary and secondary outcome parameters. At endpoint, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups for all clinical primary and secondary outcome variables. Study participation, irrespective of the intervention, lessened symptoms of apathy according to the informant and the clinical investigator. Bupropion does not alleviate apathy in HD. However, study participation/placebo effects were observed, which document the need for carefully controlled trials when investigating therapeutic interventions for the neuropsychiatric symptoms of HD. ClinicalTrials.gov 01914965.

  10. Satellite telemetry and prey sampling reveal contaminant sources to pacific northwest ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Morrissey, C.A.; Henny, C.J.; Inzunza, E.R.; Shaw, P.

    2007-01-01

    Migratory behavior can be an important factor in determining contaminant exposure in avian populations. Accumulation of organochlorine (OC) pesticides while birds are wintering in tropical regions has been cited often as the reason for high concentrations in migrant populations. To explore this issue, we satellite tracked 16 Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) over the period 1996-2003 from breeding sites in British Columbia, Canada, and integrated the results into a database on 15 Ospreys that were satellite tracked over the period 1995-1999, from breeding locations in Washington and Oregon, USA. Data on wintering sites of 31 Ospreys in Mexico and Central America were used for spatially targeted sampling of prey fish. Concentrations of the main organochlorine contaminant, p,p???-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), in fish composites from Mexico ranged from 0.005 to 0.115 ??g/g wet mass. Significant differences existed among fish families in p,p???-DDE, total dichloro- diphenyltrichloroethane (??DDT), ??chlordanes, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs). Catfish (family Ariidae) generally had significantly higher levels of DDT metabolites and other organochlorine contaminants compared to other fish families collected. Differences in prey contaminant levels were detected among the collection sites around coastal Mexico, with fish from Veracruz State generally having higher levels of DDT metabolites, ??chlordanes, ??PCBs, and hexachlorobenzene. Eggs collected from 16 nests throughout the Pacific Northwest (nine from British Columbia, seven from Oregon and Washington) where Ospreys had been satellite tagged, showed marked variation in levels of DDT metabolites (p,p???-DDE; range 0.02-10.14 ??g/g). Wintering site had no significant effect on contaminant concentrations in sample eggs from those specific Ospreys; rather concentrations of p,p???-DDE, were predicted by breeding sites with highest levels in eggs of Ospreys breeding in the lower Columbia River

  11. Satellite telemetry and prey sampling reveal contaminant sources to Pacific Northwest Ospreys.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E; Morrissey, Christy A; Henny, Charles J; Inzunza, Ernesto Ruelas; Shaw, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    Migratory behavior can be an important factor in determining contaminant exposure in avian populations. Accumulation of organochlorine (OC) pesticides while birds are wintering in tropical regions has been cited often as the reason for high concentrations in migrant populations. To explore this issue, we satellite tracked 16 Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) over the period 1996-2003 from breeding sites in British Columbia, Canada, and integrated the results into a database on 15 Ospreys that were satellite tracked over the period 1995-1999, from breeding locations in Washington and Oregon, USA. Data on wintering sites of 31 Ospreys in Mexico and Central America were used for spatially targeted sampling of prey fish. Concentrations of the main organochlorine contaminant, p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), in fish composites from Mexico ranged from 0.005 to 0.115 nicrog/g wet mass. Significant differences existed among fish families in p,p'-DDE, total dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (sigmaDDT), sigmachlordanes, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (sigmaPCBs). Catfish (family Ariidae) generally had significantly higher levels of DDT metabolites and other organochlorine contaminants compared to other fish families collected. Differences in prey contaminant levels were detected among the collection sites around coastal Mexico, with fish from Veracruz State generally having higher levels of DDT metabolites, sigmachlordanes, sigmaPCBs, and hexachlorobenzene. Eggs collected from 16 nests throughout the Pacific Northwest (nine from British Columbia, seven from Oregon and Washington) where Ospreys had been satellite tagged, showed marked variation in levels of DDT metabolites (p,p'-DDE; range 0.02-10.14 microg/g). Wintering site had no significant effect on contaminant concentrations in sample eggs from those specific Ospreys; rather concentrations of p,p'-DDE, were predicted by breeding sites with highest levels in eggs of Ospreys breeding in the lower Columbia

  12. Size matters: diversity in swimbladders and Weberian ossicles affects hearing in catfishes.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Walter; Ladich, Friedrich

    2008-05-01

    Otophysine fish possess Weberian ossicles, which connect the swimbladder to the inner ear and improve hearing ability. There is a high diversity in the morphology of the swimbladder and Weberian apparatus in catfishes, which might affect hearing. We have examined these structures in representatives of six families with large, single bladders (Ariidae, Auchenipteridae, Heptapteridae, Malapteruridae, Mochokidae, Pseudopimelodidae) and five subfamilies from two families (Callichthyidae, Loricariidae) having small, paired, encapsulated bladders. We tested their hearing abilities utilizing the non-invasive auditory evoked potential recording technique. Species with single, non-encapsulated, free airbladders possess one, three or four ossicles, whereas species with encapsulated bladders possess one or two. The relative sizes of the bladders and ossicles were significantly smaller in the latter group. All species were able to detect sound stimuli between 50 Hz and 5 kHz. Interspecific differences in hearing sensitivity varied at most by 24 dB below 1 kHz, whilst this variation increased to more than 50 dB at higher frequencies. Catfishes with free bladders had lower thresholds above 1 kHz than those having encapsulated ones. The relative lengths of swimbladders and of ossicular chains were correlated with hearing sensitivity above 1 and 2 kHz, respectively. The number of ossicles affected hearing at 4 and 5 kHz. These results indicate that larger bladders and ossicles as well as higher ossicle numbers improve hearing ability at higher frequencies in catfishes. We furthermore assume that the tiny bladders have minimized their hydrostatic function but were not completely lost because of their auditory function.

  13. A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John P; Lundberg, John G; Hardman, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Higher-level relationships among catfishes were investigated by parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of two nuclear genes across 110 catfish species representing 36 of 37 families and Conorhynchos (family incertae sedis). Analysis of 3660 aligned base pairs from the rag1 and rag2 genes confirms monophyly of Siluriformes, of most siluriform families and of a number of multifamily groups, some recognized, some novel. South American Loricarioidei are recovered as the sistergroup to other catfishes which are divided into Diplomystidae and Siluroidei. This result contrasts with the prevailing hypothesis that Diplomystidae is the sister to all other catfishes. Monophyly of Siluroidei is supported by rag data including a unique three-codon deletion from rag1. Deep within Siluroidei are 12 large, strongly supported groups with poorly resolved interrelationships. Five are single families: Cetopsidae, Plotosidae, Chacidae, Siluridae and Pangasiidae. Four others are monophyletic taxa ranked here as superfamilies: Clarioidea (Clariidae, Heteropneustidae), Arioidea (Ariidae, Anchariidae), Pimelodoidea (Pimelodidae, Pseudopimelodidae, Heptapteridae, Conorhynchos), Ictaluroidea (Ictaluridae, Cranoglanididae). South American Doradoidea (Doradidae, Auchenipteridae) and Aspredinidae are a sistergroup pair. Sisoroidea (without Aspredinidae), Ailia+Laides, Horabagridae, and Bagridae (without Rita) form a large, predominantly Asian clade, "Big Asia." Mochokidae, Malapteruridae, Amphiliidae, Claroteidae, and African schilbids are united as a species-rich African clade, "Big Africa." The three large continental clades, "Big Asia," "Big Africa" and Neotropical Loricarioidei suggest a prevalence of intracontinental diversification of catfishes. South America is the home of the Gymnotiformes, putative sistergroup of catfishes, plus two of the deepest siluriform clades, Loricarioidei and Diplomystidae, thus suggesting an ancient siluriform presence if not origin there. The rag