Science.gov

Sample records for science exaggerated claims

  1. Exaggerated Claims for Interactive Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thue, David; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia; Webb, Michael

    As advertising becomes more crucial to video games' success, developers risk promoting their products beyond the features that they can actually include. For features of interactive storytelling, the effects of making such exaggerations are not well known, as reports from industry have been anecdotal at best. In this paper, we explore the effects of making exaggerated claims for interactive stories, in the context of the theory of advertising. Results from a human user study show that female players find linear and branching stories to be significantly less enjoyable when they are advertised with exaggerated claims.

  2. Exaggerated Claims About Earthquake Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Alan L.; Ebel, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The perennial promise of successful earthquake prediction captures the imagination of a public hungry for certainty in an uncertain world. Yet, given the lack of any reliable method of predicting earthquakes [e.g., Geller, 1997; Kagan and Jackson, 1996; Evans, 1997], seismologists regularly have to explain news stories of a supposedly successful earthquake prediction when it is far from clear just how successful that prediction actually was. When journalists and public relations offices report the latest `great discovery' regarding the prediction of earthquakes, seismologists are left with the much less glamorous task of explaining to the public the gap between the claimed success and the sober reality that there is no scientifically proven method of predicting earthquakes.

  3. The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

  4. Rejecting knowledge claims inside and outside science.

    PubMed

    Collins, Harry

    2014-10-01

    Citizens, policy-makers and scientists all face the problem of assessing maverick scientific claims. Via a case study, I show the different resources available to experts and non-experts when they make these judgements and reflect upon what this means for technological decision-making in the public domain.

  5. Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: Science Teachers' Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordheim, Lena; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Flottorp, Signe; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Critical appraisal skills are necessary to navigate the numerous contradictory and pseudo-scientific claims in the popular media. Health and science education in schools is essential for promoting these skills in students. The purpose of this paper is to explore lower secondary school science teachers' perceptions and reported practices…

  6. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Sørensen, L.; Lauze, F.; Igel, C.; Loog, M.; Feragen, A.; de Bruijne, M.; Nielsen, M.

    2012-03-01

    Classification is widely used in the context of medical image analysis and in order to illustrate the mechanism of a classifier, we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype based on training data and trained classifier. The stereotype of some image class of interest should emphasize/exaggerate the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualize the information the employed classifier relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classification and serves for comparison with the biological models of disease. In this work, we build exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminative term based on the classification accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distributions. A gradient descent method based on iterated conditional modes (ICM) is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's linear discriminant rule and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is applied to computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustrate the exaggerated patterns of lung tissue with emphysema, which is underpinned by three different quantitative evaluation methods.

  7. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  8. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait.

  9. Developing explanations: Student reasoning about science concepts during Claims-Evidence Inquiry lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, Jerine M.

    Recent science education reforms have placed a large emphasis on inquiry-based teaching strategies as an effective way of improving conceptual understanding of science principles, comprehension of the nature of scientific inquiry, and development of the abilities for inquiry (NRC, 1996). To better understand the relationship between inquiry-based instruction and student learning, this study examined the nature of student reasoning about science concepts during Claims-Evidence Inquiry lessons. The Claims-Evidence approach to inquiry teaching was chosen as the context for this study, because it focuses student investigations on specific scientific concepts. It uses a deductive approach to question generation, in which scientific claims are used as springboards for student investigations (Gummer, 2002; Thompson, 2003; Briley, 2003). This study found that the Claims-Evidence Inquiry model provides a framework for encouraging student reasoning about science concepts by providing supports for the development of explanations. Students were encouraged to develop explanations and consider how science concepts related to their investigations. A number of instructional factors appeared to influence students' development of explanations during Claims-Evidence inquiry. These included explicitly encouraging explanations, clarifying the connection between the claim and the investigation, the presentation of the claim, the nature of the claim, the development of science concepts, the design of the task, and the development of inquiry skills. Students were found to engage in discourse related to explanations during all four phases of the inquiry; forming a question or hypothesis, designing an investigation, collecting and presenting data, and analyzing results. Most of the verbal discourse related to explanations occurred when students were reasoning about hypotheses and most of the written discourse related to explanations occurred when students were reasoning about hypotheses and

  10. Exaggerated trait growth in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size other, surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles, the claspers of praying mantises, the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers, and the giant heads of soldie...

  11. Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: bridging science and marketing.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, Ger T; de Vos, Willem M; Brummer, Robert-Jan; Morelli, Lorenzo; Corthier, Gerard; Marteau, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Health claims for probiotics are evaluated by the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies of the European Food Safety Authority. Despite a substantial amount of basic and clinical research on the beneficial effects of probiotics, all of the evaluated claim applications thus far have received a negative opinion. With the restrictions on the use of clinical endpoints, validated biomarkers for gut health and immune health in relation to reduction in disease risk are needed. Clear-cut criteria for design as well as evaluation of future studies are needed. An open dialogue between basic and clinical scientists, regulatory authorities, food and nutrition industry, and consumers could bridge the gap between science and marketing of probiotics.

  12. Values in Science: Making Sense of Biology Doctoral Students' Critical Examination of a Deterministic Claim in a Media Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveendran, Aswathy; Chunawala, Sugra

    2015-01-01

    Several educators have emphasized that students need to understand science as a human endeavor that is not value free. In the exploratory study reported here, we investigated how doctoral students of biology understand the intersection of values and science in the context of genetic determinism. Deterministic research claims have been critiqued…

  13. The Zone Diet phenomenon: a closer look at the science behind the claims.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2003-02-01

    The purported health benefits of low-carbohydrate diets have been advocated intermittently over the last century and have enjoyed increasing popularity over the last decade. Although most revolve around the emphatic theme that carbohydrates are to blame for many chronic diseases, their specific ideologies are more variable and in some cases quite sophisticated. The Zone Diet phenomenon represents a new generation of modern low carbohydrate food fad with sales placing it among the most popular diet books in recent history. The Zone is a 40% carbohydrate, 30% protein and 30% fat eating plan that advocates only sparing use of grains and starches. The precise 0.75 protein to carbohydrate ratio required with each meal is promoted to reduce the insulin to glucagon ratio, which purportedly affects eicosanoid metabolism and ultimately produces a cascade of biological events leading to a reduction in chronic disease risk, enhanced immunity, maximal physical and mental performance, increased longevity and permanent weight loss. There is presently little scientific support for the connections made between diet, endocrinology and eicosanoid metabolism. In fact, a review of the literature suggests that there are scientific contradictions in the Zone Diet hypothesis that cast unquestionable doubt on its potential efficacy. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the scientific merit of the Zone Diet and its health claims in an effort to help delineate what is and what is not sound nutrition science. PMID:12569110

  14. The Zone Diet phenomenon: a closer look at the science behind the claims.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2003-02-01

    The purported health benefits of low-carbohydrate diets have been advocated intermittently over the last century and have enjoyed increasing popularity over the last decade. Although most revolve around the emphatic theme that carbohydrates are to blame for many chronic diseases, their specific ideologies are more variable and in some cases quite sophisticated. The Zone Diet phenomenon represents a new generation of modern low carbohydrate food fad with sales placing it among the most popular diet books in recent history. The Zone is a 40% carbohydrate, 30% protein and 30% fat eating plan that advocates only sparing use of grains and starches. The precise 0.75 protein to carbohydrate ratio required with each meal is promoted to reduce the insulin to glucagon ratio, which purportedly affects eicosanoid metabolism and ultimately produces a cascade of biological events leading to a reduction in chronic disease risk, enhanced immunity, maximal physical and mental performance, increased longevity and permanent weight loss. There is presently little scientific support for the connections made between diet, endocrinology and eicosanoid metabolism. In fact, a review of the literature suggests that there are scientific contradictions in the Zone Diet hypothesis that cast unquestionable doubt on its potential efficacy. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the scientific merit of the Zone Diet and its health claims in an effort to help delineate what is and what is not sound nutrition science.

  15. Decision-making and evaluation of science causal claims: Effects of goals on uses of evidence and explanatory mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jacqueline Yin Sang

    2015-10-01

    Evidence and explanatory mechanism are central to scientific practices. Using such information could also inform decisions about issues in which science can play some role, from policy issues like climate change to personal issues like vaccination. While research suggests that people tend to focus on non-science considerations when making science-related decisions, there is also evidence that people can reason very productively with evidence and mechanism. This study examines how the goals participants pursue when reading a science report influences how they attend to information about causal mechanism and evidence. Two hundred and seventeen high school students were asked either to evaluate the truth of a scientific claim, to make a personal decision based on the claim, or to make a social policy decision based on the claim using an online task-based survey. All three groups of participants attended to evidence and mechanism, but participants with different goals requested different types of information and were influenced by evidence and mechanism for different reasons. The findings suggest that goals influence how participants use evidence and mechanism.

  16. Exaggerated pain behavior: by what standard?

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a philosophical, historical, and clinical analysis of exaggerated pain behavior, focusing on the nature of the standards used to judge behavior as exaggerated. Malingering is understood as a special case of exaggerated pain behavior. Drawing upon the work of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and psychiatrist-anthropologist Horacio Fabrega, I argue that these standards are primarily moral rather than scientific in nature. Pain behavior is not validated by matching public pain behavior with private pain experience. If this pain experience is truly private, it is not available to scientific investigation. Rather, pain behavior is judged as appropriate or exaggerated through complex assessments of the function of this behavior in its social context. As human social contexts have become more complex through history, so have the accommodations made for sick and disabled members of the group. Criteria for legitimate entry to the sick role have evolved with society, with only modern industrial society placing heavy emphasis on tissue damage demonstrated on medical tests. The highly variable relation between clinical pain and tissue damage, as well as the common problem of medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care, pose serious challenges to this strategy of illness behavior validation. It will remain necessary to triage suffering presented to health care providers into that which should be addressed in the medical setting and that which is better addressed elsewhere. But we need to discard pseudoscientific reliance on medical tests and develop new standards that are openly acknowledged to be moral and social in nature.

  17. Narrative and evidence. How can case studies from the history of science support claims in the philosophy of science?

    PubMed

    Kinzel, Katherina

    2015-02-01

    A common method for warranting the historical adequacy of philosophical claims is that of relying on historical case studies. This paper addresses the question as to what evidential support historical case studies can provide to philosophical claims and doctrines. It argues that in order to assess the evidential functions of historical case studies, we first need to understand the methodology involved in producing them. To this end, an account of historical reconstruction that emphasizes the narrative character of historical accounts and the theory-laden character of historical facts is introduced. The main conclusion of this paper is that historical case studies are able to provide philosophical claims with some evidential support, but that, due to theory-ladenness, their evidential import is restricted.

  18. Women and AIDS: the ethics of exaggerated harm.

    PubMed

    Mertz, David; Sushinsky, Mary Ann; Schüklenk, Udo

    1996-04-01

    This article examines the way in which some biomedical ethicists have constructed sexually transmitted AIDS as a significant threat to women's health. We demonstrate that the familiar claim that 'women are the fastest growing group' -- whether of HIV-infected or of AIDS patients -- is misleading because it obscures the distinction between proportional rate of growth and absolute increase. Feminist ethicists have suggested that misogyny of a male dominated health care system has led to underreporting of women AIDS cases in order to support these feminists' claim of AIDS being a real threat to women's health. Given the apparent rarity of tertiary transmissions of AIDS, the assertion that most or even many women are at significant risk for AIDS seems wrong. Particularly disturbing in this campaign is the fact that the theme of 'risky sex' has been extended all the way to lesbians, even though their risk to acquire AIDS sexually is non-existent to miniscule. We argue that actual harm is done to women by this exaggeration of their risk of contracting AIDS sexually. The scare has led to misappropriations of scarce health care funds. AIDS disproportionately affects women who inject drugs, and who suffer other diseases, poverty and malnutrition. It would have been better to concentrate health care efforts in this area instead of 'educating' women not at risk for AIDS how to prevent the acquisition of this disease. Unjustifiable AIDS anxiety has been created in women and has resulted in millions of unnecessary HIV-tests, and many broken relationships. This anxiety has inevitably reduced the pleasure of having sex for many women. We reject the kind of 'victim ideology' that lies at the heart of this strategy which has, unfortunately, been supported by a number of influential feminist ethicists.

  19. Are Sciences Essential and Humanities Elective? Disentangling Competing Claims for Humanities' Research Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption's construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair prejudice: we argue for a prima facie case…

  20. Private Science and Public Knowledge: The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal and its Use of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, T. J.; Collins, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Shows the part played by formal/informal literatures in the social construction of scientific knowledge, analyzing the work of the "Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal" (which critically investigates fringe-sciences). Indicates that popular literature can deconstruct facts while scientific controversy reveals…

  1. Jupiter's Equatorial Zone in Exaggerated Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This special color composite made from Voyager 2 narrow-angle frames taken on June 28, 1979, has been processed to exaggerate color differences within the naturally colorful Jovian atmosphere. Such processing makes detailed structure in the clouds more apparent. The dark belt across the upper portion of the photograph is the North Equatorial Belt. One of the largest of the long-lived dark features found along the northern edge of this belt is seen in the upper middle of the photograph. Jupiter's Equatorial Zone, which lies across the middle of the photograph, is characterized by a series of wisp-like plume features. The northern bluish edges of these plumes are thought to lie within deeper, warmer levels of the atmosphere. South of the Equatorial Zone lies the chaotic region of whiter clouds found west of the Great Red Spot. kilometers (6.4 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features visible in this photograph are about 190 kilometers (119 miles) across.

  2. Asymmetrical social mach bands: exaggeration of social identities on the more esteemed side of group borders.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Paul; Scott, Sydney E; Zickgraf, Hana F; Ahn, Flora; Jiang, Hong

    2014-10-01

    Perceptual processes generally enhance borders, because of their high information value. Mach bands are an example in vision. In the social world, borders are also of special significance; one side of a border is generally more esteemed or valued than the other. We claim that entities (individuals, groups) that are just over the border on the positive side tend to exaggerate their membership on the positive side (asymmetrical social Mach bands). We demonstrate this by showing that (a) master's-degree universities use the word university to describe themselves more than major graduate universities do, (b) small international airports use the word international to describe themselves more than major airports do, and (c) University of Pennsylvania students, who are affiliated with a "marginal" Ivy League school, use the word Ivy to describe their school more than Harvard students do.

  3. Brassinosteroid-induced exaggerated growth in hydroponically grown Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Arteca, Jeannette M.; Arteca, Richard N.

    2001-05-01

    The effects of root application of brassinolide (BL) on the growth and development of Arabidopsis plants (Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia [L.] Heynh) were evaluated. Initially, all leaves were evaluated on plants 18, 22, 26 and 29 days old. The younger leaves were found to exhibit maximal petiole elongation and upward leaf bending in response to BL treatment. Therefore, based on these results leaves 6, 7 and 8 on 22-24-day-old plants were selected for all subsequent studies. Elongation along the length of the petiole in response to BL treatment was uniform with the exception of an approximately 4 mm region next to the leaf where upward curvature was observed. Both BL and 24-epibrassinolide (24-epiBL) were evaluated, with BL being more effective at lower concentrations than 24-epiBL. The exaggerated growth induced by 0.1 µM BL was not observed in plants treated with 1 000-fold higher concentrations of GA3, IAA, NAA or 2,4-D (100 µM). In addition, no exaggerated growth effects were observed when plants were treated with 200 ppm ethylene or 1 mM ACC. All treatments with BL, NAA, 2,4-D, IAA or ACC promoted ethylene and ACC production in wild type Arabidopsis plants, but only BL triggered exaggerated plant growth. BL also promoted exaggerated growth and elevated levels of ACC and ethylene in the ethylene insensitive mutant etr1-3, showing that the effect of BR on growth is independent of ethylene. This work provides evidence that BR-induced exaggerated growth of Arabidopsis plants is independent of gibberellins, auxins and ethylene.

  4. The evolution of acoustic size exaggeration in terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Reby, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that some mammals possess adaptations that enable them to produce vocal signals with much lower fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequency spacing (ΔF) than expected for their size. Although these adaptations are assumed to reflect selection pressures for males to lower frequency components and exaggerate body size in reproductive contexts, this hypothesis has not been tested across a broad range of species. Here we show that male terrestrial mammals produce vocal signals with lower ΔF (but not F0) than expected for their size in mating systems with greater sexual size dimorphism. We also reveal that males produce calls with higher than expected F0 and ΔF in species with increased sperm competition. This investigation confirms that sexual selection favours the use of ΔF as an acoustic size exaggerator and supports the notion of an evolutionary trade-off between pre-copulatory signalling displays and sperm production. PMID:27598835

  5. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

    PubMed

    Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

    2012-02-01

    Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research.

  6. The evolution of acoustic size exaggeration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Benjamin D.; Reby, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that some mammals possess adaptations that enable them to produce vocal signals with much lower fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequency spacing (ΔF) than expected for their size. Although these adaptations are assumed to reflect selection pressures for males to lower frequency components and exaggerate body size in reproductive contexts, this hypothesis has not been tested across a broad range of species. Here we show that male terrestrial mammals produce vocal signals with lower ΔF (but not F0) than expected for their size in mating systems with greater sexual size dimorphism. We also reveal that males produce calls with higher than expected F0 and ΔF in species with increased sperm competition. This investigation confirms that sexual selection favours the use of ΔF as an acoustic size exaggerator and supports the notion of an evolutionary trade-off between pre-copulatory signalling displays and sperm production. PMID:27598835

  7. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

    PubMed

    Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

    2012-02-01

    Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

  8. Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading. PMID:24128969

  9. Reducing and exaggerating escalation of commitment by option partitioning.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jessica Y Y; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2014-07-01

    Options under escalation situations can be presented as a general class (e.g., investing in electronic products) or be partitioned into disjunctive suboptions within that class (e.g., investing in MP3 players, portable TV game consoles, and other electronic products). Drawing from the theoretical bases of partition priming and mental accounting, this research found support from 4 experiments that (a) a decision maker's commitment to a failing course of action is exaggerated when the escalation options are partitioned into multiple suboptions, whereas such commitment is reduced when the alternative options are portioned into suboptions, and (b) these partitioning effects are mediated by the subjective utility, including subjective values and probability, of the escalation option.

  10. Exaggerated color perception in a patient with visual form agnosia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Wu, Ming; Shen, Zheng

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies on visual form agnosic patients have shown that their color perception is relatively preserved when monochromatic figures are used. However, it is unclear whether their color perception remains normal when figures are composed of two parts in different colors. The results showed that patient X.F. had difficulty in naming both colors when the two colors were placed next to each other, and in discriminating the two-color figure from the figure presented in its larger color. In contrast, X.F. could name the two colors when they were physically separated. These data suggest that X.F. manifests exaggerated color perception, producing a color filling-in effect that may be mediated by her spared early visual area.

  11. Neural Coding of Formant-Exaggerated Speech in the Infant Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yang; Koerner, Tess; Miller, Sharon; Grice-Patil, Zach; Svec, Adam; Akbari, David; Tusler, Liz; Carney, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Speech scientists have long proposed that formant exaggeration in infant-directed speech plays an important role in language acquisition. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech in 6-12-month-old infants. Two synthetic /i/ vowels were presented in alternating blocks to test the effects of…

  12. Sustainability: Measure it before you claim it

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability: Measure it before You Claim itSubhas K. SikdarAssociate Director for ScienceNational Risk Management Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyCincinnati, OH 45268Sikdar.subhas@epa.govABSTRACTSustainability is claimed too often without a rational veri...

  13. Internet Survey of Nutrition Claim Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camire, Mary E.; Dougherty, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Consumer interest in healthy foods has spurred approval of several health claims for foods and dietary supplements. Although undergraduate and graduate food science curricula address food laws and regulations, nutrition claims may not be fully addressed. We posted a survey on the Internet for 2 mo for food industry professionals and others…

  14. Small Claims Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKitric, Eloise; Davis, Janet

    The study examined individuals and companies who used small claims courts and the results of decisions reached in small claims cases. A review of studies including an empirical study of two Ohio small claims courts monitored for 12 months made it clear that small claims courts need to be examined to determine if utilization and accessibility to…

  15. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    PubMed

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  16. Measures of Symptom Exaggeration for Mental Health Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Shanil; Bance, Sheena; Mulla, Sohail M; Montoya, Luis; Malachowski, Cindy; Kamal El Din, Mostafa; Busse, Jason W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction .- Measures that help detect exaggeration of symptoms can be valuable for informing more accurate diagnoses and aid in treatment and case management. We completed a systematic review to identify measures that assess symptom exaggeration in mental health disorders. Methods .- Eligible studies assessed exaggeration of symptoms with a psychometrically validated measure in patients presenting with a mental health disorder. We searched MEDLINE and PsycINFO from inception to June 2013 for relevant studies. To determine study eligibility, reviewers screened title and abstracts of identified citations, and reviewed full texts of all potentially eligible citations. Data extractors completed data abstraction of eligible studies. Results .- Of 8435 unique citations, 105 studies consisting of 112 cohorts were eligible, and we identified 36 unique, validated measures assessing exaggeration of symptoms. The most frequently used measures were symptom validity indicators embedded in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) (n=48, 46%), the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) (n=12, 11%), and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (n=11, 10%). Most studies (n=96; 91%) failed to test reliability of their measure of symptom exaggeration. The symptom validity indicators in the MMPI/MMPI-2 and the SIRS both showed moderate to high internal consistency, range 0.47 to 0.85 and 0.48 to 0.95, respectively. Conclusions .- Multiple measures assessing symptom exaggeration have been used in patients with mental health disorders. The symptom validity indicators of the MMPI/MMPI-2 are the most widely used measures to assess symptom exaggeration. Assessment and reporting of reliability is poor across studies; we require further assessment of psychometric properties for existing measures of symptom exaggeration. PMID:27584846

  17. [Comment on "Exaggerated claims about earthquake predictions: Analysis of NASA's method"] Pattern informatics and cellular seismology: A comparison of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, John B.; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Klein, William

    2007-06-01

    The recent article in Eos by Kafka and Ebel [2007] is a criticism of a NASA press release issued on 4 October 2004 describing an earthquake forecast (http://quakesim.jpl.nasa.gov/scorecard.html) based on a pattern informatics (PI) method [Rundle et al., 2002]. This 2002 forecast was a map indicating the probable locations of earthquakes having magnitude m>5.0 that would occur over the period of 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. Kafka and Ebel [2007] compare the Rundle et al. [2002] forecast to a retrospective analysis using a cellular seismology (CS) method. Here we analyze the performance of the Rundle et al. [2002] forecast using the first 15 of the m>5.0 earthquakes that occurred in the area covered by the forecasts.

  18. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  19. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  20. The role of movement exaggeration in the anticipation of deceptive soccer penalty kicks.

    PubMed

    Smeeton, N J; Williams, A M

    2012-11-01

    Human movement containing deception about the true outcome is thought to be perceived differently compared to the non-deceptive version. Exaggeration in the movement is thought to change the perceiver's mode of functioning from an invariant to a cue-based mode. We tested these ideas by examining anticipation in skilled and less skilled soccer players while they viewed temporally occluded (-240 ms, -160 ms, -80 ms, 0 ms, +80 ms) deceptive, non-deceptive, and non-deceptive-exaggerated penalty kicks. Kinematic analyses were used to ascertain that the kicking actions differed across conditions. The accuracy of judging the direction of an opponent's kick as well as response confidence were recorded. Players were over confident when anticipating deceptive penalty kicks compared to non-deceptive kicks, suggesting a cue-based mode was used. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between less skilled players' confidence ratings and their accuracy 80 ms before ball-foot contact in the deceptive and non-deceptive-exaggerated conditions, but not the non-deceptive condition. Because both deceptive and non-deceptive-exaggerated kicks contained exaggeration, results suggest exaggerated movements in the kickers' action at 80 ms before ball-foot contact explains why a cue-based mode prevails when anticipating deceptive kicks at this time point.

  1. Exaggerated perception of facial expressions is increased in individuals with schizotypal traits.

    PubMed

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions are indispensable communicative tools, and social interactions involving facial expressions are impaired in some psychiatric disorders. Recent studies revealed that the perception of dynamic facial expressions was exaggerated in normal participants, and this exaggerated perception is weakened in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on the notion that ASD and schizophrenia spectrum disorder are at two extremes of the continuum with respect to social impairment, we hypothesized that schizophrenic characteristics would strengthen the exaggerated perception of dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the perception of facial expressions and schizotypal traits in a normal population. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions, and asked participants to change an emotional face display to match the perceived final image. The presence of schizotypal traits was positively correlated with the degree of exaggeration for dynamic, as well as static, facial expressions. Among its subscales, the paranoia trait was positively correlated with the exaggerated perception of facial expressions. These results suggest that schizotypal traits, specifically the tendency to over-attribute mental states to others, exaggerate the perception of emotional facial expressions.

  2. Exaggerated perception of facial expressions is increased in individuals with schizotypal traits

    PubMed Central

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions are indispensable communicative tools, and social interactions involving facial expressions are impaired in some psychiatric disorders. Recent studies revealed that the perception of dynamic facial expressions was exaggerated in normal participants, and this exaggerated perception is weakened in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on the notion that ASD and schizophrenia spectrum disorder are at two extremes of the continuum with respect to social impairment, we hypothesized that schizophrenic characteristics would strengthen the exaggerated perception of dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the perception of facial expressions and schizotypal traits in a normal population. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions, and asked participants to change an emotional face display to match the perceived final image. The presence of schizotypal traits was positively correlated with the degree of exaggeration for dynamic, as well as static, facial expressions. Among its subscales, the paranoia trait was positively correlated with the exaggerated perception of facial expressions. These results suggest that schizotypal traits, specifically the tendency to over-attribute mental states to others, exaggerate the perception of emotional facial expressions. PMID:26135081

  3. Evaluating a Surprising Claim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    2013-11-01

    A television advertisement and a website present an interesting question: can rail company CSX really move a ton of freight 468 miles on a gallon of fuel, or is the claim preposterous? Let us examine the claim, first by understanding what is meant, looking at their data, and then converting units to examine the claim quantitatively.

  4. Evaluating a Surprising Claim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    A television advertisement and a website present an interesting question: can rail company CSX "really" move a ton of freight 468 miles on a gallon of fuel, or is the claim preposterous? Let us examine the claim, first by understanding what is meant, looking at their data, and then converting units to examine the claim quantitatively.

  5. Phonological theory informs the analysis of intonational exaggeration in Japanese infant-directed speech.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken'ya; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-08-01

    To date, the intonation of infant-directed speech (IDS) has been analyzed without reference to its phonological structure. Intonational phonology should, however, inform IDS research, discovering important properties that have previously been overlooked. The present study investigated "intonational exaggeration" in Japanese IDS using the intonational phonological framework. Although intonational exaggeration, which is most often measured by pitch-range expansion, is one of the best-known characteristics of IDS, Japanese has been reported to lack such exaggeration. The present results demonstrated that intonational exaggeration is in fact present and observed most notably at the location of boundary pitch movements, and that the effects of lexical pitch accents in the remainder of the utterances superficially mask the exaggeration. These results not only reveal dynamic aspects of Japanese IDS, but also in turn contribute to the theory of intonational phonology, suggesting that paralinguistic pitch-range modifications most clearly emerge where the intonation system of a language allows maximum flexibility in varying intonational contours.

  6. Phonological theory informs the analysis of intonational exaggeration in Japanese infant-directed speech.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken'ya; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-08-01

    To date, the intonation of infant-directed speech (IDS) has been analyzed without reference to its phonological structure. Intonational phonology should, however, inform IDS research, discovering important properties that have previously been overlooked. The present study investigated "intonational exaggeration" in Japanese IDS using the intonational phonological framework. Although intonational exaggeration, which is most often measured by pitch-range expansion, is one of the best-known characteristics of IDS, Japanese has been reported to lack such exaggeration. The present results demonstrated that intonational exaggeration is in fact present and observed most notably at the location of boundary pitch movements, and that the effects of lexical pitch accents in the remainder of the utterances superficially mask the exaggeration. These results not only reveal dynamic aspects of Japanese IDS, but also in turn contribute to the theory of intonational phonology, suggesting that paralinguistic pitch-range modifications most clearly emerge where the intonation system of a language allows maximum flexibility in varying intonational contours. PMID:23927126

  7. Dirac's Claim and the Chemists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, Ana

    In 1929 Paul A. M. Dirac claimed that ``the underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of ... the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble.'' This sentence of Dirac's is cited frequently by historians and philosophers of chemistry in the context of discussions on the hypothetical reduction of chemistry to physics. But how did chemists themselves react to Dirac's claim? Did they feel threatened by physicists who felt they could do their job better than themselves? Did they feel indifferent, or did they simply not care? Was Dirac's paper often cited by chemists? Why was it cited? In this paper, I provide answers to these questions on the basis of an analysis of citations to Dirac's 1929 paper in the Science Citation Index.

  8. A Critical Analysis of Claims and Their Authenticity in Indian Drug Promotional Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Singh, Navyug Raj; Rai, Jaswant; Kaur, Gobindnoor; Kashyap, Resham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Drug promotional advertisements (DPAs) form a major marketing technique of pharmaceutical companies for promoting their products and disseminating ambiguous drug information which can affect prescribing pattern of physicians. Drug information includes product characteristics, various marketing claims with references in support to increase its credibility and authenticity. Material and Methods. An observational study was carried out on fifty printed drug advertisement brochures which were collected from different OPDs of Guru Nanak Dev Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. These advertisements were analyzed and claims were categorized into true, false, exaggerated, vague, and controversial on criteria as reported by Rohraa et al. (2006). References of DPAs in support of the claims were critically analyzed for their retrievability from web and validity pertaining to claims. Results. Out of 209 claims from 50 advertisements, only 46% were found to be true, 21% false, 16% vague, 7% exaggerated, and 10% controversial in nature. Out of 160 references given in support of claims, 49 (30%) of references were irretrievable. Out of 111 (70%) retrievable references, 92 (83%) references were found valid. Conclusion. Drug information provided in the DPAs was biased, incomplete, unauthentic, and unreliable with references exhibiting questionable credibility. PMID:26556557

  9. A Critical Analysis of Claims and Their Authenticity in Indian Drug Promotional Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Singh, Navyug Raj; Rai, Jaswant; Kaur, Gobindnoor; Kashyap, Resham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Drug promotional advertisements (DPAs) form a major marketing technique of pharmaceutical companies for promoting their products and disseminating ambiguous drug information which can affect prescribing pattern of physicians. Drug information includes product characteristics, various marketing claims with references in support to increase its credibility and authenticity. Material and Methods. An observational study was carried out on fifty printed drug advertisement brochures which were collected from different OPDs of Guru Nanak Dev Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. These advertisements were analyzed and claims were categorized into true, false, exaggerated, vague, and controversial on criteria as reported by Rohraa et al. (2006). References of DPAs in support of the claims were critically analyzed for their retrievability from web and validity pertaining to claims. Results. Out of 209 claims from 50 advertisements, only 46% were found to be true, 21% false, 16% vague, 7% exaggerated, and 10% controversial in nature. Out of 160 references given in support of claims, 49 (30%) of references were irretrievable. Out of 111 (70%) retrievable references, 92 (83%) references were found valid. Conclusion. Drug information provided in the DPAs was biased, incomplete, unauthentic, and unreliable with references exhibiting questionable credibility. PMID:26556557

  10. A Critical Analysis of Claims and Their Authenticity in Indian Drug Promotional Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Singh, Navyug Raj; Rai, Jaswant; Kaur, Gobindnoor; Kashyap, Resham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Drug promotional advertisements (DPAs) form a major marketing technique of pharmaceutical companies for promoting their products and disseminating ambiguous drug information which can affect prescribing pattern of physicians. Drug information includes product characteristics, various marketing claims with references in support to increase its credibility and authenticity. Material and Methods. An observational study was carried out on fifty printed drug advertisement brochures which were collected from different OPDs of Guru Nanak Dev Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. These advertisements were analyzed and claims were categorized into true, false, exaggerated, vague, and controversial on criteria as reported by Rohraa et al. (2006). References of DPAs in support of the claims were critically analyzed for their retrievability from web and validity pertaining to claims. Results. Out of 209 claims from 50 advertisements, only 46% were found to be true, 21% false, 16% vague, 7% exaggerated, and 10% controversial in nature. Out of 160 references given in support of claims, 49 (30%) of references were irretrievable. Out of 111 (70%) retrievable references, 92 (83%) references were found valid. Conclusion. Drug information provided in the DPAs was biased, incomplete, unauthentic, and unreliable with references exhibiting questionable credibility.

  11. State Your Claim!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers relates a young couple's experience in learning about small claims court through an incident involving damage to the husband's leather jacket. The damage to the jacket occurred when it was left at a dry clearner, but the dry cleaner claims that it sent the jacket to a special cleaner that handles…

  12. Claim and Continuous Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulová, Iveta; Meravá, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    The claim will always represent the kind of information that is annoying to recipients. Systematic work with claims has a positive value for the company. Addressing the complaint has a positive effect on continuous improvement. This paper was worked out with the support of VEGA No.1/0229/08 Perspectives of quality management development in coherence with requirements of Slovak republic market.

  13. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  14. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129... Justice § 536.129 Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. Claims cognizable under Article 139, UCMJ, are limited... person to liability under Article 139, the soldier's conduct must be such as would constitute a...

  15. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129 Section... § 536.129 Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. Claims cognizable under Article 139, UCMJ, are limited to... to liability under Article 139, the soldier's conduct must be such as would constitute a violation...

  16. Processing dental claims electronically.

    PubMed

    Mylan, V

    1996-01-01

    A reduction of healthcare costs is an important part of the reform our society is demanding. We cannot ignore this. Lowering administrative costs is a particularly good way to reduce health care expenditures since this decreases the cost without compromising the quality of services. Implementing an EDI structure for submitting claims and receiving claim remittance advice is one way to significantly reduce the cost of health care by lowering administrative costs. EDI allows the consumer to receive the same level of health care at a lower cost. To accomplish this goal, the industry must accept some standardization. While providers, dental software vendors, and clearinghouses request an electronic claims system that is uniform-payers (insurance companies, State-administered Medicaid programs, etc.) often insist on proprietary formats that fit their own requirements. This impedes the implementation of a successful electronic interchange of data. Under the leadership of the Canadian Dental Association, payers and dentists in Canada were able to create a superior electronic claim processing network, CDAnet. Providers and payers using CDAnet agree that the system works very well. The Canadian dentist does not pay for this service, and insurance companies benefit significantly. Dentists in the USA do not have a universal electronic claim processing network. A USA dentist who wants to send claims electronically has limited selections and often pays additional fees. Organized dentistry has the best opportunity of establishing electronic data interchange between providers and payers in the USA. The first step is creating a universal electronic claim processing system. This system must protect confidentiality by maintaining data that keeps anonymous provider and patient data. It is the dentist who produces the claim. Dentists must become involved in the decisions affecting electronic claim processing. The proper guidance from organized dentistry will enable providers, payers

  17. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    PubMed

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures.

  18. Science Denial and the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Biology teachers are accustomed to engaging individuals who do not accept biological evolution. Denial of evolution ranges from ignorance of the evidence to outright denial or distortion of data. The list of science denial topics has grown alarmingly over the years to include: HIV as the cause of AIDS, exaggeration of the health and environmental…

  19. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  20. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  1. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  2. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  3. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  4. Receiver bias for exaggerated signals in honeybees and its implications for the evolution of floral displays.

    PubMed

    Naug, Dhruba; Arathi, H S

    2007-12-22

    Mechanistic models of animal signals posit the occurrence of biases on the part of receivers that could be potentially exploited by signallers. Such biases are most obvious when animals are confronted with exaggerated versions of signals they normally encounter. Signalling systems operating in plant-pollinator interactions are among the most highly coevolved, with plants using a variety of floral signals to attract pollinators. A number of observations suggest that pollinators preferentially visit larger floral displays although the benefit of this to either the plant or the pollinator is not always clear. We use a standard dual-choice experimental protocol to show that honeybees display a receiver bias for exaggerated size and colour contrast--two important components of floral signals--even when such signals do not indicate quality. We discuss the implications of this receiver bias for the evolution of floral displays and its possible exploitation by invading alien plants.

  5. The Moral Stereotypes of Liberals and Conservatives: Exaggeration of Differences across the Political Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the moral stereotypes political liberals and conservatives have of themselves and each other. In reality, liberals endorse the individual-focused moral concerns of compassion and fairness more than conservatives do, and conservatives endorse the group-focused moral concerns of ingroup loyalty, respect for authorities and traditions, and physical/spiritual purity more than liberals do. 2,212 U.S. participants filled out the Moral Foundations Questionnaire with their own answers, or as a typical liberal or conservative would answer. Across the political spectrum, moral stereotypes about “typical” liberals and conservatives correctly reflected the direction of actual differences in foundation endorsement but exaggerated the magnitude of these differences. Contrary to common theories of stereotyping, the moral stereotypes were not simple underestimations of the political outgroup's morality. Both liberals and conservatives exaggerated the ideological extremity of moral concerns for the ingroup as well as the outgroup. Liberals were least accurate about both groups. PMID:23251357

  6. Clinically relevant exaggerated pharmacodynamic response to dual antiplatelet therapy detected by Thromboelastogram® Platelet Mapping™

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Kenneth N.

    2016-01-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is the standard of care for primary and secondary prevention strategies in patients with coronary artery disease after stenting. Current guidelines recommend that DAPT be continued for 12 months in patients after receiving drug eluting stents. Approximately 5% of these patients will present within this 12-month period for noncardiac surgery. This case report describes a clinically relevant exaggerated pharmacodynamic response to DAPT detected by preoperative assessment of platelet function. Based on the clinical history and physical exam and subsequent lab results, a general anesthetic was performed rather than a spinal anesthetic and the surgical procedure was changed. An exaggerated pharmacodynamic response to DAPT poses its own set of risks (unexpected uncontrolled bleeding, epidural hematoma following neuraxial block placement) that point-of-care aggregation testing may decrease or mitigate by altering clinical decision making. If the clinical history and physical exam reveal possible platelet dysfunction in patients receiving DAPT, preoperative platelet function testing should be considered. PMID:27006555

  7. The moral stereotypes of liberals and conservatives: exaggeration of differences across the political spectrum.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A; Haidt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the moral stereotypes political liberals and conservatives have of themselves and each other. In reality, liberals endorse the individual-focused moral concerns of compassion and fairness more than conservatives do, and conservatives endorse the group-focused moral concerns of ingroup loyalty, respect for authorities and traditions, and physical/spiritual purity more than liberals do. 2,212 U.S. participants filled out the Moral Foundations Questionnaire with their own answers, or as a typical liberal or conservative would answer. Across the political spectrum, moral stereotypes about "typical" liberals and conservatives correctly reflected the direction of actual differences in foundation endorsement but exaggerated the magnitude of these differences. Contrary to common theories of stereotyping, the moral stereotypes were not simple underestimations of the political outgroup's morality. Both liberals and conservatives exaggerated the ideological extremity of moral concerns for the ingroup as well as the outgroup. Liberals were least accurate about both groups. PMID:23251357

  8. A general mechanism for conditional expression of exaggerated sexually-selected traits.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ian A; Gotoh, Hiroki; Dworkin, Ian M; Emlen, Douglas J; Lavine, Laura C

    2013-10-01

    Sexually-selected exaggerated traits tend to be unusually reliable signals of individual condition, as their expression tends to be more sensitive to nutritional history and physiological circumstance than that of other phenotypes. As such, these traits are the foundation for many models of sexual selection and animal communication, such as "handicap" and "good genes" models. Exactly how expression of these traits is linked to the bearer's condition has been a central yet unresolved question, in part because the underlying physiological mechanisms regulating their development have remained largely unknown. Recent discoveries across animals as diverse as deer, beetles, and flies now implicate the widely conserved insulin-like signaling pathway, as a common physiological mechanism regulating condition-sensitive structures with extreme growth. This raises the exciting possibility that one highly conserved pathway may underlie the evolution of trait exaggeration in a multitude of sexually-selected signal traits across the animal kingdom.

  9. The Earliest Case of Extreme Sexual Display with Exaggerated Male Organs by Two Middle Jurassic Mecopterans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Many extant male animals exhibit exaggerated body parts for display, defense or offence in sexual selection, such as male birds of paradise showing off colorful and elegant feathers and male moose and reindeers bearing large structured antlers. For insects, male rhinoceros and stag beetles have huge horn-like structure for fighting and competition and some male Leptopanorpa scorpionflies have very long abdominal terminal segments for sexual display and competition. Fossil records of insects having exaggerated body parts for sexual display are fairly rare. One example is two male holcorpids with elongate abdominal segments from sixth (A6) to eighth (A8) and enlarged male genitalia from Eocene, suggesting evolution of these characters occurred fairly late. Principal Findings We document two mecopterans with exaggerated male body parts from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in northeastern China. Both have extremely extended abdominal segments from A6 to A8 and enlarged genitalia, which might have been used for sexual display and, to less extent, for fighting with other males in the competition for mates. Although Fortiholcorpa paradoxa gen. et sp. nov. and Miriholcorpa forcipata gen. et sp. nov. seem to have affinities with Holcorpidae, we deem both as Family Incertae sedis mainly due to significant differences in branching pattern of Media (M) veins and relative length of A8 for F. paradoxa, and indiscernible preservation of 5-branched M veins in hind wing for M. forcipata. Conclusions/Significance These two new taxa have extended the records of exaggerated male body parts of mecopterans for sexual display and/or selection from the Early Eocene to the late Middle Jurassic. The similar character present in some Leptopanorpa of Panorpidae suggests that the sexual display and/or sexual selection due to extremely elongated male abdominal and sexual organs outweigh the negative impact of bulky body and poor mobility in the evolutionary process

  10. Exaggerated trait allometry, compensation and trade-offs in the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis).

    PubMed

    Painting, Christina J; Holwell, Gregory I

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection has driven the evolution of exaggerated traits among diverse animal taxa. The production of exaggerated traits can come at a cost to other traits through trade-offs when resources allocated to trait development are limited. Alternatively some traits can be selected for in parallel to support or compensate for the cost of bearing the exaggerated trait. Male giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis) display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during contests for mates. Here we characterise the scaling relationship between rostrum and body size and show that males have a steep positive allometry, but that the slope is non-linear due to a relative reduction in rostrum length for the largest males, suggesting a limitation in resource allocation or a diminishing requirement for large males to invest increasingly into larger rostra. We also measured testes, wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia size and found no evidence of a trade-off between these traits and rostrum length when comparing phenotypic correlations. However, the relative length of wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia all increased with relative rostrum length suggesting these traits may be under correlational selection. Increased investment in wing and leg length is therefore likely to compensate for the costs of flying with, and wielding the exaggerated rostrum of larger male giraffe weevils. These results provide a first step in identifying the potential for trait compensation and trades-offs, but are phenotypic correlations only and should be interpreted with care in the absence of breeding experiments. PMID:24312425

  11. The claim from adoption.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Thomas Sobirk

    2002-08-01

    In this article several justifications of what I call 'the claim from adoption' are examined. The claim from adoption is that, instead of expending resources on bringing new children into the world using reproductive technology and then caring for these children, we ought to devote these resources to the adoption and care of existing destitute children. Arguments trading on the idea that resources should be directed to adoption instead of assisted reproduction because already existing people can benefit from such a use of resources whereas we cannot benefit individuals by bringing them into existence are rejected. It is then argued that a utilitarian argument proposed by Christian Munthe that supports the claim from adoption in some situations should be rejected because the support it offers does not extend to certain situations in which it seems morally obvious that resources should be expended on adoption rather than assisted reproduction. A version of the Priority View improves upon Munthe's utilitarianism by supporting the claim from adoption in the cases in which Munthe's argument failed. Some allegedly counterintuitive implications of the Priority View are then discussed, and it is concluded that the Priority View is more plausible than utilitarianism. In a concluding section on policy issues it is argued that, even though the claim from adoption can be justified in a variety of situations, it does not follow that, in these situations, governments should direct resources away from assisted reproduction and towards adoption.

  12. Multiple exaggerated weapon morphs: a novel form of male polymorphism in harvestmen

    PubMed Central

    Painting, Christina J.; Probert, Anna F.; Townsend, Daniel J.; Holwell, Gregory I.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics in animals are commonly associated with distinct male phenotypes resulting in polymorphism of sexually selected weapons such as horns and spines. Typically, morphs are divided between small (unarmed) and large (armed) males according to one or more developmental thresholds in association with body size. Here, we describe remarkable weapon trimorphism within a single species, where two exaggerated weapon morphs and a third morph with reduced weaponry are present. Male Pantopsalis cheliferoides harvestmen display exaggerated chelicerae (jaws) which are highly variable in length among individuals. Across the same body size spectrum, however, some males belong to a distinct second exaggerated morph which possesses short, broad chelicerae. Multiple weapon morphs in a single species is a previously unknown phenomenon and our findings have significant implications for understanding weapon diversity and maintenance of polymorphism. Specifically, this species will be a valuable model for testing how weapons diverge by being able to test directly for the circumstances under which a certain weapon type is favoured and how weapon shape relates to performance. PMID:26542456

  13. Perceived azimuth direction is exaggerated: Converging evidence from explicit and implicit measures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that perceived visual direction in the sagittal plane (angular direction in elevation, both upward and downward from eye level) is exaggerated. Foley, Ribeiro-Filho, and Da Silva's (2004) study of perceived size of exocentric ground extent implies that perceived angular direction in azimuth may also be exaggerated. In the present study, we directly examined whether perceived azimuth direction is overestimated. In Experiment 1, numeric estimates of azimuth direction (−48° to 48° relative to straight ahead) were obtained. The results showed a linear exaggeration in perceived azimuth direction with a gain of about 1.26. In Experiment 2, a perceptual extent-matching task served as an implicit measure of perceived azimuth direction. Participants matched an egocentric distance in one direction to a frontal extent in nearly the opposite direction. The angular biases implied by the matching data well replicated Foley et al.'s finding and were also fairly consistent with the azimuth bias function found in Experiment 1, although a slight overall shift was observed between the results of the two experiments. Experiment 3, in which half the observers were tilted sideways while making frontal/depth extent comparisons, suggested that the discrepancy between the results of Experiment 1 and 2 can partially be explained by a retinal horizontal vertical illusion affecting distance estimation tasks. Overall the present study provides converging evidence to suggest that the perception of azimuth direction is overestimated. PMID:26756174

  14. Perceived azimuth direction is exaggerated: Converging evidence from explicit and implicit measures.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that perceived visual direction in the sagittal plane (angular direction in elevation, both upward and downward from eye level) is exaggerated. Foley, Ribeiro-Filho, and Da Silva's (2004) study of perceived size of exocentric ground extent implies that perceived angular direction in azimuth may also be exaggerated. In the present study, we directly examined whether perceived azimuth direction is overestimated. In Experiment 1, numeric estimates of azimuth direction (-48° to 48° relative to straight ahead) were obtained. The results showed a linear exaggeration in perceived azimuth direction with a gain of about 1.26. In Experiment 2, a perceptual extent-matching task served as an implicit measure of perceived azimuth direction. Participants matched an egocentric distance in one direction to a frontal extent in nearly the opposite direction. The angular biases implied by the matching data well replicated Foley et al.'s finding and were also fairly consistent with the azimuth bias function found in Experiment 1, although a slight overall shift was observed between the results of the two experiments. Experiment 3, in which half the observers were tilted sideways while making frontal/depth extent comparisons, suggested that the discrepancy between the results of Experiment 1 and 2 can partially be explained by a retinal horizontal vertical illusion affecting distance estimation tasks. Overall the present study provides converging evidence to suggest that the perception of azimuth direction is overestimated. PMID:26756174

  15. Multiple exaggerated weapon morphs: a novel form of male polymorphism in harvestmen.

    PubMed

    Painting, Christina J; Probert, Anna F; Townsend, Daniel J; Holwell, Gregory I

    2015-11-06

    Alternative reproductive tactics in animals are commonly associated with distinct male phenotypes resulting in polymorphism of sexually selected weapons such as horns and spines. Typically, morphs are divided between small (unarmed) and large (armed) males according to one or more developmental thresholds in association with body size. Here, we describe remarkable weapon trimorphism within a single species, where two exaggerated weapon morphs and a third morph with reduced weaponry are present. Male Pantopsalis cheliferoides harvestmen display exaggerated chelicerae (jaws) which are highly variable in length among individuals. Across the same body size spectrum, however, some males belong to a distinct second exaggerated morph which possesses short, broad chelicerae. Multiple weapon morphs in a single species is a previously unknown phenomenon and our findings have significant implications for understanding weapon diversity and maintenance of polymorphism. Specifically, this species will be a valuable model for testing how weapons diverge by being able to test directly for the circumstances under which a certain weapon type is favoured and how weapon shape relates to performance.

  16. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... if the claim is cognizable under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2677). (c) A claim for damage... Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.41 Allowable claims. (a)(1) A claim for damage...

  17. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    PubMed

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures. PMID:27217574

  18. Skeptical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan J.; Barnhart, Carolyn M.; Parejko, Ken S.; Schultz, Forrest S.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the legitimacy of teaching about astrology, extrasensory perception, UFOs, touch therapy, cloning dinosaurs, or any other unusual claims in the classroom. Suggests that bringing unusual claims to the science classroom is an opportunity to motivate students in the principles of scientific thought. (SAH)

  19. The role of exaggerated patellar tendon reflex in knee joint position sense in patients with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Manikowska, Faustyna; Chen, Brian Po-Jung; Jóźwiak, Marek; Lebiedowska, Maria K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine if exaggerated patellar tendon jerk affects knee joint position sense (JPS) in cerebral palsy (CP) patients, by comparing JPS of the knee between participants with normal and exaggerated reflexes. The thresholds for reflex classification were based upon the data from able-bodied volunteers. JPS was measured as the ability of a subject (with eyes closed) to replicate a knee joint position demonstrated by an examiner. Tendon jerk was measured as the moment of force in response to patellar tendon taps. Data was collected from 27 limbs of CP patients (N=14) and 36 limbs of able-bodied volunteers (N=18). JPS was less accurate (p=0.014) in limbs with non-exaggerated reflexes (50.28±43.63%) than in control limbs (11.84±10.85%). There was no significant difference (p=0.08) in JPS accuracy between limbs with exaggerated reflexes (18.66±15.50%) and control limbs. Our data suggests that one component of sensorimotor impairment, JPS, is not as commonly affected in CP patients as previously reported. JPS of the knee is reduced in limbs with non-exaggerated reflexes; however in limbs with exaggerated reflexes which is seen in the majority of CP patients, JPS is not affected.

  20. Diagnostic Value of Electrocardiogram in Predicting Exaggerated Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Testing

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Ali; Ebdali, Reyhaneh Takalloo; Sajjadi, Seyed Sajed; Golnezhad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is believed that an exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) to exercise stress test is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. It is also assumed that QT dispersion (QT-d), which was originally proposed to measure the spatial dispersion of ventricular recovery times, may have a relationship to cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to examine the difference of changes in QT-d, Maxi-QT, Mini-QT, and QT-c (corrected QT interval) of the electrocardiogram in two groups of patients with exaggerated blood pressure responses (EBPR group) and normal responses (control group) to exercise testing. Also, the diagnostic value of each of these criteria in the prediction of EBPR was studied. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to February 2016 on patients suspected of coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing exercise testing who had been referred to Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad (Iran). All patients underwent a treadmill exercise test with the 12-lead ECG, which was optically scanned and digitized for analysis of QT-d, QT max, and QT min. Patients were divided into two groups of normal and EBPR to exercise testing. QT changes of ECG were compared between the two groups, and the diagnostic accuracy of QT variables for prediction of EBPR to exercise testing was studied. A multiple linear regression analysis (MLR), Pearson Chi-qquare, independent samples t-test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used as statistical methods in IBM SPSS version 19. Results Sixty patients (55% male) with a mean age of 50.48 ± 10.89 years were studied in two groups of normal (n=30) and exaggerated blood pressure response (n=30) to exercise testing. Maximum QT and QT dispersion were statistically different in individuals’ exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise stress test (p < 0.05). The logistic regression analysis revealed that none of our parameters predicted the EBPR. The ROC

  1. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  2. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  3. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  4. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  5. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  6. 32 CFR 750.6 - Claims: Presentment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incident from which the claim arose. The Claim for Damage or Injury, Standard Form 95, shall be used whenever practical for claims under the Federal Tort and Military Claims Acts. Claims under the Personnel... the same incident, each person shall file a claim separately. 2 The Claim for Damage or...

  7. 32 CFR 750.6 - Claims: Presentment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incident from which the claim arose. The Claim for Damage or Injury, Standard Form 95, shall be used whenever practical for claims under the Federal Tort and Military Claims Acts. Claims under the Personnel... the same incident, each person shall file a claim separately. 2 The Claim for Damage or...

  8. 32 CFR 750.6 - Claims: Presentment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incident from which the claim arose. The Claim for Damage or Injury, Standard Form 95, shall be used whenever practical for claims under the Federal Tort and Military Claims Acts. Claims under the Personnel... the same incident, each person shall file a claim separately. 2 The Claim for Damage or...

  9. 32 CFR 750.6 - Claims: Presentment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incident from which the claim arose. The Claim for Damage or Injury, Standard Form 95, shall be used whenever practical for claims under the Federal Tort and Military Claims Acts. Claims under the Personnel... the same incident, each person shall file a claim separately. 2 The Claim for Damage or...

  10. Exaggerated object affordance and absent automatic inhibition in alien hand syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Jennifer; Sumner, Petroc; Jackson, Stephen R.; Bajaj, Nin; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Patients with alien hand syndrome (AHS) experience making apparently deliberate and purposeful movements with their hand against their will. However, the mechanisms contributing to these involuntary actions remain poorly understood. Here, we describe two experimental investigations in a patient with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with alien hand behaviour in her right hand. First, we show that responses with the alien hand are made significantly more quickly to images of objects which afford an action with that hand compared to objects which afford an action with the unaffected hand. This finding suggests that involuntary grasping behaviours in AHS might be due to exaggerated, automatic motor activation evoked by objects which afford actions with that limb. Second, using a backwards masked priming task, we found normal automatic inhibition of primed responses in the patient's unaffected hand, but importantly there was no evidence of such suppression in the alien limb. Taken together, these findings suggest that grasping behaviours in AHS may result from exaggerated object affordance effects, which might potentially arise from disrupted inhibition of automatically evoked responses. PMID:23433243

  11. Exaggerated displays do not improve mounting success in male seaweed flies Fucellia tergina (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Memmott, Ruth; Briffa, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Signals of individual quality are assumed to be difficult to exaggerate, either because they are directly linked to underlying traits (indices) or because they are costly to perform (handicaps). In practise advertisement displays may consist of conventional and costly components, for instance where a morphological structure related to body size is used in visual displays. In this case, there is the potential for dishonest displays, due to the population level variance around the relationship between body size and display structures. We examine the use of wing flicking displays that we observed in situ in a strandline dwelling seaweed fly Fucellia tergina, using overall body size and the size of their eyes as underlying indicators of condition. Males displayed far more frequently than females, and were also observed to frequently mount other flies, a behaviour that was rare in females. The rate of display was greater for males that had positive residual values from relationships between wing length and body length. In other words those males with larger than expected wings for their underlying quality displayed more frequently, indicating that these displays are open to exaggeration. Males with larger than expected wings (for the size of their body or eyes), however, mounted less frequently. We suggest that small bodied males are less successful in terms of mounting, but that those small males with relatively large wings may attempt to compensate for this through increased display effort.

  12. Dominant tree species are at risk from exaggerated drought under climate change.

    PubMed

    Fensham, Roderick J; Fraser, Josie; MacDermott, Harry J; Firn, Jenifer

    2015-10-01

    Predicting the consequences of climate change on forest systems is difficult because trees may display species-specific responses to exaggerated droughts that may not be reflected by the climatic envelope of their geographic range. Furthermore, few studies have examined the postdrought recovery potential of drought-susceptible tree species. This study develops a robust ranking of the drought susceptibility of 21 tree species based on their mortality after two droughts (1990s and 2000s) in the savanna of north-eastern Australia. Drought-induced mortality was positively related to species dominance, negatively related to the ratio of postdrought seedlings to adults and had no relationship to the magnitude of extreme drought within the species current geographic ranges. These results suggest that predicting the consequences of exaggerated drought on species' geographic ranges is difficult, but that dominant species like Eucalyptus with relatively slow rates of population recovery and dispersal are the most susceptible. The implications for savanna ecosystems are lower tree densities and basal area.

  13. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder.

  14. The Academy of Sciences stakes a claim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The establishment of the National Committe for the International Geophysical year is described. Post-war development of the 1950's in the areas of upper atmosphere research reviewed and included: the further development of satellites; sounding rocket research; and the launching of the Sputnik Satellites.

  15. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  16. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  17. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  18. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  19. 32 CFR 536.84 - Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.84 Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) General. This subpart applies in...

  20. 32 CFR 536.85 - Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.85 Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) Unless otherwise prescribed, claims...

  1. 32 CFR 536.85 - Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.85 Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) Unless otherwise prescribed, claims...

  2. 32 CFR 536.84 - Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.84 Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) General. This subpart applies in...

  3. 32 CFR 536.84 - Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.84 Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) General. This subpart applies in...

  4. 32 CFR 536.85 - Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.85 Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) Unless otherwise prescribed, claims...

  5. Simulated paraphilias: a preliminary study of patients who imitate or exaggerate paraphilic symptoms and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, J P; Hanson, A; McGuire, M; Malin, H M; Berlin, F S

    1992-05-01

    In a consecutive series of admissions to the Johns Hopkins Sexual Disorders Unit, 4 out of 20 patients appeared to have simulated paraphilic symptoms that further assessment indicated were either exaggerated or not present. The paper presents case histories of these 4 patients. A descriptive comparison is made between these patients and control groups of patients who admitted having paraphilic symptoms and a group of patients accused of having paraphilic symptoms but who denied them. Patients who simulated paraphilias tended to be self-referred (75%) and without current legal charges (100%). None of these patients was referred or sought treatment for pedophilia, in contrast to the other two patient groups, in which pedophilia accounted for 75% of the referrals. Several possible explanations for why patients might simulate paraphilias and implications for therapists who evaluate or treat sex offenders are discussed.

  6. The Rey AVLT Serial Position Effect: a useful indicator of symptom exaggeration?

    PubMed

    Powell, Matthew R; Gfeller, Jeffrey D; Oliveri, Michael V; Stanton, Shannon; Hendricks, Bryan

    2004-08-01

    This investigation explored the usefulness of serial position patterns during word recall on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; Rey, 1964) as an indicator of poor effort. Significantly better recall for early (primacy) and recent (recency) material defines the serial position effect (SPE; Rundus, 1971). The SPE on the RAVLT was examined in four groups: normal controls (NC), symptom-coached simulators (SC), test-coached simulators (TC), and a group of moderate to severe subacute traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Normal control participants and TBI patients demonstrated the expected SPE. Only the SC simulators clearly suppressed the primacy effect. The SPE appears neither sensitive nor specific enough to be used independently of more sensitive symptom validity tests in the detection of suboptimal effort. It may be especially problematic when used with clients presenting with sophisticated styles of exaggeration and in settings with lower base rates of compromised effort.

  7. A sex difference in facial contrast and its exaggeration by cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates the existence of a sex difference in facial contrast. By measuring carefully controlled photographic images, female faces were shown to have greater luminance contrast between the eyes, lips, and the surrounding skin than did male faces. This sex difference in facial contrast was found to influence the perception of facial gender. An androgynous face can be made to appear female by increasing the facial contrast, or to appear male by decreasing the facial contrast. Application of cosmetics was found to consistently increase facial contrast. Female faces wearing cosmetics had greater facial contrast than the same faces not wearing cosmetics. Female facial beauty is known to be closely linked to sex differences, with femininity considered attractive. These results suggest that cosmetics may function in part by exaggerating a sexually dimorphic attribute-facial contrast-to make the face appear more feminine and hence attractive.

  8. Exaggerated NT-proBNP production in patients with hematologic malignancies: a case series.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Aileen; Guglin, Maya

    2012-01-01

    ©2011 Wiley Periodicals Inc. Extremely elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in cancer patients is a poorly understood phenomenon. The authors report three cases of patients with hematologic malignancies and serial N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) measurements with values in the range of tens to hundred thousands pg/mL. Through matching NT-proBNP results with clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic and radiologic data, the authors found that these patients demonstrated exaggerated responses to fluid overload. Patients with hematologic malignancies may have higher than expected values of NT-proBNP in response to hypervolemic states. The authors hypothesize that this may be related to possible infiltration of the myocardium by substances produced in the setting of these diseases or due to proteins interfering with the assay.Congest Heart Fail. PMID:23167814

  9. British English infants segment words only with exaggerated infant-directed speech stimuli.

    PubMed

    Floccia, Caroline; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; DePaolis, Rory; Duffy, Hester; Delle Luche, Claire; Durrant, Samantha; White, Laurence; Goslin, Jeremy; Vihman, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The word segmentation paradigm originally designed by Jusczyk and Aslin (1995) has been widely used to examine how infants from the age of 7.5 months can extract novel words from continuous speech. Here we report a series of 13 studies conducted independently in two British laboratories, showing that British English-learning infants aged 8-10.5 months fail to show evidence of word segmentation when tested in this paradigm. In only one study did we find evidence of word segmentation at 10.5 months, when we used an exaggerated infant-directed speech style. We discuss the impact of variations in infant-directed style within and across languages in the course of language acquisition.

  10. The oestrogen pathway underlies the evolution of exaggerated male cranial shapes in Anolis lizards

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, Thomas J.; Seav, Susan M.; Tokita, Masayoshi; Langerhans, R. Brian; Ross, Lela M.; Losos, Jonathan B.; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms vary widely among species. This variation must arise through sex-specific evolutionary modifications to developmental processes. Anolis lizards vary extensively in their expression of cranial dimorphism. Compared with other Anolis species, members of the carolinensis clade have evolved relatively high levels of cranial dimorphism; males of this clade have exceptionally long faces relative to conspecific females. Developmentally, this facial length dimorphism arises through an evolutionarily novel, clade-specific strategy. Our analyses herein reveal that sex-specific regulation of the oestrogen pathway underlies evolution of this exaggerated male phenotype, rather than the androgen or insulin growth factor pathways that have long been considered the primary regulators of male-biased dimorphism among vertebrates. Our results suggest greater intricacy in the genetic mechanisms that underlie sexual dimorphisms than previously appreciated. PMID:24741020

  11. Cold Exposure Can Induce an Exaggerated Early-Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Young Prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cian-Hui; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, Bo-Chi; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-01-01

    Prehypertension is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular events than normotension. Our previous study reported that cold exposure elevates the amplitude of the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and is associated with a sympathetic increase during the final sleep transition, which might be critical for sleep-related cardiovascular events in normotensives. However, few studies have explored the effects of cold exposure on autonomic function during sleep transitions and changes of autonomic function among prehypertensives. Therefore, we conducted an experiment for testing the effects of cold exposure on changes of autonomic function during sleep and the MBPS among young prehypertensives are more exaggerate than among young normotensives. The study groups consisted of 12 normotensive and 12 prehypertensive male adults with mean ages of 23.67 ± 0.70 and 25.25 ± 0.76 years, respectively. The subjects underwent cold (16°C) and warm (23°C) conditions randomly. The room temperature was maintained at either 23°C or 16°C by central air conditioning and recorded by a heat-sensitive sensor placed on the forehead and extended into the air. BP was measured every 30 minutes by using an autonomic BP monitor. Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, electromyograms, electrocardiograms, and near body temperature were recorded by miniature polysomnography. Under cold exposure, a significantly higher amplitude of MBPS than under the warm condition among normotensives; however, this change was more exaggerated in prehypertensives. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in parasympathetic-related RR and HF during the final sleep transition and a higher early-morning surge in BP and in LF% among prehypertensives, but no such change was found in normotensives. Our study supports that cold exposure might increase the risk of sleep-related cardiovascular events in prehypertensives.

  12. Cold Exposure Can Induce an Exaggerated Early-Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Young Prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cian-Hui; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, Bo-Chi; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-01-01

    Prehypertension is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular events than normotension. Our previous study reported that cold exposure elevates the amplitude of the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and is associated with a sympathetic increase during the final sleep transition, which might be critical for sleep-related cardiovascular events in normotensives. However, few studies have explored the effects of cold exposure on autonomic function during sleep transitions and changes of autonomic function among prehypertensives. Therefore, we conducted an experiment for testing the effects of cold exposure on changes of autonomic function during sleep and the MBPS among young prehypertensives are more exaggerate than among young normotensives. The study groups consisted of 12 normotensive and 12 prehypertensive male adults with mean ages of 23.67 ± 0.70 and 25.25 ± 0.76 years, respectively. The subjects underwent cold (16°C) and warm (23°C) conditions randomly. The room temperature was maintained at either 23°C or 16°C by central air conditioning and recorded by a heat-sensitive sensor placed on the forehead and extended into the air. BP was measured every 30 minutes by using an autonomic BP monitor. Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, electromyograms, electrocardiograms, and near body temperature were recorded by miniature polysomnography. Under cold exposure, a significantly higher amplitude of MBPS than under the warm condition among normotensives; however, this change was more exaggerated in prehypertensives. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in parasympathetic-related RR and HF during the final sleep transition and a higher early-morning surge in BP and in LF% among prehypertensives, but no such change was found in normotensives. Our study supports that cold exposure might increase the risk of sleep-related cardiovascular events in prehypertensives. PMID:26919177

  13. Genotoxicity testing of peptides: Folate deprivation as a marker of exaggerated pharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Guérard, Melanie Zeller, Andreas; Festag, Matthias; Schubert, Christine; Singer, Thomas; Müller, Lutz

    2014-09-15

    The incidence of micronucleated-cells is considered to be a marker of a genotoxic event and can be caused by direct- or indirect-DNA reactive mechanisms. In particular, small increases in the incidence of micronuclei, which are not associated with toxicity in the target tissue or any structurally altering properties of the compound, trigger the suspicion that an indirect mechanism could be at play. In a bone marrow micronucleus test of a synthetic peptide (a dual agonist of the GLP-1 and GIP receptors) that had been integrated into a regulatory 13-week repeat-dose toxicity study in the rat, small increases in the incidence of micronuclei had been observed, together with pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain. Because it is well established that folate plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic integrity and pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain were observed, folate levels were determined from plasma samples initially collected for toxicokinetic analytics. A dose-dependent decrease in plasma folate levels was evident after 4 weeks of treatment at the mid and high dose levels, persisted until the end of the treatment duration of 13-weeks and returned to baseline levels during the recovery period of 4 weeks. Based on these properties, and the fact that the compound tested (peptide) per se is not expected to reach the nucleus and cause DNA damage, the rationale is supported that the elevated incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes is directly linked to the exaggerated pharmacology of the compound resulting in a decreased folate level. - Highlights: • A synthetic peptide has been evaluated for potential genotoxicity • Small increases in an integrated (13-weeks) micronucleus test were observed • Further, animals had a pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain • A dose-dependent decrease in plasma folate levels was evident from week 4 onwards • Elevated micronuclei-incidence due to the

  14. Exaggerated sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Nan; Mitchell, Jere H; Smith, Scott A; Mizuno, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The sympathetic and pressor responses to exercise are exaggerated in hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms causing this abnormality remain to be fully elucidated. Central command, a neural drive originating in higher brain centers, is known to activate cardiovascular and locomotor control circuits concomitantly. As such, it is a viable candidate for the generation of the augmented vascular response to exercise in this disease. We hypothesized that augmentations in central command function contribute to the heightened cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. To test this hypothesis, changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to electrical stimulation of mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR; 20-50 μA in 10-μA steps evoking fictive locomotion), a putative component of the central command pathway, were examined in decerebrate, paralyzed normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Tibial nerve discharge during MLR stimulation significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner in both WKY and SHR but was not different between groups. Stimulation of the MLR evoked significantly larger increases in RSNA and MAP with increasing stimulation intensity in both groups. Importantly, the increases in sympathetic and pressor responses to this fictive locomotion were significantly greater in SHR compared with WKY across all stimulation intensities (e.g., at 50 μA, ΔRSNA: WKY 153 ± 31%, SHR 287 ± 42%; ΔMAP: WKY 87 ± 9 mmHg, SHR 139 ± 7 mmHg). These findings provide the first evidence that central command may be a critical contributor to the exaggerated rise in sympathetic activity and blood pressure during exercise in hypertension. PMID:26545711

  15. Cold Exposure Can Induce an Exaggerated Early-Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Young Prehypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo-Chi; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, Cheryl C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Prehypertension is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular events than normotension. Our previous study reported that cold exposure elevates the amplitude of the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and is associated with a sympathetic increase during the final sleep transition, which might be critical for sleep-related cardiovascular events in normotensives. However, few studies have explored the effects of cold exposure on autonomic function during sleep transitions and changes of autonomic function among prehypertensives. Therefore, we conducted an experiment for testing the effects of cold exposure on changes of autonomic function during sleep and the MBPS among young prehypertensives are more exaggerate than among young normotensives. The study groups consisted of 12 normotensive and 12 prehypertensive male adults with mean ages of 23.67 ± 0.70 and 25.25 ± 0.76 years, respectively. The subjects underwent cold (16°C) and warm (23°C) conditions randomly. The room temperature was maintained at either 23°C or 16°C by central air conditioning and recorded by a heat-sensitive sensor placed on the forehead and extended into the air. BP was measured every 30 minutes by using an autonomic BP monitor. Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, electromyograms, electrocardiograms, and near body temperature were recorded by miniature polysomnography. Under cold exposure, a significantly higher amplitude of MBPS than under the warm condition among normotensives; however, this change was more exaggerated in prehypertensives. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in parasympathetic-related RR and HF during the final sleep transition and a higher early-morning surge in BP and in LF% among prehypertensives, but no such change was found in normotensives. Our study supports that cold exposure might increase the risk of sleep-related cardiovascular events in prehypertensives. PMID:26919177

  16. Exaggerated sympathoexcitatory reflexes develop with changes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Huber, Domitila A; Schreihofer, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    Obesity leads to altered autonomic reflexes that reduce stability of mean arterial pressure (MAP). Sympathoinhibitory reflexes such as baroreflexes are impaired, but reflexes that raise MAP appear to be augmented. In obese Zucker rats (OZR) sciatic nerve stimulation evokes larger increases in MAP by unknown mechanisms. We sought to determine the autonomic underpinnings of this enhanced somatic pressor reflex and whether other sympathoexcitatory reflexes are augmented. We also determined whether their final common pathway, glutamatergic activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), was enhanced in male OZR compared with lean Zucker rats (LZR). Sciatic nerve stimulation or activation of the nasopharyngeal reflex evoked larger rises in splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) (79% and 45% larger in OZR, respectively; P < 0.05) and MAP in urethane-anesthetized, ventilated, paralyzed adult OZR compared with LZR. After elimination of baroreflex feedback by pharmacological prevention of changes in MAP and heart rate, these two sympathoexcitatory reflexes were still exaggerated in OZR (167% and 69% larger, respectively, P < 0.05). In adult OZR microinjections of glutamate, AMPA, or NMDA into the RVLM produced larger rises in SNA (∼61% larger in OZR, P < 0.05 for each drug) and MAP, but stimulation of axonal fibers in the upper thoracic spinal cord yielded equivalent responses in OZR and LZR. In juvenile OZR and LZR, sympathoexcitatory reflexes and physiological responses to RVLM activation were comparable. These data suggest that the ability of glutamate to activate the RVLM becomes enhanced in adult OZR and may contribute to the development of exaggerated sympathoexcitatory responses independent of impaired baroreflexes. PMID:27280427

  17. Detecting Symptom Exaggeration in Combat Veterans Using the MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scales: A Mixed Group Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolin, David F.; Steenkamp, Maria M.; Marx, Brian P.; Litz, Brett T.

    2010-01-01

    Although validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) have proven useful in the detection of symptom exaggeration in criterion-group validation (CGV) studies, usually comparing instructed feigners with known patient groups, the…

  18. Interventions for Children and Youth with Autism: Prudent Choices in a World of Exaggerated Claims and Empty Promises. Part I: Intervention and Treatment Option Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflin, L. Juane; Simpson, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses intervention and treatment options being used with the population of children and youth who have autism spectrum disorders. The discussion includes interventions based on relationship formation (including holding therapy, gentle teaching, options, and floor time), skill-based treatments, physiologically oriented intervention, and…

  19. The Unbearable Lightness of Health Science Reporting: A Week Examining Italian Print Media

    PubMed Central

    Filice, Angelina; Russi, Gianpaolo; Belletti, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    Background Although being an important source of science news information to the public, print news media have often been criticized in their credibility. Health-related content of press media articles has been examined by many studies underlining that information about benefits, risks and costs are often incomplete or inadequate and financial conflicts of interest are rarely reported. However, these studies have focused their analysis on very selected science articles. The present research aimed at adopting a wider explorative approach, by analysing all types of health science information appearing on the Italian national press in one-week period. Moreover, we attempted to score the balance of the articles. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 146 health science communication articles defined as articles aiming at improving the reader's knowledge on health from a scientific perspective. Articles were evaluated by 3 independent physicians with respect to different divulgation parameters: benefits, costs, risks, sources of information, disclosure of financial conflicts of interest and balance. Balance was evaluated with regard to exaggerated or non correct claims. The selected articles appeared on 41 Italian national daily newspapers and 41 weekly magazines, representing 89% of national circulation copies: 97 articles (66%) covered common medical treatments or basic scientific research and 49 (34%) were about new medical treatments, procedures, tests or products. We found that only 6/49 (12%) articles on new treatments, procedures, tests or products mentioned costs or risks to patients. Moreover, benefits were always maximized and in 16/49 cases (33%) they were presented in relative rather than absolute terms. The majority of stories (133/146, 91%) did not report any financial conflict of interest. Among these, 15 were shown to underreport them (15/146, 9.5%), as we demonstrated that conflicts of interest did actually exist. Unbalanced articles were 27

  20. Exaggerated, Mispredicted, and Misplaced: When "It's the Thought That Counts" in Gift Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yan; Epley, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Gift-giving involves both the objective value of a gift and the symbolic meaning of the exchange. The objective value is sometimes considered of secondary importance as when people claim, "It's the thought that counts." We evaluated when and how mental state inferences count in gift exchanges. Because considering another's thoughts requires…

  1. Mechanism of exaggerated natriuresis in hypertensive man: impaired sodium transport in the loop of henle

    PubMed Central

    Buckalew, Vardaman M.; Puschett, Jules B.; Kintzel, James E.; Goldberg, Martin

    1969-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of saline loading on distal sodium reabsorption in hypertensive man, studies were performed during both water deprivation and water diuresis in eight hypertensive subjects, and the results were compared to data obtained from similar studies in normal subjects. All hypertensive patients exhibited an enhanced excretion of filtered sodium (CNa/CIn) at any level of distal delivery of sodium compared to normal controls. Free water reabsorption (TcH2O) during hypertonic saline loading was quantitatively abnormal in the hypertensives at high levels of osmolar clearance (COsm), and also the curve of TcH2O vs. COsm leveled off above a COsm of 18 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the hypertensive group in contrast to the normal controls in whom TcH2O showed no evidence of achieving an upper limit. Sodium depletion exaggerated the abnormality in TcH2O in hypertensives, and resulted in a positive free water clearance (CH2O) during hydropenia. During hypotonic saline loading in water diuresis, changes in free water clearance per 100 ml of glomerular filtrate (CH2O/CIn) were less at any given increment in urine flow per 100 ml of glomerular filtrate (V/CIn) in the hypertensives compared to normal controls (P < 0.001). This abnormality in CH2O/CIn in the hypertensives in conjunction with the defect in TcH2O observed during hydropenia indicates that sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle was abnormal at any given rate of distal delivery of sodium in hypertension. Furthermore, these abnormalities in TcH2O and CH2O coincided temporally with the development of the exaggerated natriuresis. Although the distal defect in sodium transport, in large part, accounted for the augmented natriuresis in hypertension, evidence was present also for enhanced rejection of sodium in the proximal tubule during saline loading in the hypertensives. Additional studies utilizing acetazolamide which increases distal delivery of sodium without extracellular fluid volume expansion showed only

  2. Glutamatergic receptor dysfunction in spinal cord contributes to the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han-Jun; Cahoon, Rebecca; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Zheng, Hong; Patel, Kaushik P.

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory amino acids (e.g., glutamate) released by contraction-activated skeletal muscle afferents into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord initiate the central component of the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) in physiological conditions. However, the role of glutamate and glutamate receptors in mediating the exaggerated EPR in the chronic heart failure (CHF) state remains to be determined. In the present study, we performed microinjection of glutamate receptor antagonists into ipisilateral L4/L5 dorsal horns to investigate their effects on the pressor response to static contraction induced by stimulation of the peripheral end of L4/L5 ventral roots in decerebrate sham-operated (sham) and CHF rats. Microinjection of glutamate (10 mM, 100 nl) into the L4 or L5 dorsal horn caused a greater pressor response in CHF rats compared with sham rats. Furthermore, microinjection of either the broad-spectrum glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenate (10 mM, 100 nl) or the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (50 mM, 100 nl) or the non-NMDA-sensitive receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (5 mM, 100 nl) into L4/5 dorsal horns decreased the pressor response to static contraction in CHF rats to a greater extent than in sham rats. Molecular evidence showed that the protein expression of glutamate receptors (both non-NMDA and NMDA) was elevated in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord in CHF rats. In addition, data from microdialysis experiments demonstrated that although basal glutamate release at the dorsal horn at rest was similar between sham and CHF rats (225 ± 50 vs. 260 ± 63 nM in sham vs. CHF rats, n = 4, P > 0.05), CHF rats exhibit greater glutamate release into the dorsal horn during muscle contraction compared with sham rats (549 ± 60 vs. 980 ± 65 nM in sham vs. CHF rats, n = 4, P < 0.01). These data indicate that the spinal glutamate system contributes to the exaggerated EPR in the CHF state. PMID

  3. Are people who claim compensation "cured by a verdict"? A longitudinal study of health outcomes after whiplash.

    PubMed

    Spearing, Natalie M; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Pobereskin, Louis H; Rowell, David S; Connelly, Luke B

    2012-09-01

    This study examines whether the lure of injury compensation prompts whiplash claimants to overstate their symptoms. Claim settlement is the intervention of interest, as it represents the point at which there is no further incentive to exaggerate symptoms, and neck pain at 24 months is the outcome of interest. Longitudinal data on neck pain scores and timing of claim settlement were regressed, controlling for the effect of time on recovery, to compare outcomes in claimants who had and had not settled their compensation claims. The results show clearly that removing the financial incentive to over-report symptoms has no effect on self-reported neck pain in a fault-based compensation scheme, and this finding concurs with other studies on this topic. Policy decisions to limit compensation in the belief that claimants systematically misrepresent their health status are not supported empirically Claimants do not appear to be "cured by a verdict".

  4. Are Claims of Global Warming Being Suppressed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    2006-02-01

    Over the last few years, I have heard many rumors that climate science relevant to the global warming discussion is being suppressed by the Bush Administration. One cannot do much about third-hand information. However, on 29 January, the New York Times published a front page article on NASA efforts to suppress statements about global warming by James Hansen, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. A claim by one government scientist, though, no matter how distinguished, still requires examples from other scientists before a general conclusion can be drawn about the overall scope of the problem. But if the charges are more widespread, then some government scientists might be reluctant to make such claims, because they might feel that their positions were jeopardized. Therefore, an alternate way may be needed to determine the scope of the issue, while still safeguarding government workers from possible retaliation. -On 30 January, Rep. Sherwood Boehlert (R-N.Y.), chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, wrote a letter to NASA Administrator Michael Griffin addressing many of the concerns Crowley has raised. Boehlert wrote,``It ought to go without saying that government scientists must be free to describe their scientific conclusions and the implications of those conclusions to their fellow scientists, policymakers and the general public.'' He continued,``Good science cannot long persist in an atmosphere of intimidation. Political figures ought to be reviewing their public statements to make sure they are consistent with the best available science; scientists should not be reviewing their statements to make sure they are consistent with the current political orthodoxy.'' I commend Rep. Boehlert for his quick and clear statement of the importance of unfettered communication of science. -FRED SPILHAUS, Editor

  5. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  6. 33 CFR 25.513 - Amount claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount claimed. 25.513 Section 25.513 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.513 Amount claimed. The claimant shall state the amount claimed in the currency of...

  7. 33 CFR 25.513 - Amount claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount claimed. 25.513 Section 25.513 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.513 Amount claimed. The claimant shall state the amount claimed in the currency of...

  8. 32 CFR 538.6 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims. 538.6 Section 538.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.6 Claims. Claims for conversion of military payment certificates, as well as claims arising out...

  9. 33 CFR 25.403 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable. 25.403 Section 25.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Military Claims § 25.403 Claims payable. A claim arising at any place caused by military personnel...

  10. 46 CFR 204.2 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Claims payable. 204.2 Section 204.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CLAIMS AGAINST THE MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.2 Claims payable. Claims for death, personal injury,...

  11. 33 CFR 25.403 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims payable. 25.403 Section 25.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Military Claims § 25.403 Claims payable. A claim arising at any place caused by military personnel...

  12. 32 CFR 842.94 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.94 Assertable claims. A claim may be asserted in writing for loss of or damage to government property, against a tort-feasor when: (a) Damage results from negligence and the claim is for: (1) More than...

  13. 33 CFR 25.403 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims payable. 25.403 Section 25.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Military Claims § 25.403 Claims payable. A claim arising at any place caused by military personnel...

  14. 32 CFR 537.3 - Claims collectible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Claims for property loss. Claims arising out of a tort under local law for the value of lost or missing... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims collectible. 537.3 Section 537.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF...

  15. 32 CFR 842.94 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.94 Assertable claims. A claim may be asserted in writing for loss of or damage to government property, against a tort-feasor when: (a) Damage results from negligence and the claim is for: (1) More than...

  16. 32 CFR 842.94 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.94 Assertable claims. A claim may be asserted in writing for loss of or damage to government property, against a tort-feasor when: (a) Damage results from negligence and the claim is for: (1) More than...

  17. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  18. 46 CFR 204.2 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Claims payable. 204.2 Section 204.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CLAIMS AGAINST THE MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.2 Claims payable. Claims for death, personal injury,...

  19. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  20. 46 CFR 204.2 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claims payable. 204.2 Section 204.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CLAIMS AGAINST THE MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.2 Claims payable. Claims for death, personal injury,...

  1. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  2. 32 CFR 842.94 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.94 Assertable claims. A claim may be asserted in writing for loss of or damage to government property, against a tort-feasor when: (a) Damage results from negligence and the claim is for: (1) More than...

  3. 32 CFR 842.94 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.94 Assertable claims. A claim may be asserted in writing for loss of or damage to government property, against a tort-feasor when: (a) Damage results from negligence and the claim is for: (1) More than...

  4. 32 CFR 537.3 - Claims collectible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Claims for property loss. Claims arising out of a tort under local law for the value of lost or missing... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims collectible. 537.3 Section 537.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF...

  5. 33 CFR 25.403 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims payable. 25.403 Section 25.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Military Claims § 25.403 Claims payable. A claim arising at any place caused by military personnel...

  6. 32 CFR 536.28 - Claims acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims acknowledgment. 536.28 Section 536.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.28 Claims acknowledgment....

  7. 32 CFR 538.6 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims. 538.6 Section 538.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.6 Claims. Claims for conversion of military payment certificates, as well as claims arising out...

  8. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  9. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  10. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  11. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana sku mutant seedlings show exaggerated surface-dependent alteration in root growth vector.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, R; Masson, P H

    1996-08-01

    Roots of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in the Wassilewskija (WS) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotypes often grow aslant on vertical agar surfaces. Slanted root growth always occurs to the right of the gravity vector when the root is viewed through the agar surface, and is not observed in the Columbia ecotype. Right-slanted root growth is surface-dependent and does not result directly from directional environmental stimuli or gradients in the plane of skewing. We have isolated two partially dominant mutations in WS (sku1 and sku2) that show an exaggerated right-slanting root-growth phenotype on agar surfaces. The right-slanting root-growth phenotype of wild-type and mutant roots is not the result of diagravitropism or of an alteration in root gravitropism. It is accompanied by a left-handed rotation of the root about its axis within the elongation zone, the rate of which positively correlates with the degree of right-slanted curvature. Our data suggest that the right-slanting root growth phenotype results from an endogenous structural asymmetry that expresses itself by a directional root-tip rotation.

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana sku mutant seedlings show exaggerated surface-dependent alteration in root growth vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R.; Masson, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    Roots of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in the Wassilewskija (WS) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotypes often grow aslant on vertical agar surfaces. Slanted root growth always occurs to the right of the gravity vector when the root is viewed through the agar surface, and is not observed in the Columbia ecotype. Right-slanted root growth is surface-dependent and does not result directly from directional environmental stimuli or gradients in the plane of skewing. We have isolated two partially dominant mutations in WS (sku1 and sku2) that show an exaggerated right-slanting root-growth phenotype on agar surfaces. The right-slanting root-growth phenotype of wild-type and mutant roots is not the result of diagravitropism or of an alteration in root gravitropism. It is accompanied by a left-handed rotation of the root about its axis within the elongation zone, the rate of which positively correlates with the degree of right-slanted curvature. Our data suggest that the right-slanting root growth phenotype results from an endogenous structural asymmetry that expresses itself by a directional root-tip rotation.

  14. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  15. Lung cancer screening overdiagnosis: reports of overdiagnosis in screening for lung cancer are grossly exaggerated.

    PubMed

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J

    2015-08-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a mortality reduction benefit associated with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer. There has been considerable debate regarding the benefits and harms of LDCT lung cancer screening, including the challenges related to its practical implementation. One of the controversies regards overdiagnosis, which conceptually denotes diagnosing a cancer that, either because of its indolent, low-aggressiveness biologic behavior or because of limited life expectancy, is unlikely to result in significant morbidity during the patient's remainder lifetime. In theory, diagnosing and treating these cancers offer no measurable benefit while incurring costs and risks. Therefore, if a screening test detects a substantial number of overdiagnosed cancers, it is less likely to be effective. It has been argued that LDCT screening for lung cancer results in an unacceptably high rate of overdiagnosis. This article aims to defend the opposite stance. Overdiagnosis does exist and to a certain extent is inherent to any cancer-screening test. Nonetheless, the concept is less dualistic and more nuanced than it has been suggested. Furthermore, the average estimates of overdiagnosis in LDCT lung cancer screening based on the totality of published data are likely much lower than the highest published estimates, if a careful definition of a positive screening test reflecting our current understanding of lung cancer biology is utilized. This article presents evidence on why reports of overdiagnosis in lung cancer screening have been exaggerated.

  16. Exaggerated blood pressure response during the exercise treadmill test as a risk factor for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lima, S.G.; Albuquerque, M.F.P.M.; Oliveira, J.R.M.; Ayres, C.F.J.; Cunha, J.E.G.; Oliveira, D.F.; Lemos, R.R.; Souza, M.B.R.; Silva, O. Barbosa e

    2013-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) during the exercise treadmill test (ETT) has been considered to be a risk factor for hypertension. The relationship of polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system gene with hypertension has not been established. Our objective was to evaluate whether EBPR during exercise is a clinical marker for hypertension. The study concerned a historical cohort of normotensive individuals. The exposed individuals were those who presented EBPR. At the end of the observation period (41.7 months = 3.5 years), the development of hypertension was analyzed within the two groups. Genetic polymorphisms and blood pressure behavior were assessed as independent variables, together with the classical risk factors for hypertension. The I/D gene polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme and M235T of angiotensinogen were ruled out as risk factors for hypertension. EBPR during ETT is not an independent influence on the chances of developing hypertension. No differences were observed between the hypertensive and normotensive individuals regarding gender (P = 0.655), skin color (P = 0.636), family history of hypertension (P = 0.225), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.285), or hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.734). The risk of developing hypertension increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) and advancing age. The risk factors, which independently influenced the development of hypertension, were age and BMI. EBPR did not constitute an independent risk factor for hypertension and is probably a preclinical phase in the spectrum of normotension and hypertension. PMID:23598646

  17. Pregnant women exaggerate cautious gait patterns during the transition between level and hill surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, Jinger S; Sheehan, Riley C; Downs, Danielle S

    2013-10-01

    Falls are the leading cause of nonfatal injury across all age groups and a common incident for pregnant women. Thus, there is a critical demand for research to evaluate if walking strategies in pregnant women change throughout pregnancy in order to effectively intervene and minimize the incidence rate. The aim of the present study was to analyze modifications in temporal-spatial parameters as well as muscle activity during hill walking transitions in pregnant women between gestational week 20 and 32. Based upon previous literature, we hypothesized that in comparison to level walking, the transition strides of pregnant women would be distinct between trimesters in order to accommodate the physical changes within twelve weeks. Thirteen pregnant women completed a series of randomly assigned walking conditions on level and hill surfaces during gestational week 20 and 32. Our results demonstrated that pregnant women modulated their gait patterns throughout pregnancy with additional joint flexion as well as muscle activity at the ankle, knee and hip. In summary, pregnant women exaggerate cautious gait patterns by walking slower and wider with greater joint flexion and muscle activity in order to safely transition between level and hill surfaces.

  18. Exaggerated Intergroup Bias in Economical Decision Making Games: Differential Effects of Primary and Secondary Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Mitchell, Ian J.; Johnson, Ian; Dawson, Ellen; Beech, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathic personality traits are linked with selfish and non-cooperative responses during economical decision making games. However, the possibility that these responses may vary when responding to members of the in-group and the out-group has not yet been explored. We aimed to examine the effects of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, irresponsible) psychopathic personality traits on the responses of non-offending participants to the in-group and the out-group (defined in terms of affiliation to a UK University) across a series of economical decision making games. We asked a total of 60 participants to act as the proposer in both the dictator game and the ultimatum game. We found that across both tasks, those who scored highly for secondary psychopathic traits showed an elevated intergroup bias, making more generous offers toward members of the in-group relative to the out-group. An exaggerated intergroup bias may therefore represent a motivational factor for the antisocial behavior of those with elevated secondary psychopathic traits. PMID:23950898

  19. Justice is not blind: visual attention exaggerates effects of group identification on legal punishment.

    PubMed

    Granot, Yael; Balcetis, Emily; Schneider, Kristin E; Tyler, Tom R

    2014-12-01

    Why do some people demand harsher legal punishments than do others after viewing the same video evidence? We predict that inconsistent patterns of punishment decisions can be reconciled by considering the simultaneous effects of social group identification and visual attention. We tested 2 competing predictions--the attention unites and attention divides hypotheses--to understand whether visual attention exaggerates or eliminates differences in legal decision making as a function of social identification with outgroups. We measured social identification with police (Studies 1a, 1b) or manipulated identification with a novel outgroup (Study 2). Participants watched videos depicting physical altercations in which the targets' culpability was ambiguous. We surreptitiously tracked (Studies 1a, 2) or manipulated (Study 1b) visual attention to outgroup targets. Results support the attention divides hypothesis. Among participants who fixated frequently on outgroup targets, prior identification influenced punishment decisions. This relationship did not emerge among participants who fixated infrequently on the target. Subjective interpretations of and accurate recall for targets' actions mediated the relationship between identification and attention on punishment. We discuss implications for bias in legal decision making and policy. PMID:25222261

  20. Model misspecification confounds the estimation of rates and exaggerates their time dependency.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Brent C; Alvarado-Serrano, Diego F; Hickerson, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    While welcoming the comment of Ho et al. (2015), we find little that undermines the strength of our criticism, and it would appear they have misunderstood our central argument. Here we respond with the purpose of reiterating that we are (i) generally critical of much of the evidence presented in support of the time-dependent molecular rate (TDMR) hypothesis and (ii) specifically critical of estimates of μ derived from tip-dated sequences that exaggerate the importance of purifying selection as an explanation for TDMR over extended timescales. In response to assertions put forward by Ho et al. (2015), we use panmictic coalescent simulations of temporal data to explore a fundamental assumption for tip-dated tree shape and associated mutation rate estimates, and the appropriateness and utility of the date randomization test. The results reveal problems for the joint estimation of tree topology, effective population size and μ with tip-dated sequences using BEAST. Given the simulations, BEAST consistently obtains incorrect topological tree structures that are consistent with the substantial overestimation of μ and underestimation of effective population size. Data generated from lower effective population sizes were less likely to fail the date randomization test yet still resulted in substantially upwardly biased estimates of rates, bringing previous estimates of μ from temporally sampled DNA sequences into question. We find that our general criticisms of both the hypothesis of time-dependent molecular evolution and Bayesian methods to estimate μ from temporally sampled DNA sequences are further reinforced. PMID:26769403

  1. Deficiency of heme oxygenase-1 impairs renal hemodynamics and exaggerates systemic inflammatory responses to renal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Tracz, MJ; Juncos, JP; Croatt, AJ; Ackerman, AW; Grande, JP; Knutson, KL; Kane, GC; Terzic, A; Griffin, MD; Nath, KA

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 may exert cytoprotective effects. In this study we examined the sensitivity of heme oxygenase-1 knockout (HO-1−/−) mice to renal ischemia by assessing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and cytokine expression in the kidney, and inflammatory responses in the systemic circulation and in vital extrarenal organs. Four hours after renal ischemia, the GFR of HO-1−/− mice was much lower than that of wild-type mice in the absence of changes in renal blood flow or cardiac output. Eight hours after renal ischemia, there was a marked induction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA and its downstream signaling effector, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3), in the kidney, lung, and heart in HO-1−/− mice. Systemic levels of IL-6 were markedly and uniquely increased in HO-1−/− mice after ischemia as compared to wild-type mice. The administration of an antibody to IL-6 protected against the renal dysfunction and mortality observed in HO-1−/− mice following ischemia. We suggest that the exaggerated production of IL-6, occurring regionally and systemically following localized renal ischemia, in an HO-1-deficient state may underlie the heightened sensitivity observed in this setting. PMID:17728706

  2. Chronic behavioral stress exaggerates motor deficit and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, E; Di Meco, A; Merali, S; Praticò, D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressor exposure is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including neurodegeneration. Although the initial events of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) are not known, consistent evidence supports the hypothesis that the disease results from the combined effect of genetic and environmental risk factors. Among them, behavioral stress has been shown to cause damage and neuronal loss in different areas of the brain, however, its effect on the dopaminergic system and PD pathogenesis remains to be characterized. The C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic restraint/isolation (RI) stress and were then treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas the control mice were treated only with MPTP and the effect on the PD-like phenotype was evaluated. The mice that underwent RI before the administration of MPTP manifested an exaggerated motor deficit and impairment in the acquisition of motor skills, which were associated with a greater loss of neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase and astrocytes activation. By showing that RI influences the onset and progression of the PD-like phenotype, our study underlines the novel pathogenetic role that chronic behavioral stressor has in the disease process by triggering neuroinflammation and degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic system. PMID:26859816

  3. Central amygdaloid nucleus lesion attenuates exaggerated hemodynamic responses to noise stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Galeno, T M; Van Hoesen, G W; Brody, M J

    1984-01-23

    The regional hemodynamic basis of the cardiovascular response to acute noise stress in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and the role of the central amygdaloid nucleus in mediating this response was investigated. Using the pulsed Doppler flow probe technique it was determined that in response to noise, SHR exhibit a significantly greater percent increase in renal and mesenteric vascular resistance than WKY. Vascular responses in the hindquarter were similar in both groups. Bilateral lesion of the central amygdaloid nucleus or its output pathways to the brainstem decreased the cardiovascular response to noise in both SHR and WKY, with SHR and WKY lesion rats responding similarly. The central amygdaloid nucleus appears to participate in the cardiovascular response to acute noise stress in SHR and WKY. Although other structures in the limbic system network may contribute to integration of responses that involve the amygdala the present data suggest that this structure may play a central role in mediating the exaggerated cardiovascular responsiveness of SHR to environmental stress.

  4. Volitional exaggeration of body size through fundamental and formant frequency modulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Mora, Emanuel C.; Pisanski, Annette; Reby, David; Sorokowski, Piotr; Frackowiak, Tomasz; Feinberg, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Several mammalian species scale their voice fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies in competitive and mating contexts, reducing vocal tract and laryngeal allometry thereby exaggerating apparent body size. Although humans’ rare capacity to volitionally modulate these same frequencies is thought to subserve articulated speech, the potential function of voice frequency modulation in human nonverbal communication remains largely unexplored. Here, the voices of 167 men and women from Canada, Cuba, and Poland were recorded in a baseline condition and while volitionally imitating a physically small and large body size. Modulation of F0, formant spacing (∆F), and apparent vocal tract length (VTL) were measured using Praat. Our results indicate that men and women spontaneously and systemically increased VTL and decreased F0 to imitate a large body size, and reduced VTL and increased F0 to imitate small size. These voice modulations did not differ substantially across cultures, indicating potentially universal sound-size correspondences or anatomical and biomechanical constraints on voice modulation. In each culture, men generally modulated their voices (particularly formants) more than did women. This latter finding could help to explain sexual dimorphism in F0 and formants that is currently unaccounted for by sexual dimorphism in human vocal anatomy and body size. PMID:27687571

  5. [Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Mitsuru

    2013-03-01

    The Ibaraki Medical Association established the Committee for Alternative Dispute Resolution called the Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee in 2006. Among 64 claims presented to the committee, 29 were settled through mediation or consultation. Patients were generally satisfied that their claims were considered fairly by the committee and that they were able to talk directly with healthcare professionals. However, some did not consider the committee to be completely neutral. The healthcare professionals involved rated the committee highly because they felt that the processes were neutral and no emotional aspects were involved. PMID:23617190

  6. Nutrition and health claims: the role of food composition data.

    PubMed

    Buttriss, J L; Benelam, B

    2010-11-01

    Regulation on nutrition and health claims number (EC) No. 1924/2006 came into force in the European Union (EU) in 2007. The Regulation aims to ensure that claims are truthful and do not mislead consumers. It also aims to stimulate innovation to produce healthier food products in the food industry. Nutrition claims are defined in an annex to the Regulation that states the wording of permitted claims and the conditions of use. The scientific support for potential health claims is being assessed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), but consideration of other aspects and the final decision to accept or reject a claim lies with the European Commission. The final list of approved health claims was due to be published in early 2010, but work is behind schedule, and therefore decisions are being published in batches; the first batch of Article 13 claims based on generally accepted science was published in October 2009. Food composition data are vital in making accurate claims on food as the amount of the nutrient or food component in question must be defined. It is also important that the composition of a particular food or food category has been sufficiently defined in order for a health claim pertaining to this to be approved. In addition, to prevent claims being made on foods with a less healthy profile, nutrient profiles are being developed that will specify threshold amounts of saturated fat, sodium and sugar present in any product bearing a nutrition or health claim, and thus the composition of a food will be critical in determining whether it is eligible to carry a claim. Therefore, the access that the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) will provide to pan-European food composition data will be of great importance in making the Regulation workable. EuroFIR has been actively involved in EFSA's work on nutrient profiles, supplying data that have been used to develop the current profiling model. It is hoped that the EuroFIR Network and the not

  7. 33 CFR 25.803 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution Removal Damage Claims § 25.803 Claims payable. A claim for damage to or loss of real or personal... contractors during containment, countermeasures, cleanup, mitigation, and disposal activities under...

  8. 33 CFR 25.803 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution Removal Damage Claims § 25.803 Claims payable. A claim for damage to or loss of real or personal... contractors during containment, countermeasures, cleanup, mitigation, and disposal activities under...

  9. 33 CFR 25.803 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollution Removal Damage Claims § 25.803 Claims payable. A claim for damage to or loss of real or personal... contractors during containment, countermeasures, cleanup, mitigation, and disposal activities under...

  10. 33 CFR 25.803 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution Removal Damage Claims § 25.803 Claims payable. A claim for damage to or loss of real or personal... contractors during containment, countermeasures, cleanup, mitigation, and disposal activities under...

  11. 33 CFR 25.803 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollution Removal Damage Claims § 25.803 Claims payable. A claim for damage to or loss of real or personal... contractors during containment, countermeasures, cleanup, mitigation, and disposal activities under...

  12. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.75 Section 536.75 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act §...

  13. 32 CFR 536.74 - Scope for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for claims under the Military Claims Act. 536.74 Section 536.74 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act §...

  14. Savory's unsubstantiated claims should not be confused with multipaddock grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sole objective of our critique of Mr. Savory’s TED video published in Rangelands1 was to “fact check” a portion of the extraordinary claims that he had made relative to science based information. It is incumbent upon a professional discipline to evaluate the relevant evidence and potential viabi...

  15. Supernatural Explanations: Science or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the advice of supposedly authoritative sources, the a priori exclusion of supernatural explanations or claims from scientific scrutiny is not appropriate. This paper shows how supernatural hypotheses or claims should be treated by science and, in the process, differentiates scientific and non-scientific hypotheses or claims.…

  16. Exaggerated Waiting Impulsivity Associated with Human Binge Drinking, and High Alcohol Consumption in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Baro, Victor; Trick, Leanne; Peña-Oliver, Yolanda; Stephens, David N; Duka, Theodora

    2014-01-01

    There are well-established links between impulsivity and alcohol use in humans and animal models; however, whether exaggerated impulsivity is a premorbid risk factor or a consequence of alcohol intake remains unclear. In a first approach, human young (18–25 years) social binge and non-binge drinkers were tested for motor impulsivity and attentional abilities in a human version of the Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (Sx-5CSRTT), modeled on the rodent 5CSRTT. Participants completed four variants of the Sx-5CSRT, in addition to being screened for impulsive traits (BIS-11 questionnaire) and impulsive behavior (by means of the Delay Discounting Questionnaire, Two-Choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP), Stop Signal Reaction Time, and Time Estimation Task). Using a second approach, we compared one of these impulsivity measures, 5CSRTT performance, in two inbred strains of mice known to differ in alcohol intake. Compared with non-bingers (NBD; n=22), binge drinkers (BD, n=22) showed robust impairments in attention and premature responding when evaluated under increased attentional load, in addition to presenting deficits in decision making using the TCIP. The best predictors for high binge drinking score were premature responding in the Sx-5CSRTT, trait impulsivity in the BIS-11, and decision making in the TCIP. Alcohol-naïve C57BL/6J (B6) mice (alcohol preferring) were more impulsive in the 5CSRTT than DBA2/J (D2) mice (alcohol averse); the degree of impulsivity correlated with subsequent alcohol consumption. Homologous measures in animal and human studies indicate increased premature responding in young social BD and in the ethanol-preferring B6 strain of mice. PMID:24947901

  17. Exaggerated phosphorylation of brain tau protein in CRH KO mice exposed to repeated immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Kvetnansky, Richard; Novak, Petr; Vargovic, Peter; Lejavova, Katarina; Horvathova, Lubica; Ondicova, Katarina; Manz, George; Filipcik, Peter; Novak, Michal; Mravec, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses are orchestrated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing neurons. Recent findings indicate that stress may promote development of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated relationships among stress, tau protein phosphorylation, and brain NE using wild-type (WT) and CRH-knockout (CRH KO) mice. We assessed expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the PHF-1 epitope and NE concentrations in the locus coeruleus (LC), A1/C1 and A2/C2 catecholaminergic cell groups, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and frontal cortex of unstressed, singly stressed or repeatedly stressed mice. Moreover, gene expression and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and CRH receptor mRNA were determined in the LC. Plasma corticosterone levels were also measured. Exposure to a single stress increases tau phosphorylation throughout the brain in WT mice when compared to singly stressed CRH KO animals. In contrast, repeatedly stressed CRH KO mice showed exaggerated tau phosphorylation relative to WT controls. We also observed differences in extent of tau phosphorylation between investigated structures, e.g. the LC and hippocampus. Moreover, CRH deficiency leads to different responses to stress in gene expression of TH, NE concentrations, CRH receptor mRNA, and plasma corticosterone levels. Our data indicate that CRH effects on tau phosphorylation are dependent on whether stress is single or repeated, and differs between brain regions. Our findings indicate that CRH attenuates mechanisms responsible for development of stress-induced tau neuropathology, particularly in conditions of chronic stress. However, the involvement of central catecholaminergic neurons in these mechanisms remains unclear and is in need of further investigation. PMID:27484105

  18. Exaggerated phosphorylation of brain tau protein in CRH KO mice exposed to repeated immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Kvetnansky, Richard; Novak, Petr; Vargovic, Peter; Lejavova, Katarina; Horvathova, Lubica; Ondicova, Katarina; Manz, George; Filipcik, Peter; Novak, Michal; Mravec, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses are orchestrated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing neurons. Recent findings indicate that stress may promote development of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated relationships among stress, tau protein phosphorylation, and brain NE using wild-type (WT) and CRH-knockout (CRH KO) mice. We assessed expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the PHF-1 epitope and NE concentrations in the locus coeruleus (LC), A1/C1 and A2/C2 catecholaminergic cell groups, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and frontal cortex of unstressed, singly stressed or repeatedly stressed mice. Moreover, gene expression and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and CRH receptor mRNA were determined in the LC. Plasma corticosterone levels were also measured. Exposure to a single stress increases tau phosphorylation throughout the brain in WT mice when compared to singly stressed CRH KO animals. In contrast, repeatedly stressed CRH KO mice showed exaggerated tau phosphorylation relative to WT controls. We also observed differences in extent of tau phosphorylation between investigated structures, e.g. the LC and hippocampus. Moreover, CRH deficiency leads to different responses to stress in gene expression of TH, NE concentrations, CRH receptor mRNA, and plasma corticosterone levels. Our data indicate that CRH effects on tau phosphorylation are dependent on whether stress is single or repeated, and differs between brain regions. Our findings indicate that CRH attenuates mechanisms responsible for development of stress-induced tau neuropathology, particularly in conditions of chronic stress. However, the involvement of central catecholaminergic neurons in these mechanisms remains unclear and is in need of further investigation.

  19. Studies on the exaggerated natriuretic response to a saline infusion in the hypothyroid rat

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Edward W.; DiScala, Vincent A.

    1970-01-01

    The exaggerated natriuresis of hypothyroid rats receiving a 5% saline infusion was studied to determine the mechanism and the site within the nephron responsible for this increase in sodium excretion. Sodium clearance (CNa) and fractional sodium excretion were both demonstrated to be greater in hypothyroid rats for any amount of sodium infused. The rate of increase in fractional sodium excretion in response to saline loading was 3.4 times greater in hypothyroid animals. At the conclusion of the diuresis some of the hypothyroid animals excreted greater than 45% of the filtered sodium load, while no control animal excreted more than 12% of the filtered sodium load. The mean clearance of insulin during the saline diuresis was 36.6% lower (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. D-Aldosterone given to hypothyroid animals 3 hr before the experiment did not alter the magnitude or rate of increase in fractional sodium excretion. Inulin space determinations in nephrectomized rats revealed that extracellular fluid volume was contracted by 17.1% in the hypothyroid rats (P < 0.01). Plasma sodium was not significantly different in hypothyroid and control animals. A limit on solute free water reabsorption (TeH2O) per osmolar clearance (COsm) was demonstrated in the hypothyroid rats when these animals excreted greater than 12% of the filtered osmotic load. The limit on TeH2O formation was associated with an acceleration in the rate of sodium excretion and a decline in the rate of potassium excretion. Early in the diuresis when COsm, CNa, and TeH2O were comparable in hypothyroid and control rats, the filtered sodium load was 31% lower (P < 0.01) in the hypothyroid animals. These findings indicate that diminished thyroid hormone activity decreases renal sodium reabsorptive capacity. Indirect evidence suggests that the distal and possibly the proximal tubules are the sites of this diminished sodium reabsorption in hypothyroid animals. PMID:5422024

  20. Exaggerated acquisition and resistance to extinction of avoidance behavior in treated heroin-dependent males

    PubMed Central

    Sheynin, Jony; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Beck, Kevin D.; Servatius, Richard J.; Casbolt, Peter A.; Haber, Paul; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Hogarth, Lee; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Addiction is often conceptualized as a behavioral strategy for avoiding negative experiences. In rodents, opioid intake has been associated with abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these findings would generalize to human opioid-dependent subjects. Method Adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for heroin-dependence and treated with opioid medication (n=27), and healthy controls (n=26), were recruited between March–October 2013 and given a computer-based task to assess avoidance behavior. On this task, subjects controlled a spaceship and could either gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship, or hide in safe areas to avoid on-screen aversive events. Results While groups did not differ on escape responding (hiding) during the aversive event, heroin-dependent males (but not females) made more avoidance responses during a warning signal that predicted the aversive event (ANOVA, sex × group interaction, p=0.007). This group was also slower to extinguish the avoidance response when the aversive event no longer followed the warning signal (p=0.011). This behavioral pattern resulted in reduced opportunity to obtain reward without reducing risk of punishment. Results suggest that differences in avoidance behavior cannot be easily explained by impaired task performance or by exaggerated motor activity in male patients. Conclusion This study provides evidence for abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in opioid-dependent patients. Interestingly, data suggest abnormal avoidance is demonstrated only by male patients. Findings shed light on cognitive and behavioral manifestations of opioid addiction, and may facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to help affected individuals. PMID:27046310

  1. Wild bees preferentially visit Rudbeckia flower heads with exaggerated ultraviolet absorbing floral guides.

    PubMed

    Horth, Lisa; Campbell, Laura; Bray, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report on the results of an experimental study that assessed the visitation frequency of wild bees to conspecific flowers with different sized floral guides. UV absorbent floral guides are ubiquitous in Angiosperms, yet surprisingly little is known about conspecific variation in these guides and very few studies have evaluated pollinator response to UV guide manipulation. This is true despite our rich understanding about learning and color preferences in bees. Historical dogma indicates that flower color serves as an important long-range visual signal allowing pollinators to detect the flowers, while floral guides function as close-range signals that direct pollinators to a reward. We initiated the work presented here by first assessing the population level variation in UV absorbent floral guides for conspecific flowers. We assessed two species, Rudbeckia hirta and R. fulgida. We then used several petal cut-and-paste experiments to test whether UV floral guides can also function to attract visitors. We manipulated floral guide size and evaluated visitation frequency. In all experiments, pollinator visitation rates were clearly associated with floral guide size. Diminished floral guides recruited relatively few insect visitors. Exaggerated floral guides recruited more visitors than smaller or average sized guides. Thus, UV floral guides play an important role in pollinator recruitment and in determining the relative attractiveness of conspecific flower heads. Consideration of floral guides is therefore important when evaluating the overall conspicuousness of flower heads relative to background coloration. This work raises the issue of whether floral guides serve as honest indicators of reward, since guide size varies in nature for conspecific flowers at the same developmental stage and since preferences for larger guides were found. To our knowledge, these are the first cut-and-paste experiments conducted to examine whether UV absorbent floral guides affect

  2. Swedish consumers' cognitive approaches to nutrition claims and health claims

    PubMed Central

    Svederberg, Eva; Wendin, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Aim Studies show frequent use of nutrition claims and health claims in consumers' choice of food products. The aim of the present study was to investigate how consumers' thoughts about these claims and food products are affected by various types of food-related experiences. Material and Methods The data collection comprised 30 individual interviews among Swedish consumers aged 25 to 64 years. Results The results indicated that participants who expressed special concern for their own and their families' health were eager to find out the meaning of concepts and statements made. A lack of understanding and lack of credibility of concepts and expressions often caused suspicion of the product. However, in some cases this was counterbalanced by confidence in manufacturers, retailers, and/or the Swedish food legislation. Discussion and Conclusion To achieve effective written communication of food products' health-conducive properties on food labels, there is a need to consider the importance many consumers attach to understanding the meaning of concepts and expressions used and the importance of credibility in certain expressions. Consumers' varying cognitive approaches are suggested as a basis for pre-tests of nutrition claims and health claims. PMID:21448438

  3. Mitochondrial Gene Expression Profiles and Metabolic Pathways in the Amygdala Associated with Exaggerated Fear in an Animal Model of PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Li, Xin; Smerin, Stanley E.; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Min; Xing, Guoqiang; Su, Yan A.; Wen, Jillian; Benedek, David; Ursano, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic mechanisms underlying the development of exaggerated fear in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well defined. In the present study, alteration in the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial function in the amygdala of an animal model of PTSD was determined. Amygdala tissue samples were excised from 10 non-stressed control rats and 10 stressed rats, 14 days post-stress treatment. Total RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and gene expression levels were determined using a cDNA microarray. During the development of the exaggerated fear associated with PTSD, 48 genes were found to be significantly upregulated and 37 were significantly downregulated in the amygdala complex based on stringent criteria (p < 0.01). Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed up- or downregulation in the amygdala complex of four signaling networks – one associated with inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, one with immune mediators and metabolism, one with transcriptional factors, and one with chromatin remodeling. Thus, informatics of a neuronal gene array allowed us to determine the expression profile of mitochondrial genes in the amygdala complex of an animal model of PTSD. The result is a further understanding of the metabolic and neuronal signaling mechanisms associated with delayed and exaggerated fear. PMID:25295026

  4. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was not... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal claims. 3.155..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any...

  5. 26 CFR 601.205 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tort claims. 601.205 Section 601.205 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.205 Tort claims. Claims for property... entitled “Central Office Procedures” and “Claims Regulations” (31 CFR Parts 1 and 3). Such...

  6. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES (Eff. until... claim for damage to persons or property arising out of an act or omission of a student enrolled in the... of a student enrolled in the Job Corps. (b) A claim for damage to person or property hereunder...

  7. 32 CFR 750.64 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... notification of a nonscope claim incident accompanied by a demand for money damages in a sum certain. (c) A... of the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) or Military Claims Act (MCA) shall be considered automatically... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim procedures. 750.64 Section 750.64...

  8. 26 CFR 601.205 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tort claims. 601.205 Section 601.205 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.205 Tort claims. Claims for property... entitled “Central Office Procedures” and “Claims Regulations” (31 CFR Parts 1 and 3). Such...

  9. 32 CFR 750.64 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... notification of a nonscope claim incident accompanied by a demand for money damages in a sum certain. (c) A... of the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) or Military Claims Act (MCA) shall be considered automatically... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim procedures. 750.64 Section 750.64...

  10. 26 CFR 601.205 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tort claims. 601.205 Section 601.205 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.205 Tort claims. Claims for property... entitled “Central Office Procedures” and “Claims Regulations” (31 CFR Parts 1 and 3). Such...

  11. 32 CFR 536.2 - Claims authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims authorities. 536.2 Section 536.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE... implementing the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 CFR Part 14. (C) An appendix to 28 CFR Part 14 sets forth...

  12. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Allowable claims. (a) A claim may be allowed only if: (1) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly...) of this section, and the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss of... types of claims may be allowed, unless excluded by §§ 17.44 and 17.45: (1) Property loss or damage...

  13. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES ACT § 34.4 Allowable claims. (a) What you can claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may... for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft, or other serious occurrence may be... a civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss...

  14. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Erin E; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M; Trehub, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    PVI. Together, these findings suggest that language-based rhythmic structures are evident in children's songs, and that listeners expect exaggerated language-based rhythms in children's songs. The implications of these findings for enculturation processes and for the acquisition of music and language are discussed. PMID:27445907

  15. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation

    PubMed Central

    Ghareib, Salah A; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Azhar, Ahmad; Watson, Malcolm L; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of 6-gingerol on alterations of vascular reactivity in the isolated aorta from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups, control and diabetics. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg−1), and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop vascular complications. The effect of in vitro incubation with 6-gingerol (0.3–3 μM) on the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated diabetic aortae to phenylephrine and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was examined. Effect of 6-gingerol was also examined on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal as an advanced glycation end product (AGE). To investigate the mechanism of action of 6-gingerol, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (100 μM), guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (5 μM), calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM), and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 μM) were added 30 minutes before assessing the direct vasorelaxant effect of 6-gingerol. Moreover, in vitro effects of 6-gingerol on NO release and the effect of 6-gingerol on AGE production were examined. Results showed that incubation of aortae with 6-gingerol (0.3–10 μM) alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner with no significant effect on the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine. Similar results were seen in the aortae exposed to methylglyoxal. In addition, 6-gingerol induced a direct vasodilation effect that was significantly inhibited by Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and methylene blue. Furthermore, 6-gingerol stimulated aortic NO generation but had no effect on AGE formation. In conclusion, 6-gingerol ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae, which may be partially

  16. Functional Correlates of Exaggerated Oscillatory Activity in Basal Ganglia Output in Hemiparkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brazhnik, Elena; Novikov, Nikolay; McCoy, Alex J.; Cruz, Ana V.; Walters, Judith R.

    2014-01-01

    Exaggerated beta range (13–30 Hz) synchronized activity is observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients during implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes and is thought to contribute to the motor symptoms of this disorder. To explore the translational potential of similar activity observed in a rat model of PD, local field potentials (LFP) and spiking activity in basal ganglia output were characterized in rats with unilateral dopamine cell lesion during a range of behaviors. A circular treadmill was used to assess activity during walking; hemiparkinsonian rats could maintain a steady gait when oriented ipsiversive to the lesioned hemisphere, but were less effective at walking when oriented contraversive to lesion. Dramatic increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) LFP oscillatory activity and spike-LFP synchronization were observed within the beta/low gamma range (12–40 Hz) in the lesioned hemisphere, relative to the non-lesioned hemisphere, with the dominant frequency of spike-LFP entrainment and LFP power varying with behavioral state. At 3 weeks post-lesion, the mean dominant entrainment frequency during ipsiversive treadmill walking and grooming was 34 Hz. Other behaviors were associated with lower mean entrainment frequencies: 27–28 Hz during alert non-walking and REM, 17 Hz during rest and 21 Hz during urethane anesthesia with sensory stimulation. SNpr spike-LFP entrainment frequency was stable during individual treadmill walking epochs, but increased gradually over weeks post-lesion. In contrast, SNpr LFP power in the 25–40 Hz range was greatest at the initiation of each walking epoch, and decreased during walking to stabilize by 6 min at 49% of initial values. Power was further modulated in conjunction with the 1.5 s stepping rhythm. Administration of L-dopa improved contraversive treadmill walking in correlation with a reduction in SNpr 25–40 Hz LFP power and spike synchronization in the dopamine cell

  17. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Erin E; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M; Trehub, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    PVI. Together, these findings suggest that language-based rhythmic structures are evident in children's songs, and that listeners expect exaggerated language-based rhythms in children's songs. The implications of these findings for enculturation processes and for the acquisition of music and language are discussed.

  18. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Erin E.; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M.; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2016-01-01

    PVI. Together, these findings suggest that language-based rhythmic structures are evident in children's songs, and that listeners expect exaggerated language-based rhythms in children's songs. The implications of these findings for enculturation processes and for the acquisition of music and language are discussed. PMID:27445907

  19. Nine Galileo Views in Exaggerated Color of Main-Belt Asteroid Ida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This set of color images of asteroid 243 Ida was taken by the imaging system on the Galileo spacecraft as it approached and raced past the asteroid on August 28, 1993. These images were taken through the 4100-angstrom (violet), 7560-angstrom (infrared) and 9680- angstrom (infrared) filters and have been processed to show Ida in exaggerated color to bring out subtle color contrasts caused by small variations in composition and surface microtexture of the asteroid's soil. In natural color Ida appears gray with slight overtones of red or brown. Stark shadows portray Ida's irregular shape, which changes its silhouetted outline when seen from different angles. More subtle shadings reveal surface topography (such as craters) and differences in the physical state and composition of the soil ('regolith'). Note in particular the color differences associated with the rims and floors of certain impact craters, which may have excavated to layers of slightly differing composition or may have ingested material from impactors of different compositions. Analysis of the images show that Ida is 58 kilometers long and 23 kilometers wide (36 x 14 miles). Ida is the first asteroid discovered to have a natural satellite, Dactyl (not shown here). Ida and Dactyl are heavily cratered by impacts with smaller asteroids and comets, including some of the same populations of small objects that bombard Earth. These data, combined with reflectance spectra from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer, may allow scientists to determine whether Ida is a relatively unaltered primitive object made of material condensed from the primordial Solar Nebula at the origin of the Solar System or whether it has been altered by strong heating--evidence interpreted so far suggests that Ida is a piece of a larger object that has been severely heated. Whereas heating and melting of large planets is well understood, the cause of heating of small asteroids is more enigmatic--it may have involved exotic

  20. 32 CFR 536.101 - Settlement authority for claims under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for claims under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.101 Section 536.101 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under...

  1. 32 CFR 536.98 - Claims payable under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.98 Section 536.98 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National Guard...

  2. 32 CFR 536.99 - Claims not payable under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims not payable under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.99 Section 536.99 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National...

  3. 32 CFR 536.78 - Settlement authority for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for claims under the Military Claims Act. 536.78 Section 536.78 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the...

  4. 32 CFR 536.100 - Applicable law for claims under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicable law for claims under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.100 Section 536.100 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the...

  5. 32 CFR 536.97 - Scope for claims under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for claims under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.97 Section 536.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National Guard...

  6. 31 CFR 535.222 - Suspension of claims eligible for Claims Tribunal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Claims Tribunal. 535.222 Section 535.222 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 535.222 Suspension of claims eligible for Claims Tribunal. (a) All claims which may be presented to the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal under the terms of Article II of...

  7. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  8. Handling Claims of Constructive Discharge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, Eric A.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the factors federal investigators and arbitrators use to distinguish between a voluntary quit and a constructive discharge are examined. Several guidelines university administrators can use to preempt and defend such claims are offered. The best way to avoid constructive discharge, it is suggested,is to conduct supervisory training. (MLW)

  9. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  10. Oxidative stress exaggerates skeletal muscle contraction-evoked reflex sympathoexcitation in rats with hypertension induced by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Koba, Satoshi; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Kano, Naoko; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Muscle contraction stimulates thin fiber muscle afferents and evokes reflex sympathoexcitation. In hypertension, this reflex is exaggerated. ANG II, which is elevated in hypertension, has been reported to trigger the production of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that increased ANG II in hypertension exaggerates skeletal muscle contraction-evoked reflex sympathoexcitation by inducing oxidative stress in the muscle. In rats, subcutaneous infusion of ANG II at 450 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) for 14 days significantly (P < 0.05) elevated blood pressure compared with sham-operated (sham) rats. Electrically induced 30-s hindlimb muscle contraction in decerebrate rats with hypertension evoked larger renal sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses [+1,173 ± 212 arbitrary units (AU) and +35 ± 5 mmHg, n = 10] compared with sham normotensive rats (+419 ± 103 AU and +13 ± 2 mmHg, n = 11). Tempol, a SOD mimetic, injected intra-arterially into the hindlimb circulation significantly reduced responses in hypertensive rats, whereas this compound had no effect on responses in sham rats. Tiron, another SOD mimetic, also significantly reduced reflex renal sympathetic and pressor responses in a subset of hypertensive rats (n = 10). Generation of muscle superoxide, as evaluated by dihydroethidium staining, was increased in hypertensive rats. RT-PCR and immunoblot experiments showed that mRNA and protein for gp91(phox), a NADPH oxidase subunit, in skeletal muscle tissue were upregulated in hypertensive rats. Taken together, hese results suggest that increased ANG II in hypertension induces oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, thereby exaggerating the muscle reflex.

  11. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in Idaho: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in Idaho as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate Bureau of Land Management (BLM) State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the Mining Claim Recordation System (MCRS) database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  12. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in Wyoming: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in Wyoming as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate BLM State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the Mining Claim Recordation System (MCRS) database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  13. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in Oregon: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in Oregon as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate Bureau of Land Management (BLM) State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the Mining Claim Recordation System (MCRS) database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  14. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in Washington: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in Washington as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate BLM State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the Mining Claim Recordation System (MCRS) database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  15. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in Colorado: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in Colorado as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate BLM State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the Mining Claim Recordation System (MCRS) database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  16. 76 FR 35086 - Proposed Information Collection (Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits)) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension,...

  17. Digital mine claim density map for Federal lands in Montana, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Harry W.; Hyndman, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes a digital map and data files generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim information for Federal lands in Montana as of March, 1997. Statewide, 159,704 claims had been recorded with the Bureau of Land Management since 1975. Of those claims, 21,055 (13%) are still actively held while 138,649 (87%) are closed and are no longer held. Montana contains 147,704 sections (usually 1 section equals 1 square mile) in the Public Land Survey System, with 8,569 sections (6%) containing claim data. Of the sections with claim data, 2,192 (26%) contain actively held claims. Only 1.5% of Montana’s sections contains actively held mining claims. The four types of mining claim are lode, placer, mill, and tunnel. A mill claim may be as much as 5 acres or 1/128th (0.78125%) of a square mile. A lode claim, about 20 acres, would cover 1/32nd (3.125%) of a square mile. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. The digital map and data files that are available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller. Campbell (1996) summarized the methodology and GIS techniques that were used to produce the mining claim density map of the Pacific Northwest. Campbell and Hyndman (1997) displayed mining claim information for the Pacific Northwest that used data acquired in 1994. Appendix A of this report lists the attribute data for the digital data files. Appendix B contains the GIS metadata.

  18. New methodology in biomedical science: methodological errors in classical science.

    PubMed

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2005-01-01

    The following methodological errors are observed in biomedical sciences: paradigmatic ones; those of exaggerated search for certainty; science dehumanisation; deterministic and linearity; those of making conclusions; errors of reductionism or quality decomposition as well as exaggerated enlargement; errors connected with discarding odd; unexpected or awkward facts; those of exaggerated mathematization; isolation of science; the error of "common sense"; Ceteris Paribus law's ("other things being equal" laws) error; "youth" and common sense; inflexibility of criteria of the truth; errors of restricting the sources of truth and ways of searching for truth; the error connected with wisdom gained post factum; the errors of wrong interpretation of research mission; "laziness" to repeat the experiment as well as the errors of coordination of errors. One of the basic aims for the present-day scholars of biomedicine is, therefore, mastering the new non-linear, holistic, complex way of thinking that will, undoubtedly, enable one to make less errors doing research. The aim of "scientific travelling" will be achieved with greater probability if the "travelling" itself is performed with great probability. PMID:15687745

  19. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerates ethanol-induced liver injury in mice: involvement of intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Yantao; Sun, Xinguo; Song, Zhenyuan; McClain, Craig J; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcoholics have a lower dietary zinc intake compared to health controls. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction between dietary zinc deficiency and ethanol consumption in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6N mice were subjected to 8-week feeding of 4 experimental liquid diets: (1) zinc adequate diet, (2) zinc adequate diet plus ethanol, (3) zinc deficient diet, and (4) zinc deficient diet plus ethanol. Ethanol exposure with adequate dietary zinc resulted in liver damage as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase level and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Dietary zinc deficiency alone increased hepatic lipid contents, but did not induce hepatic inflammation. Dietary zinc deficiency showed synergistic effects on ethanol-induced liver damage. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol effects on hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Dietary zinc deficiency worsened ethanol-induced imbalance between hepatic pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and hepatic expression of cell death receptors. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol-induced reduction of plasma leptin, although it did not affect ethanol-induced reduction of white adipose tissue mass. Dietary zinc deficiency also deteriorated ethanol-induced gut permeability increase and plasma endotoxin elevation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary zinc deficiency is a risk factor in alcoholic liver disease, and multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors may mediate the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency.

  20. Exaggerated neurobiological sensitivity to threat as a mechanism linking anxiety with increased risk for diseases of aging

    PubMed Central

    O’Donovan, Aoife; Slavich, George M; Epel, Elissa S.; Neylan, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders increase risk for the early development of several diseases of aging. Elevated inflammation, a common risk factor across diseases of aging, may play a key role in the relationship between anxiety and physical disease. However, the neurobiological mechanisms linking anxiety with elevated inflammation remain unclear. In this review, we present a neurobiological model of the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes inflammation. Specifically we propose that exaggerated neurobiological sensitivity to threat in anxious individuals may lead to sustained threat perception, which is accompanied by prolonged activation of threat-related neural circuitry and threat-responsive biological systems including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and inflammatory response. Over time, this pattern of responding can promote chronic inflammation through structural and functional brain changes, altered sensitivity of immune cell receptors, dysregulation of the HPA axis and ANS, and accelerated cellular aging. Chronic inflammation, in turn, increases risk for diseases of aging. Exaggerated neurobiological sensitivity to threat may thus be a treatment target for reducing disease risk in anxious individuals. PMID:23127296

  1. 76 FR 72212 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq). The subsurface... published four times in The Delta Discovery. DATES: Any party claiming a property interest in the...

  2. 36 CFR 530.1 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Department of Justice in 28 CFR part 14. Information on specific claims procedures can be obtained as follows... Wilson International Center for Scholars) falls within the purview of the Federal Tort Claims...

  3. 33 CFR 25.603 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Not Cognizable Under Other Law § 25.603 Claims payable. A claim for death, personal injury, or damage... member or a civilian employee of the Coast Guard: (a) Incident to the use of a vehicle of the...

  4. 14 CFR 1261.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... which the claim is made. For example, borrowed property may be the subject of a claim. (c) Subject to... or provided by the United States, except when the claimant is a civilian employee who is a...

  5. 32 CFR 536.2 - Claims authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... implementing the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 CFR part 14. (C) An appendix to 28 CFR part 14 sets forth certain.../85256F33005C2B92/(JAGCNETDocID)/HOME?OPENDOCUMENT. Select the link “Claims Resources.” (1) Tort claims. (i) The... Tort Claims Act (FTCA), 28 U.S.C. 1291, 1402, 2401-2402, 2411-2412, and 2671-2680 (see subpart D...

  6. 5 CFR 177.103 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 177... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.103 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim... assert a claim under the applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss totally compensated by an...

  7. 33 CFR 25.113 - Contents of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General § 25.113 Contents of claim. (a) A claim under the Federal Tort Claims Act must be presented using Standard Form 95, Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. (b) A claim under any other Act may be presented... the claim; (4) The amount claimed, supported by independent evidence of property damage or...

  8. 32 CFR 750.5 - Claims: Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General Provisions for Claims § 750.5 Claims: Proper claimants. (a) Damage to property cases. A claim for... each claim individually is within the Tort Claims Unit Norfolk's adjudicating authority limits, they may be processed by the Tort Claims Unit, even if the aggregate of such claims exceeds the Tort......

  9. 33 CFR 25.113 - Contents of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General § 25.113 Contents of claim. (a) A claim under the Federal Tort Claims Act must be presented using Standard Form 95, Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. (b) A claim under any other Act may be presented... the claim; (4) The amount claimed, supported by independent evidence of property damage or...

  10. 32 CFR 750.5 - Claims: Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Provisions for Claims § 750.5 Claims: Proper claimants. (a) Damage to property cases. A claim for... each claim individually is within the Tort Claims Unit Norfolk's adjudicating authority limits, they may be processed by the Tort Claims Unit, even if the aggregate of such claims exceeds the Tort......

  11. 32 CFR 750.5 - Claims: Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General Provisions for Claims § 750.5 Claims: Proper claimants. (a) Damage to property cases. A claim for... each claim individually is within the Tort Claims Unit Norfolk's adjudicating authority limits, they may be processed by the Tort Claims Unit, even if the aggregate of such claims exceeds the Tort......

  12. 27 CFR 72.32 - Interest claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest claimed. 72.32 Section 72.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.32 Interest claimed. Any person claiming an interest in...

  13. 38 CFR 14.665 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... writing on VA Form 2-4760, Employee's Claim for Reimbursement for Personal Property Damaged or Lost..., children, father or mother or both, or brothers or sisters or both. Claims of survivors shall be settled... property by patients or domiciliary members, a statement as to whether a claim was filed pursuant to 38...

  14. 38 CFR 14.665 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... writing on VA Form 2-4760, Employee's Claim for Reimbursement for Personal Property Damaged or Lost..., children, father or mother or both, or brothers or sisters or both. Claims of survivors shall be settled... property by patients or domiciliary members, a statement as to whether a claim was filed pursuant to 38...

  15. 38 CFR 14.665 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... writing on VA Form 2-4760, Employee's Claim for Reimbursement for Personal Property Damaged or Lost..., children, father or mother or both, or brothers or sisters or both. Claims of survivors shall be settled... property by patients or domiciliary members, a statement as to whether a claim was filed pursuant to 38...

  16. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  17. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  18. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  19. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  20. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  1. 38 CFR 14.665 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the reasonable market value of the article or articles. (3) A statement as to any claims or... if such claim is complete in all respects and conduct such investigation as is necessary to establish... concerning any offer of settlement the carrier may have made. The completed investigation, original claim...

  2. 76 FR 3156 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... within mining claim recordations AA-32360, AA-32362, AA-32363, AA-32364, and AA-32365; Sec. 10, those lands formerly within mining claim recordation AA- 32365. Containing approximately 155 acres. T. 27 N., R. 47 W., Sec. 34, those lands formerly within mining claim recordations AA-32360, AA-32361, and...

  3. 24 CFR 17.67 - Claims files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims files. 17.67 Section 17.67... files. Each claims collection officer is responsible for obtaining current credit data about each person against whom a claim is pending in his office. The file shall be kept reasonably up to date by...

  4. 39 CFR 912.1 - Claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.1 Claims responsibility. The... Federal Tort Claims Act and 39 U.S.C. 2603, with authority to redelegate the functions to General Counsel... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims responsibility. 912.1 Section 912.1...

  5. 32 CFR 842.118 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... party, or the United States asserts a property damage claim under subpart L arising out of the same... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assertable claims. 842.118 Section 842.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND...

  6. 39 CFR 912.1 - Claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.1 Claims responsibility. The... Federal Tort Claims Act and 39 U.S.C. 2603, with authority to redelegate the functions to General Counsel... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims responsibility. 912.1 Section 912.1...

  7. 39 CFR 912.1 - Claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.1 Claims responsibility. The... Federal Tort Claims Act and 39 U.S.C. 2603, with authority to redelegate the functions to General Counsel... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims responsibility. 912.1 Section 912.1...

  8. 39 CFR 912.1 - Claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.1 Claims responsibility. The... Federal Tort Claims Act and 39 U.S.C. 2603, with authority to redelegate the functions to General Counsel... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims responsibility. 912.1 Section 912.1...

  9. 38 CFR 21.1030 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Claims and Applications for Educational Assistance Claims § 21.1030 Claims. (a... administered by VA for pursuit of a program of education, he or she must file an application for educational... program of education or place of training after filing his or her first application for...

  10. 32 CFR 536.15 - Claims policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... such claims, the USARCS Area Action Officer (AAO) must coordinate with the field office as to all... assertion of an affirmative claim must be the result of a discussion between the AAO and the field office... hand, where all claims out of an incident can be paid within field authority they should be...

  11. 32 CFR 536.15 - Claims policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... such claims, the USARCS Area Action Officer (AAO) must coordinate with the field office as to all... assertion of an affirmative claim must be the result of a discussion between the AAO and the field office... hand, where all claims out of an incident can be paid within field authority they should be...

  12. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  13. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  14. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  15. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  16. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  17. 46 CFR 327.4 - Claim requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and all other penalty provisions for making false, fictitious, or fraudulent claims, statements or... clinical records of physicians and hospitals related to a seaman's claim for injury, illness, or death... two preceding calendar years. (5) If the claim does not involve a seaman's death, the...

  18. 46 CFR 327.4 - Claim requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and all other penalty provisions for making false, fictitious, or fraudulent claims, statements or... clinical records of physicians and hospitals related to a seaman's claim for injury, illness, or death... two preceding calendar years. (5) If the claim does not involve a seaman's death, the...

  19. 12 CFR 650.40 - Creditor claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditor claims. 650.40 Section 650.40 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION... or in part any creditor's claim or claim of security, preference, or priority that is not proved...

  20. 28 CFR 345.66 - Claims limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims limitation. 345.66 Section 345.66 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.66 Claims limitation. Claims relating to...

  1. 28 CFR 345.66 - Claims limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims limitation. 345.66 Section 345.66 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.66 Claims limitation. Claims relating to...

  2. 28 CFR 345.66 - Claims limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims limitation. 345.66 Section 345.66 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.66 Claims limitation. Claims relating to...

  3. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for which the claim is made. For example, borrowed property may be the subject of a claim. (c) Subject... the claimant is a local inhabitant; or (iii) Any warehouse, office, working area, or other place... Government other than OPM. (11) Borrowed property. Claims may be allowed for borrowed property that has...

  4. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  5. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  6. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  7. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  8. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  9. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in Arizona: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in Arizona as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate BLM State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the MCRS database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  10. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in Nevada: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in Nevada as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate Bureau of Land Management (BLM) State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the MCRS database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  11. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in Utah: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in Utah as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate BLM State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the MCRS database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  12. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in California: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in California as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate BLM State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the MCRS database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  13. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in New Mexico: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in New Mexico as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate BLM State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the MCRS database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  14. [Health and nutrition claims made on food: what future?].

    PubMed

    Laplace, Jean-Paul

    2006-11-01

    The number of foods bearing health and nutrition claims is growing in line with consumers' expectations. This market offers attractive prospects of profit for industry and commerce. The question is whether such foods really have health effects, and whether the general population or specific groups really benefit from their use. Specific regulations are needed to define the conditions of validation, communication and follow-up of such claims. The European Community's internal market is currently governed by a fragmented set of regulations and enforcement systems. Member states' national regulations differ in substance and application. For these reasons, the European Commission is seeking to create and adopt a common regulation. The following article considers the main stakes relating to consumers' health expectations, public health, and industrial and commercial interests, together with the origins of the concept of "functional foods". In contrast to the 'product based' approach in other cultures (Japan, North America, etc.), Europe has chosen a 'science based' approach focusing on physiological functions. In particular, Europe funded the FUFOSE program (Functional Food Science in Europe) coordinated by ILSI (International Life Science Institute). The bases of true functional food science are considered--how to identify beneficial interactions between food components and specific body functions, and to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to construct hypotheses for testing on volunteers. A methodology based on biological markers has been developed Europe then funded the PASSCLAIM program (Process for the assessment of scientific support for claims on foods) aimed at identifying relationships between a functional effect (normal or enhanced function) and a health benefit or a reduced risk of disease. Selected aspects of these 10-year programs illustrate the scientific bases for a European regulation of nutrition claims and so-called health claims (improved

  15. [Health and nutrition claims made on food: what future?].

    PubMed

    Laplace, Jean-Paul

    2006-11-01

    The number of foods bearing health and nutrition claims is growing in line with consumers' expectations. This market offers attractive prospects of profit for industry and commerce. The question is whether such foods really have health effects, and whether the general population or specific groups really benefit from their use. Specific regulations are needed to define the conditions of validation, communication and follow-up of such claims. The European Community's internal market is currently governed by a fragmented set of regulations and enforcement systems. Member states' national regulations differ in substance and application. For these reasons, the European Commission is seeking to create and adopt a common regulation. The following article considers the main stakes relating to consumers' health expectations, public health, and industrial and commercial interests, together with the origins of the concept of "functional foods". In contrast to the 'product based' approach in other cultures (Japan, North America, etc.), Europe has chosen a 'science based' approach focusing on physiological functions. In particular, Europe funded the FUFOSE program (Functional Food Science in Europe) coordinated by ILSI (International Life Science Institute). The bases of true functional food science are considered--how to identify beneficial interactions between food components and specific body functions, and to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to construct hypotheses for testing on volunteers. A methodology based on biological markers has been developed Europe then funded the PASSCLAIM program (Process for the assessment of scientific support for claims on foods) aimed at identifying relationships between a functional effect (normal or enhanced function) and a health benefit or a reduced risk of disease. Selected aspects of these 10-year programs illustrate the scientific bases for a European regulation of nutrition claims and so-called health claims (improved

  16. Exaggerated haemodynamic and neural responses to involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration in normotensive obese versus lean women.

    PubMed

    Dipla, Konstantina; Kousoula, Dimitra; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure response to voluntary exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We examined whether involuntary contractions elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of blood pressure in normotensive obese versus lean women. What is the main finding and its importance? During involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration, there were augmented blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex responses in obese compared with lean women. This finding is suggestive of an overactive mechanoreflex in the exercise-induced hypertensive response in obesity. Passive contractions did not elicit differential heart rate responses in obese compared with lean women, implying other mechanisms for the blunted heart rate response reported during voluntary exercise in obesity. In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether involuntary mechanical oscillations, induced by whole-body vibration (WBV), elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of BP in obese versus lean women. Twenty-two normotensive, premenopausal women (12 lean and 10 obese) randomly underwent a passive WBV (25 Hz) and a control protocol (similar posture without WVB). Beat-by-beat BP, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, parasympathetic output (evaluated by heart rate variability) and spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity (sBRS) were assessed. We found that during WBV, obese women exhibited an augmented systolic BP response compared with lean women that was correlated with body fat percentage (r = 0.77; P < 0.05). The exaggerated BP rise was driven mainly by the greater increase in cardiac output index in obese versus lean women, associated with a greater stroke volume index in obese women

  17. Evidence, exaggeration, and error in historical accounts of chaparral wildfires in California.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Brett R; Minnich, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    For more than half a century, ecologists and historians have been integrating the contemporary study of ecosystems with data gathered from historical sources to evaluate change over broad temporal and spatial scales. This approach is especially useful where ecosystems were altered before formal study as a result of natural resources management, land development, environmental pollution, and climate change. Yet, in many places, historical documents do not provide precise information, and pre-historical evidence is unavailable or has ambiguous interpretation. There are similar challenges in evaluating how the fire regime of chaparral in California has changed as a result of fire suppression management initiated at the beginning of the 20th century. Although the firestorm of October 2003 was the largest officially recorded in California (approximately 300,000 ha), historical accounts of pre-suppression wildfires have been cited as evidence that such a scale of burning was not unprecedented, suggesting the fire regime and patch mosaic in chaparral have not substantially changed. We find that the data do not support pre-suppression megafires, and that the impression of large historical wildfires is a result of imprecision and inaccuracy in the original reports, as well as a parlance that is beset with hyperbole. We underscore themes of importance for critically analyzing historical documents to evaluate ecological change. A putative 100 mile long by 10 mile wide (160 x 16 km) wildfire reported in 1889 was reconstructed to an area of chaparral approximately 40 times smaller by linking local accounts to property tax records, voter registration rolls, claimed insurance, and place names mapped with a geographical information system (GIS) which includes data from historical vegetation surveys. We also show that historical sources cited as evidence of other large chaparral wildfires are either demonstrably inaccurate or provide anecdotal information that is immaterial in the

  18. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  19. Causation in the sciences: an inferentialist account.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Julian

    2012-12-01

    I present an alternative account of causation in the biomedical and social sciences according to which the meaning of causal claims is given by their inferential relations to other claims. Specifically, I will argue that causal claims are (typically) inferentially related to certain evidential claims as well as claims about explanation, prediction, intervention and responsibility. I explain in some detail what it means for a claim to be inferentially related to another and finally derive some implication of the proposed account for the epistemology, semantics and metaphysics of causation. PMID:22883394

  20. Effectiveness of symptom validity measures in identifying cognitive and behavioral symptom exaggeration in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul; Schroeder, Ryan; O'Brien, Jeffrey; Fischer, Rebecca; Ries, Adam; Blesi, Brita; Barker, Jessica

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of symptom validity measures to detect suspect effort in cognitive testing and invalid completion of ADHD behavior rating scales in 268 adults referred for ADHD assessment. Patients were diagnosed with ADHD based on cognitive testing, behavior rating scales, and clinical interview. Suspect effort was diagnosed by at least two of the following: failure on embedded and free-standing SVT measures, a score > 2 SD below the ADD population average on tests, failure on an ADHD behavior rating scale validity scale, or a major discrepancy between reported and observed ADHD behaviors. A total of 22% of patients engaged in symptom exaggeration. The Word Memory test immediate recall and consistency score (both 64%), TOVA omission errors (63%) and reaction time variability (54%), CAT-A infrequency scale (58%), and b Test (47%) had good sensitivity as well as at least 90% specificity. Clearly, such measures should be used to help avoid making false positive diagnoses of ADHD.

  1. Exaggerated sexual swellings and male mate choice in primates: testing the reliable indicator hypothesis in the Amboseli baboons

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm of competitive males vying to influence female mate choice has been repeatedly upheld, but, increasingly, studies also report competitive females and choosy males. One female trait that is commonly proposed to influence male mate choice is the exaggerated sexual swelling displayed by females of many Old World primate species. The reliable indicator hypothesis posits that females use the exaggerated swellings to compete for access to mates, and that the swellings advertise variation in female fitness. We tested the two main predictions of this hypothesis in a wild population of baboons (Papio cynocephalus). First, we examined the effect of swelling size on the probability of mate-guarding (‘consortship’) by the highest-ranking male and the behavior of those males that trailed consorshipts (‘follower males’). Second, we asked whether a female’s swelling size predicted several fitness measures. We found that high-ranking males do not prefer females with larger swellings (when controlling for cycle number and conception) and that females with larger swellings did not have higher reproductive success. Our study—the only complete test of the reliable indicator hypothesis in a primate population—rejects the idea that female baboons compete for mates by advertising heritable fitness differences. Furthermore, we found unambiguous evidence that males biased their mating decisions in favor of females who had experienced more sexual cycles since their most recent pregnancy. Thus, rather than tracking the potential differences in fitness between females, male baboons appear to track and target the potential for a given reproductive opportunity to result in fertilization. PMID:26752790

  2. Tetrahydrobiopterin ameliorates the exaggerated exercise pressor response in patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ann M; Liao, Peizhou; Millson, Erin C; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Park, Jeanie

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have an exaggerated increase in blood pressure (BP) during rhythmic handgrip exercise (RHG 20%) and static handgrip exercise (SHG 30%). Nitric oxide levels increase during exercise and help prevent excessive hypertension by both increasing vasodilation and reducing sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Therefore, we hypothesized that tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase, would ameliorate the exaggerated exercise pressor response in CKD patients. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, we tested the effects of 12 wk of sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4; n = 18) versus placebo (n = 14) treatement on BP and muscle SNA (MSNA) responses during RHG 20% and SHG 30% in CKD patients. The 6R-BH4-treated group had a significantly lower systolic BP (+6 ± 1 vs. +13 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.002) and mean arterial pressure response (+5 ± 1 vs. +10 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.020) during RHG 20% and a significantly lower systolic BP response (+19 ± 3 vs. +28 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.043) during SHG 30%. Under baseline conditions, there was no significant difference in MSNA responses between the groups; however, when the BP response during exercise was equalized between the groups using nitroprusside, the 6R-BH4-treated group had a significantly lower MSNA response during RHG 20% (6R-BH4 vs. placebo, +12 ± 1 vs. +21 ± 2 bursts/min, P = 0.004) but not during SHG 30%. These findings suggest that 6R-BH4 ameliorates the augmented BP response during RHG 20% and SHG 30% in CKD patients. A reduction in reflex activation of SNA may contribute to the decreased exercise pressor response during RHG 20% but not during SHG 30% in CKD patients. PMID:26962106

  3. 13 CFR 114.103 - Who may file a claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tort Claims § 114.103 Who may file a claim? (a) If a claim is based on factors listed in the first... entitled to assert the claim under applicable state law. Loss wholly compensated by an insurer with...

  4. 40 CFR 10.3 - Administrative claims; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claims; who may file. 10... CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.3 Administrative claims; who may file. (a) A claim... by any other person legally entitled to assert such a claim under applicable State law. (d) A...

  5. 42 CFR 424.32 - Basic requirements for all claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... meanings: (i) Claim means a transaction defined at 45 CFR 162.1101(a). (ii) Electronic claim means a claim... electronic claim. (iii) Direct data entry is defined at 45 CFR 162.103. (iv) Electronic media is defined at 45 CFR 160.103. (v) Initial Medicare claim means a claim submitted to Medicare for payment under...

  6. 42 CFR 424.32 - Basic requirements for all claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... meanings: (i) Claim means a transaction defined at 45 CFR 162.1101(a). (ii) Electronic claim means a claim... electronic claim. (iii) Direct data entry is defined at 45 CFR 162.103. (iv) Electronic media is defined at 45 CFR 160.103. (v) Initial Medicare claim means a claim submitted to Medicare for payment under...

  7. 44 CFR 11.19 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Administrative Claims Under Federal Tort Claims Act § 11.19... execution of (1) a “Claim for Damage or Injury,” Standard Form 95, or a claims settlement agreement, and (2... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Action on approved claim....

  8. 44 CFR 11.19 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Administrative Claims Under Federal Tort Claims Act § 11.19... execution of (1) a “Claim for Damage or Injury,” Standard Form 95, or a claims settlement agreement, and (2... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action on approved claim....

  9. 20 CFR 429.103 - Who may file my claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....103 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 429.103 Who may file my claim? (a) Claims for damage to or loss of property. If you are the owner of...

  10. Does workplace health promotion decrease medical claims?

    PubMed

    Wheat, J R; Graney, M J; Shachtman, R H; Ginn, G L; Patrick, D L; Hulka, B S

    1992-01-01

    We examined the relationship between workplace health promotion and medical claims in 38 textile plants, considering also the effects of demographic and contextual variables (i.e., average worker age, sex ratio, racial composition, plant product, and access to medical services). Number of claims per worker varied threefold among plants but was independent of plant workforce's sex ratio, racial composition, and access to medical services. Worker age predicted claims; in a linear regression model, age, sex, race, plant product, and access explained 23% of variance in claims. Health promotion was also related to claims, and its inclusion in the model (with interaction terms involving plant product) explained 54% of variance in claims, with the deletion of race, sex, and access from the reduced model. We concluded that effective health promotion must address the contexts of different types of plant product.

  11. [Health claims for medical foods].

    PubMed

    Katan, Martijn B

    2013-01-01

    Souvenaid (Nutricia, Zoetermeer, the Netherlands) is a medical food for the dietary management of early Alzheimer's disease. The mix of nutrients in this drink is suggested to have a beneficial effect on cognitive function; such implicit health claims for medical foods are not checked by government agencies. Souvenaid has been investigated in three clinical trials. The first trial showed that Souvenaid produced a significant improvement in delayed verbal recall, but not in other psychological tests. The second and largest trial showed no effect on any outcome. The third trial showed no significant effect at 12 or 24 weeks, but a significant difference in the 24-week time course of the composite memory score. None of these outcomes was clearly specified as a primary outcome at trial registration. In conclusion, there is no convincing proof that Souvenaid benefits cognitive function. Better scrutiny of the efficacy of medical foods is warranted. PMID:23759182

  12. "Science" Rejects Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report, "Scientific Research in Education," claims to present an inclusive view of sciences in responding to federal attempts to legislate educational research. This article asserts that it narrowly defines science as positivism and methodology as quantitative, rejecting postmodernism and omitting other theories. Uses…

  13. Comment: "Science" Rejects Postmodernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report "Scientific Research in Education" claims to present an inclusive view of science as it responds to federal government attempts to legislate educational research. This author argues, however, that the report in fact narrowly defines "science" as positivism and "methodology" as quantitative. These definitions…

  14. Health Insurance Claim Review Using Information Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Sik; Speedie, Stuart M.; Yoon, Hojung; Lee, Jiseon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)'s payment request (PARE) system that plays the role of the gateway for all health insurance claims submitted to HIRA, and the claim review support (CRS) system that supports the work of claim review experts in South Korea. Methods This study describes the two systems' information technology (IT) infrastructures, their roles, and quantitative analysis of their work performance. It also reports the impact of these systems on claims processing by analyzing the health insurance claim data submitted to HIRA from April 1 to June 30, 2011. Results The PARE system returned to healthcare providers 2.7% of all inpatient claims (97,930) and 0.1% of all outpatient claims (317,007) as un-reviewable claims. The return rate was the highest for the hospital group as 0.49% and the lowest rate was found in clinic group. The CRS system's detection rate of the claims with multiple errors in inpatient and outpatient areas was 23.1% and 2.9%, respectively. The highest rate of error detection occurred at guideline check-up stages in both inpatient and outpatient groups. Conclusions The study found that HIRA's two IT systems had a critical role in reducing heavy administrative workloads through automatic data processing. Although the return rate of the problematic claims to providers and the error detection rate by two systems was low, the actual count of the returned claims was large. The role of IT will become increasingly important in reducing the workload of health insurance claims review. PMID:23115745

  15. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  16. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  17. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  18. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  19. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  20. Standard claims and appeals forms. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-25

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its adjudication regulations and the appeals regulations and rules of practice of the Board of Veterans' Appeals (Board) to require that all claims governed by VA's adjudication regulations be filed on standard forms prescribed by the Secretary, regardless of the type of claim or posture in which the claim arises. This rulemaking also eliminates the constructive receipt of VA reports of hospitalization or examination and other medical records as informal claims for increase or to reopen while retaining the retroactive effective date assignment for awards for claims for increase which are filed on a standard form within 1 year of such hospitalization, examination, or treatment. This final rule also implements the concept of an intent to file a claim for benefits, which operates similarly to the current informal claim process, but requires that the submission establishing a claimant's effective date of benefits must be received in one of three specified formats. Finally, these amendments will provide that VA will accept an expression of dissatisfaction or disagreement with an adjudicative determination by the agency of original jurisdiction(AOJ) as a Notice of Disagreement (NOD) only if it is submitted on a standardized form provided by VA for the purpose of appealing the decision, in cases where such a form is provided. Although a standardized NOD form will only initially be provided in connection with decisions on compensation claims, VA may require a standard NOD form for any type of claim for VA benefits if, in the future, it develops and provides a standardized NOD form for a particular benefit. The purpose of these amendments is to improve the quality and timeliness of the processing of veterans' claims for benefits by standardizing the claims and appeals processes through the use of forms. PMID:25255502

  1. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEHB claims under authority of Federal statute (chapter 89, title 5, United States Code). A covered... of the Carrier's request) for submitting the information; and (iv) State the consequences of failure... claims/court review of disputed claims. 1652.204-72 Section 1652.204-72 Federal Acquisition...

  2. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEHB claims under authority of Federal statute (chapter 89, title 5, United States Code). A covered... of the Carrier's request) for submitting the information; and (iv) State the consequences of failure... claims/court review of disputed claims. 1652.204-72 Section 1652.204-72 Federal Acquisition...

  3. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEHB claims under authority of Federal statute (chapter 89, title 5, United States Code). A covered... of the Carrier's request) for submitting the information; and (iv) State the consequences of failure... claims/court review of disputed claims. 1652.204-72 Section 1652.204-72 Federal Acquisition...

  4. 32 CFR 536.77 - Applicable law for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The United States will only be liable for the portion of loss or damage attributable to the fault of the United States or its employees. Joint and several liability is inapplicable. (v) No allowance will... ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military...

  5. 32 CFR 536.74 - Scope for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claims against the United States for death or personal injury, or damage to, or loss or destruction of..., Glossary). (b) A tort claim arising in the United States, its commonwealths, territories, and possessions may be settled under this subpart if the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) does not apply to the type...

  6. 32 CFR 536.74 - Scope for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... claims against the United States for death or personal injury, or damage to, or loss or destruction of..., Glossary). (b) A tort claim arising in the United States, its commonwealths, territories, and possessions may be settled under this subpart if the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) does not apply to the type...

  7. 28 CFR 801.1 - Claims filed under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such administrative claims are contained in 28 CFR part 14. The provisions in this part supplement the general provisions in order to describe specific procedures to follow when filing a claim with the Court... Claims Act. 801.1 Section 801.1 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION...

  8. 28 CFR 801.1 - Claims filed under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... such administrative claims are contained in 28 CFR part 14. The provisions in this part supplement the general provisions in order to describe specific procedures to follow when filing a claim with the Court... Claims Act. 801.1 Section 801.1 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION...

  9. 28 CFR 801.1 - Claims filed under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... such administrative claims are contained in 28 CFR part 14. The provisions in this part supplement the general provisions in order to describe specific procedures to follow when filing a claim with the Court... Claims Act. 801.1 Section 801.1 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION...

  10. 28 CFR 801.1 - Claims filed under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... such administrative claims are contained in 28 CFR part 14. The provisions in this part supplement the general provisions in order to describe specific procedures to follow when filing a claim with the Court... Claims Act. 801.1 Section 801.1 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION...

  11. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the loss for which the carrier will pay there will be deducted from the gross amount of the ascertained actual loss one-fourth of 1 percent of the established loading weight to...

  12. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the loss for which the carrier will pay there will be deducted from the gross amount of the ascertained actual loss one-fourth of 1 percent of the established loading weight to...

  13. 37 CFR 1.164 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Plant Patents § 1.164 Claim. The claim shall be in formal terms to the new and distinct variety of the specified plant as described...

  14. 37 CFR 1.164 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Plant Patents § 1.164 Claim. The claim shall be in formal terms to the new and distinct variety of the specified plant as described...

  15. 47 CFR 1.1120 - Error claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Error claims. 1.1120 Section 1.1120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1120 Error claims. (a) Applicants who wish...

  16. 47 CFR 1.1120 - Error claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Error claims. 1.1120 Section 1.1120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1120 Error claims. (a) Applicants who wish...

  17. 47 CFR 1.1120 - Error claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Error claims. 1.1120 Section 1.1120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1120 Error claims. (a) Applicants who wish...

  18. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF... Vietnam conflict but were subsequently determined to have been interned, in hiding, or captured by a... military servicemen held as prisoners of war by forces hostile to the United States. (b) A...

  19. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF... Vietnam conflict but were subsequently determined to have been interned, in hiding, or captured by a... military servicemen held as prisoners of war by forces hostile to the United States. (b) A...

  20. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF... Vietnam conflict but were subsequently determined to have been interned, in hiding, or captured by a... military servicemen held as prisoners of war by forces hostile to the United States. (b) A...

  1. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF... Vietnam conflict but were subsequently determined to have been interned, in hiding, or captured by a... military servicemen held as prisoners of war by forces hostile to the United States. (b) A...

  2. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF... Vietnam conflict but were subsequently determined to have been interned, in hiding, or captured by a... military servicemen held as prisoners of war by forces hostile to the United States. (b) A...

  3. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In... invisible loss and waste; provided, however, that where grain and grain products heat in transit and... for said loss, then the ascertained actual amount of the invisible loss due to heating of the...

  4. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In... invisible loss and waste; provided, however, that where grain and grain products heat in transit and... for said loss, then the ascertained actual amount of the invisible loss due to heating of the...

  5. 40 CFR 35.6600 - Contractor claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6600 Contractor claims. (a) General... against the recipient under a contract, provided: (1) The claim arises from work within the scope of...

  6. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer wishing to make claims regarding the acoustic effectiveness of a device, other than the Noise...

  7. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer wishing to make claims regarding the acoustic effectiveness of a device, other than the Noise...

  8. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer wishing to make claims regarding the acoustic effectiveness of a device, other than the Noise...

  9. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer wishing to make claims regarding the acoustic effectiveness of a device, other than the Noise...

  10. 29 CFR 15.42 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Tort Claims Act, as amended, for money damages against the United States for injury to or loss of... responsibility of the United States for the personal injury or the damages claimed. (b) Death. In support of a... other evidence or information which may have a bearing on either the responsibility of the United......

  11. 20 CFR 422.130 - Claim procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.130 Claim procedure. (a) General. The Social Security Administration provides facilities for the public to... station of the Social Security Administration, from the Division of Foreign Claims, Post Office Box...

  12. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  13. 18 CFR 1308.6 - Fraudulent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraudulent claims. 1308.6 Section 1308.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.6 Fraudulent claims. (a) If a Contractor is unable to support any part of...

  14. 18 CFR 1308.6 - Fraudulent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraudulent claims. 1308.6 Section 1308.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.6 Fraudulent claims. (a) If a Contractor is unable to support any part of...

  15. 18 CFR 1308.6 - Fraudulent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraudulent claims. 1308.6 Section 1308.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.6 Fraudulent claims. (a) If a Contractor is unable to support any part of...

  16. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  17. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME... records showing proof for claims, the three years will begin again each time you make the claim. Federal Trade Commission staff members can check these records at any time, but they must give you...

  18. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  19. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  20. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  1. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME... records showing proof for claims, the three years will begin again each time you make the claim. Federal Trade Commission staff members can check these records at any time, but they must give you...

  2. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  3. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME... records showing proof for claims, the three years will begin again each time you make the claim. Federal Trade Commission staff members can check these records at any time, but they must give you...

  4. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  5. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  6. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME... records showing proof for claims, the three years will begin again each time you make the claim. Federal Trade Commission staff members can check these records at any time, but they must give you...

  7. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  8. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  9. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  10. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME... records showing proof for claims, the three years will begin again each time you make the claim. Federal Trade Commission staff members can check these records at any time, but they must give you...

  11. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the debtor or any party having an interest in the claim to the USAID Office of Inspector General... the Department of Justice (DOJ), and/or returning it to the CFO for further action. (b) The CFO will... presentation of a false claim or misrepresentation on the part of the debtor or any party having an interest...

  12. Psychotropic medication claims among religious clergy.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Steven M; Mustillo, Sarah A; Foy, Steven L; Arroyave, Whitney D; Hooten, Elizabeth G; Lauderback, Kari H; Meador, Keith G

    2013-03-01

    This study examined psychotropic medication claims in a sample of Protestant clergy. It estimated the proportion of clergy in the sample who had a claim for psychotropic medication (i.e., anti-depressants and anxiolytics) in 2005 and examined associations between sociodemographic characteristics, occupational distress and having a claim. Protestant clergy (n = 749) from nine denominations completed a mail survey and provided access to their pharmaceutical records. Logistic regression models assessed the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and occupational distress on having a claim. The descriptive analysis revealed that 16 % (95 % Confidence interval [CI] 13.3 %-18.5 %) of the clergy in the sample had a claim for psychotropic medication in 2005 and that, among clergy who experienced frequent occupational distress, 28 % (95 % CI 17.5 %-37.5 %) had a claim. The regression analysis found that older clergy, female clergy, and those who experienced frequent occupational distress were more likely to have a claim. Due to recent demographic changes in the clergy population, including the increasing mean age of new clergy and the growing number of female clergy, the proportion of clergy having claims for psychotropic medication may increase in the coming years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the use of psychotropic medication among clergy.

  13. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the loss for which the carrier will pay there will be deducted from the gross amount of the ascertained actual loss one-fourth of 1 percent of the established loading weight to...

  14. 32 CFR 750.64 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claimant may amend a claim at any time prior to final action. Amendments will be submitted in writing and... not in the scope of their employment at the time of the incident. If a tender of payment under this section is not accepted by the claimant in full satisfaction of the claim, no award will be made, and...

  15. 40 CFR 13.3 - Interagency claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interagency claims. 13.3 Section 13.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.3... will be resolved by negotiation between the agencies or by referral to the General Accounting...

  16. 40 CFR 13.3 - Interagency claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interagency claims. 13.3 Section 13.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.3... will be resolved by negotiation between the agencies or by referral to the General Accounting...

  17. 40 CFR 13.3 - Interagency claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interagency claims. 13.3 Section 13.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.3... will be resolved by negotiation between the agencies or by referral to the General Accounting...

  18. 40 CFR 13.3 - Interagency claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interagency claims. 13.3 Section 13.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.3... will be resolved by negotiation between the agencies or by referral to the General Accounting...

  19. 49 CFR 1018.32 - Bankruptcy claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bankruptcy claims. 1018.32 Section 1018.32... § 1018.32 Bankruptcy claims. When the Board receives information that a debtor has filed a petition in bankruptcy or is the subject of a bankruptcy proceeding, it shall suspend all collection actions against...

  20. 49 CFR 1018.32 - Bankruptcy claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bankruptcy claims. 1018.32 Section 1018.32... § 1018.32 Bankruptcy claims. When the Board receives information that a debtor has filed a petition in bankruptcy or is the subject of a bankruptcy proceeding, it shall suspend all collection actions against...

  1. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.19 Claims. (a) Member's responsibility. Members receiving... identified in § 732.20. A complete claim includes: (1) NAVMED 6320/10, Statement of Civilian...

  2. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.19 Claims. (a) Member's responsibility. Members receiving... identified in § 732.20. A complete claim includes: (1) NAVMED 6320/10, Statement of Civilian...

  3. 5 CFR 180.107 - Claims procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims procedure. 180.107 Section 180.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... General Counsel, Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20415. Claims shall...

  4. 24 CFR 203.371 - Partial claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Claim Procedure § 203.371 Partial claim. (a... not exceeded the equivalent of 12 monthly mortgage payments; (3) The mortgagor is able to...

  5. 49 CFR 22.69 - Claim process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claim process. 22.69 Section 22.69 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.69 Claim process. After reasonable efforts have been exhausted to collect on a delinquent debt,...

  6. 49 CFR 22.69 - Claim process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Claim process. 22.69 Section 22.69 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.69 Claim process. After reasonable efforts have been exhausted to collect on a delinquent debt,...

  7. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act or... subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident to service with the Department... excluded: (1) Property or damage in quarters or other authorized places. Claims may be allowable for...

  8. 44 CFR 295.33 - Supplementing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementing claims. 295.33 Section 295.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE Claims Evaluation §...

  9. 44 CFR 295.33 - Supplementing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplementing claims. 295.33 Section 295.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE Claims Evaluation §...

  10. The class certification of medical monitoring claims.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Pankaj

    2002-10-01

    The tort claim of medical monitoring has produced a disarrayed set of state and federal court opinions. The procedural dimensions of this claim are as vexing as the related substantive issues with which courts and commentators have long been grappling. Ordinarily, mass tort actions, typically involving claims for money damages, are certified under Rule 23(b)(3), which class category requires the right to notice and to opt out of a proceeding, and the fulfillment of "predominance" and "superiority" requirements. Such features are absent in Rule 23's mandatory classes. Nevertheless, this Note argues that it is appropriate for claims exclusively for medical monitoring to be certified as a mandatory class action under Rule 23(b)(2) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or its state law counterparts. Given that a medical monitoring fund is an equitable remedy, nonpreclusive of a future damages claim, and groupwide in nature, the (b)(2) class category adequately protects the due process rights of class plaintiffs.

  11. Self-expanding metallic stent placement with an exaggerated 5-cm proximal tumor covering for palliation of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tahiri, Mehdi; Ferraro, Pasquale; Duranceau, André; Berthiaume, Melanie; Thiffault, Vicky; Liberman, Moishe

    2015-01-01

    Background The study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes with a technique of self-expanding metallic stent insertion in palliative esophageal cancer patients. We hypothesized that a systematic attempt at exaggerated (5 cm) proximal tumor covering could prevent both stent migration and tumor overgrowth/undergrowth. Methods We reviewed retrospectively all patients who underwent esophageal stenting for palliation of malignant dysphagia over a 24-month period. Consecutive patients were identified from a prospective thoracic surgery interventional endoscopy database. This technique consisted of endoscopic stent insertion with the aim of landing the proximal portion of the stent 5 cm cephalad to the proximal extent of the tumor. All patients were followed at one month post-procedure and every three months thereafter, until death. Short- and long-term complications associated with the procedure and mortality were evaluated. Results Forty seven patients underwent endoscopic insertion of an esophageal stent in the context of an inoperable esophageal cancer using this technique over a 24-month period. The mean age was 70.4±9.6 years. Four (8.5%) patients underwent re-stenting due to proximal tumor overgrowth. No stent migration, perforation, tumor ingrowth or stent occlusion was reported. The mean patient survival was 146±26.5 days. Conclusions Esophageal stent insertion under endoscopic guidance with proximal tumor covering of 5 cm is effective and safe. No cases of stent migration and a low incidence of tumor overgrowth/undergrowth were observed with this technique. PMID:26126578

  12. Monocyte Subpopulations from Pre-Eclamptic Patients Are Abnormally Skewed and Exhibit Exaggerated Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14lowCD16+ monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14highCD16+ and CD14lowCD16+ monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease. PMID:22848746

  13. Hypoxia stress test reveals exaggerated cardiovascular effects in hypertensive rats after exposure to the air pollutant acrolein.

    PubMed

    Perez, Christina M; Ledbetter, Allen D; Hazari, Mehdi S; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P; Winsett, Darrell W; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations. Despite increased risk, adverse responses are often delayed and require additional stress tests to reveal latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study was to use an episode of "transient hypoxia" as an extrinsic stressor to uncover latent susceptibility to environmental pollutants in a rodent model of hypertension. We hypothesized that exposure to acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde and mucosal irritant found in cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, and power plant emissions, would increase cardiopulmonary sensitivity to hypoxia, particularly in hypertensive rats. Spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto (normotensive) rats, implanted with radiotelemeters, were exposed once for 3h to 3 ppm acrolein gas or filtered air in whole-body plethysmograph chambers and challenged with a 10% oxygen atmosphere (10min) 24h later. Acrolein exposure increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing frequency, and minute volume in hypertensive rats and also increased the heart rate variability parameter LF, suggesting a potential role for increased sympathetic tone. Normotensive rats only had increased blood pressure during acrolein exposure. The hypoxia stress test after acrolein exposure revealed increased diastolic blood pressure only in hypertensive rats and increased minute volume and expiratory time only in normotensive rats. These results suggest that hypertension confers exaggerated sensitivity to air pollution and that the hypoxia stress test is a novel tool to reveal the potential latent effects of air pollution exposure.

  14. Cues to body size in the formant spacing of male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) bellows: honesty in an exaggerated trait.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Ellis, William A H; McKinnon, Allan J; Cowin, Gary J; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-10-15

    Determining the information content of vocal signals and understanding morphological modifications of vocal anatomy are key steps towards revealing the selection pressures acting on a given species' vocal communication system. Here, we used a combination of acoustic and anatomical data to investigate whether male koala bellows provide reliable information on the caller's body size, and to confirm whether male koalas have a permanently descended larynx. Our results indicate that the spectral prominences of male koala bellows are formants (vocal tract resonances), and show that larger males have lower formant spacing. In contrast, no relationship between body size and the fundamental frequency was found. Anatomical investigations revealed that male koalas have a permanently descended larynx: the first example of this in a marsupial. Furthermore, we found a deeply anchored sternothyroid muscle that could allow male koalas to retract their larynx into the thorax. While this would explain the low formant spacing of the exhalation and initial inhalation phases of male bellows, further research will be required to reveal the anatomical basis for the formant spacing of the later inhalation phases, which is predictive of vocal tract lengths of around 50 cm (nearly the length of an adult koala's body). Taken together, these findings show that the formant spacing of male koala bellows has the potential to provide receivers with reliable information on the caller's body size, and reveal that vocal adaptations allowing callers to exaggerate (or maximise) the acoustic impression of their size have evolved independently in marsupials and placental mammals.

  15. Insights into the Development and Evolution of Exaggerated Traits Using De Novo Transcriptomes of Two Species of Horned Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ian A.; Vera, J. Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H.; Emlen, Douglas J.; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as “horns”. These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits. PMID:24586317

  16. Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ian A; Vera, J Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H; Emlen, Douglas J; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as "horns". These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits.

  17. 'Holding' and 'endorsing' claims in the course of scientific activities.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Hugh

    2015-10-01

    My principal aims are to show that holding, adopting and endorsing (definitions of which I provide) are distinct cognitive attitudes that may be taken towards claims at different moments of scientific activities, and that none of them are reducible to acceptance (as defined by Jonathan Cohen); to explore in detail the differences between holding and accepting, using the controversies about GMOs to provide illustrations; and to draw some implications pertinent to democratic decision-making concerning public policies about science and technology, and to the responsibilities that scientists thereby incur. PMID:26386534

  18. 24 CFR 17.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 17.3 Section 17.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures § 17.3 Administrative claim; who may...

  19. 34 CFR 35.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 35.3 Section 35.3... § 35.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be... assert such a claim under applicable state law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an...

  20. 44 CFR 11.12 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 11.12 Section 11.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Administrative Claims Under Federal Tort Claims Act § 11.12 Administrative claim; who may file. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 1014.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 1014.3 Section 1014.3... § 1014.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be... to assert such a claim under the applicable State law. (d) A claim for a loss that was...

  2. 14 CFR 15.5 - Administrative claim, who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim, who may file. 15.5... claim, who may file. (a) A claim for injury to, or loss of, property may be presented by the owner of... assert such a claim under applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an...

  3. 45 CFR 35.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 35.3 Section... AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or... person legally entitled to assert such a claim under applicable state law. (d) A claim for loss...

  4. 40 CFR 1620.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by the owner of the property, or his or... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may...

  5. 32 CFR 750.44 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.44 Claims not payable. (a) Any claim for damage, loss, destruction, injury, or... Chapter. (4) Federal Tort Claims Act. 28 U.S.C. 2671, 2672, and 2674-2680. (5) International Agreements...) Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act. 33 U.S.C. 901-950. (e) Any claim for damage to or loss...

  6. 40 CFR 1620.10 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.10 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a... Damage, Injury or Death); a claims settlement agreement; and a Standard Form 1145 (Voucher for Payment... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action on approved claim....

  7. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  8. 40 CFR 1620.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by the owner of the property, or his or... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may...

  9. 40 CFR 1620.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by the owner of the property, or his or... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may...

  10. 29 CFR 15.4 - Administrative claim; where to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 15.4 Administrative... executed “Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death” on Standard Form 95, or other written notification of...

  11. 40 CFR 1620.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by the owner of the property, or his or... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may...

  12. 38 CFR 14.617 - Disposition of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICES, GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Administrative Settlement of Tort Claims Arising in Foreign Countries § 14.617 Disposition of claims. (a) Disposition of claims arising in Philippines. All... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposition of claims....

  13. 40 CFR 1620.10 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.10 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a... Damage, Injury or Death); a claims settlement agreement; and a Standard Form 1145 (Voucher for Payment... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action on approved claim....

  14. 14 CFR § 1261.312 - Action on approved claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Claims Against NASA or Its Employees for Damage to or Loss of Property or... claimant a Voucher for Payment of Tort Claims (NASA Form 616) if the claim has been acted upon pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 2473(c)(13), or a Voucher for Payment under Federal Tort Claims Act (Standard Form 1145)...

  15. 40 CFR 1620.10 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.10 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a... Damage, Injury or Death); a claims settlement agreement; and a Standard Form 1145 (Voucher for Payment... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Action on approved claim....

  16. 40 CFR 1620.10 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.10 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a... Damage, Injury or Death); a claims settlement agreement; and a Standard Form 1145 (Voucher for Payment... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Action on approved claim....

  17. 5 CFR 177.110 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.110 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a... Damage, Injury or Death); a claims settlement agreement; and a Standard Form 1145 (Voucher for Payment... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action on approved claim. 177.110...

  18. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  19. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  20. 46 CFR 204.4 - Time limitations on claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.4 Time limitations on claims. (a) A claim... Standard Form 95, “Claims for Damage, Injury, or Death,” or written notification of an incident, together with a claim for money damages in a sum certain, for death, personal injury, or damage to or loss...

  1. 32 CFR 750.26 - The administrative claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The administrative claim. 750.26 Section 750.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.26 The administrative claim. (a) Proper claimant. See § 750.5 of this...

  2. 32 CFR 750.26 - The administrative claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The administrative claim. 750.26 Section 750.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.26 The administrative claim. (a) Proper claimant. See § 750.5 of this...

  3. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  4. 38 CFR 14.604 - Filing a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Federal Tort Claims § 14.604 Filing a claim. (a) Each person who... his or her employment, will be furnished a copy of SF 95, Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. The... the information prescribed by 28 CFR 14.4 to the extent applicable. If a claim is presented to...

  5. 38 CFR 14.617 - Disposition of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICES, GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Administrative Settlement of Tort Claims Arising in Foreign Countries § 14.617 Disposition of claims. (a) Disposition of claims arising in Philippines. All... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of claims....

  6. 14 CFR 1261.312 - Action on approved claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CLAIMS (GENERAL) Claims Against NASA or Its Employees for Damage to or Loss of Property or Personal... Voucher for Payment of Tort Claims (NASA Form 616) if the claim has been acted upon pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 2473(c)(13), or a Voucher for Payment under Federal Tort Claims Act (Standard Form 1145) if the...

  7. 32 CFR 757.4 - Claims that may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims that may be collected. 757.4 Section 757.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS AFFIRMATIVE CLAIMS REGULATIONS Property Damage Claims § 757.4 Claims that may be collected. (a) Against...

  8. 32 CFR 757.4 - Claims that may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims that may be collected. 757.4 Section 757.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS AFFIRMATIVE CLAIMS REGULATIONS Property Damage Claims § 757.4 Claims that may be collected. (a) Against...

  9. 32 CFR 750.44 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.44 Claims not payable. (a) Any claim for damage, loss, destruction, injury, or... Chapter. (4) Federal Tort Claims Act. 28 U.S.C. 2671, 2672, and 2674-2680. (5) International Agreements...) Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act. 33 U.S.C. 901-950. (e) Any claim for damage to or loss...

  10. 29 CFR 15.4 - Administrative claim; where to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES (Eff. until 7-12-12) Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 15... section, a properly executed “Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death” on Standard Form 95, or other...

  11. 32 CFR 750.26 - The administrative claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The administrative claim. 750.26 Section 750.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.26 The administrative claim. (a) Proper claimant. See § 750.5 of this...

  12. 38 CFR 14.604 - Filing a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Federal Tort Claims § 14.604 Filing a claim. (a) Each person who... his or her employment, will be furnished a copy of SF 95, Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. The... the information prescribed by 28 CFR 14.4 to the extent applicable. If a claim is presented to...

  13. 38 CFR 14.604 - Filing a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Federal Tort Claims § 14.604 Filing a claim. (a) Each person who... his or her employment, will be furnished a copy of SF 95, Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. The... the information prescribed by 28 CFR 14.4 to the extent applicable. If a claim is presented to...

  14. 38 CFR 14.617 - Disposition of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SERVICES, GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Administrative Settlement of Tort Claims Arising in Foreign Countries § 14.617 Disposition of claims. (a) Disposition of claims arising in Philippines. All... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposition of claims....

  15. 14 CFR 1261.312 - Action on approved claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CLAIMS (GENERAL) Claims Against NASA or Its Employees for Damage to or Loss of Property or Personal... Voucher for Payment of Tort Claims (NASA Form 616) if the claim has been acted upon pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 2473(c)(13), or a Voucher for Payment under Federal Tort Claims Act (Standard Form 1145) if the...

  16. 10 CFR 14.11 - Who may file a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who may file a claim. 14.11 Section 14.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Filing Procedures and Requirements § 14.11 Who may file a claim. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by...

  17. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  18. 40 CFR 1620.2 - Administrative claim; when presented.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.2 Administrative claim; when presented. (a... legal representative, an executed Standard Form 95 (Claim for Damage, Injury or Death), or other written notification of an incident, accompanied by a claim for money damages stating a sum certain (a specific...

  19. 32 CFR 757.4 - Claims that may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims that may be collected. 757.4 Section 757.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS AFFIRMATIVE CLAIMS REGULATIONS Property Damage Claims § 757.4 Claims that may be collected. (a) Against...

  20. 32 CFR 750.44 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.44 Claims not payable. (a) Any claim for damage, loss, destruction, injury, or... Chapter. (4) Federal Tort Claims Act. 28 U.S.C. 2671, 2672, and 2674-2680. (5) International Agreements...) Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act. 33 U.S.C. 901-950. (e) Any claim for damage to or loss...

  1. 38 CFR 14.617 - Disposition of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICES, GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Administrative Settlement of Tort Claims Arising in Foreign Countries § 14.617 Disposition of claims. (a) Disposition of claims arising in Philippines. All... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposition of claims....

  2. 46 CFR 204.4 - Time limitations on claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.4 Time limitations on claims. (a) A claim... Standard Form 95, “Claims for Damage, Injury, or Death,” or written notification of an incident, together with a claim for money damages in a sum certain, for death, personal injury, or damage to or loss...

  3. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  4. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  5. 32 CFR 536.21 - Annual claims award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Annual claims award. 536.21 Section 536.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.21 Annual claims award. The Commander USARCS...

  6. 32 CFR 536.4 - Designation of claims attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Designation of claims attorneys. 536.4 Section 536.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.4 Designation of claims attorneys. (a)...

  7. 32 CFR 536.20 - Claims assistance visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims assistance visits. 536.20 Section 536.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.20 Claims assistance visits. Members of USARCS...

  8. 32 CFR 536.18 - Cross-servicing of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cross-servicing of claims. 536.18 Section 536.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.18 Cross-servicing of claims. (a) Where...

  9. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  10. 46 CFR 204.4 - Time limitations on claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time limitations on claims. 204.4 Section 204.4 Shipping... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.4 Time limitations on claims. (a) A claim... Standard Form 95, “Claims for Damage, Injury, or Death,” or written notification of an incident,...

  11. 32 CFR 842.110 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... International Agreements Claims Act. (4) The Air Force Admiralty Claims Act and the Admiralty Extensions Act. (5...) Claims for a maritime occurrence covered under U.S. admiralty laws. (o) Claims for: (1) Any tax or... interference with contract rights. (s) Claims that result wholly from the negligent or wrongful act of...

  12. 37 CFR 360.14 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of claims. 360.14... Claims § 360.14 Copies of claims. A claimant shall, for each claim submitted to the Copyright Royalty Board by hand delivery or by mail, file an original and one copy of the claim to satellite...

  13. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  14. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  15. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  16. Can Science Test Supernatural Worldviews?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Yonatan I.

    2009-06-01

    Several prominent scientists, philosophers, and scientific institutions have argued that science cannot test supernatural worldviews on the grounds that (1) science presupposes a naturalistic worldview (Naturalism) or that (2) claims involving supernatural phenomena are inherently beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The present paper argues that these assumptions are questionable and that indeed science can test supernatural claims. While scientific evidence may ultimately support a naturalistic worldview, science does not presuppose Naturalism as an a priori commitment, and supernatural claims are amenable to scientific evaluation. This conclusion challenges the rationale behind a recent judicial ruling in the United States concerning the teaching of “Intelligent Design” in public schools as an alternative to evolution and the official statements of two major scientific institutions that exert a substantial influence on science educational policies in the United States. Given that science does have implications concerning the probable truth of supernatural worldviews, claims should not be excluded a priori from science education simply because they might be characterized as supernatural, paranormal, or religious. Rather, claims should be excluded from science education when the evidence does not support them, regardless of whether they are designated as ‘natural’ or ‘supernatural’.

  17. Insurance coverage for employment-related claims

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    This article analyzes the principal coverage issues arising under CGL policies for employment-related claims. Section I discusses the bases of the duty to defend and the duty to idemnify in the key CGL policy provisions at issue, including the bodily injury and personal injury coverages. Section II examines the three provisions in CGL policies typically raised as defenses to coverage for employment-related claims and two public policy considerations that may affect claims for coverage. The duty to defend is given closer crutiny in section III. Finally, in section IV the effects of settlement on coverage are discussed. 106 refs.

  18. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  19. 29 CFR 15.200 - What is a claim under the MPCECA and who may file such a claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian... claim under the MPCECA for damage or loss is allowable only if the property involved was being used... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is a claim under the MPCECA and who may file such...

  20. 29 CFR 15.200 - What is a claim under the MPCECA and who may file such a claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian... claim under the MPCECA for damage or loss is allowable only if the property involved was being used... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What is a claim under the MPCECA and who may file such...

  1. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  2. Applying the ethoexperimental approach to neurodevelopmental syndrome research reveals exaggerated defensive behavior in Mecp2 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) associated with de novo mutations of the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Mecp2 functions as a transcription factor that regulating the expression of hundreds of genes. Identification of the role of Mecp2 in specific neurodevelopmental symptoms remains an important research aim. We previously demonstrated that male mice possessing a truncation mutation in Mecp2 are hyper-social. We predicted that reduced fear or anxiety might underlie this enhanced affiliation. In order to probe risk assessment and anxiety-like behavior, we compared Mecp2 truncation mutants to their wild-type littermates in the elevated plus maze and elevated zero maze. Additionally, subjects were administered the mouse defense test battery to evaluate unconditioned fear- and panic-like behavior to a graded set of threat scenarios and a predator stimulus. Mutant mice showed no significant changes in anxiety-like behavior. Yet, they displayed hyper-reactive escape and defensive behaviors to an animate predatory threat stimulus. Notably, mutant mice engaged in exaggerated active defense responding to threat stimuli at nearly all phases of the fear battery. These results reveal abnormalities in emotion regulation in Mecp2 mutants particularly in response to ecologically relevant threats. This hyper-responsivity suggests that transcriptional targets of Mecp2 are critical to emotion regulation. Moreover, we suggest that detailed analysis of defensive behavior and aggression with ethologically relevant tasks provides an avenue to interrogate gene-behavior mechanisms neurodevelopmental and other psychiatric conditions. PMID:26066729

  3. Applying the ethoexperimental approach to neurodevelopmental syndrome research reveals exaggerated defensive behavior in Mecp2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Brandon L; Defensor, Erwin B; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Rett syndrome is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) associated with de novo mutations of the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Mecp2 functions as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes. Identification of the role of Mecp2 in specific neurodevelopmental symptoms remains an important research aim. We previously demonstrated that male mice possessing a truncation mutation in Mecp2 are hyper-social. We predicted that reduced fear or anxiety might underlie this enhanced affiliation. In order to probe risk assessment and anxiety-like behavior, we compared Mecp2 truncation mutants to their wild-type littermates in the elevated plus maze and elevated zero maze. Additionally, subjects were administered the mouse defense test battery to evaluate unconditioned fear- and panic-like behavior to a graded set of threat scenarios and a predator stimulus. Mutant mice showed no significant changes in anxiety-like behavior. Yet, they displayed hyper-reactive escape and defensive behaviors to an animate predatory threat stimulus. Notably, mutant mice engaged in exaggerated active defense responding to threat stimuli at nearly all phases of the fear battery. These results reveal abnormalities in emotion regulation in Mecp2 mutants particularly in response to ecologically relevant threats. This hyper-responsivity suggests that transcriptional targets of Mecp2 are critical to emotion regulation. Moreover, we suggest that detailed analysis of defensive behavior and aggression with ethologically relevant tasks provides an avenue to interrogate gene-behavior mechanisms of neurodevelopmental and other psychiatric conditions. PMID:26066729

  4. High Fat Diet Feeding Exaggerates Perfluorooctanoic Acid-Induced Liver Injury in Mice via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaobing; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Li, Qiong; Zhong, Wei; Qiao, Peter; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is closely linked to a variety of health issues including fatty liver. Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid, also causes liver injury. The present study investigated the possible interactions between high fat diet and PFOA in induction of liver injury. Mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low fat control with or without PFOA administration at 5 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Exposure to PFOA alone caused elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels and increased liver weight along with reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass. HFD alone did not cause liver damage, but exaggerated PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by higher plasma ALT and AST levels, and more severe pathological changes including hepatocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplet accumulation and necrosis as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. These additive effects of HFD on PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity correlated with metabolic disturbance in liver and blood as well as up-regulation of hepatic proinflammatory cytokine genes. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that both serum and hepatic metabolite profiles of PFOA, HFD, or HFD-PFOA group were clearly differentiated from that of controls. PFOA affected more hepatic metabolites than HFD, but HFD showed positive interaction with PFOA on fatty acid metabolites including long chain fatty acids and acylcarnitines. Taken together, dietary high fat potentiates PFOA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and necrotic cell death by disturbing hepatic metabolism and inducing inflammation. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that HFD increases the risk of PFOA in induction of hepatotoxicity. PMID:23626681

  5. Applying the ethoexperimental approach to neurodevelopmental syndrome research reveals exaggerated defensive behavior in Mecp2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Brandon L; Defensor, Erwin B; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Rett syndrome is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) associated with de novo mutations of the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Mecp2 functions as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes. Identification of the role of Mecp2 in specific neurodevelopmental symptoms remains an important research aim. We previously demonstrated that male mice possessing a truncation mutation in Mecp2 are hyper-social. We predicted that reduced fear or anxiety might underlie this enhanced affiliation. In order to probe risk assessment and anxiety-like behavior, we compared Mecp2 truncation mutants to their wild-type littermates in the elevated plus maze and elevated zero maze. Additionally, subjects were administered the mouse defense test battery to evaluate unconditioned fear- and panic-like behavior to a graded set of threat scenarios and a predator stimulus. Mutant mice showed no significant changes in anxiety-like behavior. Yet, they displayed hyper-reactive escape and defensive behaviors to an animate predatory threat stimulus. Notably, mutant mice engaged in exaggerated active defense responding to threat stimuli at nearly all phases of the fear battery. These results reveal abnormalities in emotion regulation in Mecp2 mutants particularly in response to ecologically relevant threats. This hyper-responsivity suggests that transcriptional targets of Mecp2 are critical to emotion regulation. Moreover, we suggest that detailed analysis of defensive behavior and aggression with ethologically relevant tasks provides an avenue to interrogate gene-behavior mechanisms of neurodevelopmental and other psychiatric conditions.

  6. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  7. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  8. 14 CFR 1261.107 - Evidence in support of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.107 Evidence in support of claim. (a... repair for property which has been repaired, or one or more written estimates of the cost of repairs...

  9. 37 CFR 104.41 - Procedure for filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADMINISTRATION LEGAL PROCESSES Tort Claims § 104.41 Procedure for filing claims... Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2672) and the corresponding Department of Justice regulations (28 CFR...

  10. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  11. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  12. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  13. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  14. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  15. 40 CFR 307.20 - Who may present claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Eligible Claimants; Allowable Claims; Preauthorization § 307.20 Who... parties subject to an agreement reached pursuant to section 122(b)(1) of CERCLA. (b) Claims presented...

  16. 40 CFR 307.20 - Who may present claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Eligible Claimants; Allowable Claims; Preauthorization § 307.20 Who... parties subject to an agreement reached pursuant to section 122(b)(1) of CERCLA. (b) Claims presented...

  17. 40 CFR 307.20 - Who may present claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Eligible Claimants; Allowable Claims; Preauthorization § 307.20 Who... parties subject to an agreement reached pursuant to section 122(b)(1) of CERCLA. (b) Claims presented...

  18. 9 CFR 51.30 - Claims for indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.30 Claims for indemnity. (a) Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis must be made using an indemnity claim form...

  19. Astrocytes Are Primed by Chronic Neurodegeneration to Produce Exaggerated Chemokine and Cell Infiltration Responses to Acute Stimulation with the Cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Edel; Griffin, Éadaoin W.

    2015-01-01

    Microgliosis and astrogliosis are standard pathological features of neurodegenerative disease. Microglia are primed by chronic neurodegeneration such that toll-like receptor agonists, such as LPS, drive exaggerated cytokine responses on this background. However, sterile inflammatory insults are more common than direct CNS infection in the degenerating brain and these insults drive robust IL-1β and TNF-α responses. It is unclear whether these pro-inflammatory cytokines can directly induce exaggerated responses in the degenerating brain. We hypothesized that glial cells in the hippocampus of animals with chronic neurodegenerative disease (ME7 prion disease) would display exaggerated responses to central cytokine challenges. TNF-α or IL-1β were administered intrahippocampally to ME7-inoculated mice and normal brain homogenate-injected (NBH) controls. Both IL-1β and TNF-α produced much more robust IL-1β synthesis in ME7 than in NBH animals and this occurred exclusively in microglia. However, there was strong nuclear localization of the NFκB subunit p65 in the astrocyte population, associated with marked astrocytic synthesis of the chemokines CXCL1 and CCL2 in response to both cytokine challenges in ME7 animals. Conversely, very limited expression of these chemokines was apparent in NBH animals similarly challenged. Thus, astrocytes are primed in the degenerating brain to produce exaggerated chemokine responses to acute stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, this results in markedly increased neutrophil, T-cell, and monocyte infiltration in the diseased brain. These data have significant implications for acute sterile inflammatory insults such as stroke and traumatic brain injury occurring on a background of aging or neurodegeneration. PMID:26041910

  20. Does the Truth Matter in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Is science in the truth business, discovering ever more about an independent and largely unobservable world? Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn, two of the most important figures in science studies in the 20th century, gave accounts of science that are in some tension with the truth view. Their central claims about science are considered here, along with…

  1. 12 CFR 627.2740 - Creditors' claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... receiver shall allow any claim that is timely received and proved to the receiver's satisfaction. The... priority which is not proved to the receiver's satisfaction or is not timely received and shall notify...

  2. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... are available. Example 5: A manufacturer sells a disposable diaper that states, “This diaper can be... composting facilities are available as claimed and the manufacturer has substantiation that the diaper can...

  3. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... are available. Example 5: A manufacturer sells a disposable diaper that states, “This diaper can be... composting facilities are available as claimed and the manufacturer has substantiation that the diaper can...

  4. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) eligibility check must be performed on claims to all claimants required to be enrolled in DEERS. (ii) Care rendered was due to a bona fide emergency. (Note: When...

  5. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) eligibility check must be performed on claims to all claimants required to be enrolled in DEERS. (ii) Care rendered was due to a bona fide emergency. (Note: When...

  6. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) eligibility check must be performed on claims to all claimants required to be enrolled in DEERS. (ii) Care rendered was due to a bona fide emergency. (Note: When...

  7. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements for weight loss. These sites are a marketing ploy created to sell acai berry supplements.  Tainted ... on health claims? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  8. Manufacturer moves to settle Norplant claims.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    This article is about the decision made by Wyeth-Ayerst to settle lawsuit claims filed by more than 36,000 American women concerning the use of the Norplant contraceptive implant system. The settlement, estimated at $50 million, would end 5 years of litigation involving Norplant. The plaintiff's lawyers claimed that the company downplayed such side effects as irregular menstrual bleeding, nausea, headaches, and depression. Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories and parent company American Home Products Corp. have denied any wrongdoing and claimed that the side effects were described in the product label. The agreement to settle the Norplant claims were described as purely a business decision by Wyeth-Ayerst North America president Joseph Mahady. PMID:12295328

  9. 78 FR 64002 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). The... decision will also be published once a week for four ] consecutive weeks in the Delta Discovery. DATES:...

  10. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... blood-forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

  11. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occurred. (7) Claims for automobiles, only when required to perform official business or parked on a... amount allowed is the value of the vehicle at the time of loss as determined by the National...

  12. 20 CFR 410.705 - Duplicate claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shown, the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs shall proceed under DOL's regulations at 20 CFR part...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black...

  13. 20 CFR 410.705 - Duplicate claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shown, the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs shall proceed under DOL's regulations at 20 CFR part...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black...

  14. 77 FR 20046 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... described below pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). The lands being approved for conveyance are lands originally selected under ANCSA in the withdrawal area...

  15. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vehicles designed especially for military use. Activities incident to combat, whether or not in time of war, and use of DON personnel during civil disturbances are excluded. (b) Specific claims payable....

  16. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles designed especially for military use. Activities incident to combat, whether or not in time of war, and use of DON personnel during civil disturbances are excluded. (b) Specific claims payable....

  17. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicles designed especially for military use. Activities incident to combat, whether or not in time of war, and use of DON personnel during civil disturbances are excluded. (b) Specific claims payable....

  18. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicles designed especially for military use. Activities incident to combat, whether or not in time of war, and use of DON personnel during civil disturbances are excluded. (b) Specific claims payable....

  19. Using Medicare claims for outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J B; Bubolz, T; Paul, J E; Pashos, C L; Escarce, J J; Muhlbaier, L H; Wiesman, J M; Young, W W; Epstein, R S; Javitt, J C

    1994-07-01

    Medicare claims databases have several advantages for use in constructing episodes of care for outcomes research. They are population-based, relatively inexpensive to obtain, include large numbers of cases, and can be used for long-term follow-up. However, the sheer size of these claims databases, along with their primarily administrative (as opposed to clinical) nature, requires that researchers take special care in using them. The 10 PORTs using Medicare claims provided information on their approach to several key issues in working with these data, including: 1) identifying the index cases or patient cohorts to be studied; 2) defining the length of the episode; and 3) measuring outcomes. This paper reports the experience and knowledge gained by these PORTs in using these claims to create and analyze episodes of care.

  20. Must Metaethical Realism Make a Semantic Claim?

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2013-02-01

    Mackie drew attention to the distinct semantic and metaphysical claims made by meta ethical realists, arguing that although our evaluative discourse is cognitive and objective, there are no objective evaluative facts. This distinction, however, also opens up a reverse possibility: that our evaluative discourse is antirealist, yet objective values do exist. I suggest that this seemingly far-fetched possibility merits serious attention; realism seems com mitted to its intelligibility, and, despite appearances, it isn't incoherent, ineffable, inherently implausible or impossible to defend. I argue that reflection on this possibility should lead us to revise our understanding of the debate between realists and antirealists. It is not only that the realist's semantic claim is insufficient for realism to be true, as Mackie argued; it's not even necessary. Robust metaethical realism is best understood as making a purely metaphysical claim. It is thus not enough for antirealists to show that our discourse is antirealist. They must directly attack the realist's metaphysical claim.

  1. 44 CFR 62.20 - Claims appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... wind policies and any claim information submitted to the other companies; Waiver, Letter of Map... decisions; architectural plans and drawings; death certificates; a copy of the will; divorce decree,...

  2. 32 CFR 842.65 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims not payable. 842.65 Section 842.65 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.65 Claims not payable. A claim is not payable when it: (a) Has been paid or denied by...

  3. The False Claims Act and clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Vogel, R L

    1993-01-01

    In its efforts to fight fraud, the government has turned increasingly to the civil False Claims Act. The Act imposes triple damages plus monetary penalties against those who defraud the federal government. The Act also encourages whistleblowers to report fraud by offering the prospect of large bounties. This article describes the False Claims Act, its qui tam provision dealing with whistleblowers, and the application of the Act to clinical laboratories.

  4. 38 CFR 17.1004 - Filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing claims. 17.1004... standard billing form (such as a UB92 or a HCFA 1500). Where the form used does not contain a false claims... services under 38 CFR 17.1002 (except for paragraph (e)) and 17.1003. I am aware that 38 U.S.C....

  5. Context Based Inferences in Research Methodology: The Role of Culture in Justifying Knowledge Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin W.; Mason, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on work in epistemology and the philosophy of science, this paper seeks to provide very general reasons for why a comparative perspective needs to be applied to the inferential procedures of research methodologies where these concern the issue of justifying knowledge claims. In particular, the paper explores the role of culture on a number…

  6. Claiming Indigeneity through the School Curriculum, with Specific Reference to Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumbo, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the new curriculum post-1994 was coupled with a strong drive towards recognising and affirming the critical role of indigenous knowledge, especially with regard to science and technology (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2006). In the light of this claim, the author of this paper critically examines, from a literature…

  7. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    PubMed

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed. PMID:24364816

  8. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers.

  9. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    PubMed

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed.

  10. Religious Beliefs: A Hidden Variable in the Performance of Science Teachers in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Nasser

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the challenges of teaching science in a culture where science and religion sometimes appear to be or are set at odds with each other. Apparent conflicts between scholarly claims and religious claims are not limited to science, however--they occur in almost every subject. Many topics included in science education are…

  11. Development of an Instrument to Assess Student Knowledge Necessary to Critically Evaluate Scientific Claims in the Popular Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strimaitis, Anna M.; Schellinger, Jennifer; Jones, Anthony; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Students need to learn how to engage in several scientific practices in order to be considered proficient in science. Many of these practices are needed to evaluate scientific claims made in the popular media. Yet, there are few instruments available that science educators can use to assess whether students can apply what they know about…

  12. A Scientist's Guide to Science Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, J.

    2012-12-01

    Why are so many scientifically uncontroversial topics, from evolution and the age of the earth to climate change and vaccines, so contentious in society? The American public respects science and scientists, yet seems remarkably unaware of - or resistant to accepting - what scientists have learned about the world around us. This resistance holds back science education and undermines public policy discussions. Scientists and science communicators often react to science denial as if it were a question of scientific knowledge, and respond by trying to correct false scientific claims. Many independent lines of evidence show that science denial is not primarily about science. People reject scientific claims which seem to conflict with their personal identity - often because they believe that accepting those claims would threaten some deeply-valued cultural, political, or religious affiliation. Only by identifying, addressing, and defusing the underlying political and cultural concerns can educators, scientists, and science communicators undo the harm done by science denial.

  13. Making sense scientific claims in advertising. A study of scientifically aware consumers.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rachel E; Tseëlon, Efrat; Weitkamp, Emma L C

    2008-04-01

    Evidence that science is becoming increasingly embedded in culture comes from the proliferation of discourses of ethical consumption, sustainability, and environmental awareness. Al Gore's recent award, along with UN's Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the Nobel peace prize-- provided a recent high profile linking of consumption and science. It is not clear to what extent the public at large engages in evaluating the scientific merits of the arguments about the link between human consumption and global environmental catastrophes. But on a local scale, we are routinely required to evaluate, scientific and pseudoscientific claims in advertising. Since advertising is used to sell products, the discourse of scientifically framed claims is being used to persuade consumers of the benefits of these products. In the case of functional foods and cosmetics, such statements are deployed to promote the health benefits and effectiveness of their products. This exploratory study examines the views of British consumers about the scientific and pseudoscientific claims made in advertisements for foods, with particular reference to functional foods, and cosmetics. The participants in the study all worked in scientific environments, though they were not all scientists. The study found that scientific arguments that were congruent with existing health knowledge tended to be accepted while pseudoscientific knowledge was regarded skeptically and concerns were raised over the accuracy and believability of the pseudoscientific claims. It appears that scientific awareness may play a part in consumers' ability to critically examine scientifically and pseudoscientifically based advertising claims. PMID:19391378

  14. Making sense scientific claims in advertising. A study of scientifically aware consumers.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rachel E; Tseëlon, Efrat; Weitkamp, Emma L C

    2008-04-01

    Evidence that science is becoming increasingly embedded in culture comes from the proliferation of discourses of ethical consumption, sustainability, and environmental awareness. Al Gore's recent award, along with UN's Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the Nobel peace prize-- provided a recent high profile linking of consumption and science. It is not clear to what extent the public at large engages in evaluating the scientific merits of the arguments about the link between human consumption and global environmental catastrophes. But on a local scale, we are routinely required to evaluate, scientific and pseudoscientific claims in advertising. Since advertising is used to sell products, the discourse of scientifically framed claims is being used to persuade consumers of the benefits of these products. In the case of functional foods and cosmetics, such statements are deployed to promote the health benefits and effectiveness of their products. This exploratory study examines the views of British consumers about the scientific and pseudoscientific claims made in advertisements for foods, with particular reference to functional foods, and cosmetics. The participants in the study all worked in scientific environments, though they were not all scientists. The study found that scientific arguments that were congruent with existing health knowledge tended to be accepted while pseudoscientific knowledge was regarded skeptically and concerns were raised over the accuracy and believability of the pseudoscientific claims. It appears that scientific awareness may play a part in consumers' ability to critically examine scientifically and pseudoscientifically based advertising claims.

  15. "Anti-smoking data are exaggerated" versus "the data are clear and indisputable": examining letters to the editor about tobacco.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine K; Israel, Kendre; Schell, Sarah; Mohr, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Media advocacy plays a unique role in tobacco control policy development. Letters to the editor in particular are an interesting form of media advocacy because they reflect community sentiment regarding the policy agenda and provide insight into the public debate. The authors used ethnographic context analysis to examine the techniques used by writers of 262 tobacco-related letters to the editor published in 61 newspapers across Missouri over a 2-year period when tobacco tax and smoke-free indoor air initiatives were occurring across the state. The authors found that pro-tobacco control letter writers often used didactic strategies, citing numbers and reports, to convey information and presented their training or experience as a health professional (e.g., M.D., Ph.D.) to add legitimacy to their arguments. Anti-tobacco control letter writers, in contrast, used narrative strategies to support their stance, claimed authority as a smoker or small business owner to legitimize their claims by relating to the audience, and used collectivity to capture the attention of policymakers. These results present the importance of strategic media advocacy in tobacco control. Tobacco control advocates should increase their use of narrative strategies and collectivity in order to better connect with the public and policymakers. PMID:22376195

  16. PlanHab: hypoxia exaggerates the bed-rest-induced reduction in peak oxygen uptake during upright cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2016-08-01

    The study examined the effects of hypoxia and horizontal bed rest, separately and in combination, on peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2 peak) during upright cycle ergometry. Ten male lowlanders underwent three 21-day confinement periods in a counterbalanced order: 1) normoxic bed rest [NBR; partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2 ) = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg]; 2) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg), and 3) hypoxic ambulation (HAMB; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). Before and after each confinement, subjects performed two incremental-load trials to exhaustion, while inspiring either room air (AIR), or a hypoxic gas (HYPO; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). Changes in regional oxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle and the frontal cerebral cortex were monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. Cardiac output (CO) was recorded using a bioimpedance method. The AIR V̇o2 peak was decreased by both HBR (∼13.5%; P ≤ 0.001) and NBR (∼8.6%; P ≤ 0.001), with greater drop after HBR (P = 0.01). The HYPO V̇o2 peak was also reduced by HBR (-9.7%; P ≤ 0.001) and NBR (-6.1%; P ≤ 0.001). Peak CO was lower after both bed-rest interventions, and especially after HBR (HBR: ∼13%, NBR: ∼7%; P ≤ 0.05). Exercise-induced alterations in muscle and cerebral oxygenation were blunted in a similar manner after both bed-rest confinements. No changes were observed in HAMB. Hence, the bed-rest-induced decrease in V̇o2 peak was exaggerated by hypoxia, most likely due to a reduction in convective O2 transport, as indicated by the lower peak values of CO. PMID:27342877

  17. Science and religion: implications for science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2010-03-01

    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

  18. Errors in Science and Their Treatment in Teaching Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the real origin and nature of scientific errors against claims of science critics, by examining a number of examples from the history of electricity and optics. This analysis leads to a conclusion that errors are a natural and unavoidable part of scientific process. If made available to students, through their science teachers,…

  19. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other payments involving the acquisition, use, possession or disposition of real property or interests... paragraph 2-15m of DA Pam 27-162. (f) Claims not in the best interests of the United States, contrary to... on strict or absolute liability and similar theories. (k) Claims payable under subparts D or J...

  20. 76 FR 36176 - Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ..., NW., Washington, DC 20420, at 202-461-7485. Correction In FR Doc. 2011-14760, published on June 15... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC,...