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Sample records for sciences wroclaw poland

  1. Dew and hoarfrost frequency, formation efficiency and chemistry in Wroclaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, G.; Sobik, M.; Błaś, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Cichała-Kamrowska, K.; Wałaszek, K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research study concerning a comparison of frequency, formation efficiency and basic physico-chemical properties of dew and hoarfrost in urban conditions. Longer than two-year series of measurements was carried out from 1 February 2008 to 10 March 2010 in Wroclaw, Poland. Sampling of atmospheric deposits was made by means of insulated plain passive radiative condensers, which allowed to collect 222 dew and 96 hoarfrost samples. The results indicate that the frequency of dew days was about threefold greater than hoarfrost days. The formation efficiency of both types of deposits was almost the same, and reached a mean value of about 100 mL·m- 2 per day. The conducted analysis of several meteorological parameters showed that dew and hoarfrost, despite seasonal weather changes, were formed in very similar meteorological conditions. Only water vapor pressure values were in average twice higher in the case of dew and the impact of this parameter on dew and hoarfrost formation efficiency seems to be more complex than expected. The role of night duration in counterbalancing of smaller amount of available moisture in hoarfrost days is not clear. The investigation showed also, that there was an expected clear positive dependence of dew and hoarfrost formation efficiency on relative humidity, and not so evident in the case of temperature inversion, and wind velocity. The physico-chemical analysis indicated that the pH of dew was only slightly lower than the hoarfrost ones, regardless of the deposit formation intensity. Simultaneously, the lower pH values were much more frequent in the case of dew, which resulted from more effective absorption of anthropogenic NO3- and SO42 - ions. For both types of deposits, the average pH was low (4.5-4.8) in relation to majority of studies reported in literature. In spite of seasonal changes of pollutant concentration, various weather conditions and different mechanisms of pollutant absorption of dew

  2. Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1) carriers among urban breeding facilities in Wroclaw (Poland).

    PubMed

    Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Bierowiec, Karolina; Bania, Jacek; Kiełbowicz, Maciej; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1) carriers among closed, one-cat breeding facilities in the urban environment of Wrocław city between 2011-2013 was investigated. A probe-based real-time PCR was used to detect FHV 1 DNA in conjunctival swab extracts. Of the 67 breeding cats investigated 14 animals (20.9%) were confirmed to contain FHV 1 specific DNA. The herpesvirus DNA was detected in eight cats from the group expressing clinical signs of FHV 1 infection (n = 28) and in six clinically healthy animals (n = 39). The percentage of positive carriers ranged from 12 to 44%, depending on the frequency of sampling. The total prevalence in cats at the optimal age for reproduction (2 to 7 years) was 20%. One-cat breeding facilities of purebred cats in Wrocław (Poland) constitute a significant reservoir of FHV 1 and the number of monitoring repeats may influences the success of FHV 1 detection. PMID:24881276

  3. Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1) carriers among urban breeding facilities in Wroclaw (Poland).

    PubMed

    Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Bierowiec, Karolina; Bania, Jacek; Kiełbowicz, Maciej; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1) carriers among closed, one-cat breeding facilities in the urban environment of Wrocław city between 2011-2013 was investigated. A probe-based real-time PCR was used to detect FHV 1 DNA in conjunctival swab extracts. Of the 67 breeding cats investigated 14 animals (20.9%) were confirmed to contain FHV 1 specific DNA. The herpesvirus DNA was detected in eight cats from the group expressing clinical signs of FHV 1 infection (n = 28) and in six clinically healthy animals (n = 39). The percentage of positive carriers ranged from 12 to 44%, depending on the frequency of sampling. The total prevalence in cats at the optimal age for reproduction (2 to 7 years) was 20%. One-cat breeding facilities of purebred cats in Wrocław (Poland) constitute a significant reservoir of FHV 1 and the number of monitoring repeats may influences the success of FHV 1 detection.

  4. Electromagnetic compatibility 1984; Proceedings of the Seventh International Wroclaw Symposium, Wroclaw, Poland, June 26-28, 1984. Parts 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, D. J.; Moron, W.; Struzak, R. G.

    The topics discussed are related to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and the International Union of Radio Science, dynamic compatibility in channels with state identification subsystems, EM environment, measurements, spectrum management, EMC active line models, EMC and biology, radio wave propagation, EMC and wire communications, statistical concepts, lightning and EMC, EMC of radio systems, EM fields and related problems, electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources, immunity, antennas,modelling techniques, and EMC and radio amateur service. Aspects of mobile radio communication are explored, taking into account cellular public radio services using pseudonoise signals, the capacity of the cellular mobile radio service using pseudonoise signals and frequency modulation, the effectiveness of cellular structures of the mobile communication systems, and the determination of the receiving and interfering zone in moble radio communications with the aid of the computer. Attention is given to differences regarding the biological effects of simple and combined electromagnetic fields.

  5. ERASMUS Partners in Conversation: Psychology at the University of Wroclaw and University of Wales Institute, Cardiff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggs, Daniel A.; Mercer, Jenny M.; Durniat, Kasia

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer an account of a free-ranging discussion highlighting common features of psychology provision and that considers the differences between two departments and two distinct programmes. The discussion took place between ERASMUS partners during a Teacher Exchange visit to the University of Wroclaw, Poland, in March…

  6. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  7. The new approach to science and technology in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Karczewski, W.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, the entire field of science and technology in Poland was divided into three sectors: the Academy of Sciences, the universities and other academic institutions, and the research and development institutes. The level of collaboration among these sectors was low, and the system of financing science and technology was centralized, bureaucratic, and inefficient. The present Science Bill,' which came into force in January, 1991, has three important new features: autonomy, scientific merit, and openness. The coordination of government policy in this field has been entrusted to the KBN (State Committee for Scientific Research). Members of the Committee and its two commissions - one each for basic and applied research - are elected by the scientific community in direct two-stage elections. This new approach to the management of scientific research organization and financing should result in better utilization of budgetary resources allocated for science in Poland.

  8. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  9. Poland.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, Poland's population was 37.5 million and the annual population growth rate was 0.8%. The infant mortality rate was 19.3/1000 and life expectancy stood at 71.6 years. Of the labor force of 17.5 million, 30% were engaged in agriculture, 44% were in industry and commerce, 8% were government employees, and 11% were employed in services. Poland is a communist state. The economy is based on the Soviet model of state ownership of most of the country's productive assets, although the private sector predominates in agriculture. The rights of private farmers are now protected through a 1983 amendment to the constitution. Poland's economy has performed poorly in comparison with other Eastern European economies. The economic growth rate is 5% and inflation averages 20%. Per capita income is US$2000. Industries were centralized following World War II, and this systemic rigidity is considered to have contributed to the economy's poor performance. Another important factor has been low reliance of foreign trade, meaning that Poland's industries have failed to develop competitiveness. The government has committed itself to a so-called second-stage of economic reform, but to date there have been few concrete accomplishments. PMID:12177960

  10. J. Mikulicz-Radecki, K. H. Bauer, and W. Bross. Three great surgeons, three different epochs, one clinic in Wroclaw.

    PubMed

    Kustrzycki, Wojciech Anatol

    2013-09-01

    The city of Wroclaw (Breslau) lies where the cultural and economic influences of the eastern, southern, and western Europe meet. Over a thousand years of history it changed the state affiliation several times. Since 1945, similarly as seven centuries ago, it lies within the borders of Poland. The historical complex of hospital buildings constructed at the end of the 19th century for the medical faculty remained almost untouched, despite catastrophic war destructions in the whole city. The building of surgical clinic witnessed epoch-making events in the discipline of surgery performed by the three great personalities. Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (1850-1905), the first head of the department, world famous physician and scientist, created in Wroclaw a modern surgical center. From among his numerous achievements the most important seems to be the performance of the world's first safe thoracotomy in the low-pressure chamber (1904). Karl Heinrich Bauer (1890-1979) was the next great personality, who had been leading the surgical department since 1933. Genetics, transplantology, traumatology and oncology were the main points of his interest. Because of political reasons he had to leave Wroclaw. He continued his surgical and scientific career in Heidelberg. Wiktor Bross (1903-1994) came to the ruined city directly after the World War II. As an experienced general and thoracic surgeon he created a new surgical school. First in Poland open heart surgery (1958) and renal transplantation (1966) were performed by him and his team in the same building, where Mikulicz-Radecki and Bauer worked in the past. The memory of all three great surgeons has been honored by placing their sculptures among the prominent Wroclaw citizens in the city hall. PMID:23212163

  11. J. Mikulicz-Radecki, K. H. Bauer, and W. Bross. Three great surgeons, three different epochs, one clinic in Wroclaw.

    PubMed

    Kustrzycki, Wojciech Anatol

    2013-09-01

    The city of Wroclaw (Breslau) lies where the cultural and economic influences of the eastern, southern, and western Europe meet. Over a thousand years of history it changed the state affiliation several times. Since 1945, similarly as seven centuries ago, it lies within the borders of Poland. The historical complex of hospital buildings constructed at the end of the 19th century for the medical faculty remained almost untouched, despite catastrophic war destructions in the whole city. The building of surgical clinic witnessed epoch-making events in the discipline of surgery performed by the three great personalities. Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (1850-1905), the first head of the department, world famous physician and scientist, created in Wroclaw a modern surgical center. From among his numerous achievements the most important seems to be the performance of the world's first safe thoracotomy in the low-pressure chamber (1904). Karl Heinrich Bauer (1890-1979) was the next great personality, who had been leading the surgical department since 1933. Genetics, transplantology, traumatology and oncology were the main points of his interest. Because of political reasons he had to leave Wroclaw. He continued his surgical and scientific career in Heidelberg. Wiktor Bross (1903-1994) came to the ruined city directly after the World War II. As an experienced general and thoracic surgeon he created a new surgical school. First in Poland open heart surgery (1958) and renal transplantation (1966) were performed by him and his team in the same building, where Mikulicz-Radecki and Bauer worked in the past. The memory of all three great surgeons has been honored by placing their sculptures among the prominent Wroclaw citizens in the city hall.

  12. Unconventional forms of popularization of science - festivals 'Science on Stage" in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Aneta

    2010-05-01

    could enter the show rooms and had an opportunity to try their hand at carrying out experiments prepared for them beforehand. All presentations were evaluated by a jury consisting of research workers of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Warsaw University, University of Silesia and members of the Polish Physical Society. Within each category three best presentations were selected, and their authors then represented Poland at the international festival. From many years the chairman of the National Organizing Committee of the festival has been professor Wojciech Nawrocik, the winner of the prestigious competition "Propagator of Science", organized by Polish Press Agency and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. Each festival was inaugurated with a performance prepared by the youngest participants of the festival - kindergarten children, who are outside of the competition. The theme of the last one was: "Preschoolers also are waiting for the Higgs particle!". Next edition of "Science on Stage 4" festival will be held on 24-25 September 2010, also at the Department of Physics at the University of Poznań. Its aim is to show the contribution of physics, other natural and technical sciences in solving energy problems of the world and Poland, and also finding new solutions in power engineering, which will meet a rapidly rising demand for clean and cheap energy.

  13. Basic Science B.D. (before Drosophila): Cytology at Warsaw University (Poland).

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    The majority of modern research in cell and developmental biology is based almost exclusively on seven model organisms: mouse, zebra fish, Xenopus laevis frog, Drosophila fly, Caenorabditis elegans worm, Arabidopsis plant and yeast. Although the validity and practicality of these model systems and their impact on scientific progress are undeniable, the combination of goal-oriented science and the use of the model systems introduces, a priori, a dangerous limitation to scientific discovery. Consequently, many astonishing phenomena occurring in non-model organisms are either never studied or, disappear from scientific consciousness. A perfect example is the fate of the important studies by Professor Zygmunt Kraczkiewicz on chromatin diminution in Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) conducted before World War II and continued by his team until early 1990 in the Department of Cytology at Warsaw University in Poland. These light and electron microscopy studies have not been elevated to the molecular level, and although they deserve to be extensively studied and cited by researchers working in the field of soma and germ cell differentiation and specification, they have been, within the past 40 years, nearly completely wiped out of scientific memory. This article presents a short summary of this important research in the historical context of pre- and post-war science at Warsaw University in Poland.

  14. THE SCIENCE OF SCIENCE (NAUKOZNAWSTWO) IN POLAND: THE CHANGING THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS--A HISTORICAL SKETCH FROM THE 1910S TO 1993.

    PubMed

    Kokowski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish

  15. THE SCIENCE OF SCIENCE (NAUKOZNAWSTWO) IN POLAND: THE CHANGING THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS--A HISTORICAL SKETCH FROM THE 1910S TO 1993.

    PubMed

    Kokowski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish

  16. [Assessment of fruit and vegetable intake among the 50-year-old population of Wroclaw].

    PubMed

    Ilow, Rafał; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Misiewicz, Dominika; Rózańska, Dorota; Kowalisko, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2011-01-01

    Intake of fruit and vegetable among 50-year-old population of Wroclaw and the impact of education level on the consumption of fruits and vegetables was assessed. The study group was 50-year-old, 1520 inhabitants of Wroclaw (879 women and 641 men), who participated in 2008 in the Cardiovascular Diseases Prevention Program organized by the Health Division of the Municipal Office in Wroclaw. To assess fruit and vegetable intake Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used. The mean daily intake of vegetables and fruit was 289,4 g for women and 209,1 g for men. Women consumed significantly more vegetables, fruits, and the amounts of fruits and vegetables compared with men. The impact of educational level on fruit and vegetable consumption in the study group was found.

  17. Spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management: case study in Odra Valley, Poland.

    PubMed

    Rucinska, Dorota

    2015-02-01

    This article presents methodological solutions aimed at presenting the spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management (land use), indicating both those areas used reasonably and those requiring modification. The purpose was to identify key risk areas and risk-free areas from the point of view of human security and activity on the floodplains, based on the examples of the vicinities of Wroclaw and Raciborz in the Odra Valley, Poland. Due to recent climate change, Poland has suffered the effects of severe flooding (e.g., 1997, 2001, 2010). The analyses conducted were motivated by the European Parliament and Council's recently implemented Directive 2007/60/WE, as well as by the demand for studies for local spatial planning. The analysis indicates that reasonably developed areas do not account for the majority of those studied, making up 36% of the Wroclaw area and 15% of the Raciborz area. PMID:25385027

  18. Spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management: case study in Odra Valley, Poland.

    PubMed

    Rucinska, Dorota

    2015-02-01

    This article presents methodological solutions aimed at presenting the spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management (land use), indicating both those areas used reasonably and those requiring modification. The purpose was to identify key risk areas and risk-free areas from the point of view of human security and activity on the floodplains, based on the examples of the vicinities of Wroclaw and Raciborz in the Odra Valley, Poland. Due to recent climate change, Poland has suffered the effects of severe flooding (e.g., 1997, 2001, 2010). The analyses conducted were motivated by the European Parliament and Council's recently implemented Directive 2007/60/WE, as well as by the demand for studies for local spatial planning. The analysis indicates that reasonably developed areas do not account for the majority of those studied, making up 36% of the Wroclaw area and 15% of the Raciborz area.

  19. Application of the Deformation Information System for automated analysis and mapping of mining terrain deformations - case study from SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowski, Jan; Grzempowski, Piotr; Milczarek, Wojciech; Nowacka, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring, mapping and modelling of mining induced terrain deformations are important tasks for quantifying and minimising threats that arise from underground extraction of useful minerals and affect surface infrastructure, human safety, the environment and security of the mining operation itself. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and expanding with the progress in geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, Global Navigation Satellite Systems, remote sensing, GIS based modelling and spatial statistics, finite element method modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using e.g. the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The presentation shows the results of numerical modelling and mapping of mining terrain deformations for two cases of underground mining sites in SW Poland, hard coal one (abandoned) and copper ore (active) using the functionalities of the Deformation Information System (DIS) (Blachowski et al, 2014 @ http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2014/EGU2014-7949.pdf). The functionalities of the spatial data modelling module of DIS have been presented and its applications in modelling, mapping and visualising mining terrain deformations based on processing of measurement data (geodetic and GNSS) for these two cases have been characterised and compared. These include, self-developed and implemented in DIS, automation procedures for calculating mining terrain subsidence with different interpolation techniques, calculation of other mining deformation parameters (i.e. tilt, horizontal displacement, horizontal strain and curvature), as well as mapping mining terrain categories based on classification of the values of these parameters as used in Poland. Acknowledgments. This work has been financed from the National Science Centre Project "Development of a numerical method of

  20. Observations on hearing preservation in patients with hybrid-L electrode implanted at Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szyfter, Witold; Wróbel, Maciej; Karlik, Michał; Borucki, Lukasz; Stieler, Maciej; Gibasiewicz, Renata; Gawęcki, Wojciech; Sekula, Alicja

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the paper is to evaluate the hearing preservation rate in patients with high frequency hearing loss, treated with Cochlear Nucleus Freedom Hybrid-L implant in the Otolaryngology Department, Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poland. Study was designed as the retrospective analysis. Twenty-one patients were operated and implanted with Nucleus Freedom Hybrid-L implant. Pure tone thresholds were recorded prior to the surgery and at the time of speech processor switch-on. Patients were subdivided into two groups with respect to their PTA thresholds: group A-classic indications and group B-extended indications. Average PTA for three frequencies (250, 500, 1,000 Hz) were calculated for each patient pre- and postoperatively. In the group of 21 implanted patients in 17 cases we have observed preservation of hearing (12 patients from group A, 5 patients from group B) with a mean value of 13.1 dB. In 4 out of 21 patients deafness on the implanted ear was noted. Our results clearly indicate that with standard procedure hearing preservation can be obtained in majority of patients. Hearing preservation was not achieved in 19 %, but owing to design of the electrode of the Cochlear Nucleus Hybrid-L that enables to work as CI platform alone, in patients who lost their hearing after surgery re-implantations were not required. This proves that EAS is a safe and reliable method to help patients with specific type of hearing loss. PMID:23223855

  1. NRT Atmospheric Water Vapour Retrieval on the Area of Poland at IGG WUELS AC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplon, Jan; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Sierny, Jan; Hadas, Tomasz; Rohm, Witold; Wilgan, Karina; Ryczywolski, Marcin; Oruba, Artur; Kroszczynski, Krzysztof

    2013-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are designed for positioning, navigation and amongst other possible applications it can also be used to derive information about the state of the atmosphere. Continuous observations from GNSS receivers provide an excellent tool for studying the neutral atmosphere, currently in near real-time. The Near Real-Time (NRT) neutral atmosphere and water vapour distribution models are currently obtained with high resolution from Ground Base Augmentation Systems (GBAS), where reference stations are equipped with GNSS and meteorological sensors. The Poland territory is covered by dense network of GNSS stations in the frame of GBAS system called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). This system was established in year 2008 by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in the frame of the EUPOS project (www.eupos.org) for providing positioning services. The GNSS data are available from 130 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations, airports meteorological stations (METAR messages stations), and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (IGG) of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences had created permanent NRT service of ZTD (Zenith Total Delay) estimation for the area of Poland from GPS observations called IGGHZG. The first part of the paper presents the methodology of NRT GNSS data processing for ASG-EUPOS stations for ZTD estimation and its comparison to the results coming from EPN ACs and Military University of Technology in Warsaw AC (MUT AC). Second part covers the procedure of IWV (atmospheric Integrated Water Vapour content) estimation at IGG from IGGHZG product and ZHD (Zenith Hydrostatic Delay) derived from Saastamoinen formula (1972

  2. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part II. Science, research, development, higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  3. Evidence for an increased distribution range of Dermacentor reticulatus in south-west Poland.

    PubMed

    Kiewra, Dorota; Czulowska, Aleksandra

    2013-04-01

    The expansion of Dermacentor reticulatus to new geographical areas has been observed in several countries in Europe, including Poland and it's neighbors. In 2011 and 2012, a total of 148 host-seeking D. reticulatus ticks were collected after flagging the vegetation in Lower Silesia, south-western Poland. Tick monitoring was conducted in mixed and deciduous forest, on meadows, in river valleys and ecotones between forested and grassy areas. The ornate dog ticks were found in 10 out of 33 sites located in five districts: Legnica, Wroclaw, Środa Śląska, Lubin and Boleslawiec County. All sites where D. reticulatus ticks were found are located to the south-west of the Odra River. The greatest distance between these disconnected localities was approximately 90 km. It seems that at present the southern boundary of the range is Wroclaw district. This study indicates that D. reticulatus can be ranked as a typical element of the fauna in Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland.

  4. Sepsis: Medical errors in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rorat, Marta; Jurek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Health, safety and medical errors are currently the subject of worldwide discussion. The authors analysed medico-legal opinions trying to determine types of medical errors and their impact on the course of sepsis. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 66 medico-legal opinions issued by the Wroclaw Department of Forensic Medicine between 2004 and 2013 (at the request of the prosecutor or court) in cases examined for medical errors. Medical errors were confirmed in 55 of the 66 medico-legal opinions. The age of victims varied from 2 weeks to 68 years; 49 patients died. The analysis revealed medical errors committed by 113 health-care workers: 98 physicians, 8 nurses and 8 emergency medical dispatchers. In 33 cases, an error was made before hospitalisation. Hospital errors occurred in 35 victims. Diagnostic errors were discovered in 50 patients, including 46 cases of sepsis being incorrectly recognised and insufficient diagnoses in 37 cases. Therapeutic errors occurred in 37 victims, organisational errors in 9 and technical errors in 2. In addition to sepsis, 8 patients also had a severe concomitant disease and 8 had a chronic disease. In 45 cases, the authors observed glaring errors, which could incur criminal liability. There is an urgent need to introduce a system for reporting and analysing medical errors in Poland. The development and popularisation of standards for identifying and treating sepsis across basic medical professions is essential to improve patient safety and survival rates. Procedures should be introduced to prevent health-care workers from administering incorrect treatment in cases.

  5. The negative health consequences of unemployment: the case of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Sławomir; Lopuszańska, Monika; Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna

    2010-07-01

    In the 1990s Poland began to make a transition to a free-market economy: a transition accompanied by a variety of negative socio-economic developments, most notably a rise in unemployment. The aim of this study is to shed light on the relationship between occupational status (including unemployment) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), by examining the experience of 542 men and 572 women between the ages of 40 and 50 of the town of Wroclaw in 2006. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which uses certain health and life-style parameters to predict the risk of major coronary problems over a 10-year period, was calculated, and the effect of occupational status on the FRS was assessed. The results showed that the FRS varied according to sex and to occupational status, with the highest FRS rating among unemployed men. Thus governmental policies to counter the adverse effects of unemployment should be developed to remedy the problem.

  6. [Tobacco smoking amongst students in the Medical Faculty of Wroclaw Medical University].

    PubMed

    Kurpas, Donata; Jasińska, Ajicja; Wojtal, Mariola; Sochocka, Lucyna; Seń, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of health promotion and diseases profilaxis is a struggle with smoking, which is a well known factor in many disorders, i.e. malignant carcinomas, noncarcinomatous diseases of respiratory system and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was the analysis of the smoking level amongst the students of 6th year of the Medical Faculty of Wroclaw Medical University. Amongst 131 polled women--116 were non-smoking persons (88.5%), 15 smoking (11.5%). Amongst 55 polled men--43 these are non-smoking persons (78%), 12 smoking (22%). Out of smoking women, the most women (6) is smoking from 11 to 15 cigarettes per day, out of smoking men, the most (5 men)--6-10 cigarettes per day. Smoking women began smoking during the secondary school the most often. 8 of men began the smoking in the secondary school. The majority of examined didn't try to limit smoking. Respondents would expect the biggest support from close persons during giving up smoking Only 59% of women and 64% of men disagree definitely to smoking in their presence. In the consequence of above results surprising seems still high percentage of smokers amongst examined, scantiness of taking attempts of giving up smoking and indifference of non-smoking medical students towards smoking in their presence. PMID:18409311

  7. Science-Economy-Technology Concordance Matrix for Development and Implementation of Regional Smart Specializations in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Smoliński, Adam; Bondaruk, Jan; Pichlak, Magdalena; Trząski, Leszek; Uszok, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The regional smart specializations include the innovative activities within a common science-economy-technology sector, which open the opportunities to gain a competitive advantage. The original procedure of science-economy-technology concordance matrix development on an example of smart specializations of the Silesian Voivodeship was presented in the paper. The procedure developed includes recognition of the research and economic components of the regional smart specialization and the connection between the economic components of the regional specialization and the technological innovation through the international patent classification. It also comprises recognition of key enabling technologies (KETs) and high technologies (of high R&D intensity) other than KET in the economic and technological dimensions of innovation as well as the high R&D intensity services in the economic dimension of innovation. The in-depth expert analyses with the application of the Delphi method were also taken into account. The methodological approach developed and the visualization method applied are both of cognitive and practical importance since they contribute significantly to the creation of efficient development policies, to the enhancement and facilitation of cross-sectoral cooperation, and to the focusing on the fields of key importance in terms of the competitive advantage of a region. PMID:26697528

  8. Aging in Poland.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults. PMID:26315315

  9. Gunshot wounds (resulting from execution) of exhumed victims of the communist regime in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Kawecki, Jerzy; Jurek, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of the remains of 23 executed male individuals aged between 21 and 63 years, recovered from Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw (Poland), field 83B, in 2012. In 1948 and 1949, prisoners sentenced to death by firing squad--most of them associated with the post-war anti-communist underground independence movement in Poland--were buried there. The aim of the study was to analyse fatal wounds and the method of execution, and to compare the results to data from archival documents. The results were also compared with studies concerning executions during a later period, i.e. 1949-1954. The research on the method of execution during this period of history carried out during the exhumations in Osobowicki Cemetery was the first conducted on such a scale in Poland. Forensic analysis revealed a wide variety of gunshot wounds inflicted during executions, revealing both gunshots to the head, especially single shots to the back of the head, and cases corresponding to the use of a firing squad, probably equipped with machine guns. The results of the research indicate that capital punishment by shooting was carried out in ways both similar to those the specified in the regulations and completely different.

  10. Gunshot wounds (resulting from execution) of exhumed victims of the communist regime in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Kawecki, Jerzy; Jurek, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of the remains of 23 executed male individuals aged between 21 and 63 years, recovered from Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw (Poland), field 83B, in 2012. In 1948 and 1949, prisoners sentenced to death by firing squad--most of them associated with the post-war anti-communist underground independence movement in Poland--were buried there. The aim of the study was to analyse fatal wounds and the method of execution, and to compare the results to data from archival documents. The results were also compared with studies concerning executions during a later period, i.e. 1949-1954. The research on the method of execution during this period of history carried out during the exhumations in Osobowicki Cemetery was the first conducted on such a scale in Poland. Forensic analysis revealed a wide variety of gunshot wounds inflicted during executions, revealing both gunshots to the head, especially single shots to the back of the head, and cases corresponding to the use of a firing squad, probably equipped with machine guns. The results of the research indicate that capital punishment by shooting was carried out in ways both similar to those the specified in the regulations and completely different. PMID:24767546

  11. [Folic acid intake in daily food rations of 20-25 years old women from Wroclaw and assessment of knowledge about its importance for health].

    PubMed

    Wyka, Joanna; Mikołajczak, Jolanta

    2007-01-01

    The mean folic acid content in the diets of 50 young women from Wroclaw was 282 mcg and complied in 70.5% of recommended intake in prophylactic of neural tube defects. Only 8% of women used peri-conceptional folate supplementation every day. In the examined group low knowledge about importance of folic acid in health was noticed. Educational interventions are required to inform women at childbearing age of the benefits resulting from supplementation of diet with folic acid.

  12. Astronomy in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarna, M.; Stępień, K.

    2015-09-01

    Polish post-war astronomy was built virtually from nothing. Currently, about 250 astronomers are employed in seven academic institutes and a few smaller units across Poland. Broad areas of astrophysics are covered and the level of astronomical research in Poland is higher than the world average. Joining ESO has created an atmosphere that is conducive to further improvements in the quality of Polish research, and it marks an important step towards the full integration of Polish astronomers into the international scientific community.

  13. News Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

  14. The 100th anniversary of the birth of N E Alekseevskii (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 May 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of RAS Corresponding Member N E Alekseevskii took place on 23 May 2012 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were put on the session agenda as posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kopaev Yu V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "About N E Alekseevskii" (2) Brandt N B (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "My teacher Nikolai Evgen'evich Alekseevskii"; (3) Peschansky V G (B I Verkin Physical-Technical Institute of Low Temperatures of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine) "Galvanomagnetic effects in layered conductors"; (4) Krasnoperov E P (The National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "First steps of technical superconductivity in the USSR"; (5) Nizhankovsky V I (International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Wroclaw, Poland), Tsebro V I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "History of creation and growth of the International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures".Papers written on the basis of oral presentations 2 - 5 are printed below. • The best years of my life, N B Brandt Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 192-198 • Galvanomagnetic phenomena in layered conductors, V G Peschansky Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 198-201 • At the origins of applied superconductivity, E P Krasnoperov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 202-204 • International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures: how it was set up and how it evolved, V I Nizhankovskii, V I Tsebro Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 204-210

  15. Exhumation research concerning the victims of political repressions in 1945-1956 in Poland: A new direction in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Lukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Konczewski, Paweł; Kawecki, Jerzy; Swiątek, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland), the bodies of 223 prisoners were exhumed, including the victims of political repressions and prosecutions in the period 1949-1954, during which people fighting for the independence of Poland were executed and buried in unidentified graves in various graveyards. It was the first exhumation conducted in Poland on such a large scale. The aim of the present publication is to describe the new direction in forensic medicine employed in these exhumations, which resulted from the new opportunities created by the opening of the state archives after the political transformation of 1989. The authors describe the difficulties they encountered during their exploration of prisoners' burial grounds. The graveyards included in the investigation bear the marks of an intentional policy of confusion and secret burial methods. First, significant disorder in the logical (based on time of death) sequence of burials was observed. This made identification difficult. A substantial time lapse between death and burial in each case, along with the unavailability of comparative data, limited the use of identification methods widely employed in forensic medicine. For this reason, initial analysis had to be based on observations and confirmations made by forensic medicine about the sequence of burials as compared to cemetery documentation. Situations such as this clearly call for the cooperation of historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and forensic pathologists. Political transformations in Eastern Europe in the 1990s gave rise to hopes of exchanging experiences in this type of research as conducted in other countries of the former Eastern Bloc.

  16. Exhumation research concerning the victims of political repressions in 1945-1956 in Poland: A new direction in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Lukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Konczewski, Paweł; Kawecki, Jerzy; Swiątek, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland), the bodies of 223 prisoners were exhumed, including the victims of political repressions and prosecutions in the period 1949-1954, during which people fighting for the independence of Poland were executed and buried in unidentified graves in various graveyards. It was the first exhumation conducted in Poland on such a large scale. The aim of the present publication is to describe the new direction in forensic medicine employed in these exhumations, which resulted from the new opportunities created by the opening of the state archives after the political transformation of 1989. The authors describe the difficulties they encountered during their exploration of prisoners' burial grounds. The graveyards included in the investigation bear the marks of an intentional policy of confusion and secret burial methods. First, significant disorder in the logical (based on time of death) sequence of burials was observed. This made identification difficult. A substantial time lapse between death and burial in each case, along with the unavailability of comparative data, limited the use of identification methods widely employed in forensic medicine. For this reason, initial analysis had to be based on observations and confirmations made by forensic medicine about the sequence of burials as compared to cemetery documentation. Situations such as this clearly call for the cooperation of historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and forensic pathologists. Political transformations in Eastern Europe in the 1990s gave rise to hopes of exchanging experiences in this type of research as conducted in other countries of the former Eastern Bloc. PMID:24411722

  17. English Teaching Profile: Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Poland begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  18. Income Affluence in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of income affluence (richness) in Poland during 1998-2007. Using household survey data, the paper estimates several statistical indices of income affluence including income share of the top percentiles, population share of individuals receiving incomes higher than the richness line, and measures that take into…

  19. Abortion in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother. PMID:1777450

  20. Poland's syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Fokin, Alexander A; Robicsek, Francis

    2002-12-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Literary data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory of its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. The incidence of Poland's syndrome varies between groups (male versus female patients, congenital versus familial cases, and so on) and ranges from 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 100,000 live births. Cases of Poland's syndrome associated with leukemia, carcinoma of the hypoplastic breast, and other conditions, confirm the relationship between developmental defects and tumors, and require oncologic awareness. Various manifestations, age, and gender require different surgical approaches. Our experience, which includes 27 patients (15 male, 12 female), 20 of whom (12 male, 8 female) underwent operation, suggests that the repair should be done in two stages in children and in a single stage in adults. Reconstruction and/or stabilization of the aplastic ribs may be achieved using bone grafts or prosthetic mesh. Muscle flaps and breast implants may be used to correct muscle deficiency and breast hypoplasia and to help achieve a complete cosmetic repair. PMID:12643435

  1. [Social aspect of clinical research in Poland].

    PubMed

    Masełbas, Wojciech; Czarkowski, Marek

    2007-12-01

    Each year more than 400 new clinical studies are registered in Poland. They gather above 50.000 of study participants. Social opinion on clinical trials is an important factor. The paper presents the review of actual opinions on clinical research in Poland. It provides the description of standards of protection of study participants, benefits and risks related to the participation in clinical research and the role of media in creating and influencing of the social perception of clinical trials. Results of conducted questionnaire studies imply that Poles correctly identify and assess the risk of participation in clinical experiments. The primary reason for the participation seams to be the possibility to help other patients, contribution to the progress of science and standards of medical care and potential benefits for other sufferers. The need of testing the safety and efficacy of the new medication in man is generally well recognized. At the same time a substantial part of the society is concerned with the possible corruption of investigators and unethical behaviour of sponsors. The social perception of clinical research in Poland is in majority of analyzed parameters not substantially different from opinions in other member states of EU. However, the medical society should be more active in influencing and changing some negative impressions.

  2. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  3. Psychiatric hospitalization in Poland.

    PubMed

    Frydman, L

    1983-01-01

    An overview of psychiatric hospitalization in Poland is presented in the context of Polish political and socio-cultural developments. The areas addressed include: the characteristics of the patient population; the organization of Polish mental health service; the nature of psychiatric treatment; psychiatric legislation; patients' rights; and the training and social status of the various mental health professionals. In spite of the meager resources allocated to mental health services, and the consequent staff shortages and overcrowded, drab living conditions in psychiatric facilities, the care afforded patients is generally humane and nonoppressive. Polish psychiatry has succeeded in maintaining its professional autonomy and has assumed a leadership role in the modernization of its service delivery system.

  4. [Emigration from Poland].

    PubMed

    Fassmann, H

    1998-01-01

    "Apart from Ireland and Italy Poland belongs to the ¿classical' emigration countries of the 19th and 20th century. Due to economical and political factors a considerable number of Poles left their country.... Spread over many countries on several continents the emigrants established a Polish diaspora and developed a national feeling that is...[connected] with the Polish culture and the Polish ¿community'. The existence of ethnic networks structures characterized the Polish emigration also after 1989/90. Political and ethnic factors become thereby less important in comparison with economical push- and pull-factors. This leads to an emigration of qualified people who get jobs in the urban labour markets of Western Europe in private households, and in the building trade, sometimes under precarious circumstances." (EXCERPT)

  5. Poland: a step backwards.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    With the growing political and economic unrest in Poland and the emergence of the free trade union Solidarity, Catholic groups have taken the opportunity to campaign actively and openly against family planning services. These services, consequently, appear to be seriously threatened. Previously, Catholic opposition to family planning, particularly the 1956 Abortion Law, was always manifested in semi-clandestine ways. The activity was largely focused on the publication of critical articles, Church sermons, and the organization of Catholic groups working with youth. Despite pressure from the Catholic deputies in the Sejm, the government firmly refused to permit any discussion in Parliament on the Abortion Law until the mid-1970s, when the situation changed. 2 things were largely responsible: the pronatalism of Edward Gierek, 1st Secretary of the Party; and the growing dissatisfaction of the people. In 1975-1976 the State took the opportunity to save money by curtailing the contraceptive supply. In 1980 working class upheavals and economic crises intensified the government's need for Church support. With the new freedom, certain right-wing Catholic groups were able to work openly. They publish literature, organize seminars on the natural methods of fertility regulation, distribute photographs of fetuses, and visit clinics for the purpose of influencing clients waiting for contraceptive and abortion counseling. Availability of contraception in Poland is poor. The total lack of contraceptives in 1975-1976 means that even now there are big shortages in both quantity and variety. It is not possible to say whether the anti-abortion movement is a Solidarity movement, for there is no official statement of support on behalf of the trade union.

  6. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. PMID:27140431

  7. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting.

  8. Poland health system review.

    PubMed

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  9. FOREWORD: 7th Symposium on Vacuum-based Science and Technology (SVBST2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbiński, W.

    2014-11-01

    These are the proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Vacuum based Science and Technology organized in Kołobrzeg (PL) on November 19-21, 2013 by the Institute of Technology and Education, Koszalin University of Technology and the Clausius Tower Society under auspices of the Polish Vacuum Society (PTP) and the German Vacuum Society (DVG) and in collaboration with the BalticNet PlasmaTec and the Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC). It was accompanied by the 12-th Annual Meeting of the German Vacuum Society. The mission of the Symposium is to provide a forum for presentation and exchange of expertise and research results in the field of vacuum and plasma science. After already six successful meetings organized alternately in Poland and Germany our goal is to continue and foster cooperation within the vacuum and plasma science community. This year, the Rudolf-Jaeckel Prize, awarded by the DVG for outstanding achievements in the field of vacuum based sciences, was presented to Dr Ute Bergner, president of the VACOM Vakuum Komponenten & Messtechnik GmbH and a member of our community. The full-day course organized in the framework of the Educational Program by the Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC) and entitled: An Introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processes was held on November 18, 2013 as a satellite event of the Symposium. The instructor was Prof. Ismat Shah from Delaware University (US). The Clausius Session, already traditionally organized during the Symposium was addressed this year to young generation. We invited our young colleagues to attend a series of educational lectures reporting on achievements in graphene science, scanning probe microscopy and plasma science. Lectures were given by: Prof. Jacek Baranowski from the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology in Warsaw, Prof. Teodor Gotszalk from the Wroclaw University of Technology and Prof. Holger Kersten from the Christian Albrechts University in Kiel. The Symposium was accompanied by an industry

  10. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiński, Piotr; Górecki, Krzysztof; Bogdanowicz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the selected articles presented at the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference, held in Gdansk, Poland on September 20-23, 2015 (IMAPS Poland 2015). The conference has been held under the scientific patronage of the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Poland Chapter and the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunication, Polish Academy of Science and jointly hosted by the Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics (GUT) and the Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (GMU). The IMAPS Poland conference series aims to advance interdisciplinary scientific information exchange and the discussion of the science and technology of advanced electronics. The IMAPS Poland 2015 conference took place in the heart of Gdansk, two minutes walking distance from the beach. The surroundings and location of the venue guaranteed excellent working and leisure conditions. The three-day conference highlighted invited talks by outstanding scientists working in important areas of electronics and electronic material science. The eight sessions covered areas in the fields of electronics packaging, interconnects on PCB, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC), MEMS devices, transducers, sensors and modelling of electronic devices. The conference was attended by 99 participants from 11 countries. The conference schedule included 18 invited presentations and 78 poster presentations.

  11. [Rabies in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Kucharczyk, Bozena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland 70 cases of animal rabies were reported in 2007. Since 1993, when mass oral vaccination of wild animals against rabies was introduced in our country, a positive impact of fox immunisation has been visible on the epizootic situation of rabies in Poland. In 2007 we observed more than forty-fold decrease in number of animal rabies cases in comparison with the year 2001. Sources of wild and domestic animal rabies are still present, mainly in the east part of the country (75% of rabies cases). In Poland out of 6,608 people vaccinated against rabies, 91 (1.4%) were bitten by or had contact with a rabid animal. The main reason for vaccination against rabies was exposure to an animal with not excluded rabies (6,874 cases, 89%). PMID:19799257

  12. [Rabies in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Kucharczyk, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    In Poland 28 cases of animal rabies were reported in 2008. Since 1993, when mass oral vaccination of wild animals against rabies was introduced in our country, a positive impact of fox immunisation has been visible on the epizootic situation of rabies in Poland. However, sources of wild and domestic animal rabies are still present, mainly in the east part of the country. In Poland in 2008 the total 6 495 of people were vaccinated against rabies but only 60 (0.9%) were bitten by or had contact with a rabid animal. The main reason for vaccination against rabies was exposure to an animal with not excluded rabies (5 806 cases, 89%). PMID:20731232

  13. [Rabies in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Łabuńska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In Poland 81 cases of animal rabies were reported in 2006. Since 1993, when mass oral vaccination of wild animals against rabies was introduced in our country, a positive impact of fox immunisation has been visible on the epizootic situation of rabies in Poland. In 2006 we observed almost forty-fold decrease in number of animal rabies cases in comparison with the year 2001. Sources of wild and domestic animal rabies are still present, mainly in the east part of the country (80% of rabies cases). In Poland out of 7 225 people vaccinated against rabies, 99 (1.3%) were bitten by or had contact with a rabid animal. The main reason for vaccination against rabies was exposure to an animal with not excluded rabies (6 502 cases, 90%) or animals healthy at the moment of the exposition (624 cases, 8.6%). PMID:18807477

  14. Seismic event near Jarocin (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizurek, Grzegorz; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiejacz, Paweł; Wiszniowski, Jan; Trojanowski, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    The earthquake of magnitude M L = 3:8 (EMSC) took place on Friday, 6 January 2012, north-east of the town of Jarocin in Wielkopolska Region, Poland. The only historical information about past earthquakes in the region was found in the diary from 1824; apart of it, there was a seismic event noticed in the vicinity of Wielkopolska in 1606 (Pagaczewski 1982). The scope of this paper is to describe the 6 January 2012 event in view of instrumental seismology, macroseismic data analysis and known tectonics of the region, which should be useful in future seismic hazard analysis of Poland.

  15. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-06-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19(th) century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I.

  16. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19th century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I. PMID:26336508

  17. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-06-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19(th) century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I. PMID:26336508

  18. Making Media Policy in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goban-Klas, Tomasz

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the creation of the new media policy in Poland formed at the 1989 "round table" negotiations between the Polish leadership and Solidarity, a Polish trade union. Discusses the issues of censorship, access to newsprint and to the airwaves (primarily to television), and the legalization of underground publications. (KEH)

  19. Emerging Business Schools in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmielecka, Ewa; Osterczuk, Anna M.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in postsecondary business education in Poland are examined, drawing on results of recent surveys. Topics addressed include the design and evaluation of programs at different levels, influences of Western programs and pedagogy, demand for business education, and implications for further development of the system. (MSE)

  20. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  1. Air protection strategy in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  2. Dew chemistry near a motorway in SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, G.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Błaś, M.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this project is to show the influence of a large linear source of air pollution on dew formation and chemistry. Dew sampling was performed during the growing season of 2009 at 3 sites near Wroclaw in SW Poland in the vicinity of A4 motorway which connects southern part of Poland with Germany and other EU countries. The road crosses in this part a rural landscape from WSW to ENE direction. The traffic is notoriously heavy, even at night, and lorries constitute about one third of vehicles. Two of the sampling sites were set in a distance of 30 meters from the motorway edge on the opposite sides (SE and NW) of the road to monitor dew efficiency and chemistry depending on wind direction. The third one was set 1.25 km to the NNW of the former pair to represent background rural conditions beyond the road influence. All three sites and the motorway are surrounded by vast arable grounds with intense agriculture activity. Three insulated plane radiative condensers, each 1 m2 in area, inclined at 15°, were installed at measurement sites. Two series of measurements were performed: the first in April lasted twenty days including several days without sampling, the second in September was continuous and lasted eleven days. Altogether there were nineteen dew or hoar frost sampling days, nine in April and ten in September. Basic meteorological data were gathered three times daily. Water yield of three condensers was compared to meteorological data and between each other. The research findings show that the most favorable weather conditions corresponding to high amounts of dew or hoar frost were characterized by synoptic scale warm air advection, high relative humidity, moderate wind speed i.e. 2-3 m/s and radiative weather. The samples from condenser located in calm air site usually had less volume than the other in windy place. The motorway heat source imposed a strong impact on efficiency of dew. The condenser on the leeward site of the road was characterized

  3. Herbal treatment of the urinary system diseases based on 16(th) and 17(th) century herbals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-02-01

    The medicinal use of herbs is a principal achievement of human ingenuity. The most renowned doctors of antiquity: Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and Galen mentioned herbs in their works. The first printed herbal was published in Mainz in 1485. Outstanding scientists e.g. Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonard Fuchs and Andreo Mattiola published herbals in the 16th century. Polish doctors also contributed to the development of herbal treatment. The first work: Of Herbs and their Potency by Stefan Falimirz, published in 1534, triggered other publications in the 16th century, the age of herbals. In 1542, Hieronymus Spiczynski published a herbal: Of Local and Overseas Herbs and their Potency. Then, in 1568, Marcin Siennik published his: Herbal, which is the Description of Local and Overseas Herbs, their Potency and Application. In 1595, Marcin of Urzedow published: The Polish Herbal, the Books of Herbs. Completed in mid-16th century, it was only published 22 years after his death. The last work discussed is Herbal Known in Latin as published in 1613 by Simon Syrenius a graduate of Ingolstadt and Padua universities and lecturer at the Academy of Krakow. The work was Europes most complete elaboration on herbal treatment. The herbs described in the herbals worked as diuretics, demulcents, analgesics, relaxants and preventives of kidney stones. Published in Polish, they are still to be found in Poland. All the works presented herein are held by the Library of the Seminary of Wloclawek, and the Ossolinski National Institute in Wroclaw. PMID:26913886

  4. Projets et Resultats des Recherches sur l'Histoire des Bibliotheques en Pologne (Projects and Results of Research on the History of Libraries in Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubow, Stefan

    The history of library science in Poland and a number of Polish research projects are reviewed in this paper. It is concluded that a considerable amount of research has been done on the history of libraries in Poland, but that this research is fragmented and separated by its focus on theory or methodology. The methodology of scientific research in…

  5. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed

    David, T J

    1982-06-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated.

  6. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    David, T J

    1982-01-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated. PMID:7092316

  7. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. ); Balandynowicz, H.W. . Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  8. [Chickenpox in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, 140.115 cases of chickenpox were reported in Poland. The incidence 367.2 per 100,000 was higher compared to 2008 (340.2). Children 5-9 years old were the most affected age group--3252.8 per 100 000. Of 140.115 cases, 969 (0.69%) were hospitalized and 4 deaths attributed to chickenpox were reported.

  9. [Chickenpox in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 129.662 cases ofchickenpox were reported in Poland. The incidence 340.2 per 100,000 was lower compared to 2007 (420.2) and to the median incidence in 2002-2006 (370.7). Children 5-9 year old were the most affected age group - 3057.1 per 100 000. Of 129 662 cases, 800 (0.62%) were hospitalized and no deaths attributed to chickenpox were reported.

  10. New moldavites from SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Four newly discovered moldavites from the East and West Gozdnica pits, SW Poland, are characterized. All specimens, including other four, reported earlier, are from Upper Miocene fluvial sediments of the Gozdnica Formation. Their weight varies between 0.529 and 1.196 g. The moldavites are bottle green in colour and have bubbles and inclusions of lechatelierite. Low degree of corrosion suggests short river transport, apparently eastward from Lusatia.

  11. Poland syndrome with dextrocardia: case report.

    PubMed

    Galiwango, G W; Swan, M C; Nyende, R; Hodges, A M

    2010-11-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital condition presentingwith typical features including an absent costosternal head of pectoralis major andipsilateral brachysyndactyly. There are many clinical variations of the syndrome including rib defects, absence of shoulder girdle muscle and breast hypoplasia or agenesis. Dextrocardia is rarely associated with Poland Syndrome with only 22 cases being previously reported in the worldwide literature. Whereas 'classical' Poland syndrome is predominantly right sided, all cases associated with dextrocardia have been left sided. We report a further case of left sided Poland syndrome with dextrocardia which might have important implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of this unusual condition.

  12. Agroforestry Systems In Poland A Preliminary Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to use state-of-the-art knowledge to depict the foundations and prospects for agroforestry systems in Poland to develop, in line with political, legal, historical and environmental conditions pertaining in the country. The main legal provisions concerning the presence of trees in agriculture are presented prior to a first-ever defining of key traditional agroforestry systems in Poland.

  13. Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Richard C.; Strzemieczny, Jacek

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of civic education for democracy in Poland. Focuses on the largest, most comprehensive project, Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland (EDCP). Discusses the context of civic education, project origins and goals, international partnerships, project funding, project-developed curricula, teacher-education activities, and…

  14. [Legionellosis in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Czerwiński, Michał

    2011-01-01

    In 2009--10 cases of legionellosis were reported in Poland, the incidence rate was 0.026/100 000 (in 2008--15 cases, incidence rate 0.039). All cases were laboratory confirmed. Most of them were diagnosed with serological tests--determination with ELISA test the anti-legionella antibodies in IgM fraction of serum gamma globulins, as the most recent reaction for Legionella infection. Four cases were diagnosed by detection of legionella antigen in urine. In 2005-2009 27 cases were associated with tr avel, including 24 imported cases. PMID:21913463

  15. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis. PMID:19799261

  16. [Influenza in Poland in 2001].

    PubMed

    Kuszewski, Krzysztof; Brydak, Lidia B; Machała, Magdalena

    2003-01-01

    In 2001 the number of cases of influenza and influenza-like illness (ILI) registered in Poland amounted to 576,449. This is 36.1% of the number of cases recorded in 2000. The highest influenza incidence was found in Dolnoślaskie voivodship (3013.4 per 100,000), Mazowieckie voivodship (2688.5 per 100,000) and Zachodniopomorskie voivodship (2132.2 per 100,000). In children aged 0 to 14 years the number of influenza and ILI cases amounted to 275,358 (incidence was 3851.4 per 100,000) and this is 47.8% of the total number of cases recorded in 2001. The number of patients referred to hospitals amounted to 678 and 26 persons died. One influenza strain A(H1N1) was isolated from the patient aged 10. Immunofluorescence tests carried out in over 900 specimens did not confirm infection with influenza virus. Sero-surveys performed in the epidemic season 2001/2002 showed that the levels of antihemagglutinin antibodies were comparable for three antigens: A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and B. The highest antibody titers were recorded in the age group 15-25. Since May 2001 Poland is a member of the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme. PMID:12926309

  17. [JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT AND FRENCH SCIENTISTS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA IN 1770-1780].

    PubMed

    Beauvois, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The author is trying to remind us of great role of French culture and French people in spreading the ideas of Enlightenment in Poland. Common use of French language in high societies in 18th century and excellent knowledge of books from Paris created favourite conditions for contacts of Poland with France. The best evidence of common culture of Enlightenment was the Commission of National Education (KEN) and the deep social changes. The direct contacts of French thinkers, writers and scientists with Poland also caused the changes of horizons of aristocracy and gentry. We will remind the main animators of this movement followed A. Jobert. J.E. Gilibert takes a very important place among the animators of Enlightenment. Author intends to present the phases of knowing him, generally mentioning the main conclusions of many research on Gilibert. At the same time author leaves to next speakers a detailed analyze of Gilbert's contribution to the development of Polish science.

  18. [JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT AND FRENCH SCIENTISTS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA IN 1770-1780].

    PubMed

    Beauvois, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The author is trying to remind us of great role of French culture and French people in spreading the ideas of Enlightenment in Poland. Common use of French language in high societies in 18th century and excellent knowledge of books from Paris created favourite conditions for contacts of Poland with France. The best evidence of common culture of Enlightenment was the Commission of National Education (KEN) and the deep social changes. The direct contacts of French thinkers, writers and scientists with Poland also caused the changes of horizons of aristocracy and gentry. We will remind the main animators of this movement followed A. Jobert. J.E. Gilibert takes a very important place among the animators of Enlightenment. Author intends to present the phases of knowing him, generally mentioning the main conclusions of many research on Gilibert. At the same time author leaves to next speakers a detailed analyze of Gilbert's contribution to the development of Polish science. PMID:26445742

  19. Poland's other Thirty Years' War.

    PubMed

    Kozakiewicz, M

    1990-06-01

    The Polish Family Development Association (Towarzystwo Rozwoju Rodziny (TRR)) was founded in 1957. At the end of 1988, TRR owned and ran 89 medical clinics, 5 youth centers, 25 premarital and family counseling centers, and 6 prenatal training schools. 140,000 patients were served in 1988, and 140,000 in 1989. But there was a decline in the number of family counseling and premarital centers. It fell to 22 at the end of 1989 and 16 in the 1/4 of 1990. The nonCommunist government took crisis measures. From January 1 onward, the government suspended all kinds of subsidies for nongovernmental organizations in Poland. The TRR was compelled to dissolve 12 local branches. Nothing is certain anymore, even the Minister of Health has changed. Poland's Catholic Church has been in conflict with TRR. The Church is against abortions, contraception, and secular, modern sex education. Because of Church opposition to contraception, the abortion rate is very high. Official statistics tell only the number of abortions done in hospitals. The real abortion numbers are subject to controversy. The Church claims that the real number of is 1 million a year. However, the real estimate is about 400,00 to 600,000 a year, resulting in a ratio of 70 to 100 abortions/100 live births. The powerful Pro-Life movement is partly supported and financed by American "Pro-Life" interests and partly by Solidarity (which is split on the issue). Pro-Life campaigns for declaring the 1957 abortion law illegal. 76% of the people in towns and 87% in villages rely solely on the natural methods accepted by the Church. The supply and demand of modern contraceptives is unreliable. Political changes in Poland may have a negative effect on family planning and sex education. Sex education (from age 11) in the narrow sense of telling where babies come from has been compulsory since 1972. But real sex education has only been compulsory since 1987. It is taught in all secondary schools (ages 15-19) for 1 hour every other

  20. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2001.

    PubMed

    Pepłońska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2002-01-01

    The Central Register of Occupational Diseases keeps the records of all reported and certified occupational diseases in Poland. In this paper the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland in 2001 is discussed on the basis of the data provided by the Register. The changes in the incidence pattern over the recent 30 years are also shown. In 2001, 6,007 cases of occupational diseases were registered, with the incidence rate of 63.2 per 100,000 employees. The highest incidence rates were noted for seven categories of diseases: the vocal organ diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconioses, contagious and invasive diseases, dermatoses, chronic diseases of bronchi, and vibration syndrome. Altogether these diseases covered 5,239 cases (87.2% of all registered cases). Mining and quarrying, agriculture, hunting and forestry, education, health and social works were the economy activities with the highest incidence of occupational diseases. The majority of occupational diseases (93.9%) have developed after a long-term (over 10 years) exposure to particular harmful factors. As much as 58.5% of cases were recorded in males. The predominant occupational diseases in males were occupational hearing lesions, while in females chronic vocal organ diseases, most common in teachers, were most frequently recognized. In Poland, the diseases of the vocal organ poses a serious problem from the medical and socio-economic points of view. These pathologies show the highest dynamics of the incidence among all registered occupational diseases. Over the last five years the vocal organ diseases have moved upwards to the top in the ranking, both with respect to the number of cases and the incidence rate. Since 1998, the incidence of occupational diseases has been continuously showing a downward tendency. Four categories of occupational diseases have accounted mostly for this decline: noise-induced hearing loss, chronic diseases of vocal organ, contagious and invasive diseases, and

  1. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2001.

    PubMed

    Pepłońska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2002-01-01

    The Central Register of Occupational Diseases keeps the records of all reported and certified occupational diseases in Poland. In this paper the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland in 2001 is discussed on the basis of the data provided by the Register. The changes in the incidence pattern over the recent 30 years are also shown. In 2001, 6,007 cases of occupational diseases were registered, with the incidence rate of 63.2 per 100,000 employees. The highest incidence rates were noted for seven categories of diseases: the vocal organ diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconioses, contagious and invasive diseases, dermatoses, chronic diseases of bronchi, and vibration syndrome. Altogether these diseases covered 5,239 cases (87.2% of all registered cases). Mining and quarrying, agriculture, hunting and forestry, education, health and social works were the economy activities with the highest incidence of occupational diseases. The majority of occupational diseases (93.9%) have developed after a long-term (over 10 years) exposure to particular harmful factors. As much as 58.5% of cases were recorded in males. The predominant occupational diseases in males were occupational hearing lesions, while in females chronic vocal organ diseases, most common in teachers, were most frequently recognized. In Poland, the diseases of the vocal organ poses a serious problem from the medical and socio-economic points of view. These pathologies show the highest dynamics of the incidence among all registered occupational diseases. Over the last five years the vocal organ diseases have moved upwards to the top in the ranking, both with respect to the number of cases and the incidence rate. Since 1998, the incidence of occupational diseases has been continuously showing a downward tendency. Four categories of occupational diseases have accounted mostly for this decline: noise-induced hearing loss, chronic diseases of vocal organ, contagious and invasive diseases, and

  2. Trees Outside Forest In Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajączkowski, Jacek; Zajączkowski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Increasing environmental threats to agricultural production and the stability of ecosystems have been observed on the Polish lowlands since the 1970s. Several hundred million trees and shrubs have been planted on farmland, mostly along roads and with the involvement of public agencies, with a view to timber being produced, and soil erosion and the water deficit mitigated. On the basis of over 50 years of practical observations and scientific experiments, recommendations have been drawn up as regards the structural and spatial features of new tree planting outside forests that maximize environmental, production-related and social benefits. This paper gives a brief description of the history of the active establishment of woody vegetation across agricultural landscapes in Poland, along with best practices elaborated for this at several scientific centres.

  3. Poland: facing the hidden costs of development

    SciTech Connect

    Kabala, S.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Polish People's Republic is the eleventh-ranked industrial nation in the world. The by-product of this achievement is some of the worst water, air, and soil pollution in the world. Poland has miles of river water that is unfit for any use and the air pollution in most of the major cities far exceeds any permissible limits. This paper discussed Poland's major ecological problems and its government's desire to deal with these problems.

  4. Environmental impact of melting buried ice blocks (North Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, F.; Slowinski, M. M.; Blaszkiewicz, M.; Brauer, A.; Noryskiewicz, B.; Tyszkowski, S.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the research was to decipher the impacts of the role of dead ice melting on landscape evolution in the Lateglacial and early Holocene Central Europe. Here, we present the paleoecological results from the middle section of the Wda river which is located in northern Poland (Central Europe), on the outwash plain formed during the Pomeranian phase of the last (Vistulian) glacial period ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The Wda river has a typical polygenetic valley in young glacial areas of the northern central European lowlands. We reconstructed environmental changes using biotic proxies (plant macrofossil and pollen analyses) and geomorphological investigations. In this study we focused on a short terrestrial sediment core (48 cm) representing four phases of landscape evolution: telmatic, lacustrine, lacustrine-fluvial and alluvial. Abrupt changes in lithology and sediment structures show rapid changes and threshold processes in environmental conditions. The AMS 14C dating of terrestrial plant remains reveals an age for the basal sediments of 11 223 × 23 cal yr BP and thus falls within the Preboreal biozone. Our results showed that existence of buried ice blocks in northern Poland even at the beginning of the Holocene is clear evidence that locally discontinuous permafrost still was present at that time. The results of our study prove a strong influence of melting buried ice blocks on the geomorphological development, hydrological changes in the catchment, and the biotic environment even in the early Holocene. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367). This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. Financial support by the COST Action ES0907 INTIMATE is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Education of geodesy and cartography at the School of Higher Education In National Economy In Kutno, Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    School of Higher (university degree) Education in National Economy in Kutno is one of the rather younger university schools in Poland that were established in the last years of the XX century. It was founded in 1998, but the convenient location of Kutno in Central Poland seems to be a good opportunity for students coming from all parts of Poland. The School is continuously developed, number of faculties and new study directions and specialisations are steadily growing. The offer of the School include studies in the stationary, extra-mural and post-graduate systems in two Engineering (or licenciate) and M.Sc. levels. At the moment the geodesy and cartography is a part of the Faculty of Technical Sciences; students can chose one of three specialisations: 1.Economic geodesy, property and estate management, 2. Rural (agriculture) geodesy and property engineering and 3. Geoinformatic sciences.

  6. History of rheumaorthopaedics in Poland.

    PubMed

    Małdyk, Paweł; Michalak, Cezary

    2003-10-30

    Rheumaorthopaedics evolved as a division of orthopaedics in the sixties, when new methods of treatment of the RA were developed and introduced into clinical practice. A pioneer of rheumarthopaedics in Poland, also renowned in the world, was Prof. S. Jakubowski. After his training in Heinola he, in 1964, became a head of the Rheumaorthopaedic Department at the Rheumatological Institute in Warsaw. This center, dedicated for rheumatic diseases, serving the whole country, has been a place, where numerous methods and treatments against the disease have been introduced. There were also numerous original methods conceived in this center (e.g. Jakubowski MCP prosthesis, postoperative steroid prevention of stiffness, operative wrist stabilization). Also, hip and knee prosthetic replacement were brought there for clinical use in the R.A. Experience, gathered for years, fruited in obtaining of basic rules of surgical care and treatment of the rheumatoid patient. Second important center for rheumaorthopaedics has been founded in Ustronie - Zawodzie. Rheumaorthopaedic surgeons have been attending international courses, visiting foreign centers, publishing scientific papers and supporting international cooperation. Rheuma-surgeons have been, moreover, active in educational field, organizing courses, lectures and conventions for the colleagues, and also active in social professional organizations, like Polish Orthopaedic.

  7. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  8. Joseph F. Poland (1908-1991)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    On June 4, 1991, AGU Fellow Joseph Fairfield Poland died in a Sacramento, Calif., hospital at the age of 83 after a long fight with Parkinson's Disease. A recognized expert on land subsidence and a retiree from the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division, his death occurred only 2 weeks after the end of the 4th International Symposium on Land Subsidence, held in Houston, Tex. Frequently known as “Mr. Land Subsidence,” it was appropriate that the proceedings of that symposium had been dedicated to him.Born in Boston, Poland earned a bachelor's degree in geology from Harvard University in 1929. He was resident geologist for Tropical Oil Company in Colombia from 1929 to 1931. After returning to the United States, Poland earned his master's degree in geology from Stanford University in 1935, taught groundwater hydrology, and consulted on groundwater and geophysical problems in the West and Southwest.

  9. Natural VOC emissions from forests in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidorov, V.; Jaroszynska, J.; Sacharewicz, T.; Piroznikow, E.

    On the basis of the last inventory of forests and climatic conditions in Poland, a national evaluation of the emissions of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was carried out. Calculations took into account the composition and age structure of forests as well as the temperature dependencies of VOC emission rate for the main European forest-forming tree species. In the case of isoprene, the dependence on illumination level and day length was also taken into account. Estimations were made for all 49 administrative regions of Poland. Depending on weather conditions in different years, the total VOC emission of Polish forests can be in the range 186-763 kt yr -1. For instance, for a moderately warm year, 1992, it was estimated at 440.6 kt, which represents 25% of the total VOC emissions in Poland.

  10. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  11. Vitamin D status in Poland.

    PubMed

    Płudowski, Paweł; Ducki, Czesław; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Jaworski, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    INTRODUCTION    Epidemiological data on vitamin D status in the Polish population are limited. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to evaluate the vitamin D status in a representative group of adult inhabitants of 22 Polish cities, based on the analysis of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS    This cross-sectional study included a total of 5775 adult volunteers (4464 women; 1311 men; mean age, 54.0 ±15.9 years; range, 15.6-89.8 years), who were enrolled and examined through late winter and spring 2014. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were determined using the Liaison XL system (DiaSorin; CLIA method). Demographic and anthropometric data were also analyzed. RESULTS    The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the studied population was 18.0 ±9.6 ng/ml; 65.8% of the patients had 25(OH)D levels of less than 20 ng/ml; 24.1% had suboptimal levels of 20 to 30 ng/ml; and only 9.1% demonstrated the optimal levels of 30 to 50 ng/ml. In 89.9% of the studied population, 25(OH)D levels of less than 30 ng/ml were found. Obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m2, was associated with lower 25(OH)D levels compared with normal weight (15.8 ±8.5 vs 18.5 ±9.7 ng/ml; P <0.0001). Lower 25(OH)D levels were observed in men, younger individuals, and individuals with excess body weight and higher BMI. CONCLUSIONS    The results of our study, which involved the most representative sample size of Polish adults, support the previously reported data on vitamin D status. The levels of 25(OH)D determined for adults in our study demonstrate that the majority of the Polish population is vitamin D deficient, at least during winter and spring, and that preventive or interventional strategies must be considered to improve the vitamin D status in Poland. PMID:27509842

  12. Polish Hip Hop as a Form of Multiliteracies and Situated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to examine Hip Hop in Poland through the lens of multiliteracies and situated learning. This analysis is concerned with the transmission of Hip Hop to and within Wroclaw, Poland, and its acculturation and assimilation in Wroclaw, Poland. Further, this study seeks to illustrate how professional Polish Hip…

  13. Poland. A Selection of Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom House, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document is a collection of supplemental classroom materials on Poland to be photocopied for use in secondary schools in conjunction with the Education for Democracy's Classroom-To-Classroom project. The materials offer an historical framework for considering current events, as well as some insight into the events, ideas, issues, and…

  14. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  15. Internees in Poland: psychiatric abuse claim.

    PubMed

    Rich, Vera

    1982-09-30

    The World Psychiatric Association has been asked to intervene on behalf of four Polish internees who are claiming to be victims of psychiatric repression for political reasons. Under martial law, Poland's security forces have shown a renewed interest in psychiatric internment of disruptive persons. PMID:11643799

  16. Education in Poland. Bulletin, 1922, No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Teresa

    1923-01-01

    Poland, reconstituted as a result of the war, comprises the territory formerly divided among the great powers of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Prussia. Its area extends over 149,140 square miles and its population, according to the census of September 30, 1921, is estimated at 27,160,163, of which two-thirds are Poles. The remainder comprises…

  17. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Poland is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  18. Attitudes to Environmental Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobierska, Hanna; Tarabula-Fiertak, Marta; Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses attitudes to the natural environment of Polish secondary school pupils from four selected regions of Poland. These were defined as knowledge regarding the environment and actions for the benefit of the natural environment as these result from the fundamentals of the environmental education curriculum track. Other results of the…

  19. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  20. Illegality of international population movements in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okolski, M

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the 1990s Poland did not receive foreign migrants. Thereafter, the situation changed dramatically. A large part of the inflow proved to be illegal migrants, many of whom were in transit to Western Europe. Although these movements gradually declined in the second half of the decade, some became increasingly identified with relatively sophisticated smuggling of people. Foreigners smuggled from the South to the West, together with the international criminal networks assisting them, became typical of the migratory movements of people in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. This article seeks to describe illegal migration from the perspective of Poland, a country often perceived as a major transit area in the smuggling of persons to Western Europe. The conclusions draw on the findings of several surveys recently carried out in Poland. Basic concepts related to illegal migration are defined and juxtaposed, and various myths and stereotypes concerning it that most often stem from the paucity of empirical evidence are examined. Finally, the trends observed in Poland are interpreted within the larger context of contemporary European migration.

  1. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  2. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign languages other…

  3. Building Civic Education for Democracy in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Richard C., Ed.; Strzemieczny, Jacek, Ed.

    This book provides a reflective analysis of the effort since 1991 of a group of Polish and U.S. educators to develop civic education programs for schools and teachers in Poland. The book contains 13 chapters and three appendices. Chapters include: (1) "Principles of Democracy for the Education of Citizens in Former Communist Countries of Central…

  4. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  5. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  6. Autologous fat injection in Poland's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinsolle, V; Chichery, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J P

    2008-07-01

    Poland's syndrome is a deformity of the breast and sometimes of the chest wall. Several techniques, which may be combined if necessary, are generally used to treat the forms involving both the breast and chest wall (breast implants, customised chest wall implants, latissimus dorsi pedicled flap). For some years, we have also grafted autologous fat cells according to Coleman's method to treat this rare disorder. We report the preliminary results of this technique and demonstrate its value in the treatment of Poland's syndrome. We studied patients treated for Poland's syndrome by autologous fat injection between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005. We recorded their age, gender, the other surgical techniques used, and grade of Poland's syndrome according to the classification of Foucras. Concerning fat injections, we recorded the number of sessions, volumes injected and complications. The series was composed of seven women and one man, mean age 25 years (range 13 to 40 years). Four patients were grade I, three were grade II and one grade III. The mean number of fat injection sessions was 2.1 (range 1-5) and mean volume injected 96 cc (range 25-200 cc). Lipofilling was used alone in one case and associated with other reconstruction techniques in seven. We had one complication, fat necrosis which progressed favourably after surgical drainage. Autologous fat injection appears to us to be a treatment which can be used alone, or more often associated with traditional reconstruction techniques in all grades of Poland's syndrome. This technique is useful to add volume and especially to correct the contour defects of this syndrome such as the subclavicular hollow and absence of anterior axillary fold.

  7. Health care under transformation in Poland.

    PubMed

    Tymowska, K

    2001-05-01

    The general health insurance introduced in Poland in 1999 is essentially a social insurance. In this article, the main features of the present health care system are discussed, i.e. the sources and principles of financing, ownership relations, structures, entitlements to obtain medical services and the rules of access to services. Emphasis has been put on the operations of various entities operating within the health care sector, including opportunistic conduct of the providers of services financed from public sources, cost dumping, establishing provider alliances, methods of cost control, and the fact that some patients leave the publicly financed system. In Poland, a parallel private system has been developing for many years. Systemic transformations have not changed that direction, but increased considerably the significance of household income and education as the factors that differentiate patient in equality. This article is concluded with the note on the opportunities for the development of supplementary private insurance.

  8. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The 2008 was another year when the scarlet fever incidence in Poland increased. In total there were 11,179 cases registered and the incidence was 29,3 per 100,000 population ranging from 11.5 in podkarpackie voievodeship to 53.0 in opolskie voievodeship. Cases among children and adolescents of less then 15 years of age accounted for 93.1% of all cases. The incidence peaked among 5 years old children (435.9). Incidence in men (33.9) markedly exceeded the incidence in women (25.1) and incidence in urban areas (32.5) that in rural areas (24.4). Approximately 1.7% of all cases were hospitalized and there were no deaths due to scarlet fever in Poland in 2008.

  9. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 was another year when the scarlet fever incidence in Poland increased. In total there were 10,740 cases registered and the incidence was 28.2 per 100,000 population ranging from 11.4 in zachodniopomorskie voivodeship to 54.1 in lubelskie voivodeship. Cases among children and adolescents of less then 15 years of age accounted for 92.1% of all cases. The incidence peaked among 5 years old children (433.4). Incidence in men (32.7) markedly exceeded the incidence in women (24.0) and incidence in urban areas (31.3) that in rural areas (23.2). Approximately 1.6% of all cases were hospitalized and there were no deaths due to scarlet fever in Poland in 2007.

  10. Recent urban and population change in Poland.

    PubMed

    Korcelli, P

    1990-01-01

    "This paper documents recent changes in urban and population trends in Poland. These changes include a sharp decrease in the spatial mobility of the population, a transition from population concentration to deconcentration at interregional scale, and a weakening of the dominance of metropolitan core areas vis-a-vis metropolitan rings." The author suggests that rates of internal migration will increase in the 1990s as the large cohorts born in the 1970s enter the labor force.

  11. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. PMID:27378393

  12. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations.

  13. Reconstruction of methods of execution of the death penalty by shooting in the years 1949-1954 based on exhumation research of "prison fields" in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw. Part II--analysis of gunshot injuries and an attempt at reconstructing the course of execution.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Kawecki, Jerzy; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Swiatek, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of gunshot injuries in prisoners who were executed in Wroclaw penitentiary in the years 1949-1954 shows divergences from legal regulations describing the method of execution. This observation leads to the conclusion that the predominant method of execution of the death penalty was a gunshot or gunshots to the back of the head, which is analogous to the results of exhumation works on collective graves of war prisoners executed during World War II in the territory of the former Soviet Union.

  14. Reconstruction of methods of execution of the death penalty by shooting in the years 1949-1954 based on exhumation research of "prison fields" in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw. Part II--analysis of gunshot injuries and an attempt at reconstructing the course of execution.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Kawecki, Jerzy; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Swiatek, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of gunshot injuries in prisoners who were executed in Wroclaw penitentiary in the years 1949-1954 shows divergences from legal regulations describing the method of execution. This observation leads to the conclusion that the predominant method of execution of the death penalty was a gunshot or gunshots to the back of the head, which is analogous to the results of exhumation works on collective graves of war prisoners executed during World War II in the territory of the former Soviet Union. PMID:23424941

  15. Rare combination of dextrocardia with right-sided Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jae Bum; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Kim, Yeo Hyang

    2012-10-01

    The combination of right-sided Poland syndrome and dextrocardia is rare. To our knowledge, reports regarding this subject are lacking in the published literature to date. Previous reports suggested that dextrocardia may be part of the left sided Poland syndrome. We report and discuss this rare combination.

  16. Cultural Policy in Poland. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balicki, Stanislaw Witold; And Others

    A survey of cultural policy in Poland, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series showing how cultural policies are planned and implemented in member states. The dual traditions of the ready assimilation of European elements into Polish culture and Poland's determination to maintain a national identity throughout 123 years of partition are presented…

  17. The Problems of Acquisition of Library Collections in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankiewicz, W.

    This discussion of the difficulties Poland faces in acquiring materials for its libraries' collections centers on four aspects: (1) historical background, (2) publishing output versus acquisition of collections, (3) decentralization of acquisition as the basis for distribution of collection in Poland, and (4) centralization of information about…

  18. Creativity and School Grades: A Case from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralewski, Jacek; Karwowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relationship between the creative abilities and the school grades of high school students in Poland. Almost six hundred (N = 589) students from 34 high schools from all over Poland participated in the study. Their creative abilities were measured by using the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production…

  19. Care and Education of Orphaned Children in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna

    2004-01-01

    Poland is going through tremendous changes in its educational and health-care systems. These changes may bring reforms in the care of orphaned children, because the new politics and economy are forcing educators to look for new solutions and forms of care. There are many problems with the care of orphan children in Poland in both Children's Homes…

  20. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues. PMID:21531026

  1. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2004].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing. In 2004 this tendency was reversed as a consequence of the epidemic cycle of scarlet fever which in Poland has the duration of 7-9 years. In total 5,964 cases were registered (54% more then in 2003) corresponding to the incidence of 15,6 per 100,000. Regionally the incidence ranged from 32.6 per 100,000 in kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeship to 4.8 in lubelskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (18.9) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (10.5) and the incidence in men (17.6) exceeded the incidence in women (13.8). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode--6 years; incidence 236.7. Approximately 3% of cases were hospitalised. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2004.

  2. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2005].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing. In 2004-2005 this tendency was reversed as a consequence of the epidemic cycle of scarlet fever which in Poland has the duration of 7-9 years. In total 9,911 cases were registered (66.3% more then in 2004) corresponding to the incidence of 26.0 per 100,000. Regionally the incidence ranged from 58.0 per 100,000 in warminsko-mazurskie voivodeship to 10.8 in lubelskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (29.4) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (20.5) and the incidence in men (28.4) exceeded the incidence in women (23.7). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode - 6 years; incidence 406.5. Approximately 2% of cases were hospitalised. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2004.

  3. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara; Staszewska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    After the last outbreak of scarlet fever, when the peak was recorded in 1985, now is observed the visible extension of disease epidemic period and the weakness of the dynamics of the annual changes of incidence. In 2009, as in previous years, the scarlet fever incidence in Poland increased. There were 13,968 cases registered in total and the incidence was 36.6 per 100,000 population ranging from 18.4 in podkarpackie voivodeship to 62.1 in opolskie voivodeship. Cases among children and adolescents of less than 15 years of age accounted for 95.3% of all cases. The highest incidence was observed among 4 years old children (566.5) and 6 years old children (564.70). Incidence in men (41.5) markedly exceeded the incidence in women (32.1) and incidence in urban areas (40.5) and in rural areas (30.6). Approximately 1.1% of all cases were hospitalized. Due to scarlet fever there were no deaths in Poland in 2009.

  4. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2002].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2004-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing, on average 20% per year. The downward trend continued in 2002, the overall incidence rate being 10.6 per 100,000. It was the lowest incidence registered in Poland since the introduction of mandatory reporting of scarlet fever in 1918 (the lowest so far registered incidence rates were 15.2 in 2001 and 17.5 in 1918). Spatial distribution of cases was relatively even--incidence ranged from 5.0 per 100,000 in łódzkie voivodeship to 25.1 in opolskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (12.0) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (8.4) and the incidence in men (11.7) exceeded the incidence in women (9.6). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode--6 years). Two percent of cases were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2002.

  5. Multimodality imaging of Poland syndrome with dextrocardia and limb anomalies.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramesh S; Parisi, Marguerite T

    2012-08-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare disorder featuring unilateral anterior thoracic and upper extremity anomalies. These include hypoplasia of the pectoralis major costosternal head, absent pectoralis minor, breast hypoplasia, and absent upper rib cartilage. Pulmonary hypoplasia may occur secondarily. The postulated etiology is underdevelopment of the subclavian artery. Less than 50 cases of Poland syndrome with dextrocardia have been reported. Rib anomalies cause rightward cardiac displacement in fetal life. This case of left-sided Poland syndrome in a young girl is unique not only because of dextrocardia, but also because the condition preferentially afflicts the right side and males.

  6. Erection of gasifier by Poland to begin in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Erection of a coal gasification project in Poland is to resume in 1987. The plant is to be built by Krupp Koppers at Libiaz in southern Poland. Equipment for the plant has been stored at Libiaz for several years. The project, which began in 1980, has been stalled due to political difficulties in Poland. The Libiaz project will reportedly use approximately 1 million metric tons per year of high sulfur coal. Synthesis gas produced by the Koppers Totzek technology will be utilized to produce methanol.

  7. Date-rape drugs scene in Poland.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginnings of twenty-first century in Poland increasing number of reports about the drug-facilitated sexual assaults have been observed. Many drugs have been identified as so-called "date-rape drugs", because of their pharmacological properties, especially inducing amnesia. These drugs are used for the purpose of "drugging" unsuspected victims and than raping them. In a typical scenario, the perpetrator surreptitiously adds "date-rape drug" to the alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person, who is subsequently sexually assaulted while under the influence of this substance. Many victims do not report the incident until several days after the event or even do not report it at all. They report the incident so late after the events because they often have problems with remember the course of incident. It causes that victim is not reliable witness for justice. Detection of "date-rape drugs" in biological fluids is unequivocal evidence of perpetration. Analysis of biological fluids collected from victims of rapes for presence of drugs was rare in Poland up to now. The aim of this study is to show the use of "date-rape drugs" in Poland. Materials for this study were from the routine casework elaborated at the Institute of Forensic Research in Kraków. APCI-LC-MS methods were applied for screening of biological fluids (blood and/or urine) for amphetamine and its 6 analogues, for 12 substances from benzodiazepine group and for quantification of the detected drugs. HPLC-DAD was used as a screening method for wide range of medicinal drugs, and NCI-GC-MS methods for determination of ketamine and tetrahydrocannabinols (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 9THC) and its metabolite (11-nor-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THCCOOH). In 2000-2004, the biological fluids taken from 33 persons, both sexually assaulted or perpetrators were analysed. In 2000 and 2002 not any case of this type was registered, in 2001 only two cases were recorded. After 2003

  8. Research of medical gases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter. PMID:23916016

  9. Project on chemical safety in Poland.

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Krajewski, J A; Majka, J; Dutkiewicz, T

    1990-01-01

    This work focuses on main aspects of a proposed system of chemical safety in Poland. General principles have been formulated, including theoretical guidelines, definitions and functions. Additionally, organizational and legislative structures have been proposed. A basic principal of the system says that each activity related to the application of chemical compounds creates a risk of adverse health and environmental effects. According to the definition adopted, chemical safety means such levels of chemical compounds in the environment, coming from various sources, which ensure that the risk of adverse health effects and other negative effects will not surpass socially acceptable levels. The chemical safety system is aimed at preventing and limiting the risk of undesirable health and environmental effects from chemical compounds. It is proposed that the system be coordinated by the National Coordinating Committee on Chemical Safety. The most urgent task of the Committee would be to draft a law on human health protection against the harmful effects of chemical compounds.

  10. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Turczyńska, Aleksandra; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, 2 475 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2008, of which 979 had bacterial aetiology, 1 122--viral aetiology, and 374--other or unknown origin. The etiological agent was determined in 555 (56%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 220 cases, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) in 23 cases and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 151 cases. An increasing trend in meningococcal infections incidence has been observed in 2008, and a substantial decrease of Hib incidence, related to increasing vaccination coverage. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2008 decreased compared to year 2007. Among confirmed cases, there were 202 cases of tick-borne encephalitis. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  11. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    In Poland, 2 517 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2009, of which 865 had bacterial aetiology, 1 244--viral aetiology, and 408-- other or unknown origin. The etiological agent was determined in 493 (57%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 190 cases, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) in 13 cases and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 163 cases. An increasing trend in pneumococcal infections incidence has been observed since 2005, and a substantial decrease of Hib incidence, related to increasing vaccination coverage. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2009 increased compared to year 2008. Among confirmed cases, there were 351 cases of tick-borne encephalitis. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  12. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Lankiewicz, Aleksandra; Polkowska, Aleksandra; Chrześcijańska, Irena; Kicman-Gawłowska, Agnieszka; Stefanoff, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    In Poland, 3,361 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2007, of which 1,078 had bacterial etiology, 1,717--viral aetiology, and 566--other or unknown origin. The etiological agent was determined in 611 (57%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them N. meningitidis was found in 224 cases, H. influenzae type B (Hib) in 35 cases and S. pneumoniae in 161 cases. An increasing trend in meningococcal infections incidence has been observed in 2007, and a substantial decrease ofHib incidence, related to increasing vaccination coverage. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2007 increased compared to year 2006. Among confirmed cases, there were 233 cases oftick-borne encephalitis. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  13. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2003].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing. The downward trend continued in 2003, with overall incidence rate of 10.1 per 100,000. The incidence registered during 2001-2003 dropped below the lowest level noted ever sine the introduction of mandatory reporting in 1918. Regionally the incidence ranged from 3.4 per 100,000 in lódzkie voivodeship to 21.8 in opolskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (11.8) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (7.5) and the incidence in men (11.1) exceeded the incidence in women (9.2). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode--6 years; incidence 132.3). Approximately 3% of cases were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2003.

  14. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  15. Poland action plan for water and wastewater: Bielsko-biala and Warsaw, Poland. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-09

    The Goczalkowice Reservoir in the Katowice voivodeship in the Upper Silesia area of Poland. It serves as a major source of water for the population of the Upper Selesia region. In 1987 a major shift took place in the ecology of the reservoir. The shift resulted in major algae blooms which caused problems at the water treatment plant. The primary purpose of the study was to more specifically define the water quality problem of the Goczalkowice Reservoir, to determine it causes and to develop a set of recommendations leading to a solution. The report would then become the basis for proposals for financing of one or more projects needed to implement its recommendations.

  16. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  17. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    PubMed

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  18. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    PubMed

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  19. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  20. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  1. Landscape transformation under influence of melting buried ice blocks (North Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim; Noryśkiewicz, Bożena; Ott, Florian; Tyszkowski, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the research was to decipher impacts, how dead ice melting can influence landscape transformation in the Lateglacial and early Holocene in Central Europe. Here, we present the paleoecological results from the middle section of the Wda river located in northern Poland (Central Europe), on the outwash plain formed during the Pomeranian phase of the last (Vistulian) glacial period ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The Wda river has a typical polygenetic valley in young glacial areas of the northern central European lowlands. We reconstructed environmental changes using biotic proxies (plant macrofossil and pollen analyses) and geomorphological investigations. Abrupt changes in lithology and sediment structures show rapid changes and threshold processes in environmental conditions. The AMS 14C dating of terrestrial plant remains reveals an age for the basal sediments of 11 223 ± 23 cal yr BP coinciding with the Preboreal biozone. The results show the existence of buried ice blocks in northern Poland even at the beginning of the Holocene proving that locally discontinuous permafrost was still present at that time. Our study demonstrates a strong influence of melting buried ice blocks on the geomorphological development, hydrological changes in the catchment, and the biotic environment even in the early Holocene. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. Financial support by the COST Action ES0907 INTIMATE is gratefully acknowledged. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  2. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.

    PubMed

    Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more numerous in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing environmental changes (global warming, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers.

  3. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2005].

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Rosińska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    In Poland, 2 806 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2005, of which 998 had bacterial aetiology, 1469 viral, and 339 cases had other or unknown origin. Incidence of bacterial neuroin-fections increased in 2003-2005, following a decreasing trend observed during the past decade. Etiological factor was determined in 486 (49%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 135 cases, Haemophilus influenzae in 59 cases and Streptococ-cus pneumoniae in 111 cases. Unlike previously in 2005 serogroup B was no longer the predominant type of N. meningitidis cultured from patients. Both types B and C constituted similar proportions of all strains serotyped in 2005. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2005 remained on the same level as in 2004. Etiological factor of central nervous system aseptic infections were established only in minor proportion of cases--3% of meningitis and 20% of encephalitis. Among confirmed cases, there were 177 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 13 cases of herpetic encephalitis. Tick borne encephalitis incidence decreased in 2005 (0.46), compared to 2003-2004. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of northeastern part of the country.

  4. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Kicman-Gawłowska, Agnieszka; Chrześcijańska, Irena; Stefanoff, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    In Poland, 3 693 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2006, of which 989 had bacterial aetiology, 1 874--viral aetiology, and 512--other or unknown origin. The etiological agent was determined in 455 (46%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 148 cases, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) in 39 cases and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 119 cases. An increasing trend in meningococcal infections incidence has been observed in 2006, and a substantial decrease of Hib incidence, related to increasing vaccination coverage. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2006 increased compared to year 2005. Etiological factors of central nervous system aseptic infections were established only in minor proportion of cases--3% of meningitis and 20% of encephalitis. Among confirmed cases, there were 317 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 31 cases of herpetic encephalitis. Tick borne encephalitis incidence increased in 2006 (0.83), compared to 2004 - 2005. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  5. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2004].

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Rosińska, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    In Poland, 2 725 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2004, of which 945 had bacterial etiology, 1427 viral, and 353 cases had other or unknown origin. Incidence of bacterial neuroinfections increased in 2004, despite a decreasing trend observed during the past decade. Etiological factor was determined in 433 (46%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 119 cases, Haemophilus influenzae in 77 cases and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 107 cases. As in the previous years, serotype B was the predominant type of N. meningitidis cultured from patients, but type C appears to be systematically increasing, accounting for 27% of the strains serotyped in 2004. Viral neuroinfections were less common in 2004, compared to previous years. Etiological factor of central nervous system aseptic infections were established only in 17% of cases. Among confirmed cases, there were 262 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 15 cases of herpetic encephalitis. Tick borne encephalitis incidence decreased in 2004 (0.7), compared to 2003 (339 cases, incidence 0.9). Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  6. Verification of COSMO model over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej; Wyszogrodzki, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The Polish National Weather Service and Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI, Warsaw, Poland) joined the Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO) in 2002. Thanks to cooperation in the consortium the meteorological model COSMO is run operationally at IMWM-NRI at both 2.8km and 7km horizontal resolutions. In research mode, data assimilation tests have been carried out using a 6-hourly cycle nudging scheme. We would like to present verification results of the COSMO model, comparing model generated surface temperature, wind and rain fall rates with the Synop measurements. In addition, verification results of vertical profiles for chosen variables will also be analyzed and presented. The verification is divided into the following areas: i) assessing impact of data assimilation on the quality of 2.8km resolution model forecasts by switching data assimilation on and off, ii) spatio-temporal verification of model results at 7km resolution and iii) conditional verification of selected parameters against chosen meteorological condition(s).

  7. Bioethical committees and data protection issues in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ligocka, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee. The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law. In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz. The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007. PMID:18541070

  8. Bioethical committees and data protection issues in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ligocka, Danuta

    2008-06-05

    In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee.The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law.In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz.The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007.

  9. Hydrological relation between two small catchments in central Poland - Zwolenka vs Zagozdzonka rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestorowicz, Anna; Banasik, Kazimierz; Gładecki, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological relation between two small catchments in central Poland - Zwolenka vs Zagozdzonka rivers. Key words: long time hydrological data, Nature 2000 network, hydrological relation Since 1992 the European Union is implementing the European Ecological Natura 2000 Network. The main purpose of creation of Natura 2000, is to protect the natural endangered habitats and species of plants and animals across Europe characteristic to 9 regions. In Poland there are only two regions: continental and alpine. Many Nature 2000 areas are in a way connected with water and often covers small not hydrologically investigated catchments and rivers. Since, 2008 the Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Restoration, Warsaw University of Life Sciences has started a hydrological investigation in Zwoleńka river catchment which valley is a protected Nature 2000 area. One of the most important species in this area is a pond turtle which prefer the wet habitats. There is no precise hydrological data for the Zwoleńka river, however, the other Zagożdżonka river catchment which border on Zwoleńka is investigated since 1963. The main purpose of this investigation is the find the relation between this two river catchment: protected Nature 2000 with no data and carefully investigated Zagożdżonka, with long time hydrological data set.

  10. 2000 years of human activity in Tuchola Pinewoods (northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    conditions forcing the people to give up their settlement and move. The second time of a significant increase of human activities began in Late Medieval time and lasted to the modern time. Pollen analysis shows the beginning of strong deforestation since XV century with the most intensification during industrial revolution (second part XIX century) where pine trees became the dominant species. Intense clear cutting in the lake's vicinity removed its natural "windshelter" and exposed the lake to longer lasting water column mixing. As a consequence varves nearly disappeared whereas the detrital indicators (e.g. Ti) increased due to an open landscape around the lake. The diatom analysis for the last 2000 years revealed several temporary changes for different species. Strongest fluctuation occurred for the species Stephanodiscus parvus and Cyclotella comensis where the latter show similar occurrences as Tetraedron (Chlorophyta). Recent lake monitoring (including diatom analysis) together with hydrological and meteorological data will help to understand under which conditions different diatom species form. This knowledge will be crucial for the interpretation of past changes. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grant NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  11. A case of Poland Syndrome associated with dextroposition.

    PubMed

    Lacorte, Doriana; Marsella, Maria; Guerrini, Pietro

    2010-02-20

    Classical Poland Syndrome (PS) is characterized by unilateral, partial or complete absence of the sternocostal head of the major pectoral muscle and brachysyndactyly of fingers on the same side. We report the case of a newborn infant with dextrocardia and PS located on the left side. This association is very rare: to date only 19 cases have been described in scientific literature. In all reported cases, as in the present, the Poland defect involved the left side and was associated to rib defects, whereas most cases of PS are on the right side and few have rib defects. This case supports the view that dextrocardia follows the loss of volume of the left hemithorax caused by Poland sequence and that the combination of PS and dextrocardia is not coincidental.

  12. Controlling the production and distribution of drugs in communist Poland.

    PubMed

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Between 1944 and 1989--the period of communist power in Poland--the national pharmaceutical market experienced several dramatic changes. The country was a prodigious importer of drugs following the Second World War, with a large portion of the medicine received being donated by various aid organisations. In the 1960s, Poland became a significant exporter of drugs to the Eastern Bloc countries, but dropped down the list of meaningful producers again after the post-1989 transformation. For four and a half decades the pharmaceutical market in Poland had been a scene of political and ideological struggle. The companies, owned and controlled by the state, were poorly managed, being neither innovative nor competitive. This fact, along with the state's irrational and inconsequent drug policy, caused an almost permanent shortage in drug supplies for patients: ironic for a socialist system in which universal and free health care was a basic principle. PMID:26054214

  13. Chest wall reconstruction with methacrylate prosthesis in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Baamonde Laborda, Carlos; Algar Algar, Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. This syndrome was described in 1841 by Alfred Poland at Guy's Hospital in London. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, subcutaneous tissue shortages, lack of the costosternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and associated alterations of the fingers on the same side. Corrective treatment of the chest and soft tissue abnormalities in Poland syndrome varies according to different authors. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent who underwent chest wall reconstruction with a methyl methacrylate prosthesis. This surgical procedure is recommended for large anterior chest wall defects, and it prevents paradoxical movement. Moreover it provides for individual remodeling of the defect depending on the shape of the patient's chest. PMID:23453291

  14. Controlling the production and distribution of drugs in communist Poland.

    PubMed

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Between 1944 and 1989--the period of communist power in Poland--the national pharmaceutical market experienced several dramatic changes. The country was a prodigious importer of drugs following the Second World War, with a large portion of the medicine received being donated by various aid organisations. In the 1960s, Poland became a significant exporter of drugs to the Eastern Bloc countries, but dropped down the list of meaningful producers again after the post-1989 transformation. For four and a half decades the pharmaceutical market in Poland had been a scene of political and ideological struggle. The companies, owned and controlled by the state, were poorly managed, being neither innovative nor competitive. This fact, along with the state's irrational and inconsequent drug policy, caused an almost permanent shortage in drug supplies for patients: ironic for a socialist system in which universal and free health care was a basic principle.

  15. Chest wall reconstruction with methacrylate prosthesis in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Baamonde Laborda, Carlos; Algar Algar, Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. This syndrome was described in 1841 by Alfred Poland at Guy's Hospital in London. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, subcutaneous tissue shortages, lack of the costosternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and associated alterations of the fingers on the same side. Corrective treatment of the chest and soft tissue abnormalities in Poland syndrome varies according to different authors. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent who underwent chest wall reconstruction with a methyl methacrylate prosthesis. This surgical procedure is recommended for large anterior chest wall defects, and it prevents paradoxical movement. Moreover it provides for individual remodeling of the defect depending on the shape of the patient's chest.

  16. [New sector of employment--a review of data on nanoproduction, research and development in the field of nanotechnology in Poland].

    PubMed

    Popławska, Magdalena; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Bujak-Pietrek, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently one of the fastest developing areas of science, focusing on the design, manufacture and use of nanomaterials. The term "nanomaterial" means any product made of nanometer-size (1-100 nm) structures. Due to the small size and unique properties of the applied nanomaterials there is a growing interest in their aplication in various fields of industry and science. In Poland, there are very few companies that carry on nanotechnology activities. Research institutes, universities and research units of the Polish Academy of Sciences predominate in these activities.

  17. [New sector of employment--a review of data on nanoproduction, research and development in the field of nanotechnology in Poland].

    PubMed

    Popławska, Magdalena; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Bujak-Pietrek, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently one of the fastest developing areas of science, focusing on the design, manufacture and use of nanomaterials. The term "nanomaterial" means any product made of nanometer-size (1-100 nm) structures. Due to the small size and unique properties of the applied nanomaterials there is a growing interest in their aplication in various fields of industry and science. In Poland, there are very few companies that carry on nanotechnology activities. Research institutes, universities and research units of the Polish Academy of Sciences predominate in these activities. PMID:26536974

  18. [Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The number as well as incidence rate of notified as shigellosis, bacillary dysentery cases in XXI century are every year lower. Only 33 cases were notified in the year 2008 (incidence rate 0.09/100 000 population), while the 64 cases were notified in 2007 (incidence rate 0.17/100 000), but 35 (incidence rate 0.09) were notified in 2006 and median in the 2002-2006 years was 75 cases, incidence rate 0.2/100 000 population. Since 2000 no one-death case was notified. Several imported cases were notified as they got infection being abroad, polish citizens on holiday abroad, and foreign children coming for vacations in Poland from countries with higher incidence rate for ex. from Ukraine. Out of 11 imported cases three were due to Shigella sp., eight to S. sonnei. Two persons were found infected by S. boydii 8-11 but no one of S. dysentery. In the period of low frequency of Shigella infections, the external quality assessment control of the quality of bacteriological media, laboratory and prae-laboratory procedures for detection of different Shigella groups and types should be executed. A lower number of amoebic dysentery cases were registered 5 cases in 2008 (incidence rate 0.013/100 000 population), but in 2007: the 19 cases, incidence rate 0.05/100 000, and even more in 2006 the 21 cases, incidence rate 0.055/100 000. The cases were registered in 3 voivodeships; infection was probably imported from underdeveloped countries.

  19. Viral infections in goose flocks in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozdruń, W; Woźniakowski, G; Samorek-Salamonowicz, E; Czekaj, H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the infectious agents isolated from infection - suspected geese sent for the diagnostic examination to National Veterinary Research Institute. The birds were sent from goose flocks localized in different parts of Poland. Totally, 1,013 birds from 122 flocks were examined. The presence of goose parvovirus (GPV), goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV), and goose circovirus (GoCV) was detected by triplex PCR. The presence of GPV DNA was shown in 36 flocks. The disease was most frequently diagnosed in goslings aging 3.5 weeks (ten flocks), and 2.5 weeks (six flocks). The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of VP1 encoding region has shown close similarity of Polish GPV strains within the group which ranged from 92% to 100%. Moreover, the similarity level of these strains with GPV isolated in Europe was from 91.3% to 100%. The occurrence of GoCV DNA was shown in 25 goose flocks. The presence of GoCV DNA was found among geese aged from 2 to 6 weeks, but predominantly in those aging 3.5 (three flocks) and 5 weeks (five flocks). The sequence analysis of PCR products from the sequenced region of ORFC1 capsid protein of GoCV has shown that Polish isolates share from 85% to 91% similarity with the sequences of GoCV strains isolated in other countries. The presence of DNA of GHPV was found in 3-week-old geese. During the last 2 years the presence of GHPV was confirmed in three flocks of goslings at the age from 3 to 3.5 weeks. During the last 12 years the occurrence of co-infection with GPV and GoCV was detected in six flocks aging from 5 to 6 weeks.

  20. Very large hail occurrence in Poland from 2007 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilorz, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Very large hail is known as a presence of a hailstone greater or equal to 5 cm in diameter. This phenomenon is rare but its significant consequences, not only to agriculture but also to automobiles, households and people outdoor makes it essential thing to examine. Hail appearance is strictly connected with storms frequency and its kind. The most hail-endangered kind of storm is supercell storm. Geographical distribution of hailstorms was compared with geographical distribution of storms in Poland. Similarities were found. The area of the largest number of storms is southeastern Poland. Analyzed European Severe Weather Database (ESWD) data showed that most of very large hail reports occurred in this part of Poland. The probable reason for this situation is the longest period of lasting tropical airmasses in southeastern Poland. Spatial distribution analysis shows also more hail incidents over Upper Silesia, Lesser Poland, Subcarpathia and Świętokrzyskie regions. The information source about hail occurrence was ESWD - open database, where everyone can add report and find reports which meet given search criteria. 69 hailstorms in the period of 2007 - 2015 were examined. They caused 121 very large hail reports. It was found that there is large disproportion in number of hailstorms and hail reports between individual years. Very large hail season in Poland begins in May and ends in September with cumulation in July. Most of hail occurs between 12:00 and 17:00 UTC, but there were some cases of very large (one extremely large) hail at night and early morning hours. However very large hail is a spectacular phenomenon, its local character determines potentially high information loss rate and it is the most significant problem in hail research.

  1. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2013-10-01

    Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH) arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  2. Over-the-counter medicine and dietary supplement consumption among academic youth in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Godman, Brian; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mikrut, Karolina; Zuziak, Sandra; Pedzisz, Magdalena; Nowak, Aneta; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines and dietary supplements are increasingly popular in Poland, potentially improving but also potentially posing a threat to public health. The study goal is to characterize and assess behaviors related to use of OTC medicines and dietary supplements among Polish university students. A questionnaire-based survey was performed with students divided into groups (gender, subjects studied, period of studies). The majority of students declared using the products, significantly more females and younger students in their early years. Females tended to be more attentive to product information. Students with a background in biological or medical sciences were also more attentive and less influenced by advertising. The authors present that the differences between the defined groups of students should be utilized in tailored educational activities, aiming to rationalize high consumption of OTC medicines and dietary supplements. Targeting other, especially low-socioeconomic and less-educated, groups should follow.

  3. [Spatial concentration of the population in Poland, 1946-1976].

    PubMed

    Kucinski, K

    1979-01-01

    The author investigates the effects of factors such as urbanization, industrialization, depopulation of rural areas, and internal deconcentration on the spatial distribution of the population of Poland. The consequences of these factors with respect to the conditions prevailing in a given period are examined (SUMMARY IN ENG, RUS)

  4. Radiotherapy facilities, equipment, and staffing in Poland: 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Reinfuss, Marian; Byrski, Edward; Malicki, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose To evaluate the current status of radiotherapy facilities, staffing, and equipment, treatment and patients in Poland for the years 2005–2011 following implementation of the National Cancer Programme. Methods A survey was sent to the radiotherapy centres in Poland to collect data on available equipment, staffing, and treatments in the years 2005–2011. Results In 2011, 76,000 patients were treated with radiotherapy at 32 centres vs. 63,000 patients at 23 centres in 2005. Number of patients increased by 21%. In 2011, there were 453 radiation oncologists – specialists (1 in 168 patients), 325 medical physicists (1 in 215 patients), and 883 radiotherapy technicians (1 in 86 patients) vs. 320, 188, and 652, respectively, in 2005. The number of linear accelerators increased by 60%, from 70 units in 2005 to 112 in 2011. The current linac/patient ratio in Poland is 1 linac per 678 patients. Waiting times from diagnosis to the start of treatment has decreased. Conclusion Compared to 2005, there are more treatment facilities, more and better equipment (linacs), and more cancer care specialists. There are still large differences between the 16 Polish provinces in terms of equipment availability and ease of access to treatment. However, radiotherapy services in Poland have improved dramatically since the year 2005. PMID:24416548

  5. Vocational Education and Training against Social Exclusion: Poland. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The problem of social exclusion in Poland was examined along with possible strategies for combating social exclusion through vocational education and training (VET). The examination began with an analysis of the special needs of individuals who have reduced opportunities within the labor market and/or are members of national and ethnic minorities.…

  6. Application of ICT by Students at Selected Universities in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorencowicz, Edmund; Kocira, Slawomir; Uziak, Jacek; Tarasinska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate access and use of computers and internet by students during their studies. The results are based on a survey conducted in 2009-2012 on groups of 320 to 405 students (each year) from two universities in eastern Poland. It was concluded that during the period under study access of students to computers and…

  7. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland.

  8. The State of Development of Digital Libraries in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorny, Miroslaw; Catlow, John; Lewandowski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of development of Polish digital libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the establishment of the first digital library in Poland, the creation of the Wielkopolska Digital Library and other regional digital libraries. The organisational and technological solutions used…

  9. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. PMID:27417333

  10. [Current problems in psychiatric health care in Poland (2005)].

    PubMed

    Puzyński, Stanisław; Langiewicz, Wanda; Pietrzykowska, Bozena

    2006-01-01

    The paper is a presentation of the most important and actual psychiatric health care problems in Poland: the financial situation of hospitals, the risk faced by the out-patient psychiatric care,ethical problems related to clinical practice, as well as issues on postgraduate education.

  11. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  12. Facilities of early rehabilitation after stroke in Poland 2010.

    PubMed

    Opara, Jozef A; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early poststroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for poststroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging healthcare planners to look for new organizational solutions of services that could enable rehabilitation as early as possible after disease onset. Early poststroke rehabilitation includes many elements that provide for early-onset rehabilitation and its continuation after discharge from the stroke unit. Two questionnaires evaluating neurorehabilitation of individuals who had stroke were designed and distributed: the first questionnaire was distributed to 221 neurological wards and the second questionnaire was distributed to 154 rehabilitation departments in Poland. We obtained information about delay before admission from neurological wards to rehabilitation departments, the number of sessions per day, the time duration of one session, the number of sessions per week, the average length of stay in department, the methods of outcome measurement, etc. We sent out 375 questionnaires and received 129 (35%) responses, 78 from neurological wards and 51 from rehabilitation departments. Only 25% of all patients were moved from neurological wards to the rehabilitation department after stroke (15% directly). Of those moved to rehabilitation departments, only 54% were treated early after stroke; that is, within 3 months of stroke. Considering that about half of stroke survivors will require rehabilitation (30 days after stroke onset), the current facilities of early poststroke rehabilitation in Poland cannot meet this need. We should do our best to introduce rehabilitation services such as early home-supported discharge after stroke, which is currently not available in Poland. Although we have focused on resources in Poland, we anticipate

  13. Colorectal cancer management in Poland: current improvements and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Ruszkowski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly identified malignant neoplasm diagnosed in men (12% of total cancers) and women (11%) in Poland, while CRC mortality is second in men (10.1%) and third in women (11.2%). The main reasons for increasing incidence and mortality are an aging population and an increase in environmental and lifestyle factors which may lead to cancer. In Poland there is a lack of historical (regularly published and accessible) data on cancer morbidity and survival rates. The Oncology Centre published cancer data for the first time in February 2009 the 2006, which, also for the first time, embraced the entire country. Oncology data collection in Poland is based on a network of 16 Regional Cancer Registries reporting to the Polish National Cancer Registry in Warsaw. An additional source of oncology data is the National Health Fund and the Central Statistical Office. The National Cancer Programme (2005) provides funding at ca 780 million euro, which includes amongst others the Early CRC Detection Programme to promote a free screening colonoscopy. Oncology services in Poland are funded almost entirely by public resources--the national budget as sustained by tax revenues (Ministry of Health) and the National Health Fund as sustained by the obligatory public health insurance contribution. Oncology expenditure covered by the national budget (Ministry of Health) and the National Cancer Programme in 2006 amounted to 44.8 million euro and 105.2 million euro, respectively. All these preventive, curative and organizational efforts have significantly improved access to efficient therapies (including radiotherapy) and diagnostic procedures in recent years in Poland, although, clearly, a lot remains to be done.

  14. Power supply expansion and the nuclear option in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, C.; Pickle, S.

    1997-06-01

    Poland is in the process of liberalizing and modernizing its electric power system. Given its heavy reliance on coal and a consequent history of often severe environmental externalities associated with power production, the nature of capacity expansion in Poland has important environmental and social implications. To better understand capacity expansion in Poland, we constructed a data set of the Polish power sector for use with the Elfin capacity expansion planning model. Using Elfin, we derived four scenarios and several sensitivities for new generating capacity construction. These scenarios simulate choices among several generic generating technologies made to achieve the lowest overall net present cost of operating the power system through 2015. We find that natural gas is a highly desirable fuel for future power generation in Poland, but primarily as a peaking resource. As the current system is inflexible and peaking capacity appears to be the most pressing need, this result is not surprising. However, when nuclear power is included as a generation option, natural gas is less desirable than the Polish Power Grid Company (PPGCo) has suggested, and, despite the PPGCo`s claims to the contrary, nuclear power cannot be ruled out in Poland on economic grounds alone. In the unconstrained Elfin scenarios, using PPGCo assumptions, nuclear power is attractive, especially after 2010. The attractiveness of nuclear generation proves sensitive to certain input variables, however, notably fixed operating and maintenance cost, and possible carbon taxes. Moreover, we find that the effectiveness of conservation efforts designed to reduce airborne emissions is limited under scenarios in which nuclear generation is adopted. 23 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Hungary and Poland: The Transformation from a Command to a Market Economy, 1989-1998. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1998 (Hungary/Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael

    This paper examines the economic changes that have taken place in recent years in two central European countries, Hungary and Poland. Findings in the paper are based on materials gathered during the summer of 1998 on a Fulbright-Hays seminar visit to Hungary and Poland and from talks with officials and professors in those countries. Observations…

  16. Survival and Competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strains 20 Years after Introduction into Field Locations in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Narożna, Dorota; Pudełko, Krzysztof; Króliczak, Joanna; Golińska, Barbara; Sugawara, Masayuki; Mądrzak, Cezary J.

    2015-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that there are no indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum forming nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soybean plants in arable field soils in Poland. However, bacteria currently classified within this species are present (together with Bradyrhizobium canariense) as indigenous populations of strains specific for nodulation of legumes in the Genisteae tribe. These rhizobia, infecting legumes such as lupins, are well established in Polish soils. The studies described here were based on soybean nodulation field experiments, established at the Poznań University of Life Sciences Experiment Station in Gorzyń, Poland, and initiated in the spring of 1994. Long-term research was then conducted in order to study the relation between B. japonicum USDA 110 and USDA 123, introduced together into the same location, where no soybean rhizobia were earlier detected, and nodulation and competitive success were followed over time. Here we report the extra-long-term saprophytic survival of B. japonicum strains nodulating soybeans that were introduced as inoculants 20 years earlier and where soybeans were not grown for the next 17 years. The strains remained viable and symbiotically competent, and molecular and immunochemical methods showed that the strains were undistinguishable from the original inoculum strains USDA 110 and USDA 123. We also show that the strains had balanced numbers and their mobility in soil was low. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the extra-long-term persistence of soybean-nodulating strains introduced into Polish soils and the first analyzing the long-term competitive relations of USDA 110 and USDA 123 after the two strains, neither of which was native, were introduced into the environment almost 2 decades ago. PMID:26048934

  17. Lake ecosystem response to late Allerød climatic fluctuation (northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Ott, Florian; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Plessen, Birgit; Apolinarska, Karina; Lutyńska, Monika; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Wulf, Sabine; Skubała, Piotr; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is a better understanding, how local lake ecosystems responded to climate changes during the late Allerød - Younger Dryas transition. Therefore, we carried out a detailed high-resolution multi-proxy case study on the partly laminated sediments from the Trzechowskie palaeolake, located in the Pomeranian Lakeland, northern Poland (53°52'40"N, 18°12'93"E). We reconstructed the ecosystem response to climatic and environmental changes using biotic proxies (macrofossils, pollen, Cladocera, diatoms) and classical geochemical proxies (δ18O, δ13C, loss-on-ignition, CaCO3 content) in combination with high-resolution µ-XRF element core scanning. The core chronology has been established by biostratigraphy, AMS 14C-dating on plant macro remains, varve counting within the laminated intervals and the Laacher See Tephra (12880 varve yrs BP) as a precise isochrone. Framework of our investigation is a period covering 367 varve years of the late Allerød and the beginning of the Younger Dryas period where varve preservation gradually ceases. The pronounced changes at the late Allerød - Younger Dryas transition is well-reflected in all environmental indicators but with conspicuous leads and lags reflecting complex responses of lake ecosystems to climate variation. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  18. Abrupt climate-triggered lake ecosystem changes recorded in late glacial lake sediments in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowinski, M. M.; Zawiska, I.; Ott, F.; Noryskiewicz, A. M.; Apolinarska, K.; Lutynska, M.; Michczynska, D. J.; Brauer, A.; Wulf, S.; Skubala, P.; Blaszkiewicz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand how local lake ecosystems responded to abrupt climate changes through applying multi-proxy sediment analyses. Therefore, we carried out a detailed and high-resolution case study on the late glacial sediment from the Trzechowskie palaeolake located in the eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland, northern Poland. We reconstructed climate induced environmental changes in the paleolake and its catchment using biotic proxies (macrofossils, pollen, cladocera, diatoms, oribatidae mite) and classical geochemical proxies (δ18O, δ13C, loss-on-ignition, CaCO3 content) in combination with high-resolution μ-XRF element core scanning. The core chronology has been established by means of biostratigraphy, AMS 14C-dating on plant macro remains, varve counting in laminated intervals and tephrochronology. The latter was possible by the discovery of the late Allerød Laacher See Tephra for the first time at such eastern location. Biogenic accumulation in the lake started rather late during the lateglacial interstadial at 13903×170 cal yrs BP. The rapid and pronounced cooling at the beginning of the Younger Dryas had a major impact on the lake and its catchment as clearly reflected by both, biotic and geochemical proxies. The depositional environment of the lake abruptly changed from a varved to massive gytjia. The pronounced warming at the demise of Younger Dryas cooling is well-reflected in all environmental indicators but with conspicuous leads and lags reflecting complex responses of lake ecosystems to climate warming. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland - NN306085037. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association.

  19. A new varved late Glacial and Holocene sediment record from Lake Jelonek (North Poland) - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, Mateusz; Filbrandt-Czaja, Anna; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Tjallingii, Rik; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Anually laminated (varved) lake deposits are suitable natural archives for reconstructing past climatic and environmental changes at seasonal resolution. A major advantage of such records is that varve counting allows constructing robust and independent chronologies, a key challenge for paleoclimate research. Recently, a new annually laminated sediment record has been obtained from Lake Jelonek, located in the eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland in northern Poland (Tuchola Pinewoods). The lake is surrounded by forest and covers an area of 19,9 ha and has a maximum depth of 13,8 m. Three overlapping series of 14,3 m - long sediment records have been cored with an UWITEC 90 mm diameter piston corer from the deepest part of the lake. A continuous master composite profile has been established comprising the entire postglacial lacustrine sediment infill. Preliminary analyses including micro-facies analyses on thin sections from selected intervals as well as X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) reveal that the sediments are to a large part annually laminated. Here we present detailed varve models for different sediment intervals and discuss high-resolution geochemical variation in the entire sediment record. A preliminary age model based on radiocarbon dating and major biostratigraphical boundaries based on pollen data will be presented as well. These data will form the fundament for the planned multi-proxy study for detailed reconstructions of climatic and environmental variability during the late glacial and Holocene in the southern Baltic. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre Poland NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367.

  20. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-07-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  1. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  2. Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Lebot, B.

    1993-08-01

    This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

  3. Pelagic crinoids (Roveacrinida, Crinoidea) discovered in the Neogene of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Salamon, Mariusz A.; Ferré, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Until recently, it has been assumed that pelagic crinoids, the roveacrinids (Roveacrinida, Crinoidea), became extinct during the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary event. Recent finds of well-preserved roveacrinidal remains (brachials and radials) in the Danian (Early Paleogene) of Poland showed that they survived into the earliest Cenozoic. This group was thus characterized as a "dead clade walking". Here, we present fossil evidence that these pelagic crinoids survived in Poland until at least the Middle Miocene (Badenian, ca. 14 Myr ago)—more than 50 Myr after their supposed extinction. These Miocene roveacrinids constitute the first documented evidence of Roveacrinida in strata of Neogene age, thus prolonging the stratigraphic range of pelagic crinoids. This find characterizes the order as a "Lazarus taxon" rather than a "dead clade walking" group.

  4. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  5. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  6. Porosphaera globularis (Phillips, 1829) (Porifera, Calcarea) in the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) of extra-Carpathian Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkowska, Agata; Świerczewska-Gładysz, Ewa; Dubicka, Zofia; Olszewska-Nejbert, Danuta

    2015-03-01

    The stratigraphical distribution of Porosphaera globularis, a common calcareous sponge in the Upper Cretaceous (mostly Campanian and Maastrichtian) of Poland was studied. The presented material, both new and from museum collections, comes from the Campanian of the Miechow Synclinorium, in southern Poland, and from the Lower Campanian of Mielnik in the south-eastern part of the Mazury-Podlasie Homocline, in eastern Poland. The significance of the species in extra-regional correlation, its palaeobiogeography and stratigraphical potential is critically reviewed.

  7. Emigration preferences and plans among medical students in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared. PMID:22546006

  8. West Nile virus and USUTU--a threat to Poland.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko-Malinowska, Anna; Czupryna, Piotr; Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna; Siemieniako, Agnieszka; Pancewicz, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    In recent years emergence of new infectious diseases and the growing spread of pathogens to new areas is observed. Most of these pathogens are zoonotic viruses and their transmission route is from animals to humans and vice versa. These so called emerging and re-emerging pathogens that were present previously only in Africa and Asia are becoming a threat to European countries. These include, e.g. West Nile virus and USUTU virus. The aim of the study is to present the clinical course of infections caused by WVN and USUTU, diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities and, above all, the current epidemiological situation of these infections in the world. We also tried to answer the question whether, there is a risk of infection with these viruses in Poland. After analyzing the available literature we venture a conclusion that in Poland there is a risk of WNV and USUTU infection. Global warming, change of socio-economic conditions, travelling greatly affect the spread of these viruses. In addition there are confirmed human cases of these diseases in countries neighboring Poland, as well as presence of both viruses and the presence of vectors (Culex pipiens sl and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae)) in our country. All these facts indicate that there is a necessity of epidemiological studies and consideration of these pathogens in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness and neuroinfection. PMID:27344466

  9. Pesticide residues in cereal crop grains in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz; Sosnowski, Jacek; Wiśniewska-Kadżajan, Beata

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the audit on pesticide residues in cereal grains throughout Poland in 2013. The number of all samples of cereal grains was 380. Altogether 292 active substances of plant protection products were checked in the audit. Qualitative and quantative analyses were done according to Polish Standard PN-EN 15562:2008, using the LC-MS/MS technique. The methods (QuEChERS) is based on extraction of residues of plant protection products from a sample using acetonitrile. In the samples analyzed, 62 % of them did not contain any pesticide residues, 34 % of samples of cereal grains contained such residues but below the maximum residue limit, 3 % contained residues over the maximum limit, whereas 1 % of the samples contained illegal substances. The lowest amounts of pesticide residues were found in cereal grains coming from fields with cereal mixtures and in Avena grains, while the highest amounts were in Hordeum and Triticum grains. The substances found most often were fungicide residues. In northern and southern regions of Poland (Silesian, Pomeranian, and Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeships), cereal grains with pesticide residues were much more common than in other regions of Poland.

  10. First molecular evidence for Puumala hantavirus in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Drewes, Stephan; Sadowska, Edyta T; Mikowska, Magdalena; Groschup, Martin H; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Pawel; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-01-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is responsible for the majority of hantavirus infections of humans in Fennoscandia, Central and Western Europe. Although there are relatively many PUUV sequences available from different European countries, little is known about the presence of this virus in Poland. During population studies in 2009 a total of 45 bank voles were trapped at three sites in north-eastern Poland, namely islands on Dejguny and Dobskie Lakes and in a forest near Mikołajki. S and M segment-specific RT-PCR assays detected PUUV RNA in three animals from the Mikołajki site. The obtained partial S and M segment sequences demonstrated the highest similarity to the corresponding segments of a PUUV strain from Latvia. Analysis of chest cavity fluid samples by IgG ELISA using a yeast-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein resulted in the detection of two seropositive samples, both being also RT-PCR positive. Interestingly, at the trapping site in Mikołajki PUUV-positive bank voles belong to the Carpathian and Eastern genetic lineages within this species. In conclusion, we herein present the first molecular evidence for PUUV in the rodent reservoir from Poland. PMID:24452006

  11. West Nile virus and USUTU--a threat to Poland.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko-Malinowska, Anna; Czupryna, Piotr; Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna; Siemieniako, Agnieszka; Pancewicz, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    In recent years emergence of new infectious diseases and the growing spread of pathogens to new areas is observed. Most of these pathogens are zoonotic viruses and their transmission route is from animals to humans and vice versa. These so called emerging and re-emerging pathogens that were present previously only in Africa and Asia are becoming a threat to European countries. These include, e.g. West Nile virus and USUTU virus. The aim of the study is to present the clinical course of infections caused by WVN and USUTU, diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities and, above all, the current epidemiological situation of these infections in the world. We also tried to answer the question whether, there is a risk of infection with these viruses in Poland. After analyzing the available literature we venture a conclusion that in Poland there is a risk of WNV and USUTU infection. Global warming, change of socio-economic conditions, travelling greatly affect the spread of these viruses. In addition there are confirmed human cases of these diseases in countries neighboring Poland, as well as presence of both viruses and the presence of vectors (Culex pipiens sl and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae)) in our country. All these facts indicate that there is a necessity of epidemiological studies and consideration of these pathogens in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness and neuroinfection.

  12. Genotypic characterization of amoeba isolated from Acanthamoeba keratitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Solarczyk, Piotr; Cholewiński, Marcin; Hadaś, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are the causative factor of many diseases. Among others, they cause Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a condition that usually occurs in contact lens wearers, though it is also observed in non-wearers. The number of diagnosed cases of AK increased more than eightfold during 8 years in the USA, and a proportional increase in frequency also occurred in Poland and Europe. Cases of AK are usually diagnosed late, and their therapy is difficult and rarely successful. AK is an uncommon diagnosis in Poland. The increased number of positive cases observed in our laboratory may reflect the growing at-risk population of contact lens wearers. Acanthamoeba as a genus of facultative human parasites is currently classified into 17 genotypes. Isolates belonging to seven genotypes were found to be associated with AK. One genotype in particular, T4, was found to be overrepresented in human disease. The main finding of our study is that in Poland, AK is almost always associated with the T4 genotype.

  13. Influenza vaccines and vaccinations in Poland - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Brydak, Lidia B; Woźniak Kosek, Agnieszka; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta

    2012-11-01

    Influenza causes seasonal infections worldwide that can lead to complications and deaths in every age group. The most effective and cheapest way to combat influenza is through vaccination. In many countries, including Poland, for each age group, the rate of vaccination against influenza is still at a very low level, which generates high social costs, not infrequently family tragedies in the case of irreversible complications of influenza, or death of a loved one. Regular vaccination should be part of good medical practice, as well as an individual's engagement in their own health and in that of their family. Based on numerous studies, it is estimated that the effectiveness of current inactivated influenza vaccine in reducing morbidity and mortality in high-risk groups ranges from 50-70%. According to data from the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, the rate of vaccination in children in 2008 in Poland was very low. In the group of children aged from 6 months to 14 years, only 1.1-1.6% were vaccinated. Although influenza vaccination for people aged over 65 years was free of charge in many provinces in this group, only 13.4% of this population was immunized, while in the case of people with chronic diseases, only 11.1% were immunized. The vaccination rate among health care employees is an embarrassing 6.4%. More educational activities addressed to both medical professionals and patients are required in order to increase influenza vaccine coverage in Poland.

  14. Evaluation of patient exposure in computerised tomogram in Poland.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, M A

    2002-01-01

    The increasing number of computerised tomography (CT) procedures performed in Poland in recent years has resulted in a growing contribution of these examinations to the whole exposure of the population to ionising radiation from medical sources. (The number of CT examinations in Poland was 170,000 in 1995 and 460,000 in 1999.) An evaluation is presented of doses to patients in CT examinations performed with different types of CT unit. To evaluate the exposure to patients dose linear product (DLP) was measured using a NOMEX dosemeter with a pencil chamber (PTW, Frieburg) and the cylindrical PMMA phantoms 'head' and 'body'. CTDI values were evaluated according to current methodology as described in European Guidelines (EUR 16262). The measurements were performed for seven types of CT unit made by different companies. The CTDI values were also compared to reference levels recommended by IAEA. In conclusion it was found that the value of collective effective dose (2200 man.Sv), has increased in Poland nearly 4 times in comparison to 1995, whereas the number of CT examinations increased nearly 3 times in this period. For most of the 'controlled' CT scanners the values of CTDI in head procedures are near to or higher than the IAEA Reference Level (50 mGy); this can result from the protocols, which are chosen without a dose analysis. PMID:12120672

  15. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  16. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  17. 2.5D S-wave velocity model of the TESZ area in northern Poland from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde-Piorko, Monika; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Receiver function (RF) locally provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and information about the shear wave (S-wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. The data recorded by "13 BB Star" broadband seismic stations (Grad et al., 2015) and by few PASSEQ broadband seismic stations (Wilde-Piórko et al., 2008) are analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in northern Poland. The TESZ is one of the most prominent suture zones in Europe separating the young Palaeozoic platform from the much older Precambrian East European craton. Compilation of over thirty deep seismic refraction and wide angle reflection profiles, vertical seismic profiling in over one hundred thousand boreholes and magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric and thermal methods allowed for creation a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model down to 60 km depth in the area of Poland (Grad et al. 2016). On the other hand the receiver function methods give an opportunity for creation the S-wave velocity model. Modified ray-tracing method (Langston, 1977) are used to calculate the response of the structure with dipping interfaces to the incoming plane wave with fixed slowness and back-azimuth. 3D P-wave velocity model are interpolated to 2.5D P-wave velocity model beneath each seismic station and synthetic back-azimuthal sections of receiver function are calculated for different Vp/Vs ratio. Densities are calculated with combined formulas of Berteussen (1977) and Gardner et al. (1974). Next, the synthetic back-azimuthal sections of RF are compared with observed back-azimuthal sections of RF for "13 BB Star" and PASSEQ seismic stations to find the best 2.5D S-wave models down to 60 km depth. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  18. Temperature in Science Textbooks: Changes and Trends in Cross-National Perspective (1950-2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtka, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the way the concept of temperature was presented in lower-secondary science textbooks in France, Poland and England at the end of the 1950s and in the 2000s. I draw on history of science, history of education and book history to analyze different treatments of an apparently-similar scientific concept with regard to national…

  19. Geochemical evolution of lithospheric mantle underlying Intrasudetic Fault (SW Poland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    The Pilchowice basanite (SW Poland) forms volcanic plug located exactly on Intrasudetic Fault, which is one of the major tectonic lines in northern part of the Bohemian Massif. It originated during the formation of Variscan Orogen and marks the contact between two different crustal domains. The basanite is rhönite-bearing (Ladenberger et al., 2005. Min.Pol-Spec. Pap.) and contains small (<3 cm) xenoliths of clinopyroxene-bearing spinel harzburgites and spinel dunites. Numerous, fine-grained aggregates formed of olivine, clinopyroxene, spinel and glass occur interstitially. A "glassy patch" enclosing subhedral clinopyroxene occurs in one of the xenoliths. The Fo content in olivine forming xenoliths varies from 91.4 down to 83.2%, but the NiO content is always high (0.31-0.45 % wt.). Orthopyroxene has the composition of Al-Cr-Fe enstatite (mg# 0.86- 0.92). It is either LREE-depleted or shows U-shaped REE patterns. Clinopyroxene is Al-Ti-Cr diopside (mg# = 0.80-0.95). Spinel is mainly chromite with wide variation of cr# (0.40-0.80). Clinopyroxene is usually LREE-enriched with convex upward REE pattern. Two other types of REE patterns in clinopyroxene are also present: convex downward (U-shaped) and with constant enrichment in LREE. All the clinopyroxenes show distinct Ti and Zr-Hf negative anomalies. Low Al2O3 content in orthopyroxene suggests that Pilchowice peridotites are restites after extensive (16-35%) partial melting (Faccini et al., 2013, JoP), which is in an opposition to modal content of clinopyroxene (0-4.1 vol.%). This suggests, that clinopyroxene is a "stealth" metasomatic phase (O'Reillly and Griffin, 2013, Springer). As trace element composition of clinopyroxene shows features typical for reaction with alkaline silicate melt (negative inflection at the most incompatible trace elements) and carbonatite (Ti, Zr, Hf anomalies), we suggest that majority of xenoliths were metasomatized by the an agent being a carbonatite-silicate melt or by CO2-bearing

  20. Eugenics--a side effect of progressivism? analysis of the role of scientific and medical elites in the rise and fall of eugenics in pre-war Poland.

    PubMed

    Blach, Olga

    2010-06-01

    The eminent geneticist, Benno Muller-Hill, described eugenics as"explosive mixture between something we might call hard science, that is, human genetics, and the sphere of political action. On the one hand, geneticists needed politicians to implement their ideas. On the other hand, Hitler and the Nazis needed scientists who could say that anti-Semitism has scientific theoretical foundations." For some Polish eugenicists, the Third Reich was not the home of the Nuremberg Laws, but a country that "boldly embarked on racial hygiene." This enthusiastic attitude of Polish intellectual circles towards Nazi eugenic laws was characteristic of the status of pre-war science in Poland, which in many areas, such as anthropology and psychiatry, remained strongly influenced by the paradigm of German science. While the professional and scientific context of the day promoted eugenic and racist ideas within the framework of the academic milieu and the curriculum of the medical and scientific community, eugenicists in Poland tended to refrain from anti-Semitic and racist phraseology. Indeed, the Polish eugenic movement was class- rather than race-orientated. The hybrid language of eugenics, combining social sensitivity with repulsion and contempt for the sick and the weak, illustrated the ambiguous stance of the Polish eugenicists on politics and science in Nazi Germany, for the Third Reich provided the German eugenicists with what had always been an unfulfilled dream to the Polish eugenicists--political power and the ability to implement their ideas. PMID:20977151

  1. Eugenics--a side effect of progressivism? analysis of the role of scientific and medical elites in the rise and fall of eugenics in pre-war Poland.

    PubMed

    Blach, Olga

    2010-06-01

    The eminent geneticist, Benno Muller-Hill, described eugenics as"explosive mixture between something we might call hard science, that is, human genetics, and the sphere of political action. On the one hand, geneticists needed politicians to implement their ideas. On the other hand, Hitler and the Nazis needed scientists who could say that anti-Semitism has scientific theoretical foundations." For some Polish eugenicists, the Third Reich was not the home of the Nuremberg Laws, but a country that "boldly embarked on racial hygiene." This enthusiastic attitude of Polish intellectual circles towards Nazi eugenic laws was characteristic of the status of pre-war science in Poland, which in many areas, such as anthropology and psychiatry, remained strongly influenced by the paradigm of German science. While the professional and scientific context of the day promoted eugenic and racist ideas within the framework of the academic milieu and the curriculum of the medical and scientific community, eugenicists in Poland tended to refrain from anti-Semitic and racist phraseology. Indeed, the Polish eugenic movement was class- rather than race-orientated. The hybrid language of eugenics, combining social sensitivity with repulsion and contempt for the sick and the weak, illustrated the ambiguous stance of the Polish eugenicists on politics and science in Nazi Germany, for the Third Reich provided the German eugenicists with what had always been an unfulfilled dream to the Polish eugenicists--political power and the ability to implement their ideas.

  2. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (66 FR 46777..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (72 FR 44830). The Commission is now conducting second... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this...

  3. Life in a Democratic Society: A Primary School Civics Course for Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzakalik, Krystayna; And Others

    This document summarizes a civics course for primary schools in Poland, grades 6-8. The curriculum was developed as part of the Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland Project, a cooperative effort of the Polish Ministry of National Education and the Mershon Center, The Ohio State University (United States). The project aims to help schools…

  4. Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae) - a new species for Poland.

    PubMed

    Musik, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marcin; Depa, Lukasz; Lukasz Junkiert; Anna Jedynowicz

    2013-01-01

    Single macropterous female of Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 has been found during the faunistic studies in semi-natural plant communities of Oświęcim city in southern Poland. It is the first record of this species in Poland. Trigonocranus emmeae is rarely collected within the wide range of its distribution, mostly due to its hidden life mode.

  5. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  6. Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae) – a new species for Poland

    PubMed Central

    Musik, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marcin; Depa, Łukasz; Łukasz Junkiert; Anna Jedynowicz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Single macropterous female of Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 has been found during the faunistic studies in semi-natural plant communities of Oświęcim city in southern Poland. It is the first record of this species in Poland. Trigonocranus emmeae is rarely collected within the wide range of its distribution, mostly due to its hidden life mode. PMID:24039522

  7. Higher Education Institutions in the Process of Social Transformation: The Case of Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Kazimierz Z.

    1999-01-01

    States that universities are the weakest point in the Polish educational system. Provides information on the universities in Poland. Contends that the disintegration of the three functions of higher education (education, research, and public service) is an important aspect of the crisis of universities in Poland. (CMK)

  8. Future Perfect? Conflict and Agency in Higher Education Reform in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz; Stankiewicz, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper is based on an analysis of interviews with individuals engaged in systemic reform of higher education (HE) in Poland. The reform is perceived as controversial: it is supported by the media and claimed to be in line with the expectations of external stakeholders of HE, as well as being congruent with Poland's international…

  9. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  10. [Evaluation of the burden of diabetes in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kissimova-Skarbek, K; Pach, D; Płaczkiewicz, E; Szurkowska, M; Szybiński, Z

    2001-09-01

    Burden of diabetes in terms of economic costs and life years lost due to premature deaths and disability in Poland is analyzed. This study calculates direct costs of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Poland in 1998 and burden of diabetes in terms of years of life lost using Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) measure within the Polish Multicenter Study of Diabetes Epidemiology (1998-1999). There is a consequent need to evaluate the burden of diabetes for the society and to develop affordable and cost-effective preventing strategies. The burden of diabetes is examined in terms of resources used by diabetic patients and time lost due to premature deaths and disability caused by diabetes. The profile of "a standard patient" (type 1 and type 2 diabetes) resource utilization is created using patient survey in Krakow. This includes main elements of cost associated with prevention, diagnosis and treatment: ambulatory care (visits); hospital care (bed/days and dialysis sessions); pharmaceuticals (goods consumed) and diagnosis (tests). This study calculates direct costs to the health sector of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Poland 1998. Burden of diabetes in Poland in terms of time lost in 1998 is expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) unit of measurement. DALY is a combination of two dimensions: YLL--number of years lost due to premature mortality; YLD--loss of healthy years due to disability caused by diabetes (with and without complications). The incidence approach is applied for the YLD caused by diabetes type 1 calculations by gender and age groups (0-29 years). Incidence rates are obtained from the prospective data collection [1, 2]. Other data as average age of onset, average duration of the disease (with or without complications), severity (age specific disability weight for treated or untreated forms of diabetes--with or without complications) are obtained from the GBD study for the Formerly Socialist Economies of Europe [9]. Discounting and age

  11. Back to "hell?" The threatening family planning crisis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mrugala, G

    1990-12-01

    The Polish Senate proposed an anti-abortion law that less 5 main points: the one performing the abortion can be sentenced for up to 2 years of imprisonment, women who induce or allow someone to abort their fetus are not subject to punishment, abortions done to save the life of the woman or because the pregnancy was induced by an illegal act are exempt, a tribunal can renounce the penalty, and persons who use force or threat to induce an abortion can be sentenced for up to 5 years of imprisonment. The bill must go to the Parliament and pass in order to become a law. This proposed bill has caused a large scale public debate. Many women and doctors have publicly protested against the bill. The political force behind the bill is the Catholic population of Poland, including the Catholic Church. The current abortion law in Poland adopted in 1956 allows for the abortion for social indications, until week 20; medical indications, until the 2nd trimester; or when pregnancy was a result of rape. The law resulted an elimination of deaths related to abortion, also a reduction in the number of miscarriages. However since 1955 the number of abortions performed has increased. Causes are low levels of sexual knowledge in the public, few contraceptives, and limited sexual education. The abortion issue represents a larger problem in Polish society. The lack of governmental sponsored family planning results in a large number of unintended pregnancies. It is the author's opinion that the women of Poland should be allowed to have the choice to have an abortion.

  12. [Problem of noise in production sections of dairies in Poland].

    PubMed

    Wilkus, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the study of noise levels in three production sections--cottage cheese, cheese and butter--at 14 dairies in 7 regions (vovoidships) of Poland. Measurements were carried out in dB(A) and dB(Lin) and the octave analysis was performed within the range of 31.5-8.000 Hz. It was found that the cottage cheese and butter sections proved to be the source of harmful effect on workers' hearing while the cheese section did not present any danger.

  13. The Cancer Mortality in High Natural Radiation Areas in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2012-01-01

    The cancer mortality ratios (CMRs) in Poland in high and low level radiation areas were analyzed based on information from national cancer registry. Presented ecological study concerned six regions, extending from the largest administration areas (a group of voivodeships), to the smallest regions (single counties). The data show that the relative risk of cancer deaths is lower in the higher radiation level areas. The decrease by 1.17%/mSv/year (p = 0.02) of all cancer deaths and by 0.82%/mSv/year (p = 0.2) of lung cancers only are observed. Tribute to Prof. Zbigniew Jaworowski (1927–2011) PMID:23304104

  14. Glacially induced stresses in sedimentary rocks of northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    During the Pleistocene large continental ice sheets developed in Scandinavia and North America. Ice-loading caused bending of the lithosphere and outward flow in the mantle. Glacial loading is one of the most prominent tectono-mechanical event in the geological history of northern Poland. The Pomeranian region was subjected several times to a load equivalent of more than 1 km of rocks, which led to severe increase in both vertical and horizontal stresses in the upper crustal rocks. During deglaciation a rapid decrease in vertical stress is observed, which leads to destabilization of the crust - most recent postglacial faults scarps in northern Sweden indicate glacially induced earthquakes of magnitude ~Mw8. The presence of the ice-sheet altered as well the near-surface thermal structure - thermal gradient inversion is still observable in NW Poland. The glacially related processes might have left an important mark in the sedimentary cover of northern Poland, especially with regard to fracture reopening, changes in stress state, and damage development. In the present study, we model lithospheric bending caused by glacial load, but our point of interest lies in the overlying sediments. Typical glacial isostatic studies model the response of (visco-) elastic lithosphere over viscoelastic or viscous asthenosphere subjected to external loads. In our model, we introduce viscoelastic sedimentary layers at the top of this stack and examine the stress relaxation patterns therein. As a case study for our modelling, we used geological profiles from northern Poland, near locality of Wejherowo, which are considered to have unconventional gas potential. The Paleozoic profile of this area is dominated by almost 1 km thick Silurian-Ordovician shale deposits, which are interbedded with thin and strong limestone layers. This sequence is underlain by Cambrian shales and sandstones, and finally at ~3 km depth - Precambrian crystalline rocks. Above the Silurian there are approximately

  15. [A new (?) multiple abnormality complex similar to the Poland syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gugliantini, P; Saguì, L; Parri, C; Seganti, G; Cavalletti, P

    1984-01-01

    The report describes a case Poland's Syndrome - like in which the hypoplasia of the left major pectoralis muscle was associated with: subtotal aplasia of sternal body, severe hypoplasia of the ipsilateral scapula, humerus and forearm bones, tetradactyly in the ipsilateral hand, partial defect of the diaphragm with thoracic migration of the left hepatic lobe and secondary dextrocardia (false dextrocardia). Syndactyly was absent. The contribution is aimed to join out the radiological characteristics of the syndrome as well as the specific contribution provided in the case by Ultrasounds and aortography. Furthermore, the analysis of the case seems to indicate a strict relationship between the abnormalities of diaphragm, pectoralis muscle and homolateral upper limb.

  16. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland.

    PubMed

    Brom, Krzysztof R; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution. PMID:26373558

  17. Helminths in migrating and wintering birds recorded in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Among 544 species of helminths recorded in birds on the territory of Poland, probably some (17 species of Digenea, 21 Cestoda, 13 Nematoda and 5 Acanthocephala) do not belong to the native fauna. These are helminths obtained in mature stage from birds shortly after their arrival from wintering grounds, or from foreign populations wintering with us, or being in the course of spring or autumn migration through the area of our country. In general, these helminth species have been recorded sporadically in the examined birds. PMID:24930242

  18. Prerequisites and Effects of CRM Systems Use in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchnowska, Dorota; Wrycza, Stanislaw

    It has been demonstrated in numerous studies that CRM implementation is beneficial in terms of higher revenues and lower costs (Aberdeen Group 2004: Thompson 2004) However, many potential CRM users in Poland are discouraged by high implementation costs and a high proportion of abortive implementations. Managers complain about lack of best practices that might convince them about the advisability of their strategy. The high failure rate in CRM implementation (Hellweg 2002) is often the result of the fact that the firms responsible for implementation lack an adequate and proven methodology.

  19. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland.

    PubMed

    Brom, Krzysztof R; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  20. Development of silica glass microstructured optical fibers technology in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, J.; Janoszczyk, B.; Poturaj, K.; Makara, M.; Walewski, A.; Mergo, P.; Klimek, J.; Skorupski, K.; Czyżewska, L.

    2007-04-01

    Paper presents the state of advance of the silica glass microstructured optical fibers technology n Poland especially in Department of Optical Fibers Technology Maria Curie Sklodowska University. Only in this Department there are the technological apparatus for advanced investigations on the technology of the silica glass optical fibers. In paper was describe the technology of optical fiber photonic structure manufacturing, high silica glass synthesis from vapor phase with MCVD and OVD methods. Next was describe some kinds of microstructured optical fibers witch technologies elaborated in UMCS in support of own and received from cooperated research teams optical fibers structures, modeling and measurements results.

  1. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Krzysztof R.; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  2. [Problems of prevention and control of poliomyelitis in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mazurowska-Magdzik, Wiesława; Bucholc, Bozenna; Janaszek-Seydlitz, Wiesława; Szkoda, Tomasz; Magdzik, Wiesław

    2010-01-01

    In the fifties and the sixties of 20th century big epidemic and increasing numbers of poliomyelitis cases were observed in Poland as well in other countries of Europe and world. Inactivated Salk's vaccine in injections as well as oral attenuated vaccine were introduced to the control and prevention of this disease. As the result of it poliomyelitis was eradicated in American, European and of West Pacific Region of WHO. Since 1984 poliomyelitis cases were not registered in Poland, VAPP were observed in small numbers. Just now new vaccines with poliomyelitis component as Boostrix Polio and Adacel Polio are convenient to use as booster doses of poliomyelitis vaccine. Actually inactivated polio vaccine is used in majority of west European countries, USA, Canada, Australia. Inactivated vaccine in basic and attenuated vaccine in booster doses were used in Central and East European countries and only attenuated vaccine are used in big African, South and Central American countries, China, India and countries, witch were the part of past Soviet Union.

  3. A Neanderthal lower molar from Stajnia Cave, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, P; Nowaczewska, W; Stringer, C B; Compton, T; Kruszyński, R; Nadachowski, A; Stefaniak, K; Urbanowski, M

    2013-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a taxonomic assessment of the second of three isolated human teeth found in the Stajnia Cave (north of the Carpathians, Poland) in 2008. The specimen was located near a human tooth (S5000), which was identified by Urbanowski et al. (2010) as a Neanderthal permanent upper molar. Both of these teeth were excavated from the D2 layer, which belongs to the D stratigraphic complex comprising the archaeological assemblage associated with the Micoquian tradition. An Ursus spelaeus bone and Mammuthus primigenius tooth that were also excavated from the D2 layer were dated to >49,000 years BP (by AMS (14)C) and 52.9 ka BP (by U-Th), respectively. The sediment overlying stratigraphic complex D was dated to 45.9 ka BP by the OSL method. The S4300 tooth is a lower first or second permanent molar belonging to an individual other than that who once possessed the S5000 tooth. The S4300 tooth exhibits a combination of traits typical of Neanderthal lower molars, including a mid-trigonid crest, large anterior fovea, taurodontism and subvertical grooves on the interproximal face, indicating that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal individual. The S4300 tooth from Stajnia Cave is one of the oldest human remains found in Poland.

  4. Environmental Surveillance of Non-polio Enteroviruses in Poland, 2011.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Ciąćka, Agnieszka; Witek, Agnieszka; Kuryk, Łukasz; Żuk-Wasek, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to apply environmental surveillance to evaluate circulation of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in sewage in Poland. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December, 2011. Sewage samples were concentrated prior to analysis by RT-PCR and isolation in cells (RD, L20B and Caco-2). Out of the 165 analysed samples, 127 (77%) were positive for enteroviruses using RT-PCR and 109 (66%) were positive for enteroviruses using cell culture methods and the highest detection rate was observed in the summer and autumn. In total, 141 enteroviruses were identified using neutralization test (107 NPEVs and 34 polioviruses). Accounting for 52% of all the detected NPEVs, E11 and E3 were the predominant serotypes identified in raw sewage. Retrospectively, E11 was the known aetiology for the past aseptic meningitis outbreaks in Poland, as E3 being rarely associated with any outbreak prior to 2013. In conclusion, the environmental surveillance provides data which may help in understanding the epidemiology of enteroviruses in humans.

  5. A Neanderthal lower molar from Stajnia Cave, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, P; Nowaczewska, W; Stringer, C B; Compton, T; Kruszyński, R; Nadachowski, A; Stefaniak, K; Urbanowski, M

    2013-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a taxonomic assessment of the second of three isolated human teeth found in the Stajnia Cave (north of the Carpathians, Poland) in 2008. The specimen was located near a human tooth (S5000), which was identified by Urbanowski et al. (2010) as a Neanderthal permanent upper molar. Both of these teeth were excavated from the D2 layer, which belongs to the D stratigraphic complex comprising the archaeological assemblage associated with the Micoquian tradition. An Ursus spelaeus bone and Mammuthus primigenius tooth that were also excavated from the D2 layer were dated to >49,000 years BP (by AMS (14)C) and 52.9 ka BP (by U-Th), respectively. The sediment overlying stratigraphic complex D was dated to 45.9 ka BP by the OSL method. The S4300 tooth is a lower first or second permanent molar belonging to an individual other than that who once possessed the S5000 tooth. The S4300 tooth exhibits a combination of traits typical of Neanderthal lower molars, including a mid-trigonid crest, large anterior fovea, taurodontism and subvertical grooves on the interproximal face, indicating that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal individual. The S4300 tooth from Stajnia Cave is one of the oldest human remains found in Poland. PMID:23415376

  6. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  7. Cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in breast milk in Poland.

    PubMed

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Mother's milk is the fundamental food for infants. It contains proteins, fat, carbohydrates and essential metals which are necessary to ensure correct functioning of the organism. Unfortunately, breast milk is a potential source of toxic metals, which are dangerous for a baby. In Poland, previous research concerning the content of metals in breast milk was very scarce or its results were unavailable. The present study aimed at assessing the content of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in human breast milk, as well as estimating the mean weekly intake of these metals by breast-fed infants from Poland. The average concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were 2.114 μg/l, 6.331 μg/l, 0.137 mg/l and 1.623 mg/l, respectively. The admissible levels of supply of these toxic metals has not been exceeded, but their contents were high, particularly in 6-month-old infants (nearly 85 % TWI for Cd and nearly 70 % BMDL₀₁ for Pb). The daily intake of Cu and Zn did not fully satisfy the infant's requirements determined by Polish standards and WHO recommendations. Since the lifestyle of lactating women has a direct influence on the content of these elements in breast milk, women should be educated in this respect with particular focus on eliminating tobacco smoking, both by breastfeeding mothers and by their direct environment.

  8. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme.

  9. An analysis of selected cases of derecho in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Matuszko, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyses six cases of the derecho phenomena, which occurred in Poland between 2007 and 2012. The input data included reports on dangerous meteorological phenomena, SYNOP and METAR reports, MSL pressure maps, upper air maps at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, radar depictions and satellite images, upper air sounding plots and data from a system locating atmospheric discharges. Derechos are caused directly by the activity of mesoscale convective systems linked up with either, in winter, a cold front of a deep low-pressure system, or, in summer, with an area of wind convergence in a warm sector of a cyclone or with an articulated cold front which, moving within a low-pressure embayment, develops a very active secondary depression. It was found that southern and central Poland were the regions most frequently affected by derechos. Mid-level and high-level jet streams, augmented by high thermodynamic instability of air masses, were found to be conducive to the development of derechos.

  10. Costs of smoking-attributable productivity losses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lasocka, Joanna; Jakubczyk, Michal; Siekmeier, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    In Poland smoking poses a severe socioeconomic problem. Not only does tobacco consumption cause an increase in direct medical costs due to the necessity for treatment of smoking-attributable diseases, but it also generates indirect costs due to productivity losses. The aim of this paper was to estimate the annual productivity loss due to smoking in Poland from the societal perspective and to compare the obtained results with the equivalent research in other selected countries (Germany, Sweden, and USA). The assessment was performed by the use of the human capital approach, considering loss of productivity until achieving the retirement age and gross income. Four distinct components of indirect costs of nicotine consumption were included: costs of premature mortality, costs of acquired disability, as well as costs of absenteeism and presenteeism caused by smokers. The costs of smoking-attributable productivity loss within a year amount to more than 15 billion PLN (1 Euro approx. 4 PLN) which is about 402 PLN per capita and 1418 PLN per smoker. This represents about 2.6% of Polish annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which is more than in Germany, Sweden, or the USA. This amount clearly shows the enormous socioeconomic burden and suggests the need for taking measures to reduce it.

  11. Monthly and seasonally verification of precipitation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Linkowska, J.

    2009-04-01

    The national meteorological service of Poland - the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) joined COSMO - The Consortium for Small Scale Modelling on July 2004. In Poland, the COSMO _PL model version 3.5 had run till June 2007. Since July 2007, the model version 4.0 has been running. The model runs in an operational mode at 14-km grid spacing, twice a day (00 UTC, 12 UTC). For scientific research also model with 7-km grid spacing is ran. Monthly and seasonally verification for the 24-hours (06 UTC - 06 UTC) accumulated precipitation is presented in this paper. The precipitation field of COSMO_LM had been verified against rain gauges network (308 points). The verification had been made for every month and all seasons from December 2007 to December 2008. The verification was made for three forecast days for selected thresholds: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 mm. Following indices from contingency table were calculated: FBI (bias), POD (probability of detection), PON (probability of detection of non event), FAR (False alarm rate), TSS (True sill statistic), HSS (Heidke skill score), ETS (Equitable skill score). Also percentile ranks and ROC-relative operating characteristic are presented. The ROC is a graph of the hit rate (Y-axis) against false alarm rate (X-axis) for different decision thresholds

  12. Monthly and seasonally verification of precipitation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Linkowska, J.

    2009-04-01

    The national meteorological service of Poland - the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) joined COSMO - The Consortium for Small Scale Modelling on July 2004. In Poland, the COSMO _PL model version 3.5 had run till June 2007. Since July 2007, the model version 4.0 has been running. The model runs in an operational mode at 14-km grid spacing, twice a day (00 UTC, 12 UTC). For scientific research also model with 7-km grid spacing is ran. Monthly and seasonally verification for the 24-hours (06 UTC - 06 UTC) accumulated precipitation is presented in this paper. The precipitation field of COSMO_LM had been verified against rain gauges network (308 points). The verification had been made for every month and all seasons from December 2007 to December 2008. The verification was made for three forecast days for selected thresholds: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 mm. Following indices from contingency table were calculated: FBI (bias), POD (probability of detection), PON (probability of detection of non event), FAR (False alarm rate), TSS (True sill statistic), HSS (Heidke skill score), ETS (Equitable skill score). Also percentile ranks and ROC-relative operating characteristic are presented. The ROC is a graph of the hit rate (Y-axis) against false alarm rate (X-axis) for different decision thresholds.

  13. Occurrence and genetic diversity of pigeon circovirus strains in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria

    2014-06-01

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is an immunosuppressive agent widespread throughout the world, which causes a disease in pigeons called Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of PiCV in Poland and investigate the genetic diversity relative to other known PiCV isolates. Samples from 152 pigeon flocks (88 flocks of racing pigeons and 64 flocks of fancy pigeons) from various regions of Poland were tested by polymerase chain reaction and an approximately 326-base fragment of the capsid protein gene (Cap gene) of the virus was amplified. The average viral prevalence was found to be 70.3% (76.13% in racing pigeons and 62.5% in fancy pigeons). Among the obtained positive samples, 21 were selected for sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. It was found that the majority of Polish PiCV isolates, to varying degrees, are related to isolates occurring in Europe. It was also observed that the Cap gene is variable and mutations often occur in it, which impacts the amino acid sequences in the capsid protein (nucleotide similarity averaged 86.57%, amino acid similarity averaged 89.02%).

  14. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  15. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  16. Fifteen years of CFCs and SF6 measurements in air of Krakow, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewski, J.; Chmiel, M.; Sliwka, I.

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) in the atmosphere are on the ppt level. CFCs are stable, synthetic, halogenated alkanes and they contribute to ozone depletion by photolytic processes in the stratosphere [1]. CFCs an SF6 also participate in intensification of the greenhouse effect. The production and release of CFCs increased rapidly between the 1970s and 1980s. Then decreased dramatically from the end of the 1980s because of the Montreal Protocol limitations [2]. The measurements of CFCs and SF6 in air are usually conducted at the so-called clean stations, i.e., at places situated outside of the urban areas influence. In Europe such clean station is the Mace Head (Ireland), which is AGAGE participant since 1987 [3]. In central Europe such measurements are carried out in densely populated urban area of Krakow since 1997. Very interesting is diminishing frequency of the seasonal variability of CFCs concentration pollution events after the date of 1.07.2002 when the Montreal Protocol legislations were implemented in Poland (The Journal of Laws No. 52). This suggests that the most observed sources of CFCs have been localized to the territory of Poland (the wind and air mass movements have still the same statistical character in Krakow region, as before legislation implementation) [4]. The work presents a general view of environmental pollution of Krakow air (in the years 1997-2012) by selected halocarbons i.e., freons F-11 (CFCl3), F-12 (CF2Cl2), F-113 (CCl2FCClF2), chloroform (CHCl3), 1,1,1-trichloroetane (CH3CCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and SF6. The authors wish to acknowledge Prof. R. Weiss from Scripts Oceanography Institute (CA, USA) for preparing of the CFC's primary standard (SIO1993) and Dr M. Maiss from Max-Planck Institute (Germany) for SF6 calibration. The work was financed by grant from polish National Science Centre on the basis of Decision No. DEC-2011/01/N/ST10/07621and is also partially supported by

  17. Levels and sources of planar and non-planar PCBs in pine needles across Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Orlikowska, Anna; Jarzyńska, Grażyna; Bochentin, Ilona; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Hanari, Nobuyashi; Horii, Yuichi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Under a small project, one-year-old Scots Pine needles collected from 25 spatially distant sites were examined in monitoring the extent of environmental diffusion and possible sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air, their depositions and uptake by plants in Poland. The congener-specific determination of planar and non-planar chlorobiphenyls was achieved by isotope dilution HRGC-HRMS method after a highly refined extraction on multi-layer column of silica gel and alumina layer and clean-up, and fractionations, followed by Hypercarb-HPLC and PYE-HPLC sub-fractionation steps. Contents of 117 chlorobiphenyls determined in pine needles varied for the 25 sites studied and is between 2.7 and 49 ng/g wet weight. The PCBs pollution and congener-specific composition of pine needles to some degree varied according to the site or region surveyed depending on population density and industrialization. Many of the country-side areas showed lower concentrations between 2.7 and 8.9 ng/g ww. Pine needles in areas close to well populated and industrial regions of Opole, Kutno, Włocławek and Dębica showed the highest PCB pollution with concentrations varying between 30 and 49 ng/g ww. The Kutno site showed the highest pollution and this fact probably can be explained by possible emission from transformer manufactures located at some distance west of the Kutno area. Factor analysis (FA) and depending on the site revealed on relationship of PCBs composition of pine needles both with highly chlorinated PCB constituents of the mixtures such as Chlorofen, Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1268 and Sovol but also of lower chlorinated PCB constituents of Aroclor 1242, Aroclor 1248, Clophen A40 or Delor 103. Thermal processes were considered a less significant source of PCBs in ambient air over Poland compared to evaporative sources related to technical PCB formulations. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of

  18. Levels and sources of planar and non-planar PCBs in pine needles across Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Orlikowska, Anna; Jarzyńska, Grażyna; Bochentin, Ilona; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Hanari, Nobuyashi; Horii, Yuichi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Under a small project, one-year-old Scots Pine needles collected from 25 spatially distant sites were examined in monitoring the extent of environmental diffusion and possible sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air, their depositions and uptake by plants in Poland. The congener-specific determination of planar and non-planar chlorobiphenyls was achieved by isotope dilution HRGC-HRMS method after a highly refined extraction on multi-layer column of silica gel and alumina layer and clean-up, and fractionations, followed by Hypercarb-HPLC and PYE-HPLC sub-fractionation steps. Contents of 117 chlorobiphenyls determined in pine needles varied for the 25 sites studied and is between 2.7 and 49 ng/g wet weight. The PCBs pollution and congener-specific composition of pine needles to some degree varied according to the site or region surveyed depending on population density and industrialization. Many of the country-side areas showed lower concentrations between 2.7 and 8.9 ng/g ww. Pine needles in areas close to well populated and industrial regions of Opole, Kutno, Włocławek and Dębica showed the highest PCB pollution with concentrations varying between 30 and 49 ng/g ww. The Kutno site showed the highest pollution and this fact probably can be explained by possible emission from transformer manufactures located at some distance west of the Kutno area. Factor analysis (FA) and depending on the site revealed on relationship of PCBs composition of pine needles both with highly chlorinated PCB constituents of the mixtures such as Chlorofen, Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1268 and Sovol but also of lower chlorinated PCB constituents of Aroclor 1242, Aroclor 1248, Clophen A40 or Delor 103. Thermal processes were considered a less significant source of PCBs in ambient air over Poland compared to evaporative sources related to technical PCB formulations. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of

  19. Freshwater oligochaeta in mining subsidence ponds in the Upper Silesia region of southern Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Krodkiewska, M.

    2006-03-15

    I surveyed the benthic oligochaetes in three coal mining subsidence ponds in a heavily industrialized region of Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The fauna present differed in many respects from that living in natural and unpolluted water bodies. Nineteen species (11 Naididae and eight Tubificidae) were found. The two most consistently abundant species in all three ponds were Limnodrilus hoffimeisteri and Tubifex tubifex, both of which are ubiquitous and common in Poland. Polamothrix bavaricus, which is considered a rare species in Poland, was found consistently in the ponds.

  20. Science and Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  1. Application Bayesian Model Averaging method for ensemble system for Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzikowski, Jakub; Czerwinska, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate methods for generating numerical ensemble weather prediction using a meteorological data from The Weather Research & Forecasting Model and calibrating this data by means of Bayesian Model Averaging (WRF BMA) approach. We are constructing height resolution short range ensemble forecasts using meteorological data (temperature) generated by nine WRF's models. WRF models have 35 vertical levels and 2.5 km x 2.5 km horizontal resolution. The main emphasis is that the used ensemble members has a different parameterization of the physical phenomena occurring in the boundary layer. To calibrate an ensemble forecast we use Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) approach. The BMA predictive Probability Density Function (PDF) is a weighted average of predictive PDFs associated with each individual ensemble member, with weights that reflect the member's relative skill. For test we chose a case with heat wave and convective weather conditions in Poland area from 23th July to 1st August 2013. From 23th July to 29th July 2013 temperature oscillated below or above 30 Celsius degree in many meteorology stations and new temperature records were added. During this time the growth of the hospitalized patients with cardiovascular system problems was registered. On 29th July 2013 an advection of moist tropical air masses was recorded in the area of Poland causes strong convection event with mesoscale convection system (MCS). MCS caused local flooding, damage to the transport infrastructure, destroyed buildings, trees and injuries and direct threat of life. Comparison of the meteorological data from ensemble system with the data recorded on 74 weather stations localized in Poland is made. We prepare a set of the model - observations pairs. Then, the obtained data from single ensemble members and median from WRF BMA system are evaluated on the basis of the deterministic statistical error Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE). To evaluation

  2. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the

  3. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  4. Motherhood after the age of 35 in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rybińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Postponing motherhood is a widespread phenomenon across developed countries, however only few studies look into very late motherhood in post-socialist countries using individual level data. In this study, I look at the context of the first childbirth in Poland in the midst of the political transformation of 1989. Employing sequence analysis I reconstructed life trajectories of women who experienced the transition to adulthood during the late 1980's and the early 1990's and have just completed their fertility histories. Individual data from the 2011 GGS-PL and the 2011 FAMWELL Survey were used. Comparing paths of mothers’ lives, I searched for differences in educational, professional and conjugal careers between women who gave birth before the age of 30 and after the age of 35. The results show how various life careers crisscross over the life course leading women to late motherhood. PMID:25641993

  5. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  7. Studies of the Prefabricated Housing Construction Market in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziszewska-Zielina, Elżbieta; Gleń, Monika

    2014-11-01

    The directions of development of the construction market are not only related to the need to own one's own home but also to increasing functional and economic requirements and conditions of sustainable development. The perception and understanding of prefabrication in housing construction are undoubtedly starting to change. Sustainable construction criteria may constitute a significant turning point and support for the development of new prefabricated housing construction technologies. Entrepreneurs are slowly perceiving an opportunity for the development of prefabrication in the construction market. The implementation and popularisation of ready-made homes will undoubtedly constitute a favourable change in the Polish construction market; however, this will require a modification of habits. This article presents an historical analysis of the development of the prefabricated housing construction market as well as an attempt to answer questions concerning the future of prefabrication in housing construction in Poland based on the conducted studies.

  8. Inbreeding rate and genetic structure of cat populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mucha, S; Wolc, A; Gradowska, A; Szwaczkowski, T

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze effective population size and inbreeding level in populations of cat breeds registered in the Polish Studbook. The Association of Purebred Cat Breeders in Poland provided access to pedigrees of 26725 cats from seven breeds. The most frequent breed was Persian, however increasing tendency in numbers of registered animals from other breeds was recorded in later years. Although the percentage of inbred individuals was increasing over time, mating of close relatives was avoided by most of the breeders, and the average inbreeding coefficient exceeded 5% only for Siberian and Russian breeds. Current analysis suggests that the Polish pedigree cat populations are not threatened by negative effects of inbreeding.

  9. The Myszkow porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Eppinger, R.G.; Lason, K.; Slosarz, J.; Podemski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Myszkow, south-central Poland, lies in the Cracow-Silesian orogenic belt, in the vicinity of a Paleozoic boundary between two tectonic plates. The deposit is hosted in a complex that includes early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks intruded in the late Paleozoic by a predominantly granodioritic pluton. This deposit exhibits many features that are typical of porphyry copper deposits associated with calc-alkaline intrusive rocks, including ore- and alteration-mineral suites, zoning of ore and alteration minerals, fluid-inclusion chemistry, tectonic setting, and structural style of veining. Unusual features of the Myszkow deposit include high concentrations of tungsten and the late Paleozoic (Variscan) age. -Authors

  10. [Workplace health promotion in public health policies in Poland].

    PubMed

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses how far in Poland the idea of workplace health promotion (WHP) does exist in the area of public health understood in its broadest sense. The analysis encapsulates the following issues: (a) the national legislative policy, (b) strategies, programs and projects concerning health issues launched or coordinated by the state or local administration, (c) grassroots initiatives for health promotion supported by local and regional administration, (d) civic projects or business strategies for health. In addition, the author emphasizes the marginalization of workplace health promotion and lack of cohesive policy in this field as well as, the fact that health problems of the working population arising from current demographic, technological, economic and social changes that could be dealt with through developing and implementing WHP projects are not yet fully perceived by public health policy makers.

  11. [Challenges for smoking cessation interventions targeted at women in Poland].

    PubMed

    Goszczyńska, Eliza

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of smoking among women. Based on the literature review of research conducted on large representative samples of Poles to define the range of this unhealthy behavior and its gender differences, the groups of Polish women who should especially become the target of smoking cessation interventions were identified. Furthermore, an attempt was made to characterize factors contributing to the initiation and continuation of tobacco smoking among adult women and the specificity of this unhealthy habit among those planning a pregnancy and expecting mothers. This information was based on the outcomes reported in the available literature on this issue. Finally, the guidelines for organizing smoking cessation interventions targeted at women in Poland are provided.

  12. [Typhoid fever imported from the tropic in Poland].

    PubMed

    Olszyńiska-Krowicka, Maria; Borkowski, Piotr Karol

    2007-01-01

    We present three cases of typhoid fever imported to Poland from India in the beginning of the year 2006 treated in our Zoonosis and Tropical Medicine Department. Two of them, with mild course of the disease, were vaccinated with Typhim Vi vaccine, the third didn't obtain any, and had very heavy, almost classical course of the disease. All of them behaved in India in improper way, probably also because were convinced they were protected by the vaccine. We emphasize that proper prophylaxis against typhoid fever for travelers should consist of vaccination with two vaccines, oral Ty 21a and parenteral Typhim Vi and it doesn't release travelers from avoiding risky behavior.

  13. Prevention methods for pest control and their use in Poland.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Prevention methods can still be a cost-effective and efficient tool for pest control. Rational use of prevention methods is a feasible way to reduce dependency on chemical protection in agriculture. Costs, workload and farmers' awareness are key issues, however. In Poland, crop rotation is used as a method for pest control only to a limited extent owing to the high share of cereals in the crop structure. The choice of resistant varieties is satisfactory, but farmers should make use of qualified seed material more often. Liming is recommended on the majority of farms on account of widespread soil acidity. Favourable aspects as regards the prevention of pest development are biodiversity and the popularity of prevention cultivation techniques.

  14. Statistical analysis of NWP rainfall data from Poland..

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna

    2010-05-01

    A goal of this work is to summarize the latest results of precipitation verification in Poland. In IMGW, COSMO_PL version 4.0 has been running. The model configuration is: 14 km horizontal grid spacing, initial time at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, the forecast range 72 h. The fields from the model had been verified with Polish SYNOP stations. The verification was performed using a new verification tool. For the accumulated precipitation indices FBI, POD, FAR, ETS from contingency table are calculated. In this paper the comparison of monthly and seasonal verification of 6h, 12h, 24h accumulated precipitation in 2009 is presented. Since February 2010 the model with 7 km grid spacing will be running in IMGW. The results of precipitation verification for two different models' resolution will be shown.

  15. [Incidence of various types of viral hepatitis in Poland 1988].

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, B; Małolepsza, E; Magdzik, W; Naruszewicz-Lesiuk, D; Nowosławski, A

    1990-01-01

    109 sera from patients in the early phase of acute hepatitis non-B were tested by immunoenzymatic methods for presence of serologic markers of infections with HBV, HAV and CMV. The analysis of the results showed that 14 patients were infected with HBV, 20 with HAV and 2 with CMV. The remaining 73 cases could apparently be attributed to the infection with HCV. It has been estimated that in 1988, 69.5% of hepatitis cases in Poland could have resulted from the infection with HBV, 24%--from the infection with NANB viruses and only, and only 6.5%--from the infection with HAV. These data even if representing a slight overestimate of the incidence of hepatitis due to the parenteral spread of infections agents support the postulate that measures to prevent these infections should be strengthened. PMID:1966117

  16. [Biological levels of lead in residents of Poland].

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, M

    1993-01-01

    The author discussed current data on sources of the environmental exposure to lead, health effects of exposure in adults and children as well as recommended admissible concentrations of lead in blood. The review of studies on biological monitoring of exposure to lead in Poland permits to state that the results of measurements of Pb-B concentrations performed by laboratories which did not participate in the inter-laboratory programme of quality assurance were often overestimated evoking public concern. The outcome of investigations carried out by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz and other institutions which are provided with appropriate analytical equipment, tested under the inter-laboratory programme of quality assurance gives the ground for a hypothesis that an excessive environmental exposure to lead in Poland may result only from industrial emission. The mean geometric lead blood concentrations in persons living in areas free from industrial emissions of lead range from 40 to 70 micrograms/l and they do not prove any potential hazard for adults. Exposure of children and pregnant women living in areas polluted with lead due to industrial emissions and where mean geometric Pb-B concentrations reach 100-170 micrograms/l may create a significant problem. The results obtained emphasize the need for targetted surveillance aimed at identifying areas of excessive lead contamination, measurements of Pb-B concentrations in populations living in those areas and necessary preventive measurements. Collection of blood samples and measurements of lead levels should be performed only by those laboratories which satisfy necessary requirements.

  17. How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why

  18. [The need of prenatal public health initiatives in Poland].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Mirosław J

    2012-11-01

    The author emphasizes the achievements of the Polish Gynecological Society in the field of improving the health indicators concerning perinatal mortality among infants during the last two decades in Poland. Attention is paid to the contribution of the members of the Society to organizational change in Polish health care after 1990, which resulted in the improvement of the care of mother and child. It is also underlined that the members of the Society contributed to the creation of early detection system of breast and cervical cancer in Poland. However it is noteworthy that in 'Polish Gynecology' - the publication of the Polish Gynecological Society - the number of reports devoted to risky health behaviors of women during periconceptional period and pregnancy is scarce. The author draws attention to the percentage of women who smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol before and during pregnancy Emphasis is also placed on the problem of nutritional disorders (mainly pathological methods of dieting) among Polish women during the reproductive period and in the first weeks of pregnancy (before the pregnancy is confirmed). These aspects may result in epigenetic changes shaping the phenotype of the offspring. The author refers to the Barker's theory of Developmental Origins of Adult Diseases and warns that the above-mentioned health behaviors of women may bring about negative effects for the offspring and future generations, namely susceptibility to chronic diseases: arterial hypertension, obesity type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Negative effects for the health of offspring may also result from low level of physical activity of women before and during pregnancy The author concludes that it is necessary to intensify the efforts of the Polish Gynecological Society in the area of prenatal public health.

  19. [Modern threats and burden of respiratory system diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2013-11-01

    Polish population according to the National Census of Population and Housing, which was conducted in 2011, was 38 511.8 thousand. The average life expectancy in Poland is 71.0 years for men and 79.7 years for women. The reason for hospitalization in Poland are primarily cardiovascular disease (18%), tumors (11.4%), digestive diseases (10.6%), respiratory (9.3%), trauma (9.1%), infectious diseases (2.3%) and others (39%). Mortality rates determined on the basis of the analyzes and simulations in different disease groups indicates that the predominant causes of death of Polish citizens are strongly cardiovascular disease and cancer. Respiratory diseases occupy fourth place. World analyses clearly show that the number of deaths in 2030 due to lung diseases will be the fourth (COPD), fifth (pneumonia) and sixth (lung cancer) cause of death. As it turns out, the existence of various pathologies affecting the country's economic status. Respiratory allergies are observed more often, including in approximately 20% of Europeans are symptoms of allergic rhinitis (15-20% severe) and in 5-11% are diagnosed with asthma. Malignant tumors are the second most common causes of death in the group with the highest risk of life for the residents of Polish, particularly for men, is lung cancer, because of which in 2001, 20 570 people died. Incurred costs of the social security system are mainly caused by inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, which corresponds to the number of days of sick leave, especially in the age group 19-28 years, with a decrease in the age group above 59 years of age. Numbers hospitalized for respiratory diseases according to data from the National Health Fund also clearly indicate the cause of inflammation and cancer, and in the population aged 41-60 years, the need for hospital treatment is multiplied. The data indicate the constant threat of respiratory diseases.

  20. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  1. Implementation of the Decisions of the Prague Convention--A Case Study: Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowska-Kuszteljak, Julia; Rzycki, Jerzy

    1986-01-01

    Poland's participation in the 1972 Prague convention on the international recognition among socialist countries of secondary school diplomas, specialized secondary school credentials, higher education degrees, and higher academic titles and degrees is outlined. (MSE)

  2. A New Moldavite Sub-Strewn Field in Lower Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skála, R.; Jonášová, Š.; Žák, K.; Ďurišová, J.; Brachaniec, T.; Magna, T.

    2016-08-01

    The moldavites found close to Strzegom (Poland) represent the Central European tektites most distant (~475 km) from the source crater, the Ries impact structure. They were redeposited from yet unknown sub-strewn field north of the Sudetic Mountains.

  3. History of the development of rocket technology and astronautics in Poland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisler, W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of rocket technology in Poland is outlined. The history cites 13th century use of war rockets in combating Tartars as well as 20th century studies of the future and reality of space flights.

  4. Ethical Reasoning in a Time of Revolution: A Study of Local Officials in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Debra W; Sprinthall, Norman; Siemienska, Renata

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 485 local officials in Poland showed that both elected and appointed officials strongly preferred principled reasoning for ethical decision making. Gender and attitude toward the change from Communism made a difference in preferred modes of ethical reasoning. (SK)

  5. Distribution and hosts of Eutrombidium trigonum (Hermann, 1804) (Acari: Prostigmata: Eutrombidiidae) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Haitlinger, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    New hosts: Chorthippus (Glyptobotchrus) biguttulus (L.), C. (G.) mollis (Charp.), C. (G.) brunneus (Thunb.), C. (G.) ?apricarius (L.), Omocestus viridulus (L.) and new localities for Eutrombidium trigonum (Hermann) from Poland are presented.

  6. Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Bajpai, Minu; Singh, Amit; Jana, Manisha

    2014-02-23

    Poland syndrome is characterised by unilateral absence of the large pectoral muscle, ipsilateral symbrachydactyly and occasionally other malformations of the anterior chest wall and breast. The condition is more frequent among men and usually occurs on the right hemithorax in the unilateral form. This case is unique because we believe it is a rare case of Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax along with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen from the left subcostal region.

  7. A rare association of pulmonary hypertension and dextrocardia with Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raval, Jwalant; Nagaraja, Vinayak; Burgess, David; Eshoo, Suzanne; Sadick, Norman; Denniss, A Robert

    2013-09-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality with an estimated incidence of 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 30,000 live births. We report and discuss this rare combination of pulmonary hypertension and dextrocardia with Poland syndrome. This case report also highlights the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms during foetal development and the potential to misdiagnose cardiac ischaemia in a patient with an anatomic anomaly.

  8. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  9. Hungary and Poland: "Hungary" Stable Partner in Democracy. Building Partnership for Europe: Poland after a Decade System of Transformation. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Steven M.

    This curriculum project provides insight into the transformation processes in which the nations of Hungary and Poland have been participating, from approximately 1979-2002. A major focus of the project is to organize a set of information that teachers and students can analyze and understand the Hungarian and Polish quality of life during the…

  10. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 6 Central Europe series.

    PubMed

    Viragos, Marta

    2013-06-01

    This is the 6th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on Central Europe in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Hungry, Poland and Czech Republic. Future issues will track trends the Middle East and then the Far East. JM.

  11. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Goś, Daria; Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9-11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is "healthy as a fish" meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of "healthy fish" results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords-health and fish-which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program.

  12. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9–11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is “healthy as a fish” meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of “healthy fish” results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords—health and fish—which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program. PMID:27028803

  13. Diatom-based reconstruction of the Lake Czechowskie trophy status in the last 2000 years (Tuchola Forest, Northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Hübener, Thomas; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grant NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  14. A two-model hydrologic ensemble prediction of hydrograph: case study from the upper Nysa Klodzka river basin (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Mizinski, Bartlomiej

    2016-04-01

    The HydroProg system has been elaborated in frame of the research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 of the National Science Centre of Poland and is steadily producing multimodel ensemble predictions of hydrograph in real time. Although there are six ensemble members available at present, the longest record of predictions and their statistics is available for two data-based models (uni- and multivariate autoregressive models). Thus, we consider 3-hour predictions of water levels, with lead times ranging from 15 to 180 minutes, computed every 15 minutes since August 2013 for the Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland) using the two approaches and their two-model ensemble. Since the launch of the HydroProg system there have been 12 high flow episodes, and the objective of this work is to present the performance of the two-model ensemble in the process of forecasting these events. For a sake of brevity, we limit our investigation to a single gauge located at the Nysa Klodzka river in the town of Klodzko, which is centrally located in the studied basin. We identified certain regular scenarios of how the models perform in predicting the high flows in Klodzko. At the initial phase of the high flow, well before the rising limb of hydrograph, the two-model ensemble is found to provide the most skilful prognoses of water levels. However, while forecasting the rising limb of hydrograph, either the two-model solution or the vector autoregressive model offers the best predictive performance. In addition, it is hypothesized that along with the development of the rising limb phase, the vector autoregression becomes the most skilful approach amongst the scrutinized ones. Our simple two-model exercise confirms that multimodel hydrologic ensemble predictions cannot be treated as universal solutions suitable for forecasting the entire high flow event, but their superior performance may hold only for certain phases of a high flow.

  15. Dew Formation and Chemistry Near a Motorway in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, Grzegorz; Sobik, Mieczysław; Błaś, Marek; Polkowska, Żaneta; Cichała-Kamrowska, Katarzyna

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the influence of traffic intensity on dew formation efficiency and chemistry is presented. The measurements were conducted near the A4 motorway in SW Poland in almost flat land relief with intense agricultural activity. The dew/hoarfrost was collected by means of insulated plain passive radiative condensers at three sites: AN and AS located in the close vicinity of the motorway (30 m) on the opposite sides of the road, and AR, representing rural background conditions beyond the motorway influence. Measurements were conducted in two short campaigns in April and September 2009 with 9 and 10 collection days respectively. The average daily efficiency of dew formation was 0.179 L/m2. Its value for AN, AS and AR was on average 0.170, 0.199 and 0.173 L/m2, respectively. The efficiency of dew formation at measurement sites located on both sides of the road differed by up to about 200% during an individual dew episode. Maximum daily value reached 0.389 L/m2. The average volume-weighted pH was acidic and ranged from 4.29 (AS) to 4.58 (AR). The electric conductivity (EC) at all measurement sites was relatively low reaching on average 55.9 μS/cm for AN, 62.2 μS/cm for AS and 35.8 μS/cm for AR. The average volume-weighted TIC parameter (total ionic content) reached the value of 0.62 meq/L (AN and AS) and 0.38 meq/L (AR). Both EC and TIC values indicated strong influence of the motorway at sites located in its close vicinity (AN and AS). Depending on airflow direction during individual dew collection events, AN or AS sites were situated alternatively on windward or leeward side of the road, which distinctly influenced dew formation and chemistry: the leeward condenser was characterized by smaller water volume, higher EC and higher TIC when compared both with its windward counterpart and the background site. The ionic structure of the collected samples was similar at all measurement sites. The largest share had NO3 - anion (28-32%) and Ca2+ cation (22-25%). Thus

  16. [Occupational neoplasms in Poland in the years 1971-1994].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Strzelecka, A; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the incidence of malignant neoplasms, recognised as occupational disease, in Poland during the years 1971-94 was based on occupational disease certificates sent obligatory to the Nofer institute of Occupational Medicine (Lódz) by all sanitary and epidemiological stations under the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and the Polish State Railways. During the period study 1118 occupational neoplasms were diagnosed, including 1042 cases (93.2%) of neoplasms in males. Among males malignant Ineoplasms of lung (36.1%), larynx (25.5%), bladder (14.7), skin (6%), lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue (3.4%) and pleura (2.9%) were most common. The rate occupational neoplasms in the total number of neoplasms registered accounted for 0.11% in males and 0.01% in females. PAH (29.1%), asbestos dust (18.8%), ionizing radiation (13.8%), chromium and its compounds (13.5%) and benzidine (9.8%) belong to the most frequent causes of malignant neoplasms in males, and ionizing radiation (31.5%) and asbestos dust (30.3%) in females. The number of neoplasms recognised as occupational disease is very low. Underestimation of occupational neoplasms is very common throughout the world, but it is particularly high in Poland if we take the incidence of pleura mesothelioma as an example. This is mainly due to: (1) the lack of clinical and morphological specificity of occupationally induced neoplasms; (2) a long latency; (3) the influence of other factors confounding the effect of occupational exposure; (4) a relatively small number of occupational carcinogens identified thus far; (5) limited knowledge of occupational carcinogens and criteria for occupational disease certification, and unsatisfactory interviewing skills among doctors who diagnose cancer disease. The identification of a harmful factor and the size of exposure to it, belongs to the weakest point in certifying the occupational background of the disease. The essential conclusions presented stress the urgent need for

  17. Social attitudes towards floods in Poland - spatial differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacki, W.; Działek, J.; Bokwa, A.

    2012-04-01

    Our paper discusses results of research conducted in Southern Poland focusing on social attitudes towards floods - natural hazards frequently observed in Poland. Lately (e.g. 1997, 2001, 2010) several hundred thousand of people suffered from floods occurring in all examined communities. Presented analyses are based on questionnaire survey in which several criteria were used to select places for studies: objective degree of risk, prior experience of extreme events, size of community, strength of social bonds, social capital and quality of life. Nearly 2000 responses (from 9 communities) were gathered from the survey. Our main research questions were following: - are there differences between attitudes in those communities depending on how frequently they have experienced floods? - does settlement size have an impact on social attitudes towards floods, especially on mitigation behaviour? - are urban inhabitants less adapted to floods be upheld and do rural communities show more activity in the face of natural disasters? - what do information and education policies concerning floods look like? Three dimensions of social attitudes towards natural hazards were analyzed: cognitive (knowledge and awareness of local hazards), emotional (feelings towards hazards, like concern and anxiety); and instrumental (actions taken in response to a potential natural disaster). A combination of these three dimensions produces various types of perception and behaviour towards the perceived hazard (Raaijmakers et al., 2008): ignorance when the local population is unaware of a threat and therefore develops no concern and takes no preventive actions; safety when the local population is aware of a threat, but regards its level as either low or acceptable and is therefore not concerned with the threat and makes no preparations for a disaster; risk reduction when a high level of awareness and concern produces the mechanism of reducing the cognitive dissonance and denial of a disaster threat

  18. Legal regulations on occupational health system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dawydzik, L T

    2001-01-01

    Occupational health care has a long tradition in Poland. It has evolved from the industrial health care system established in the post-war period to a modern system defined in the Occupational Health Services Act of 1997. When the process of political and economic transformation began in Poland in 1989, the reforms of the workers' health care became inevitable. The process of introducing and implementing new legal regulations comprised three phases: 1. Introduction of amendments to the Polish Labor Code, according to which employers are now committed to provide their workers with occupational health services (OHS) appropriate to given working conditions. 2. Incorporation into the 1991 Health Care Institutions Act the provisions which allow for the establishment of alternative non-public structures responsible for the health care of the working population. 3. Adoption of the Occupational Health Services Act in 1997, the most important law providing grounds for establishing a most comprehensive system of occupational health services. The Occupational Health Services Act introduces, for the first time, the concept of the OHS system that encompasses the whole working population. The Act outlines a broad range of OHS competences; defines individual tasks; and provides the up-to-date definition of the OHS structure with its two organizational levels, consisting of primary and regional occupational health centers. In addition, the Act specifies the sources of finance for the accomplishment of the defined tasks. Pursuant to the provisions of the Act, OHS units co-operate with employers and employees, bodies supervising working conditions and other organizations involved in occupational health that become their partners in activities aimed at protecting and promoting health of workers. In order to further develop the workers' health care system its constant adaptation to changing conditions is absolutely necessary through: developing modern training for specialists in the

  19. Legal regulations on occupational health system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dawydzik, L T

    2001-01-01

    Occupational health care has a long tradition in Poland. It has evolved from the industrial health care system established in the post-war period to a modern system defined in the Occupational Health Services Act of 1997. When the process of political and economic transformation began in Poland in 1989, the reforms of the workers' health care became inevitable. The process of introducing and implementing new legal regulations comprised three phases: 1. Introduction of amendments to the Polish Labor Code, according to which employers are now committed to provide their workers with occupational health services (OHS) appropriate to given working conditions. 2. Incorporation into the 1991 Health Care Institutions Act the provisions which allow for the establishment of alternative non-public structures responsible for the health care of the working population. 3. Adoption of the Occupational Health Services Act in 1997, the most important law providing grounds for establishing a most comprehensive system of occupational health services. The Occupational Health Services Act introduces, for the first time, the concept of the OHS system that encompasses the whole working population. The Act outlines a broad range of OHS competences; defines individual tasks; and provides the up-to-date definition of the OHS structure with its two organizational levels, consisting of primary and regional occupational health centers. In addition, the Act specifies the sources of finance for the accomplishment of the defined tasks. Pursuant to the provisions of the Act, OHS units co-operate with employers and employees, bodies supervising working conditions and other organizations involved in occupational health that become their partners in activities aimed at protecting and promoting health of workers. In order to further develop the workers' health care system its constant adaptation to changing conditions is absolutely necessary through: developing modern training for specialists in the

  20. Emil Godlewski, Jr. (1875-1944) pioneer of embryology at the Jagiellonian University of Krakow (Poland).

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Leopold

    2008-01-01

    Emil Godlewski, Jr. (1875-1944) lived and worked in Krakow. He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine of the Jagiellonian University with the title of Doctor of Medical Science. He worked at the Faculty of Medicine, first in the Institute of Descriptive Anatomy and later as Professor of Biology and Embryology in the Department of Biology and Embryology, which he founded and led for many years. After early research on the development and histogenesis of muscles, professor Godlewski's scientific interests focused on regeneration and mechanisms regulating the process of fertilization, as well as early embryo development, blastulation and gastrulation. He was also interested in the origin of the primary differentiating cells in regenerates. He postulated the importance of epithelial tissue in this process and was the first to point out the change in the function, organization and role of the cells under the influence of external stimuli. Investigating fertilization and early development, he focused on the cooperation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in the regulation of the early stages of development. Godlewski was also the author of the theory of migration of the inherited substances from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and, after their processing, from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. His works were never fragmentary, but always synthetical attempts at explaining important issues relating to the mechanisms of development. In 1936 Professor Godlewski was awarded the title of Member of the Pontifica Accademia delle Scienze. Apart from doing research and teaching, Emil Godlewski devoted a lot of time to social issues, especially those connected to medicine. When Poland regained independence after World War I, he actively participated in the reopening of the Jagiellonian University.

  1. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  2. Science in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  3. Polonium 210Po in cigarettes produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Skwarzec, B; Strumińska, D I; Borylo, A; Ulatowski, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of 210Po determinations in the fourteen most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes, which constitute over 80% of total cigarette consumption in Poland. The 210Po activity in the cigarette samples analysed (tobacco, ash, filter before and after smoking) were measured using alpha spectrometry (Canberra-Packard). The data indicates that there is considerable variation in the polonium content of these brands. The highest 210Po content per sample was found in the cheap "Popularne" brand (24.12 mBq), the lowest in "Caro" (4.23 mBq). There was also a large difference between the polonium remaining in the ash in comparison with its total content in the tobacco in all the brands (from 4.3% for "Golden American" to 71.0% for "Sobieski King-Size"). The analysis has demonstrated that filters absorbed only a small amount of the polonium contained in the tobacco. "Caro" cigarettes have the most efficient filter, retaining 25.1% of the polonium contained in the tobacco, but most filters absorbed only 0.1-7.2% of polonium. The daily inhalation of 210Po by Polish smokers who get through one pack per day ranges from 20 to 215 mBq, but people smoking two or more packs of "Popularne" brand will inhale over 430 mBq of polonium per day.

  4. Burden of disease caused by local transport in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Transport is a major source of air pollution, noise, injuries and physical activity in the urban environment. The quantification of the health risks and benefits arising from these factors would provide useful information for the planning of cost-effective mitigation actions. In this study we quantified the burden of disease caused by local transport in the city of Warsaw, Poland. The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated for transport related air pollution (particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), cadmium, lead and nickel), noise, injuries and physical activity. Exposure to these factors was based on local and international data, and the exposure-response functions (ERFs) were based on published reviews and recommendations. The uncertainties were quantified and propagated with the Monte Carlo method. Local transport generated air pollution, noise and injuries were estimated to cause approximately 58,000 DALYs in the study area. From this burden 44% was due to air pollution and 46% due to noise. Transport related physical activity was estimated to cause a health benefit of 17,000 DALYs. Main quantified uncertainties were related to disability weight for the annoyance (due to noise) and to the ERFs for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and walking. The results indicate that the health burden of transport could be mitigated by reducing motorized transport, which causes air pollution and noise, and by encouraging walking and cycling in the study area. PMID:26516622

  5. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  6. [AIDS and HIV infection in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Nitka, Anna; Rosińska, Magdalena; Janiec, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    The cumulative number of AIDS cases diagnosed in Poland in 1986 to 2006 reached 1929, and 855 AIDS deaths were registered during this time. In recent years a minor upward trend in AIDS incidence is observed with the highest numbers of incident cases in 2004- 175 (incidence 0.46 per 100,000) and 2006 -156 (0.41 per 100,000). The number of reported deaths decreased from 64 in 2005 to 44 in 2006. Taking into account the official life statistics data, AIDS deaths might be underreported. In 2006, with 750 newly detected HIV infections, the incidence (2.0 per 100,000) was higher than observed during recent years. Injecting drug users constituted the most numerous risk group both among the AIDS cases (51.9%) and the HIV infection cases (15.2% of all cases and 52.5% of cases with known transmission route). In 2006 the infection was diagnosed in 15 children of infected mothers. The proportion of reports of HIV infections with missing information on the risk group though remained very high (71.1% of all 2006 reports). In order to monitor the epidemiological situation better quality of data will need to be assured.

  7. Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Ż; Błaś, M; Lech, D; Namieśnik, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources.

  8. Development of optical fiber technology in Poland: 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorosz, Jan; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors, chairs of the 15th Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications OFTA2014, and editors of the conference proceedings summarize the developments of optical fiber technology in Poland (during the period of 2012-2014) on the basis of papers presented there and consecutively published in this volume. The digest covers the periodically presented work results every 18 months during the meetings on optical fibers in Białystok - Lipowy Most (with emphasis on technology and applications) and Lublin - Nałęczow (with emphasis on materials and technologies). The XVth Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications was held in Białystok and Lipowy Most on 29.01-01.02.2014. The first conference from this cycle was organized in Jabłonna in 1976. Conference topics were: optical fiber technology, materials for optoelectronics and photonics, rare earth doped and luminescent materials, metrology of optical fibers, components and optoelectronic circuits, applications of optical fibers, waveguides and optical fiber sensors, and lighting technology. The conference was attended by 120 participants, including international guests, and 90 papers were presented. Conference papers are traditionally published in Proceedings SPIE.

  9. [Incidence of pleural mesotheliomas in Poland (preliminary report)].

    PubMed

    Szturmowicz, M; Vertun-Baranowska, B; Rowińska-Zakrzewska, E; Szymańska, D

    1991-01-01

    Mesothelioma is a rare malignancy, difficult to diagnose and rarely found in a population not exposed to asbestos. In the immediate past incidence rates of this disease have increased due to extensive use of this mineral in the industry of the 1950's. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of mesotheliomas basing on results of a questionnaire posted in 1987 to all pneumonology clinics, oncological departments in Poland, and data from the Central Oncological Register from the years 1970-1985. Incidence of this malignant disease was 1-2 cases per 1,000,000 of general population during the years 1970-1985 and did not rise in 1986. Regional differences were observed, in some areas the incidence rate was 5-6 per 1,000,000. Data from the Occupational Medicine Institute disclosed in these regions more extensive industrial use of this mineral. The authors have also concluded that "at-life" diagnosis of mesothelioma rises, mainly due to the use of open pleural biopsy.

  10. Radioactivity of honeys from Poland after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Maria H; Kapała, Jacek; Puścion-Jakubik, Anna; Horembała, Justyna; Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata

    2013-11-01

    Concentration of radioactive isotopes in honey constitutes an important bioindicator of environmental radiation. One hundred six honey samples were collected from hives and from bottled honey provided by beekeepers from north-eastern Poland in 2010, before the Fukushima accident, and during the two-year period directly following this catastrophe (2011-2012). Cesium-137 (Cs-137) and potassium-40 (K-40) were determined in lime, multifloral, buckwheat, honeydew and other kinds of honey samples. The obtained mean concentrations of Cs-137 and K-40 (Bq kg(-1)) in honey samples were: 1.19 and 32.92 in 2010, 0.90 and 31.13 in 2011, 1.31 and 36.06 in 2012, respectively. Significant differences were not observed. Therefore, the studied honey samples collected after the Fukushima accident are found to be safe for humans with levels of Cs-137 and K-40 not posing any threats. However, the total concentration of Cs-137 and K-40 in samples stopped decreasing in 2010-2011 and showed a slight increase in 2012. This relation may suggest the impact of pollution from Fukushima and requires further research in the coming years.

  11. Genesis of transverse kame trains in eastern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpiłowski, Sławomir

    2007-01-01

    Transverse kames, forming trains perpendicular to the direction of ice-sheet advance, are rare morphological elements in previously glaciated areas. The genesis of an example from the ice-contact zone of the Wartanian glaciation in eastern Poland is discussed. The transverse kames there form two main, distinctly separated, sub-parallel trains. Their sedimentary successions fill erosional troughs incised in the pre-Wartanian deposits on northern slopes. They consist of thick glaciofluvial sand and glaciofluvial/glaciolacustrine sandy/silty units that are covered with a thin, usually discontinuous, glacial till succession. The genesis of this kame type has been modelled. It is concluded that transverse kames developed in two phases: (1) erosion of the substratum in subglacial channels during initial deglaciation, and (2) glaciofluvial deposition in crevasses during advanced deglaciation (in the form of low-energy fans periodically submerged under stagnant water), followed locally by a cover of flowtills. Both the ablation of the ice and the accumulation of the kame deposits were controlled by the co-occurrence of ice zones either enriched or impoverished with sediment. Zonal enrichment of ice with debris was determined by the development of shear zones over substratum elevations that were inclined up-ice. The formation and subsequent infilling of crevasses both took place in zones of relatively clean ice, so that the resulting kames form a train perpendicular to the direction of ice movement.

  12. Development of optical fiber technology in Poland 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Wójcik, Waldemar

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a digest of works presented during the XVIth National Symposium on Optical Fibres and Their Applications. The Symposium is organized since 1976. OFTA 2015 was organized by Optical Fibre Laboratory of the Faculty of Chemistry at University of Maria Curie Skłodowska, and Institute of Electronics and Information Technology of Lublin University of Technology, in Nałęczów on 22-25 September 2015. The meeting has gathered around 120 participants who presented 85 research and technical papers. The Symposium organized every 18 months is a good portrait of optical fibre technology development in Poland at university laboratories, governmental institutes, company R&D laboratories, etc. Topical tracks of the Symposium were: optical and photonic materials, technology of classical, tailored and structural photonic optical fibres, light propagation physics in optical fibres, passive and active optical fibre components, optical fibre sensors, passive and active optical fibre networks, optical fibre amplifiers and lasers, optical fibre network issues: modulation, architectures, economy, etc.

  13. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  14. [Bacillus subtilis a legislative health problem in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kozajda, Anna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to discuss the problems related to the classification of B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis bacteria to the 2nd risk group under the 2005 decree of the Ministry of Health on hazardous biological agents (Law Gazette No. 81, item 716 with later amendments). The decree is a Polish implementation of the Directive 2000/54/EC generally consistent with its recommendations, but in the case of certain microorganisms a separate decision has been taken and having in mind the health of workers, changes in the list of hazardous agents existing in Poland have been made. The paper presents in detail the legal situation in this field, as well as current knowledge about the biology of these microorganisms, their use in the biotechnology industry and related production of allergenic proteins, and their effect on the human health. Placement ofB. subtilis and B. thuringiensis in the 2nd risk group resulted in the interpretative difficulties encountered by employers who use products containing these bacteria, institutions involved in such products trade and inspectorates supervising working conditions. Based on the literature review it is suggested to initiate actions leading to the development of hygiene norms for certain enzymes/bioinsecticides present in the air, the more that the tests to assess air concentrations of some of them are available. This solution would permit to remove B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis bacteria from the 2nd risk group without the risk for the care of workers' health. PMID:22774467

  15. [Fluoride content of soft drinks produced in Poland].

    PubMed

    Jedra, Małgorzata; Urbanek-Karłowska, Bogumiła; Gawarska, Halina; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Fluoride content of 81 commercial brands of soft drinks and bottled waters were determined using potentiometric method with ion selective electrode. In the beverages produced in the same factory fluoride level were similar. The connection between elevation of fluoride levels and ingredients of investigated products such as juice or cola extract was not found. However, in some samples of ice tea drinks containing the tea extract fluoride levels might have been raised up to 1.28 mg/l. Fluoride contents of beverages from 28 producers ranged from 0.01 to 0.30 mg/l and only from 4 producers up to 0.60 mg/l. The highest level of fluoride (1.39 mg/l) has been determined in one sample of mineral water. In conclusion, ice tea beverages and certain mineral water, made and sold in Poland, may constitute an important source of fluoride in diet. Their consumption, particularly in case of children, must be controlled.

  16. A Biological Stone from a Medieval Cemetery in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J.; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus. PMID:25275551

  17. Defining HIV Risk and Determining Responsibility in Postsocialist Poland

    PubMed Central

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on 15 months of ethnographic research on HIV prevention programs in Poland, I explore the consequences of the shift from models of HIV prevention that emphasize “risk groups” and AIDS blame, to models that focus on “risky behaviors” and universal risk. The centrality of choice making and individual risk management in these models suggests objective risk assessment free from moralizing arguments. The Polish national prevention strategy shifted to focus on choice making, address all risk groups, and include concrete prevention strategies. This shift created a backlash that resulted in the reassertion of moral arguments about risk and risk groups that positioned those most vulnerable to HIV outside the purview of prevention efforts. AIDS organizations working with marginalized, “morally problematic” populations used the label “at risk” to legitimize claims to resources. They enacted a model of risk reduction in which the relevant actor is the individual buffeted by social forces, and behavior change, and therefore HIV risk reduction, is a long process because of myriad forms of vulnerability clients face. Despite efforts to reconceptualize risk, organizations positioned the individual as the locus of HIV prevention interventions, rather than attempting to address the social context that shapes risk. PMID:20092052

  18. Phenological changes and reduced seasonal synchrony in western Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Górska-Zajączkowska, Maria; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2011-05-01

    Botanical gardens offer continuity for phenological recording in observers, protocols and plant specimens that may not be achievable from other sources. Here, we examine phenological change and synchrony from one such garden in western Poland. We analysed 66 botanical phenophases and 18 interphase intervals recorded between 1977 and 2007 from the Poznań Botanical Garden. These were examined for trends through time and responsiveness to temperature. Furthermore, we derived measures of synchrony for start of spring and end of autumn events to assess if these had changed over time. All 39 events with a mean date before mid-July demonstrated a significant negative relationship with temperature. Where autumn events were significantly related to temperature, they indicated a positive relationship. Typically, spring events showed an advance over time and autumn events a delay. Interphase intervals tended to lengthen over the study period. The measures of synchrony changed significantly over time suggesting less synchrony among spring events and also among autumn events. In combination, these results suggest increases in growing season length. However, responses to a changing climate were species-specific. Thus, the transitions from winter into spring and from autumn into winter are becoming less clearly defined.

  19. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS.

  20. Asthma, allergy, and respiratory symptoms in centenarians living in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mossakowska, M; Pawlinska-Chmara, R; Broczek, K M

    2008-12-01

    According to National Census, there were 1541 people over the age of 100 years (centenarians) in Poland, in 2002, including 1215 females and 326 males. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of asthma, allergy, and respiratory symptoms in centenarians included in the Polish Centenarians Program, POLSTU 2001, conducted between 2001 and 2004. The study group consisted of 301 subjects including 258 females and 43 males. Research data were gathered in a questionnaire designed exclusively for the study, completed by the interviewer during meetings with the subjects and their families. According to the medical history reported by the subjects, 10 persons (3.3%) suffered from asthma and 41 (13.6%) from allergy. There were no subjects with childhood onset asthma. Allergy to food and medicinal products was the most prevalent. One in four centenarians reported dyspnea and one in eight complained of cough. When analyzed in relation to gender, cough was more prevalent in males, which might have been related to cigarette smoking. Respiratory disorders are frequent in elderly populations, but symptoms may be underreported, especially in the situation of coexisting medical problems. Moreover, it might be difficult to perform full diagnostic procedures in the very elderly due to disability, cognitive impairment, and technical problems. Thus, medical care for the aged should be based on thorough medical evaluation supported by the medical history and reliable information on physician-diagnosed diseases.

  1. Early Holocene hydrology and environments of the Ner River (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Piotr; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Borówka, Ryszard K.; Okupny, Daniel; Pawłowski, Dominik; Peyron, Odille; Stachowicz-Rybka, Renata; Obremska, Milena; Cywa, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    The Ner River valley (central Poland) underwent substantial transformation during the Weichselian-Holocene transition as a result of fluvial processes and climate changes, resulting in the establishment of its present shape in the Holocene. A multiproxy study based on organic deposits from a palaeochannel fill (Lutomiersk-Koziówki) shows that after the channel was cut off during the late glacial termination, it became a shallow oxbow, fed by local springs. In the Boreal period, the oxbow lake was also fed by precipitation and became a telmatic environment overgrown by rush and swamp vegetation. Finally, it was covered by overbank deposits. The first flooding phase (9900-9600 cal. BP) was followed by the accumulation of overbank sediments (after 9500 cal. BP) and flooding increased after ca. 9300-9000 cal. BP. Pollen data provide information on the regional vegetation context for local and regional changes. In the Atlantic period, an increase in both summer and winter temperatures is inferred from the pollen data, corresponding to an expansion of thermophilous deciduous forests. While in general, flooding phases of the Early Holocene are poorly recognised in Eastern Europe, the Lutomiersk-Koziówki site may be considered as one of the reference points for this phenomenon in the region.

  2. Lessons from Norovirus Outbreak in Warsaw, Poland, December 2012.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Sylwia; Kruszewska, Żaneta; Lejbrandt, Elżbieta; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Efficient foodborne outbreak investigations are important for identification of gaps in food safety and public health practice. This article reports on an investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak linked to catering food following a Christmas reception at the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene (NIPH-NIH) in Warsaw in December 2012. Of 192 employees eating food at the catering event, 97 (50.5%) developed symptoms. Persons eating dishes with recipes containing frozen carrots were five times more likely to develop gastrointestinal symptoms compared to those who did not eat carrots. Laboratory analysis identified norovirus in stool samples taken from symptomatic persons. Leftover food was not available for testing. The investigators did not collect stool specimens from food handlers and did not conduct trace backs for the suspected food ingredients. This investigation underlines the need for a revision of an existing procedures and importance of their complementation with detailed instructions for the local public health authorities for effective completion of foodborne outbreaks investigations in Poland.

  3. Eligibility of stroke units in Poland for administration of intravenous thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Członkowska, A; Sarzyńska-Długosz, I; Niewada, M; Kobayashi, A

    2006-03-01

    Systemic thrombolysis treatment was approved in Poland in 2003 and should be performed in specialist stroke units (SU). We performed a survey to determine stroke service preparedness for thrombolysis treatment in Poland. We sent a questionnaire evaluating the neurological departments in Poland, where stroke patients are treated. We divided them into four categories: (i) class A SU (fulfilling criteria of the National Program for Stroke Prevention and Therapy and European Stroke Initiative guidelines), (ii) class B (conditionally fulfilling criteria), (iii) class C (not fulfilling criteria), and (iv) departments without SU. Only class A units are eligible for implementing thrombolysis. We obtained response from 194 of 222 (87.4%) departments; 90 (46.4%) declared having an SU. According to criteria, 20 class A, 56 class B, 14 class C. During one year, 71 208 patients were admitted to hospitals; 69,982 (98.2%) to neurological departments. A total of 10,959 (15.4%) were treated in class A SU, 23,650 (33.2%) in class B, 5153 (7.2%) in class C, whereas 30,220 (42.4%) in neurological departments without SU. Our survey showed that only 15.4% stroke patients in Poland are admitted to high-quality SU, where thrombolysis may potentially be administered. Improvement of SU quality in Poland is necessary for wide implementation of new methods of stroke therapy.

  4. Hydroclimatic shifts recorded in peat archive from Rąbień mire (Central Poland) - better understanding of past climate changes using multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Marcisz, Katarzyna; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Pawłowski, Dominik; Okupny, Daniel; Słowińska, Sandra; Borówka, Ryszard; Kittel, Piotr; Forysiak, Jacek; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    observed in the within the peatland monitoring during the heat wave events in 2015 (Linje mire, Northern Poland). In our opinion, only reconstructions supported by the knowledge of current observations from peatland ecosystems may provide a better interpretation of past climate changes. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants NN 306 27 6735 NN 306 034 040, No 2015/17/B/ST10/03430). This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. We acknowledge support from grant PSPB-013/2010 from Switzerland through the Swiss Contribution to the enlarged European Union.

  5. Giving the Spirit a National Form: From Rousseau's Advice to Poland to Habermas' Advice to the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Rousseau's philosophy of education is contained not only in "Emile" (1762), but also in "The Government of Poland" (1772). In each of them he emphasises different aspects of education: How to be a human being? And: How to be a citizen? The main theme investigated by Rousseau in "The Government of Poland", is how a minor nation surrounded by such…

  6. Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

  7. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

  8. Projects Submitted by Participants of the Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Poland and Hungary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    These curriculum projects were developed by participants of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Poland and Hungary during the summer of 2000. The following 11 projects are in the collection: "A Thematic Multicultural Interactive School Event on Poland and Hungary: Exploration and Learning for 6-to-9-Year-Olds" (Ruth Albert); "Once upon a…

  9. [Digenea of Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) from middle and north-western Poland].

    PubMed

    Kalisińska, Elzbieta; Rzad, Izabella; Sitko, Jilji; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2008 eight white-tailed eagles and two ospreys from middle and north-western Poland were examined for the presence of parasites. Nine birds were infected with 5 digenean species: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, Strigeafalconis, Metorchis crassiusculus and Nematostrigea serpens. M. crassiusculus was found for the first time in an eagle from Poland. PMID:19338229

  10. Distribution of Ag in Cu-sulfides in Kupferschiefer deposit, SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozub, Gabriela A.

    2014-05-01

    reports on high Ag content reaching 49 wt.% Ag in bornite and 1.8 wt.% Ag in chalcocite occurring due to Ag substitution in Cu-minerals without modification of their crystallographic structure (Salamon 1979; Banaś et al 2007; Kucha 2007; Piestrzyński 2007, Pieczonka 2011). Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the National Science Centre research grant (No 2011/03/N/ST10/04619). References: Kucha H and Mayer W (2007) Geochemistry. [In:] Piestrzyński A (Ed) Monografia KGHM Polska Miedź SA., pp 197-207 (In Polish) Pieczonka J (2011) Factors controlling distribution of ore minerals within copper deposit, Fore-Sudetic Monocline, SW Poland. 195 pp (In Polish) Piestrzyński A (2007) Ore minerals. [In:] Piestrzyński A (Ed) Monografia KGHM Polska Miedź SA., pp 167-197 (in Polish) Salamon W (1979) Occurrence of the Ag and Mo in the Zechstein sediments of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. Prace Mineralogiczne, PAN 62, pp 1-52 (In Polish)

  11. Apatite intergrowths in clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (SW Poland) basanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    during crystallization of fractionated basanite magma. The deep HFSE anomalies suggest that apatite saturation in silicate systems has effect similar to that of carbonatitic melt unmixing in a silicate-carbonatite systems. Funding. This study was possible thanks to the project NCN 2011/03/B/ST10/06248 of Polish National Centre for Science. References Lipa D., Puziewicz J., Ntaflos T., Matusiak-Małek M. (2014): Clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanite of OstrzycaProboszczowicka in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). Geoscience Notes 2.2: in press.

  12. Persistent pollution of Warta river catchment with chromium: case study from central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanski, S.; Lukaczynski, I.; Nikiel, G.; Mizera, J.; Dulinski, M.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Szklarczyk, T.; Wachniew, P.; Witczak, S.; Zurek, A.

    2012-04-01

    Upper reaches of the Warta river, the third largest river in Poland, are located in a densely populated and industrialized area, with presence of heavy industry going back to the second half of the XIX century. Industrial activities include iron smelters in towns of Częstochowa and Zawiercie, large chemical plants (Rudniki and Aniolow) producing predominantly chromium compounds, paper and textile industry, as well as large number of small enterprises specialized in metal coatings (nickel and chromium). Until the 1960s all the industrial and municipal effluents in the region were discharged into the Warta river and its tributaries. Solid wastes were dumped on the surface, mostly without appropriate cover and isolation. This resulted in progressive contamination of surface waters and groundwater with heavy metals, mostly chromium. The upper reaches of the Warta river are located on top of upper Jurassic Major Groundwater Basin (MGWB 326 which is one of four most important groundwater reservoirs in Poland. Almost all potable water demands in the area (ca. 340,000 inhabitants, 800 factories and enterprises) are covered by MGWB 326 (50 deep wells with the average extraction rate of 57,000 m3/d). As the MGWB 326 is mostly phreatic, it has been recognized since long time that persistent pollution of the upper catchment of the Warta river with heavy metals may pose serious thread to quality of this important groundwater resource. In this presentation we summarize the work carried out to date, focused on characterization of the extent and understanding of the mechanisms of pollution of surface water, sediments and groundwater in MGWB 326 with chromium. Historical monitoring data of the levels of chromium in the Warta river and its tributaries are presented, supplemented by the results of measurements of Cr loads in Warta over-bank deposits and Cr levels in groundwater production wells in the area. Three conceptual models of spreading of chromium in the catchment of Warta

  13. Iodine prophylaxis in pregnant women in Poland - where we are? (update 2015).

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, Arkadiusz; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of the model of iodine prophylaxis based on the consumption of iodized salt in 1997 has eliminated the iodine deficiency in Poland. However, in accordance with the current recommendations, all women who are planning to be pregnant or are pregnant or breastfeeding should receive an additional dose of iodine at 150-200 mcg / day because of the increased body's need for iodine during this period. Studies show that only part of women in Poland conduct a proper iodine prophylaxis and it is often initiated in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. The authors try to analyze the possible causes of this situation, pointing out what could be done to increase the degree of compliance with iodine prophylaxis during pregnancy and physiological lactation in Poland. PMID:26649074

  14. Non-market valuation supporting water management: the case study in Czestochowa, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Y.; Godyn, I.; Sauer, J.

    2014-07-01

    Water resources in Poland continue to be under stress despite systematic efforts to safeguard ground and surface water quality and quantity. Groundwater protection from nitrate pollution of human origin requires the development of sewerage systems. Such investments are often financed from public funds that must be formally appraised. The appraisal should be done by a comparison of benefits and costs of investment measures - not only financial but also environmental and social. A significant challenge is the monetization of the effects on the environment. In this paper we use non-market valuation to examine residents' preferences and estimate their willingness to pay for improving drinking water quality. This paper also contributes to the narrow literature on valuation of benefits of measures for groundwater quality improvement by presenting an application of the choice experiment method in the Czestochowa Region of Poland. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study estimating the value of benefits of the groundwater quality improvement in Poland.

  15. ‘Other’ Posts in ‘Other’ Places: Poland through a Postcolonial Lens?

    PubMed Central

    Mayblin, Lucy; Piekut, Aneta; Valentine, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Postcolonial theory has tended to focus on those spaces where European colonialism has had a territorial and political history. This is unsurprising, as much of the world is in this sense ‘postcolonial’. But not all of it. This article focuses on Poland, often theorised as peripheral to ‘old Europe’, and explores the application of postcolonial analyses to this ‘other’ place. The article draws upon reflections arising from a study of responses to ethnic diversity in Warsaw, Poland. In doing so we conclude that postcolonialism does indeed offer some important insights into understanding Polish attitudes to other nationalities, and yet more work also needs to be done to make the theoretical bridge. In the case of Poland we propose the ‘triple relation’ be the starting point for such work. PMID:26877557

  16. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation among women in Poland and Britain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Donna; Szpakowska, Ilona; Swami, Viren

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the process of transmigration has detrimental effects on the body image of migrants relative to women in the country of origin. In the present work, we examined the body image of Polish migrants in Britain (n=153), Polish women in Poland (n=153), and a comparison group of British White women (n=110). Participants completed a measure of actual-ideal weight discrepancy and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS). Contrary to hypotheses, our results showed that Polish women in Poland had significantly higher weight discrepancy than their counterparts in Britain. Further analyses showed that the BAS reduced to two dimensions among Polish participants, with Polish participants in Poland having significantly lower body appreciation than Polish migrants. We suggest that the sociocultural changes that have taken place in Eastern Europe may place women in that region at relatively high risk for developing negative body image. PMID:23972729

  17. Demographic and settlement transformations in peripheral regions (based on the example of eastern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszczuk, Andrzej; Wesołowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show specific demographic processes and accompanied transformations of settlement structure in eastern Poland at the turn of the 21st cent. Eastern Poland, covering Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeships, acquired the features of peripheral area in terms of communication and socio-economic aspects as a result of long-lasting historical processes. Unfavourable demographic processes can be observed in eastern Poland. They are accompanied by changes in settlement structure. Depopulation has significant social and economic consequences. The process increases social polarization between different regions in the country and between rural and urban areas. Moreover, the outflow of young and most active population to other regions or abroad is an important barrier for economic revival in peripheral regions. Consequently, unfavourable socio-economic structure in these areas is consolidated or even strengthened. This primarily concerns Lubelskie and Podlaskie voivodeships.

  18. The Presence of Stimulant Drugs in Wastewater from Krakow (Poland): A Snapshot.

    PubMed

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Dudarska, Agnieszka; Zuba, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of wastewater from Krakow (Poland) for the presence of controlled and uncontrolled stimulant drugs of abuse was performed. Samples were collected from the Plaszow wastewater treatment plant, Krakow, Poland, and prepared by solid phase extraction. The LC-QTOFMS method was applied for identification and quantification of popular stimulants: MDMA, mephedrone, 4-MEC, MDPV and mCPP. Environmental loads of illicit drugs were calculated; the WWTP discharged loads ranging from 3.6 to 6.7 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of MDMA, 3.6 to 7.1 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of mephedrone and 4.8 to 5.8 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of 4-MEC. The results confirmed the growing popularity of new psychoactive substances in Poland. PMID:27365137

  19. [Epidemiological situation of malaria in Poland--past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Dzbeński, Tadeusz H

    2008-01-01

    In Poland malaria was endemic up to the middle of 60th years of the 20th century. After eradication a total of 11 to 38 imported cases are reported each year, however, no secondary cases or airport malaria have ever been observed in Poland. Is the present favourable epidemiological situation likely to change as a result of global warming and predicted risk of uncontrollable resurgence of malaria in Europe? An epidemiological analysis of past and present malaria situation in Poland allows to conclude, that global warming alone will not be enough to reintroduce malaria into this country. However, re-establishment of endemic malaria will be possible under condition of mass disorganization of public services and mass migration caused usually by wars or natural calamities.

  20. New prospects in Cambrian platform orthoquartzites in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Labecki, J.; Weil, W. ); Schleicher, M.; Kulke, H.; Koester, J. )

    1991-08-01

    Middle Cambrian orthoquartzites produce oil in two small fields northwest of Gdansk, Poland; few developed offshore discoveries exist in the southeastern Baltic Sea. This joint Polish-German study on these poorly porous sandstones is aimed at delineating areas of better reservoir quality development and thus of future prospects. In the Polish part of the East European platform, Cambrian deposits exist in four geologic provinces (Lublin slope, Podiassle depression, Warsaw synclinorium, Baltic syneclise). In these areas, the Cambrian, which in part is more than 500 m thick, has been buried to depths between 300 and approximately 6000 m. The Middle Cambrian orthoquartzitic sandstones represent a shallow-marine sequences with interbedded claystones. Their porosities range form 2 to 8%, and oil production is improved by natural fractures. A major source rock for the oil accumulations is represented by Upper Cambrian black shales (TOC values, 3-13%; thickness approximately 1-10 m in northern onshore Baltic syneclise, up to 50 m in southern Scania, Sweden). The Middle Cambrian shales show low TOC contents (average, 0.3-0.6%) and a thickness of approximately 200 m. Despite their low organic content, they also could have been contributed to the reservoired oil because both black shales show maturities within the oil window and both contain an oil-prone algal kerogen. Therefore, in the northeast Polish oil province the restricted pore volume of the orthoquartzites and not the source rock parameters represents the major limiting factor for larger oil accumulations. Future prospects will be difficult to predict because the occurrence of traps might be much more controlled by diagenesis than by (tectonic) structures.

  1. EGNOS APV-I and HEDGE projects implementation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, A.; Trómiński, P.; Banaszek, K.

    2009-04-01

    The implementation of the EGNOS system to APV-I precision approach operations, according to ICAO requirements in Annex 10. This need many analysis accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability SIS (Signal in Space) to define useful and certification EGNOS like SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System) in aviation, especially in landing. Also, the project will try to exploit the excellent accuracy performances of EGNOS to analyse the implementation of GLS (GNSS Landing System) approaches (Cat I-like approached using SBAS, with a decision height of 200 ft), Chełm Town located near Polish-Ukrainian border is also at the east border of planned EGNOS coverage for ECAC states. In this place there is a navigation center with EGNOS and EUPOS receivers. The starting of the project is close to October 2008. According to current EGNOS programme schedule, the project activities will be done with EGNOS system v2.2, which is the version released for civil aviation certification. Therefore, the project will allow to demonstrate the feasibility of the EGNOS certifiable version for civil applications. Other project that we will present in our article is HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe). The project objectives are to achieve the following by the end of the project: - To develop the helicopter SOAP (SBAS Offshore Approach Procedure) procedure (and necessary avionics) and then to successfully demonstrate it to the user community. - To develop helicopter PINS (Point in Space) procedures for mountain rescue and HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Services), and to then successfully demonstrate them to the user community. - To demonstrate EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) APV (approach with vertical guidance) approaches to general aviation in Spain, Poland and Greece. - To develop an integrated navigation/surveillance concept and demonstrate it in Greece.

  2. The airborne pollen calendar for Lublin, central-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    An aerobiological study was conducted to investigate the quantity and quality of pollen in the atmosphere of Lublin in central-eastern Poland. Pollen monitoring was carried out in the period 2001-2012 using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The atmospheric pollen season in Lublin lasted, on average, from the end of January to the beginning of October. The mean air temperature during the study period was found to be higher by 1.1 °C than the mean temperature in the period 1951-2000. 56 types of pollen of plants belonging to 41 families were identified. 28 types represented woody plants and 28 represented herbaceous plants. The study distinguished 5 plant taxa the pollen of which was present most abundantly in the air of Lublin, which altogether accounted for 73.4%: Betula, Urtica, Pinus, Poaceae, and Alnus. The mean annual pollen index was 68 706; the largest amount of pollen was recorded in April and accounted for 33.3% of the annual pollen index. The pollen calendar included 28 allergenic plant taxa. The pollen of woody plants had the highest percentage in the pollen spectrum, on average 58.4%. The parameters of the pollen calendar for Lublin were compared with the calendar for central-eastern Europe with regard to the start of the pollen season of particular taxa. The pollen calendar for Lublin was demonstrated to show greater similarity to the calendar for Münster (Germany) than to the calendar for Bratislava (Slovakia). PMID:25292125

  3. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  4. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system. PMID:26519842

  5. Patient's rights in Poland against the background of new regulations.

    PubMed

    Rabiega-Przylecka, Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    Patient rights are the specification of general human rights. The rights define the patient position in relation to health institutions or medical professions providing, broadly understood, health services. The protection system of patient rights outlined by international legal and ethical regulations is detailed to specific social, political and economic realities by internal legal systems of individual states. Imperfections of the Polish health care system in relation to achieving adequate protection of patient rights, resulting, inter alia, from the lack of comprehensive regulation of the matter of patient rights, led the legislature to introduce new regulations concerning this aspect to the Polish legal order. The new Act of 6 November 2008 on Patient Rights and the Patient Rights Ombudsman (binding from 5 March 2009) is the first universally binding legal act in the Polish legal system entirely dealing with the matter of patient rights. It regulates the rights of the patient and correlated with them obligations of health care providers (public and non-public) irrespectively of both the legal form providers, as well as the sources of funding of the benefits provided. In particular, the Act states: the patient right to health services, right to obtain information, right to confidentiality of patient-linked information, right to consent to obtain health services, right to respect privacy and dignity of the patients, right to medical records and objecting to the doctor's opinion or decision, right to respect private and family life, right to pastoral care. The new regulations--besides the specification of the catalogue of patient rights--reinforced the institutional protection of patient rights by establishing a new central public administrative body having jurisdiction to protect patient rights--the Patient Rights Ombudsman. Poland, like other European countries, makes an attempt to improve the protection of patient rights. The introduction of the Act entirely

  6. Evaluation of the new gravity control in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sękowski, M.; Dykowski, P.; Krynski, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The new gravity control in Poland is based on absolute gravity measurements. It consists of 28 fundamental stations and 168 base stations. Fundamental stations are located in laboratories; they are to be surveyed in 2014 with the FG5-230 of the Warsaw University of Technology. Base stations are monumented field stations; they were surveyed in 2012 and 2013 with the A10-020 gravimeter. They are the subject of the paper. Besides absolute gravity measurements the vertical gravity gradient was precisely determined at all 168 base stations. Inconsistency of the determined vertical gravity gradients with respect to the normal ones has been presented. 77 base stations are also the stations of the previous gravity (POGK98) established in 90. of 20 century. Differences between newly determined gravity at those stations with those of POGK98 were evaluated. Alongside the establishment of the base stations of the gravity control multiple additional activities were performed to assure and provide the proper gravity reference level. They concerned regular gravity measurements on monthly basis with the A10-020 at three sites in Borowa Gora Geodetic-Geophysical Observatory, calibrations of metrological parameters of the A10-020 gravimeter and scale factor calibrations of LCR gravimeters, participation with the A10-020 in the international (ECAG2011, ICAG2013) and regional comparison campaigns of absolute gravimeters, and local comparisons of the A10-020 with the FG5-230. The summary of the work performed during the establishment of the gravity control is best described by total uncertainty budget for the A10-020 gravimeter determined on each of the 168 gravity stations.

  7. Patient's rights in Poland against the background of new regulations.

    PubMed

    Rabiega-Przylecka, Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    Patient rights are the specification of general human rights. The rights define the patient position in relation to health institutions or medical professions providing, broadly understood, health services. The protection system of patient rights outlined by international legal and ethical regulations is detailed to specific social, political and economic realities by internal legal systems of individual states. Imperfections of the Polish health care system in relation to achieving adequate protection of patient rights, resulting, inter alia, from the lack of comprehensive regulation of the matter of patient rights, led the legislature to introduce new regulations concerning this aspect to the Polish legal order. The new Act of 6 November 2008 on Patient Rights and the Patient Rights Ombudsman (binding from 5 March 2009) is the first universally binding legal act in the Polish legal system entirely dealing with the matter of patient rights. It regulates the rights of the patient and correlated with them obligations of health care providers (public and non-public) irrespectively of both the legal form providers, as well as the sources of funding of the benefits provided. In particular, the Act states: the patient right to health services, right to obtain information, right to confidentiality of patient-linked information, right to consent to obtain health services, right to respect privacy and dignity of the patients, right to medical records and objecting to the doctor's opinion or decision, right to respect private and family life, right to pastoral care. The new regulations--besides the specification of the catalogue of patient rights--reinforced the institutional protection of patient rights by establishing a new central public administrative body having jurisdiction to protect patient rights--the Patient Rights Ombudsman. Poland, like other European countries, makes an attempt to improve the protection of patient rights. The introduction of the Act entirely

  8. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the

  9. Science and Science Fiction

    ScienceCinema

    Scherrer, Robert [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

    2016-07-12

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  10. Science and Science Fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Robert

    2006-03-29

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  11. Evaluation of SMOS L2 soil moisture data over the Eastern Poland using ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Jerzy; Łukowski, Mateusz; Słomiński, Jan; Stankiewicz, Krystyna; Usowicz, Bogusław; Lipiec, Jerzy; Marczewski, Wojciech

    2013-04-01

    Validation of SMOS products is vital for their further use in the study of climate and hydrology. Several authors [1,2] have recently evaluated SMOS soil moisture data with an aid of in-situ observations of soil moisture. Collow and Robock have reported a dry bias as compared to in situ observations. Since their results are not much conclusive, they call for further studies using more data. Bircher and co-authors have also noted significant discrepancies between Danish network and SMOS soil moisture. SWEX_POLAND soil moisture network consists of 9 stations located in Eastern Poland. These stations are located on the areas representing variety types of land use: meadows, cultivated fields, wetlands and forests. We have expanded our analysis, as presented in the EGU 2012, using data from all network stations. Similarly as before, we have used three methods in our comparison studies: the Bland-Altman method, concordance correlation coefficient and total deviation index. Using these methods we have confirmed a fair/moderate agreement of SMOS L2 SM data and network observations. Like the other authors we have also noted the significant biases in SMOS soil moisture. However, the general trends in dynamics of soil moisture revealed by SMOS, the SWEX_POLAND network and referred to GLDAS, are in a considerable relevancy. We have shown that the SMOS satellite measurements are reliable, so can be used to detect areas of dry and moist soil. In Poland the trends indicating the growth of agricultural droughts are depicted by SMOS L2 very well, even better than national drought services for the agriculture. It is worth to note that the year 2011 was more variable and drier than the 2010 for Poland. Moreover, SMOS data prove the well-known property of central Poland to be drier than the rest of the country. It is expected that further mitigation of RFI contamination in Poland will be available due to the cooperation of ESA SMOS to the national spectrum control services (UKE

  12. Lidar Measurements of Canadian Forest Fire Smoke Episode Observed in July 2013 over Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Heese, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of aerosol optical properties of air-mass advected on 10th July 2013 from Canada above Warsaw, Poland, during the forest fire event that occurred in Quebec at the beginning of July 2013. The observations were conducted with use of the modern version of 8-channel PollyXT lidar capable of measuring at 3β+2α+2δ+VW and interpreted with available information from the MACC model, the CALIPSO and MODIS satellite sensors, the AERONET data products and the data gathered within the Poland-AOD network.

  13. Hard Coal in the Fuel-Mix Of Poland: The Long-Term Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Kaliski, Maciej; Kamiński, Jacek; Sikora, Andrzej P.; Szurlej, Adam

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the coal policy of Poland. It analyzes the forecasts of production and consumption of hard coal, the size of exports and imports and its importance for the energy sector on the basis of strategic documents. The main aim of the article is to show the role of hard coal in the fuel - energy balance of Poland until 2050. The adoption of appropriate assumptions for each scenario, including the maximum supply of hard coal from domestic mines, coal price curves, CO2 emission allowances and several calculations performed allowed to obtain certain results on the basis of which the future role of hard coal was determined.

  14. The Jewish psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, Poland.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2015-03-01

    The T4 euthanasia programme within Nazi Germany has been well researched, but much less is known about the extermination of psychiatric patients in Nazi-occupied territories during the same period. In Poland 20,000 mentally ill patients were deliberately killed during the German occupation. This paper traces the history of one psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, south-east of Warsaw. The hospital once served the Jewish population of Poland and was the largest, most prestigious neuropsychiatric centre in the country. It is now in ruins and said to be haunted by ghosts.

  15. Drug coverage insurance as a novel element of private health insurance in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czerw, Aleksandra; Religioni, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there have been observed increased costs of health care in Poland. The patient's out of pocket expenses on drug have grown too. To the above, the insurance companies have offered patients drug coverage insurance policies since recently. Drug insurance policy covers the cost of purchasing pharmaceutical products not reimbursed by the National Health Fund is a modern product on the Polish health insurance market. The aim of the article is to characterize drug coverage insurance policies on the health insurance market in Poland. The Polish insurance market and entities offered these types of insurance are also presented.

  16. Response of mosses to the heavy metal deposition in Poland--an overview.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, K; Szarek-Łukaszewska, G

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., a common moss species, were used to indicate relative levels of atmospheric deposition in Poland in the years 1975-1998. Spatial and temporal differences in the heavy metal concentrations in mosses were found. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in the moss samples from the southern, most industrialised part of the country, and the lowest from north-eastern Poland. A significant decrease of heavy metals over 20 years (1975-1998) was found. PMID:11584642

  17. Selected Problems of Applying the Law in Adaptation and Modernization of Buildings in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbel, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Chosen problems of law implementation in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland. One of the major problems in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland is the pluralism of different interpretations of chosen legal terms, existing in the contemporary building code. Incorrect interpretation, results in the incorrect application to the authorities for the proper building permit and as the effect, it causes the lost of time and money. The article tries to identify some of these problems and seeks the solution to solve them, through the evolutionary method of building law creation.

  18. Trends in the Incidence Rates of Chronic Hepatitis B in Poland in the Years 2005 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Stawinska-Witoszynska, Barbara; Zysnarska, Monika; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Wojtyła-Buciorab, Paulina; Krzyzaniak, Alicja; Wieckowska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic hepatitis is decisive for the overall incidence rate of hepatitis B observed in Poland. Objectives We aimed to determine the chronic hepatitis B incidence trends in Poland, taking into consideration the ages, genders, and environments of the patients. Methods The study is based on aggregated data from Polish descriptive epidemiological studies for the period of 2005 to 2013 (i.e., hepatitis B incidence numbers and ratios, including mixed HBV and HCV infections) as published in the annual bulletins Choroby zakazne i zatrucia w Polsce (Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland] drawn up by the laboratory for the monitoring and analysis of epidemiological status of the department of epidemiology at the national institute of public health - national institute of hygiene (NIPH-NIH). Poland, a central European country situated in the humid continental climate zone, is classified as a highly developed country. In the analyzed period, the Polish population consisted of about 38 million people, more than 19 million of whom were women, and more than 18 million of whom were men. Among European countries, Poland has the smallest number of national and ethnic minorities. For the purposes of epidemiological supervision, a special definition of acute hepatitis B was adopted in Poland in 2005, which facilitated separate registration of acute and chronic cases. Results A significantly increasing chronic hepatitis B incidence trend was observed in the population of Poland, with considerable increases in incidence rates for both men and women alike. The incidence rates for inhabitants of both urban and rural areas also showed an increasing tendency. Chronic hepatitis B occurred more frequently in men and in urban areas. For each of the five-year age groups encompassing patients between 20 and 54 years of age, the increase in the incidence rate proved to be significant. Conclusions The registered increase in the

  19. Diatoms as paleoecological indicators of environmental change in the Lake Czechowskie catchments ecosystem (Northern Tuchola Pinewoods, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Zawiska, Izabela; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka Maria; Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Słowiński, Michał; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    variation of the species composition. Planktonic diatoms dominate in all studied location, expecially Cyclotella comensis, Punciculata radiosa, Cyclotella praetermissa and Stephanodiscus parvus. The results of our research shows that diatom communities were sensitive to climatic changes, which are well reflected in lake environment conditions. The strongest shifts in species assemblagess were noted at the beginning of the Allerød, the Younger Dryas onset and the transition into the early Holocene. The Late Glacial climate fluctuations caused more abrupt lake environment changes than during the Early Holocene. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grant NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367). Literature: Bradbury, P., Cumming, B., Laird, K., 2002. A 1500-year record of climatic and environmental change in ElkLake, Minnesota III: measures of past primary productivity. Journal of Paleolimnology 27, 321-340 Wulf S., Ott F., Słowiński M., Noryśkiewicz A. M., Drager N., Martin-Puertas C., Czymzik M., Neugebauer I., Dulski P., Bourne A., Błaszkiewicz M., Brauer A. 2013. Tracing the Laacher See Tephra in the varved sediment record of the Trzechowskie palaeolake in central Northern Poland. Quaternary Science Reviews, s. 129-139.

  20. Science in science fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction, from Star Trek to Star Wars, is hugely popular and pupils will surely have encountered good and bad physics there, but do they really notice? Discussing the science implied in books and movies, such as in the use of transporters, can be a good way of getting students interested in physics.

  1. Holocene and Late Glacial varved sediments from Czechowskie Lake (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim; Słowiński, Michał; Dulski, Peter; Plessen, Birgit; Blaszkiewicz, Miroslaw

    2013-04-01

    Annual laminated (varved) sediment records are essential for detailed paleoclimate and environmental reconstructions as they function as a natural memory beyond instrumental datasets. In order to determine Holocene inter-annual and decadal-scale variability we investigated varved Lake Czechowskie (53°52' N/ 18°14' E, 108 m asl.), northern Poland. During two coring campaigns in 2009 and 2012 we recovered several long and short cores with the longest core reaching 14.5 m. Based on correlation with a biostratigraphically and tephrochronologically dated neighboring paleolake sediment record (Trzechowskie mire) the record extends back in to the Late Glacial. Lake Czechowskie is well suited for climate reconstruction as varves are almost entirely well (88 %) or poorly (5%) preserved. Only 7 % of the sediment profile are non-varved. Detailed investigations have been carried out for the last 2000 years of the sediment profile applying micro-facies analyses combined with X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) at 200 µm resolution and carbon and nitrogen analyses (TOC, TC, TN) at five-varveresolution. The chronology has been established by a multiple dating approach with 137Cs (for the last ca. 50 years), AMS 14C on plant macro remains (back to 2800 cal BP) and varve counting. Varve formation and preservation ceases at the beginning of the 20th century whereas the younger sediments are again faintly varved. Micro-facies analyses reveal that the sediment consists of biogenic calcite varves with intercalated diatom rich layers. Three distinct 100 to 200 years long periods of up to threefold thicker varves (approx. 1.4 to 5.0 mm/year) are predominantly caused by an increase in the diatom sub-layers and indicate distinct short-term climatic and environmental fluctuations. Possible reasons for these changes that occurred abruptly with only few years are either changes in lake water circulation or in nutrient supply to the lake. This study is a contribution to the Virtual

  2. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6... Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine AGENCY: United...

  3. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, People's Republic of China, Poland, Republic of Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777... South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007). On July 2, 2012, the... of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 77 FR...

  4. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777 (September 7, 2001). On August 9, 2007, the Department revoked the..., Poland, and Ukraine, 78 FR 41079 (July 9, 2013). Scope of the Orders The product covered by the orders is... Reinforcing Bars from South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007)....

  5. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  6. A unique variant of Poland-Mobius syndrome with dextrocardia and a 3q23 gain.

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Ross, J R; Tullius, T G; Levin, G S

    2013-07-01

    The combined Poland and Mobius syndrome occurs rarely and with a wide range of features. There is no consensus on the etiology of this syndrome; familial, sporadic cases and likely environmental insult cases have been reported. This sporadic case represents a unique variant in the spectrum of this syndrome.

  7. A unique case of right-sided Poland syndrome with true dextrocardia and total situs inversus.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Halil I; Yavuz, Taner; Altunrende, Sevil; Guven, Melih; Kılıcgun, Ali; Polat, Omer; Yesiller, Erkan; Duzenli, Selma

    2013-02-01

    Poland syndrome has been reported to be associated with true dextrocardia, but not with true situs inversus. In this report, we describe the first patient with total situs inversus in medical literature and try to highlight the syndrome's probable etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms in utero.

  8. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). PMID:26404592

  9. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). PMID:26404592

  10. Job Search Strategies of Recent University Graduates in Poland: Plans and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to highlight plans versus actual actions of university graduates in Poland aimed at finding employment. The paper also empirically verifies the impact of chosen job-seeking strategies on the success or failure of their transition to employment. The study was Polish-wide and included graduates of geography. It…

  11. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  12. To Teach the Holocaust in Poland: Understanding Teachers' Motivations to Engage the Painful Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Magdalena H.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the role of teachers in confronting traumatic, hidden wartime histories in communities traumatized by them. The study illuminates patterns based on field observations, emails, and surveys of 60 teachers who participated in a Holocaust teacher preparation program in Poland during the summer of 2010. The teachers surveyed…

  13. The Role of Urban Green Areas in the Education for Sustainable Development: Focus on Krakow, Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Aleksandra; Orlewicz-Musial, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Four selected green areas in Krakow (Poland) were compared, including: (1) the historical centre of Krakow with the green belt of Planty; (2) Blonia--grassland situated near the city centre; (3) the Park of Aviators, situated between the old part of Krakow and the industrial district of Nowa Huta and (4) the Nowa Huta Meadows. All these areas have…

  14. National Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplant Registry in Poland: Nationwide Internet Reporting System and Results.

    PubMed

    Łęczycka, A; Dudkiewicz, M; Czerwiński, J; Malanowski, P; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, J; Danielewicz, R

    2016-06-01

    History of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Poland begins in early 1980s; the 1st bone marrow allotransplantation was performed in 1983 in the Central Clinical Hospital of the Military Medical Academy in Warsaw. Following years brought the 1st autologous stem cell transplantations. Ten years later, unrelated bone marrow transplantation was performed for the 1st time by the team of the Hematology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation Unit in Katowice. Since then, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation developed to be standard procedure and one of the most important therapies applied in leukemia treatment. The number of allotransplantations in Poland has grown significantly in the past 2 decades, which generated new needs and problems. In 2005, based on a new Transplant Law, a National Transplants Registry was created. Its main role is to collect data (registration of procedures and follow-up data) related to every transplantation case for stem cells and tissues as well as for organs. We present statistics concerning stem cell transplantations performed in Poland, as collected in the National Transplants Registry in the years 2006-2014. There are 18 centers transplanting hematopoietic stem cells in Poland. The total number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations performed in 2006-2014 was 3,537, with allotransplantations from relatives accounted for 1,491 and from unrelated donors for 2,046. The main indication for allotransplantation in past years was acute leukemia. PMID:27496493

  15. [Education of women and changes in the family model in Poland].

    PubMed

    Koptas, G

    1988-05-01

    Trends in women's education in Poland for the period 1960-1986 are reviewed, with a focus on the status of women and the allocation of women's time. The author concludes that the rapid changes in women's educational status that have occurred are not matched by equally rapid changes in family behavior.

  16. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  17. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I.

    PubMed

    Magowska, Anita

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland. PMID:22790322

  18. Measurements with Reticle Micrometer Performed by a New Double Stars Observing Group from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskupski, Marcin; Banacka, Natalia; Cupryjak, Justyna; Malinowska, Malgorzata; Bujel, Kamil; Koltek, Zdzislaw; Mazur, Jaroslaw; Muskala, Marcin; Plotkowski, Lukasz; Prowans, Barlomiej; Szkaplewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of 19 double stars using a reticle micrometer eyepiece are reported. The observational program was held in spring and summer of 2015 as an extended workshop for a new double stars observing group from Szczecin, Poland. The goal of the program was to learn how to measure position angle and separation using a reticle micrometer eyepiece.

  19. Determinants of Higher Education Choices and Student Satisfaction: The Case of Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sojkin, Bogdan; Bartkowiak, Pawel; Skuza, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic changes in tertiary education that were observed in Poland for the last 20 years transformed the Polish educational market and led to the immense expansion of educational institutions. The rapid increase in the number of students that continued until 2006 is however over and Polish universities have begun to compete for their clients.…

  20. Adult Educators: An Example of the New Approach to Lifelong Learning in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    This article presents reflections arising from a study on adult learning professions in Poland. Changes in the socio-political and legal context created phenomena that have occurred in the adult education systems, mechanisms and approaches. The article focuses on the impact of those processes on a specific professional group--adult educators.…

  1. Entrepreneurial Management Education Needs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabic, Marina; Vlajcic, Davor; Novak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to take the emergence of the knowledge mobilization as an opportunity to develop an understanding of needs for catching up appropriate knowledge application in SMEs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the UK. It draws upon the "frame mobilization" literature, which illuminates the role that acts…

  2. Poland's syndrome and head-and-neck tumour: an unusual association causing a reconstruction dilemma.

    PubMed

    Gerlinger, Imre; Járai, Tamás; Lujber, László; Pytel, József

    2007-05-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. The literature data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory concerning its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. Relationships have been demonstrated between tumours and Poland's syndrome and also between tumours and other developmental defects. The explanation may lie in abnormal homeobox and tumour suppressor genes. This paper presents the first literature report of a malignant tonsillo-lingual tumour with metastatic neck involvement in a patient with partial Poland's sequence. In consequence of the aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, an alternative (a free radical forearm flap) to the routine head-and-neck reconstruction (pedicled pectoralis major flap) was necessitated following tumour excision and radical neck dissection. This case report surveys the diagnostic and therapeutic considerations when previously unnoticed Poland's syndrome is diagnosed in a patient with head-and-neck cancer. One year following major head-and-neck surgery, our patient is tumour-free.

  3. Equity in an Educational Boom: Lessons from the Expansion and Marketisation of Tertiary Schooling in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Rok, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how the probability of enrolment in tertiary schools has evolved for different social groups in Poland during the period of the educational boom. It also analyses how the socio-economic status influences the choices between full-time and part-time studies (the latter being of relatively low quality), and the probability of…

  4. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... persons can obtain information on this matter by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205- 1810... both the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 39254, July 2... bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Poland, and Ukraine to promote administrative efficiency in...

  5. National Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplant Registry in Poland: Nationwide Internet Reporting System and Results.

    PubMed

    Łęczycka, A; Dudkiewicz, M; Czerwiński, J; Malanowski, P; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, J; Danielewicz, R

    2016-06-01

    History of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Poland begins in early 1980s; the 1st bone marrow allotransplantation was performed in 1983 in the Central Clinical Hospital of the Military Medical Academy in Warsaw. Following years brought the 1st autologous stem cell transplantations. Ten years later, unrelated bone marrow transplantation was performed for the 1st time by the team of the Hematology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation Unit in Katowice. Since then, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation developed to be standard procedure and one of the most important therapies applied in leukemia treatment. The number of allotransplantations in Poland has grown significantly in the past 2 decades, which generated new needs and problems. In 2005, based on a new Transplant Law, a National Transplants Registry was created. Its main role is to collect data (registration of procedures and follow-up data) related to every transplantation case for stem cells and tissues as well as for organs. We present statistics concerning stem cell transplantations performed in Poland, as collected in the National Transplants Registry in the years 2006-2014. There are 18 centers transplanting hematopoietic stem cells in Poland. The total number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations performed in 2006-2014 was 3,537, with allotransplantations from relatives accounted for 1,491 and from unrelated donors for 2,046. The main indication for allotransplantation in past years was acute leukemia.

  6. Purity and Epidemic Danger in German Occupied Poland during the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Explores the efforts of the German public-health authorities to cleanse occupied areas of formerly Russian Poland of pathogenic hazards during the First World War. The program used sanitary measures and educational programs to encourage a more hygienic lifestyle. Originally sympathetic to the Jewish population, it grew increasingly anti-semitic.…

  7. Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

  8. The Changing Role of Students' Representation in Poland: An Historical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Pinheiro, Rómulo; Smuzewska, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Student representation in Poland has a relatively short but turbulent history. This article offers an historical appraisal of the development of student representation at the national level in the context of rapid and deep structural changes in Polish higher education. Based on a desktop analysis of official documentation, legislation, ideological…

  9. Report on the Vocational Education and Training System in Poland. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Observatory of Poland, Warsaw.

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in Poland has nine chapters. Chapter 1 presents the socioeconomic situation; explains reasons for different rates of development in particular regions; and presents trends in job creation and rise and fall in unemployment. Chapter 2 deals with changes in the VET field in these areas: VET's…

  10. Reform and Development of Higher Education in Europe: France, The Netherlands, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document examines reform and development of higher education in France, Poland, and the Netherlands. Part I examines facets of higher education in France including the tasks of the universities: research, teaching, and development of higher training and continuing education; present structures of French universities; increase in student…

  11. Health Care and Social Services in the Peoples Republic of Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    Health care and social services in Poland are affected by the culture context of geography, demography, and culturally induced expansion in historical periods. Health and financing of health services are issues with significant political ramifications and, despite egalitarian ideology, there is differential access to care and services. The…

  12. The Admission and Placement of Students from the Republic of Poland. A Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silny, Josef; And Others

    This volume is designed to be a comprehensive description of the Polish educational system as it existed under the communist regime, and of the radical changes currently taking place, as well as of possible future trends. Chapter 1 describes Poland's history, geography, and population. Chapter 2 describes the background and structure of its…

  13. Secondary Education in Poland. Guide to Secondary Education in Europe Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piwowarski, Rafal

    This publication contains a brief description of secondary education in Poland. The first section provides an overview of the societal and political context in which the educational system exists. The second section discusses current educational issues, including policy formation, finance, the school role in the community, administration and…

  14. Directions of Change in the System of Educational Administration in the Republic of Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Miroslaw

    This paper argues that changes in educational administration in Poland must be seen in the context of the enormous social and political changes that have occurred in that country in recent years. Centralized bureaucratic planning of social and economic programs has been discarded. The changes have impacted the system of educational administration…

  15. New Tasks for Teachers of English in Poland in Light of Social, Economic, and Political Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenhalt, Ewa

    The weakness of English and other language instruction in Poland is due largely to the political system after World War II. Political and economic change and gradual recognition of the importance of English have recently increased rapidly. Expanded contact with the West calls for immediate qualitative and quantitative changes in English language…

  16. A Health Education Program in Poland from the Perspective of Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopacz, Marek S.

    2008-01-01

    Poland subscribes to an abstinence-only model of reproductive health education called "Education for Life in the Family." The aim of this study was to determine if the perceptions of adolescent mothers could be used to improve delivery of the Polish model of education. This study was conducted using focus group interviews with fourteen adolescent…

  17. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapiennik, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in Poland is estimated at 47.8/10,000 among the population aged over 15 years. Although progress has recently been documented in the development of more positive attitudes toward integration of people with disabilities in society, social distance toward those with ID is persistent. Several Acts of…

  18. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branska, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    In Poland centre-based education and care for children from birth to the age of entry into compulsory school education, i.e. 7 years, is provided in creches ("zlobki") for children aged 0-3 years and in nursery schools ("przedszkola") for children from 3 years of age to the age of entry into primary school. Creches are part of the healthcare…

  19. Experiential Learning of History through Youth Journeys to Poland: Israeli Jewish Youth and the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romi, Shlomo; Lev, Michal

    2007-01-01

    National history and collective memory and their impact on adolescents' knowledge and attitudes are the topic of this article. A follow-up study, it examines the long-term impact of a journey to historical monuments. Israeli Jewish high-school students have the option of experiential study, visiting cities and death camps in Poland. The first…

  20. From System Expansion to System Contraction: Access to Higher Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Poland is changing due to the demography of smaller cohorts of potential students. Following a demand-driven educational expansion after the collapse of communism in 1989, the higher education system is now contracting. Such expansion/contraction and growth/decline in European higher education has rarely been…

  1. The Effects of Delaying Tracking in Secondary School: Evidence from the 1999 Education Reform in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowski, Maciej; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Porta, Emilio Ernesto; Wisniewski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Delaying tracking, extending students' exposure to a general academic education and increasing their time on task on basic competences (reading, mathematics) could improve academic outcomes. To test the hypothesis that delayed vocational streaming improves academic outcomes, this paper analyzes Poland's significant improvements in international…

  2. Determinants and Options in the Development of Higher Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozefowicz, Adam; Kluczynski, Jan

    Trends affecting the future development of higher education in Poland are considered. It is projected that the demographic pool of higher education enrollment will in 1995-2000 return to a level roughly comparable with the peak pressures for college entry in the years 1971-75. It is suggested that demographic changes alone can explain but a…

  3. Civic Education in Emerging Democracies: Lessons from Post-Communist Poland and Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kerri

    2010-01-01

    The 1999 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education Study revealed that most countries having recently undergone political and social transformations had lower civic knowledge scores than more stable nations. However, Poland, which instituted policies aimed at educating citizens for democratic…

  4. The New Biology in Poland after the Second World War: Polish Lysenkoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deJong-Lambert, William

    2009-01-01

    Genetic research was banned in the Polish People's Republic from 1949 to 1956 as a result of the activities of Trofim D. Lysenko, a pseudo-biologist in the Soviet Union. This article examines the impact upon education in biology in Poland, including textbook revision, curriculum reform and revised understandings of the purpose of scientific…

  5. Project on School Staff Health Promotion in Poland: The First Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woynarowska-Soldan, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff health promotion carried out within the framework of the health-promoting school (HPS) network in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: The project was implemented in 2012 in…

  6. The Impact of Poland's 1990 Bill on Schools of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article is the product of the writer's deliberations about the impact of Poland's 1990 Bill on Schools of Higher Education using an information technology theoretical model consisting of three parts: (1) participation; (2) feedback; and (3) partnership. The main findings of the investigation revealed that: (1) there is wide participation in…

  7. The Meaning of Working among Professional Employees in Germany, Poland and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre; Borchert, Margret; Rozanski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an empirical study of the meaning of working, individual level work outcomes, and job and career satisfaction, among professional level employees in business organizations in Russia, Poland, and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework for the study was based on…

  8. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I.

    PubMed

    Magowska, Anita

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland.

  9. Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasmas Among Men with NGU in Upper Silesia, Poland. Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Ekiel, Alicja; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Kłuciński, Piotr; Smolec, Dominika; Wiechuła, Barbara; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Martirosian, Gayane

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in men with NGU in Upper Silesia (Poland) was studied. Mycoplasmas were detected in 36.7% men (Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma genitalium were found in 30% and 16.7% respectively). Urealyticum urealyticum was not detected. We suggest including M. genitalium in the diagnostic scheme for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). PMID:27281999

  10. Matching Supply with Demand: Higher Education and the Labor Market. A Comparison of Kenya and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, R. Rees; And Others

    Conditions in Kenya and Poland concerning the labor market and educational preparation for jobs are discussed, along with public policy. In the decade of the 1980s, both nations reached saturation in the labor market and underwent changes in the demand for university-trained workers. Kenya needed highly trained personnel to replace expatriates…

  11. Composition and origin of coalbed gases in the Lower Silesian basin, southwest Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotarba, M.J.; Rice, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    Coalbed gases in the Lower Silesian Coal Basin (LSCB) of Poland are highly variable in both their molecular and stable isotope compositions. Geochemical indices and stable isotope ratios vary within the following ranges: hydrocarbon (CHC) index CHC = CH4/(C2H6+C3H8) from 1.1 to 5825, wet gas (C2+) index C2+ = (C2H6+ C3H8+ C4H10+ C5H12) / (CH4+ C2H6+ C3H8+ C4H10+ C5H12) 100 (%) from 0.0 to 48.3%, CO2-CH4 (CDMI) index CDMI = CO2/ (CO2+ CH4) 100 (%) from 0.1 to 99.9%, ??13C(CH4) from -66.1 to -24.6%o, ??D(CH4) from -266 to -117%o, ??13C(C2H6) from -27.8 to -22.8%o, and ??13C(CO2) from -26.6 to 16.8%o. Isotopic studies reveal the presence of 3 genetic types of natural gases: thermogenic (CH4, higher gaseous hydrocarbons, and CO2), endogenic CO2, and microbial CH4 and CO2. Thermogenic gases resulted from coalification processes, which were probably completed by Late Carboniferous and Early Permian time. Endogenic CO2 migrated along the deep-seated faults from upper mantle and/or magma chambers. Minor volumes of microbial CH4 and CO2 occur at shallow depths close to the abandoned mine workings. "Late-stage" microbial processes have commenced in the Upper Cretaceous and are probably active at present. However, depth-related isotopic fractionation which has resulted from physical and physicochemical (e.g. diffusion and adsorption/desorption) processes during gas migration cannot be neglected. The strongest rock and gas outbursts occur only in those parts of coal deposits of the LSCB which are dominated by large amounts of endogenic CO2. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Model Related Estimates of time dependent quantiles of peak flows - case study for selected catchments in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupczewski, Witold G.; Bogdanowich, Ewa; Debele, Sisay

    2016-04-01

    different candidate models. A conservative assessment of the return period under non-stationarity is used as the basis of our actual best knowledge. The methods described are applied to selected catchments in Poland. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project CHIHE (Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Extremes), carried out in the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, funded by Norway Grants (contract No. Pol-Nor/196243/80/2013). The climate, water level and flow data were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Poland.

  13. Observing high flow with the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: the case study from upper Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar; Slopek, Jacek; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments of the HydroProg system (research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 of the National Science Centre of Poland), which aims to issue warnings against floods, are associated with predicting inundation, and hence there is a need for verifying the prognoses of overbank flow extent. The progress in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology causes that UAVs are now easily available and - provided formal flight requirements are fulfilled - can be used for observing numerous features of the natural environment. This intrinsically concerns hydrological applications in which dynamics is a key issue. Hence, in order to observe true extent of water during flood, UAV can be used on demand. However, unanswered is the problem of the minimum size, understood in terms of flooded area, of water increment which is detectable when inferred from the orthophoto image. The present study aims to address the above-mentioned problem by applying the small-sample statistical inference methods to a sample of nine study sites observed during five UAV observational campaigns in the vicinity of the gauge in Gorzuchow, situated along the Scinawka river (SW Poland). Since November 2012 we have carried our regular flights using the swinglet CAM fixed-wing UAV, and the areas adjacent to the gauge itself have been monitored in detail. We produced a series high-resolution orthotphoto images, corresponding to low-, normal- and high-flow situations. We sketched shapes of terrain covered by water on a basis of the detailed analysis of the ortophoto images, and the judgment was supported by our geomorphological knowledge about the channel characteristics. The resulting data were subsequently presented as percentages, and later a logarithm transformation was applied. The assumptions of Student's t-test were found to be fulfilled, and thus we used the t-test and its Bootstrap version to detect significant increments of water, inside or outside the channel. We explicitly identified the

  14. Relationships between individualism-collectivism, gender, and direct or indirect aggression: a study in China, Poland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Gordon; Zhang, Xiaoying; Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Haas, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Direct and indirect aggression were studied in college students from China (women n=122; men n=97), a highly collectivistic culture; the US (women n=137; men n=136), a highly individualistic culture; and Poland (women n=105; men n=119), a culture with intermediate levels of collectivism and individualism. Consistent with a hypothesis derived from national differences in relative levels of collectivism and individualism, both direct and indirect aggression were higher in the US than in Poland and higher in Poland than in China. The theoretical implication of these results and directions for future research were discussed.

  15. [Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland--the aim and current experiences].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries, where smoking is widely spread and smoking-induced diseases have become a significant health and socio-economic issue. Since 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in cooperation with partner organizations have been working on the implementation of the global control system known as the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS). This system expands the opportunities of individual countries in the area of designing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive anti-tobacco programs. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) has been incorporated into the GTSS system in 2007. The aim of the work is to explain and promote the objectives of GATS and the process of its implementation in Poland based on current experiences of the WHO Country Office for Poland. GATS concentrates on monitoring of tobacco use by adults (aged over 15 years). It is a representative, national survey of households, standardized on a global scale. GATS is supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies as a part of the Bloomberg Global Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Two executive agencies, the M. Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw and the Warsaw Medical University, have been assigned to implement the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. The prepatory works for pre-testing and further stages of the survey implementation are currently under the final phase. Data gathered by GATS will enable us to learn more about the use of tobacco by the adult population in Poland. They will also indicate the most effective methods of the tobacco control in our country. PMID:19746887

  16. [Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland--the aim and current experiences].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries, where smoking is widely spread and smoking-induced diseases have become a significant health and socio-economic issue. Since 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in cooperation with partner organizations have been working on the implementation of the global control system known as the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS). This system expands the opportunities of individual countries in the area of designing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive anti-tobacco programs. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) has been incorporated into the GTSS system in 2007. The aim of the work is to explain and promote the objectives of GATS and the process of its implementation in Poland based on current experiences of the WHO Country Office for Poland. GATS concentrates on monitoring of tobacco use by adults (aged over 15 years). It is a representative, national survey of households, standardized on a global scale. GATS is supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies as a part of the Bloomberg Global Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Two executive agencies, the M. Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw and the Warsaw Medical University, have been assigned to implement the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. The prepatory works for pre-testing and further stages of the survey implementation are currently under the final phase. Data gathered by GATS will enable us to learn more about the use of tobacco by the adult population in Poland. They will also indicate the most effective methods of the tobacco control in our country.

  17. Influence of the meteorological parameters on CFCs and SF6 concentration in the air of Krakow, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewski, Jarosław; Najman, Joanna; Śliwka, Ireneusz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Rosiek, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    authors wish to acknowledge Prof. R. Weiss from Scripts Oceanography Institute (CA, USA) for preparing of the CFC's primary standard (SIO1993) and Dr M. Maiss from Max-Planck Institute (Germany) for SF6 calibration. Autors also thanks Prof. S. O'Doherty from University of Bristol (England) and Prof K. Rozanski from AGH University of Krakow (Poland) for calibration of the CFC's standard (SIO2005). The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) in the InGOS project under grant agreement n° 284274. The project is financed by the Polish National Science Center on the basis of Decision No. DEC-2011/01/N/ST10/07621. References: [1] Prinn R.G. et al., A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE. J.Geophys.Res. 105(D14), pp 17751 - 17792, 2000; [2] Śliwka I., et al., Long-Term Measurements of CFCs and SF6 Concentration in Air, Polish J. of Environ. Stud. Vol. 19, No. 4, 811-815, 2010;

  18. [Cancer risk in asbestos-cement industry workers in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W

    1997-01-01

    A cohort study was carried out in order to evaluate the cancer risk in the asbestos-cement industry workers. The cohort consisted of workers employed in four asbestos-cement plants. One of those plants was established in 1924, the other three in the 1960s and 1970s. Currently only two of these plants continue their production. The plants used mainly chrysotile asbestos as well as crocidolite and amosite. Amphibolite asbestos was used before the mid-nineteen eighties in production of pressure pipes utilising about 15% of the total quantity of asbestos used. The measurements of the asbestos fibre concentration at work-sites have been taken occasionally since the mid 1980s, thus, the determination of a cumulative dose for individual persons in the cohort and the evaluation of the dose-effect relationship were not feasible. It could only be supposed that the concentrations at the preparatory work-site during first years of the plants' operation accounted for several tens fibres/cm3 in the production that employed the dry method. The cohort consisted of workers employed in the plant for at least three months between beginning of the plant during the post-war period, and 1980, that is during the period when amphibolite asbestos was in use. The retrospective observation was completed on 31 December 1991. The analysis of the death risk by causes was based on a standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) calculated using the person-years method. Statistical significance of SMRs was assessed by means of Poisson distribution one-sided test. The general population of Poland was used as the reference population to estimate the death risk. The cohort comprised 4,712 persons (3,563 males and 1,149 females). Of this number 4,500 persons (3,405 males and 1,095 females) were followed. The cohort availability were 95.5%. Male mortality, both total (473 deaths; SMR = 83) and due to malignant neoplasms (108 deaths; SMR = 86) was lower than in the general population. An excess of deaths from

  19. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Russia; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia that are alleged to be sold in the United States...

  20. Science teaching scholarship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    Physics research projects undertaken by secondary or high school students are once again being sought for consideration in the annual international competition entitled `First step to the Nobel Prize in physics'. This, the eighth in the series, is being organized by the Institute of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences for the academic year 1999/2000, and as in previous years the competition is open to all secondary (high) school students regardless of country, type of school, sex, nationality etc. The only conditions are that the school must not be a university college and the participant's age should not exceed 20 years on 31 March 2000 (the deadline for competition entries). There are no restrictions on the subject matter of papers, their level, methods applied etc but they must have a research character and deal with physics topics or topics directly related to physics. Participation in the competition does not need any agreement from the candidate's school or educational authorities: the students must conduct their research in the most appropriate way for them. More than one paper can be submitted by a participant but each paper must have only one author; papers must not exceed 25 typed pages in length. The winners do not receive financial prizes or gifts but instead are invited to undertake a month's research work at the Polish Institute of Physics, with their expenses (except travel) paid for by the competition organizers. Entries should be sent by the competition deadline to Mrs M E Gorzkowska, Secretary of the First Step, Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL 02-668 Warszawa, Poland. All those who receive an award will have their papers published in the competition proceedings. Information on the competition can be found in the pub/competitions subdirectory of the anonymous section of the server ftp.ifpan.edu.pl (see also nobelprizes.com/firstep/).

  1. Length and terms of occurrence of thermal seasons in Poland - are any changes observed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choryński, Adam; Graczyk, Dariusz; Szwed, Małgorzata

    2014-05-01

    While thinking of seasons, one mostly has in mind astronomical seasons which are very often mentioned by media. These are set using Sun's position above the equator and the tropics. Seasons defined by these manners very frequently do not match with prevailing climatic conditions in Poland. Therefore, especially in scientific research, different ways of setting the beginning and ending of seasons in Poland are employed. Climatic seasons are used very broadly. They divide the year into four parts of almost equal duration. Nevertheless, for Poland, this method is also not fully representative, because it does not take into account regional differentiation of climatic conditions. More objective criteria are used in phenological seasons, where their duration is set by, for example the terms of florescence and maturation of plants. In this research, thermal criterion is applied for setting the duration of seasons - terms of persistent exceedances of characteristic thresholds of mean daily air temperature (5 degrees C for autumn and spring, 0 degrees C for winter and 15 degrees C for summer). The climate of Poland is characterised by large long-term variability of thermal conditions. It results in the possibility of evident differences in the length and terms of seasons beginning and ending between years. The winter season 2012/2013 in Poland was exceptionally long, and very low temperatures occurred during the whole March, even in the first decade of April in some parts of the country. At the same year at the end of April temperatures exceeded 20 degrees C (summer conditions). It resulted in another wide discussion on evident changes of length or even fading of some seasons in the media. Based on meteorological data from 10 Polish meteorological stations, that represent different regions of the country, authors are researching how the length of thermal seasons changed between years 1951 and 2013 in Poland. The length of seasons in three multiannual periods (1951

  2. Archival data on wild food plants used in Poland in 1948

    PubMed Central

    Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2008-01-01

    Background In 1948, Professor Józef Gajek initiated a detailed census of the wild edible plants used in Poland. The questionnaires were collected by correspondents of the Polish Folklore Society in 95 localities throughout Poland. A major part of these archival materials, including a substantial collection of herbarium specimens, had not undergone thorough analysis prior to this study, which presents a quantitative analysis of this archival set of data. Methods Herbarium specimens were identified and a database was created. Results Ninety-eight taxa identified to genus or species level, including 71 botanical species, identified using herbarium specimens, were found. On average only 11 edible plant species per locality were listed, the longest list included 39 species. No correlation between latitude and the number of edible species was found, whereas there was small but significant correlation with the longitude. Fruits were the most frequently collected part of plants. Most plants were primarily collected by women and children. Children both helped parents to collect wild fruits and also ate many species raw, which were not consumed by adults, but had often been eaten in the past. Eighteen of the taxa had not been reported in a recent comprehensive review of edible plants of Poland. Stratiotes aloides, used as a famine vegetable in the Łódź region, has never been reported as edible in any ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion The results undermine the conclusions of a recent comprehensive review of edible plants of Poland, which stated that many more wild edible plants have been collected in the Carpathians than in lowland Poland. However such results were shown to be caused by the substantially larger number of ethnographic studies undertaken in the Carpathians. In fact, large numbers of edible plant species were collected in the mid-20th century in a few regions, particularly along the eastern border, in the Carpathians and in communities originating from

  3. Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

  4. Science Anxiety and Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffrey V.; Greenburg, Sharon L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses origins and nature of science anxiety and describes the Science Anxiety Clinic, outlining techniques used at the clinic. Techniques include science skills training and psychological interventions. Comments on the connection between science anxiety and cognitive processes in science learning. (Author/JN)

  5. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  6. History of human activity in last 800 years reconstructed from combined archive data and high-resolution analyses of varved lake sediments from Lake Czechowskie, Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Ott, Florian; Obremska, Milena; Kaczmarek, Halina; Theuerkauf, Martin; Wulf, Sabine; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to reconstruct human and landscape development in the Tuchola Pinewoods (Northern Poland) during the last 800 years. We apply an approach that combines historic maps and documents with pollen data. Pollen data were obtained from varved lake sediments at a resolution of 5 years. The chronology of the sediment record is based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity concentration measurements and tephrochronology (Askja AD 1875). We applied the REVEALS model to translate pollen percentage data into regional plant abundances. The interpretation of the pollen record is furthermore based on pollen accumulation rate data. The pollen record and historic documents show similar trends in vegetation development. During the first phase (AD 1200-1412), the Lake Czechowskie area was still largely forested with Quercus, Carpinus and Pinus forests. Vegetation was more open during the second phase (AD 1412-1776), and reached maximum openness during the third phase (AD 1776-1905). Furthermore, intensified forest management led to a transformation from mixed to pine dominated forests during this period. Since the early 20th century, the forest cover increased again with dominance of the Scots pine in the stand. While pollen and historic data show similar trends, they differ substantially in the degree of openness during the four phases with pollen data commonly suggesting more open conditions. We discuss potential causes for this discrepancy, which include unsuitable parameters settings in REVEALS and unknown changes in forest structure. Using pollen accumulation data as a third proxy record we aim to identify the most probable causes. Finally, we discuss the observed vegetation change in relation the socio-economic development of the area. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis - ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre, Poland (grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10

  7. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  8. Soapy Science. Teaching Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science and math activity that involves bubbles, shapes, colors, and solid geometry. Students build geometric shapes with soda straws and submerge the shapes in soapy water, allowing them to review basic geometry concepts, test hypotheses, and learn about other concepts such as diffraction, interference colors, and evaporation. (TJQ)

  9. National programme of official control of animal feedingstuffs under surveillance of veterinary inspection in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, K

    2004-01-01

    Poland as a new EC country is obliged in agree with Directive 95/53/EC to drawn up one, coherent and coordinated national programme of official inspection, irrespective of the organisational structure, and the number of inspection authorities in a country. Taking these facts into account the author has worked out the Polish National Programme of an official control conducted by the Veterinary Inspection in the field of animal feedingstuffs sector in Poland. The objective of the programme is to lay down the substantive scope of official inspections and laboratory control testing of animal feedingstuffs, appropriate for the surveillance exercised by the Veterinary Inspection. The programme is under implementation process which has begun in 2004. PMID:15478870

  10. [Stroke mortality in Poland--role of observational studies based on computer databases].

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Maciej

    2005-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and remains one of the major public health problems. Most European countries have experienced declines in stroke mortality in contrast to central and eastern European countries including Poland. The World Health Organization Data Bank is an invaluable source of information especially for mortality trends. Stroke mortality in Poland and some problems with accuracy of ICD coding for the identification of patients with acute stroke are discussed. Computerized databases are increasingly being used to identify patients with acute stroke for epidemiological, quality of care, and cost studies. More accurate methods of collecting and analysis of the data should be implemented to gain more information from these bases. PMID:16425791

  11. Evaluation of bulk deposition in protected woodland area in western Poland.

    PubMed

    Walna, Barbara; Kurzyca, Iwona

    2007-08-01

    Research on precipitation carried out systematically at the University station at Jeziory in the Wielkopolski National Park (western Poland) allowed the determination of pollutants deposited with precipitation in this forest ecosystem. During 13 years of study, the pH of precipitation was found to persist at a low level (4.33 on average), which resulted a substantial deposition of H(+). Values of acidifying and basic ions deposited in this area were determined and compared with the respective figures obtained at selected EMEP stations studying background pollution, the means for Poland, and areas subjected to considerable human impact. The use of the critical load function made it possible to establish that the S and N deposition for 2002-2005 were below its line.

  12. Quality management system in radiotherapy in the light of regulations applicable in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bogusz-Czerniewicz, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The need to establish conditions for safe irradiation was noted in Poland back in 1986 in the Atomic Law, but for over 16 years no regulations regarding this aspect were passed. The radiological incident in Bialystok (Poland) in 2001 undeniably accelerated the implementation of new legal regulations. Nevertheless, in the absence of national guidelines until 2002, most health care institutions resorted to the quality management system (QMS) model proposed by the ISO norm 9001:2000. Eventually, practice proved the theory and the aforementioned model was also implemented into Polish acts of law defining basic requirements for QMS in radiotherapy. The aim of this work is to review current national regulations regarding QMS in radiotherapy, in particular those referring to standard procedures, the establishment of a commission for procedures and performance of external and internal clinical audits in oncological radiotherapy, as well as to present the process of their implementation into the practice of health care institutions.

  13. [Public health in Poland before World War II--lesson learned].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the most important legal acts regulating the activities of the institutions of public health in interwar period in Poland. Particular attention was paid to the Ministry of Public Health, municipal boards, the Office of the Extraordinary Commissioner for Combating Epidemics and the National Institute of Hygiene. The substantive scope of the Basic Sanitary Act of 19 July 1919 was presented. The scope of the Act was compared with 10 essential public health services as defined in 1994 in the U.S.A. A significant compatibility of views on public health in the past and present-day was reported. It was recalled that after World War II in Poland public health issues have been scattered into numerous acts. It was proposed to regard the Basic Sanitary Act as a hint when creating a present, a comprehensive law on the public health system.

  14. Industrial sources of CO 2 emissions in Poland in the light of underground storage possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarkowski, Radosław

    2005-07-01

    Industrial sectors responsible for large part of CO 2 emissions in Poland are characterized from the point of view of possibilities of sequestration of this gas by underground storage. On the basis of official statistics and data obtained from local administration and individual plants, attempt was made to evaluate the magnitude of emissions from selected categories, sub-categories and sectors of the industry (in accordance with methodology of IPCC), concentration of CO 2 in combustion gases and those emitted by industry, and to identify major point sources of emission of this gas in Poland. A special attention was paid to those sectors of industry that may be the first to act as a source of carbon dioxide for sequestration by underground storage in the nearest future. To cite this article: R. Tarkowski, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  15. [Specialisation programme in health promotion and health education in Poland versus core competencies in these fields].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    Development of competent workforce is critical for health promotion capacity, performance and effectiveness. One track of validated education in this field in Poland is so called specialist training which is now to be altered. This paper reports broad context for specialist health promotion and health education training in Poland. Reminds the scope of health promotion and health education in international dimension. Describes internal Polish circumstances--officially recognized "health promoter" occupation and rules of possessing a granted diploma of specialist in health promotion and health education (kind of accreditation). Considers international context too--some existing list of competencies in public health, health education (USA) and health promotion, including Galway Consensus Statement. Some advantages and disadvantages of competencies formulating are mentioned. Finally, the consultation process and adequate time framework is recommended for process of development of new specialist postgraduate training programme in health promotion and health education.

  16. Manganese-induced Parkinsonism among ephedrone users and drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Kołodziejczyk, Iwona; Gajda, Tomasz; Majkowska-Zwolińska, Beata; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    A recent government's prohibition policy in Poland was partially successful with a reduction of the synthetic drugs market and a decrease in drug-related poisoning mortality rates. However, a new threatening trend is observed. There are a growing number of individuals in Poland and other European countries using legal pharmaceuticals containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to produce stimulants. This case report describes a history of a male patient with polysubstance dependence who administered self-designed ephedrone derived from Sudafed using potassium permanganate. He revealed significant clinical symptoms of manganese-induced parkinsonism. No effective treatment could be recommended. Awareness of this severe neurological and social consequences should lead to prevention efforts including educational programs and initiatives reducing availability of the legal medications containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. More research is needed to enhance our knowledge about manganism and potential treatment regimens.

  17. Anti-alcohol Posters in Poland, 1945-1989: Diverse Meanings, Uncertain Effects

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Dutka, Wojciech; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    We provide a historical study of the anti-alcohol public health poster in Poland between 1948 and 1990. Our case study illuminates public health policies under communism, with the state as the dominant force in health communication. Poland has a distinctive history of poster art, moving from a Stalinist phase of socialist realism to the diverse styles of the later Polish School. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of 213 posters establishes the major themes and differentiates community approaches, which depict the drinker as a social or political deviant, from those emphasizing individual risk. Medical issues were a minor theme, reflecting public policies geared more toward confinement than treatment. However, Polish School artists used metaphor and ambiguity, and references to the contested cultural symbolism of drink, to complicate and subvert the narrow propaganda intent. Thus, although apparently unsuccessful in restraining overall consumption, these posters offer valuable lessons for policymakers on the use of visual media in health campaigns. PMID:20516371

  18. The Welfare of Bears in Zoos: A Case Study of Poland.

    PubMed

    Maślak, Robert; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Bowles, David; Paśko, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of captive bears became a big issue of concern in Poland when a case of a bear being ill-treated became a high-profile case in the media. This case created a challenge to verify, study, and understand the main problems associated with bear keeping so that zoos could significantly improve the conditions in which they keep bears or ensure they keep bears at the minimum required standards. The results presented here are from 1 of the few countrywide studies of captive bear conditions conducted in all the captive institutions in Poland that keep bears. Thirteen institutions kept bears at the time of the study (2007-2009), including 54 individuals of 5 species. Major welfare problems were identified, and the results have been used to challenge zoos to address the changes required and focus the government's attention on areas that require legislative improvement.

  19. First report of two asymptomatic cases of human infection with Babesia microti (Franca, 1910) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Radkowski, Marek; Pancewicz, Sławomir A; Zajkowska, Joanna; Siński, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Human infection by Babesia microti has been recognized as an emerging zoonosis with important public health implications worldwide. In Europe the reported cases of human babesiosis have been attributed mostly to B. divergens infection, with only sporadic cases of the disease caused by B. microti or B. venatorum. This study, based on molecular methods (PCR, R-T PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis), reveals for the first time in Poland, asymptomatic infection with . microti in immunocompetent healthy individuals working in forest ecosystems. Of the 58 professional foresters examined, two (3.4%) were identified as B. microti-positive by specific PCR. The results of this study also provide strong evidence that in eastern Poland, where tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are endemic, there is a potential risk of acquiring human babesiosis due to zoonotic B. microti parasites commonly found in rodents and I. ricinus ticks. The potential public health importance of this finding is discussed. PMID:25780828

  20. Anti-alcohol posters in Poland, 1945-1989: diverse meanings, uncertain effects.

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Martin; Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Dutka, Wojciech; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-11-01

    We provide a historical study of the anti-alcohol public health poster in Poland between 1948 and 1990. Our case study illuminates public health policies under communism, with the state as the dominant force in health communication. Poland has a distinctive history of poster art, moving from a Stalinist phase of socialist realism to the diverse styles of the later Polish School. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of 213 posters establishes the major themes and differentiates community approaches, which depict the drinker as a social or political deviant, from those emphasizing individual risk. Medical issues were a minor theme, reflecting public policies geared more toward confinement than treatment. However, Polish School artists used metaphor and ambiguity, and references to the contested cultural symbolism of drink, to complicate and subvert the narrow propaganda intent. Thus, although apparently unsuccessful in restraining overall consumption, these posters offer valuable lessons for policymakers on the use of visual media in health campaigns.

  1. Women's emancipation and socialsm: the case of the People's Republic of Poland.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, M

    1976-01-01

    Determinants of occupational position in Poland, as elsewhere, include the socialization process, access to education, and the employment structure. The socialization process includes the domestic pattern of division of labor, occupational models encountered in person and in the various media, and parental and social pressures, including vocational counseling. Ecuational access is a critical determinant of the extent and type of participation in the labor force as well as attitudes toward work. Although Poland has made major attempts to improve the socialization process and acces by type of program, disparties are still encountered in pay received for similar work, and for work in positions that cannot be explained by differences in productivity or education. Employment policies being undertaken or considered include measures to improve working conditions and occupational position, to socialize a larger number of "domestic" tasks, and to provide more flexibility via part-time work and longer maternity leaves.

  2. Quality management system in radiotherapy in the light of regulations applicable in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The need to establish conditions for safe irradiation was noted in Poland back in 1986 in the Atomic Law, but for over 16 years no regulations regarding this aspect were passed. The radiological incident in Bialystok (Poland) in 2001 undeniably accelerated the implementation of new legal regulations. Nevertheless, in the absence of national guidelines until 2002, most health care institutions resorted to the quality management system (QMS) model proposed by the ISO norm 9001:2000. Eventually, practice proved the theory and the aforementioned model was also implemented into Polish acts of law defining basic requirements for QMS in radiotherapy. The aim of this work is to review current national regulations regarding QMS in radiotherapy, in particular those referring to standard procedures, the establishment of a commission for procedures and performance of external and internal clinical audits in oncological radiotherapy, as well as to present the process of their implementation into the practice of health care institutions. PMID:23788867

  3. Sex ratio of White Stork Ciconia ciconia in different environments of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Piotr; Grochowska, Ewa; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Koim-Puchowska, Beata; Woźniak, Alina; Ciebiera, Olaf; Markulak, Damian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the variation in sex ratio of White Stork Ciconia ciconia chicks from differentiated Poland environments. We took under a consideration the impact of Cd and Pb for establish differences among sex ratio in chicks. We also study multiplex PCR employment for establish gender considerations. We collected blood samples via venipuncture of brachial vein of chicks during 2006-2008 breeding seasons at the Odra meadows (SW-Poland; control), which were compared with those from suburbs (SW-Poland), and from copper smelter (S-Poland; polluted) and from swamps near Baltic Sea. We found differences among sex ratio in White Stork chicks from types of environment. Male participation in sex structure is importantly higher in each type of environment excluded suburban areas. Differences in White Stork sex ratio according to the degree of environmental degradation expressed by Cd and Pb and sex-environment-metal interactions testify about the impact of these metals upon sex ratios in storks. Simultaneously, as a result of multiplex PCR, 18S ribosome gene, which served as internal control of PCR, was amplified in male and female storks. It means that it is possible to use primers designed for chicken in order to replicate this fragment of genome in White Stork. Moreover, the use of Oriental White Stork Ciconia boyciana W- chromosome specific primers makes it possible to determine the sex of C. ciconia chicks. Many factors make sex ratio of White Stork changes in subsequent breeding seasons, which depend significantly on specific environmental parameters that shape individual detailed defense mechanisms. PMID:25940461

  4. A new discovery of parautochthonous moldavites in southwestern Poland, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, ŁUkasz

    2015-10-01

    Moldavites represent tektites derived from the Ries impact structure (~24 km diameter, ~15 Myr old) in southern Germany. Two new localities with parautochthonous moldavites in southwestern Poland were found. In these localities, fluvial sediments of the so-called Gozdnicka formation host the moldavites. Characteristic tektite features, especially bubbles and inclusions of lechatelierite, are reported. The moldavites' size distribution and their abraded shapes indicate that they were redeposited from the nearby Lusatia substrewn field.

  5. Trichinella spiralis in road-killed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland.

    PubMed

    Osten-Sacken, Natalia; Solarczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is still one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses and is considered as a threat to public health worldwide. The aim of this study was to use genotyping techniques to determine the prevalence of Trichinella species in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland. The infection rate in raccoon dogs was 0.8%. All infections were due to T. spiralis. PMID:27262962

  6. Co-circulation of soricid- and talpid-borne hantaviruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010-2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0-18.8% and 0-5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1%-100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3%-100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species co-existing in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses.

  7. A new parthenogenetic bagworm Reisseronia imielinella sp. nov. from Poland (Lepidoptera, Psychidae).

    PubMed

    Malkiewicz, Adam; Sobczyk, Thomas; Larysz, Adam

    2013-10-29

    Reisseronia imielinella sp. nov. is described from the province of Upper Silesia (Śląskie voivodship) in southern Poland and compared with its closest parthenogenetic relative Reisseronia gertrudae Sieder, 1962. The new species is well characterized by the structures of the female antennae and legs. The breeding of an F1 generation was successful and is described, as is the species' habitat and life history.

  8. [Treatment of Poland syndrome thorax deformity with the lipomodeling technique: about ten cases].

    PubMed

    La Marca, S; Delay, E; Toussoun, G; Ho Quoc, C; Sinna, R

    2013-02-01

    The correct management, with the classic techniques, of the thoracic deformity in Poland's syndrome is difficult, with often insatisfactory results. The current surgical treatment involves the use of prothetic material and/or different flaps with their own complications and scares. The experience of our team with fat grafting (we named lipomodeling) in breast reconstruction helped us to propose the correction of the thoracic and mammary deformity by repeated fat transfer sessions. Fat grafting is commonly used in our team since 1998 in various indication of breast surgery. We reviewed retrospectively our ten first cases of thoracic deformity in Poland's syndrome treated with only fat grafting. Patients had repeated procedures until obtaining a satisfactory result. The fat was harvested from the thigh, buttocks, and abdomen. There were young patients with a mean age of 16years old (from 12 to 24). The mean follow-up was 51months. An average of 2.9 procedures (1 to 5) with 255cm(3) of fat injection at each procedure was needed to obtain symetry. Hundred percent of the patients were satisfied. No complication was noted. As reported, the reconstruction of the thoracic deformity and the mammary shape can be obtained by fat grafting. The absence of a flap donor site sequelae and the absence an implant allow this technique to be simple, reproductible, and without great complication. These criteria match well the surgical management of this deformity, which is mainly aesthetic. Moreover, the secondary benefit of liposuction of disgracious steatomery helps the acceptance of the procedure. Therefore in our hands, fat grafting to the breast (lipomodeling) is now our first choice treatment in thoracic Poland syndrome deformity. Given the rarity of this syndrome, we recommend a treatment by an operator who makes the learning curve of lipomodeling, and who often deals with Poland syndrome.

  9. Organization and Development of Bone Marrow Donation and Transplantation in Poland.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jagoda; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Czerwiński, Jarosław; Kosmala, Karolina; Łęczycka, Anna; Malanowski, Piotr; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, Jolanta; Małkowski, Piotr; Danielewicz, Roman

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes bone marrow donation and transplantation in Poland in terms of its history, current state, and information on the quality control system. Based on data gathered from the informatics systems of the Polish Central Unrelated Potential Bone Marrow Donor and Cord Blood Registry and the Polish transplant registries, as well as World Marrow Donor Association statistics, we performed an overview study to collect and compare numbers on hematopoietic stem cells donations and transplantations in Poland in the years 2010-2014. In the last 5 years, the number of registered potential hematopoietic stem cells donors in Poland increased by more than 4 times, from about 146,000 to over 750,000. During the same period, the number of patients qualified to hematopoietic stem cells transplantation from unrelated donor increased from 557 in 2010 to 817 in 2014. We observed a striking change in the percentage of transplantations performed in Polish centers using material collected from national donors--from 24% to 60%. This shift was also evident in the number of search procedures closed with acceptation of Polish donors--from 27% in 2010 to 58% in 2014. Another consequence of Polish registry growth is the increasing number of donations from Polish donors for international patients. Between 2010 and 2014, the percent of donation for non-national patient increased from 33% to 76%, placing Poland in 6th place in the ranking of the HSC "exporters" worldwide. Growth of transplantation rates involves standardization process, which is a natural way of development for national organizations in the field of HSCT because of its international character.

  10. Co-circulation of Soricid- and Talpid-borne Hantaviruses in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010–2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0–18.8% and 0–5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1–100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3–100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species coexisting in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:25445646

  11. Methodology of Estimation of Methane Emissions from Coal Mines in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patyńska, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Based on a literature review concerning methane emissions in Poland, it was stated in 2009 that the National Greenhouse Inventory 2007 [13] was published. It was prepared firstly to meet Poland's obligations resulting from point 3.1 Decision no. 280/2004/WE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004, concerning a mechanism for monitoring community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol and secondly, for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Kyoto Protocol. The National Greenhouse Inventory states that there are no detailed data concerning methane emissions in collieries in the Polish mining industry. That is why the methane emission in the methane coal mines of Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe - GZW (Upper Silesian Coal Basin - USCB) in Poland was meticulously studied and evaluated. The applied methodology for estimating methane emission from the GZW coal mining system was used for the four basic sources of its emission. Methane emission during the mining and post-mining process. Such an approach resulted from the IPCC guidelines of 2006 [10]. Updating the proposed methods (IPCC2006) of estimating the methane emissions of hard coal mines (active and abandoned ones) in Poland, assumes that the methane emission factor (EF) is calculated based on methane coal mine output and actual values of absolute methane content. The result of verifying the method of estimating methane emission during the mining process for Polish coal mines is the equation of methane emission factor EF.

  12. Social and environmental factors in lung cancer mortality in post-war Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H S; Goble, R; Kirschner, H

    1995-01-01

    Poland and other Eastern European countries have undergone heavy industrial development with marked increases in air pollution and occupational exposure in the nearly 50 years since World War II. These countries have also experienced substantial increases in chronic disease mortality in the past three decades. While it is tempting to assume a direct association between these phenomena, more detailed analyses are called for. Poland offers a potentially rich opportunity for comparing geographical patterns of disease incidence and of industrial change. In this paper we 1) elucidate the prospects for attributing lung cancer mortality to industrial emissions in Poland, using an ecological approach based on the hitherto unaddressed geographic differences, and accounting for regional differences in cigarette consumption; 2) propose explanatory hypotheses for the observed geographic heterogeneity of lung cancer; 3) begin systematic testing of the widely accepted but not well-scrutinized notion that pollution in Poland is a major contributor to declining life expectancy. Regions with the highest fraction of cancer that cannot be explained by smoking appear to be highly urbanized, have high population exposure to occupational carcinogens, experience the highest rates of alcoholism and crime, and are associated with the post- World War II population resettlement. Although the analysis does not rule out pollution as a significant contributor to lung cancer mortality, it indicates that other factors such as occupational exposures and various social factors are of at least comparable importance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. B Figure 6. A Figure 6. B Figure 6. C PMID:7628428

  13. Congruence of the current practices in Hymenoptera venom allergic patients in Poland with EAACI guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Diwakar, Lavanya; Brzyski, Piotr; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Lis, Grzegorz; Pietrzyk, Jacek J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Venom immunotherapy (VIT) practice is the definitive treatment for patients with potentially fatal allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings. The aim is assesing compliance of VIT practice in Poland with the current European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) guidance. Material and methods A multicentre study was carried out using a structured questionnaire which was sent by post to all VIT practitioners in Poland. Some questionnaire items were altered, in comparison to original version by adding additional answer options or alowing multiple answer option. The response rate was 100%. The obtained results were compared with the published EAACI guidelines. Results Twenty-six Polish centres took part in the survey. SSIgE and skin prick tests (SPT) are together used as the first line of investigation, whereas confirmatory intradermal tests (IDT) are applied in half of centres. Only a few centres measure baseline serum tryptase levels. The ultra-rush protocol is preferred. Antihistamine pre-medication is routinely practiced. A target dose equal to 100 µg is used in most centres. A 6-week interval between booster doses is the most frequent. Five years is considered as an optimal VIT duration. Before the VIT completion, SSIgE is evaluated in fifty percent of centres, whereas sting challenge is considered by half of responders. Conclusions There are some differences between current practice in Poland and the EAACI recommendations, indicating areas requiring better compliance. Comparision between Poland and the United Kingdom revealed that health service organization and health care funding may play a major role in the provision of allergy services. This may affect the extent to which international guidance may be applied in individual countries. It is worth considering conducting the same survey in other European countries. PMID:22291828

  14. [Activity of sanitary surveillances in Vilnius at the time of the Second Republic of Poland].

    PubMed

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, in March 1922, the city of Vilnius together with the Vilnius Region was incorporated into Poland. Sanitary and health negligence was one of the main problems of the city. The genesis of that situation dates back to the 120-year national bondage, when the city was under the Russian rule. Since 1915 it was occupied by the German invader, and from January to April 1919 it belonged to Soviet Russia. The legacy left by this epoch concerned bad housing conditions, problems with removal of impurities, scarcity of fresh water supply, uneven and dirt roads, which along with other bionegative factors resulted in dissemination of contagious diseases and occurrence of other health risks. In Vilnius of the interwar period, similarly to other big cities in Poland, sanitary surveillances played a significant role in controlling acute contagious diseases, inspecting sanitary conditions of living quarters, service outlets, industrial plants, sites of production and selling food articles, as well as surveillance of food. Municipal doctors supervised the work of sanitary inspectors in each sanitary office. PMID:19899609

  15. The PONS study and its place in the strategy of health gain in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zatoński, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years (1960-1990) of adult health decline, since the beginning of the political and economic transformation in the early 1990s.a dramatic reversal of health trends is being observed in Poland, In contrast, in the countries of Western Europe, a significant, steady health gain has been observed already since the end of World War II. At the beginning of the 21 st century one in three men in Poland still do not reach the age of 65, which dramatically contrasts with the one-digit premature mortality in Western Europe (EU15). In Poland very high proportion of this mortality (men ~30%, women ~15%) occur in working age population hampering social and economic development. Non-communicable diseases and risk factors (smoking, drinking, obesity) are major cause of heath inequality and contribute to poverty. This health gap, leading to an over-proportional loss of human capital in Eastern Europe, is one of the most crucial challenges for the European Union during the period of economic crisis. PMID:22956640

  16. Varved sediments from Lake Czechowskie (Poland) reveal gradual increase in Atlantic influence during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim; Słowiński, Michał; Wulf, Sabine; Putyrskaya, Victoria; Plessen, Birgit; Błaszkiewicz, Miroslaw

    2015-04-01

    Detailed micro-facies and geochemical analyses have been carried out for the predominantly varved Holocene sediment record of Lake Czechowskie (north-central Poland). The chronology has been established by a multiple dating approach comprising varve counting, AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity concentration measurements and tephrochronology. The combination of independent dating techniques revealed well-constrained time scales even in phases lacking annual laminations and allows reliable high-resolution archive synchronization. Quantitative (varve thickness variations) and qualitative (sublayer structure) varve parameters as well as geochemical composition have been obtained to gain a comprehensive view of climatic and environmental evolution during the last 11500 years in northern Poland. Five major sedimentological changes have been identified, encompassing transitions from varved to non-varved sediments (and vice versa) at 10.100 and 7.300 cal a BP, respectively, changes in general varve pattern at 6.500 and 4.200 cal a BP and distinct increase of varve thickness accompanied by increased annual variability since 2.800 cal a BP. These changes reflect large-scale reorganization of the climate system throughout the Holocene with increasing influences of the North Atlantic climate system in Poland. Moreover, the observed changes suggest different thresholds and trigger mechanisms over the investigated time period. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analyses - ICLEA - of the Helmholtz Association, grant number VH-VI-415.

  17. Expansion of Nature Conservation Areas: Problems with Natura 2000 Implementation in Poland?

    PubMed Central

    Cent, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    In spite of widespread support from most member countries’ societies for European Union policy, including support for the sustainable development idea, in many EU countries the levels of acceptance of new environmental protection programmes have been and, in particular in new member states, still are considerably low. The experience of the countries which were the first to implement union directives show that they cannot be effectively applied without widespread public participation. The goal of this study was, using the example of Poland, to assess public acceptance of the expansion of nature conservation in the context of sustainable development principles and to discover whether existing nature governance should be modified when establishing new protected areas. The increase in protected areas in Poland has become a hotbed of numerous conflicts. In spite of the generally favourable attitudes to nature which Polish people generally have, Natura 2000 is perceived as an unnecessary additional conservation tool. Both local authorities and communities residing in the Natura areas think that the programme is a hindrance, rather than a help in the economic development of municipalities or regions, as was initially supposed. This lack of acceptance results from many factors, mainly social, historic and economic. The implications of these findings for current approach to the nature governance in Poland are discussed. PMID:21107836

  18. Ancient DNA reveals matrilineal continuity in present-day Poland over the last two millennia.

    PubMed

    Juras, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Kushniarevich, Alena; Malmström, Helena; Raghavan, Maanasa; Kosicki, Jakub Z; Metspalu, Ene; Willerslev, Eske; Piontek, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    While numerous ancient human DNA datasets from across Europe have been published till date, modern-day Poland in particular, remains uninvestigated. Besides application in the reconstruction of continent-wide human history, data from this region would also contribute towards our understanding of the history of the Slavs, whose origin is hypothesized to be in East or Central Europe. Here, we present the first population-scale ancient human DNA study from the region of modern-day Poland by establishing mitochondrial DNA profiles for 23 samples dated to 200 BC - 500 AD (Roman Iron Age) and for 20 samples dated to 1000-1400 AD (Medieval Age). Our results show that mitochondrial DNA sequences from both periods belong to haplogroups that are characteristic of contemporary West Eurasia. Haplotype sharing analysis indicates that majority of the ancient haplotypes are widespread in some modern Europeans, including Poles. Notably, the Roman Iron Age samples share more rare haplotypes with Central and Northeast Europeans, whereas the Medieval Age samples share more rare haplotypes with East-Central and South-East Europeans, primarily Slavic populations. Our data demonstrates genetic continuity of certain matrilineages (H5a1 and N1a1a2) in the area of present-day Poland from at least the Roman Iron Age until present. As such, the maternal gene pool of present-day Poles, Czechs and Slovaks, categorized as Western Slavs, is likely to have descended from inhabitants of East-Central Europe during the Roman Iron Age. PMID:25337992

  19. Stepwise multiple regression method of greenhouse gas emission modeling in the energy sector in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kolasa-Wiecek, Alicja

    2015-04-01

    The energy sector in Poland is the source of 81% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Poland, among other European Union countries, occupies a leading position with regard to coal consumption. Polish energy sector actively participates in efforts to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere, through a gradual decrease of the share of coal in the fuel mix and development of renewable energy sources. All evidence which completes the knowledge about issues related to GHG emissions is a valuable source of information. The article presents the results of modeling of GHG emissions which are generated by the energy sector in Poland. For a better understanding of the quantitative relationship between total consumption of primary energy and greenhouse gas emission, multiple stepwise regression model was applied. The modeling results of CO2 emissions demonstrate a high relationship (0.97) with the hard coal consumption variable. Adjustment coefficient of the model to actual data is high and equal to 95%. The backward step regression model, in the case of CH4 emission, indicated the presence of hard coal (0.66), peat and fuel wood (0.34), solid waste fuels, as well as other sources (-0.64) as the most important variables. The adjusted coefficient is suitable and equals R2=0.90. For N2O emission modeling the obtained coefficient of determination is low and equal to 43%. A significant variable influencing the amount of N2O emission is the peat and wood fuel consumption.

  20. Variability of growing degree days in Poland in response to ongoing climate changes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Agnieszka; Sulikowska, Agnieszka; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Czekierda, Danuta

    2016-05-01

    An observed increase in air temperature can lead to significant changes in the phenology of plants and, consequently, changes in agricultural production. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial differentiation of thermal resources in Poland and their variability during a period of changing thermal conditions in Europe. Since the variability of thermal conditions is of paramount importance for perennial crops, the study focused on apple, plum, and cherry orchard regions in Poland. The analysis was conducted for the period of 1951-2010 using air temperature daily data. Thermal resources have been defined using the growing degree days (GDD) index calculated independently for the whole year and during in frost-free season for three air temperature thresholds: 0, 5, and 10 °C, which determine the non-winter period, growing season, and the period of full plant growth, respectively. In addition, due to the high significance for perennials in particular, the incidence and intensity of frost during flowering were calculated. In this study, a detailed analysis of the spatial differentiation of thermal resources was first performed, followed by an evaluation of long-term variability and associated change patterns. The obtained results confirmed an increase in thermal resources in Poland as a consequence of the lengthening of the growing season. However, the frequency and intensity of spring frost, especially during flowering or even during ripening of plants, remain a threat to harvests in both the eastern and western parts of the country.

  1. A small-scale survey of hantavirus in mammals from eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Knap, Józef P; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Samples of 30 dead small mammals each were collected on area 'A' located in eastern Poland which is exposed to flooding by the Vistula river, and on the area 'B', also located in eastern Poland but not exposed to flooding. Kidneys and livers of the mammals were examined by the PCR and nested PCR methods for the presence of hantavirus RNA. Out of 7 species of small mammals examined, the presence of hantaviruses was detected in 4 of them. Hantavirus prevalence was low in Apodemus agrarius (2.6%), the most numerous mammal species, whereas in the remaining 3 positive species (Microtus agrestis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus) this was 12.5-100%. The presence of hantaviruses was detected only in the animals found on area 'A' exposed to flooding, and their prevalence was statistically greater compared to area 'B' not exposed to flooding (16.7% vs. 0%, p=0.0345). The overall positivity of the examined small mammals population from the areas 'A' and 'B' was 8.3%. The sequence analysis of the samples positive for hantavirus proved that the amplified products showed 77-86% homology with the L segment sequence of hantavirus Fusong-Mf-731 isolated from Microtus fortis in China. The presented study is the first to demonstrate the occurrence of hantavirus infection in small mammals from eastern Poland, and the first to demonstrate the significant relationship between flooding and the prevalence of hantaviruses in small mammals.

  2. Frequency of under- and overweight among children and adolescents during the economic transition in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ządzińska, E; Rosset, I; Kozieł, S; Nawarycz, T; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Lorkiewicz, W; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, L; Sitek, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria, in four cohorts of children and adolescents living in Poland in different economic eras: communist economy (1977/1978), crisis of the 1980s (1987/1988), political and economic transformation (1992/1994) and the free market economy (2002/2004). Analysis was conducted on a database including 10,934 records for children of the age 7-18 years. In Poland, in the last 26 years of economic and political transformations, the epidemic of obesity was not noticed but the growing incidence of children and adolescents with body mass deficit was observed (p<0.0001) (20.2% of girls in 2002/2004 vs. 11.0% in 1977/1978 and 12.1% of boys in 2002/2004 vs. 7.2% in 1977/1978). Lower parental education and a higher number of children in a family resulted in a higher prevalence of underweight (odds ratio [OR] fluctuated from 1.26 to 1.63). The social effects of the political transformation in Poland significantly affected families with low socio-economic status (SES), and especially more eco-sensitive boys. This result is opposite to the trends observed in Western countries and makes an important contribution to the current knowledge of the course of further changes in weight-to-height ratio at a global scale. PMID:22608527

  3. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emission reduction measures relevant for application in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hlawiczka, S.; Fudala, J.

    2008-03-15

    Fuel combustion for heat and power generation, together with cement production, were the most significant sources of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission in Poland in 2003, with 57 and 27% of Hg emission, respectively. It was found that in Poland, Hg emission reduction measures need to be focused on the energy generation sector. Sorbent injection upstream of an electrostatic precipitator or fabric filter, mercury oxidation upstream of a wet or dry flue gas desulphurisation installation, together with Hg capture on sorbents, should be considered as priority in Polish conditions. This refers mainly to fuel combustion processes but also to the production of cement. For economic reasons it seems advisable that, apart from activated carbons as sorbents, application of zeolites obtained from power plant fly ash should also be considered. Application of primary methods seems to be very promising in Polish conditions, although they should be considered rather as an additional option apart from sorbent injection as the best option. Switching from coal to liquid and gaseous fuels shows the highest potential for reducing Hg emission. For chlorine production using the mercury cell electrolysis method, strict monitoring of Hg emissions and good housekeeping of Hg releasing processes seems a promising approach, but the main activity should focus on changing mercury-based technologies into membrane cell methods. Emission abatement potential for the atmospheric mercury in Poland has been roughly assessed, showing that in perspective of 2015, the emission could be reduced to about 25% of the anthropogenic atmospheric Hg emission in 2003.

  4. Comparative policy analysis of coal-mine safety regulation in the United States and Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The study concerns an analysis of the factors which influence death rates in coal mines in the United States and Poland. The study uses multiple regression and time series analysis on data since the end of World War II. A formal causal model is derived from political economy literatures and safety studies to analyze the determinants of death rates. Independent variables hypothesized to affect death rate include government regulation, numerous technical safety measures, profit, production, productivity, legislation and differences between the two countries' industrial and planning systems and ideologies. Death rate was reduced dramatically in Poland by the mid-1950s, due primarily to stringent safety regulations, and extensive safety training programs for workers. American death rate remained much higher than Polish death rate until the late 1970s, due to weaker legislation and regulations. Fines, closure orders, and safety training most strongly reduce American death rate. In both countries, political values relevant to safety are more important than centralized planning and administration in reducing American death rate. In both countries, political values relevant to safety are more important than centralized planning and administration in reducing death rates. Political values and regulation stringency are more favorable to safety in Poland than in the United States.

  5. The PONS study and its place in the strategy of health gain in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zatoński, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years (1960-1990) of adult health decline, since the beginning of the political and economic transformation in the early 1990s.a dramatic reversal of health trends is being observed in Poland, In contrast, in the countries of Western Europe, a significant, steady health gain has been observed already since the end of World War II. At the beginning of the 21 st century one in three men in Poland still do not reach the age of 65, which dramatically contrasts with the one-digit premature mortality in Western Europe (EU15). In Poland very high proportion of this mortality (men ~30%, women ~15%) occur in working age population hampering social and economic development. Non-communicable diseases and risk factors (smoking, drinking, obesity) are major cause of heath inequality and contribute to poverty. This health gap, leading to an over-proportional loss of human capital in Eastern Europe, is one of the most crucial challenges for the European Union during the period of economic crisis.

  6. Frequency of under- and overweight among children and adolescents during the economic transition in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ządzińska, E; Rosset, I; Kozieł, S; Nawarycz, T; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Lorkiewicz, W; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, L; Sitek, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria, in four cohorts of children and adolescents living in Poland in different economic eras: communist economy (1977/1978), crisis of the 1980s (1987/1988), political and economic transformation (1992/1994) and the free market economy (2002/2004). Analysis was conducted on a database including 10,934 records for children of the age 7-18 years. In Poland, in the last 26 years of economic and political transformations, the epidemic of obesity was not noticed but the growing incidence of children and adolescents with body mass deficit was observed (p<0.0001) (20.2% of girls in 2002/2004 vs. 11.0% in 1977/1978 and 12.1% of boys in 2002/2004 vs. 7.2% in 1977/1978). Lower parental education and a higher number of children in a family resulted in a higher prevalence of underweight (odds ratio [OR] fluctuated from 1.26 to 1.63). The social effects of the political transformation in Poland significantly affected families with low socio-economic status (SES), and especially more eco-sensitive boys. This result is opposite to the trends observed in Western countries and makes an important contribution to the current knowledge of the course of further changes in weight-to-height ratio at a global scale.

  7. Expansion of Nature Conservation Areas: Problems with Natura 2000 Implementation in Poland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata; Cent, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    In spite of widespread support from most member countries' societies for European Union policy, including support for the sustainable development idea, in many EU countries the levels of acceptance of new environmental protection programmes have been and, in particular in new member states, still are considerably low. The experience of the countries which were the first to implement union directives show that they cannot be effectively applied without widespread public participation. The goal of this study was, using the example of Poland, to assess public acceptance of the expansion of nature conservation in the context of sustainable development principles and to discover whether existing nature governance should be modified when establishing new protected areas. The increase in protected areas in Poland has become a hotbed of numerous conflicts. In spite of the generally favourable attitudes to nature which Polish people generally have, Natura 2000 is perceived as an unnecessary additional conservation tool. Both local authorities and communities residing in the Natura areas think that the programme is a hindrance, rather than a help in the economic development of municipalities or regions, as was initially supposed. This lack of acceptance results from many factors, mainly social, historic and economic. The implications of these findings for current approach to the nature governance in Poland are discussed.

  8. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  9. Science Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Bill

    2005-01-01

    The spaces and structures used for undergraduate science often work against new teaching methods and fail to provide environments that attract the brightest students to science. The undergraduate science building often offers little to inspire the imaginations of young minds. The typical undergraduate science building also tends to work against…

  10. Science Sacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Kimberlee

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

  11. Biopolitical science.

    PubMed

    Arnhart, Larry

    2010-03-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework for biopolitical science as a science of political animals. This science moves through three levels of deep political history: the universal political history of the species, the cultural political history of the group, and the individual political history of animals in the group. To illustrate the particular application of biopolitical science, this essay shows how this science would help us to understand Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863. PMID:20812796

  12. Biopolitical science.

    PubMed

    Arnhart, Larry

    2010-03-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework for biopolitical science as a science of political animals. This science moves through three levels of deep political history: the universal political history of the species, the cultural political history of the group, and the individual political history of animals in the group. To illustrate the particular application of biopolitical science, this essay shows how this science would help us to understand Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Poland, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Poland, gonorrhoea has been a mandatorily reported infection since 1948, however, the reported incidences are likely underestimated. No antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been internationally reported in nearly four decades, and data concerning genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae are totally lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate the AMR to previously and currently recommended gonorrhoea treatment options, the main genetic resistance determinant (penA) for extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), and genotypic distribution of N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Poland in 2010-2012. Methods N. gonorrhoeae isolates cultured in 2010 (n = 28), 2011 (n = 92) and 2012 (n = 108) in Warsaw and Bialystok, Poland, were examined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing (Etest), pyrosequencing of penA and N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Results The proportions of N. gonorrhoeae isolates showing resistance were as follows: ciprofloxacin 61%, tetracycline 43%, penicillin G 22%, and azithromycin 8.8%. No isolates resistant to ceftriaxone, cefixime or spectinomycin were found. However, the proportion of isolates with an ESC MIC = 0.125 mg/L, i.e. at the resistance breakpoint, increased significantly from none in 2010 to 9.3% and 19% in 2012 for ceftriaxone and cefixime, respectively. Furthermore, 3.1% of the isolates showed multidrug resistance, i.e., resistance to ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, azithromycin, and decreased susceptibility to cefixime (MIC = 0.125 mg/L). Seventy-six isolates (33%) possessed a penA mosaic allele and 14 isolates (6.1%) contained an A501V/T alteration in penicillin-binding protein 2. NG-MAST ST1407 (n = 58, 25% of isolates) was the most prevalent ST, which significantly increased from 2010 (n = 0) to 2012 (n = 46; 43%). Conclusions In Poland, the diversified gonococcal population displayed a high resistance to most antimicrobials

  14. To touch the science through the experiment!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowik, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    To touch the science through the experiment! Grzegorz P. Slowik, Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora, Poland Our School - Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora - where pupils' age is 13 -16, has for many years organized a lot of exciting events popularizing science among Zielona Gora children and young people, in particular experimental physics and astronomy. The best known in our town is the regular event on physics, - called the physical Festival of Zielona Gora, of which I am the main initiator and organizer. The Festival is directed to students of the last classes of Zielona Góra primary schools. During the Festivities their shows have also physicists and astronomers, from cooperating with us in popularization of science Zielona Gora University. At the festival the students from our Experimental School Group "Archimedes". Presented their own prepared themselves physical experience. With considerable help of students of Gymnasium No. 2 interested in astronomy, we organize the cyclical event, named "Cosmic Santa Claus," where I share with the students the knowledge gained through my active annual participation in the Space Workshop organized by the Science Centre in Warsaw. We all have fun and learn in a great way and with a smile, we touch real science that reveals its secrets!

  15. Seasonal variability of soil sink for atmospheric hydrogen: a case study from southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyzel, J.; Pycia, M.; Necki, J. M.; Rozanski, K.

    2009-04-01

    Although hydrogen is rarely mentioned as a greenhouse gas, it is expected that elevated concentrations of this gas in the atmosphere in the coming decades, associated with massive anthropogenic emissions may lead to longer residence time of atmospheric CH4 and associated enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The global average mixing ratio of atmospheric H2 amounts at present to approximately 500 ppb. The sources and sinks of hydrogen are not well quantified. In particular, little is known about the strength and spatial and temporal variability of hydrogen uptake by soils. The EU 6th Framework Project EUROHYDROS is aimed at initialising European monitoring capability for atmospheric hydrogen, including the ability to derive isotope ratios and to use these observations, together with studies on sinks and sources of H2 and modelling work, to improve the understanding of hydrogen budget on the global scale. As a part of EUROHYDROS project, a dedicated study aimed at quantifying seasonal variability of soil sink for atmospheric hydrogen is being conducted in southern Poland. The experimental site is located on the outskirts of Krakow, a large city with numerous anthropogenic sources of H2. To quantify the soil sink for H2, a dedicated equipment has been constructed, based on the inverted cap principle. To quantify the uptake of H2 by soils, a 20-liter chamber made of stainless steel and plexiglas is placed on the soil surface and concentration of hydrogen inside the chamber is measured in regular time intervals in order to quantify the dynamics H2 removal via enzymatic reactions taking place in the upper soil layers. The concentration of hydrogen was measured in samples of air collected under the chamber in specified time intervals. A commercially available instrument (Peak Performer 1, Peak Laboratories, USA) equipped with RGA detector was used for this purpose. The measurements were performed regularly every two weeks. Apart of hydrogen concentrations, also several

  16. Variations on the Lower Silesian (SW Poland) lithospheric mantle - the Grodziec xenoliths case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ćwiek, Mateusz; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2016-04-01

    The lithospheric mantle underlying the northern margin of Bohemian Massif (Lower Silesia, SW Poland) is in general characterized by presence of two ultramafic lithologies, both of mostly harzburgitic composition. The group A harzburgites are strongly depleted and record variable metasomatic events, which are however always related to reactions with mixed alkaline-carbonatite melts. The group B harzburgites also record reaction with mafic melts, but in this case the reaction resulted in enrichment of the peridotites in Fe ("Fe-metasomatism"). The xenoliths suites from Grodziec (this study), Krzeniów (Matusiak-Małek et al., 2014, JoP) and Wilcza Góra (Matusiak-Małek et al., submitted), all in the Złotoryja volcanic complex, follow the "A" and "B" lithological characteristics. The Grodziec suite contains, however, numerous lherzolitic xenoliths. The group A xenoliths from Grodziec are anhydrous lherzolites, scarcely harzburgites. The Fo content in olivine varies from 90.7 to 91.8%, Mg# in ortho-and clinopyroxene is 0.91-0.92. Al content in orthopyroxene is 0.05-0.14 a pfu (0.70 to 3.44 wt.%), which makes them one of the highest in region. Few lherzolites are characterized by slightly lower Fo content in olivine (89.16-90.10%) and are therefore classified as A- group. The Mg# of pyroxenes in this group varies from 0.89 to 0.90, but orthopyroxene is generally characterized by low Al content (< 0.08 a pfu, corresponding to <2 wt.% in majority of xenoliths). Group B xenoliths are orthopyroxene - free dunites, and wehrlite. Olivine contains from 85.14 to 86.14 % of Fo, the Mg# of clinopyroxene varies from 0.84 to 0.88. Clinopyroxene in all the groups is LREE enriched and has negative Sr, Zf-Hf and Ti anomalies, but the enrichment decreases from group A to B and so are the depths of negative anomalies. Temperatures of major element equilibration of group A and A- pyroxenes are from approximately 1010 to 1100°C with no specific differences between the groups. So high

  17. Estimation of the Probable Maximum Flood for a Small Lowland River in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2009-04-01

    The planning, designe and use of hydrotechnical structures often requires the assesment of maximu flood potentials. The most common term applied to this upper limit of flooding is the probable maximum flood (PMF). The PMP/UH (probable maximum precipitation/unit hydrograph) method has been used in the study to predict PMF from a small agricultural lowland river basin of Zagozdzonka (left tributary of Vistula river) in Poland. The river basin, located about 100 km south of Warsaw, with an area - upstream the gauge of Plachty - of 82 km2, has been investigated by Department of Water Engineering and Environmenal Restoration of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW since 1962. Over 40-year flow record was used in previous investigation for predicting T-year flood discharge (Banasik et al., 2003). The objective here was to estimate the PMF using the PMP/UH method and to compare the results with the 100-year flood. A new relation of depth-duration curve of PMP for the local climatic condition has been developed based on Polish maximum observed rainfall data (Ozga-Zielinska & Ozga-Zielinski, 2003). Exponential formula, with the value of exponent of 0.47, i.e. close to the exponent in formula for world PMP and also in the formula of PMP for Great Britain (Wilson, 1993), gives the rainfall depth about 40% lower than the Wilson's one. The effective rainfall (runoff volume) has been estimated from the PMP of various duration using the CN-method (USDA-SCS, 1986). The CN value as well as parameters of the IUH model (Nash, 1957) have been established from the 27 rainfall-runoff events, recorded in the river basin in the period 1980-2004. Varibility of the parameter values with the size of the events will be discussed in the paper. The results of the analyse have shown that the peak discharge of the PMF is 4.5 times larger then 100-year flood, and volume ratio of the respective direct hydrographs caused by rainfall events of critical duration is 4.0. References 1.Banasik K

  18. Estimation of the Probable Maximum Flood for a Small Lowland River in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2009-04-01

    The planning, designe and use of hydrotechnical structures often requires the assesment of maximu flood potentials. The most common term applied to this upper limit of flooding is the probable maximum flood (PMF). The PMP/UH (probable maximum precipitation/unit hydrograph) method has been used in the study to predict PMF from a small agricultural lowland river basin of Zagozdzonka (left tributary of Vistula river) in Poland. The river basin, located about 100 km south of Warsaw, with an area - upstream the gauge of Plachty - of 82 km2, has been investigated by Department of Water Engineering and Environmenal Restoration of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW since 1962. Over 40-year flow record was used in previous investigation for predicting T-year flood discharge (Banasik et al., 2003). The objective here was to estimate the PMF using the PMP/UH method and to compare the results with the 100-year flood. A new relation of depth-duration curve of PMP for the local climatic condition has been developed based on Polish maximum observed rainfall data (Ozga-Zielinska & Ozga-Zielinski, 2003). Exponential formula, with the value of exponent of 0.47, i.e. close to the exponent in formula for world PMP and also in the formula of PMP for Great Britain (Wilson, 1993), gives the rainfall depth about 40% lower than the Wilson's one. The effective rainfall (runoff volume) has been estimated from the PMP of various duration using the CN-method (USDA-SCS, 1986). The CN value as well as parameters of the IUH model (Nash, 1957) have been established from the 27 rainfall-runoff events, recorded in the river basin in the period 1980-2004. Varibility of the parameter values with the size of the events will be discussed in the paper. The results of the analyse have shown that the peak discharge of the PMF is 4.5 times larger then 100-year flood, and volume ratio of the respective direct hydrographs caused by rainfall events of critical duration is 4.0. References 1.Banasik K

  19. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  20. The Palaeoproterozoic accretionary crustal growth: implications from new age data on the crystalline basement in Lithuania, NW Belarus and N Poland (the East European Craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, G.; Bogdanova, S.; Taran, L.; Wiszniewska, J.

    2012-04-01

    widespread c. 1.80-1.76 Ga metamorphism and tholeiitic magmatism related to post-collisional extension constrain the maximum age of the final accretion of the terranes. It is evidenced by numerous 1.80-1.79 Ga gabbro-noritic, dioritic and granitic intrusions in NE Poland and elsewhere in Lithuania and Belarus (Claesson, 2001; Vejelyte, 2011). The later reworking at c. 1.70-1.45 Ga and c. 1.60-1.45 Ga AMCG magmatism affected the already accreted craton. Evolutionary, a 1.90-1.87 Ga continental margin was established in present-day E Lithuania and NW Belarus, while younger volcanic arcs were still forming to the west and south at 1.86-1.84 Ga. They had been subsequently accreted to the c. 1.89 Ga continental margin in the time span of 1.84-1.80 Ga, and a new continental margin emerged. After the youngest c. 1.83-1.80 Ga island arcs were docked, the ocean was closed and the crust was finally cratonized. The younger 1.70-1.45 Ga events were intracratonic reflections of active geological processes further west. This is a contribution to the project "Precambrian rock provinces and active tectonic boundaries across the Baltic Sea and in adjacent areas" of the Visby Programme (the Swedish Institute), Lithuanian Science Council grant MIP-034/2011 and SYNTHESYS project SE-TAF-1535

  1. Topographic Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla; Gesch, Dean; Stoker, Jason M.; Queija, Vivian R.; Worstell, Bruce; Tyler, Dean J.; Danielson, Jeff; Bliss, Norman; Greenlee, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Topographic Science is to establish partnerships and conduct research and applications that facilitate the development and use of integrated national and global topographic datasets. Topographic Science includes a wide range of research and applications that result in improved seamless topographic datasets, advanced elevation technology, data integration and terrain visualization, new and improved elevation derivatives, and development of Web-based tools. In cooperation with our partners, Topographic Science is developing integrated-science applications for mapping, national natural resource initiatives, hazards, and global change science. http://topotools.cr.usgs.gov/.

  2. Micro-XRF analysis of silver coins from medieval Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M.; Świt, Paweł; Matosz, Marta; Woźniak, Mateusz; Klisińska-Kopacz, Anna; Bratasz, Łukasz

    2015-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has become a standard method in archaeological science due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature. This technique has extensively been used for the study of numismatic collections since the data derived from it can be correlated with manufacturing processes, provenance of raw materials, and geographical distribution of ancient mints. A group of 71 silver coins of the first Piasts: Boleslaus the Brave (996-1025) and Mieszko II Lambert (1025-1034) belonging to the collections of the National Museum in Krakow have been characterized using micro-XRF spectrometry. This is the most numerous collection of their coins representing nearly 30% of all known coins from these rulers. The research has focused on evaluating the use of this technique as a screening tool for elemental surface characterization of the alloys. Surveyed coins are mainly constituted by Ag, Cu and Pb along with trace levels of Fe, Ni, Zn, Au, Hg, Bi, and Br. Quantitative analyses have revealed Ag contents in the 81.6-97.5% range for all the evaluated coins. This study had the goal of providing information about the elemental composition of these objects, which will serve to enhance the existing knowledge about geographical and chronological diversification of Polish numismatic collections.

  3. Relief-induced soil zones at the Cretaceous sandstone-mudstone contact in the Stolowe Mountains, SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabala, Cezary; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw; Jezierski, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    Regolith translocation on mountain slope built of stratified rocks creates mixed or layered covers which may obliterate the actual transitions of rocks. The covers are seldom delineated on geological maps due to their insignificant thickness; however, enough large to influence the soil morphology and ecological functions. A toposequence of six soil sections situated at the contact of Cretaceous sandstone and mudstone was investigated to evaluate the influence of relief-position and morphological processes on slope cover formation, as well as soil and forest habitat arrangement. At least four distinct soil zones were distinguished in the 400 m long catena: (1) Arenosols and sand Regosols zone, on active fluvial cones and blocky covers directly below sandstone cliffs; (2) upper mid-slope zone of Podzols developed from sandstone-derived materials with periglacial features (solifluction) in the subsoil; (3) lower mid-slope and foot-slope zone of Stagnosols and Planosols with prolonged water stagnation over the impermeable subsoil developed from sandstone or mixed sandstone-mudstone regolith; excess of water is also the sign of mudstone bedrock that forces lateral water flow; and (4) toe-slope zone of Cambisols developed from the mudstone regolith. Past and present-day morphological processes have broadened the area mantled by sandstone-derived materials from upper-slope and created transitional materials that enhanced soil variability and multi-step zonality over the presumably sharp contact of sandstone and mudstone bedrocks. Financed in part by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland (project number: N N310 435938) and National Science Centre (project OPUS 2012/05/B/NZ9/03389). Lorz, C., Heller, K., Kleber, A. (2011): Stratification of the regolith continuum - a key property for processes and functions of landscapes. Z Geomorphol 55, 3: 277-292. Sauer, D., Felix-Heningsen, P. (2006): Saprolite, soils and sediments in the Rhenish Massif as records of

  4. Science Sleuths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Sherril L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a two-day forensic science course that is offered to eighth grade students enrolled in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Magnet Schools. Provides sample student activity sheets for the course. (Author/RT)

  5. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 27 science activities for secondary school science instruction. Topic areas include microbiology, botany, biochemistry, genetics, safety, earthquakes, problem solving, electricity, heat, solutions, mechanics, quantum mechanics, flame tests, and molecular structure. (CW)

  6. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 29 science activities for secondary school science instruction. Topic areas include botany, genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, entomology, molecular structure, spreadsheets, chemistry, mechanics, astronomy, relativity, aeronautics, instrumentation, electrostatics, quantum mechanics, and laboratory interfacing. (CW)

  7. Science Scope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Richard, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an education project launched by the National Academy of Sciences and the Pentagon to turn laid-off aerospace engineers into science teachers at Los Angeles middle schools and high schools. (MKR)

  8. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  9. ILO European Symposium on Work for the Disabled. Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Creation (Warsaw, Poland, May 21-27, 1979; Stockholm, Sweden, May 27-June 1, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, N., Ed.

    This document is a report on a 12-day symposium on work for the disabled--vocational rehabilitation and employment creation--which was held in Poland and Sweden in 1979. The symposium was organized jointly by the government of Poland and Sweden in close cooperation with the International Labour Office (ILO), Geneva. The report is divided into five…

  10. Javno i civilno emitiranje u Poljskoj: koji su izgledi njihovoa pojavljivanja i opstanka (Public and Civic Broadcasting in Poland: What Prospects for Their Emergence and Survival).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowicz, Karol

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the transition period in Poland. Considers legal regulation of mass media within the framework of public opinion changes and the democratization of society. States that craving for a free media was not fulfilled as Poland moved to a more free society--commercialization caused the growth of the advertising industry, but public service…

  11. Generation Changes over the Period of 1986-2006 in the Physical Fitness of Boys Aged 7-19 from Eastern Poland at Particular Stages of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…

  12. The Variscan accretionary prism in the Kaczawa Mountains (W Sudetes, SW Poland): lithostratigraphic, sedimentological, volcanic, metamorphic and structural evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryza, Ryszard; Kostylew, Joanna; Zalasiewicz, Jan

    2013-04-01

    various depths of subduction burial of particular units. Structure. Our preferred regional palaeotectonic model (Collins et al., 2000; Kryza & Zalasiewicz, 2008; Kryza et al. 2011) implies late Devonian - early Carboniferous ESE-oriented subduction in the NE Bohemian Massif with WNW thrusting, followed by extension and ESE backward normal faulting. More coherent crustal blocks or microcontinents (e.g. Lusatia, Teplá-Barrandian, and smaller "terranes") became incorporated into the tectonic mosaic which subsequently was dissected by regional WNW-ESE trending strike-slip fault zones. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Research Grant N N307 062036 of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland, and by the University of Wrocław, Grant 1017/S/ING/12-II. References: Baranowski Z. et al., 1990. N. Jb.Miner. Abh. 179, 223-257. Collins A.S. et al., 2000. J. Geol. Soc. London 157, 283-288. Kostylew J. et al., 2013. Submitted to Sedimentary Geology. Kryza R., Zalasiewicz J., 2008.Tectonophysics 461, 60-71. Kryza R. et al., 2011. Mineralogical Magazine 75/1, 241-263.

  13. The full GHG balance of croplands under seven-year rotation scheme and conventional tillage practices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, Radoslaw; Sakowska, Karolina; Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Uzdzicka, Bogna; Strozecki, Marcin; Polmanska, Daria; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Urbaniak, Marek; Augustin, Juergen; Necki, Jarek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gases fluxes were measured with chambers on the selected plots of the experimental arable station of Poznan University of Life Sciences in Brody (52o26'N, 16o18'E), Poland. This is a long term experiment, where the same crops are cultivated under the same fertilization treatment schemes (eleven combinations) since 1957. At the blocks of the full 7-year rotation, there are cultivated in permanent rotation: winter wheat ->winter rye -> potato ->spring barley -> triticale and alfalfa (till the second year). GHG fluxes have been measured on plots with the same fertilization level (Nmin-90kg, K2O-120 kg/ha, P2O5-60 kg/ha and Ca), which is very close to the average amount of mineral fertilization applied in western Poland. No catch crops were cultivated between the main crops. The soil was classified as Albic Luviosols according to FAO 2006 classification. CO2 fluxes have been measured monthly since March 2011, while N2O and CH4 fluxes since March 2012 (weekly) and measurements were continued till October 2013. CO2 fluxes were measured with dynamic chambers, while N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured with both static and dynamic chambers approaches (using LOSGATOS gas analyser). Carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) have been modelled for the entire period based on the measured fluxes (different management treatments were included in the model), while N2O and CH4 fluxes were linearly interpolated between campaigns. Taking into account the accumulation periods between 15th of October and 14th of October of the next year the cumulated NEE was negative only in case of alfalfa, winter rye and winter wheat, reaching in average -3.5 tCO2-C ha-1 for alfalfa and winter rye fields and around -0.4 tCO2-C ha-1 for winter wheat in seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. While, cumulated NEE for spring crops (potato and spring barley) was positive for the same periods and reached in average 1.1 tCO2-C ha-1 and 2.5 tCO2-C ha-1 for spring barley and

  14. Impact of wind on ambient noise recorded by the "13 BB star" seismic array in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepore, Simone; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    corresponding to the best fit between phase slowness and back azimuth. The azimuth was mainly associated to the angle of the highest peak on the vertical component; however, if the related energy was not large enough, the angle of the main noise source on the horizontal component was employed. In some cases, the azimuth of the secondary peak was taken into account, if its energy was strong enough. The results were related to the daily mean wind speed around Europe recorded during the same month. A significant correlation between the daily average level of ambient noise and the mean wind speed was found. The main source of the ambient noise was located in the Atlantic Ocean and in the North Sea: some weaker sources, however, were identified as the Barents, Baltic, Mediterranean, and Black Seas. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC 2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  15. Assessment of Holocene soil erosion rates on the loess plateau in East Poland using sedimentary archives from closed depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Renata; Poesen, Jean; Gawrysiak, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Closed depressions (CDs) are typical geomorphological features of the European loess belt. They are closed sedimentation basins that enable the estimation of long-term soil erosion rates for different land use environments. This study was conducted in eastern Poland (Nałęczów Plateau). In this region CDs are rather small landforms and the area of 70% of all CDs does not exceed 1500 m2. The study objective was to assess Holocene soil erosion rates in the loess plateau based on a quantitative analysis of colluvial sediments deposited in CDs. Two representative CDs were selected for this study: one CD is located in an old (long-term) forest and the other is situated in a long-term agricultural land. The maximum depth of the CD in the forest, the mean slope gradient and area of the corresponding catchment are 4.9 m, 3.410 and 7568 m² respectively. For the CD in agricultural land these values are 3.2 m, 2.760 and 5156 m² respectively. In both CDs several dozen of drillings and two trenches (2 m long, 1m wide, 2 m deep) were made in the deepest point of the CDs. Mean long-term soil erosion rates were calculated based on the stratigraphy of the soil-sediment sequence infilling the CDs. C-14 and OSL datings of soils and colluvial sediments within the CDs were obtained. For the long-term agricultural used catchment of the CD it was calculated that since 6.31 ± 0.35 ka BP the mean annual soil loss due to water and tillage erosion is 0.63-0.7 t/ha/year or 279.3 mm. In the prehistoric period since 6.31 ± 0.35 ka BP until 1026-1162 AD the mean annual soil erosion rate amounted to 0,10-0.11 t/ha/year or 41.5 mm. During the last ca. 1000 years mean soil erosion rates increased to 3.99-4.63 t/ha/year or 249.2 mm. Results of long-term soil erosion rates (calculated using colluvial sediment sequences in CDs) from agricultural catchments in the loess regions of eastern Poland (this study) and Central Belgium (Gillijns et al. 2005) are quite similar. For the forested catchment

  16. Safer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This column provides best safety practices for the science classroom and laboratory. In this month's issue, pregnancy policy in the laboratory is discussed. One can't ignore the fact that student and faculty pregnancies--and the resulting potential hazards in the science laboratory--exist at the high school level. Science teachers need to be…

  17. Sublime Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girod, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of the shortcomings in most efforts to integrate art and science is that many people have a shallow understanding of art, which inevitably leads to shallow connections between art and science. Coloring drawings of planets, building sculptures of volcanoes, and decorating scientific diagrams are fine activities, but they do not link science and…

  18. Sound Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  19. Science Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.; Biehle, James T.; Motz, LaMoine L.; West, Sandra S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Research Council's "National Science Education Standards" call for science education to be "developmentally appropriate, interesting, and relevant to students' lives, emphasize student understanding through inquiry, and be connected with other school subjects." This description captures the three major trends in science education…

  20. Watershed Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities from an interdisciplinary project studying local watersheds that incorporate a broad spectrum of disciplines including science, math, geography, English, computer science, and political science. Enables students to understand how precipitation changes chemically as it interacts with the soils and human-altered landscape as it…

  1. Science First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strycker, Jan Adkins

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teacher's efforts to put science first in the classroom. Discusses changing the place of science on the schedule and presents an activity to engage student interest. Concludes that a difference in teacher attitude towards science motivates students to learn. (NB)

  2. Dramatic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about science.…

  3. A U.S. Partnership with India and Poland to Track Acute Chemical Releases to Serve Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Dewan, Aruna; Kapil, Vikas

    2009-01-01

    We describe a collaborative effort between the U.S., India, and Poland to track acute chemical releases during 2005–2007. In all three countries, fixed facility events were more common than transportation-related events; manufacturing and transportation/warehousing were the most frequently involved industries; and equipment failure and human error were the primary contributing factors. The most commonly released nonpetroleum substances were ammonia (India), carbon monoxide (U.S.) and mercury (Poland). More events in India (54%) resulted in victims compared with Poland (15%) and the U.S. (9%). The pilot program showed it is possible to successfully conduct international surveillance of acute hazardous substances releases with careful interpretation of the findings. PMID:19826549

  4. Pharmaceutical lobbying under postcommunism: universal or country-specific methods of securing state drug reimbursement in Poland?

    PubMed

    Ozierański, Piotr; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to fill in the gap in research on the effect of pharmaceutical lobbying on drug reimbursement policy, particularly in Poland, a post-communist country. To this end, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, anonymous, elite interviews in Poland, supplemented by a review of legislation, policy documents, official reports and press articles, as well as observations. Overall, 109 representatives of stakeholders involved in reimbursement policy were interviewed. We identified two key lobbying methods: informal persuasion and third-party endorsements. These methods are coupled with two supplementary ones: lobbying through parliament and ministries, as well as diplomatic pressure. Pharmaceutical lobbying methods in Poland clearly resemble those used in other European countries. What is notable about the Polish case is extensive reliance on informal lobbying and diplomatic pressure.

  5. State of the art in medical robotics in Poland: development of the Robin Heart and other robots.

    PubMed

    Nawrat, Zbigniew

    2012-07-01

    The first Polish project in medical robotics began in 2000. Now, a decade later, the Robin Heart surgical telemanipulator has the potential to become widely used in many branches of surgery. The original robot and mechatronic tools have successfully completed the required laboratory tests and animal studies. The Foundation of Cardiac Surgery Development in Zabrze, Poland, has launched a series of large-scale educational and awareness-raising activities aiming to promote medical robotics in Poland. At present, works on a rehabilitation robot are in progress in two centers. This article is an attempt to summarize the advances in medical robotics in Poland, to present the most interesting achievements to date and to discuss the prospects for further development.

  6. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Górne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland.

  7. The wettability of selected organic soils in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Całka, A.; Hajnos, M.

    2009-04-01

    electron-donor (Lewis base) γ- surface free energy components. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Ministry of Science and Higher Education for financial support of this work (grant No. N N310 149335).

  8. Telehealth and Telenursing Perception and Knowledge Among University Students of Nursing in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Pawłowska, Katarzyna; Kozłowska, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Telehealth and telenursing are becoming the new reality in studying nursing. Little is known whether undergraduate nursing students receive adequate education on telenursing for patient care. The aim for this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of nursing students toward telenursing. Subjects and Methods: Students of nursing faculties from medical universities in Poland were invited to complete a survey about telehealth and telenursing. The survey was conducted utilizing a Web-based surveying platform (www.mini-ankiety.pl). Results: We surveyed 308 undergraduate students of nursing faculty—291 females (94%) and 17 males (6%)—from medical universities in Poland. There were 116 students in their first year (course) (38%) and 96 students each in the second and third years (31%). Most of the students (220 [71%]) in the study group were in the age range from 20 to 23 years. The accurate definition of telemedicine was identified by 251 (82%) respondents. The definition of telenursing was recognized properly by 230 (75%) respondents. Of the students, 207 (67%) would anticipate telenursing service implementation into the national healthcare system, and 214 (69.49%) would appreciate the addition of telenursing classes to the curriculum. Students from a few universities showed significantly higher willingness to introduce telenursing classes into nursing curriculum and the intention to use telenursing services in their future nursing practice. The difference among universities could be influenced by regional e-health initiatives. This study has shown the rise of trust in technology along with the increase in the year of nursing study. Conclusions: The current generation of university students of nursing seems to be well educated in medical informatics and technology use. They are better prepared for and open to information society membership, including the practice of telehealth. The advancement in university education has an influence on

  9. Retrospective evaluation of 131I deposition density and thyroid dose in Poland after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak-Flis, Zofia; Krajewski, Pawel; Radwan, Irena; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2003-06-01

    The 131I deposition in Poland after the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 was evaluated from the determined 129I deposition and the estimated 129I/131I ratio at the time of the arrival of fallout. Concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined by neutron activation analysis in uncultivated soils from 16 locations in Poland. Determination of 137Cs in soils was carried out by gamma spectrometry. The atomic ratio of 129I/131I at the time of fallout arrival was estimated using the 129I/131I ratio at the time of the accident, which, on the basis of the core inventory data, was assumed to be 22.8. It was estimated from the time of fallout arrival and from the weighed mean atomic ratio that the 129I/131I ratio for Poland was 32.8. The calculated 131I deposition ranged from 63.2 to 729 kBq m(-2). High deposition of 131I occurred in the locations with rainfall but occasionally also in locations without rainfall. Committed equivalent doses from 131I were evaluated for 5-y-old children, 10-y-old children, and adults using the computer model CLRP for the situations with and without countermeasures including iodine prophylaxis. The highest thyroid doses from inhalation and ingestion without countermeasures were 178 mSv, 120 mSv, and 45 mSv for 5-y-old children, 10-y-old children, and adults, respectively. The countermeasures reduced these doses by about 30%. PMID:12822579

  10. Tobacco industry interference with tobacco control policies in Poland: legal aspects and industry practices

    PubMed Central

    Balwicki, Łukasz; Stokłosa, Michał; Balwicka-Szczyrba, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Wioleta

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2006, when Poland ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), there have been efforts to improve tobacco control regulation in the country. At the same time, at the European Union level, Poland took part in discussions over revision of the Tobacco Tax Directive and the Tobacco Products Directive. This study aims to explore the tobacco industry's tactics to interfere with the creation of those policies. Methods Analysis of 257 documents obtained through freedom of information request. Results We identified three means that the tobacco industry used to interfere with tobacco control policies: creating a positive attitude, expressing a will to be a part of the policymaking process, and exerting pressure. We found that those tactics have often been used unethically, with the industry providing the government with ready legislation proposals, overstating its contribution to the economy and the government revenues, misrepresenting the illicit cigarette problem and misusing scientific evidence. The industry also used legal threats, including use of bilateral trade agreements, against implementation of tobacco control measures. The companies lobbied together directly and through third parties, with the cigarette excise tax structure being the only area of disagreement among the companies. The industry also pushed the Polish government to challenge tobacco control policies in countries with stronger public policy standards, including UK display bans and the Australian plain-packaging law. Conclusions From an object of regulation, the tobacco industry in Poland became a partner with the government in legislative work. Implementation of provisions of Article 5.3 of the WHO FCTC could prevent further industry interference. PMID:26418616

  11. Invasive giant hogweeds in Poland: Risk of burns among forestry workers and plant distribution.

    PubMed

    Rzymski, Piotr; Klimaszyk, Piotr; Poniedziałek, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The Caucasian giant hogweeds (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. and Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier et Lever) are aggressive invaders that are successfully spreading in different parts of the world. Exposure of human skin to these plants may lead to phototoxicity and even chemical burns manifested by cutaneous, full-thickness, and long-lasting dermatitis, and in extreme cases, massive skin necrosis. Forestry workers are a group with potentially increased risk of exposure to these plants because of the outdoor nature of their work and their active involvement in managing invasive species. Therefore, in this study, we aimed at investigating their level of awareness with regard to the giant hogweeds in Poland. The morphology of the plants, health threats, treatment, and control methods were all considered. We also evaluated the distribution of these plants within forest districts in Poland. For this reason, we surveyed 1563 employees (forest rangers, manual workers, and administration staff) of the State Forests National Forest Holding in Poland "State Forests," working in 367 different forest districts. It was initially found that the forestry workers were generally aware of the giant hogweeds' morphology and phototoxicity. More than 20% of the surveyed individuals had been exposed to these plants at least once in their lives, but only less than half of them were aware of proceeding afterward. At the same time, <35% of those surveyed had any knowledge of the control and management of these giant hogweeds. As demonstrated by our study, stands of these species are widely distributed within the Polish forest districts (reported in over 50%). Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement an efficient, multistrategic, and long-term approach to both control their spread and protect human health.

  12. [Cervix uteri cancer in Poland--epidemiological opening balance and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Zatoński, Witold

    2006-09-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death among young and middle-aged females. In case of some cancer sites there is a possibility of undertaking an intervention, which would diminish the risk of death--to this group belongs first of all malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri. The date of beginning first cervix uteri cancer screening in Poland is approaching, therefore presenting epidemiological opening balance and possible scenarios of changes it worthwhile. This work uses data on morbidity and mortality due to malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri cancer in Polish population. Time trends analysis was based on so-called "breakpoint" (joinpoint analysis). Cervix uteri cancer mortality trend is characterized by two breakpoints (1971 and 1993). In the period of 1963-1970 there was an increase of mortality and then after the trend reversed: percentage decline was estimated at the level of 0.8% yearly in 1971-1992 and 2.4% yearly in 1993-2002. Hypothetical scenarios of changes in cervix uteri cancer mortality show, that lack of intervention will cause mortality among Polish females at the level recorded in Finland 25 years ago. Optimistic variant would allow on diminishing mortality in Poland down to the level observed currently in Finland, in around 30 years. Implementing preventive cervix uteri cancer screening is currently the most urgent challenge of public health. If the preventive screening program will still be in the phase of plans and projects, then in 30 years time Poland will be in the point which Finland reached in the end of 1970s, and our civilizing underdevelopment will reach half a century.

  13. Ebola virus disease control in Poland - are we ready for fight?

    PubMed

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Despite very low risk assessment, Polish authorities should be prepared for imported EVD cases and be ready to protect public against the spread of Ebolavirus (EBOV). There is the consistent system of infectious diseases surveillance and control in entire country, regulated by law. In Poland the Public Sanitary Inspection has jurisdiction over infectious diseases surveillance. A reporting system functions at three levels. The entire spectrum of viral hemorrhagic fevers is included in the list of 59th notifiable diseases and causative organisms. EVD is regarded as sever, often fatal communicable disease that should be notify promptly. According to Polish legislation EVD cases would be obligatorily isolated in hospital ward. Each potential contact of EVD case should be individually assessed for risk of exposure and categorized for staying under mandatory quarantine or under active monitoring. The governor of each Polish province has established the Epidemic Active Plan and indicated the place for quarantine if needed. The Ministry of Health established the procedures of management of EVD suspected cases and persons in risk to be infected with EBOV in outpatient care. There are prepared separate procedures for dispatcher of emergency medical service, GP's, hospital emergency departments and airports. There are 10 hospitals with division of infectious diseases, with high level isolation units, ready for EVD patient's admission. There is one reference laboratory in Poland in National Institute of Public Health, which performed tests for EBOV detection. The hospitals and outpatient care services and sanitary inspection were evaluated on possession the appropriate PPE for medical staff, in case of direct contact with EVD patient would be needed. Regardless, very law risk for Poland to be affected by EVD outbreak our country is sufficiently prepared for fighting with EBOV infection.

  14. Analysis of direct costs of hypertension treatment among adolescents in Poland.

    PubMed

    Paczkowska, Anna; Koligat, Dorota; Nowakowska, Elzbieta; Hoffmann, Karolina; Bryl, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    In adolescents, arterial hypertension (AH) is diagnosed much more frequently than previously thought--it affects 3.2% of the population aged 11-18. In Poland, at present, there are no cost analyses of treatment arterial hypertension among adolescents. The aim of the conducted studies was to analyze direct medical and non-medical costs in the time horizon of one calendar year (2010) of AH treatment in adolescents in Poland. A retrospective study from the societal perspective was based on data from 480 patients medical history cards obtained from the archives of the hospital. From this group, according to the criteria for inclusion in the study, a research group was selected consisting of 36 patients aged 16-18 years, with a diagnosed and treated hypertension. Analysis covered direct medical costs (costs of pharmacotherapy, doctors' visits and laboratory tests, hospitalization) and direct non-medical costs (cost of transport to the outpatient clinic). Average annual cost of hypertension treatment per patient was 89.96 Euro. The largest part of the structure of total costs related with hypertension treatment in adolescents in Poland were the costs of medical consultation with lab tests and diagnostic examinations--35.04% and pharmacotherapy costs--32.95%, with hospital stays rating somewhat lower with 19.12%, and the smallest part were the costs of the patient's transportation to the hypertension outpatient clinic--12.89%. Early identification of risk factors of such cardiovascular diseases as hypertension as early as in the developmental age, and their subsequent elimination, should be considered a good investment in the reduction of costs associated with hypertension treatment in adulthood.

  15. Empirical Hydrologic Predictions for Southwestern Poland and Their Relation to Enso Teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Recent investigations confirm meaningful but weak teleconnections between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and hydrology in some European regions. In particular, this finding holds for Polish riverflows in winter and early spring as inferred from integrating numerous geodetic, geophysical and hydrologic time series. The purpose of this study is to examine whether such remote teleconnections may have an influence on hydrologic forecasting. The daily discharge time series from southwestern (SW) Poland spanning the time interval from 1971 to 2006 are examined. A few winter and spring peak flows are considered and the issue of their predictability using empirical forecasting is addressed. Following satisfactory prediction performance reported elsewhere, the multivariate autoregressive method is used and its modification based on the finite impulse response filtering is proposed. The initial phases of peak flows are rather acceptably forecasted but the accuracy of predictions in the vicinity of local maxima of the hydrographs is poorer. It has been hypothesized that ENSO signal slightly influences the predictability of winter and early spring floods in SW Poland. The predictions of flood wave maxima are the most accurate for floods preceded by normal states, less accurate for peak flows after La Niño episodes and highly inaccurate for peak flows preceded by El Niño events. Such a finding can be interpreted in terms of intermittency. Before peak flows preceded by El Niño there are temporarily persistent low flows followed by a consecutive melting leading to a considerable intermittency and hence to difficulties in forecasting. Before peak flows preceded by La Niño episodes there exist ENSO-related positive temperature and precipitation anomalies in SW Poland causing lower, but still considerable, intermittency and thus better, but not entirely correct, predictability of hydrologic time series.

  16. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-10-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  17. [Factors forming opnion on marijuana legalization in Poland among group of students from medical and technical college faculty].

    PubMed

    Suwała, Małgorzata; Gerstenkorn, Andrzej; Szewczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the world. In 2010 17.6% of polish adult population (age 15-64) and 37.3% of youth (age 17-18) declared use of marijuana at least once in their lifetime. Recent years in Poland brought back public discussion regarding decriminalization and legalization of marijuana. The main goal of the study was to reveal the opinion about legalization of marijuana in Poland among students of medical and technical faculty in correlation with chosen socio-demographic factors, college major, attitude to tobacco smoking, use of drugs and religious practice. Study included 230 students (110 from Medical University of Lodz and 120 from Technical University of Lodz). Women consisted on 56.1% of surveyed and men on 43.9%. Study used audit survey as a research method. Results. 40.4% of students considered marijuana as "soft" drug and in majority (65.7%) are convinced that it is not addictive. The main part of studied group (83%) claimed that marijuana is easily accessible in Poland. The majority of the group (38.75%) was against marijuana legalization, a little bit less (35.2%) approved its legalization in Poland and 26.1% had no opinion. Type of college faculty had not been detected as a factor influencing support for legalization. Important factors influencing positive opinion on legalization was: living in the city, tobacco smoking, socializing with legalization supporters, lack of regular religious practice, drug use. CONCLUSION. Young people's diversified opinion regarding legalization of marijuana in Poland should encourage further discussion. Educational and preventive activities within different social groups are necessary to form a conscious opinion on legalization of marijuana in Poland based on the knowledge of actual scientific facts.

  18. [Factors forming opnion on marijuana legalization in Poland among group of students from medical and technical college faculty].

    PubMed

    Suwała, Małgorzata; Gerstenkorn, Andrzej; Szewczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the world. In 2010 17.6% of polish adult population (age 15-64) and 37.3% of youth (age 17-18) declared use of marijuana at least once in their lifetime. Recent years in Poland brought back public discussion regarding decriminalization and legalization of marijuana. The main goal of the study was to reveal the opinion about legalization of marijuana in Poland among students of medical and technical faculty in correlation with chosen socio-demographic factors, college major, attitude to tobacco smoking, use of drugs and religious practice. Study included 230 students (110 from Medical University of Lodz and 120 from Technical University of Lodz). Women consisted on 56.1% of surveyed and men on 43.9%. Study used audit survey as a research method. Results. 40.4% of students considered marijuana as "soft" drug and in majority (65.7%) are convinced that it is not addictive. The main part of studied group (83%) claimed that marijuana is easily accessible in Poland. The majority of the group (38.75%) was against marijuana legalization, a little bit less (35.2%) approved its legalization in Poland and 26.1% had no opinion. Type of college faculty had not been detected as a factor influencing support for legalization. Important factors influencing positive opinion on legalization was: living in the city, tobacco smoking, socializing with legalization supporters, lack of regular religious practice, drug use. CONCLUSION. Young people's diversified opinion regarding legalization of marijuana in Poland should encourage further discussion. Educational and preventive activities within different social groups are necessary to form a conscious opinion on legalization of marijuana in Poland based on the knowledge of actual scientific facts. PMID:26946562

  19. Mass-media and the transplantation crisis: the example of Poland.

    PubMed

    Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Wlodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2010-08-01

    Organ transplantation is a treatment method that is very sensitive to public opinion. Information regarding misconduct in the recovery and transplant of organs very often leads to a definite decrease in the numbers of operations. In 2007 in Poland, the national media reported numerous controversial transplantation incidents. Directly after these occurrences, the number of transplantations fell sharply. Public opinion worsened as did the level of trust placed in doctors. Social psychology explains the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon through the notion of cognitive schemata. Their permanence is explained through selective perception, memory and the effect of persistence.

  20. Tuberculosis in Antelopes in a Zoo in Poland--Problem of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Monika; Załuski, Michał; Zabost, Anna; Orłowska, Blanka; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Anusz, Krzysztof; Lipiec, Marek; Weiner, Marcin; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious disease that occurs in many species of both domestic and wild animals, as well as those held in captivity. The etiological factor is the acid resistant bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium caprae), which is characterized by the major pathogenicity among mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The material from 8 antelopes from the zoo, suspected for tuberculosis were examined, and M. bovis strains were isolated from 6 of them. The spoligotyping method showing spoligo pattern 676763777777600. In Poland, this spoligotype has not been observed so far. PMID:26999962