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Sample records for sciences wroclaw poland

  1. Lifestyle of students from different universities in Wroclaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Jakubiec, Dorota; Kornafel, Danuta; Cygan, Agata; Górska-Kłęk, Lucyna; Chromik, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the economic and political system that took place in Poland in recent decades had a significant impact on lifestyles of different social groups, especially in youngsters as vulnerable and open to all novelty and changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healthy or non-healthy behaviours including physical activity, diet, time devoted for sleeping, leisure, stress and the use of drugs by students of four universities in Wroclaw. The study involved 604 students (305 women and 299 men) from four universities in Wroclaw: University of Wroclaw - 25.0%, Wroclaw University of Technology - 24.5%, University School of Physical Education (AWF) - 25.2% and Wroclaw Medical University - 25.3%. A questionnaire developed for this study was used. The questions were both open and closed, one or multiple answers could be matched. The questions related to: physical activity, nutrition, time devoted for sleeping, leisure, stress and stimulants. On the basis of the results it was found that students mostly reported an average level of physical activity. The highest level of physical activity was presented by students of the University School of Physical Education and the lowest by students of the University of Wroclaw. Just one in ten students consumed meals on a regular basis, including one in five studying in the AWF. Almost half of the respondents (48.7%) spent 5-7 hours sleeping. Every tenth student slept less than five hours. Most respondents preferred passive forms of recreation, only one in three practiced sports in their spare time (usually students of the AWF). Every fourth student declared smoking, and more than 90% consumed alcohol. Lifestyle of majority of the students surveyed did not follow the recommendations of preventive care. The need for more efficient education of students is obvious, which will lead to the future positive changes in their lifestyle, reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases.

  2. Mutagenic activity of drinking water in Wroclaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gasiorowski, K; Szyba, K; Sawicka, J; Gulanowski, B

    1993-01-01

    The Salmonella mutagenicity test was applied to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of Wroclaw drinking water. Contaminants of water samples were concentrated by adsorption on XAD-2 resin. After while they were eluted sequentially with acetone, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1, v/v) and methanol, and then obtained organic extracts were evaporated to dryness. The extracts were then dissolved in DMSO and examined by using the Ames test. The results proved significant contamination of drinking water with mutagenic substances. Hydroxyapatite column chromatography performed after direct incubation of standard DNA probes with tested water extracts showed that drinking water was contaminated with DNA interstrand cross-linking substances. Filtration of tap water through carbon filters markedly reduced mutagenic activity of tested water extracts, whereas ceramic filters were more efficient in depleting of DNA interstrand cross-linking contaminants.

  3. Dietary habits of Wroclaw Medical University students (Poland)

    PubMed

    Ilow, Rafał; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Różańska, Dorota

    The World Health Organization considers an unhealthy diet to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases development. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary habits among Wroclaw Medical University students with a view towards the nutritional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The study was conducted between the years 2004-2012. The study group consisted of 892 women and 276 men. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire based on the principles outlined in “The Polish food-based dietary guidelines”. There were numerous eating habits not in compliance with the recommendations. Men failed to take ≥ 3 meals/ day (10.1% vs 6.3%) at a significantly higher frequency than women. Food products exhibiting a high glycaemic index (GI) were preferred over low GI, especially among men. About 62% of women and 75% of men failed to consume ≥ 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day. Women chose low-fat dairy products and meat significantly more frequently than men. 73% of women and 67% of men declared that they consumed vegetable oils on an irregular basis. About 8% of women and 11% of men used salt without restrictions, while 58% and 64% respectively, used sugar to sweeten beverages. Improper nutritional habits were observed in a high part of the studied students, especially among men. It is therefore strongly suggested that the rules of proper nutrition be promoted among this group.

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 40- and 50-year-old inhabitants of Wroclaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Ilow, Rafał; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Różańska, Dorota; Kowalisko, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been discussed for many years, but there is no doubt that those who have confirmed the presence of risk factors comprising the MetS had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS among 40- and 50-year-old (y.o.) inhabitants of Wroclaw, Poland. The study group included Wroclaw inhabitants who were recruited between 2001-2004 into the Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Programme. The study group consisted of 18,583 participants (females: 40 y.o.--5,248 and 50 y.o.--5,329; males: 40 y.o.--4,229 and 50 y.o.--3,777). The MetS was defined by IDF/NHLBI/AHA (2009) criteria. MetS was found in 12.7% of 40 y.o. and in 33.1% of 50 y.o. females, while in males, respectively, in 30.4% and 42.1%. Overall, MetS occurred in 28.5% of the study group. MetS occurred significantly more frequent among the older than the younger groups, both in females and males. MetS was found significantly more frequent among males than females from Wroclaw, in both 40- and in 50 y.o. participants. Among those females with MetS, the most frequently (more than 90% in both age groups) occurred excessive waist circumference (WC), followed by elevated blood pressure-BP (72.1% of 40 y.o., 86.8% of 50 y.o.). Excessive WC, elevated BP and triglycerides-TG was found in more than 80% of males aged 40 and with diagnosed MetS. Among the older group of males with MetS, the most frequently occurred elevated BP (90.4%), followed by excessive WC (87%) and elevated TG (78.5%). MetS was diagnosed more frequent in males than females of Wroclaw. Prevalence of MetS increased with age. The most significant impact on reducing the prevalence of MetS in the study group would be the lowering of BP and WC to recommended values.

  5. Molecular identification of Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic dogs and cats in Wroclaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, Jolanta; Bajzert, Joanna; Gorczykowski, Michał; Kantyka, Magdalena; Podkowik, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Giardia duodenalis (G. intestinalis) is a common protozoan causing gastrointestinal disorders in many species of mammals. The genus of Giardia has high molecular diversity. Dogs and cats, in addition to their typical infection with assemblages C, D and F, may be a reservoir of zoonotic assemblages (A and B). The aim of this study was a genetic characteristic of Giardia isolates of dogs and cats from the area of Wroclaw (Poland). A total of 128 and 33 faecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively, were analyzed by routine coprological methods. The animals were diagnosed on the presence of G. duodenalis antigens in faeces soluble with the use of SNAP Giardia (IDEXX Laboratories) immunosorbent assay. 27 DNA isolates of Giardia were subjected to molecular identification (PCR-RFLP). The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 21.1% (27/128) in dogs and 15.1% (5/33) in cats. In dogs, C assemblage was present in 18 (81%) positive stool samples, D assemblage in 2 (9%) samples, B assemblage present in one (4.5%), and mixed assemblages (C and D) occurred in one (4.5%) sample. F assemblage was found in 4 (80%) cats' positive stool samples and A assemblage occurred in one case (20%). Confirmation of the presence of A and B zoonotic assemblages suggests that infected pets can be a threat to human health. This study describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D assemblages in dogs in Poland.

  6. Dew and hoarfrost frequency, formation efficiency and chemistry in Wroclaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, G.; Sobik, M.; Błaś, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Cichała-Kamrowska, K.; Wałaszek, K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research study concerning a comparison of frequency, formation efficiency and basic physico-chemical properties of dew and hoarfrost in urban conditions. Longer than two-year series of measurements was carried out from 1 February 2008 to 10 March 2010 in Wroclaw, Poland. Sampling of atmospheric deposits was made by means of insulated plain passive radiative condensers, which allowed to collect 222 dew and 96 hoarfrost samples. The results indicate that the frequency of dew days was about threefold greater than hoarfrost days. The formation efficiency of both types of deposits was almost the same, and reached a mean value of about 100 mL·m- 2 per day. The conducted analysis of several meteorological parameters showed that dew and hoarfrost, despite seasonal weather changes, were formed in very similar meteorological conditions. Only water vapor pressure values were in average twice higher in the case of dew and the impact of this parameter on dew and hoarfrost formation efficiency seems to be more complex than expected. The role of night duration in counterbalancing of smaller amount of available moisture in hoarfrost days is not clear. The investigation showed also, that there was an expected clear positive dependence of dew and hoarfrost formation efficiency on relative humidity, and not so evident in the case of temperature inversion, and wind velocity. The physico-chemical analysis indicated that the pH of dew was only slightly lower than the hoarfrost ones, regardless of the deposit formation intensity. Simultaneously, the lower pH values were much more frequent in the case of dew, which resulted from more effective absorption of anthropogenic NO3- and SO42 - ions. For both types of deposits, the average pH was low (4.5-4.8) in relation to majority of studies reported in literature. In spite of seasonal changes of pollutant concentration, various weather conditions and different mechanisms of pollutant absorption of dew

  7. Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1) carriers among urban breeding facilities in Wroclaw (Poland).

    PubMed

    Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Bierowiec, Karolina; Bania, Jacek; Kiełbowicz, Maciej; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1) carriers among closed, one-cat breeding facilities in the urban environment of Wrocław city between 2011-2013 was investigated. A probe-based real-time PCR was used to detect FHV 1 DNA in conjunctival swab extracts. Of the 67 breeding cats investigated 14 animals (20.9%) were confirmed to contain FHV 1 specific DNA. The herpesvirus DNA was detected in eight cats from the group expressing clinical signs of FHV 1 infection (n = 28) and in six clinically healthy animals (n = 39). The percentage of positive carriers ranged from 12 to 44%, depending on the frequency of sampling. The total prevalence in cats at the optimal age for reproduction (2 to 7 years) was 20%. One-cat breeding facilities of purebred cats in Wrocław (Poland) constitute a significant reservoir of FHV 1 and the number of monitoring repeats may influences the success of FHV 1 detection.

  8. Assessment of glycemic load and intake of carbohydrates in the diet of Wroclaw Medical University students (Poland).

    PubMed

    Różańska, Dorota; Kawicka, Anna; Konikowska, Klaudia; Salomon, Agnieszka; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Szuba, Andrzej; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    Glycemic Load (GL) is one of the indicators that can be used to assess the nutritional value of the diet. The results of numerous studies have shown that high glycemic index and/or high GL diets were associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate dietary GL, intake of food products which are source of carbohydrates and contribution of particular carbohydrates in students' diets. The study group consisted of 140 female students from Wroclaw (Poland) aged 21±1.6 years. The dietary assessment was performed using food frequency-questionnaire. The GL of daily food ration (DFR) was considered low for values <80 g, medium for values between 80-120 g and high for values >120 g. The mean GL of the diets was 120.7±42 g. DFR of 12.1% of the students had low GL, 46.6% - medium, and 39.3% - high. Diets in the 4th quartile of GL were characterized by the highest energy value, total carbohydrate, sucrose, starch and fiber content and energy contribution from carbohydrates when compared with lower quartiles. Higher percentage of energy from protein and fats in the diets was related with lower dietary GL. The highest correlation coefficient between GL and weight of the consumed food was observed for sweets (r=0.67), cereal products (r=0.52), juices and sweetened beverages (r=0.50), vegetables (r=0.45) and fruits (r=0.44). In the study, cereal products, fruits, sweets, vegetables and juices and sweetened beverages consumed by the female subjects constituted respectively 26.6%, 12.8%, 11.4%, 9.1% and 8.8% of the total dietary GL. Lower dietary GL in the female students participating in the study can be achieved by limiting the intake of sweets and sweet beverages as well as consuming cereal products with a low GI. glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, students, diet.

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility 1984; Proceedings of the Seventh International Wroclaw Symposium, Wroclaw, Poland, June 26-28, 1984. Parts 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, D. J.; Moron, W.; Struzak, R. G.

    The topics discussed are related to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and the International Union of Radio Science, dynamic compatibility in channels with state identification subsystems, EM environment, measurements, spectrum management, EMC active line models, EMC and biology, radio wave propagation, EMC and wire communications, statistical concepts, lightning and EMC, EMC of radio systems, EM fields and related problems, electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources, immunity, antennas,modelling techniques, and EMC and radio amateur service. Aspects of mobile radio communication are explored, taking into account cellular public radio services using pseudonoise signals, the capacity of the cellular mobile radio service using pseudonoise signals and frequency modulation, the effectiveness of cellular structures of the mobile communication systems, and the determination of the receiving and interfering zone in moble radio communications with the aid of the computer. Attention is given to differences regarding the biological effects of simple and combined electromagnetic fields.

  10. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  11. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  12. Poland.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, Poland's population was 37.5 million and the annual population growth rate was 0.8%. The infant mortality rate was 19.3/1000 and life expectancy stood at 71.6 years. Of the labor force of 17.5 million, 30% were engaged in agriculture, 44% were in industry and commerce, 8% were government employees, and 11% were employed in services. Poland is a communist state. The economy is based on the Soviet model of state ownership of most of the country's productive assets, although the private sector predominates in agriculture. The rights of private farmers are now protected through a 1983 amendment to the constitution. Poland's economy has performed poorly in comparison with other Eastern European economies. The economic growth rate is 5% and inflation averages 20%. Per capita income is US$2000. Industries were centralized following World War II, and this systemic rigidity is considered to have contributed to the economy's poor performance. Another important factor has been low reliance of foreign trade, meaning that Poland's industries have failed to develop competitiveness. The government has committed itself to a so-called second-stage of economic reform, but to date there have been few concrete accomplishments.

  13. Thomas of Wroclaw (1297-1378) - Medieval bishop and scholar of English origin.

    PubMed

    Bieganowski, Lech; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-08-26

    Peter of Tilleberi (Tilbury), later known as bishop Thomas of Wroclaw, after completing his studies (in Bologna or in Montpellier) worked as a physician in northern Italy and probably in Spain. Later through Germany and Bohemia, he came to Wroclaw in 1336 where he joined the Order of St. Dominic. In 1352, Thomas was made an auxiliary bishop of the diocese of Wroclaw. After the episcopal consecration, Thomas stopped living in the abbey, but all the time he was well known both as a priest and physician. He is known as an author of several treatises on medical sciences. His most important work entitled Michi competit (i.e. It suits me) is composed of four parts: Regimen sanitatis (i.e. Hygiene), Aggregatum (i.e. Aggregation), Antidotarium (i.e. Medicine directory) and Practica medicinalis (i.e. Medical practices). Moreover, he is the author of other treatises including, for example, De phlebotomia et de iudiciis cruoris (i.e. On phlebotomy and blood content) and De urinis (i.e. On urine). Some Polish scientists claim that bishop Thomas of Wroclaw with his knowledge and industriousness functioned as a university faculty of medicine even though the University of Cracow had not been established yet.

  14. J. Mikulicz-Radecki, K. H. Bauer, and W. Bross. Three great surgeons, three different epochs, one clinic in Wroclaw.

    PubMed

    Kustrzycki, Wojciech Anatol

    2013-09-01

    The city of Wroclaw (Breslau) lies where the cultural and economic influences of the eastern, southern, and western Europe meet. Over a thousand years of history it changed the state affiliation several times. Since 1945, similarly as seven centuries ago, it lies within the borders of Poland. The historical complex of hospital buildings constructed at the end of the 19th century for the medical faculty remained almost untouched, despite catastrophic war destructions in the whole city. The building of surgical clinic witnessed epoch-making events in the discipline of surgery performed by the three great personalities. Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (1850-1905), the first head of the department, world famous physician and scientist, created in Wroclaw a modern surgical center. From among his numerous achievements the most important seems to be the performance of the world's first safe thoracotomy in the low-pressure chamber (1904). Karl Heinrich Bauer (1890-1979) was the next great personality, who had been leading the surgical department since 1933. Genetics, transplantology, traumatology and oncology were the main points of his interest. Because of political reasons he had to leave Wroclaw. He continued his surgical and scientific career in Heidelberg. Wiktor Bross (1903-1994) came to the ruined city directly after the World War II. As an experienced general and thoracic surgeon he created a new surgical school. First in Poland open heart surgery (1958) and renal transplantation (1966) were performed by him and his team in the same building, where Mikulicz-Radecki and Bauer worked in the past. The memory of all three great surgeons has been honored by placing their sculptures among the prominent Wroclaw citizens in the city hall.

  15. Unconventional forms of popularization of science - festivals 'Science on Stage" in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Aneta

    2010-05-01

    could enter the show rooms and had an opportunity to try their hand at carrying out experiments prepared for them beforehand. All presentations were evaluated by a jury consisting of research workers of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Warsaw University, University of Silesia and members of the Polish Physical Society. Within each category three best presentations were selected, and their authors then represented Poland at the international festival. From many years the chairman of the National Organizing Committee of the festival has been professor Wojciech Nawrocik, the winner of the prestigious competition "Propagator of Science", organized by Polish Press Agency and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. Each festival was inaugurated with a performance prepared by the youngest participants of the festival - kindergarten children, who are outside of the competition. The theme of the last one was: "Preschoolers also are waiting for the Higgs particle!". Next edition of "Science on Stage 4" festival will be held on 24-25 September 2010, also at the Department of Physics at the University of Poznań. Its aim is to show the contribution of physics, other natural and technical sciences in solving energy problems of the world and Poland, and also finding new solutions in power engineering, which will meet a rapidly rising demand for clean and cheap energy.

  16. Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Excited State Electron Transfer and Related Phenomena: Conference Held in Honour of Zbigniew R. Grabowski in Pultusk, Poland on September 27-October 2, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    370 Wroclaw POLAND POLAND M.Sc. Francisco MArquez Linares Prof. Edward C. Lim Department of Phiy-ical Clmnistiy Knight Chemiical Laboratory University...Dr. MIaria Amparo Olba-Torrent Department of Physical Chemuistry ProE Jai Pat Mittal University (if Valencia Chemiistry Division Dr. Moliner 5(0

  17. [Nutrition habits of students of University of Economics in Wroclaw].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of a paper was an assessment of Wroclaw University of Economics students nutritional habits. Purposeful sample group selection was opted in this surrey. The method Ch2 was used to analyses questionnaire data. Obtained results confirm, that most of student don't nourish properly. Irregular breakfast before leaving home is the most frequent incorrectness, as well as irregular second breakfast or resignation from second breakfast at work or on classes breaks. Dinners consumption for large group of polled was irregular too. Lack of proper nutrition habits among young people is the cause of this state. Young people haste and limited finance causing that most of polled. Students consume only one course meal, mostly preparing by themselves. Basic foodstuffs i.e. meat, fishes, poultry, dairy products and fruits and vegetables or more often. Large group of students (especially women) declared eating sweets to often.

  18. THE SCIENCE OF SCIENCE (NAUKOZNAWSTWO) IN POLAND: THE CHANGING THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS--A HISTORICAL SKETCH FROM THE 1910S TO 1993.

    PubMed

    Kokowski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish

  19. A giant Pseudomonas phage from Poland.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Olszak, Tomasz; Danis, Katarzyna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Ackermann, Hans-W

    2014-03-01

    A novel giant phage of the family Myoviridae is described. Pseudomonas phage PA5oct was isolated from a sewage sample from an irrigated field near Wroclaw, Poland. The virion morphology indicates that PA5oct differs from known giant phages. The phage has a head of about 131 nm in diameter and a tail of 136 × 19 nm. Phage PA5oct contains a genome of approximately 375 kbp and differs in size from any tailed phages known. PA5oct was further characterized by determination of its latent period and burst size and its sensitivity to heating, chloroform, and pH.

  20. A Fulbright Specialist in Poland.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Arthur M; Tarkowski, Radoslaw

    2017-02-10

    One of the greatest rewards in cancer education is working with colleagues from around the world. This manuscript reports on the development and conduct of a cancer research training program in Wroclaw, Poland, supported by the Fulbright Commission. The precipitating need for this program was the desire and lack of opportunity for medical trainees to develop skills necessary to conduct cancer education research. A 2-week program was developed consisting of didactic, Socratic, and individual/group consultations. Support from the Fulbright Commission was essential to the success of this program. Information will be presented in this paper on the completion of the funding application as well as lessons learned in the development and implementation of this program.

  1. Paternity testing at the Department of Forensic Medicine of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland).

    PubMed

    Karpiewska, Anna; Kowalczyk, Elżbieta; Dobosz, Tadeusz

    2017-05-01

    Evidentiary materials in court cases comprise the testimony of all relevant parties and witnesses, physical and biological evidence, and the stage of child's development at the moment of birth. In this study, an analysis was made of results obtained between 1966 and 2014 from paternity testing capable of providing biological evidence for court cases. During this time, 16,508 opinions were released, with exclusion of paternity in 4182 cases. The analysis of the total percentage of exclusions in individual years over the entire period of 49years turned out to be very interesting. Initially, there was a high percentage of exclusions, which most likely resulted from women wrongfully accusing men; however, this figure stabilised in the twenty-first century at less than 20%. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Recent advances in the multimodel hydrologic ensemble forecasting using the HydroProg system in the Nysa Klodzka river basin (southwestern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Mizinski, Bartlomiej; Swierczynska-Chlasciak, Malgorzata

    2017-04-01

    The HydroProg system, the real-time multimodel hydrologic ensemble system elaborated at the University of Wroclaw (Poland) in frame of the research grant no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 financed by National Science Centre of Poland, has been experimentally launched in 2013 in the Nysa Klodzka river basin (southwestern Poland). Since that time the system has been working operationally to provide water level predictions in real time. At present, depending on a hydrologic gauge, up to eight hydrologic models are run. They are data- and physically-based solutions, with the majority of them being the data-based ones. The paper aims to report on the performance of the implementation of the HydroProg system for the basin in question. We focus on several high flows episodes and discuss the skills of the individual models in forecasting them. In addition, we present the performance of the multimodel ensemble solution. We also introduce a new prognosis which is determined in the following way: for a given lead time we select the most skillful prediction (from the set of all individual models running at a given gauge and their multimodel ensemble) using the performance statistics computed operationally in real time as a function of lead time.

  3. Spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management: case study in Odra Valley, Poland.

    PubMed

    Rucinska, Dorota

    2015-02-01

    This article presents methodological solutions aimed at presenting the spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management (land use), indicating both those areas used reasonably and those requiring modification. The purpose was to identify key risk areas and risk-free areas from the point of view of human security and activity on the floodplains, based on the examples of the vicinities of Wroclaw and Raciborz in the Odra Valley, Poland. Due to recent climate change, Poland has suffered the effects of severe flooding (e.g., 1997, 2001, 2010). The analyses conducted were motivated by the European Parliament and Council's recently implemented Directive 2007/60/WE, as well as by the demand for studies for local spatial planning. The analysis indicates that reasonably developed areas do not account for the majority of those studied, making up 36% of the Wroclaw area and 15% of the Raciborz area.

  4. Application of the Deformation Information System for automated analysis and mapping of mining terrain deformations - case study from SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowski, Jan; Grzempowski, Piotr; Milczarek, Wojciech; Nowacka, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring, mapping and modelling of mining induced terrain deformations are important tasks for quantifying and minimising threats that arise from underground extraction of useful minerals and affect surface infrastructure, human safety, the environment and security of the mining operation itself. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and expanding with the progress in geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, Global Navigation Satellite Systems, remote sensing, GIS based modelling and spatial statistics, finite element method modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using e.g. the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The presentation shows the results of numerical modelling and mapping of mining terrain deformations for two cases of underground mining sites in SW Poland, hard coal one (abandoned) and copper ore (active) using the functionalities of the Deformation Information System (DIS) (Blachowski et al, 2014 @ http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2014/EGU2014-7949.pdf). The functionalities of the spatial data modelling module of DIS have been presented and its applications in modelling, mapping and visualising mining terrain deformations based on processing of measurement data (geodetic and GNSS) for these two cases have been characterised and compared. These include, self-developed and implemented in DIS, automation procedures for calculating mining terrain subsidence with different interpolation techniques, calculation of other mining deformation parameters (i.e. tilt, horizontal displacement, horizontal strain and curvature), as well as mapping mining terrain categories based on classification of the values of these parameters as used in Poland. Acknowledgments. This work has been financed from the National Science Centre Project "Development of a numerical method of

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of depressive episodes among student population in Wroclaw - epidemiological study results.

    PubMed

    Zagdańska, Marta; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and estimate prevalence of depressive episodes among Wroclaw's universities students. Polish adaptation of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was implemented to gather epidemiological data from 370 students of public universities in Wroclaw. Proportional stratified sampling was performed to obtain distinct, independent strata representing sex, year of study and educational profiles. Randomisation was ensured by recruitment procedures. Prevalence of depressive episodes among students in Wroclaw is high - 14.7% throughout life, 9.8% within 12 months prior to the interview. High prevalence of severe and moderate depressive episodes seems to be worrisome (respectively 5.1% and 6.6% throughout life, 3.8% and 3.9% within 12 months prior to the study). Year of study, profile and lack of partner relationship remain risk factor for depression. High prevalence of depressive episodes indicates the need for prevention and therapy based on epidemiological data and tailored to the students' needs. Depression among students requires further epidemiological studies.

  6. Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Madhur; Kumar, Shrawan; Meghwani, Manoj K; Agrawal, Ravi P

    2014-01-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  7. Electrical and related properties of organic solids. Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference "Electrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids", ERPOS2014, July 6-10, 2014, Świeradów Zdrój, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoć, Marek

    2015-07-01

    Conducting polymers, organic superconductors, organic light emitting diodes, organic field-effect transistors, solar cells made of polymers or sensitized with organic dyes: all of these are common knowledge now. It was not so when conferences of the ERPOS series were started 40 years ago from an initiative of Professor Juliusz Sworakowski of the Technical University of Wroclaw (currently Wroclaw University of Technology), Poland, whose intent was to bring together the researchers from the Eastern Europe and those from the West interested in the electrical properties of organic solids. The first meeting, held in 1974 was a great success and it started a series of conferences, which became known under the acronym "ERPOS" that stood for "Electrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids". Over the years the meetings evolved, at first they were organized only in Poland, but in the eighties they started to be organized alternatively in Poland and in other countries (including Italy, France, The Czech Republic, Lithuania).

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Poland anomaly Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (3 links) Children's ... my area? Other Names for This Condition Poland anomaly Poland sequence Poland syndactyly Poland's anomaly Poland's syndrome ...

  9. Life style and cardiovascular risk factors among students of Wroclaw postgraduate schools.

    PubMed

    Poreba, Rafał; Gać, Paweł; Zawadzki, Marcin; Poreba, Małgorzata; Derkacz, Arkadiusz; Pawlas, Krystyna; Pilecki, Witold; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2008-03-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors include independent factors such as advanced age, male gender, family history and modifiable risk factors including cigarette smoking, arterial hypertension, lipid disturbances, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dietary habits and stress. In contrast, fruit and vegetables consumption, moderate alcohol consumption and physical activity are cardioprotective factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the lifestyle of students from universities of the city of Wroclaw in the aspect of cardiovascular risk factors. The studies were performed in 240 students of nature faculties from four public universities and one nonpublic postgraduate school. Mean age of participants was 21.5 +/- 1.5 years. A special questionnaire prepared by the authors was used during the study, and the participants filled it anonymously. Among the participants 17.4% claimed to use a special diet. Overweight or obesity were declared by 10.3% of the students but it was proved only in 7.7%. Smoking habit was reported by 23.9% of the participants. Students gave the correct answers to questions on diet in 47.7% of cases. Life style and diet habits of the students from Wroclaw universities do not basically differ from the pattern presented by a statistical Pole and it should be modified. In order to improve the present epidemiological situation it is necessary to include problems of preventive medicine in teaching programs in all Polish universities.

  10. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part II. Science, research, development, higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  11. Evidence for an increased distribution range of Dermacentor reticulatus in south-west Poland.

    PubMed

    Kiewra, Dorota; Czulowska, Aleksandra

    2013-04-01

    The expansion of Dermacentor reticulatus to new geographical areas has been observed in several countries in Europe, including Poland and it's neighbors. In 2011 and 2012, a total of 148 host-seeking D. reticulatus ticks were collected after flagging the vegetation in Lower Silesia, south-western Poland. Tick monitoring was conducted in mixed and deciduous forest, on meadows, in river valleys and ecotones between forested and grassy areas. The ornate dog ticks were found in 10 out of 33 sites located in five districts: Legnica, Wroclaw, Środa Śląska, Lubin and Boleslawiec County. All sites where D. reticulatus ticks were found are located to the south-west of the Odra River. The greatest distance between these disconnected localities was approximately 90 km. It seems that at present the southern boundary of the range is Wroclaw district. This study indicates that D. reticulatus can be ranked as a typical element of the fauna in Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland.

  12. On the Issue of a Philosophy in Polish Library Information Science. A Summary of Interviews with Some Leading Scholars. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitecki, Joseph Z.

    This document is based on transcripts of recorded informal interviews with: (1) selected senior professors in the library schools at Warsaw, Krakow, and Wroclaw (Poland); (2) the director and a member of the Books and Readers Institute of the National Polish Libraries; and (3) a group of Polish librarians and students in the field. The report…

  13. [Nutritional knowlegde, lifestyle and food groups intake in the group of the first year students of Agricultural University in Wroclaw].

    PubMed

    Wyka, Joanna; Zechałko-Czajkowska, Alicja

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the level of nutritional knowledge, lifestyle and food group intake was assessed in the first year students of Agricultural University in Wroclaw, by using nutritional questionnaire. Generally, the level of knowledge of principles of rational nutrition was particularly low. Inadequate low intake of cereal, milk, meat products, potatoes, fruit and vegetables was noticed in group of women. Too high intake of meat products, eggs and plant fat was observed in the group of men.

  14. [Tobacco smoking amongst students in the Medical Faculty of Wroclaw Medical University].

    PubMed

    Kurpas, Donata; Jasińska, Ajicja; Wojtal, Mariola; Sochocka, Lucyna; Seń, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of health promotion and diseases profilaxis is a struggle with smoking, which is a well known factor in many disorders, i.e. malignant carcinomas, noncarcinomatous diseases of respiratory system and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was the analysis of the smoking level amongst the students of 6th year of the Medical Faculty of Wroclaw Medical University. Amongst 131 polled women--116 were non-smoking persons (88.5%), 15 smoking (11.5%). Amongst 55 polled men--43 these are non-smoking persons (78%), 12 smoking (22%). Out of smoking women, the most women (6) is smoking from 11 to 15 cigarettes per day, out of smoking men, the most (5 men)--6-10 cigarettes per day. Smoking women began smoking during the secondary school the most often. 8 of men began the smoking in the secondary school. The majority of examined didn't try to limit smoking. Respondents would expect the biggest support from close persons during giving up smoking Only 59% of women and 64% of men disagree definitely to smoking in their presence. In the consequence of above results surprising seems still high percentage of smokers amongst examined, scantiness of taking attempts of giving up smoking and indifference of non-smoking medical students towards smoking in their presence.

  15. Cancer Education in Poland: Current Status and Suggestions for Improvement.

    PubMed

    Wawryka, Joanna; Ziobro, Paulina; Tyszko, Maciej

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we want to describe the opportunities we experienced though involvement with the AACE and EACE to improve cancer education in poland from our points of view as fifth-year medicine students. By participating in the annual meeting of the EACE that our university (Wroclaw ) hosted and also the ESMI-ESO course on medical oncology for medical students, we were able to improve our doctor- patient skills and deepen our knowledge caring for cancer patients. In our opinion in the obligatory medical curriculum in Poland, the curricular offerings in oncology should be better coordinated and there is too little attention to the teaching of the so called "soft skills" for future doctors. Over the course our studies, we are taught a great deal about the biology, diagnosis and symptomatology of cancer; however, we are not exposed very much to issues of communication between the doctor and the oncology patient, or appropriate strategies to pass information about the diagnosis and prognosis. Therefore, we feel that it is important for the future for students to learn more about such topics. Many do this in informal, extracurricular ways as there is much interest to learn about such topics and we will discuss several useful tools. In this review, we would like to summarize the current state of oncology education in Poland and our hopes for improving the current state and to emphasize how inspiring it was for us to participate in an international cancer education meeting where we could discuss good ideas from all over the world and bring them home to Poland.

  16. Science-Economy-Technology Concordance Matrix for Development and Implementation of Regional Smart Specializations in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Smoliński, Adam; Bondaruk, Jan; Pichlak, Magdalena; Trząski, Leszek; Uszok, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The regional smart specializations include the innovative activities within a common science-economy-technology sector, which open the opportunities to gain a competitive advantage. The original procedure of science-economy-technology concordance matrix development on an example of smart specializations of the Silesian Voivodeship was presented in the paper. The procedure developed includes recognition of the research and economic components of the regional smart specialization and the connection between the economic components of the regional specialization and the technological innovation through the international patent classification. It also comprises recognition of key enabling technologies (KETs) and high technologies (of high R&D intensity) other than KET in the economic and technological dimensions of innovation as well as the high R&D intensity services in the economic dimension of innovation. The in-depth expert analyses with the application of the Delphi method were also taken into account. The methodological approach developed and the visualization method applied are both of cognitive and practical importance since they contribute significantly to the creation of efficient development policies, to the enhancement and facilitation of cross-sectoral cooperation, and to the focusing on the fields of key importance in terms of the competitive advantage of a region. PMID:26697528

  17. Science-Economy-Technology Concordance Matrix for Development and Implementation of Regional Smart Specializations in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Bondaruk, Jan; Pichlak, Magdalena; Trząski, Leszek; Uszok, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The regional smart specializations include the innovative activities within a common science-economy-technology sector, which open the opportunities to gain a competitive advantage. The original procedure of science-economy-technology concordance matrix development on an example of smart specializations of the Silesian Voivodeship was presented in the paper. The procedure developed includes recognition of the research and economic components of the regional smart specialization and the connection between the economic components of the regional specialization and the technological innovation through the international patent classification. It also comprises recognition of key enabling technologies (KETs) and high technologies (of high R&D intensity) other than KET in the economic and technological dimensions of innovation as well as the high R&D intensity services in the economic dimension of innovation. The in-depth expert analyses with the application of the Delphi method were also taken into account. The methodological approach developed and the visualization method applied are both of cognitive and practical importance since they contribute significantly to the creation of efficient development policies, to the enhancement and facilitation of cross-sectoral cooperation, and to the focusing on the fields of key importance in terms of the competitive advantage of a region.

  18. Is the use of esomeprazole in gastroesophageal reflux disease a cost-effective option in Poland?

    PubMed

    Petryszyn, Pawel; Staniak, Aleksandra; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej

    2016-03-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of therapy of gastroesophageal reflux disease with esomeprazole and other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in Poland. Studies comparing esomeprazole with other PPIs in the treatment of erosive esophagitis, non-erosive reflux disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease maintenance therapy were systematically reviewed. 9 randomized clinical trials were selected, meta-analyses were conducted. Cost data derived from Polish Ministry of Health and Pharmacies in Wroclaw. In the treatment of erosive esophagitis esomeprazole was significantly more effective than other PPIs. Both for 4- and 8-week therapy respective incremental cost-effectiveness ratio values were acceptably low. Differences in effectiveness of non-erosive reflux disease therapy were not significant. The replacement of pantoprazole 20 mg with more effective esomeprazole 20 mg in the 6-month maintenance therapy was associated with a substantially high incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.

  19. Gunshot wounds (resulting from execution) of exhumed victims of the communist regime in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Kawecki, Jerzy; Jurek, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of the remains of 23 executed male individuals aged between 21 and 63 years, recovered from Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw (Poland), field 83B, in 2012. In 1948 and 1949, prisoners sentenced to death by firing squad--most of them associated with the post-war anti-communist underground independence movement in Poland--were buried there. The aim of the study was to analyse fatal wounds and the method of execution, and to compare the results to data from archival documents. The results were also compared with studies concerning executions during a later period, i.e. 1949-1954. The research on the method of execution during this period of history carried out during the exhumations in Osobowicki Cemetery was the first conducted on such a scale in Poland. Forensic analysis revealed a wide variety of gunshot wounds inflicted during executions, revealing both gunshots to the head, especially single shots to the back of the head, and cases corresponding to the use of a firing squad, probably equipped with machine guns. The results of the research indicate that capital punishment by shooting was carried out in ways both similar to those the specified in the regulations and completely different. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in Poland in space psychology research.

    PubMed

    Terelak, J F

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses the basic directions of research carried out in Poland during the years 1981-86 within the Polish Academy of Science project 06.7. The subject matter concerns: individual and situational determinants of human functioning in stress conditions; functioning of a human in extreme conditions; and load imposition through activities requiring risk-taking decisions.

  1. Aging in Poland.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults.

  2. New OSL ages from last glacial loess in Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, Ludwig; Pierre, Antoine; Zdzislaw, Jary; Piotr, Moska

    2017-04-01

    Loess from the last glaciation (Weichselian) in Silesia, southwest Poland, was deposited relatively close to the maximum ice advance. Therefore, periglacial features such as ice wedging, thermokarst, and gelifluction are well present in several exposures, but also interstadial soil formations or soil complexes. Our present research focusses on the transition from the Middle Pleniglacial to the Upper Pleniglacial. We present first OSL dating results from the loess sections Zapreczyn and Bialy Kosciol north and south from Wroclaw bracketing the interstadial L1S1 (Gi/LMd) soil complex. The different distance of these two sections from the maximum ice advance apparently caused some regional differences in the stratigraphy and the typology of the L1S1 soil complex which spans a considerable time due to repeated reworking and/or erosion of soil material under periglacial conditions. Whereas no ice-wedging is recorded from the "lower younger loess" at Bialy Kosciol, at Zapreczyn the loess containing a buried ice-wedge network is now evidently coeval with the lower younger loess and the upper younger loess is represented in a small "greda" containing sand stripes.

  3. [Folic acid intake in daily food rations of 20-25 years old women from Wroclaw and assessment of knowledge about its importance for health].

    PubMed

    Wyka, Joanna; Mikołajczak, Jolanta

    2007-01-01

    The mean folic acid content in the diets of 50 young women from Wroclaw was 282 mcg and complied in 70.5% of recommended intake in prophylactic of neural tube defects. Only 8% of women used peri-conceptional folate supplementation every day. In the examined group low knowledge about importance of folic acid in health was noticed. Educational interventions are required to inform women at childbearing age of the benefits resulting from supplementation of diet with folic acid.

  4. Prevalence of Diet Atherogenicity and Coexistence of Lipid Disorders and Arterial Hypertension among 50-year-old Inhabitants of Wroclaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Mandecka, Anna; Ilow, Rafał; Kowalisko, Alicja; Konikowska, Klaudia

    2017-03-01

    The incorrect composition of a diet, its atherogenicity, is conducive to the occurrence of lipid disorders, arterial hypertension (HTN), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of incorrect anthropometric and biochemical parameters as well as diet atherogenicity. The study group included 1,520 adults (880 women, 640 men). The nutritional status evaluation was based on respondents' BMI and waist circumference. The diet atherogenicity was estimated using Keys Index (KI) and P/S ratio. Total cholesterol (TCh), LDL cholesterol as well as triglycerides (TG) concentration in blood serum were also evaluated. In 56.8% of women and 60.8% of men waist circumference exceeded referential values. The diets of 71.4% of women and 87.3% of men were atherogenic. HTN was observed in 64.1% of the study population. Hypercholesterolaemia was found in approximately 72% of the respondents. The increased LDL cholesterol concentration were found in 57.5% of women and 64.5% of men. Abnormal concentration of HDL cholesterol occurred among approximately 20% of respondents. Hypertriglyceridaemia was recognised in 26% of women and 44% of men. In the group of women and men with HTN, mean values, i.e. BMI, waist circumference and TG (with TCh concentration additionally noted in men) were found as significant. Normal lipid profile and arterial pressure values were observed in 6.6% of the population. In the diets of men with HTN were observed higher values of KI compared to group without HTN. No significant differences were found in the frequency of occurrence of the analysed parameters either among the group of women with HTN or without it. In the group of men with HTN, the abnormal BMI, waist circumference and TG occurred more frequently.

  5. News Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

  6. Astronomy in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarna, M.; Stępień, K.

    2015-09-01

    Polish post-war astronomy was built virtually from nothing. Currently, about 250 astronomers are employed in seven academic institutes and a few smaller units across Poland. Broad areas of astrophysics are covered and the level of astronomical research in Poland is higher than the world average. Joining ESO has created an atmosphere that is conducive to further improvements in the quality of Polish research, and it marks an important step towards the full integration of Polish astronomers into the international scientific community.

  7. The 100th anniversary of the birth of N E Alekseevskii (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 May 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of RAS Corresponding Member N E Alekseevskii took place on 23 May 2012 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were put on the session agenda as posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kopaev Yu V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "About N E Alekseevskii" (2) Brandt N B (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "My teacher Nikolai Evgen'evich Alekseevskii"; (3) Peschansky V G (B I Verkin Physical-Technical Institute of Low Temperatures of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine) "Galvanomagnetic effects in layered conductors"; (4) Krasnoperov E P (The National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "First steps of technical superconductivity in the USSR"; (5) Nizhankovsky V I (International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Wroclaw, Poland), Tsebro V I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "History of creation and growth of the International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures".Papers written on the basis of oral presentations 2 - 5 are printed below. • The best years of my life, N B Brandt Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 192-198 • Galvanomagnetic phenomena in layered conductors, V G Peschansky Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 198-201 • At the origins of applied superconductivity, E P Krasnoperov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 202-204 • International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures: how it was set up and how it evolved, V I Nizhankovskii, V I Tsebro Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 204-210

  8. Poland: Children's Fiction in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povsic, Frances F.

    1980-01-01

    Lists and annotates children's books that present Polish folklore and legends, biographies of famous Polish people, personal accounts of life in Poland, and stories about Polish Americans and people living in Poland. (ET)

  9. Exhumation research concerning the victims of political repressions in 1945-1956 in Poland: A new direction in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Lukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Konczewski, Paweł; Kawecki, Jerzy; Swiątek, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland), the bodies of 223 prisoners were exhumed, including the victims of political repressions and prosecutions in the period 1949-1954, during which people fighting for the independence of Poland were executed and buried in unidentified graves in various graveyards. It was the first exhumation conducted in Poland on such a large scale. The aim of the present publication is to describe the new direction in forensic medicine employed in these exhumations, which resulted from the new opportunities created by the opening of the state archives after the political transformation of 1989. The authors describe the difficulties they encountered during their exploration of prisoners' burial grounds. The graveyards included in the investigation bear the marks of an intentional policy of confusion and secret burial methods. First, significant disorder in the logical (based on time of death) sequence of burials was observed. This made identification difficult. A substantial time lapse between death and burial in each case, along with the unavailability of comparative data, limited the use of identification methods widely employed in forensic medicine. For this reason, initial analysis had to be based on observations and confirmations made by forensic medicine about the sequence of burials as compared to cemetery documentation. Situations such as this clearly call for the cooperation of historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and forensic pathologists. Political transformations in Eastern Europe in the 1990s gave rise to hopes of exchanging experiences in this type of research as conducted in other countries of the former Eastern Bloc.

  10. Higher Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluczynski, J.

    The current problems of higher education in Poland are addressed, with focus on its variety, operation, and history. The emphasis is on the development of events during the past decade and particularly since 1980. One in a series of monographs on national systems of higher education in Europe, this report covers the following: (1) introduction;…

  11. Pharmaceutical Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmanowa, Miroslawa; Borke, Mitchell L.

    1978-01-01

    The content and organization of Poland's system of pharmaceutical education is described. Tables are presented of the subjects of the basic studies curriculum and the following areas of specialization: applied pharmacy, pharmaceutical analysis, clinical analysis, drug technology, herbal pharmacy, and bioanalysis and environmental studies. (SW)

  12. Income Affluence in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of income affluence (richness) in Poland during 1998-2007. Using household survey data, the paper estimates several statistical indices of income affluence including income share of the top percentiles, population share of individuals receiving incomes higher than the richness line, and measures that take into…

  13. Abortion in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.

  14. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  15. Poland and Global Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  16. [Emigration from Poland].

    PubMed

    Fassmann, H

    1998-01-01

    "Apart from Ireland and Italy Poland belongs to the ¿classical' emigration countries of the 19th and 20th century. Due to economical and political factors a considerable number of Poles left their country.... Spread over many countries on several continents the emigrants established a Polish diaspora and developed a national feeling that is...[connected] with the Polish culture and the Polish ¿community'. The existence of ethnic networks structures characterized the Polish emigration also after 1989/90. Political and ethnic factors become thereby less important in comparison with economical push- and pull-factors. This leads to an emigration of qualified people who get jobs in the urban labour markets of Western Europe in private households, and in the building trade, sometimes under precarious circumstances." (EXCERPT)

  17. Tetanus in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    For many years the number of tetanus cases reported in Poland remaing below fifty with marked random variations. Almost all disease occur in people unvaccinated. Some of them, especially in people over age 60, are fatal.

  18. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  19. FOREWORD: 7th Symposium on Vacuum-based Science and Technology (SVBST2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbiński, W.

    2014-11-01

    These are the proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Vacuum based Science and Technology organized in Kołobrzeg (PL) on November 19-21, 2013 by the Institute of Technology and Education, Koszalin University of Technology and the Clausius Tower Society under auspices of the Polish Vacuum Society (PTP) and the German Vacuum Society (DVG) and in collaboration with the BalticNet PlasmaTec and the Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC). It was accompanied by the 12-th Annual Meeting of the German Vacuum Society. The mission of the Symposium is to provide a forum for presentation and exchange of expertise and research results in the field of vacuum and plasma science. After already six successful meetings organized alternately in Poland and Germany our goal is to continue and foster cooperation within the vacuum and plasma science community. This year, the Rudolf-Jaeckel Prize, awarded by the DVG for outstanding achievements in the field of vacuum based sciences, was presented to Dr Ute Bergner, president of the VACOM Vakuum Komponenten & Messtechnik GmbH and a member of our community. The full-day course organized in the framework of the Educational Program by the Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC) and entitled: An Introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processes was held on November 18, 2013 as a satellite event of the Symposium. The instructor was Prof. Ismat Shah from Delaware University (US). The Clausius Session, already traditionally organized during the Symposium was addressed this year to young generation. We invited our young colleagues to attend a series of educational lectures reporting on achievements in graphene science, scanning probe microscopy and plasma science. Lectures were given by: Prof. Jacek Baranowski from the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology in Warsaw, Prof. Teodor Gotszalk from the Wroclaw University of Technology and Prof. Holger Kersten from the Christian Albrechts University in Kiel. The Symposium was accompanied by an industry

  20. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting.

  1. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  2. First radon measurements and occupational exposure assessments in underground geodynamic laboratory the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ Castle (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia; Przylibski, Tadeusz A

    2016-12-01

    The article presents the results of the first radon activity concentration measurements conducted continuously between 17(th) May 2014 and 16(th) May 2015 in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ. The data were registered with the use of three Polish semiconductor SRDN-3 detectors located the closest (SRDN-3 No. 6) to and the furthest (SRDN-3 No. 3) from the facility entrance, and in the fault zone (SRDN-3 No. 4). The study was conducted to characterize the radon behaviour and check it possibility to use with reference to long- and short-term variations of radon activity concentration observed in sedimentary rocks strongly fractured and intersected by systems of multiple faults, for integrated comparative assessments of changes in local orogen kinetics. The values of radon activity concentration in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) Space Research Centre in Książ undergo changes of a distinctly seasonal character. The highest values of radon activity concentration are recorded from late spring (May/June) to early autumn (October), and the lowest - from November to April. Radon activity concentrations varied depending on the location of measurement points. Between late spring and autumn they ranged from 800 Bq·m(-3) to 1200 Bq·m(-3), and even 3200 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. Between November and April, values of radon activity concentration are lower, ranging from 500 Bq·m(-3) to 1000 Bq·m(-3) and 2700 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. The values of radon activity concentration recorded in the studied facility did not undergo short-term changes in either the whole annual measuring cycle or any of its months. Effective doses received by people staying in the underground laboratory range from 0.001 mSv/h to 0.012 mSv/h. The mean annual effective dose, depending on the measurement site, equals 1 or is slightly higher than 10 mSv/year, while the maximum

  3. Poland health system review.

    PubMed

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  4. Chickenpox in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children between 0-14 years old and among those who are not vaccinated, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. AIM. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1;2). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used (3). In 2014, 221 628 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 575.9 and was lower than in 2013 (463.6). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship (35 321), the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship (5 346). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years. The chickenpox incidence among men was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (543.4). The incidence among rural residents (595.0) was higher by 9.8 % than among urban residents. Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 467. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 63 608. In 2014, there was increase in the incidence of chickenpox in Poland. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  5. Chickenpox in Poland in 2011.

    PubMed

    Lipke, Małgorzata; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases which occur in children indicate the rationality of the use of preventive vaccination. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is recommended. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2011 and to compare with the situation in the previous years. Assessment of the epidemiological situation chickenpox in 2011 in Poland was based on analysis of the data published in the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2011." and "Immunization Safety in Poland in 2011 (Czarkowski MP. Et al., Warsaw, NIPH-NIH, GIS). In addition, on data from the "Immunization Program for 2011" (Annex to the Statement of the Chief Sanitary Inspector on Oct. 28, 2010). In 2011. 172 855 registered cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland n 2011. Incidence was 448.7/100. It was lower than in 2010. (480.4/100,000). Highest incidence was in Mazowieckie, the lowest in Podlaskie. Across the age groups the highest incidence (3708.7/100,000) was reported in age group 5-9. The incidence of chickenpox in men (472.3/100,000) was higher than in women (426.5/100,000). In inhabitants of rural areas it was higher (473.5) than among urban residents (432.7/100,000). Number of hospitalized cases was 1 016. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox amounted to 38 943 people. In 2011 there was small decrease in the incidence of chickenpox. But the rising trend is continuing in Poland since 2004. It can be partly be explained by improved surveillance of the disease. Overall high incidence of chickenpox brings problem of widespread vaccination of children.

  6. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  7. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiński, Piotr; Górecki, Krzysztof; Bogdanowicz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the selected articles presented at the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference, held in Gdansk, Poland on September 20-23, 2015 (IMAPS Poland 2015). The conference has been held under the scientific patronage of the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Poland Chapter and the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunication, Polish Academy of Science and jointly hosted by the Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics (GUT) and the Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (GMU). The IMAPS Poland conference series aims to advance interdisciplinary scientific information exchange and the discussion of the science and technology of advanced electronics. The IMAPS Poland 2015 conference took place in the heart of Gdansk, two minutes walking distance from the beach. The surroundings and location of the venue guaranteed excellent working and leisure conditions. The three-day conference highlighted invited talks by outstanding scientists working in important areas of electronics and electronic material science. The eight sessions covered areas in the fields of electronics packaging, interconnects on PCB, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC), MEMS devices, transducers, sensors and modelling of electronic devices. The conference was attended by 99 participants from 11 countries. The conference schedule included 18 invited presentations and 78 poster presentations.

  8. Avian influenza in Poland.

    PubMed

    Smietanka, Krzysztof; Minta, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    Poland has experienced four episodes of avian influenza (AI) outbreaks over the past two decades. The first epidemic was caused by a low pathogenicity (LPAIV) H7N7 subtype and occurred in fattening and breeder turkeys in 1995. Two waves of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) took place in 2006 and 2007. In spring 2006, 64 cases of the H5N1 virus were detected, mostly in mute swans. In December 2007, ten outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI were detected in commercial poultry (n = 9) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 1). The outbreaks in 2006 and 2007 were caused by genetically similar but clearly distinguishable viruses of the 2.2 clade. In 2013, an H9N2 avian influenza virus was detected in 4 fattening turkey holdings. The virus was low pathogenic and a phylogenetic study has shown a close relatedness to the Eurasian lineage of AIV of the wild bird origin. Neither preventive nor prophylactic vaccinations have ever been used in poultry or other birds. Emergency vaccinations using autogenous vaccine were introduced only to control the H7N7 LPAI outbreaks in 1995. The baseline surveillance for AI in live migratory birds and poultry provides a valuable insight into the ecology of AIV at the wild and domestic bird interface. Passive surveillance is in place of early detection of HPAIV infection in dead or moribund birds.

  9. Nurse prescribing in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Więch, Paweł; Bazaliński, Dariusz; Marć, Małgorzata; Bartosiewicz, Anna; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify and examine the differences in opinions held by health care professionals and the general public concerning the right to administer and prescribe medication which has been awarded to nurses and midwives in Poland. The study was conducted from December 1, 2014 to July 1, 2015, in randomly selected primary health care clinics, among 2227 individuals, including 849 subjects representing medical personnel of primary health care and 1378 patients receiving primary care services. The study used 2 versions of a questionnaire. The relationships were examined with χ2 test for independence and Kruskal–Wallis test. Health professionals do not believe the new rights awarded to nurses and midwives will reduce the waiting time for medical consultations (P < 0.001). Nurses’ qualifications for the new tasks were most highly rated by patients, whereas the least favorable opinion was expressed by doctors (P < 0.001). To introduce nurse prescribing it is necessary to develop a suitable strategy enabling implementation of the government's initiative and facilitating the process of taking up the new task by nurses. PMID:27537573

  10. [Implantation of plastic and metal stents to biliary tract in obstructive jaundice in material of Surgery Department of 4th Military Clinical Hospital in Wroclaw].

    PubMed

    Janczak, Dariusz; Wieraszko, Artur; Kabziński, Piotr; Janus, Werner; Rać, Jacek; Debski, Jacek; Malinowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    A method of treatment for malignant bile duct strictures depends on early diagnosis, location and extent of tumor infiltration. Patients eligible for radical surgery should be operated. The authors used plastic and metal prostheses in the treatment of biliary tract cancer cholestasis. Retrospective analysis was done in 2730 endoscopies performed in the Laboratory of the Department of Endoscopic Surgery, 4th Military Hospital in Wroclaw in 2008-2011. The authors analyzed 441 cases of prosthetic biliary cancer. 223 patients (51%) were treated for pancreatic head tumor, 98 pts (22%)--for papilla of Vater tumor, 85 pts (19%)--due to Klatskin tumor and 35 pts (8%)--due to tumor of the gallbladder. Plastic prostheses were inserted in 228 (65.4%) patients, self-expanding metal prostheses--in 21 patients (4.9%). Dilatation of the bile duct or the inserted prosthesis was performed in 48 (11.1%) pts. 27 patients (6.1%) had endoscopic treatment failure. 32 patients (7.3%) had following complications of biliary prosthesis: bleeding into the bile duct, into the digestive tract--4 cases (1%), the migration of the prosthesis--7 (1.6%), cholangitis--21 cases (4.7%). Palliative biliary stenting is a safe method that provides efficient drainage of bile. It shows a definitive advantage over percutaneous, biliary transhepatic drainage.

  11. Poland-AOD aerosol research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Markowicz, Krzysztof

    2017-04-01

    Poland-AOD research network (www.polandaod.pl) was formed in 2011. It is a consortium of Polish institutions that are involved in studies of the atmospheric aerosol impact on the climate system. In 2016 the Poland-AOD network comprised of five stations: Radiative Transfer Laboratory, University of Warsaw (urban station), the research station of the Institute of Oceanology, in Sopot (coastal station), Radiative Transfer Station SolarAOT in Strzyzow (background station in the Carpathian mountains), Meteorology and Climatology Observatory at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (urban station), and the Research station in Rzecin at Poznan University of Life Sciences (rural station). The primary goal of the network is to carry out measurements of aerosol single scattering properties, radiation budget, simulate radiative transfer and aerosol transport, validate aerosol transport and transformation models such as NAAPS and GEM-AQ, as well as carry out instrument calibration and intercomparison. We will present observations of aerosol properties collected by the network as well as results from the GEM-AQ model simulations for selected episodes of biomass burning and urban aerosol.

  12. Chickenpox in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2013 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In 2013, 178 501 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 463.6 and was lower than in 2012 (540.5). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship. The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (6 545.1 per 100,000). The chickenpox incidence among men (491.7) was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (437.3). The incidence among rural residents (497.2) was higher than among urban residents (441.7). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 184. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 57 168. In 2013, there was decrease in the incidence of chickenpox [corrected] in Poland with small fluctuations. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  13. Rubella in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella to be confirmed with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012". In 2012, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of rubella - 6 263 cases (in 2011, 4 290 cases) - and the increase in incidence (from 11.1 per 100 thousand. 16.3). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (118.0 per 100 000). As in 2011, the incidence of rubella in boys and men was higher than the incidence in girls and women (25.6 versus 7.5). In 2012, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2012, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  14. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  15. Malaria in Poland in 2011.

    PubMed

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    To assess the epidemiological situation of malaria in Poland in 2011 as compared with previous years. evaluation of incidence of malaria registered in Poland in 2011, based on the results of the analysis of individual reports sent to the NIPH-NIH by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and on aggregate data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland." Case classification in the epidemiological surveillance based on case definition for malaria approved by EC in the EU countries in 2008. Only symptomatic laboratory-confirmed cases were recorded. In 2011 14 cases of malaria were registered in Poland. All were imported from malaria-endemic countries: 64% of the cases were brought from Africa, and 21% from Asia. In comparison with the previous year number of reported cases was smaller by 21 cases. No deaths were reported. In one person who did not leave Poland in the last year there was probably a recurrence of malaria, though Plasmodium species has not been established. Among the cases with species-specific diagnosis 7 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 2 (18%) by P. vivax and P. malariae in one. Also in one case the mixed invasion was found. In 50% of cases the infection occurred during work-related trips, 43% in tourist trips and in one case, the student fell ill, who was in Cameroon a year earlier. Chemoprophylaxis was applied to five people but only in one person appropriately. In 2011, in connection with an outbreak of malaria in Greece, restrictions on blood donation for returnees from certain regions of Greece were implemented. Despite marked fluctuations in the total annual number of reported cases, incidence in Poland remains low. The main problem for the Polish imported malaria remains seriousness of illness in many patients, most often as a result of delayed diagnosis.

  16. Mumps in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common disease among the children. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used. In total, there were 2 508 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2014. Incidence of mumps was 6.5 per 100,000 and it was higher by 3.1 % in comparison with 2013 and lower by 9.7 % in comparison with median for the years 2008-2012. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 4 years (61.3 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.8 per 100,000) was higher than in women (5.3). In 2014, 31 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.0% and it was lower by 0.5 % in comparison with year 2013 (97.5 %). Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  17. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  18. Seismic event near Jarocin (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizurek, Grzegorz; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiejacz, Paweł; Wiszniowski, Jan; Trojanowski, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    The earthquake of magnitude M L = 3:8 (EMSC) took place on Friday, 6 January 2012, north-east of the town of Jarocin in Wielkopolska Region, Poland. The only historical information about past earthquakes in the region was found in the diary from 1824; apart of it, there was a seismic event noticed in the vicinity of Wielkopolska in 1606 (Pagaczewski 1982). The scope of this paper is to describe the 6 January 2012 event in view of instrumental seismology, macroseismic data analysis and known tectonics of the region, which should be useful in future seismic hazard analysis of Poland.

  19. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-06-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19(th) century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I.

  20. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19th century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I. PMID:26336508

  1. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2013". In 2013 in Poland 3,116 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013 compared to 2012 did not change significantly.

  2. Herbal treatment of the urinary system diseases based on 16(th) and 17(th) century herbals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-02-01

    The medicinal use of herbs is a principal achievement of human ingenuity. The most renowned doctors of antiquity: Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and Galen mentioned herbs in their works. The first printed herbal was published in Mainz in 1485. Outstanding scientists e.g. Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonard Fuchs and Andreo Mattiola published herbals in the 16th century. Polish doctors also contributed to the development of herbal treatment. The first work: Of Herbs and their Potency by Stefan Falimirz, published in 1534, triggered other publications in the 16th century, the age of herbals. In 1542, Hieronymus Spiczynski published a herbal: Of Local and Overseas Herbs and their Potency. Then, in 1568, Marcin Siennik published his: Herbal, which is the Description of Local and Overseas Herbs, their Potency and Application. In 1595, Marcin of Urzedow published: The Polish Herbal, the Books of Herbs. Completed in mid-16th century, it was only published 22 years after his death. The last work discussed is Herbal Known in Latin as published in 1613 by Simon Syrenius a graduate of Ingolstadt and Padua universities and lecturer at the Academy of Krakow. The work was Europes most complete elaboration on herbal treatment. The herbs described in the herbals worked as diuretics, demulcents, analgesics, relaxants and preventives of kidney stones. Published in Polish, they are still to be found in Poland. All the works presented herein are held by the Library of the Seminary of Wloclawek, and the Ossolinski National Institute in Wroclaw.

  3. Dew chemistry near a motorway in SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, G.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Błaś, M.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this project is to show the influence of a large linear source of air pollution on dew formation and chemistry. Dew sampling was performed during the growing season of 2009 at 3 sites near Wroclaw in SW Poland in the vicinity of A4 motorway which connects southern part of Poland with Germany and other EU countries. The road crosses in this part a rural landscape from WSW to ENE direction. The traffic is notoriously heavy, even at night, and lorries constitute about one third of vehicles. Two of the sampling sites were set in a distance of 30 meters from the motorway edge on the opposite sides (SE and NW) of the road to monitor dew efficiency and chemistry depending on wind direction. The third one was set 1.25 km to the NNW of the former pair to represent background rural conditions beyond the road influence. All three sites and the motorway are surrounded by vast arable grounds with intense agriculture activity. Three insulated plane radiative condensers, each 1 m2 in area, inclined at 15°, were installed at measurement sites. Two series of measurements were performed: the first in April lasted twenty days including several days without sampling, the second in September was continuous and lasted eleven days. Altogether there were nineteen dew or hoar frost sampling days, nine in April and ten in September. Basic meteorological data were gathered three times daily. Water yield of three condensers was compared to meteorological data and between each other. The research findings show that the most favorable weather conditions corresponding to high amounts of dew or hoar frost were characterized by synoptic scale warm air advection, high relative humidity, moderate wind speed i.e. 2-3 m/s and radiative weather. The samples from condenser located in calm air site usually had less volume than the other in windy place. The motorway heat source imposed a strong impact on efficiency of dew. The condenser on the leeward site of the road was characterized

  4. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  5. Making Media Policy in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goban-Klas, Tomasz

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the creation of the new media policy in Poland formed at the 1989 "round table" negotiations between the Polish leadership and Solidarity, a Polish trade union. Discusses the issues of censorship, access to newsprint and to the airwaves (primarily to television), and the legalization of underground publications. (KEH)

  6. Air protection strategy in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  7. Female sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1996-01-01

    It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).

  8. Malaria in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    To describe the epidemiological situation of imported malaria in Poland in 2012 as compared with previous years. Evaluation of malaria epidemiological situation in Poland in 2012, based on the results of the analysis of individual reports sent to the NIPH-NIH by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and aggregate data published in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland". Cases were registered according to the case definition approved in the EU countries. In 2012, a total of 21 malaria cases were registered in Poland, including one fatal case. All cases were imported from malaria-endemic countries: 52% from Africa and remaining cases from Asia. Overall, compared to 2011, 7 more cases were reported. Given a median for the years 2006-2010, the number remained at the same level. In one patient the recurrence of malaria falciparum was observed following the failure of treatment undertaken in Cameroon. Plasmodium species was determined in 18 cases (86%); including 10 (61%) caused by P. falciparum, 6 (33%) by P. vivax and one by P. malariae. One patient was diagnosed with mixed invasion. Infections were occurred most frequently during work-related trips (43%) or tourist trips (38%), in other cases the purpose of the journey was to visit the country of origin (14%) or its purpose remained unknown. Only four people took any chemoprophylaxis; in one case, a drug matched inappropriately to the destination was applied, the remaining three persons applied drugs contrary to the recommended drug regimen. The number of cases of imported malaria in Poland remained at a low level, similar to that observed in previous years. A large number of delayed diagnoses (more than half of the reported cases) and another case of fatal outcome in the course of malaria indicate still low awareness of malaria threat among both travelers and primary care physicians.

  9. Projets et Resultats des Recherches sur l'Histoire des Bibliotheques en Pologne (Projects and Results of Research on the History of Libraries in Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubow, Stefan

    The history of library science in Poland and a number of Polish research projects are reviewed in this paper. It is concluded that a considerable amount of research has been done on the history of libraries in Poland, but that this research is fragmented and separated by its focus on theory or methodology. The methodology of scientific research in…

  10. Analysis of injuries and causes of death in fatal farm-related incidents in Lower Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed

    Rorat, Marta; Thannhauser, Agata; Jurek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Workers in the agriculture sector are among the groups at the highest risk of fatal occupational injuries. The aim of study is to show the most common causes of farm-related deaths in Poland, with the circumstances, injuries sustained and mechanisms of death. There were 109 (90.8%) males aged 19-81 and 11 females aged 19-73. 18.3% were over 60 years of age. There were 6 children (boys) aged between 2-6. A retrospective review was undertaken of 16,140 medico-legal autopsy reports by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Wroclaw between 1991-2011, which included 120 fatal farm-related incidents. The study protocol included gender, age, date and cause of death, all injuries found, circumstances and mechanism of death, place of death and blood alcohol concentration. The most common (33/120; 27.5%) causes of death, both in men and women, were traffic accidents, the second being hit, crushed or buried by materials and falling objects. The most common injury was multi-organ damage (27/120; 22.5%), less common were cranio-cerebral injury (17/120; 14.2%) and thoracic blunt trauma (11/120; 9.2%). In multi-organ and thoracic traumas the mechanism of death was almost always exsanguinations. 85.3% of victims died at the place found. 37.2% of victims were drunk. In Poland, fatal injuries occurring in agriculture are mostly related to the misuse of transport and machinery. The main efforts to prevent accidents are engineering improvements, use of personal protective equipment, alcohol intake prevention and appropriate education of the workforce. Special prevention programmes should take gender and age differences into account.

  11. Fatal accidents at work in agriculture associated with alcohol intoxication in Lower Silesia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jurek, Tomasz; Rorat, Marta

    2017-02-28

    Determining the prevalence of alcohol intoxication and the level of intoxication in victims of fatal occupational accidents is necessary to improve work safety. The circumstances of the accident and the time between alcohol consumption and death are important factors. A retrospective review of 18 935 medico-legal autopsy reports and toxicological reports performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Wroclaw Medical University, Poland, in the years 1991-2014. The study protocol included circumstances, time and cause of death, injuries, quantitative testing for the presence of ethyl alcohol, gender and age. There were 98 farm-related fatalities. There were 41.8% (N = 41) of victims who had been intoxicated - 95.1% (N = 39) of them were males aged 19-70 years old, 4,9% (N = 2) were females aged 37-65 years old. In 8 cases the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was 50-150 mg/dl; in 15 cases it was 150-250 mg/dl and in 18 cases it was > 250 mg/dl. In 21 cases, the BAC was determined using alternative material and 76% (N = 16) victims were in the alcohol elimination phase with 19% (N = 4) victims in the alcohol absorption phase. The most common causes of death were traffic accidents, drowning and deaths resulting from being caught in or hit by moving parts of machinery or equipment. Alcohol consumption is a crucial risk factor in fatal agricultural accidents. In order to establish the time of alcohol consumption, all victims of agricultural accidents should be tested for alcohol concentration in their blood and urine or vitreous. Improving safety at work requires that the sobriety of employees should be monitored before and during work. Med Pr 2017;68(1):23-30.

  12. [Chickenpox in Poland in 2010].

    PubMed

    Głuchowska, Małgorzata; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Chickenpox is a common childhood disease. It occurs sporadically in persons over the age of 15. Regardless of the fact that chickenpox is considered to be a disease of benign course, it may cause complications of different severity levels and with necessity of hospitalization. Since 2004, a high incidence of chickenpox is observed in Poland. The aim of the present article was to analyze the epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2010 with its comparison to the situation observed in the previous years. The epidemiological situation ofchickenpox in Poland in 2010 was analyzed on the basis of aggregated data on infectious diseases published in the annual bulletins, i.e.: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2010" (Czarkowski MP. et al., Warsaw, NIPH-NIH, Chief Sanitary Inspectorate) and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2010" (Czarkowski MP. et al., Warsaw, NIPH-NIH, Chief Sanitary Inspectorate). In the present article the authors also referred to the Polish Immunization Programme for 2010 (annex to the statement of the Chief Sanitary Inspector of 22 October 2009). The data on the number of hospitalized persons and complications due to the chickenpox was derived from the Department - Centre for Monitoring and Analyses of Population Health Status and Health Care System (NIPH-NIH). In 2010, 183 446 cases of chickenpox were reported. The highest number of chickenpox cases was registered in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest--in podlaskie voivodeship. The incidence was estimated at 480.04 per 100 000 population and was significantly higher than the incidence observed in 2009 (367.2). The highest chickenpox incidence, which amounted to 4298.4 per 100 000, was reported in children aged 5-9 years. The highest number ofchickenpox cases (the peak) was reported in the period from January to June. The lowest number of cases was registered in September. The chickenpox incidence was higher in men than women and in the inhabitans of villages (498.6 per 100 000

  13. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  14. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. ); Balandynowicz, H.W. . Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  15. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed

    David, T J

    1982-06-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated.

  16. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    David, T J

    1982-01-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated. PMID:7092316

  17. Urgent emergency issue in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Piotr

    2006-10-01

    The paper refers to the problem of emergency medical service in Poland, which is the only European Union Member State not having activated the emergency phone number 112. This fact has caused the threat of European Union sanctions. In this context, we try to discuss the chances of finalizing reform of the dramatically inefficient Polish emergency services. Except for the lack of the integrated emergency call centres, there is no appropriate network of emergency hospital departments in Poland and no clear regulations concerning emergency professions. The necessary law was enacted in 2001, but it did not come into force. The threat of European Union sanctions may hasten its implementation; however, the weak position of the present government may cause a further delay of the reform.

  18. [Chickenpox in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, 140.115 cases of chickenpox were reported in Poland. The incidence 367.2 per 100,000 was higher compared to 2008 (340.2). Children 5-9 years old were the most affected age group--3252.8 per 100 000. Of 140.115 cases, 969 (0.69%) were hospitalized and 4 deaths attributed to chickenpox were reported.

  19. [Chickenpox in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 129.662 cases ofchickenpox were reported in Poland. The incidence 340.2 per 100,000 was lower compared to 2007 (420.2) and to the median incidence in 2002-2006 (370.7). Children 5-9 year old were the most affected age group - 3057.1 per 100 000. Of 129 662 cases, 800 (0.62%) were hospitalized and no deaths attributed to chickenpox were reported.

  20. Poland syndrome with dextrocardia: case report.

    PubMed

    Galiwango, G W; Swan, M C; Nyende, R; Hodges, A M

    2010-11-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital condition presentingwith typical features including an absent costosternal head of pectoralis major andipsilateral brachysyndactyly. There are many clinical variations of the syndrome including rib defects, absence of shoulder girdle muscle and breast hypoplasia or agenesis. Dextrocardia is rarely associated with Poland Syndrome with only 22 cases being previously reported in the worldwide literature. Whereas 'classical' Poland syndrome is predominantly right sided, all cases associated with dextrocardia have been left sided. We report a further case of left sided Poland syndrome with dextrocardia which might have important implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of this unusual condition.

  1. Poland syndrome: rare presentation in two cases.

    PubMed

    Gocmen, Hayrettin; Akkas, Yucel; Doganay, Selim

    2010-08-27

    Poland syndrome was first described in 1840 by Alfred Poland while still a medical student and the other components of the syndrome were described at London Guy's Hospital following the dissection of a cadaver's hand, which had hypoplasia and syndactyly. The incidence of Poland syndrome has been reported to be 1 in 30,000 live births. In the present case report, two Poland syndrome patients with ipsilateral hypomastia and a reduction in the axillary/pectoral hairs diagnosed during adulthood are presented; one patient was affected on the left side and had widespread cafe au lait spots, and the other patient had respiratory dysfunction due to multiple rib anomalies.

  2. Green tobacco sickness in Poland.

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Goszcz, Halina; Gomółka, Ewa; Biedroń, Witold

    2009-03-01

    Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is an illness associated with exposure to nicotine originating directly from the growing tobacco plant. The exposure takes place in the course of activities during tobacco farming. Nausea, vomiting, headache and dizziness are the symptoms typical of GTS. The GTS cases have been most commonly reported in the USA, Japan, India and Italy. The first case of GTS in Poland has been diagnosed in a young man working on a Virginia bright tobacco plantation. The patient had symptoms typical of GTS. The toxicological analysis of urine demonstrated the presence of cotinine at the level of 869 ng/ml. Intravenous fluids, anticholinergic agents and potassium supplementation were used in the treatment. Interestingly, diplopia at the initial stage of tobacco poisoning and horizontal nystagmus, which resolved on the 2nd day of hospital stay were observed. We believe that cases of GTS occur in Poland; however patients do not seek medical care. Given that the majority of activities during tobacco farming in Poland are performed manually, it seems necessary to launch a public awareness campaign on GTS and decontamination methods.

  3. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  4. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  5. Agroforestry Systems In Poland A Preliminary Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to use state-of-the-art knowledge to depict the foundations and prospects for agroforestry systems in Poland to develop, in line with political, legal, historical and environmental conditions pertaining in the country. The main legal provisions concerning the presence of trees in agriculture are presented prior to a first-ever defining of key traditional agroforestry systems in Poland.

  6. A neonate with Poland-Mobius syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Rabia; Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid; Ahmad, Tahir Masood; Butt, Taeed Ahmad

    2011-10-01

    Poland-Mobius syndrome is a combination of two rare congenital syndromes characterized by congenital facial weakness, loss of abduction of eyes, limb defects, and absence or hypoplasia of the pectoral muscles. A patient with features of both the Mobius syndrome and the Poland syndrome is presented in this case report.

  7. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  8. Optic disc dysplasia in poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Steven D; Strominger, Mitchell B

    2014-06-01

    To report optic disc dysplasia in a case of Poland syndrome. Non-interventional case report. A 2-year-old boy with Poland syndrome was referred for ophthalmic evaluation after abnormal optic discs were found on exam. Physical exam at birth revealed right-sided aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, symbrachydactyly, hypoplastic scapula, and an abnormal third rib. On dilated examination the optic nerve heads were dysplastic. The findings included multiple cilioretinal vessels, situs inversus, inferotemporal excavation, and surrounding pigmentary disturbances. Only one case of optic disc anomaly has been reported in Poland syndrome and was described as morning glory syndrome. The optic discs in our patient do not fit well with other optic disc excavation syndromes but are most reminiscent of those in papillorenal syndrome. As both Poland syndrome and papillorenal syndrome share vascular dysfunction as a possible etiology, this case adds to the literature of vascular dysgenesis in Poland syndrome.

  9. [Botulism in Poland in 2010].

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2010, using national surveillance data. In Poland, botulism is a mandatory notifiable disease based on the European Union case definition (probable or confirmed), however given limited laboratory capacity, in national surveillance we also use "possible" case definition for cases reported by physicians based on clinical symptoms (with no laboratory confirmation). The number of botulism cases reported has decreased over the past years. Between 2004-2008 the median annual number of cases in years 2004-2008 was 49, whereas in 2009 alone, was only 31 cases. In 2010 a total 32 botulism cases (0.08 per 100,000 inhabitants)--including 22 confirmed cases (in 20 cases--toxin type B, and in 2 -toxin type B / E was found) were reported. There was only one--'probable case'--reported on the basis of clinical symptoms and the presence of an 'epidemiological link' (exposure from the same source). Other cases (9 patients) were reported, on the basis of clinical diagnosis without laboratory confirmation and registered as 'possible cases'. Incidence in rural areas (0.18) was 9-fold higher than the incidence in urban areas. Men had higher (0.12) incidence than women (0.05); the highest incidence (0.17) was observed among people aged 50-59 years. All cases were people aged over 25 years of age. In 28% of all cases--homemade canned pork was implicated. Canned fish were also a common vehicle. All patients were hospitalized--for between 5 and 35 days (median 11 days). No deaths related to the disease were reported. Botulism in Poland is still an important epidemiological problem. A large number of poisonings is primarily due to consumption of homemade canned foods.

  10. Malaria in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of imported malaria in Poland in 2013 compared to the data from previous years. The assessment was performed based on the results of the analysis of individual reports sent to the NIPH-NIH by sanitary-epidemiological stations and aggregated data published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland". Cases were registered according to the case definition criteria applicable in the EU countries. In 2013, a total of 36 imported malaria cases were registered in Poland, 15 more than in 2012. No deaths were recorded. As much as 80% of all cases were imported from African countries, of whom the majority came from Nigeria, 14% from Asia and 6% from South America. Concurrent infection with dengue virus was confirmed in one person coming back from Philippines. Plasmodium species was determined in 35 of 36 cases by blood film or PCR test. Invasion with P. falciparum and P. vivax was found in 23 (66%) and 9 (26%) cases, respectively. There was also one case of each of the following: P. ovale, P. malariae and mixed invasion. As in previous years, in most cases, the invasion was associated with tourist trips (47%) or work-related travels (36%). Immigrants or students visiting the country of origin accounted for 11% of patients, in two cases (6%) purpose of the journey was not determined. As many as 7 patients used chemoprophylaxis, including two persons who took drugs in compliance with the recommendations. Despite a significant increase in the number of cases compared to previous years, the total number of imported malaria remains low. Persistent large number of delays in the diagnosis and a high percentage of severe malaria cases indicate the need to raise doctors awareness of the possibility of malaria incidence. Travelers should be also constantly reminded of the need to inform their GPs about the stay in the malaria endemic areas in the event of fever after returning.

  11. Poland across the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    Okolski, M

    1991-01-01

    The rapid increase in international migration from Eastern to Western Europe that occurred in 1989-1990 is described, with particular attention to the effect of this trend on Poland. The author notes that the relaxation of migration laws in Eastern Europe has allowed migration that would have previously been banned. In addition to the migration stream from east to west, the author also observes that Eastern Europe may become a major destination of refugees from the former Soviet Union as well as from developing countries.

  12. Poland syndrome with intracranial germ cell tumor in a child.

    PubMed

    Elli, Murat; Oğur, Gönül; Dağdemir, Ayhan; Pinarli, Güçlü; Ceyhan, Meltem; Dağçinar, Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Poland syndrome is an uncommon unilateral deformity of chest wall and upper extremity with variable manifestations. Although numerous case reports of Poland syndrome associated with malignancies have been published, intracranial germ cell tumor in Poland syndrome has not been previously reported. The authors describe a 15-year-old male patient with intracranial germ cell tumor and Poland syndrome.

  13. Social and legal determinants for the marketing of GM products in Poland.

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Tomasz; Małyska, Aleksandra

    2012-02-15

    The development of biotechnology is influenced by many factors unique for a specific region. In Poland the lack of legislative solutions (to facilitate the promotion of the inventions) and the public resistance against certain sectors of biotechnology are significant factors limiting any further development. Although, science and technology are the front runners in any innovation, the significance of social and legal aspects is difficult to overestimate. In our opinion those factors are interconnected and crucial for marketing of innovative products, therefore, we indicate and explain the most important issues restraining the implementation of innovative biotechnology in the context of national specificity in Poland.

  14. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  15. Development of laser technology in Poland: 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankiewicz, Zdzisław; Jabczyński, Jan K.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2016-12-01

    The paper is an introduction to the volume of proceedings and a concise digest of works presented during the XIth National Symposium on Laser Technology (SLT2016) [1]. The Symposium is organized since 1984 every three years [2-8]. SLT2016 was organized by the Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology (IO, WAT) [9], Warsaw, with cooperation of Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) [10], in Jastarnia on 27-30 September 2016. Symposium Proceedings are traditionally published by SPIE [11-19]. The meeting has gathered around 150 participants who presented around 120 research and technical papers. The Symposium, organized every 3 years is a good portrait of laser technology and laser applications development in Poland at university laboratories, governmental institutes, company R&D laboratories, etc. The SLT also presents the current technical projects under realization by the national research, development and industrial teams. Topical tracks of the Symposium, traditionally divided to two large areas - sources and applications, were: laser sources in near and medium infrared, picosecond and femtosecond lasers, optical fiber lasers and amplifiers, semiconductor lasers, high power and high energy lasers and their applications, new materials and components for laser technology, applications of laser technology in measurements, metrology and science, military applications of laser technology, laser applications in environment protection and remote detection of trace substances, laser applications in medicine and biomedical engineering, laser applications in industry, technologies and material engineering.

  16. [Thoughts on demographic optimization in contemporary Poland].

    PubMed

    Oledzki, M

    1980-01-01

    This article presents the viewpoint of the Polish school of social policy of the Institute of Social Economy concerning the problem of optimization of demographic structures and processes in contemporary Poland. This school was created under the leadership of the outstanding sociologist Ludwik Krzywicki (1859-1941). The reasoning concerns, first of all, the scientific premises of the choice of criteria of demographic optimization examined and then there is a critical assessment of modern simplified approaches to the definition of optimum population. It also shows actual possibilities of demographic optimization and the complexity of analytical categories of socioeconomic processes which determine the development of the population in specific time and space. In conclusion, the theory of demographic optimization is regarded as a task too ambitious and perhaps even utopian in view of the assumptions needed for its satisfactory realization. This conclusion confirms the thesis contained in the handbook of demography by J.Z. Holzer published in 1970. The author considers, however, that the search for a theory of demographic optimization is still a task which mobilizes social sciences to an integration centered on demography and social policy. (author's)

  17. [JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT AND FRENCH SCIENTISTS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA IN 1770-1780].

    PubMed

    Beauvois, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The author is trying to remind us of great role of French culture and French people in spreading the ideas of Enlightenment in Poland. Common use of French language in high societies in 18th century and excellent knowledge of books from Paris created favourite conditions for contacts of Poland with France. The best evidence of common culture of Enlightenment was the Commission of National Education (KEN) and the deep social changes. The direct contacts of French thinkers, writers and scientists with Poland also caused the changes of horizons of aristocracy and gentry. We will remind the main animators of this movement followed A. Jobert. J.E. Gilibert takes a very important place among the animators of Enlightenment. Author intends to present the phases of knowing him, generally mentioning the main conclusions of many research on Gilibert. At the same time author leaves to next speakers a detailed analyze of Gilbert's contribution to the development of Polish science.

  18. Poland's other Thirty Years' War.

    PubMed

    Kozakiewicz, M

    1990-06-01

    The Polish Family Development Association (Towarzystwo Rozwoju Rodziny (TRR)) was founded in 1957. At the end of 1988, TRR owned and ran 89 medical clinics, 5 youth centers, 25 premarital and family counseling centers, and 6 prenatal training schools. 140,000 patients were served in 1988, and 140,000 in 1989. But there was a decline in the number of family counseling and premarital centers. It fell to 22 at the end of 1989 and 16 in the 1/4 of 1990. The nonCommunist government took crisis measures. From January 1 onward, the government suspended all kinds of subsidies for nongovernmental organizations in Poland. The TRR was compelled to dissolve 12 local branches. Nothing is certain anymore, even the Minister of Health has changed. Poland's Catholic Church has been in conflict with TRR. The Church is against abortions, contraception, and secular, modern sex education. Because of Church opposition to contraception, the abortion rate is very high. Official statistics tell only the number of abortions done in hospitals. The real abortion numbers are subject to controversy. The Church claims that the real number of is 1 million a year. However, the real estimate is about 400,00 to 600,000 a year, resulting in a ratio of 70 to 100 abortions/100 live births. The powerful Pro-Life movement is partly supported and financed by American "Pro-Life" interests and partly by Solidarity (which is split on the issue). Pro-Life campaigns for declaring the 1957 abortion law illegal. 76% of the people in towns and 87% in villages rely solely on the natural methods accepted by the Church. The supply and demand of modern contraceptives is unreliable. Political changes in Poland may have a negative effect on family planning and sex education. Sex education (from age 11) in the narrow sense of telling where babies come from has been compulsory since 1972. But real sex education has only been compulsory since 1987. It is taught in all secondary schools (ages 15-19) for 1 hour every other

  19. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2001.

    PubMed

    Pepłońska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2002-01-01

    The Central Register of Occupational Diseases keeps the records of all reported and certified occupational diseases in Poland. In this paper the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland in 2001 is discussed on the basis of the data provided by the Register. The changes in the incidence pattern over the recent 30 years are also shown. In 2001, 6,007 cases of occupational diseases were registered, with the incidence rate of 63.2 per 100,000 employees. The highest incidence rates were noted for seven categories of diseases: the vocal organ diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconioses, contagious and invasive diseases, dermatoses, chronic diseases of bronchi, and vibration syndrome. Altogether these diseases covered 5,239 cases (87.2% of all registered cases). Mining and quarrying, agriculture, hunting and forestry, education, health and social works were the economy activities with the highest incidence of occupational diseases. The majority of occupational diseases (93.9%) have developed after a long-term (over 10 years) exposure to particular harmful factors. As much as 58.5% of cases were recorded in males. The predominant occupational diseases in males were occupational hearing lesions, while in females chronic vocal organ diseases, most common in teachers, were most frequently recognized. In Poland, the diseases of the vocal organ poses a serious problem from the medical and socio-economic points of view. These pathologies show the highest dynamics of the incidence among all registered occupational diseases. Over the last five years the vocal organ diseases have moved upwards to the top in the ranking, both with respect to the number of cases and the incidence rate. Since 1998, the incidence of occupational diseases has been continuously showing a downward tendency. Four categories of occupational diseases have accounted mostly for this decline: noise-induced hearing loss, chronic diseases of vocal organ, contagious and invasive diseases, and

  20. Trees Outside Forest In Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajączkowski, Jacek; Zajączkowski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Increasing environmental threats to agricultural production and the stability of ecosystems have been observed on the Polish lowlands since the 1970s. Several hundred million trees and shrubs have been planted on farmland, mostly along roads and with the involvement of public agencies, with a view to timber being produced, and soil erosion and the water deficit mitigated. On the basis of over 50 years of practical observations and scientific experiments, recommendations have been drawn up as regards the structural and spatial features of new tree planting outside forests that maximize environmental, production-related and social benefits. This paper gives a brief description of the history of the active establishment of woody vegetation across agricultural landscapes in Poland, along with best practices elaborated for this at several scientific centres.

  1. [Rubella in Poland in 2010].

    PubMed

    Karasek, Ewa; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Rubella is the disease subject to the elimination programme coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Generally, rubella is an infection of mild course among children but in the case of pregnant women, who are not immunized, it may contribute to the occurrence of severe congenital abnormalities (congenital rubella syndrome) may amount to 95%. The strategy of the countries belonging to the WHO European Region is directed to the interruption of the rubella virus transmission in the environment in order to prevent the cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The aims of the present article are to analyze the epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2010 and to discuss the rubella vaccination coverage. [corrected] The epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland was analyzed on the basis of publications: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2010" (Czarkowski MP et al. Warsaw 2011, NIPH-NIH and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2010". The classification of the rubella cases is based on the definition of the infectious diseases developed by the Department of Epidemiology (NIPH - NIH): "Definitions of the cases of infectious diseases for the purposes of the epidemiological surveillance". Comparing the epidemiological situation in 2009 and 2010, in 2010 a decline in the incidence of rubella was observed--from 19.0 per 100 000 population to 11.0 per 100 000 population. Overall, 4 197 cases of rubella were reported. While analyzing the definition of the rubella case for the purposes of the epidemiological surveillance, none of the cases was reported as the confirmed case, 29 (0.7%) were classified as the probable and the remaining cases were classified only on the basis of clinical criteria. In 2010, one congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) was registered. The rubella incidence among girls and women (9.0) was lower than the incidence observed among boys and men (13.1). The highest incidence--regardless of the gender and surroundings--was reported in

  2. [Mumps in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Rogalska, Justyna

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, 15,115 cases of mumps were reported in Poland. The incidence (39.6 per 100,000) was considerably lower compared to 2005 (188.5) and to the median incidence in 2000-2004 (104.6). The decrease of mumps incidence in 2006 is related to high coverage of routine two-dose immunisation against measles, mumps and rubella, maintained since its implementation in 2003. Children 5-9 year old were the most affected age group (incidence 328.7 per 100,000). Since the immunisation schedule during 2003-2006 involved administration of MMR doses at the ages of 2 and 10 years, a stable decrease of mumps incidence is expected after routine immunisation will cover the school age birth cohorts (6-14 year olds). Of 15,115 cases, 656 (4.3%) were hospitalized and no deaths attributed to mumps were reported.

  3. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  4. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  5. Drug addiction in Poland and criminalistic traces.

    PubMed

    Kała, M; Borkowski, T

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the most popular drugs and their substitutes being used in Poland. The paper also presents the problem of developing and examining criminalistic traces in biological and some non-organic materials.

  6. Poland syndrome a rare congenital anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Aliyu; Ramatu, Abdallah; Helen, Akhiwu

    2013-07-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly classically consisting of unilateral hypoplasia of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral brachysyndactyly. It was first described by Alfred Poland in 1840 and may occur with different gravity. Our patient is an eight-year-old Nigerian girl with left-sided anterior chest wall defect with no detectable structural heart abnormality but presented with repeated episodes of syncopal attacks following minor trauma to the anterior chest wall.

  7. Poland: facing the hidden costs of development

    SciTech Connect

    Kabala, S.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Polish People's Republic is the eleventh-ranked industrial nation in the world. The by-product of this achievement is some of the worst water, air, and soil pollution in the world. Poland has miles of river water that is unfit for any use and the air pollution in most of the major cities far exceeds any permissible limits. This paper discussed Poland's major ecological problems and its government's desire to deal with these problems.

  8. Education of geodesy and cartography at the School of Higher Education In National Economy In Kutno, Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    School of Higher (university degree) Education in National Economy in Kutno is one of the rather younger university schools in Poland that were established in the last years of the XX century. It was founded in 1998, but the convenient location of Kutno in Central Poland seems to be a good opportunity for students coming from all parts of Poland. The School is continuously developed, number of faculties and new study directions and specialisations are steadily growing. The offer of the School include studies in the stationary, extra-mural and post-graduate systems in two Engineering (or licenciate) and M.Sc. levels. At the moment the geodesy and cartography is a part of the Faculty of Technical Sciences; students can chose one of three specialisations: 1.Economic geodesy, property and estate management, 2. Rural (agriculture) geodesy and property engineering and 3. Geoinformatic sciences.

  9. Health improvement in Poland is contingent on continued extensive tobacco control measures.

    PubMed

    Zatoński, Witold; Zatoński, Mateusz; Przewoźniak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major avoidable single cause of premature mortality in Poland. Almost one in three Polish males do not live to 65 years of age, and almost half of this premature mortality can be traced back to the much higher smoking prevalence in Poland than in Western Europe--every third Polish male and every fourth Polish female smokes daily. However, the current health situation in Poland is much better than two decades ago when the country entered a period of political and economic upheaval. In the early 1990s, the state of health of the Polish population was catastrophic and its tobacco consumption levels the highest in the world. In the early 1990s, the probability of a 15-year-old Polish boy living to the age of 60 was not just twice lower than in Western Europe, but also lower than in China or India. The health policy of limiting the health consequences of smoking conducted by the European Union and, in the last two decades, by the Polish parliament and government, helped to stop this health catastrophe. In Poland, cigarette consumption has decreased by 30% since 1990, as did lung cancer mortality among males. Despite this progress, tobacco smoking remains the most serious health problem in Poland. Therefore, comprehensive tobacco control policy should not only be continued, but expanded and accelerated. The EU Tobacco Products Directive proposes a package of actions for reducing tobacco-related health harm in Europe. The Directive proposal is rational, science-and-evidence based, and grounded on the best practice examples from other countries. Both the Polish tobacco control law and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), ratified by Poland in 2006, oblige our country to support tobacco control, including all the initiatives taken by the European Union.

  10. Lyme disease in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    In Poland registration of all cases of Lyme disease is conducted by the Epidemiological Unit of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Most cases of Lyme disease occur in the North- East region of Poland; however, it is important to note that the disease is no longer solely a problem of this region of Poland. The aim of this work is to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2012 as compared to the situation in the previous years. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland was made on the basis of an analysis of individual notifications of suspected Lyme disease submitted to NIZP-NIH by the Provincial Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations; as well as data from "Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2012" bulletin, and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" bulletin (MP Czarkowski and Co, Warsaw 2013, NIPH-NIH, NCI). In 2012 there were 8 782 registered cases of Lyme disease and it is 4.3% higher than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country amounted to 23.8 per 100 000 people. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie province - 75.5 per 100 000 people. 2 063 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2012 incidence rate of Lyme disease was gradually dropping down. The registered number of cases was reduced by 4.1% in comparison to the previous year. There is still a fairly low percentage of cases detected with diagnostic test called Western blot method.

  11. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  12. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and…

  13. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  14. Quaternary stratigraphy and palaeogeography of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Leszek; Dzierżek, Jan; Janiszewski, Robert; Kaczorowski, Jarosław; Lindner, Leszek; Majecka, Aleksandra; Makos, Michał; Szymanek, Marcin; Tołoczko-Pasek, Anna; Woronko, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Though the stratigraphical and palaeogeographical framework of the Quaternary in Poland is still to be completed, several crucial points have been confirmed recently. The preglacial series, accepted for years as belonging to the Lower Pleistocene, is undoubtedly of Early Pliocene age, with a huge hiatus above almost until the uppermost Lower Pleistocene. The earliest glaciation in Poland (Nidanian) occurred at about 900 ka BP when the ice sheet reached the mid-southern part of the country. The following Podlasian Interglacial embraced the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary in the middle, in a similar fashion to the corresponding Cromerian Complex in Western Europe. The late Early and early Middle Pleistocene interglacials in Poland comprised 2-3 optima each, whereas every one of the younger interglacials was characterised by a single optimum only. The Late Vistulian ice sheet was most extensive in the western part of Poland (Leszno Phase) whereas the younger Poznań Phase was more extensive in the central and eastern part of the country. This was due to the varied distance from the glaciation center in Scandinavia, making the ice sheet margin reach a terminal position in different times. Palaeoclimatological research in the Tatra Mountains has provided new evidence for the atmospheric circulation over Europe. During cold phases of the Pleistocene in Poland a continental climate extended further westwards, quite the opposite that occurring during warmer intervals.

  15. Observation of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Rozwadowska, A.; Drozdowska, V.; Markowicz, K.; Malinowski, S.; Kardas, A.; Posyniak, M.; Jagodnicka, A. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Piskozub, J.

    2010-05-01

    The plume of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash has been identified over Poland using three instruments (two lidars and a ceilometer) stationed in two locations: Sopot in northern Poland and Warsaw in central-eastern Poland. The observations made it possible to establish the base of the ash layer. However ash concentration could not be determined.

  16. Joseph F. Poland (1908-1991)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    On June 4, 1991, AGU Fellow Joseph Fairfield Poland died in a Sacramento, Calif., hospital at the age of 83 after a long fight with Parkinson's Disease. A recognized expert on land subsidence and a retiree from the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division, his death occurred only 2 weeks after the end of the 4th International Symposium on Land Subsidence, held in Houston, Tex. Frequently known as “Mr. Land Subsidence,” it was appropriate that the proceedings of that symposium had been dedicated to him.Born in Boston, Poland earned a bachelor's degree in geology from Harvard University in 1929. He was resident geologist for Tropical Oil Company in Colombia from 1929 to 1931. After returning to the United States, Poland earned his master's degree in geology from Stanford University in 1935, taught groundwater hydrology, and consulted on groundwater and geophysical problems in the West and Southwest.

  17. Polish Hip Hop as a Form of Multiliteracies and Situated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to examine Hip Hop in Poland through the lens of multiliteracies and situated learning. This analysis is concerned with the transmission of Hip Hop to and within Wroclaw, Poland, and its acculturation and assimilation in Wroclaw, Poland. Further, this study seeks to illustrate how professional Polish Hip…

  18. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The evaluation was carried out on the basis of the results of the analysis of data from the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013", the information from individual diseases forms and epidemiological investigations forms for hepatitis A outbreaks, sent by sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology of NIZP-PZH. In 2013, 48 cases of hepatitis A were registered in Poland. The incidence per 100,000 inhabitants was 0.12, and in particular provinces it ranged from 0.05 in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province to 0.26 in the Wielkopolska province. The incidence of hepatitis A for men and women was at a similar level and amounted to 0.13 and 0.12/100,000. In 2013 imported cases accounted for 45.8% of the total number of hepatitis A cases. There were three outbreaks, where the total of 13 people fell ill. 2013 saw a slight decrease in the number of cases compared to the previous year. Besides, there were no significant changes in the hepatitis A epidemiological situation. In Poland, there is still very low endemicity. Since several years, there has been a decline in the number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A. All of this affects the accumulation of a fairly large population of people susceptible to the infection, which may increase incidence. Although the current hepatitis A epidemiological situation in Poland is good, it still requires monitoring, analysis and constant observation within the structured epidemiological surveillance.

  19. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is evaluation of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2012. Assessment of epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was based on results from analysis of the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012", "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", reports from individual cases and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks linked to hepatitis A, sent by Epidemiological Departments in Sanitary Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-NIH. In Poland, 71 cases of hepatitis A were registered in 2012. The incidence of 0.17/ per 100 000 inhabitants was slightly higher than previous year. The incidence of hepatitis A ranged from 0.08/100 000 in Łódzkie and Podlaskie to 0.35/100 000 in Śląskie. The incidence of hepatitis A in men and women was at an approximate level and amounted to 0.19 and 0.18/100 000 respectively. The peak of incidence was recorded during the summer and autumn-winter months. In 2012 imported cases constituted 52.1% of all cases of hepatitis A. There were five outbreaks involving of 11 registered cases in 2012. In 2012, there was a slight increase in the incidence of hepatitis A in compared with the previous year. However, apart from that there were no significant changes in the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A. In Poland there is still very low endemicity for hepatitis A. Decreased incidence and the small number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A facilitates the accumulation of a fairly numerous population of persons susceptible to infection which is connected with the possibility to increase the number of cases of hepatitis A. Despite the fact that the current epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland is good, the disease still requires monitoring and analysis within the framework of epidemiological surveillance system.

  20. Optical fiber technology in Poland: four decades of development 1975-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Dorosz, Jan; Wójcik, Waldemar; Mergo, Paweł; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a subjective yet critical authors' description of arbitrarily chosen series of events associated with the development of optical fibre technology (OFT) in Poland. There are reminding pioneering research activities in the second half of the seventies in Optical Fibre Technological Centres in Lublin (UMCS), in Warsaw (in ONPMP), which were joined soon after by Białystok (Polytechnics and Glass Works). There are mentioned with friendliness the key persons of that period, and in particular the pioneers of OFT in Poland, which are not with us anymore. There is emphasized the role of the first national symposia on "Optical Fibres and Their Applications", which played an integration role for the newly established research community of OFT and photonics. Omitting the complex history of the development of OFT in Poland during the intermediate years, we bravely jump to today, a day which would have not existed now, if the pioneering period had not been so rich in research results. The authors would like to show in particular these research, scientific and logistic activities, which despite difficult conditions of science development in Poland, when looked at from some distance in time and space, seemed to be then well ahead of their time.

  1. Poland syndrome with a rare association.

    PubMed

    Gude, Dilip; Rayudu, Batta Ramasubba; Bansa, Dharam; Sashidhar, Chennamsetty

    2012-09-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly typically characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Occasionally functionally debilitating, the disorder is mostly benign in nature with the severe deformities requiring surgical correction. A need to watch for possible malignant associations is also warranted. We present a case of a young female with the quintessential features of Poland syndrome with a relatively rare association of ipsilateral renal hypoplasia. We review the literature and discuss the possible renal complications that may arise and their management.

  2. [Historical outline of forensic medicine in Poland and its connections with forensic medicine in German-speaking countries].

    PubMed

    Raszeja, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The author briefly presented development of forensic medicine as a separate branch of medical sciences in Poland from the end of the Middle Ages to date. He comments on conditions in which forensic medicine developed after partitions of Poland and its restoration of independence. He emphasized the merits of Prof. Wachholz and his pupils, as well as the great publishing effort of forensic scientists during the interwar period and after World War II. He did not fail to highlight links between Polish and German forensic medicine and quotes numerous examples of very close contacts between both communities in this field.

  3. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign…

  4. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Poland is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  5. Education in Poland. Bulletin, 1922, No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Teresa

    1923-01-01

    Poland, reconstituted as a result of the war, comprises the territory formerly divided among the great powers of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Prussia. Its area extends over 149,140 square miles and its population, according to the census of September 30, 1921, is estimated at 27,160,163, of which two-thirds are Poles. The remainder comprises…

  6. Parents' Perceptions of Integrated Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragiel, Józefa

    2016-01-01

    Integrated education in Poland has been implemented since 1993. This alternative form of education very quickly resulted in an increased number of integrated classes in mainstream schools and a decreased percentage of students with disabilities in segregated education. Research indicates that the process of "opening of society to…

  7. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  8. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  9. Control of rabbit myxomatosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Górski, J; Mizak, B; Chrobocińska, M

    1994-09-01

    The authors present an epizootiological analysis of myxomatosis in Poland. The biological, physical and chemical properties of virus strains used for the production and control of 'Myxovac M' vaccine are discussed. The long-term stability, safety and efficacy of the vaccine are demonstrated. Laboratory experiments were confirmed in large-scale field observations.

  10. Lyme disease in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease, caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia genus transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes genus. Infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi occur throughout Poland and therefore, according also to ECDC description, the whole country should be considered as an endemic area. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” (MP Czarkowski et al., Warsaw 2015, NIZP-PZH, GIS). The number of cases of Lyme disease in recent years is steadily increasing. In total, 13.870 cases of Lyme disease registered in Poland in 2014, i.e. 8% more cases than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 36.0 per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie voivodeship – 106.8 per 100,000. In 2014, 2.236 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2014, the growth rate of incidence decreased significantly. 8% more cases were registered compared with the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations.

  11. Poland. A Selection of Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom House, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document is a collection of supplemental classroom materials on Poland to be photocopied for use in secondary schools in conjunction with the Education for Democracy's Classroom-To-Classroom project. The materials offer an historical framework for considering current events, as well as some insight into the events, ideas, issues, and…

  12. Misuse of OTC drugs in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zaprutko, Tomasz; Koligat, Dorota; Michalak, Michał; Wieczorek, Marta; Józiak, Malwina; Ratajczak, Monika; Szydłowska, Kinga; Miazek, Joanna; Kus, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2016-08-01

    The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs became a global public health concern. Although abuse with dextrometorphan (DXM), pseudoefedrine (PSD), codeine (COD) or benzydamine (BND) may lead even to psychosis, drugs containing these substances are relatively cheap and freely available. In Poland the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in 2015, however it seems that there are still some points which could be improved. Study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015 using a specially designed questionnaire delivered to pharmacists from the Greater Poland region. Questionnaire consisting of 11 closed questions was distributed by direct contact and via the Internet. From over 2500 distributed questionnaires, we received 761 sheets and 680 were included. The misuse of OTC drugs is increasing in Poland from pharmacists point of view. The most popular substance was PSD followed by COD and DXM. The main reason of misuse of these drugs could be related to the use of Internet and free access to these medications. In respondents (58.2%) opinion OTC drugs containing analyzed substances should be moved into the prescription status. The misuse of OTC drugs should be considered as a very dangerous phenomenon. Although the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in Poland in 2015, there are some facets requiring improvement. Social education may play a key role in the limitation of misuse of OTC drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Culture and the Kindergarten Curriculum in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putkiewicz, Elzbieta

    This paper describes the effect of cultural context on the content of kindergarten curriculum in Poland, chronicling the historical changes from Communist to post-Soviet, capitalist cultures. Soviet cultural influence on early childhood education from 1945 to 1989 is described as affecting a single obligatory curriculum, strict government control,…

  14. FASD Prevalence among Schoolchildren in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Magdalena; Brzózka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is a major cause of brain damage and developmental delay, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) but in Poland is rarely diagnosed and the scale of problem is not known. Methods: An active case ascertainment approach was applied to estimate the prevalence of FASD among 7-9 years olds. Pre-screening…

  15. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  16. Environmental Education in Poland: Its Present Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata

    2004-01-01

    Environmental education in Poland has a long history, but has advanced especially in recent years. The need to implement it within systems of formal and non-formal education is noted in many government documents. The educational reform introduced in 1999 changed the goals and methods of teaching environmental education in the school system. At…

  17. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign…

  18. FASD Prevalence among Schoolchildren in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Magdalena; Brzózka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is a major cause of brain damage and developmental delay, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) but in Poland is rarely diagnosed and the scale of problem is not known. Methods: An active case ascertainment approach was applied to estimate the prevalence of FASD among 7-9 years olds. Pre-screening…

  19. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  20. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  1. Occupation and risk of stomach cancer in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Krstev, S; Dosemeci, M; Lissowska, J; Chow, W; Zatonski, W; Ward, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: In spite of the dramatic decline in the incidence of stomach cancer in the twentieth century, Poland has one of the highest rates in the world. Aims: To evaluate the risk of stomach cancer by grouped occupations and industries, as well as by some specific occupational exposures. Methods: Cases (n = 443) were newly diagnosed with stomach adenocarcinomas between 1994 and 1996. Controls (n = 479) were randomly selected from the general population in Warsaw. Results: Only a few occupations and industries were associated with significantly increased risks of stomach cancer. The most suggestive finding was for work in the leather goods industry. Risk was also significantly increased among men working in fabricated metal production and among women ever employed as managers and governmental officials. Men ever employed as teaching professionals and women employed as technical and science professionals had significantly decreased risks of stomach cancer. Among men, a significant positive trend in risk with duration of employment was observed for work in the leather industry and special trade construction. No significantly increased risks were observed for specific exposures assessed by a job-exposure matrix or by self-reports. However among men there were non-significantly increased risks with 10 or more years exposure to asbestos, metal dust, and nitrosamines assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Conclusions: Employment in the leather goods industry, special trade construction, and metal fabrication was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer among men. However, there were only weak associations with specific exposures. Occupational exposures do not contribute substantially to the high rates of stomach cancer in Poland. PMID:15837853

  2. FASD Prevalence among Schoolchildren in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Magdalena; Brzózka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is a major cause of brain damage and developmental delay, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) but in Poland is rarely diagnosed and the scale of problem is not known. An active case ascertainment approach was applied to estimate the prevalence of FASD among 7-9 years olds. Pre-screening was conducted in 113 randomly selected regular and special schools. In the screening phase participated 280 children (54% from the risk group, 60% boys). The entire number of eligible students (N = 2500) was taken as a denominator. The prevalence of FASD is not lower than 2%, including 0.4% of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Neurodevelopmental disorders associated with PAE are a serious challenge for the public health system. Development of procedures and services to diagnose and to support individuals affected by PAE and their families is an urgent need in Poland. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Occupational diseases in Poland in 1978].

    PubMed

    Starzyński, Z; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

    1980-01-01

    The authors analyse all occupational disease cases found in Poland in 1978. Individual occupational diseases certificates sent to the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź by provincial sanitary-epidemiological stations are information sources. The collected material makes us draw the following concusions: 1. Occupational diseases incidence in Poland in 1978 got increased by 8.7%, compared to 1977. This increase is mainly related to occupational hearing impairment, infectious diseases, diseases of skin and mucous membranes. 2. Occupational intoxications prevalence was decreased. In 1978 the case rate in this group of diseases was lowered by 24%. 3. Among occupational diseases the following were most frequent: hearing impairments, infectious and invasive diseases, conioses, diseases of skin and mucous membranes, vibration disease and poisonings. 4. Most occupational diseases cases in 1978 resulted from many-years occupational exposure to hazardous agents.

  4. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index.

  5. Microwave Semiconductor Equipment Produced in Poland,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-20

    beginning of the development of microwave semiconductor electronics in Poland. The second stage of UPP production, between 1968 and 1974, encompassed...750 mW); --two types of Gunn diodes with a constant power in the X band between 50 and 250 mW; also designed were; A--the first models of the...field of the produced types of these devices. Also produced in this field were models of all the necessary types of microwave diodes (avalanche, Gunn

  6. HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiedzka-Stadnik, Marta; Pielacha, Magdalena; Rosińska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    From 1985 until the end of 2013, 17 565 cases of HIV infection, 3 062 AIDS cases and 1 246 deaths due to AIDS were registered in Poland. In this paper we aim to analyze the epidemiological situation of newly diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS cases in Poland in 2012. Descriptive analysis of newly detected HIV cases and incident AIDS cases was performed based on routine notifications by clinicians and laboratories. Data on the number of HIV tests from annual survey among laboratories were also used. In 2012 there were 1 093 HIV cases diagnosed in Poland (detection rate 2.84 per 100 000 population), including 27 non-Polish citizens. The detection rate remained comparable to 2011, but approximately 30% higher than in 2006-2010. The total number of AIDS cases was 155 (incidence 0.40 per 100 000) and 57 AIDS patients died (0.15 per 100 000). HIV infection is mainly detected among people aged 20-39 years (72.6%) and males (83.5%). As many as 70% of newly diagnosed infections with known route of transmission occurred among men who have sex with men (MSM). The number of infections in this group increased by 9% from 2011 and over 3 times compared to 2006-2010 average. The percentage of late presenters (defined by the time between HIV and AIDS diagnoses of less than 3 months) decreased in comparison with 2011 (7.9% of newly diagnosed HIV infections). HIV epidemic is still spreading among MSM in Poland. However, assessment of epidemiological situation is limited by the lack of data on the probable transmission route in a large percentage of reports of newly diagnosed HIV cases.

  7. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl.

    PubMed

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies . Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility. To our knowldge, this is the first report of such an association between Poland-Mobius syndrome and congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  8. [Hepatitis C in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Stepień, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 in Poland reported cases of hepatitis C we classified independently according to two case definitions. One covered cases with clinical signs or elevated liver function tests confirmed by antibody test (2005 case definition) and the other one, implemented in 2009, all laboratory confirmed cases. In 2009 there were 1,939 cases of hepatitis C (2005 definition) registered in Poland, with the incidence rate of 5.08 per 100 000. A continued decrease in incidence of hepatitis C has been observed since 2006. On the other hand 1,891 cases were reported to meet the 2009 case definition. This points to the need of improving reporting completeness and justifies temporary continuation of use of the 2005 definition for the purpose of trend monitoring, although it may not reflect well the burden of illness. There were 82 deaths due to hepatitis C in 2009 in Poland including 2 deaths of acute and 80 of chronic hepatitis C. This constituted the first important decrease in hepatitis C mortality since 1996, when hepatitis C was included as a separate entity in the census mortality data. This decrease coincided with marked improvement of the treatment accessibility and is likely related to it.

  9. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Public attitudes toward stuttering in Poland.

    PubMed

    Przepiorka, Aneta M; Blachnio, Agata; St Louis, Kenneth O; Wozniak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes toward stuttering in Poland. A sample of 268 respondents (mean age = 29 years; range = 15-60 years) from numerous different geographic and urban-rural settings in Poland filled out a Polish translation of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S). Polish respondents displayed attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter that were generally similar or "average" in comparison with other samples around the world from the POSHA-S database. Although generally typical of other Western societies studied, attitudes of adolescents and adults from Poland were notably different in some ways, such as in the beliefs that emotional trauma or viruses and disease can cause stuttering as well as in the self reaction that they would feel uncomfortable speaking with a stuttering person. Overall, social exclusion and stigma are as likely among Poles who stutter as among most other populations studied. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  11. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2012 compared to previous years, using national surveillance data. We reviewed surveillance data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and in previous publications, and botulism case reports for 2012 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2012, a total of 22 foodborne botulism cases (including 9 laboratory confirmed cases) was reported, corresponding to the lowest annual incidence rate (0.06 per 100 000 population) since the introduction of botulism as mandatory notifiable disease. The highest incidence in the country was reported in Lubelskie (0.23) and Wielkopolskie (0.20). Incidence in rural areas (0.07 per 100 000 population) was slightly higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.05). Men had more than 2 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.20 per 100 000 population) was observed among men in the age group of 30-39 years. Most cases were associated with consumption of different types of commercially canned meat. Commercially canned fish was also a common vehicle. All cases were hospitalized. One death related to the disease was reported. In 2012, in Poland a downward trend in the incidence of foodborne botulism was maintained. From the point of view of national surveillance, it is necessary to increase the percentage of cases investigated with laboratory tests.

  12. Reconstruction of methods of execution of the death penalty by shooting in the years 1949-1954 based on exhumation research of "prison fields" in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw. Part II--analysis of gunshot injuries and an attempt at reconstructing the course of execution.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Kawecki, Jerzy; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Swiatek, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of gunshot injuries in prisoners who were executed in Wroclaw penitentiary in the years 1949-1954 shows divergences from legal regulations describing the method of execution. This observation leads to the conclusion that the predominant method of execution of the death penalty was a gunshot or gunshots to the back of the head, which is analogous to the results of exhumation works on collective graves of war prisoners executed during World War II in the territory of the former Soviet Union.

  13. A comparison of the perceptions and aspirations of third-year physiotherapy students trained in three educational settings in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gotlib, Joanna; Białoszewski, Dariusz; Sierdziński, Janusz; Jarosz, Mirosław J; Majcher, Piotr; Barczyk, Katarzyna; Bauer, Aleksandra; Cabak, Anna; Grzegorczyk, Joanna; Płaszewski, Maciej; Kułak, Wojciech; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Prokopowicz, Katarzyna

    2010-03-01

    In Poland, physiotherapy is offered at three types of school: medical universities, universities of physical education, and schools that do not specialise in either the medical sciences or physical education. This study explored the knowledge of students who were completing their physiotherapy studies about working in Poland and other countries of the European Union (EU), and about their vocational plans. Students were asked, through self-assessment, about aspects of the professional skills they had gained. Quantitative questionnaire-based study of students in three university settings. Eleven university-level schools in Poland offering studies in physiotherapy and representing three orientations: medical sciences (MS), physical education (PE) and other universities (OU). The study sample comprised of 954 third-year Bachelor programme students. The differences in university profiles did not influence the vocational plans of the students, with more than 70% (668/954) declaring that they would look for work outside Poland: 76% (725/954) in the UK and 69% (658/954) in Germany. Most students stated that finding work as a physiotherapist is difficult in Poland (686/954,72%) and easy in other EU countries (763/954, 80%). Differences in university profiles had an effect on the students' assessments of their professional skills, as students from universities without a long-standing tradition of training in physiotherapy declared that they were less well prepared to work as physiotherapists; the difference was statistically significant for 12 of the 16 domains examined (P<0.05). In the light of these results, an increased influx of Polish physiotherapists, trained according to European standards, into EU countries, especially the UK and Germany, is to be expected in the near future. The physiotherapists will predominantly be graduates of medical and sports-oriented state universities. It appears advisable to launch, under the auspices of an EU programme, an integrated

  14. In the Shadow of Auschwitz: Teaching the Holocaust in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    1999-01-01

    Until recently, schools in Poland have done little to discourage anti-Semitism and have not taught about the Holocaust nor explained why there are virtually no Jews in Poland. Curriculum modifications in the next school year will introduce the subject at the elementary-school level. (SLD)

  15. Bovine tuberculosis in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Monika; Lipiec, Marek; Zabost, Anna; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    Poland is officially tuberculosis free and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) cases are rarely found except in bovids. We found BTB in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Bieszczady Mountains, southeastern Poland. Studies suggest possible transmission of infection between free-living European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus) and wild boar in this area.

  16. Legislative Aspects of Rehabilitation Services for the Disabled in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulek, A., Ed.

    The main task of rehabilitation in Poland is the maximum integration of the disabled into ordinary life. Developmental trends in recent years have focused on rehabilitation services for the chronically ill. The document provides information on the organization of rehabilitation services in Poland and discusses specific problems of rehabilitation…

  17. Rare combination of dextrocardia with right-sided Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jae Bum; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Kim, Yeo Hyang

    2012-10-01

    The combination of right-sided Poland syndrome and dextrocardia is rare. To our knowledge, reports regarding this subject are lacking in the published literature to date. Previous reports suggested that dextrocardia may be part of the left sided Poland syndrome. We report and discuss this rare combination. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Problems of Acquisition of Library Collections in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankiewicz, W.

    This discussion of the difficulties Poland faces in acquiring materials for its libraries' collections centers on four aspects: (1) historical background, (2) publishing output versus acquisition of collections, (3) decentralization of acquisition as the basis for distribution of collection in Poland, and (4) centralization of information about…

  19. Care and Education of Orphaned Children in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna

    2004-01-01

    Poland is going through tremendous changes in its educational and health-care systems. These changes may bring reforms in the care of orphaned children, because the new politics and economy are forcing educators to look for new solutions and forms of care. There are many problems with the care of orphan children in Poland in both Children's Homes…

  20. Creativity and School Grades: A Case from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralewski, Jacek; Karwowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relationship between the creative abilities and the school grades of high school students in Poland. Almost six hundred (N = 589) students from 34 high schools from all over Poland participated in the study. Their creative abilities were measured by using the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production…

  1. HIV and AIDS in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Niedźwiedzka-Stadnik, Marta; Pielacha, Magdalena; Rosińska, Magdalena

    The aim was to analyze the epidemiological situation of newly diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS cases in Poland in 2014 and years earlier. Descriptive analysis of newly detected HIV cases and AIDS cases was performed based on routine notifications by clinicians and laboratories. Data on the number of HIV tests from annual survey among laboratories were also used. In 2014 there were 1,157 HIV cases diagnosed in Poland (incidence rate 3.01 per 100,000 population), including 14 among non-Polish citizens. The rate of new cases rose by 4.4% compare to last year and increased by 20% compare to median in 2008 - 2012. The total number of AIDS cases was 148 (incidence 0.38 per 100,000) and 40 AIDS patients died (0.10 per 100,000). HIV infection was mainly detected among people aged 20 to 39 years (72.0%) and among males (82.2%). Among men 64.5% of newly diagnosed infections with known transmission category were acquired by men who have sexual contacts with men (MSM). The percentage of infected men in this group decreased by 4.1% compare to previous year, but there were the increase in the percentage of infected person who take heterosexual contacts, from 20.4% to 24.7% (person with known transmission category). The percentage of late presenters (defined by the time between HIV and AIDS diagnoses of less than 3 months) increased in comparison with year 2013 by almost one percentage (from 8.4% to 9.2% of newly diagnosed HIV infections). HIV epidemic continues to develop among MSM in Poland. However, assessment of epidemiological situation is limited by the missing data on the probable transmission route in a large percentage of reported newly detected HIV infection.

  2. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2111.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2011, using national surveillance data. We reviewed surveillance data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland" from 2005 to 2011, and botulism case reports from 2011 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2011, a total of 35 foodborne botulism cases (including 21 laboratory confirmed cases) was reported, corresponding to the one of the lowest annual incidence rate (0.09 per 100,000 population) since the introduction of botulism as mandatory notifiable disease. The higher incidence rates compared to the previous year were in the Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Mazowieckie and Dolnoślaskie. Incidence in rural areas (0.13 per 100,000 population) was higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.07). Men, had more than 3,5 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.23 per 100,000 population) was observed among men in the age group of 60 + years. Most cases were associated with consumption of commercially canned meat (including pork and other types of meat). Home canned foods containing meats or vegetables and meats were also a common vehicle. Almost all cases were hospitalized (33 cases). One death related to the disease was reported. In 2011, in Poland epidemiology of the foodborne botulism remains stable. From the point of view of national surveillance, it is necessary to increase the percentage of cases investigated with laboratory tests.

  3. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2013. We reviewed surveillance data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and in previous publications, and botulism case reports for 2013 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2013, a total of 24 foodborne botulism cases (including 8 laboratory confirmed cases) was reported, corresponding to the lowest annual incidence rate (0.06 per 100,000 population) since the introduction of botulism as mandatory notifiable disease. The highest incidence in the country was reported in Kujawsko-Pomorskie (0.19). Incidence in rural areas (0.09 per 100,000 population) was more than 2-fold higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.04). Men, had more than 3 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.29 per 100,000 population) was observed among men in the age group of 40-49 years. Most cases were associated with consumption of different types of commercially canned meat. Commercially canned fish was also a common vehicle. All cases were hospitalized. No deaths related to the disease were reported. In 2013, in Poland a downward trend in the incidence of foodborne botulism was maintained. Insufficient laboratory capacity remains a major weakness in national surveillance resulting in disproportionate reporting of cases meeting only clinical criteria and an epidemiological link. This situation clearly speaks for the need to improve laboratory capacity for surveillance.

  4. Echinococcosis and cysticercosis in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Gołąb, Elżbieta; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of echinococcosis and cysticercosis in 2012 as compared to previous years. The assessment of the epidemiological situation was based on data contained in the individual reports on cases sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by the Regional Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations and on the pooled data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland". In 2012, the total number of reported cases of echinococcosis in Poland was 28. This included: 11 undefined cases (39% of all cases), 7 alveolar echinococcosis cases (41% out of l7 cases in which the species of Echinococcus was recognized) and 10 cystic echinococcosis (59% of all defined cases). The total incidence of echinococcosis was 0.073/100 000. Cases were registered in 8 provinces. Most cases (9) and the highest incidence (0.620) was recorded in Warmińsko-Mazurskie. Echinococcus infections were reported in people aged 15 to 82 years, mostly adults (mean age 49.2 years, median 54.0). Echinococcosis was more frequent among women (incidence 0.096) than among men (incidence 0.048). The incidence of echinococcosis in rural areas was higher than in the city (0.125 vs. 0.039). Cysticercosis, which occurs sporadically in Poland, was not reported in 2012. For the purposes of epidemiological surveillance it would be advisable to introduce the obligatory differentiation of alveococcosis and hydatidosis, as well as a case definition for cysticercosis. In order to reduce the risk of contracting tapeworm infections, it is advisable to intensify educational efforts.

  5. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  6. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic, April 15-19, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce...

  7. Causes of chromate dermatitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Kozlowska, A

    1980-04-01

    A series of 250 consecutive patients with dermatitis and positive patch tests to chromate was divided into three groups: nonoccupational dermatitis (94), occupational dermatitis caused by chromate (132) and occupational dermatitis caused by allergens other than chromate (24). Only 17.2% of patients did not report harmful effects from chromium-tanned leather. Shoes were most often not tolerated. The role of matches in the development of chromate dermatitis is discussed. Observations on ash, household detergents, textiles, wood, tattooing, cement, galvanizing solutions, printer's ink, welding fumes, corrosion inhibitors and oils are described as causes of chromate dermatitis in Poland, as well as the localization of dermatitis and relevance of patch test reactions.

  8. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-05-05

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern.

  9. Poland in NATO? A Case Study of the United States Foreign Policymaking Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Science Monitor, 22 September 1993: "As East Bloc Drifts West, Russia Frets Over Security" by Daniel Sneider. 17 David Remnick , "Russia Appeals for...Affairs David Wipple, Ch "i Department of Systems Management ii ABSTRACT The opportunity for nations such as Poland to enter NATO is of vital concern...November 5, 1991. Reisch, Alfred A., "Central and Eastern Europe’s Quest for NATO Membership", RFE/RL Research Report, Vol.2, No.28, July 9, 1993. Remnick

  10. Human exposure to pollutants in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, J.J.; Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E. )

    1992-07-01

    Serious environmental problems caused by decades of mismanagement of Poland's natural resources have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media--air, water, food, and soil--have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Some environmental problems are so severe that the sources of pollution and the mitigation techniques needed are obvious, requiring no further research, but rather common sense, monies, and determination to implement the necessary controls and mitigation procedures. This paper will not address these obvious cases. Rather it will address that spectrum of environmental problems which requires a better understanding of public health risk in order to develop effective risk management strategies. Because these problems are numerous and monies limited, policy makers will need to set priorities both for research projects and control options. Using environmental concentration data presently available from Poland (especially for air), the paper will estimate human exposures, will point out research and monitoring needs, and hopefully, will lend credence to the concept that environmental policies and risk reduction strategies will be most effective if the Total Human Exposure Concept is used as the guiding scientific principle in risk assessment and management programs.

  11. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  12. Influenza diagnosis and vaccination in Poland.

    PubMed

    Brydak, L B; Wozniak-Kosek, A; Nitsch-Osuch, A

    2013-06-01

    In Poland between several thousand and several million cases of influenza and suspected influenza cases are registered, depending on the epidemic season. A variety of methods are available for the detection of the influenza viruses responsible for respiratory infection starting with the isolation of the virus in chick embryos or in cell lines such as MDCK, VERO, etc., and finishing with a variety of modifications of the classical PCR molecular biology such as PCR multiplex and Real-Time. The most effective way to combat influenza is through vaccination. Regular vaccination is one of the few steps that may be taken to protect individuals, especially in high-risk groups, from the potential and serious complications of influenza. In many countries, including Poland, despite the recommendations, the rate of vaccination against influenza is still low in all age groups. In the epidemic season 2011/2012, the level of distribution of the seasonal influenza vaccines was 4.5% of the population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of coeliac disease prevalence in patients with Down syndrome in Poland - a multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna; Soroczyńska-Wrzyszcz, Anetta; Barg, Ewa; Józefczuk, Jan; Korczowski, Bartosz; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Więcek, Sabina; Cukrowska, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    The results of studies assessing whether patients with Down syndrome have increased risk of coeliac disease are contradictory. The prevalence of coeliac disease in patients with Down syndrome is estimated at a wide range between 1% to as much as 18.6%. To assess coeliac disease prevalence in patients with Down syndrome in Poland. The study enrolled 301 patients with Down syndrome from six centres in Poland (Wroclaw, Sandomierz, Rzeszow, Grudziadz, Katowice, and Bydgoszcz). We measured the concentration of anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA antibodies and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG antibodies in all patients. Patients with abnormal positive (> 10 U/ml) or inconclusive (7-10 U/ml) result of the serological test were offered endoscopic biopsy of the small intestine in the main centre. In 31 (10.3%) patients increased concentrations of the investigated antibodies were found, including 19 (6.3%) patients with increased tTg-IgA concentration, 27 (8.97%) patients with increased concentration of DGP-IgG, and 15 (4.98%) patients with increased concentration of both types of antibodies. Endoscopic biopsy of the small intestine was planned for all 31 patients with abnormal results of at least one antibody test and for 2 patients with inconclusive results. One of them suffered from previously diagnosed and histologically confirmed coeliac disease. Biopsy was not conducted in 9 patients due to contraindications, lack of their consent, or introduction of a gluten-free diet by the parents before the examination. In a group of 23 patients who underwent endoscopic biopsy of the small intestine, in 15 patients the histopathological picture of the small intestinal mucosa was typical for coeliac disease, 2 patients were diagnosed with lesions of grade 1 according to the classification by Marsh-Oberhuber, 1 patient was diagnosed with focal shortening of villi and hypertrophy of the crypts with no intraepithelial lymphocytosis (remains under gastrological observation), 2 patients

  14. Multimodality imaging of Poland syndrome with dextrocardia and limb anomalies.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramesh S; Parisi, Marguerite T

    2012-08-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare disorder featuring unilateral anterior thoracic and upper extremity anomalies. These include hypoplasia of the pectoralis major costosternal head, absent pectoralis minor, breast hypoplasia, and absent upper rib cartilage. Pulmonary hypoplasia may occur secondarily. The postulated etiology is underdevelopment of the subclavian artery. Less than 50 cases of Poland syndrome with dextrocardia have been reported. Rib anomalies cause rightward cardiac displacement in fetal life. This case of left-sided Poland syndrome in a young girl is unique not only because of dextrocardia, but also because the condition preferentially afflicts the right side and males.

  15. Poland syndrome associated with ipsilateral lipoma and dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenya; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Qigang; Du, Jiang; Zhang, Shuguang; Liu, Xiangli

    2011-12-01

    A 22-year-old man was admitted with a rapidly enlarging soft mass on the left chest wall, which was diagnosed as lipoma by postoperative pathology. A chest roentgenogram revealed a defect of the fourth rib, scoliosis, dextrocardia, and diaphragmatic hernia. A computed tomographic scan showed maldevelopment of the pectoralis major and minor muscles. This is the first reported case of Poland syndrome with ipsilateral lipoma of the chest wall. Dextrocardia associated with Poland syndrome may be considered dextroposition, rather than a dextroinversion, and it may arise as a result of Poland syndrome. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Poland syndrome with extracorporeal intercostal liver herniation and thoracic myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Seifarth, Federico G; Cruz Pico, Christian X; Stromberg, Jeffrey; Recinos, Violette M; Burdjalov, Vladimir F; Karakas, S Pinar

    2012-01-01

    Poland syndrome is characterized by hypoplastic unilateral chest wall structures. These chest wall deformities may be associated with upper extremity anomalies. The association of Poland syndrome with either intercostal liver herniation or a spinocerebral deformity has been described, but there is no report of both findings encountered simultaneously. This is the first report of a newborn child with Poland syndrome associated with an intercostal liver segment herniation and thoracic myelomeningocele with features of an Arnold-Chiari II cerebral malformation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Treatment in XIIth c. Poland according to medical writings of Nicholas of Poland].

    PubMed

    Batog, W; Jonczyk, M

    1998-01-01

    The authors present the person of Mikolaj of Poland, a thirteenth century doctor, connected with the Princes of Pomerania and Greater Poland, educated in France, and known from his two major writings, Antipocras (Anti-Hypocrates) and Experimenta. On the background of medieval medicine, the methods of healing he suggested appear as unusual and unconventional. He healed with amulets, mud, dung, river and sea water, frogs, moles, vipers, flies and worms. Using them, he produced powders, pills, ointments and oils which were to have outstanding healing results. They were to be used in lithiasis, skin irritations, nephritis, hepatitis, deafness, epilepsy, and toothache. Women might use them as cosmetics, too. Considering thirteenth century medicine, Mikolaj with no doubts represents medieval medical "empiry", creating an interesting alternative against official standards binding doctors of that time.

  18. Soil and water assessment tool model calibration results for different catchment sizes in poland.

    PubMed

    Ostojski, Mieczyslaw S; Niedbala, Jerzy; Orlinska-Wozniak, Paulina; Wilk, Pawel; Gębala, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The watershed model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) can be used to implement the requirements of international agreements that Poland has ratified. Among these requirements are the establishment of catchment-based, rather than administrative-based, management plans and spatial information systems. Furthermore, Polish law requires that management of water resources be based on catchment systems. This article explores the use of the SWAT model in the implementation of catchment-based water management in Poland. Specifically, the impacts of basin size on calibration and on the results of the simulation process were analyzed. SWAT was set up and calibrated for three Polish watersheds of varying sizes: (i) Gąsawka, a small basin (>593.7 km), (ii) Rega, a medium-sized basin (2766.8 km), and (iii) Warta, a large basin (54,500 km) representing about 17.4% of Polish territory. The results indicated that the size of the catchment has an impact on the calibration process and simulation outputs. Several factors influenced by the size of the catchment affected the modeling results. Among these factors are the number of measurement points within the basin and the length of the measuring period and data quality at checkpoints as determined by the position of the measuring station. It was concluded that the SWAT model is a suitable tool for the implementation of catchment-based water management in Poland regardless of watershed size. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Research of medical gases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter. PMID:23916016

  20. Poland: biomedical ethics in a socialist state.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Zbigniew

    1987-06-01

    In one of a Hastings Center Report series of four country reports, a professor of ethics discusses the Polish approach to ethical issues in health care. Szawarski begins by outlining five factors that influence the practice of medicine in Poland: a socialist form of government, the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, an ongoing economic crisis, the legacy of the Nazi death camps, and a lack of formal instruction in biomedical ethics. He then discusses three current ethical concerns of physicians, patients, and the public: regulation of physician conduct, abortion, and in vitro fertilization. There is little formal public debate of the issues, however, and physicians seem committed to upholding traditional medical codes of ethics without analyzing underlying moral principles and justifications.

  1. Rheumatology training in Poland vs. United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lazarewicz, Karina; Chinoy, Hector

    2017-01-01

    When evaluating the quality of Rheumatology specialty training, it can be useful to explore similarities and differences between countries. In this article we compare the training in the UK and Poland. The two training programmes are similar in length and in the competencies that must be achieved, although they do have significant differences in the way the training is structured. The UK-based system is more out-patient based, which can be advantageous, as after completion of training the doctor is more confident in treating common rheumatological problems. On the other hand, having exposure to paediatric rheumatology and orthopaedics like one has in Polish-based training, despite a short placement time, is definitely beneficial for the trainee in gaining all-round knowledge. In conclusion, each system has its merits and can be further enhanced by observing how junior doctors are sub-speciality trained in different countries.

  2. Project on chemical safety in Poland.

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Krajewski, J A; Majka, J; Dutkiewicz, T

    1990-01-01

    This work focuses on main aspects of a proposed system of chemical safety in Poland. General principles have been formulated, including theoretical guidelines, definitions and functions. Additionally, organizational and legislative structures have been proposed. A basic principal of the system says that each activity related to the application of chemical compounds creates a risk of adverse health and environmental effects. According to the definition adopted, chemical safety means such levels of chemical compounds in the environment, coming from various sources, which ensure that the risk of adverse health effects and other negative effects will not surpass socially acceptable levels. The chemical safety system is aimed at preventing and limiting the risk of undesirable health and environmental effects from chemical compounds. It is proposed that the system be coordinated by the National Coordinating Committee on Chemical Safety. The most urgent task of the Committee would be to draft a law on human health protection against the harmful effects of chemical compounds.

  3. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  4. The church's heavy hand in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Following the defeat of communism, Poland has witnessed an erosion in the separation between state and church, as the Roman Catholic church has begun using its immense political power to press for social legislation -- one that includes a ban on abortion and contraception. The Catholic church has already succeeded in obtaining government support of religious education (in fact, it has become the only instruction available), and in tightening divorce laws. Most of the church initiatives affect women disproportionately. As a solution for the country's unemployment, bishops suggested taking jobs from women and giving them to men. Moreover, the church's most vehement campaign has centered on family planning and abortion. Bishops have begun a campaign designed to eventually ban contraception and abortion. Despite the fact that 60% of all Poles approve of the law permitting abortion, the church successfully lobbied the Ministry of Health to impose measures requiring a woman seeking an abortion to obtain the approval of 2 gynecologists, her family doctor, and a church approved psychologist. At least 3 women have already died from self-induced abortions following the enactment of the regulations. The church has also succeeded in getting the government to stop subsidizing birth control pills. with consent from Pope John Paul II, Catholic pharmacists in Poland have refused to sell contraceptives. These measures ignore the well-known fact that contraception is the best, least coercive way to reduce the number of abortions. It appears, however, that the bishops' heavy hand has led to a decline in public support for the church.

  5. Treatment of pediatric epilepsy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dunin-Wąsowicz, Dorota; Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska, Maria; Steinborn, Barbara; Wheless, James; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz

    2015-05-01

    The many types of childhood epilepsies make the diagnosis and treatment difficult and the outcomes frequently poor. Furthermore, there are few clinical trials in pediatric epilepsy that provide useful results to guide daily practice. Therefore for pediatric neurologists expert opinion may be useful. To provide an overview of current practice in Poland and compare results with European and US clinical guidelines. Polish specialists in pediatric neurology were asked to participate in a survey about pediatric epilepsy. The focus of the questions was on the overall strategy and treatment options for different syndromic diagnoses. The survey was developed and performed according to a previous European survey (Wheless et al., 2007). Fifty-one Polish specialists, working in academic or clinical settings, completed the questionnaire. They limited combination therapy to two or three antiepileptic drugs. Valproate was the treatment of choice for myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. For infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis and of symptomatic etiology, vigabatrin was treatment of choice; valproate and ACTH were other first line options. Valproate and ethosuximide were chosen for childhood absence epilepsy and valproate for juvenile absence epilepsy. Carbamazepine was the first-line treatment option for benign partial epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes and complex partial seizures. In the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy for males valproate, for females lamotrigine were chosen. Polish pediatric neurologists agreed on the majority of questions. Their views reflect the clinical utility and availability of treatment options in Poland. Results may provide direction for clinicians. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2014 compared to previous years. We reviewed (1) surveillance data published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and in previous publications, and (2) unpublished data retrieved from botulism case reports for 2014 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2014, a total of 29 foodborne botulism cases (including 17 laboratory confirmed) was reported; the annual incidence rate (0.08 per 100,000 population) increased slightly in comparison to previous year, but was similar to the median incidence for years 2008 to 2012. The highest incidence in the country was reported in Lubelskie province (0.33). Incidence in rural areas (0.09) was only slightly higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.06). Men, had more than 4 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.31) was observed among men in the age group of 20-24 years. Most cases were associated with consumption of different types of commercially canned meat. Home-made vegetable meat preserves were also a common vehicle. All cases were hospitalized. Two deaths related to the disease were reported. Since 2008, the epidemiological situation of foodborne botulism in the country remains stable with an average 30 cases per year and corresponding incidence rate of 0.08 per 100,000 population. However, in 2014 draws attention a significant number of cases with undetermined food vehicle and relatively high percentage of cases with no laboratory confirmation. Therefore, it is important to enhance epidemiological investigation as well as laboratory capacity for surveillance.

  7. Asbestos in Poland: occupational health problems.

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Swiątkowska, Beata; Szubert, Zuzanna; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2011-06-01

    The presentation addresses current problems of health risk and health effects associated with exposure to asbestos, including data on historical exposure and on currently valid occupational exposure limits. The quantity and types of the raw material used for the production of various asbestos products have also been discussed in relation to the particular types of asbestos-induced occupational diseases. The authors describe the medical care system for former asbestos workers and those currently exposed during removal of asbestos-containing products. The national system for medical certification of occupational asbestos-related diseases and the compensation procedure have been outlined as well. According to the parliamentary Act of 1997, importing, manufacture and sale of asbestos and asbestos-containing materials are prohibited in Poland. Thus, the assessment of asbestos exposure and the monitoring of health conditions of workers at asbestos-processing plants have become irrelevant. However, the delayed health effects attributable to past exposure continue to be the matter of concern for public health. Likewise, the environmental pollution from asbestos waste landfills in the vicinity of asbestos-processing plants (where high levels of asbestos fibre in ambient air have been recorded) will continue to be a serious public health problem. Presently, two programmes aimed at minimising the adverse effects of asbestos on population health are underway. One of them is the governmental programme for "Elimination of asbestos and asbestos-containing products used in Poland, 2002-2032". The programme was updated in 2009 to cover the workers contracted to perform demolition works and provide protective covers to asbestos waste landfills. This will be the exposed group who need prophylactic health care. The other is a programme of prophylactic examinations for former asbestos workers and is referred to as the AMIANTUS programme. Both programmes have been briefly described.

  8. [Infectious diseases in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2009-01-01

    The fact that incidence of infectious diseases in Poland is quite stable and, as compared with many noninfectious diseases relatively better, should not lead to underestimation of the problem. Despite in many diseases long term trends indicate decreasing incidence, in some important diseases increase of incidence was noted. Significant decrease was noted in incidence of some diseases for which vaccination program was modified. It concerns mumps, Hib infections, and to some extend also pertussis. Serious problem remains with accumulated through several years high prevalence of hepatitis B and C. Also low vaccine coverage of influenza is a measure of weakness of prevention against this disease, which is one of the most important causes of job and school absence and despite low mortality, is one of important caused of increased mortality in winter season. Next important epidemiological problem cause bacterial and viral foodborne infections, which despite some improvement place Poland below average of EU. Also relative stabilization of the incidence of tuberculosis does not look good if compared with leading countries of EU. With HIV infections particular concern is brought by the number of late diagnoses and drastic decline of data on the probable risk factor of infection. Infectious diseases mortality in 2007 was 6.6/100,000 (3.5 in Podlaskie Voivodeship and 9.3 in Slaskie) and it was higher in cities (7.1) then in rural areas. As in previous years i man mortality (8.6) was higher then in women (4.9). Highest mortality from infectious diseases was noted among elderly people above 74 (30.6).

  9. Review of biomass as a source of energy for Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczynski, S.; Brzychczyk, P.; Sekula, R.

    1997-10-01

    To the present day, biomass has not been considered as an energy source for Poland, and over 95% of energy is generated through fossil fuel combustion. However, it is necessary to search for new energy sources because of high prices of traditional energy carriers and massive environmental pollution caused by these fuels. Biomass seems to be one of the best renewable energy sources. Basic components of biomass in Poland and estimations of energetic resources of biomass are presented.

  10. Impact of climate change on low flow characteristics in a small catchment of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasik, K.; Kaznowska, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Zagozdzonka catchment (left tributary of Vistula River) is a small lowland agricultural catchment, located in central Poland, about 100 km south of Warsaw. Hydrological investigations of the Zagozdzonka River at Plachty (N51°26'43.8''; E21°27'35.6''), have been carried out by the Department of River Engineering of Warsaw University of Life Science (WULS) since 1962. The catchment area is 82.4 km2 at the Plachty river gauging station. Annual data of temperature, annual and seasonal rainfall and runoff characteristics, as well as annual N-day (1-, 2-, 3-, 7-, 14- and 30-day) low flow from the catchment of the period of 53-year (1963-2015) were analysed. Mann-Kendall test was used for trend analysis. Analysis has revealed a long term decrease in annual discharge and in all of the analysed N-day low flows from the catchment, as well as a corresponding increase in annul temperature (1.61ºC/50 years) for this area of Poland. No trend was detected for annual precipitation nor summer/winter half year precipitation. There was little land use change in the catchment but remarkable increase of crop yields from the arable land in this region of Poland in the last 50 years, due to fertilisation. So the long term decrease of annual discharge and N-day low flows is assumed to be effect of higher evapotranspiration. The decrease of water resources in summer periods may cause problems when more intensive agriculture practice is planned (and water for irrigation is needed).

  11. Poland action plan for water and wastewater: Bielsko-biala and Warsaw, Poland. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-09

    The Goczalkowice Reservoir in the Katowice voivodeship in the Upper Silesia area of Poland. It serves as a major source of water for the population of the Upper Selesia region. In 1987 a major shift took place in the ecology of the reservoir. The shift resulted in major algae blooms which caused problems at the water treatment plant. The primary purpose of the study was to more specifically define the water quality problem of the Goczalkowice Reservoir, to determine it causes and to develop a set of recommendations leading to a solution. The report would then become the basis for proposals for financing of one or more projects needed to implement its recommendations.

  12. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    PubMed

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  13. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  14. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  15. Hepatitis C in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Parda, Natalia; Stępień, Małgorzata

    . Currently, hepatitis C (HCV infection) is one of the public health priorities worldwide. It is associated with a considerable improvement of methods undertaken to eliminate this disease. Due to the predominance of chronic infections of long asymptomatic course, the number of cases detected in successive years does not reflect the actual dynamics of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis C. To a large extent, it depends on current testing practices. The modifications in the provisions on the notification of diagnosed cases may also have an effect on the number of HCV infections registered in successive years. This article aims at evaluating the epidemiological situation of HCV infections in Poland in 2014 in reference to the data from previous years. Analysis of epidemiological situation of hepatitis C in Poland was carried out on a basis of aggregated data from routine surveillance system published in annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland”. Data on hepatitis C mortality from the Demographic Surveys and Labour Market Department of the Central Statistical Office were also employed. In 2014, a total of 3 076 HCV infections (incidence – 7.99 per 100,000) meeting 2005 definition were registered. Compared to 2013 and median as of 2008-2012, there was an increase of the incidence by 14% (2 705; 6.03) and 34% (2 294; 5.85), respectively. In 2014, a total of 3 551 (9.23) HCV infections meeting 2009 definition were reported (the definition was modified in 2014). Compared to 2013 (2 268; 6.86), it was an increase by 35%. In 2014, 241 deaths due to hepatitis C were registered which is the highest mortality noted so far. In recent years, a burden resulting from undiagnosed or untreated HCV infections is on the increase. It is demonstrated by increasing hepatitis C mortality and increasing trend of incidence according to 2005 definition (presence of symptoms). Increase of incidence according to 2009/2014 definition may be associated with the

  16. The incidence and risk of hip fracture in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, E; Kanis, J A; Trybulec, B; Johansson, H; Borowy, P; Osieleniec, J

    2009-08-01

    This study determined the incidence and probability of hip fractures in Poland based on verified hospital discharge notes from all of Poland. In the over-50-year-old population, hip fracture incidence was found to be 89/100,000 for men and 156/100,000 for women. Poland is among the countries with the lowest hip fracture risk in Europe. It is recommended that intervention thresholds should be based on an assessment of absolute fracture risk. Probability of hip fracture is calculated from the incidence of hip fracture in a given population and the incidence of death. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the absolute risk of hip fracture for men and women in Poland. The study was based on National Health Fund data from all of Poland for the year 2005. Hospital discharge notes reporting an incident fracture were identified from among all those containing a matching ICD code. Lifetime and 10-year fracture probabilities were calculated taking into account the mortality risk and BMD. In 2005, there were 17,625 hip fractures diagnosed in Poland which was 30.2% less than the number of hospital discharge notes containing such a diagnosis in that year. In the over-50-year-old population, hip fracture incidence was found to be 89/100,000 for men and 165/100,000 for women. In the 50-65-year band, hip fracture incidence was higher in men than in women. The remaining lifetime probability of hip fracture at the age of 50 years was 2.0% for men and 4.5% for women which are among the lowest in Europe. Hip fracture incidence and thus the probability of hip fracture risk in Poland is amongst the lowest in Europe. The authors recommend establishing a standard method for determining hip fracture incidence in a given country in order to standardize data.

  17. Detection of selected pathogens in ticks collected from cats and dogs in the Wrocław Agglomeration, South-West Poland.

    PubMed

    Król, Nina; Obiegala, Anna; Pfeffer, Martin; Lonc, Elżbieta; Kiewra, Dorota

    2016-06-21

    Tick-borne infections are no longer confined to rural areas, they are documented with increasing frequency in urban settlements across the world. They are known to cause diseases in humans as well as in their companion animals. During a period of 2 years, from January 2013 until December 2014, ticks were collected from dogs and cats in 18 veterinary clinics in the Wrocław Agglomeration, Poland. In total, 1455 ticks were found on 931 pets: 760 domestic dogs and 171 cats. For molecular examinations 127 I. ricinus ticks (115 females and 12 males) were randomly selected, all collected I. hexagonus (n = 137, 32 females, 98 nymphs, 7 larvae) and all collected D. reticulatus (n = 46, 31 females, 15 males) were taken. Ixodes ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks were tested for Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Babesia spp., while D. reticulatus ticks were investigated for Rickettsia spp. and Babesia spp. only. In total, 65.4 % I. ricinus ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. Over 50 % of I. ricinus were positive for Rickettsia spp. (R. helvetica and R. monacensis). The infection level with A. phagocytophilum was 21.3 %. DNA of Cand. N. mikurensis was detected in 8.1 % I. ricinus ticks. Interestingly only female ticks were infected. The prevalence of Babesia spp. was confirmed in 9.0 % of I. ricinus involving the species B. microti and B. venatorum. A total of nineteen double, one triple and two quadruple infections were found in I. ricinus ticks only. Almost 11 % of I. hexagonus ticks were positive for at least one of the tested pathogens. Rickettsia spp. infection was found in 2.2 %, while A. phagocytophilum was detected in 8.1 % of I. hexagonus ticks. Only one nymph was positive for Cand. N. mikurensis and none of I. hexagonus ticks harbored a Babesia spp. Over 60 % of D. reticulatus ticks were positive for rickettsial DNA, exclusively belonging to the species R. raoultii. The high tick infestation

  18. [Poland's demographic and socio-economic problems].

    PubMed

    Secomski, K

    1984-01-01

    Population phenomena and processes are always the starting point for socioeconomic development planning. Thus it is necessary to properly coordinate the premises, goals, and directions of population and socioeconomic policies. This applies in particular to projections, programs, and development plans of the population, the economy, and society. Besides natural resources, human labor is the main factor in economic growth and its dynamics. Initially, abundant labor resources and their full use are of basic importance. Next, the quality of the human factor and the modern character of structural population, social, economic, and spatial changes become more important. These changes must be treated jointyl. Finally, the character and changing structure of human needs, society, and modernized economy should be taken into consideration. In order to meet these needs properly and with increasingly better methods, the development of the material base as well as the growth and structure of national ioncome must be coordinated accordingly. Also important are educational status and the culture of consumption. The growth of Poland's population and its structural changes require suitable changes with regard to the protective functions of the state and the implementation of new programs--in health care, education, housing, and environmental control. Appropriate research activities must be initiated in order to establish demographic and socioeconomic goals. (author's modified)

  19. Prevention in Poland: health care system reform.

    PubMed Central

    Sheahan, M D

    1995-01-01

    Despite the political and economic reforms that have swept Eastern Europe in the past 5 years, there has been little change in Poland's health care system. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare has targeted preventive care as a priority, yet the enactment of legislation to meet this goal has been slow. The process of reform has been hindered by political stagnation, economic crisis, and a lack of delineation of responsibility for implementing the reforms. Despite the delays in reform, recent developments indicate that a realistic, sustainable restructuring of the health care system is possible, with a focus on preventive services. Recent proposals for change have centered on applying national goals to limited geographic areas, with both local and international support. Regional pilot projects to restructure health care delivery at a community level, local health education and disease prevention initiatives, and a national training program for primary care and family physicians and nurses are being planned. Through regionalization, an increase in responsibility for both the physician and the patient, and redefinition of primary health care and the role of family physicians, isolated local movements and pilot projects have shown promise in achieving these goals, even under the current budgetary constraints. PMID:7610217

  20. [The dispute over eugenics in interwar Poland].

    PubMed

    Kawalec, K

    2000-01-01

    The eugenic problem seems not as well known as it was in the period between the world wars. The word "eugenics" was introduced into the scientific language by the British biologist, Francis Galton at the end of the XIX century. In general, it means the study of the methods of protecting and improving the quality of the human race by selective breeding. Galton's remarks initiated a wider (social and political) movement, which was active in some countries. The eugenic tendency was visible in American immigration policy before the Great War - making it difficult for people suffering from particular diseases to enter the USA. After the war, the eugenic movement became much stronger. In some countries (e.g. Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, and over half of the states of the USA) some components of the eugenic programme were introduced into legislation. The eugenic movement also appeared in reconstructed Poland. In 1918 it published it own magazine "Zagadnienia Rasy" (Problems of Human Race), later "Eugenika Polska" (Polish Eugenics). This did not imply however, that interest in the eugenic programme was generally very strong. In fact, it was limited by the influence of the Catholic Church. Another significant factor was lost Polish - German hostility. In the late thirties eugenic slogans lost popularity because of their use in Germany racist policy.

  1. [Acrylamide content in potato crisps in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Szponar, Lucjan; Chajewska, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    The main source of acrylamide in the diet are thermally processed carbohydrate-rich products, mainly those obtained from potatoes. Acrylamide is a substance with neurotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified it as a potential human carcinogen in 1994. The purpose of this study was to assess acrylamide content in 24 samples of crisps randomly collected in Poland in 2004. Acrylamide was determined in the form of brominated derivatives by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The average acrylamide content in the crisp samples examined was 998 mg/kg of the product, ranging from 352 to 3647 microg/kg, depending on the type of the crisps. The factor determining the differences in acrylamide content in the product was also the manufacturer. The average content of acrylamide in the crisps produced by three different manufacturers (manufacturers 1-3) was ca. 600-900 microg/kg, and in the crisps produced by manufacturer 4 was ca. 3 times higher. Moreover, substantial differences were found between the same types of crisps produced by the same manufacturers but originating from different manufacturing batches. The results obtained suggest the effects of various technological processes and raw material types on the level of acrylamide in crisps.

  2. Bioethical committees and data protection issues in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ligocka, Danuta

    2008-06-05

    In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee.The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law.In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz.The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007.

  3. A highly divergent Puumala virus lineage in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Drewes, Stephan; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Sadowska, Edyta T; Mikowska, Magdalena; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Paweł; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2017-01-16

    Puumala virus (PUUV) represents one of the most important hantaviruses in Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses of PUUV strains indicate a strong genetic structuring of this hantavirus. Recently, PUUV sequences were identified in the natural reservoir, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), collected in the northern part of Poland. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of PUUV in bank voles from southern Poland. A total of 72 bank voles were trapped in 2009 at six sites in this part of Poland. RT-PCR and IgG-ELISA analyses detected three PUUV positive voles at one trapping site. The PUUV-infected animals were identified by cytochrome b gene analysis to belong to the Carpathian and Eastern evolutionary lineages of bank vole. The novel PUUV S, M and L segment nucleotide sequences showed the closest similarity to sequences of the Russian PUUV lineage from Latvia, but were highly divergent to those previously found in northern Poland, Slovakia and Austria. In conclusion, the detection of a highly divergent PUUV lineage in southern Poland indicates the necessity of further bank vole monitoring in this region allowing rational public health measures to prevent human infections.

  4. Fire history and human activity in last 2000 years reconstructed from varved lake sediments (N Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowinski, M. M.; Pienczewska, A.; Obremska, M.; Ott, F.; Dietze, E.; Feurdean, A.; Theuerkauf, M.; Brauer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Humans in the last two thousand years affect profound changes to ecosystem structure and function sometimes causing fire regimes. The aim of the study was to reconstruct fire history and human activity in the Tuchola Pinewoods (Northern Poland) during the last 2000 years. The robust chronology of the sediment record is based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity concentration measurements and tephrochronology (Askja AD 1875). Pollen and microscopic charcoal data were obtained from varved lake sediments at a resolution of consistently 5 years and 10 years. Data from Czechowskie lake suggest next to climate change that increased human activity was one of the main factors that influenced fire frequency (e.g. 50-450 AD and 900-1200 AD). This is particularly evident between 1776-1905 AD, when intensified forest management led to a transformation from mixed to pine dominated forests (fire-prone vegetation). Using high-resolution pollen and charcoal data we aim to identify the most probable causes of changes during the last 2000 years. Finally, we discuss the observed fire frequency and vegetation change in relation to climate changes and the socio-economic development of the area. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis - ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre, Poland (grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/07367 and 2015/17/B/ST10/03430).

  5. From Totalitarianism to Democracy: The Case of Poland, Controversies and Heritage of Communism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    TO DEMOCRACY: THE CASE OF POLAND, CONTROVERSIES AND HERITAGE OF COMMUNISM by Jaroslaw Szafraniec June 2008 Thesis Advisor: Donald...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: From Totalitarianism to Democracy: The Case of Poland, Controversies and...BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited FROM TOTALITARIANISM TO DEMOCRACY: THE CASE OF POLAND, CONTROVERSIES AND

  6. [New sector of employment--a review of data on nanoproduction, research and development in the field of nanotechnology in Poland].

    PubMed

    Popławska, Magdalena; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Bujak-Pietrek, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently one of the fastest developing areas of science, focusing on the design, manufacture and use of nanomaterials. The term "nanomaterial" means any product made of nanometer-size (1-100 nm) structures. Due to the small size and unique properties of the applied nanomaterials there is a growing interest in their aplication in various fields of industry and science. In Poland, there are very few companies that carry on nanotechnology activities. Research institutes, universities and research units of the Polish Academy of Sciences predominate in these activities.

  7. 2000 years of human activity in Tuchola Pinewoods (northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    conditions forcing the people to give up their settlement and move. The second time of a significant increase of human activities began in Late Medieval time and lasted to the modern time. Pollen analysis shows the beginning of strong deforestation since XV century with the most intensification during industrial revolution (second part XIX century) where pine trees became the dominant species. Intense clear cutting in the lake's vicinity removed its natural "windshelter" and exposed the lake to longer lasting water column mixing. As a consequence varves nearly disappeared whereas the detrital indicators (e.g. Ti) increased due to an open landscape around the lake. The diatom analysis for the last 2000 years revealed several temporary changes for different species. Strongest fluctuation occurred for the species Stephanodiscus parvus and Cyclotella comensis where the latter show similar occurrences as Tetraedron (Chlorophyta). Recent lake monitoring (including diatom analysis) together with hydrological and meteorological data will help to understand under which conditions different diatom species form. This knowledge will be crucial for the interpretation of past changes. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grant NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  8. Poland's syndrome and recurrent pneumothorax: is there a connection?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the possible connection of Poland's syndrome with the presence of lung bullae and, thus, with an increased risk for recurrent pneumothorax. Patients-methods. Two male patients, aged 19 and 21 years respectively were submitted to our department after their second incident of pneumothorax. Both had Poland's syndrome (unilaterally hypoplastic chest wall with pectoralis major muscle atrophy) and both had multiple bullae to the ipsilateral lung based on CT findings. The patients were treated operatively (bullectomy, lung apicectomy, partial parietal pleurectomy and chemical pleurodesis) due to the recurrent state of their pneumothorax. Results. The patients had good results with total expansion of the affected lung. Conclusions. Poland's syndrome can be combined with ipsilateral presence of lung bullae, a common cause of pneumothorax. Whether this finding is part or a variation of the syndrome needs to be confirmed by a larger number of similar cases. PMID:21418595

  9. Chest wall reconstruction with methacrylate prosthesis in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Baamonde Laborda, Carlos; Algar Algar, Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. This syndrome was described in 1841 by Alfred Poland at Guy's Hospital in London. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, subcutaneous tissue shortages, lack of the costosternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and associated alterations of the fingers on the same side. Corrective treatment of the chest and soft tissue abnormalities in Poland syndrome varies according to different authors. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent who underwent chest wall reconstruction with a methyl methacrylate prosthesis. This surgical procedure is recommended for large anterior chest wall defects, and it prevents paradoxical movement. Moreover it provides for individual remodeling of the defect depending on the shape of the patient's chest.

  10. [Tobacco smoking among girls in Poland between 1998 and 2008].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous researches referring to tobacco smoking among girls in Poland. Unfortunately comparing their results and trends tracking is prevented by methodological differences, such as: sample selection, use of different research tools, way of conducting researches and analyzing their results. In this paper, on the basis of data collected from periodical studies conducted in Poland in the years 1998-2009 on the representative samples of adolescents, the estimation of tobacco smoking frequency among girls at the age of 15-18 years in Poland was performed. Moreover, the general trend referring to smoking among this group was analyzed. In this article the results were used form such a research projects as: HBSC (Heath Behavior in School-aged Children. A WHO Cross-national Collaborative Study); ESPAD (The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) and "Mokotowskie Research", leaded by Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. [Occurrence of insect pests in hospitals in Poland].

    PubMed

    Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Sawicka, Bozena; Czajka, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    The prevalent synantropic species present in hospitals in Poland was the German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.), found in about 70% hospitals. It was followed by Oriental cockroach (Blatta orientais L.) and Pharaoh's ant (Monomorium pharaonis L.) occurred in 40% and 17% of hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and lavatories were the most often infested places. Preliminary investigation of German cockroaches caught in hospitals in Poland showed on their body surfaces presence of bacteria known as these causing nosocomial infection. Several strains were resistant to antibacterial drugs widely used for treatment and showed insensitivity to chemical disinfectants used for surface treatment. Additional risk elements in Poland could be high resistance levels to many insecticides used for insect control in hospitals.

  12. Controlling the production and distribution of drugs in communist Poland.

    PubMed

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Between 1944 and 1989--the period of communist power in Poland--the national pharmaceutical market experienced several dramatic changes. The country was a prodigious importer of drugs following the Second World War, with a large portion of the medicine received being donated by various aid organisations. In the 1960s, Poland became a significant exporter of drugs to the Eastern Bloc countries, but dropped down the list of meaningful producers again after the post-1989 transformation. For four and a half decades the pharmaceutical market in Poland had been a scene of political and ideological struggle. The companies, owned and controlled by the state, were poorly managed, being neither innovative nor competitive. This fact, along with the state's irrational and inconsequent drug policy, caused an almost permanent shortage in drug supplies for patients: ironic for a socialist system in which universal and free health care was a basic principle.

  13. Clinical analysis of 113 patients with Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yiyit, Nurettin; Işıtmangil, Turgut; Öksüz, Sinan

    2015-03-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the partial or complete absence of pectoral muscles, varying thoracic deformities, and hand anomalies. To date, many variants of this syndrome and its accompanying anomalies have been reported. In our clinic, 113 patients were diagnosed with Poland syndrome between 1990 and 2014. A latissimus dorsi muscle transfer was performed on 6 of these patients. Out of 113 patients, 63 (55.7%) were diagnosed with the syndrome on the right side, 42 (37.1%) were diagnosed on the left side, and 8 (7%) had a bilateral diagnosis. The partial or complete absence of the pectoralis major muscle was detected in all patients. Although 81 (71.6%) patients had a complete absence of the pectoralis major muscle, 32 (28.3%) were lacking only the sternocostal head of the muscle. In the analyzed cases, Poland syndrome was also found to be accompanied by specific anomalies. The most common anomaly accompanying Poland syndrome in these patients was Sprengel deformity, seen in 18 patients. Symmetry and stabilization of the chest wall were performed in 6 patients through transfer of the latissimus dorsi muscle. Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, which has several variants and accompanying anomalies. The absence of several muscles in addition to the pectoral muscle can be seen in patients with Poland syndrome. Sprengel deformity is the most common accompanying anomaly. Several surgical procedures have been reported for the syndrome; for example, transposing the latissimus dorsi muscle is an effective procedure in terms of stabilizing the chest wall and providing optimum symmetric body appearance. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Tuberculosis epidemiology in Silesia Voivodship (Poland) between 1994-2004].

    PubMed

    Brozek, Grzegorz M

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis in Poland is about 2-3 times higher than average for E.U. countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate tuberculosis epidemiology in Silesia Voivodship (region where 12% of Polish citizens live) against the background of the country (Poland). The paper presents actual TB epidemiology situation (incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality from TB in Silesia and in Poland) as well as its trends observed between 1994-2004. The regional incidence in 2004 was 36% lower than in 1994, but 28 per 100,000 population is still higher than 24.9 per 100,000 observed in Poland. The incidence of tuberculosis increases with age, 0.8 in children aged 0-14 years, up to 48.0 among 65 and older. In 2004 incidence in the age groups 20-44 and 45-64 years (23.7 and 46.9 respectively) was much higher than average observed in Poland (20.3 and 39.5 respectively), as well the proportion of new cases in this age groups. The TB incidence in men (41.7) is 2.6 times higher than in women (15.2). Between 1998-2004 in Silesia Voivodship morbidity was growing and in 2004 was 60.6 per 100,000. In the year 2000 TB mortality was almost two times higher in Silesia (4.4) than the average in Poland (2.4). Epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Silesia Voivodship between 1994-2004 improved but is still bad. To correct this situation it is necessary to improve the process of fast diagnosis and effective therapy.

  15. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans.

  16. Viral infections in goose flocks in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozdruń, W; Woźniakowski, G; Samorek-Salamonowicz, E; Czekaj, H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the infectious agents isolated from infection - suspected geese sent for the diagnostic examination to National Veterinary Research Institute. The birds were sent from goose flocks localized in different parts of Poland. Totally, 1,013 birds from 122 flocks were examined. The presence of goose parvovirus (GPV), goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV), and goose circovirus (GoCV) was detected by triplex PCR. The presence of GPV DNA was shown in 36 flocks. The disease was most frequently diagnosed in goslings aging 3.5 weeks (ten flocks), and 2.5 weeks (six flocks). The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of VP1 encoding region has shown close similarity of Polish GPV strains within the group which ranged from 92% to 100%. Moreover, the similarity level of these strains with GPV isolated in Europe was from 91.3% to 100%. The occurrence of GoCV DNA was shown in 25 goose flocks. The presence of GoCV DNA was found among geese aged from 2 to 6 weeks, but predominantly in those aging 3.5 (three flocks) and 5 weeks (five flocks). The sequence analysis of PCR products from the sequenced region of ORFC1 capsid protein of GoCV has shown that Polish isolates share from 85% to 91% similarity with the sequences of GoCV strains isolated in other countries. The presence of DNA of GHPV was found in 3-week-old geese. During the last 2 years the presence of GHPV was confirmed in three flocks of goslings at the age from 3 to 3.5 weeks. During the last 12 years the occurrence of co-infection with GPV and GoCV was detected in six flocks aging from 5 to 6 weeks.

  17. [Occurrence of occupational diseases in Poland, 2014].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    The aim of the annual analysis of the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland is to evaluate the extent of the incidence and to identify its causes as well as activities involving factors that are harmful or annoying to such an extent that they result in occupational diseases. Occupational diseases reporting forms supplied to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases were used as the study material. In 2014, there were 2351 cases of occupational diseases recorded, i.e., 16.5 cases per 100 thousand of employees. The most numerous categories comprised infectious or parasitic diseases (borreliosis), pneumoconiosis, voice disorders and hearing loss (in total 79.7% of cases). The main causative factors of occupational diseases were as follows: industrial dust containing free silica, tick-transmitted Borrelia spirochete, and the way the work is done, including excessive vocal effort, and noise. The highest incidence per 100 thousand workers were recorded in mining and quarrying (296), manufacturing (24.9), education (24.6), agriculture and forestry (24.2) sectors. Compared with the previous year, there was a slight increase in the number of cases of certified occupational diseases (6.2%), primarily due to the increased incidence of Lyme disease. The incidence of voice disorders among teachers continues to vary considerably in individual provinces (0-11.3/10 000), reflecting the use of non-uniform diagnostic and certification methods. Med Pr 2016;67(3):327-335. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. Abortion, church and politics in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, H

    1992-01-01

    In early 1991 the abortion debate in Poland entered its new stage. The prolife and prochoice options had already clashed in the early 1930s over a new penal code and backstreet abortions. According to the code of 1932, induced abortion was allowed in cases of rape, incest, or for medical indications. Abortion was legalized in 1956, but subsequently it came under attack from Catholic circles, and by 1989 the Unborn Child Protection Bill was drafted which criminalized abortion. Only 11% of Polish women use modern contraceptives. The less efficient methods are the most prevalent: the natural method (Ogino-Knaus calendar), 35% of couples; coitus interruptus, 34%; condoms, 15%; oral contraceptives 7%; chemical spermicides, 2.5%; and the IUD 2%. According to size of Catholic Church estimate there are 600,000 abortions yearly. In contrast, official statistics indicate that the number of abortions is decreasing: 137,950 in 1980; 105,300 in 1988; 80,100 in 1989; 59,400 in 1990. In January 1991 the Constitutional Tribunal dismissed the motion of the Polish Feminist Association against the restrictive regulations of the Ministry of Health concerning abortion. After a parliamentary stalemate on the Unborn Child Protection Bill a commission consisting of 46 persona (1.2 of them women, 20 persons from the prochoice and 24 from the prolife lobby) continued the debate on the bill. Public opinion polls conducted by independent groups in November 1990 showed that about 60% of citizens were against the Senate's draft. Since then interest in the abortion issue has dwindled, and only 200 women and men took part in a prochoice demonstration in front of the parliament on January 25, 1991. In the spring of 1989 and in September 1990 thousands had participated in similar demonstrations. The prevailing attitude is that if the antiabortion bill is passed nothing can be done.

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases in Poland in 2011.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Sławomir; Rudnicka, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Was to assess epidemiological situation of sexually transmitted diseases in Poland in 2011. Analysis of the data on prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhoea, non-gonococcal urethritis, genital herpes and genital warts was gathered from yearly reports MZ-14 from several didtricts. In 2011 there were 841 reported cases of all types of syphilis, which was higher by 24 than in 2010. Within the reported cases, 554 cases were of early syphilis, 274 cases of late syphilis, and 11 cases of congenital syphilis. Syphilis during pregnancy and childbirth was reported in 13 women. The highest incidence of syphilis in 2011, similarly to previous years was in Mazowieckie district (4.7/100,000) and the lowest in Swietokrzyskie district (0.2/100,000), the average in a whole country accounted to 2.2/100,000. In 2011 there were 351 cases of gonorrhoea reported, which was higher by 77 cases than reported in the previous year. The highest incidence was reported in Mazowieckie voivodeship. Non-gonococcal urethritis -NGU was identified in 484 persons; this was less by 294 cases than reported in the previous year. The highest incidence rate was reported in Dolnoślaskie voivodeship 9.6/100,000. There were 428 cases of genital warts reported which was less by 174 cases than reported in 2010. The highest incidence rate was reported in Mazowieckie voivodeship, Warminsko- Mazurskie voivodeship and Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship. As in previous years the most unfavourable epidemiological situation in terms of all registered sexually transmitted diseases was in Mazowieckie voivodeship. In 2011 among sexually transmitted diseases NGU and genital warts were reported in lower numbers then in previous year. In the same time numbers of reported cases of gonorrhoea and syphilis increased. There is a continued decrease in the number of serological tests done for syphilis. Epidemiological indicators of treatment for gonorrhoea and syphilis are very low for number of years. The epidemiological data is

  20. Poland's migration problems: a post-communist legacy.

    PubMed

    Carter, F W

    1995-01-01

    "Poland's geographical location and the fall of communism has turned the country into a significant area for would-be migrants. This has changed the once predominant character of Poland as a ¿sending' migrant country into a ¿sending' and 'receiving' one. The extra burden of additional temporary or permanent migrants from neighboring East and Central European states is, together with the expanding number of asylum seekers, placing further strains on the country's economy. It also has changed the demographic structure of the nation-state as well as the social and economic (trade) structure and traffic patterns." (EXCERPT)

  1. Unilateral hypertransparency on chest radiograph: the congenital Poland Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomos, Ioannis; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Vlami, Aikaterini; Apollonatou, Vasiliki; Manali, Effrosyni D; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral hypertransparent hemithorax requires a particular diagnostic approach as it can be the result of diverse pulmonary diseases, including pneumothorax, large pulmonary embolus, unilateral large bullae, mucous plag, airway obstruction and contralateral pleural effusion. Congenital syndromes with chest wall abnormalities, are rare, but often underdiagnosed causes. Poland Syndrome consists of such a rare, congenital anomaly and is characterized by the absence of the pectoralis major muscle and upper limb ipsilateral abnormalities. We present a case of a patient with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a unilateral hypertransparency on chest radiology, attributed to the underlying Poland Syndrome.

  2. Viral hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2011-07-01

    In medical terms, occupational diseases are defined as health disorders specifically associated with the working environment of people and their occupational activity. From the medical and legal perspectives, the vast majority of European countries consider particular diseases to be of occupational origin if they are mentioned in the current list of occupational diseases and caused by exposure to factors in the working environment that are harmful to health. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cases of viral hepatitis certified as an occupational disease in Poland during 1979-2009. This article presents the medical, economic, and legal aspects of the epidemiology of hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland. Publically available statistical data on certified occupational diseases in Poland and data contained in individual "occupational disease diagnosis cards" (based on data used in Poland statistical form), regarding certified cases of hepatitis among health care professionals, which were collected by the Department of Occupational Hygiene of the Polish Public Health Service, were analyzed in this study. In Poland, the highest number of cases of hepatitis certified as an occupational disease was observed in 1987. A gradual reduction in the number of cases of hepatitis as an occupational disease has been noted since then. Currently, hepatitis C as an occupational disease is certified more frequently than hepatitis B. In Poland, the number of women with hepatitis certified as an occupational disease is higher than that of men. However, among health care professionals, particularly nurses, this difference is insignificant because women outnumber the men. The existence of such a situation is due to the significant quantitative predominance of women over men among medical personnel, especially among nurses. Immunization of health care professionals against the hepatitis B virus (HBV), introduced in Poland in 1988, was an important factor

  3. SOHO Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the SOHO Mission Pre-Launch Science Briefing. The moderator of the conference is Fred Brown, NASA/GSFC Public Affairs, introduces the panel members. Included are Professor Roger Bonnet, Director ESA Science Program, Dr. Wesley Huntress, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Dr. Vicente Domingo, ESA SOHO Project Scientist. Also present are several members from the SOHO Team: Dr. Richard Harrison, Art Poland, and Phillip Scherrer. The discussions include understanding the phenomena of the sun, eruption of gas clouds into the atmosphere, the polishing of the mirrors for the SOHO satellite, artificial intelligence in the telescopes, and the launch and operating costs. The panel members are also seen answering questions from various NASA Centers and Paris.

  4. Sedimentological and geochemical characteristic of varved lake sediment of the Lake Jelonek (North Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; Filbrandt-Czaja, A.; Ott, F.; Slowinski, M. M.; Tjallingii, R.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Brauer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lake Jelonek is located in Northern Poland. The lake covers an area of 19,9 ha and has a maximum depth of 13,8 m. Three overlapping series of 14,3 m - long sediment records have been cored with an UWITEC 90 mm diameter piston corer from the deepest part of the lake. The cores were split in half, lithologically described, photographed and correlated with each other by 28 marker layers to construct a composite profile covering 1426cm. Here we present detailed varve micro-facies for different sediment intervals and the preliminary chronology based on AMS 14C dating of 10 terrestrial macro remains samples and the Askja AD-1875 tephra. Here we present initial results from thin section analyses for two intervals. First (I) the uppermost 0-256 cm and second (II) the interval from 768-1296 cm. Intercalated between these two varved interval is a thick section (512 cm) of homogeneous organic-ditomaceous sediments. We present varve micro-facies data in combination with µ-XRF element scanning for comprehensive reconstruction of the sedimentation processes in Lake Jelonek. Varve counting reveals that the lower floating varve interval covers the time period from 1850 - 10500 cal a BP, while the uppermost 256 cm varved sediments comprise ca 925 years (2008-1083 AD). The main goal is to synchronize the sediment record from Lake Jelonek with European and Worldly records, to achieve a comprehensive knowledge of landscape forming processes and to distinguish between local, regional and global impacts during the past. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis -ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association; grant number VH-VI-415, National Science Centre, Poland grant 2015/19/N/ST10/02655 and from the Science and Research Funds for 2015-2016 allocated to a co-financed international project, CONTRACT No. 3500/ICLEA/15/2016/0.

  5. Occupational ceramic fibres dermatitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, M; Wojtczak, J

    2000-07-01

    Recently, the use of asbestos has been considerably limited in Poland, with the simultaneous increase in the manufacture, processing and application of man-made mineral fibres, which includes ceramic fibres. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the type and frequency of dermal changes caused by the irritant activity of ceramic fibres among workers at the plants that manufacture packing and insulation products; and (2) to compare the irritant activity of Polish-made L-2 and L-3 ceramic fibres with that of the Thermowool ceramic fibres made in England. Workers (n = 226) who were exposed to ceramic fibres underwent dermatological examination. Patch tests with the standard allergen set, together with samples of the fibres L-2, L-3, and Thermowool fibres, were applied to all the workers. It has been shown that the Polish-made L-2 and L-3 fibres differed from Thermowool fibres in that the L-2 and L-3 fibres contained zirconium and were coarser. The proportion of filaments with diameters above 3 microns was 11.1% in the L-3 fibre and 6.3% in the L-2 fibre samples. The Thermowool fibre did not contain filaments thicker than 3 microns. Evident dermal changes, resulting from strong irritant activity of the fibres, were detected in 109 (48.2%) of the workers examined. Irritant contact dermatitis acuta (maculae, sometimes papulae and small crusts on the upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities), disappearing after 2-3 days, was found in 50 (22.1%) workers. Irritant contact dermatitis chronica (diffuse permanent erythema with numerous telangiectasiae on the lateral portions of the face and neck, on the trunk, behind the auricles) was detected in 40 (17.7%) workers. The remaining 19 (8.4%) workers had both types of dermal change. All examined workers complained of very strong itching. The results of the patch tests confirmed the irritant activity of the ceramic fibres. Erythema without oedema, persisting for up to 96 h, appeared at the places where the fibres had

  6. [Lead in the environment of Poland].

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, T; Swiatczak, J

    1993-01-01

    Lead belongs to those elements which have a great variety of applications in the up-to-date technology. In the form of waste products or automotive wastes it has been brought into a global circulation. The authors attempt to present harmful effects of this "environmental poison" on individual media and human population in Poland. Following published and non-published data, an outline of lead geochemistry, anthropo-genetic sources of lead emission into the environment, concentration of lead in the ambient air, surface water, soil, plants and food, is presented. The data are interpreted on the basis of home maximum allowable concentrations and on the health criteria recommended by international organizations. It was found that the knowledge on the level of pollution of individual environmental media with lead is diversified and incomplete. This hinders a comparable and comprehensive evaluation of lead migration in the natural environment and thus the assessment of exposure magnitude among inhabitants of all regions (voivoships) of the country. Emissions from plants producing and processing non-ferrous metals, industrial waste sites, motor transport especially in central parts of urban and industrial agglomerations, and use of certain mineral fertilizers are recognized as the greatest hazards to the biosphere and human health among all sources of environmental pollution with lead. As appears from the data, the highest level of lead contamination of air, water and soil occurs in the central part of the Upper Silesian Industrial District as well as in the direct vicinity of other plants of non-ferrous metals in Katowice and Legnica voivodships. It was also noted that crops from those agglomerations and from family gardens located near active industrial waste sites or exploited yards may contain amounts of lead exceeding considerably allowable concentrations. It was revealed that in Polish conditions the largest amounts of lead enter children's organism with dirt, dust

  7. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  8. Gender Relations, Education and Social Change in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Peggy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the following issues in Poland: formal gender equality during state Socialism; public provision of child care; the domestic division of labor; women's educational careers; women's labor market position; gender inequalities in social consciousness; separation between public and private domains; and transition from a society to civil…

  9. Poland's Institutions of Higher Education. Bulletin, 1936, No. 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turosienski, Severin K.

    1937-01-01

    This study of Poland's Institutions of Higher Education is one of a series undertaken at the request of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars. Other publications completed and now available in the series relate to Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. While care has been taken to include in it the data that the Collegiate Registrars need about…

  10. On Nations and Children: Rousseau, Poland and European Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The paper is an interpretation of J.-J. Rousseau's book on the government of Poland. The central part of the paper is devoted to complex relations between the notions of nature, nation, childhood, and civic education. Methodologically, the analysis involves interpretation of historical contexts and positions significant in the writing of the book,…

  11. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland.

  12. Educational Struggles and Citizenship Education. The Case of Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popow, Monika; Sáez-Rosenkranz, Isidora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the relation between educational struggles and citizenship education in contemporary Poland. It adopts the critical pedagogy perspective and broadly defines the concept of educational struggle as struggling over the content of education, as social tensions in the field of education, as well as the students' and…

  13. On Nations and Children: Rousseau, Poland and European Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The paper is an interpretation of J.-J. Rousseau's book on the government of Poland. The central part of the paper is devoted to complex relations between the notions of nature, nation, childhood, and civic education. Methodologically, the analysis involves interpretation of historical contexts and positions significant in the writing of the book,…

  14. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  15. Support and Education of Gifted Students in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limont, Wieslawa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the support and education of gifted students in Poland. The author presents a definition of ability. Rudimentary documents and acts of the Polish Ministry of National Education regarding the education of gifted students are introduced. The systems of general and special education are discussed--including artistic and sports…

  16. [Poland syndrome: about a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Benzalim, Meriam; Berghalout, Laila; Elfakir, Sophia; Jalal, Hicham

    2017-01-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation associated with various degrees of thoracic and homolateral upper limb abnormalities. We report the case of a 7-year old girl who underwent exploration for depression of the left hemithorax associated with homolateral subclavicular mass. CT scan showed that the deformation of the thoracic wall was related to the absence of left pectoralis major muscle sterno-costal heads insertion associated with agenesis of the pectoralis minor muscle and hypoplasia of the anterior arches of the first six corresponding ribs. These abnormalities were related to Poland syndrome. General assessment was based on abdominal ultrasound, X-rays of both hands and did not show any associated malformation. Poland syndrome results from a deficit of blood flow to musculoskeletal elements of the chest wall during fetal life. There are many variants of Poland syndrome that can be best detected by CT scan and which must be performed whenever necessary, without omitting the role of general radiology in the detection of associated malformations. This syndrome is characterized by the agenesis of the sternocostal bundles of the pectoralis major muscle. Its etiology remains unknown and discussed. It can be caused by a vascular anomaly, without the primum movens of this vascular anomaly being known.

  17. Poland syndrome: from embryological basis to plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cingel, Vladimir; Bohac, Martin; Mestanova, Veronika; Zabojnikova, Lenka; Varga, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly described by Sir Alfred Poland over 170 years ago. Combination of unilateral aplasia of the sternocostal head of musculus pectoralis major, and an ipsilateral hypoplastic hand with simple syndactyly and short fingers is typical for this condition. It occurs more frequent among males, and is usually situated on the right hemithorax in the unilateral form. The pathogenesis of Poland syndrome is not clear. Most of the authors assume that the etiologic insult is vascular in nature. During the sixth week of gestation, not only the pectoral mass splits (future muscles of the thorax) and intervening tissue between the finger rays of hands starts to disappear but also the vascular differentiation from six aortic arches begins. In our paper we report two cases of children with Poland syndrome, who underwent surgical procedure in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Our case reports are focused on pre-operatively and also post-operatively imaging (RTG, CT, and 3D CT imaging) of the affected thorax and arm, as well as the operative reconstruction technique of abnormal ribs. We also discussed the possible embryonic backgrounds of this anomaly as well as the importance of plastic surgery resulting in patients' normal life.

  18. Reinventing a Nation: The Rhetoric of Political Transformation in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornatowski, Cezar M.

    In the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall of its satellite regimes, Poland, among other nations, has been engaged in a process of wholesale national reinvention. An analysis of this reinvention is instructive for scholars of language because it is largely a rhetorical process. It is aimed at supplying a new set of collectively…

  19. [Waterpipe smoking among adolescents in Silesia region of Poland].

    PubMed

    Mach, Paulina; Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Goniewicz, Maciej Ł; Koszowski, Bartosz; Czogała, Jan; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Waterpipe has been used for many centuries in Asia and Africa regions to smoke tobacco leaves. In recent years it has been gaining popularity also among adolescents and youths in Poland. The aim of the study was to examine waterpipe smoking prevalence among adolescents living in Silesia region of Poland. We investigated if waterpipe is used as alternative way to smoke tobacco and awareness among adolescents about heath risk of waterpipe smoking. We surveyed 769 students of high schools located in Silesia region of Poland. Mean age of surveyed students was 16.5 years, and 52.5% were females. Our results showed that prevalence of waterpipe was higher than cigarette smoking (46.7% vs. 34.6%). Prevalence of waterpipe smoking among girls was almost the same as among boys. Most of the surveyed students used waterpipe as an alternative tool to smoke tobacco. The prevalence of waterpipe smoking among Polish adolescents is very high. There is an urgent need for education about health risks of waterpipe use in Poland.

  20. A Brief Overview of the History of Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charzynska, Katarzyna; Anczewska, Marta; Switaj, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Poland's complex history strongly influenced the development of educational system. Together with the Catholic church, formal and informal education helped to preserve national identity and prepare society for future independence during the partition period. In the communist era, education was the chief mode of restructuring the society and…

  1. Ozone monitoring in the Krakow Province, southern Poland

    Treesearch

    Barbara Godzik

    1998-01-01

    From June to mid-October in 1995, the concentration of tropospheric ozone in 18 localities in the Krakow Province of southern Poland was measured by using ultraviolet monitors and Ogawa passive samplers. At three active monitoring stations, tropospheric ozone was recorded in the downtown and western part of Krakow and in Szarow, 30 km to the east. The passive method...

  2. Teacher Training and the Educational System in Poland. Some Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Hakan, Ed.

    This volume contains 12 papers on teacher training in Poland. Many reflect a special collaborative relationship between the Departments of Education at universities in Gdansk and Linkoping. The papers are: "Teacher Training-Between Atomism and Holism" (Joanna Rutkowiak); "Following-Applying-Seeking Inspiration as Possible Varieties…

  3. Pattern of road traffic injuries in Lublin County, Poland.

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Mariusz; Nogalski, Adam; Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck; Lübek, Tomasz; Zuchora, Beata; Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2012-06-01

    Road traffic injury patients admitted to 35 hospitals in Lublin region. To describe the pattern of road traffic injuries in Lublin county, Poland. Review of medical records for the period from January 2004 to December 2005. Pedestrians accounted for the largest share of the Road traffic crash (RTC) injury cases (35.8%) and 46.4% of deaths. The highest mortality was observed in motorcycle occupants (7.1%) and victims with abdominal injuries (9.8%). Vulnerable road users represented 71.4% of all RTC deaths, with mortality 5.8%. Early transfers accounted for 82.5% of cases. Mortality in early transfers is 4 times higher than in late transfers. Poland ranks as one of the worst European countries in terms of severity and fatal outcomes of road traffic injuries. Groups of road users in Poland at the highest risk are pedestrians, cyclists, children and young male drivers. The highest mortality rate occurs among road users affected by multiple trauma and head/vertebral column injuries. Alleviation of consequences of road traffic injuries in Poland may be achieved by coordinated efforts and collective responsibility of government, central level agencies, rescue team members and community groups.

  4. Educational Struggles and Citizenship Education. The Case of Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popow, Monika; Sáez-Rosenkranz, Isidora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the relation between educational struggles and citizenship education in contemporary Poland. It adopts the critical pedagogy perspective and broadly defines the concept of educational struggle as struggling over the content of education, as social tensions in the field of education, as well as the students' and…

  5. The State of Development of Digital Libraries in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorny, Miroslaw; Catlow, John; Lewandowski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of development of Polish digital libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the establishment of the first digital library in Poland, the creation of the Wielkopolska Digital Library and other regional digital libraries. The organisational and technological solutions used…

  6. Professional Training of Specialists in International Marketing in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program…

  7. The Reform of Higher Economic Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajicek, Edward K.; Steen, Todd P.; Domanski, S. Ryszard

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the current reform, both in organizational structure and curriculum development, occurring in Poland's universities. Emphasis is given to the changes in the economics curriculum and the role of Western economists in adopting the new method of teaching in a rapidly changing economic environment. (MJP)

  8. Descendant of daughter Brazilian BCG Moreau substrain in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Brzezińska, Sylwia; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Polak, Maciej; Augustynowicz, Ewa; Lutyńska, Anna

    2012-08-10

    In this study we assessed the genomic stability of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau seed lots used in Poland for BCG vaccine production since 1955 by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). BCG vaccine lots were more closely related the original lot -M. bovis BCG Rio de Janeiro Moreau compared with seeds used before 1980, which is consistent with seed lot distribution recorded in the archives. We confirmed the presence of RD8, RD2, senX3-regX3, RD14, DU2-I, whiB3, trcR, the second copy of IS6110 inserted in the promoter region of phoP, mutation D322G in phoR, ΔRD1, and ΔfadD26-ppsA in M. bovis BCG Moreau used for BCG production in Poland. However, unlike the Rio de Janeiro parent BCG, the BCG Moreau substrain used in Poland does not harbour a deletion in Rv3887c, a region that is involved in the membrane transport protein that is part of the ESX-2 type VII secretion system. Differences in the distribution of BCG Moreau for its subsequent use for manufacturing influenced the microevolution of BCG Moreau used in Brazil and Poland.

  9. Ticks of Poland. Review of contemporary issues and latest research.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents current knowledge of ticks occurring in Poland, their medical importance, and a review of recent studies implemented in the Polish research centres on ticks and their significance in the epidemiology of transmissible diseases. In the Polish fauna there are 19 species of ticks (Ixodida) recognized as existing permanently in our country: Argas reflexus, Argas polonicus, Carios vespertilionis, Ixodes trianguliceps, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes crenulatus, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes lividus, Ixodes rugicollis, Ixodes caledonicus, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes simplex, Ixodes vespertilionis, Ixodes apronophorus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor reticulatus. Occasionally, alien species of ticks transferred to the territory of Poland are recorded: Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma transversale, Amblyomma varanensis, Amblyomma spp., Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes eldaricus, Ixodes festai, Rhipicephalus rossicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The most common species of the highest medical and veterinary importance in Poland is invariably Ixodes ricinus. The review also sets out information on the risks of tickborne diseases in recreational areas of large cities in Poland, ticks as the cause of occupational diseases and dangerous species of ticks attacking people outside the Polish borders. Selected problems of the biology of ticks, the spread of alien species transferred on hosts and prevention of tick attacks have also been presented. The Polish studies on ticks are a valuable contribution to global research on the Ixodida.

  10. Alcohol and injury in Poland: review and training recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Piotr; Kamat, Sonia; Barry, Kristen L.; Blow, Frederic C.; Zawadzki, Andrzej S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol plays a significant role in accidents, injuries, and their outcomes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 76.3 million people with alcohol use disorders worldwide; in 2000, 1.8 million deaths and loss of 58.3 million disability-adjusted life years were attributed to alcohol. Methods Although the association between alcohol consumption and trauma-related morbidity and mortality is well-documented, particularly in the US, there is much less information on trauma and alcohol in Poland, a country undergoing unprecedented economic and cultural changes stemming from entry into the European Union (EU) in the midst of a global recession. Results Injury is the third leading cause of death in Poland. Rates for all injuries in Poland are higher than in the rest of the EU. Alcohol is one of the greatest risk factors for disease and injury among men and one of the top ten health and injury risk factors for women. In this paper we review the last 10 years of research on injury and alcohol in Poland. Conclusion Recommendations are provided for next steps with regard to training health care professionals in emergency medical settings to address this serious and growing problem. PMID:20606821

  11. Application of ICT by Students at Selected Universities in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorencowicz, Edmund; Kocira, Slawomir; Uziak, Jacek; Tarasinska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate access and use of computers and internet by students during their studies. The results are based on a survey conducted in 2009-2012 on groups of 320 to 405 students (each year) from two universities in eastern Poland. It was concluded that during the period under study access of students to computers and…

  12. The State of Development of Digital Libraries in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorny, Miroslaw; Catlow, John; Lewandowski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of development of Polish digital libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the establishment of the first digital library in Poland, the creation of the Wielkopolska Digital Library and other regional digital libraries. The organisational and technological solutions used…

  13. Vocational Education and Training against Social Exclusion: Poland. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The problem of social exclusion in Poland was examined along with possible strategies for combating social exclusion through vocational education and training (VET). The examination began with an analysis of the special needs of individuals who have reduced opportunities within the labor market and/or are members of national and ethnic minorities.…

  14. Support and Education of Gifted Students in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limont, Wieslawa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the support and education of gifted students in Poland. The author presents a definition of ability. Rudimentary documents and acts of the Polish Ministry of National Education regarding the education of gifted students are introduced. The systems of general and special education are discussed--including artistic and sports…

  15. The Rights and Duties of Family in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation Mondiale Pour l'Education Prescolaire, Warsaw (Poland).

    This paper presented at the 1977 meeting of the World Organization of Preschool Education (OMEP), reviews legal acts concerning the family in Poland; specifically the family law, the custodial law, and the matrimonial property law. Subjects discussed include: (1) legal protection of the family; (2) social protection of the family; (3) principles…

  16. Experiences of cancer patients in Poland throughout diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, D; Adamczak, M; Wojtyś, P

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have failed to explain why the mortality rate of cancer patients is higher in Poland than other countries in the European Union. We aimed to evaluate the health care system in Poland during the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this multicentre study, 125 cancer patients treated at 15 centres across Poland participated in focus group interviews in 2014. We identified and assessed crucial elements that affect a patients' experience from the early onset of symptoms, through to diagnosis and treatment. We found that the majority of patients were dissatisfied with the length of time taken to diagnose cancer. Throughout diagnosis, treatment and follow-up, patients reported a lack of communication from health care professionals. While dealings with oncologists and medical staff were viewed favourably, patients felt the cancer centres were not well organised. Patients recommended that having one doctor in charge of an individual's treatment and follow-up would improve patient care and well-being. A late cancer diagnosis may be contributing to the high mortality rate observed in Poland. In the future, new policies should be developed to reduce the time to cancer diagnosis, increase communication with health care professionals and improve the organisation of cancer care for patients.

  17. Professional Training of Specialists in International Marketing in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program…

  18. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  19. Privatisation of hospitals in Poland--barriers and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Piotr

    2006-03-01

    The paper discusses the question of privatisation of the in-patient care sector in Poland. The references to the general reforming processes are made, as well as the legal context of ownership changes is presented. First part of the article describes the forms of privatisation applied in Poland, such as privatisation of the management, partial privatisation, functional privatisation and total privatisation. The basic data concerning legal regulations currently being in force is also included. Legal status is an important obstacle for the process of privatisation, since the regulations are incoherent and ambiguous. The project of Commercialisation and Privatisation of Independent Public Health Care Facilities Law was presented in 2001, but the political situation was unfavourable for such a regulation. The paper discusses also the potential profits that may be gathered during the privatisation, which may be proved by the experiences in the field of out-patient care, as well as the examples of other countries. It is stated that success of privatisation depends on changes in the structure of sources of financing health care system. The last part of the article describes the previous course of privatisation processes of in-patient sector. Presently about 18% of hospitals in Poland are private facilities, but their role in the system is marginal. The case of hospital in Wiecbork, which was the first bankrupt private hospital in Poland, is presented as the example of dangers caused by the invalid law. The final conclusion is that there is an urgent need in Poland to create clear and coherent legal frames for the privatisation of hospitals, as well as harmonisation of the changes with general reforms of the health care system.

  20. Higher Education in Poland: Four Years After.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzelak, Janusz

    1993-01-01

    Successes and failures in Polish higher education reform since the fall of communism are outlined. Successes include legal support for reform, access to higher education, new schools, international collaboration, enhancement of academic careers. Problems include inadequate structure for science, little structural change in higher education,…

  1. Tuberculosis in homeless persons in Poland.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Kuś, Jan; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Siemion-Szcześniak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The fall in rates of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries has been accompanied by the concentration of cases in the social risk groups including homeless persons. Comparison of TB features in homeless persons and in non-homeless patients. TB cases reported to National TB Register in Poland in whom information about the social status was available (the data about the social status were collected obligatorily in the years 2004-2013 only) were analysed. The results of DSTs were obtained from laboratory records and were available for the cases reported since 2010. Treatment outcome after 12 months was analysed for the cases registered between 2004-2012. The significance (Si) of the differences in proportions was assessed with chi-square test. P<0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Test F was used to evaluate the significance of differences of the means of age. The multivariate logistic regression models were applied to find out the independently operating determinants of not achieving of success of treatment. 2,349 homeless persons (HP) and 72,989 other patients (OP) with TB were included. In the group of HP, there was a greater proportion of males in comparison with OP (90.5% vs. 66.3%) (Si). The mean age of HP was 49.8 years (SD±10.9); of OP-52.9 years (SD±17.5) (Si). 16.6% of HP and 10.4% of OP were previously treated for TB (Si). The previous treatment was adequate in 62.2% of HP and in 85.8% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was in 98.0%, extrapulmonary TB in 2.0% of HP and, respectively, in 92.5% and 7.5% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was confirmed by culture in 76.3% of HP and in 64.5% of OP (Si). Sputum smears were positive in 70.7% of HP and in 62.5% of OP (Si). Caseous pneumonia occurred in 2.7% of homeless subjects and in 1.1% of OP (Si); infiltrative TB in 95.5% of HP and in 97.5% of OP (Si). Resistance to isoniazid was observed in 2.9% of HP and in 3.1% of OP; to rifampicin in 0.0% of HP and in 0.2% of OP; to isoniazid and rifampicin in 0.4% of HP and in 0

  2. Seismic monitoring of Poland - temporary seismic project - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowski, J.; Plesiewicz, B.; Wiszniowski, J.; Suchcicki, J.; Tokarz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the project is to develop national database of seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment. Poland is known as a region of very low seismicity, however some earthquakes occur from time to time. The historical catalogue consists of less than one hundred earthquakes in the time span of almost one thousand years. Due to such a low occurrence rate, the study has been focussing on events at magnitudes lower than 2 which are more likely to occur during a few-year-long project. There are 24 mobile seismic stations involved in the project which are deployed in temporary locations close to humans neighbourhood. It causes a high level of noise and disturbances in recorded seismic signal. Moreover, the majority of Polish territory is covered by a thick sediments. It causes the problem of a reliable detection method for small seismic events in noisy data. The majority of algorithms is based on the concept of STA/LTA ratio and is designed for strong teleseismic events registered on many stations. Unfortunately they fail on the problem of weak events in the signal with noise and disturbances. It has been decided to apply Real Time Recurrent Neural Network (RTRN) to detect small natural seismic events from Poland. This method is able to assess relations of seismic signal in frequency domains as well as in time of seismic phases. The RTRN was taught by wide range of seismic signals - regional, teleseismic as well as blasts. The method is routinely used to analyse data from the project. In the firs two years of the project the seismic network was set in southern Poland, where relatively large seismicity in known. Since the mid-2010 the stations have been working in several regions of central and northern Poland where some minor historical earthquakes occurred. Over one hundred seismic events in magnitude range from 0.5 to 2.3 confirms the activity of Podhale region (Tatra Mountains, Carpathians), where an earthquake of magnitude 4.3 occurred in 2004. Initially three

  3. Temperature in Science Textbooks: Changes and Trends in Cross-National Perspective (1950-2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtka, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the way the concept of temperature was presented in lower-secondary science textbooks in France, Poland and England at the end of the 1950s and in the 2000s. I draw on history of science, history of education and book history to analyze different treatments of an apparently-similar scientific concept with regard to national…

  4. Temperature in Science Textbooks: Changes and Trends in Cross-National Perspective (1950-2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtka, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the way the concept of temperature was presented in lower-secondary science textbooks in France, Poland and England at the end of the 1950s and in the 2000s. I draw on history of science, history of education and book history to analyze different treatments of an apparently-similar scientific concept with regard to national…

  5. A new varved late Glacial and Holocene sediment record from Lake Jelonek (North Poland) - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, Mateusz; Filbrandt-Czaja, Anna; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Tjallingii, Rik; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Anually laminated (varved) lake deposits are suitable natural archives for reconstructing past climatic and environmental changes at seasonal resolution. A major advantage of such records is that varve counting allows constructing robust and independent chronologies, a key challenge for paleoclimate research. Recently, a new annually laminated sediment record has been obtained from Lake Jelonek, located in the eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland in northern Poland (Tuchola Pinewoods). The lake is surrounded by forest and covers an area of 19,9 ha and has a maximum depth of 13,8 m. Three overlapping series of 14,3 m - long sediment records have been cored with an UWITEC 90 mm diameter piston corer from the deepest part of the lake. A continuous master composite profile has been established comprising the entire postglacial lacustrine sediment infill. Preliminary analyses including micro-facies analyses on thin sections from selected intervals as well as X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) reveal that the sediments are to a large part annually laminated. Here we present detailed varve models for different sediment intervals and discuss high-resolution geochemical variation in the entire sediment record. A preliminary age model based on radiocarbon dating and major biostratigraphical boundaries based on pollen data will be presented as well. These data will form the fundament for the planned multi-proxy study for detailed reconstructions of climatic and environmental variability during the late glacial and Holocene in the southern Baltic. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre Poland NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367.

  6. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni multilocus sequence types isolated from chickens in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, K; Denis, E; Lachtara, B; Osek, J

    2017-03-01

    Poultry is recognized as the most important source of food-related transmission of Campylobacter jejuni to humans and campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported zoonotic bacterial disease in the European Union. It has been documented that C. jejuni is genetically diverse and analyses of bacterial isolates usually show a large strain variety. Therefore, molecular typing of strains represents an important tool to study the genetic diversity of isolates and to trace individual strains that cause human infections. The aim of the study was characterization of genetic population structure and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of C. jejuni isolated from Polish chickens. C. jejuni from chicken ceca and the corresponding carcasses (72 and 61 strains, respectively), originating from 128 flocks in Poland during February 2011 and May 2013, were used in the study. The isolates were tested for their population structure and genetic diversity using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme with connection to their antimicrobial resistance. The molecular analysis of 133 C. jejuni generated 39 different sequence types (ST); 3 of them were defined for the first time. Additionally, 16 STs were represented by single isolates. The most common STs observed were 6411 (16.5% isolates) and 257 (15.0% strains). The first mentioned ST was resistant to 3 different classes of antibiotics, i.e., quinolones, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides. Overall, 125 (94.4%) of C. jejuni isolates demonstrated antimicrobial resistance and the most frequent AMR profile observed was ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline (47.4% strains). Likewise, the clonal complexes CC 257 and CC 353 were defined as the predominant molecular groups covering altogether 37 C. jejuni strains. No associations between CCs and the origin of the samples as well as the place of isolation were found. This study highlights that the C. jejuni population from chickens in Poland was diverse and showed a weak clonal structure.

  7. Porosphaera globularis (Phillips, 1829) (Porifera, Calcarea) in the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) of extra-Carpathian Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkowska, Agata; Świerczewska-Gładysz, Ewa; Dubicka, Zofia; Olszewska-Nejbert, Danuta

    2015-03-01

    The stratigraphical distribution of Porosphaera globularis, a common calcareous sponge in the Upper Cretaceous (mostly Campanian and Maastrichtian) of Poland was studied. The presented material, both new and from museum collections, comes from the Campanian of the Miechow Synclinorium, in southern Poland, and from the Lower Campanian of Mielnik in the south-eastern part of the Mazury-Podlasie Homocline, in eastern Poland. The significance of the species in extra-regional correlation, its palaeobiogeography and stratigraphical potential is critically reviewed.

  8. Poland syndrome and breast tumor: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mojallal, Ali; La Marca, Sophie; Shipkov, Christo; Sinna, Raphael; Braye, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. Hypoplasia of the sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major muscle is the most significant feature and is most frequently associated with homolateral breast hypoplasia. In this article, the authors present a case of bilateral phyllodes tumors in a 28-year-old woman with Poland syndrome and discuss (1) the relationship between the condition and breast cancer, (2) the modes of surveillance in patients with Poland syndrome, and (3) its impact on breast reconstruction.

  9. Possible consequences of severe accidents at the Lubiatowo site, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Philipp, Anne; Hofman, Radek; Gufler, Klaus; Sholly, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is under consideration in Poland. One of the sites under discussion is near Lubiatowo, located on the cost of the Baltic Sea northwest of Gdansk. An assessment of possible environmental consequences is carried out for 88 real meteorological cases with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. Based on literature research, three reactor designs (ABWR, EPR, AP 1000) were identified as being under discussion in Poland. For each of the designs, a set of accident scenarios was evaluated and two source terms per reactor design were selected for analysis. One of the selected source terms was a relatively large release while the second one was a severe accident with an intact containment. Considered endpoints of the calculations are ground contamination with Cs-137 and time-integrated concentrations of I-131 in air as well as committed doses. They are evaluated on a grid of ca. 3 km mesh size covering eastern Central Europe.

  10. Pelagic crinoids (Roveacrinida, Crinoidea) discovered in the Neogene of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Salamon, Mariusz A.; Ferré, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Until recently, it has been assumed that pelagic crinoids, the roveacrinids (Roveacrinida, Crinoidea), became extinct during the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary event. Recent finds of well-preserved roveacrinidal remains (brachials and radials) in the Danian (Early Paleogene) of Poland showed that they survived into the earliest Cenozoic. This group was thus characterized as a "dead clade walking". Here, we present fossil evidence that these pelagic crinoids survived in Poland until at least the Middle Miocene (Badenian, ca. 14 Myr ago)—more than 50 Myr after their supposed extinction. These Miocene roveacrinids constitute the first documented evidence of Roveacrinida in strata of Neogene age, thus prolonging the stratigraphic range of pelagic crinoids. This find characterizes the order as a "Lazarus taxon" rather than a "dead clade walking" group.

  11. Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Lebot, B.

    1993-08-01

    This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

  12. The Beginnings of Modern Research on Propolis in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kłósek, Małgorzata; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis studies in Poland were initiated by Professor Stan Scheller in the 1960s. It was a team of Polish researchers who developed a method of introducing hydrophobic ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) into aqueous solutions, which enabled the study of their biological properties. The studies performed in Poland showed that EEP possesses antioxidant, radioprotective, and immunostimulating properties. It was possible to demonstrate antibacterial activity of propolis on Gram-positive bacteria, virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and protozoa as well as stimulating activity of aqueous extracts of propolis on proliferation of cells in vitro. Polish investigators showed that propolis stimulates regeneration of tissue, acts as antioxidant and radioprotector, has strong immunostimulative properties, affects animals' life span by extending it, and improves intellectual and life functions of the elderly. PMID:23864903

  13. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  14. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  15. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  16. The national alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency registry in Poland.

    PubMed

    Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Struniawski, Radoslaw; Sliwinski, Paweł; Wajda, Beata; Czajkowska-Malinowska, Małgorzata

    2015-05-01

    The alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) targeted screening program, together with the National Registry, were established in Poland in 2010 soon after the AATD diagnostics became available. Between 2010 and 2014 a total of 2525 samples were collected from respiratory patients countrywide; 55 patients with severe AAT deficiency or rare mutations were identified and registered, including 36 PiZZ subjects (65%). The majority of AATD patients were diagnosed with COPD (40%) or emphysema (7%), but also with bronchial asthma (16%) and bronchiectasis (13%). Therefore, the registry has proved instrumental in setting-up the AATD-dedicated network of respiratory medical centres in Poland. Since augmentation therapy is not reimbursed in our country, the smoking cessation guidance, optimal pharmacotherapy of respiratory symptoms as well the early detection, and effective treatment of exacerbations is absolutely essential.

  17. [Sexually transmitted diseases in Poland in 2004 and 2005].

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Iwona; Majewski, Sławomir

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 year 809 cases of all forms of syphilis were notified in Poland; incidence 2.12 per 100,000 population (2004 year--784, incidence--2.05). The largest number of cases was in mazowiecke (205), ślaskie (138), and dolnoślaskie (100) voivodeships. The lowest was registered in warmińsko-mazurskie (8 cases), podkarpackie (10) świetokrzyskie(10) voivodeships. There were recognized 402 cases of gonorrhoea (in 2004 - 520). Epidemiological situation of sexually transmitted diseases was unfavourably due to growth of cases latent syphilis (early and tarda) in Poland. Its was diagnosed insufficiency due to decreases number of screening studies, particularly in blood donors and pregnant women. Prophylaxis and education actions was difficulty because money was lacking.

  18. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  19. Emigration preferences and plans among medical students in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared. PMID:22546006

  20. NATO Enlargement: Strategic Impact on Poland’s Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    a network of countries that are capable of facing new security challenges such as terrorism, proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical...sovereignty and independence. The collapse of the Soviet Union gave Poland new independence and a chance to build its own security environment. Aimed...and stronger NATO with the military potential of new members will be able to deal with the new challenges and threats of the 21st

  1. Radiocarbon chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadachowski, Adam; Lipecki, Grzegorz; Wojtal, Piotr

    2010-05-01

    Many fossil mammoth remains from more than 300 localities have been discovered over last 170 years in Poland. First radiocarbon dates of woolly mammoth from Poland were published in the 1960s and the 1970s. These dates must be regarded with caution due to absence of details of the used methods. Recently, about 40 fossil mammoth remains were radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method in the Poznań Radiocarbon Laboratory. Dates are given as an uncalibrated radiocarbon dates (BP) and as calendar dates (cal. BP). The dates range from ca. 52 ka BP to ca. 13,2 ka BP (> 50,0 - ca. 16,1 cal. ka BP) and can be correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 3 and OIS 2. A new radiocarbon evidence fits into the well known colonization pattern of Mammuthus primigenius in Central Europe and confirms a continuous distribution in the Grudziądz Interstadial (middle Weichselian, OIS 3) and the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). On the other hand, the severe climatic circumstances lasting in conventional radiocarbon dates from ca. 22 ka BP to ca. 17 ka BP probably reduced the number of animals or even cased the withdrawal of woolly mammoth from the area north from the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains for 4-5 millennia. Only one date ca. 20,3 ka BP (ca. 24,2 cal, ka BP) is available from this time-span. Mammuthus primigenius reappeared in southern Poland ca. 14,6 ka BP (ca. 17,9 cal. BP) but soon had disappeared from this region because of marked reduction in open habitats at the beginning of Late Glacial Interglacial warming (Greenland Interstadial I or Bølling and Allerød) The latest available record from Poland is from Dzierżysław: 13,180±60 BP (ca. 15,600±400 cal. BP).

  2. Civil Military Relations and Defense Reform in Poland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-13

    conditions and transportation place Poland on the main strategic axis of Europe. Two very important events, the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989...has had 4 presidents since 1989. All of them paid special attention and treated the Armed Forces in a special distinguished way. President Lech ...Battle Tanks 44 MiG-29 aircraft44 MiG-29 aircraft 5 CASA transport aircraft5 CASA transport aircraft 2 OHP rocket frigates2 OHP rocket frigates 4

  3. The Gauntlet Cast: Poland Challenges the Soviet Union.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    done by Brzezinski during the 1960’s as a 1osg-term plia being used by the US to undermine Soviet strength in the Eastern Bloc. 2 0 9 The US was not the...University Press, 195. Wandycz, Piotr S. aei tt s 1917-1921. Cambridge: Harvard niversity ress, . II. YEARBOOKS "Poland.:" The Euopa 11r2o, 1 !. London

  4. Problems of depopulation of rural areas in Poland after 1950.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, A

    1992-11-01

    "This paper considers the course of rural-to-urban migration processes in Poland from 1950 to 1988 against the background of the general demographic transformations in the country. It also considers changes in the population of particular voivodships (provinces) and [gminas] (communes) over the period 1970-1985, with an indication of the spatial concentration of the phenomenon. It concludes with a forecast of trends to the year 2000, based on these observed changes." excerpt

  5. Parry-Romberg syndrome in association with contralateral Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dintiman, B J; Shapiro, R S; Hood, A F; Guba, A M

    1990-02-01

    A 35-year-old woman had a 4-year history of skin depression on the right side of both the forehead and chin. A biopsy specimen showed a normal dermis and an absence of subcutaneous tissue. She also had Poland syndrome on the left side of the body, with loss of the sternocostal portion of the greater pectoral muscle. Significant cosmetic improvement was achieved with dermal fat grafts and silicone implants.

  6. Long regional magnetotelluric profile crossing geotectonic structures of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaniuk, M.; Pokorski, J.; Wojdyla, M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction The magnetotelluric survey was made along a regional profile, which runs across Poland from south-west to north-east during 2005-2006 years. The profile crosses major geological structures of Central Poland, including the Variscan Externides and Variscan foredeep, the Transeuropean Suture Zone and the marginal zone of East European Craton. The main objectives of the project include identification of sub-Zechstein sedimentary structures and evaluation of resistivity distribution within the deep crust, especially at the contact of East European Precambrian Craton and Central Europe Paleozoic structures. The length of the profile is about 700 km; 161 deep magnetotelluric sounding sites were made with a medium spacing of about 4 km. Data acquisition and processing The recording of the components of natural electromagnetic field was made with a broad range of frequencies, varying from 0.0003 Hz up to 575 Hz with use of MT-1 system of Electromagnetic Instruments Incorporation. This frequency band allowed obtaining the information about geology ranging from a few dozen meters to approximately 100 km, depending on the vertical distribution of the resistivity inside geological medium. To reduce the electromagnetic noise, magnetic and electric remote reference was applied. A remote reference site was located at a distance of over 100 km of field sites. Processing of the recorded data included the estimation of the components of impedance tensor (Zxx, Zxy, Zyx and Zyy ), with use of robust type procedures. The components of the impedance tensor allowed in a subsequent step for calculation of field curves for two orientations of the measurement system (XY - described further as the TM mode and YX - TE mode) and additional parameters of the medium like skew, strike, pole diagrams etc. Recording of the vertical component of electromagnetic field (Hz) allowed calculation of tipper parameter T. Magnetotelluric soundings interpretation Geophysical interpretation of MT

  7. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  8. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  9. Are they fellow countrymen or not? The migration of ethnic Poles from Kazakhstan to Poland.

    PubMed

    Iglicka, K

    1998-01-01

    "This article presents the process of migration of Kazakhs of Polish ancestry from Kazakhstan to Poland which has been taking place since the early 1990s. Poles deported in the past to Kazakhstan were mostly inhabitants of territories which did not belong to Poland; neither were they citizens of Poland. Therefore, the process of adaptation and integration was rather painful. The article points to factors that may simplify and those that may impede integration. The other problem...concerns the piecemeal policy towards Kazakhstan Poles, adopted by the Polish government, which seems risky if not dangerous. The author explains why it may cause a huge wave of illegal immigration to Poland."

  10. West Nile virus and USUTU--a threat to Poland.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko-Malinowska, Anna; Czupryna, Piotr; Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna; Siemieniako, Agnieszka; Pancewicz, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    In recent years emergence of new infectious diseases and the growing spread of pathogens to new areas is observed. Most of these pathogens are zoonotic viruses and their transmission route is from animals to humans and vice versa. These so called emerging and re-emerging pathogens that were present previously only in Africa and Asia are becoming a threat to European countries. These include, e.g. West Nile virus and USUTU virus. The aim of the study is to present the clinical course of infections caused by WVN and USUTU, diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities and, above all, the current epidemiological situation of these infections in the world. We also tried to answer the question whether, there is a risk of infection with these viruses in Poland. After analyzing the available literature we venture a conclusion that in Poland there is a risk of WNV and USUTU infection. Global warming, change of socio-economic conditions, travelling greatly affect the spread of these viruses. In addition there are confirmed human cases of these diseases in countries neighboring Poland, as well as presence of both viruses and the presence of vectors (Culex pipiens sl and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae)) in our country. All these facts indicate that there is a necessity of epidemiological studies and consideration of these pathogens in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness and neuroinfection.

  11. Internal parasitic fauna of elk (Alces alces) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Filip, Katarzyna J; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W

    2016-12-01

    The abundance of elk (Alces alces) in Poland at the beginning of 2016 reached over 28 000 individual animals. However, little is still known about health status of elk population in the country. In particular, important health issue tend to be parasitic diseases which are the most common diseases in wild animals. Special emphasis should be given to the parasitofauna of elks. Their ability to move over great distances increases the chance of parasitic infestations in new areas and transmission to other wild animals and livestock. The aim of this article is to describe the parasites occurring in elk in Poland on the basis of previous studies from the country and to compare them with data from neighboring countries. The presented review reveals that elk populations have not been examined for the presence of parasites for decades, and no recent studies in Poland have examined the parasitofauna of this animal. As such, our study shows that assessing the parasites present in elk populations remains an important area of research.

  12. First molecular evidence for Puumala hantavirus in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Drewes, Stephan; Sadowska, Edyta T; Mikowska, Magdalena; Groschup, Martin H; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Pawel; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-01-23

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is responsible for the majority of hantavirus infections of humans in Fennoscandia, Central and Western Europe. Although there are relatively many PUUV sequences available from different European countries, little is known about the presence of this virus in Poland. During population studies in 2009 a total of 45 bank voles were trapped at three sites in north-eastern Poland, namely islands on Dejguny and Dobskie Lakes and in a forest near Mikołajki. S and M segment-specific RT-PCR assays detected PUUV RNA in three animals from the Mikołajki site. The obtained partial S and M segment sequences demonstrated the highest similarity to the corresponding segments of a PUUV strain from Latvia. Analysis of chest cavity fluid samples by IgG ELISA using a yeast-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein resulted in the detection of two seropositive samples, both being also RT-PCR positive. Interestingly, at the trapping site in Mikołajki PUUV-positive bank voles belong to the Carpathian and Eastern genetic lineages within this species. In conclusion, we herein present the first molecular evidence for PUUV in the rodent reservoir from Poland.

  13. First Molecular Evidence for Puumala Hantavirus in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh Ali, Hanan; Drewes, Stephan; Sadowska, Edyta T.; Mikowska, Magdalena; Groschup, Martin H.; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Pawel; Ulrich, Rainer G.

    2014-01-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is responsible for the majority of hantavirus infections of humans in Fennoscandia, Central and Western Europe. Although there are relatively many PUUV sequences available from different European countries, little is known about the presence of this virus in Poland. During population studies in 2009 a total of 45 bank voles were trapped at three sites in north-eastern Poland, namely islands on Dejguny and Dobskie Lakes and in a forest near Mikołajki. S and M segment-specific RT-PCR assays detected PUUV RNA in three animals from the Mikołajki site. The obtained partial S and M segment sequences demonstrated the highest similarity to the corresponding segments of a PUUV strain from Latvia. Analysis of chest cavity fluid samples by IgG ELISA using a yeast-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein resulted in the detection of two seropositive samples, both being also RT-PCR positive. Interestingly, at the trapping site in Mikołajki PUUV-positive bank voles belong to the Carpathian and Eastern genetic lineages within this species. In conclusion, we herein present the first molecular evidence for PUUV in the rodent reservoir from Poland. PMID:24452006

  14. Pesticide residues in cereal crop grains in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz; Sosnowski, Jacek; Wiśniewska-Kadżajan, Beata

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the audit on pesticide residues in cereal grains throughout Poland in 2013. The number of all samples of cereal grains was 380. Altogether 292 active substances of plant protection products were checked in the audit. Qualitative and quantative analyses were done according to Polish Standard PN-EN 15562:2008, using the LC-MS/MS technique. The methods (QuEChERS) is based on extraction of residues of plant protection products from a sample using acetonitrile. In the samples analyzed, 62 % of them did not contain any pesticide residues, 34 % of samples of cereal grains contained such residues but below the maximum residue limit, 3 % contained residues over the maximum limit, whereas 1 % of the samples contained illegal substances. The lowest amounts of pesticide residues were found in cereal grains coming from fields with cereal mixtures and in Avena grains, while the highest amounts were in Hordeum and Triticum grains. The substances found most often were fungicide residues. In northern and southern regions of Poland (Silesian, Pomeranian, and Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeships), cereal grains with pesticide residues were much more common than in other regions of Poland.

  15. Genotypic characterization of amoeba isolated from Acanthamoeba keratitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Solarczyk, Piotr; Cholewiński, Marcin; Hadaś, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are the causative factor of many diseases. Among others, they cause Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a condition that usually occurs in contact lens wearers, though it is also observed in non-wearers. The number of diagnosed cases of AK increased more than eightfold during 8 years in the USA, and a proportional increase in frequency also occurred in Poland and Europe. Cases of AK are usually diagnosed late, and their therapy is difficult and rarely successful. AK is an uncommon diagnosis in Poland. The increased number of positive cases observed in our laboratory may reflect the growing at-risk population of contact lens wearers. Acanthamoeba as a genus of facultative human parasites is currently classified into 17 genotypes. Isolates belonging to seven genotypes were found to be associated with AK. One genotype in particular, T4, was found to be overrepresented in human disease. The main finding of our study is that in Poland, AK is almost always associated with the T4 genotype.

  16. Present state of the telecommunications market in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Andrzej

    2003-10-01

    This statement shortly describes the changes in the telecommunication market that have taken place in the last 12 years, during the socio-economical transformation in Poland. It concerns economical, legal and technical problems related to the development of the telecommunications in Poland based on the principles of the market economy. Especially it is related to the commercialization of this sector, what has been a result of the changes of the principal law ruling the national economy including changes ot the telecommunication law. Changes of the law enabled the creation of the commercial company Polish Telecom and opened the way to the privatization of this company. Due to the changed law the way to the step-by-step liberalization and de-monopolization process has been also opened in Poland. It has caused fully digital modernization of telecommunication network, introduction new services such as cellular communications and Internet services, as well as rapid development of the market, what has expressed in multiplication of number of subscribers of stationary telephony, creation of the big cellular market and new increasing Internet market. The statemnet also refers to present difficulties in development of this market and as well as to the prospects for the future developments.

  17. Governing energy while neglecting health - The case of Poland.

    PubMed

    Vasev, Nikolay

    2017-09-21

    The present article discusses Poland's continued reliance on coal power and the consequent impacts on public health. Concrete aspects of the energy infrastructure and political priorities are shown to compromise as compromising public governance and leading to deteriorated health standards among the general population. To make this case, this study juxtaposes the most recent developments in the Polish energy sector with current measures in EU energy policy and reforms in other EU Member States. Special attention is paid to developments in Poland following the political shift in October 2015, when a new government came to power. The ruling conservative party's direct involvement in the management of the mining and utility companies and its strong political ties to miners' unions are particularly discussed. Theoretically, the article relies on the TAPIC framework for governance. The framework rests on five integral principles of good governance: Transparency, Accountability, Participation, Integrity and Capacity; TAPIC allows scholars to study the impact of governance on public health in any policy area. Methodologically, this study relies on secondary sources, including academic publications, national and international reports, and statistical data on a range of energy and health factors in Poland and Europe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 2.5D S-wave velocity model of the TESZ area in northern Poland from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde-Piorko, Monika; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Receiver function (RF) locally provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and information about the shear wave (S-wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. The data recorded by "13 BB Star" broadband seismic stations (Grad et al., 2015) and by few PASSEQ broadband seismic stations (Wilde-Piórko et al., 2008) are analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in northern Poland. The TESZ is one of the most prominent suture zones in Europe separating the young Palaeozoic platform from the much older Precambrian East European craton. Compilation of over thirty deep seismic refraction and wide angle reflection profiles, vertical seismic profiling in over one hundred thousand boreholes and magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric and thermal methods allowed for creation a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model down to 60 km depth in the area of Poland (Grad et al. 2016). On the other hand the receiver function methods give an opportunity for creation the S-wave velocity model. Modified ray-tracing method (Langston, 1977) are used to calculate the response of the structure with dipping interfaces to the incoming plane wave with fixed slowness and back-azimuth. 3D P-wave velocity model are interpolated to 2.5D P-wave velocity model beneath each seismic station and synthetic back-azimuthal sections of receiver function are calculated for different Vp/Vs ratio. Densities are calculated with combined formulas of Berteussen (1977) and Gardner et al. (1974). Next, the synthetic back-azimuthal sections of RF are compared with observed back-azimuthal sections of RF for "13 BB Star" and PASSEQ seismic stations to find the best 2.5D S-wave models down to 60 km depth. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  19. [Correction of thoraco-mammary deformity of Poland syndrome].

    PubMed

    Delay, E; La Marca, S; Guerid, S

    2016-10-01

    Breast deformity of Poland syndrome is a malformation known to be difficult to treat. Numerous descriptions of surgical corrections have been published but none achieved to correct severe cases before description of lipomodeling technique. The aim of this article is to present thoraco-mammary deformity of Poland syndrome, corrections techniques already available and therapeutical indications in primary and secondary cases. Constant anomaly of Poland syndrome is agenesis of sternocostal part of pectoralis major muscle but other muscular anomalies can be associated. Skin and glandular anomalies present with a fine skin and an absent or hypoplasic subcutaneous fat with a glandular hypoplasia of various degree. Osteo-cartilaginous anomalies can be associated in very severe cases. Clinical sign of Poland syndrome is forced adduction maneuver highlighting pectoralis major agenesis. Functional impact of the deformity is low but psychological and psychosocial implications can be very important, supporting an early surgical correction. Therapeutic means are various and accurate descriptions are given in this article: thoracic bony reconstruction, thoracic implant made of silicone elastomer, breast implant, skin expansion, latissimus dorsi pedicled flap, free flaps, breast lipomodeling, breast-pectoralis flap. Principles of each technique are described and balanced with their actual use in this malformation. Indications have been completely modified these last years due to lipomodeling contribution which represented a huge step in this deformity treatment. In our practice, if autologous reconstruction with lipomodeling is possible, we choose this solution at first. In case of severe thoracic deformity, a silicone elastomer implant made with the help of computed assisted conception can be an important adjunct, mainly by thin young man. In secondary cases, if implant is well tolerated, we found logical to stay in the same reconstruction path and do one or two sessions of

  20. Volcanic ash observed over Poland, April 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Krzyścin, Janusz; Jarosławski, Janusz; Podgórski, Jerzy

    2010-05-01

    We present analyses of the results of the ground-based measurements of the aerosols at Belsk - Central Geophysical Observatory Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (IGF PAS) after eruption of Eyjafjallajokull volcano. The lidar and Sun-photometric result are compared to model simulations by the Norwegian Institute of Meteorology (NIM), Oslo, Norway. Our measurements show presence of aerosol layers in free troposphere mainly 16 -17 April and 23 April when presence of ash cloud is predicted by the model. However, contribution of that layers to aerosol optical depth (AOD) is rather weak. Variability of AOD during measurements period is small and does not exceed overall mean for April. Aerosol microphysical properties, like size distribution, measured after eruption is typical for advection of clear air form northern Europe. Small fine mode is observed during whole period and only 16 and 17 Aril small increase of coarse mode was found.

  1. [External quality assessment of semen analysis in Poland].

    PubMed

    Jedrzejczak, Piotr; Talarczyk, Joanna; Taszarek-Hauke, Grazyna; Berger, Anna; Hauke, Jan; Pawelczyk, Leszek

    2012-11-01

    Semen analysis is an important part of male infertility diagnosis and should be performed according to international recommendations. The reliability of the results depends mainly on the qualifications of the laboratory analysts. External Quality Assessment Programmes (EQAP) are performed in laboratories worldwide in order to standardize the results. The aim of this study was to perform the first in Poland comparison of the results of sperm analysis from different laboratories. Forty two Polish laboratories were invited to participate in the EQAP and eight laboratories agreed to take part in the analysis. They were sent uniform semen samples, prepared in accordance with the WHO standards: one sample for the assessment of concentration, two for motility (on DVD) and two for the morphology of the sperm (Papanicolau staining). The reference group was comprised of three employees of the Andrologic Laboratory of Poznań University of Medical Sciences, who regularly take part in EQAP organized by ESHRE. The reference group analyzed the samples from the participating laboratories. Statistic features such as mean, median, standard deviation, minimal and maximal value, first and third quartile were assessed for every examined parameter Z-score index was used to compare the differences between assessed laboratories and the reference laboratory. The acceptable Z-score range was +/-1. Average concentration in the reference group was 43 mln/ml, while in the assessed laboratories (L) it was between 31 (L4) and 72.5 mln/ml (L1). Z-score for concentration analysis in three laboratories exceeded +/- 1 (2.51 for L1, 1.42 for L2 and -1.02 for L4). In the analysis of the first sample for progressive motility the reference group received 59%, while the values of participating laboratories varied from 42,5% (L1) to 80% (L4). Most of the centers achieved Z-score within the normal range, except for L1 and L4 (-1.48 and 1.88 respectively). The reference value for the second sample for

  2. Geochemical evolution of lithospheric mantle underlying Intrasudetic Fault (SW Poland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    The Pilchowice basanite (SW Poland) forms volcanic plug located exactly on Intrasudetic Fault, which is one of the major tectonic lines in northern part of the Bohemian Massif. It originated during the formation of Variscan Orogen and marks the contact between two different crustal domains. The basanite is rhönite-bearing (Ladenberger et al., 2005. Min.Pol-Spec. Pap.) and contains small (<3 cm) xenoliths of clinopyroxene-bearing spinel harzburgites and spinel dunites. Numerous, fine-grained aggregates formed of olivine, clinopyroxene, spinel and glass occur interstitially. A "glassy patch" enclosing subhedral clinopyroxene occurs in one of the xenoliths. The Fo content in olivine forming xenoliths varies from 91.4 down to 83.2%, but the NiO content is always high (0.31-0.45 % wt.). Orthopyroxene has the composition of Al-Cr-Fe enstatite (mg# 0.86- 0.92). It is either LREE-depleted or shows U-shaped REE patterns. Clinopyroxene is Al-Ti-Cr diopside (mg# = 0.80-0.95). Spinel is mainly chromite with wide variation of cr# (0.40-0.80). Clinopyroxene is usually LREE-enriched with convex upward REE pattern. Two other types of REE patterns in clinopyroxene are also present: convex downward (U-shaped) and with constant enrichment in LREE. All the clinopyroxenes show distinct Ti and Zr-Hf negative anomalies. Low Al2O3 content in orthopyroxene suggests that Pilchowice peridotites are restites after extensive (16-35%) partial melting (Faccini et al., 2013, JoP), which is in an opposition to modal content of clinopyroxene (0-4.1 vol.%). This suggests, that clinopyroxene is a "stealth" metasomatic phase (O'Reillly and Griffin, 2013, Springer). As trace element composition of clinopyroxene shows features typical for reaction with alkaline silicate melt (negative inflection at the most incompatible trace elements) and carbonatite (Ti, Zr, Hf anomalies), we suggest that majority of xenoliths were metasomatized by the an agent being a carbonatite-silicate melt or by CO2-bearing

  3. Eugenics--a side effect of progressivism? analysis of the role of scientific and medical elites in the rise and fall of eugenics in pre-war Poland.

    PubMed

    Blach, Olga

    2010-06-01

    The eminent geneticist, Benno Muller-Hill, described eugenics as"explosive mixture between something we might call hard science, that is, human genetics, and the sphere of political action. On the one hand, geneticists needed politicians to implement their ideas. On the other hand, Hitler and the Nazis needed scientists who could say that anti-Semitism has scientific theoretical foundations." For some Polish eugenicists, the Third Reich was not the home of the Nuremberg Laws, but a country that "boldly embarked on racial hygiene." This enthusiastic attitude of Polish intellectual circles towards Nazi eugenic laws was characteristic of the status of pre-war science in Poland, which in many areas, such as anthropology and psychiatry, remained strongly influenced by the paradigm of German science. While the professional and scientific context of the day promoted eugenic and racist ideas within the framework of the academic milieu and the curriculum of the medical and scientific community, eugenicists in Poland tended to refrain from anti-Semitic and racist phraseology. Indeed, the Polish eugenic movement was class- rather than race-orientated. The hybrid language of eugenics, combining social sensitivity with repulsion and contempt for the sick and the weak, illustrated the ambiguous stance of the Polish eugenicists on politics and science in Nazi Germany, for the Third Reich provided the German eugenicists with what had always been an unfulfilled dream to the Polish eugenicists--political power and the ability to implement their ideas.

  4. Educational system for transplant coordinators in Poland: postgraduate studies at Warsaw Medical University; 2 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, J; Jakubowska-Winecka, A; Becler, R; Kubik, T; Milecka, A; Sekta, S; Pabisiak, K; Malanowski, P; Rowinński, W

    2009-10-01

    Donor hospital transplant coordinators play crucial roles in the donation process. There are only a few coordinators in Poland, while there are about 400 hospitals with intensive care units (ICU). Coordinators must be professionals in medical sciences, clinical psychology, law, organization, management, and statistics. Coordinators acquire these skills during the Transplant Coordinators Postgraduate Studies at Warsaw Medical University which began in 2007. Lectures, seminars and exercises (99 hours, 6 weekends) are run by experts. The studies end with an examination and a diploma. The main criterion for acceptance of a candidate is employment in a key department in the donation process. The aim of studies is to educate coordinators for each hospital in the country. Until now 4 editions of the course have been completed. Among 123 graduates, 71 (60%) are employed in strategic departments of 48 hospitals. Preliminary results of graduates' activities in donor detection were compared in the periods before (2005-2006) and after the course (2007-2008). The background was the overall activity in Poland, where in 2007-2008 the activity fell to 79% of 2005-2006. This fall for hospitals with the graduates of this program was 82% versus hospitals without them (76%). Of the 48 hospitals that employed the graduates: 14 improved donation 5 were the same, in 12 in both periods showed no donations; whereas in 11 it was much lower (>20%), and in 6 lower but consistent with the national trend.

  5. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  6. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, People's Republic of China, Poland, Republic of Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777... China and Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping Duty Orders... Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's Republic of China and Ukraine. The Department...

  7. 77 FR 76941 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Poland (DFARS Case 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country--Poland (DFARS Case 2012-D049) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... Republic of Poland as a qualifying country. On August 27, 2011, the U.S. Secretary of Defense signed a new... the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement. II. Publication of This Final Rule for...

  8. Life in a Democratic Society: A Primary School Civics Course for Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzakalik, Krystayna; And Others

    This document summarizes a civics course for primary schools in Poland, grades 6-8. The curriculum was developed as part of the Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland Project, a cooperative effort of the Polish Ministry of National Education and the Mershon Center, The Ohio State University (United States). The project aims to help schools…

  9. Future Perfect? Conflict and Agency in Higher Education Reform in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz; Stankiewicz, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper is based on an analysis of interviews with individuals engaged in systemic reform of higher education (HE) in Poland. The reform is perceived as controversial: it is supported by the media and claimed to be in line with the expectations of external stakeholders of HE, as well as being congruent with Poland's international commitments; at…

  10. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  11. Acidity of tree bark as a bioindicator of forest pollution in southern Poland

    Treesearch

    Dr. K. Grodzinska

    1976-01-01

    PH values and buffering capacity were determined for bark samples of 5 deciduous trees (oak, alder, hornbeam, ash, linden), one shrub (hazel) and one coniferous tree (Scots pine) in the Cracow Industrial Region (Southern Poland) and for comparison in the Bialowieza Forest (North-Eastern Poland). The correlation was found between acidification of tree bark and air...

  12. [Consumption of fish and fishery products in Poland--analysis of benefits and risks].

    PubMed

    Kołodziejczyk, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Fish meat content high nutritive value and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, while low consumption of fish and fishery products in Poland. Fat meat of Baltic sea fish can also contain higher levels of dioxins and organochlorinated contaminants. Consumption of fish and fishery products in Poland ought to include different species from various catch areas.

  13. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  14. Representations of Linguistic and Ethnocultural Diversity in Poland's Education Policy, National School Curricula and Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    With its recent entry into the European Union (EU) and the adoption of multiethnic democracy as a national policy, a key challenge for Poland is to transform its education policy and practice in ways that are consistent with multicultural and pluralist values. This paper examines Poland's efforts to address these issues by exploring changes in the…

  15. Future Perfect? Conflict and Agency in Higher Education Reform in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz; Stankiewicz, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper is based on an analysis of interviews with individuals engaged in systemic reform of higher education (HE) in Poland. The reform is perceived as controversial: it is supported by the media and claimed to be in line with the expectations of external stakeholders of HE, as well as being congruent with Poland's international commitments; at…

  16. Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae) – a new species for Poland

    PubMed Central

    Musik, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marcin; Depa, Łukasz; Łukasz Junkiert; Anna Jedynowicz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Single macropterous female of Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 has been found during the faunistic studies in semi-natural plant communities of Oświęcim city in southern Poland. It is the first record of this species in Poland. Trigonocranus emmeae is rarely collected within the wide range of its distribution, mostly due to its hidden life mode. PMID:24039522

  17. Space life sciences: biological research and space radiation. Proceedings of the F1.2, F1.3, F2.2 and F2.6 Symposia of COSPAR Scientific Commission F which were held during the Thirty-third COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Warsaw, Poland, July, 2000.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Advances in Space Research contains a large number of manuscripts in the discipline of Space Life Sciences including papers from the following sessions of the Warsaw COSPAR Assembly: Gravity-related research with animals--past, present, future; The nervous system: space flight environmental factors effects--present results and new perspectives; Investigating space radiation effects at particle accelerators--biology and physics experiments; Perspectives on radiation risks on long space missions: deterministic and stochastic effects.

  18. [The characteristics of tick species (Acari: Ixodida) transferred on exotic reptiles to Poland].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Some natural and unusual transfers of exotic ticks on hosts have been noticed in Poland. Reptiles together with migratory birds and migrating mammals, are the groups of vertebrates that transfer unknown tick species to the territory of Poland. The majority of exotic reptiles brought to Poland for breading and commercial purpose are infested by ticks. Therefore the systematic list of ticks as well as their geographical distribution in the world, tick-host specificity, characteristic and morphological description of genera/species are presented. The described species are as follow: Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale, Amblyomma varanense, Hyalomma aegyptium. It is important to monitor occurrence of unknown tick species on hosts in Poland. Ticks parasitizing on reptiles are known as vectors of tick-borne diseases, which indicate a serious epidemic problem, created by the import of exotic reptiles to the territory of Poland.

  19. Truffle renaissance in Poland - history, present and prospects.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Gruszecka, Aleksandra; Hilszczańska, Dorota; Gil, Wojciech; Kosel, Bogusław

    2017-06-15

    The use of truffles in Poland has a long tradition, yet due to some historical aspects, this knowledge was lost. Currently, truffles and truffle orchards are again receiving attention, and thanks to, e.g., historical data, they have solid foundations to be established. Publications relating to truffles between 1661 and 2017 were searched for in international and national databases, such as the database of PhD theses, Google Scholar, and catalogues of the National Library of Poland, the Jagiellonian Digital Library, the University Library of J. Giedroyc in Bialystok and the Lower Silesian Digital Library (DBC). A very meticulous survey of the literature on truffles showed that truffles have been known since at least 1661. In the 18th century, the fungi were considered a non-timber forest product. It is interesting to mention the impact of Polish Count Michał Jan Borch in understanding the nature of truffles. The whitish truffle (Tuber borchii) is named after him. The greatest number of publications regarding truffles can be observed at the first half of the 19th and 20th centuries. The fungi were present not only in cookbooks but also in scientific literature, and aspects of their ecology and medicinal use are considered. The "dark ages" for truffles, mainly for social reasons, occurred after the Second World War. In tough times, when Poland was under Soviet communist control (1945-1989), truffles as a luxurious product have been completely forgotten. However, at the end of the 20th century, truffles started receiving attention in Polish society. Yet, the real awakening began in the first decade of the twenty-first century when the first truffle orchards were established. One of them has already produced the first fruit bodies of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum). Truffles have been present in Polish culture for centuries. Their renaissance indicates the need for fostering sustainable agroforestry-centred initiatives aimed at helping truffle growers in growing the

  20. Human Alveolar Echinococcosis in Poland: 1990–2011

    PubMed Central

    Nahorski, Wacław L.; Knap, Józef P.; Pawłowski, Zbigniew S.; Krawczyk, Marek; Polański, Jerzy; Stefaniak, Jerzy; Patkowski, Waldemar; Szostakowska, Beata; Pietkiewicz, Halina; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Felczak-Korzybska, Iwona; Gołąb, Elżbieta; Wnukowska, Natalia; Paul, Małgorzata; Kacprzak, Elżbieta; Sokolewicz-Bobrowska, Elżbieta; Niścigorska-Olsen, Jolanta; Czyrznikowska, Aleksandra; Chomicz, Lidia; Cielecka, Danuta; Myjak, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis infections is a dangerous old disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The aim of the paper was to collect and analyze data on human AE in Poland in the last two decades. Methodology/Principal Findings The sources of data were both the cases officially registered and detected by an active field and laboratory surveillance. The cases were verified by clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. Altogether 121 human cases of AE were detected. Among these 83 (68,6%) cases were classified as confirmed, 16 as probable and 22 as possible. During the two decades a continuous increase in detection rate was noticed. The cases were 6–82 years old at the time of diagnosis (mean - 47.7 years). Sex ratio M/F was 0.86/1.0. The AE was fatal in 23 (19%) patients (mean age at death - 54.1 years). Family agglomeration of AE was found in 4 foci, involving 9 patients. Seventy six of the cases were diagnosed in an advanced stage of disease. In all cases the liver was the primary location of AE. In 30 (24.8%) patients a spread to other organs was observed. Ninety four of the patients were treated with albendazole. In 73 (60%) patients a surgical operation was performed, including 15 liver transplantations. Conclusions/Significance The studies confirmed that AE is an emerging disease in Poland, which is the fourth country in Europe with over 120 cases detected. The results also indicate the need of a wider national programme for implementation of screening in the highest AE risk areas (north-eastern Poland) with an effort to increase the public awareness of the possibility of contracting E. multilocularis, and above all, training of the primary care physicians in the recognition of the risk of AE to allow for an early detection of this dangerous disease. PMID:23301116

  1. The cancer mortality in high natural radiation areas in poland.

    PubMed

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2012-12-01

    The cancer mortality ratios (CMRs) in Poland in high and low level radiation areas were analyzed based on information from national cancer registry. Presented ecological study concerned six regions, extending from the largest administration areas (a group of voivodeships), to the smallest regions (single counties). The data show that the relative risk of cancer deaths is lower in the higher radiation level areas. The decrease by 1.17%/mSv/year (p = 0.02) of all cancer deaths and by 0.82%/mSv/year (p = 0.2) of lung cancers only are observed.Tribute to Prof. Zbigniew Jaworowski (1927-2011).

  2. Prerequisites and Effects of CRM Systems Use in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchnowska, Dorota; Wrycza, Stanislaw

    It has been demonstrated in numerous studies that CRM implementation is beneficial in terms of higher revenues and lower costs (Aberdeen Group 2004: Thompson 2004) However, many potential CRM users in Poland are discouraged by high implementation costs and a high proportion of abortive implementations. Managers complain about lack of best practices that might convince them about the advisability of their strategy. The high failure rate in CRM implementation (Hellweg 2002) is often the result of the fact that the firms responsible for implementation lack an adequate and proven methodology.

  3. Glacially induced stresses in sedimentary rocks of northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    During the Pleistocene large continental ice sheets developed in Scandinavia and North America. Ice-loading caused bending of the lithosphere and outward flow in the mantle. Glacial loading is one of the most prominent tectono-mechanical event in the geological history of northern Poland. The Pomeranian region was subjected several times to a load equivalent of more than 1 km of rocks, which led to severe increase in both vertical and horizontal stresses in the upper crustal rocks. During deglaciation a rapid decrease in vertical stress is observed, which leads to destabilization of the crust - most recent postglacial faults scarps in northern Sweden indicate glacially induced earthquakes of magnitude ~Mw8. The presence of the ice-sheet altered as well the near-surface thermal structure - thermal gradient inversion is still observable in NW Poland. The glacially related processes might have left an important mark in the sedimentary cover of northern Poland, especially with regard to fracture reopening, changes in stress state, and damage development. In the present study, we model lithospheric bending caused by glacial load, but our point of interest lies in the overlying sediments. Typical glacial isostatic studies model the response of (visco-) elastic lithosphere over viscoelastic or viscous asthenosphere subjected to external loads. In our model, we introduce viscoelastic sedimentary layers at the top of this stack and examine the stress relaxation patterns therein. As a case study for our modelling, we used geological profiles from northern Poland, near locality of Wejherowo, which are considered to have unconventional gas potential. The Paleozoic profile of this area is dominated by almost 1 km thick Silurian-Ordovician shale deposits, which are interbedded with thin and strong limestone layers. This sequence is underlain by Cambrian shales and sandstones, and finally at ~3 km depth - Precambrian crystalline rocks. Above the Silurian there are approximately

  4. Helminths in migrating and wintering birds recorded in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Among 544 species of helminths recorded in birds on the territory of Poland, probably some (17 species of Digenea, 21 Cestoda, 13 Nematoda and 5 Acanthocephala) do not belong to the native fauna. These are helminths obtained in mature stage from birds shortly after their arrival from wintering grounds, or from foreign populations wintering with us, or being in the course of spring or autumn migration through the area of our country. In general, these helminth species have been recorded sporadically in the examined birds.

  5. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Krzysztof R.; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  6. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  7. Science and Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  8. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań.

  9. The first established focus of hantavirus infection in Poland, 2007.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Anna; Heyman, Paul; Knap, Józef Piotr; Burzyński, Waldemar; Witas, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    The first hantavirus infection outbreak in Poland (with different seroetiology) was identified between August-December 2007. Thirteen cases were reported in southeast Poland: 12 cases in the Carpathians bordering with northeast Slovakia, mainly in the forested areas of the Bieszczady mountains, and one case approximately 100-120 kilometres north from the others, in the adjacent Sub-Carpathian region. Four additional cases of past infection were identified retrospectively, based on the presence of the hantavirus specific IgG antibodies. Thus, the total number of infections identified in this area amounts to 17. Most probably, this number does not constitute the real hantavirus participation in the infections in this area. Considerable evidence for the probable participation of Dobrava virus (10 cases out of 17) and Puumala virus (3 cases out of 17) in the hantavirus diseases has been revealed. There were no fatal infections. However, out of 13 symptomatic cases, major HFRS clinical manifestations were observed in 10 cases and a typical nephropathia epidemica in the next 3 cases. Haemorrhagic diathesis was observed in 9 patients. Five patients underwent haemodialysis treatment due to acute renal failure. One, a female patient, haemodialysed in 10th week of gravidity, managed to maintain pregnancy and remains under interdisciplinary care.

  10. Environmental Surveillance of Non-polio Enteroviruses in Poland, 2011.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Ciąćka, Agnieszka; Witek, Agnieszka; Kuryk, Łukasz; Żuk-Wasek, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to apply environmental surveillance to evaluate circulation of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in sewage in Poland. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December, 2011. Sewage samples were concentrated prior to analysis by RT-PCR and isolation in cells (RD, L20B and Caco-2). Out of the 165 analysed samples, 127 (77%) were positive for enteroviruses using RT-PCR and 109 (66%) were positive for enteroviruses using cell culture methods and the highest detection rate was observed in the summer and autumn. In total, 141 enteroviruses were identified using neutralization test (107 NPEVs and 34 polioviruses). Accounting for 52% of all the detected NPEVs, E11 and E3 were the predominant serotypes identified in raw sewage. Retrospectively, E11 was the known aetiology for the past aseptic meningitis outbreaks in Poland, as E3 being rarely associated with any outbreak prior to 2013. In conclusion, the environmental surveillance provides data which may help in understanding the epidemiology of enteroviruses in humans.

  11. Spherules associated with the cretaceous-paleogene boundary in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachaniec, Tomasz; Karwowski, Łukasz; Szopa, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    The succession of the Lechówka section near Chełm in south-eastern Poland presents the first complete record of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary in Poland. Samples of the boundary clay were examined for microtektites and shocked minerals to confirm the impact origin of the sediment. The spheroidal fraction reveals morphological and mineralogical features, e.g., spherules, similar to material from the K-Pg boundary as described from elsewhere. The impact genesis of the spherules is confirmed by the presence of nickel-rich spinel grains on their surfaces. The spinels are considered to be primary microlites and, thus, the spherules at Lechówka can be classified as microkrystites. No shocked minerals were noted. The deposits with spherules comprise Aland Mg-rich smectite (Cheto smectite). This almost pure Mg-rich smectite, forming up to 100% of the clay fraction, derived from the weathering of the impact glass. It is proposed that the spherules isolated from the Cretaceous- Paleogene boundary clay at Lechówka come from the Chicxulub crater in Mexico.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. [Problems of prevention and control of poliomyelitis in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mazurowska-Magdzik, Wiesława; Bucholc, Bozenna; Janaszek-Seydlitz, Wiesława; Szkoda, Tomasz; Magdzik, Wiesław

    2010-01-01

    In the fifties and the sixties of 20th century big epidemic and increasing numbers of poliomyelitis cases were observed in Poland as well in other countries of Europe and world. Inactivated Salk's vaccine in injections as well as oral attenuated vaccine were introduced to the control and prevention of this disease. As the result of it poliomyelitis was eradicated in American, European and of West Pacific Region of WHO. Since 1984 poliomyelitis cases were not registered in Poland, VAPP were observed in small numbers. Just now new vaccines with poliomyelitis component as Boostrix Polio and Adacel Polio are convenient to use as booster doses of poliomyelitis vaccine. Actually inactivated polio vaccine is used in majority of west European countries, USA, Canada, Australia. Inactivated vaccine in basic and attenuated vaccine in booster doses were used in Central and East European countries and only attenuated vaccine are used in big African, South and Central American countries, China, India and countries, witch were the part of past Soviet Union.

  14. Rise in electronic cigarette use among adolescents in Poland.

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Gawron, Michal; Nadolska, Justyna; Balwicki, Lukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Despite the potential negative health effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), these devices are increasing in popularity worldwide, especially among youth. We compared data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in Poland among students aged 15-19 years in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. We tested differences between samples in the prevalence of e-cigarette use, tobacco cigarette smoking, and simultaneous use of both tobacco and e-cigarettes ("dual use") using a multilevel linear mixed model regression. We found that the current use of e-cigarettes among adolescents in Poland was significantly higher in the 2013-2014 sample than the 2010-2011 sample (29.9% vs. 5.5%, respectively; p < .05). Dual use of tobacco and e-cigarettes was also significantly higher (21.8% vs. 3.6%, respectively; p < .05). Interestingly, the prevalence of smoking tobacco cigarettes also increased (from 23.9% in 2010-2011 to 38.0% in 2013-2014; p < .05). Observed parallel increase in e-cigarette use and smoking prevalence does not support the idea that e-cigarettes are displacing tobacco cigarettes in this population. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in Poland.

    PubMed

    Larska, M; Krzysiak, M K; Jabłoński, A; Kęsik, J; Bednarski, M; Rola, J

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E is an important public health problem mostly in developing but occasionally also in industrialized countries. Domestic and wildlife animals are considered reservoirs of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Since no information on the prevalence of autochthonous HEV infections in human and animal in Poland is available, the aim of the study was to investigate the HEV seroprevalence of different wildlife species as potential virus reservoirs in the country. No HEV antibodies were found in any of the sera collected from the red deer (Cervus elaphus), European bison (Bison bonasus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), elk (Alces alces), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) or brown bear (Ursus arctos). HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 44.4% (95% CI 38.3-50.7) serum samples originated only from wild boars. The percentage of seropositive wild boars differed significantly between the provinces and was positively correlated with the wild boar density and rurality of the area. This study showed that HEV circulates among wild boar population in Poland, and this species should be considered as an important reservoir of the virus.

  16. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  17. Pu-241 in samples of forest soil from Poland.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, J W; Dorda, J; Was, B

    1999-10-01

    241Pu activity measurements in coniferous forest soil samples from Poland are presented. The results were obtained in two ways: by alpha spectrometric remeasurements of the plutonium sources 3-4 years after their preparation (i.e. by the 241Am ingrowth) and by direct measurements of 241Pu using liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry. Both methods gave consistent results. The maximum observed activity concentration obtained by the 241Am ingrowth was (254 +/- 43) Bq/kg, and by direct measurements it was (284 +/- 31) Bq/kg (the same sample, activities calculated for May 1, 1986). Enhanced levels of 241Pu were observed in all samples from the farthest north-eastern Poland. The estimated 241Pu maximum deposition from Chernobyl fallout in this area (sum of deposition for two examined layers of one site) was (1.025 +/- 0.110) kBq/m2. This will result after 70 years in an additional 241Am activity of about (30.1 +/- 3.2) Bq/m2. The average ratio for 241Pu to total 238,239,240Pu was of the order of 25. The obtained average Chernobyl ratios for 241Pu to 239,240Pu were about 86, and those for 241Pu to 238,239,240Pu were 56.

  18. Monthly and seasonally verification of precipitation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Linkowska, J.

    2009-04-01

    The national meteorological service of Poland - the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) joined COSMO - The Consortium for Small Scale Modelling on July 2004. In Poland, the COSMO _PL model version 3.5 had run till June 2007. Since July 2007, the model version 4.0 has been running. The model runs in an operational mode at 14-km grid spacing, twice a day (00 UTC, 12 UTC). For scientific research also model with 7-km grid spacing is ran. Monthly and seasonally verification for the 24-hours (06 UTC - 06 UTC) accumulated precipitation is presented in this paper. The precipitation field of COSMO_LM had been verified against rain gauges network (308 points). The verification had been made for every month and all seasons from December 2007 to December 2008. The verification was made for three forecast days for selected thresholds: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 mm. Following indices from contingency table were calculated: FBI (bias), POD (probability of detection), PON (probability of detection of non event), FAR (False alarm rate), TSS (True sill statistic), HSS (Heidke skill score), ETS (Equitable skill score). Also percentile ranks and ROC-relative operating characteristic are presented. The ROC is a graph of the hit rate (Y-axis) against false alarm rate (X-axis) for different decision thresholds.

  19. Monthly and seasonally verification of precipitation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Linkowska, J.

    2009-04-01

    The national meteorological service of Poland - the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) joined COSMO - The Consortium for Small Scale Modelling on July 2004. In Poland, the COSMO _PL model version 3.5 had run till June 2007. Since July 2007, the model version 4.0 has been running. The model runs in an operational mode at 14-km grid spacing, twice a day (00 UTC, 12 UTC). For scientific research also model with 7-km grid spacing is ran. Monthly and seasonally verification for the 24-hours (06 UTC - 06 UTC) accumulated precipitation is presented in this paper. The precipitation field of COSMO_LM had been verified against rain gauges network (308 points). The verification had been made for every month and all seasons from December 2007 to December 2008. The verification was made for three forecast days for selected thresholds: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 mm. Following indices from contingency table were calculated: FBI (bias), POD (probability of detection), PON (probability of detection of non event), FAR (False alarm rate), TSS (True sill statistic), HSS (Heidke skill score), ETS (Equitable skill score). Also percentile ranks and ROC-relative operating characteristic are presented. The ROC is a graph of the hit rate (Y-axis) against false alarm rate (X-axis) for different decision thresholds

  20. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  1. Quality of pregnant women's diet in Poland - macro-elements.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Humeniuk, Ewa; Fronczak, Adam; Walecka, Irena

    2014-05-12

    The objective was to assess the quality of pregnant women's diet in Poland concerning macro-elements and to analyze reasons for low or high quality diets. Five hundred and twelve pregnant women in their 20(th) to 30(th) week of pregnancy took part in the research conducted by means of a 7-day observation of diet. Consumed products were analyzed by means of DIETETYK software developed by the Polish National Food and Nutrition Institute. Obtained macro values were averaged. The results were compared with the recommendations from the World Health Organization, European Union and Polish National Food and Nutrition Institute and analyzed statistically (χ(2) test). The pregnant women consumed an average of 1898 ±380 kcal daily. Average value of macro components supplied with the diet did not deviate from EU and NFNI nutrition recommendations: protein - 72.1 g/person daily, fats overall - 72.8 g, polyunsaturated fatty acids - 10.93 g, cholesterol - 283 mg, carbohydrates - 257 g. The study proved a significant relation between a higher quality diet of pregnant women and tertiary or secondary education (p = 0.05) as well as urban residence (p = 0.01). Pregnant women's diet in Poland is not significantly different from diet quality of pregnant women from other countries. A lower quality diet was observed among women who smoked during pregnancy and lived in rural areas.

  2. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme.

  3. Financing health services in Poland: new evidence on private expenditures.

    PubMed

    Chawla, M; Berman, P; Kawiorska, D

    1998-06-01

    This paper estimates total expenditure on health care in Poland in 1994 and provides new evidence on high levels of private spending on health care. The analysis shows that health care expenditures in Poland are higher than has usually been maintained, and are comparable with the prevailing levels in many other European countries. Private expenditure on health is a significant proportion of total expenditure on health, and in particular on financing outpatient care. Available evidence indicates that informal payments made by patients to physicians contribute as much as double of the physician's salary, and thus form an important source of earnings for physicians. This situation of high private expenditures on health care and informal payments to physicians is likely to be true of other transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe as well. One policy implication that emerges is these transitional economies face a big challenge in managing existing resources, as opposed to finding new resources, in the health sector more effectively to meet the health care needs of their population. The paper highlights the need for better understanding of the current availability and distribution of resources in the health sector and their directions of flow, in both public and private sectors, and suggests using tools such as National Health Accounts to track and monitor changes in the financing of the health care system.

  4. Extrahepatic manifestations associated with chronic hepatitis C infections in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zarebska-Michaluk, D A; Lebensztejn, D M; Kryczka, W M; Skiba, E

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and predictive factors of extrahepatic manifestation (EM) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection in Poland. 340 consecutive patients (mean age: 42 years) with untreated CHC were studied between 2000 and 2006. The HCV infection was defined by positive serology and serum HCV RNA. The inflammation grade and fibrosis stage were assessed according to Ishak. Demographic, laboratory and liver biopsy data were collected. The patients with liver cirrhosis, concomitant HBV or HIV infection, autoimmune liver diseases and alcohol abusers were excluded from the analysis. 210 patients with CHC (61.7%) presented at least 1 extrahepatic manifestation, including mixed cryoglobulinemia (37.1%), thrombocytopenia (27.6%), thyroid autoimmunity (16.2%), dermatological disorders (4.1%) and type 2 diabetes (4.1%). Other EM such as the sicca syndrome, nephropathy, polyneuropathy and B-cell lymphoma were observed in single cases. In multivariate analysis lower platelet count was found as a predictive factor of EM in patients with CHC. The majority of patients with CHC, living in Poland, have EM, of which cryoglobulinemia, thrombocytopenia, thyroid autoimmunity, dermatological disorders and type 2 diabetes are most common. Through the multivariate analysis the lower platelet predicts extrahepatic manifestations associated with chronic hepatitis C.

  5. [Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)--implementation process in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    In the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ( FCTC) is stated a need to develop national, regional and global program of control, mechanisms, determinant factors, consequences of using tobacco products and inhaling tobacco smoke. One of crucial elements of global control system of tobacco use--Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) is Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Poland is amongst several countries which were invited to conduct GATS. The aim of his work s to describe the objectives, aims, and implementation GATS Project in our country. It will base on current experience of WHO Country Office in Poland. GATS is a representative households survey created to systematically monitor various types usage of tobacco products including smoking but also other forms of usage amongst adults (over 15 years of age). The main objective of GATS is diagnosis of current state and reasons for development of the tobacco epidemic amongst adults Poles. This diagnosis is necessary to determine actions in health and socio- economic policy priorities in order to minimize the usage of tobacco products. Researches in GATS Project are to be completed by the end of 209 and data analysis and final report in 2010.

  6. A Neanderthal lower molar from Stajnia Cave, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, P; Nowaczewska, W; Stringer, C B; Compton, T; Kruszyński, R; Nadachowski, A; Stefaniak, K; Urbanowski, M

    2013-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a taxonomic assessment of the second of three isolated human teeth found in the Stajnia Cave (north of the Carpathians, Poland) in 2008. The specimen was located near a human tooth (S5000), which was identified by Urbanowski et al. (2010) as a Neanderthal permanent upper molar. Both of these teeth were excavated from the D2 layer, which belongs to the D stratigraphic complex comprising the archaeological assemblage associated with the Micoquian tradition. An Ursus spelaeus bone and Mammuthus primigenius tooth that were also excavated from the D2 layer were dated to >49,000 years BP (by AMS (14)C) and 52.9 ka BP (by U-Th), respectively. The sediment overlying stratigraphic complex D was dated to 45.9 ka BP by the OSL method. The S4300 tooth is a lower first or second permanent molar belonging to an individual other than that who once possessed the S5000 tooth. The S4300 tooth exhibits a combination of traits typical of Neanderthal lower molars, including a mid-trigonid crest, large anterior fovea, taurodontism and subvertical grooves on the interproximal face, indicating that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal individual. The S4300 tooth from Stajnia Cave is one of the oldest human remains found in Poland.

  7. An analysis of selected cases of derecho in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Matuszko, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyses six cases of the derecho phenomena, which occurred in Poland between 2007 and 2012. The input data included reports on dangerous meteorological phenomena, SYNOP and METAR reports, MSL pressure maps, upper air maps at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, radar depictions and satellite images, upper air sounding plots and data from a system locating atmospheric discharges. Derechos are caused directly by the activity of mesoscale convective systems linked up with either, in winter, a cold front of a deep low-pressure system, or, in summer, with an area of wind convergence in a warm sector of a cyclone or with an articulated cold front which, moving within a low-pressure embayment, develops a very active secondary depression. It was found that southern and central Poland were the regions most frequently affected by derechos. Mid-level and high-level jet streams, augmented by high thermodynamic instability of air masses, were found to be conducive to the development of derechos.

  8. General anesthesia in patients with syndrome of Poland.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Crespo, J; Vázquez-Mambrilla, Y; García-Herrera, F

    2017-02-01

    The increased use of surgery as a treatment or as an alternative for improvement means that we have a larger number of patients in the operating theatre, including those who suffer from rare diseases. Poland Syndrome is a rare congenital disease associated with muscle development. These patients may have a broad spectrum of abnormalities, which include thoracic anomalies, which can alter the ventilatory management at the level of the airway; the possible onset of malignant hyperthermia. This leads the anaesthetist to take certain preventive measures. We report the case of a patient with Poland syndrome operated for the placement of a breast prosthesis. We avoid halogenated agents, and use a Total Intravenous Anaesthesia with propofol. The appearance of muscle spasms as a result of the use of propofol, forced us into a second anaesthesia to perform total intravenous anaesthesia with Midazolam. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The thermal seasons variability in Poland, 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernecki, Bartosz; Miętus, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to detect variability and changes in the occurrence of the thermal seasons in Poland during the period from 1951 to 2010. A monthly temperature dataset using average area values allowed the researchers to set proper occurrence dates for the thermal seasons' beginnings and length according to the following criteria: winter ( t < 0 °C), early spring (0-5 °C), spring (5-15 °C), summer ( t > 15 °C), autumn (5-15 °C) and early winter (0-5 °C). Statistically significant long-term trends have been detected for the occurrence dates of the thermal seasons' beginnings and season length. Seasonal variability accelerated significantly since the end of the twentieth century. The trend of limiting wintertime in Poland is 0.64 days per year, while summer and early spring seasons are longer by approximately 0.30 and 0.25 days per year, respectively. All seasons since thermal early spring until thermal summer tend to occur earlier, while the following seasons have the opposite trend. As a result, the number of years without thermal winter has substantially increased in the past 20 years. Simultaneously, thermal summer became the longest season in 85 % of years after 1990 in comparison to less than 50 % in the period from 1951 to 1970. Also, the change in the annual course of monthly mean temperature results in the fact that thermal spring is becoming longer than thermal autumn.

  10. [Infant and neonatal deaths in poland in 1995-2015].

    PubMed

    Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Mierzejewska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was the analysis of trends of infant and neonatal mortality in Poland in 1995-2015, overall and by gestational age, main groups of causes and age at death. Data from birth and death certificates from 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2014 and 2015 were used. Infant, neonatal, postneonatal, perinatal and gestational age - specific mortality rates were presented. Main groups of causes of deaths were determined according to the International Classification of Diseases ICD-10. In Poland, in 1995-2015 infant mortality decreased more than three-fold, similarly to neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Early neonatal mortality decreased almost four-fold, stillbirths rate - two-fold and perinatal mortality - almost three-fold. The progress, to the greatest extend was related to preterm births. Infant mortality in this group decreased from 128.5 per 1000 preterm live births in 1995 to 36.8 in 2015. The main causes of all infant deaths are perinatal conditions and congenital anomalies. The decrease of infant and neonatal mortality has been continued in the last twenty years and affected mainly preterm births born from the shorter and shorter gestations, what implicates growing demand for long lasting health care and rehabilitation. Deaths of infants and neonates born at term and not related to congenital anomalies are relatively rare and need individual assessment.

  11. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  12. Prevalence of keds on city dogs in central Poland.

    PubMed

    Sokół, R; Gałęcki, R

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the species of ked infesting dogs in the cities of central Poland. A total of 510 dogs were observed between June and September 2015. The presence of keds was noted in 182 (35.7%) animals. Keds were more prevalent in female (38.0%) than in male (33.2%) dogs, and were more frequently found in animals younger than 1 year (46.2%) and in long-haired dogs (36.6%). The body areas most heavily colonized by keds were the groin (35.4%) and neck (21.4%). A total of 904 keds were isolated from dogs, including Hippobosca equina (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) (17.2%), Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) (32.0%), and two species not previously encountered in Poland: Hippobosca longipennis (45.0%) and Lipoptena fortisetosa (5.9%). Hippoboscidae may act as vectors of pathogens and any shifts in their geographic range may lead to the spread of new diseases affecting animals.

  13. Fifteen years of CFCs and SF6 measurements in air of Krakow, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewski, J.; Chmiel, M.; Sliwka, I.

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) in the atmosphere are on the ppt level. CFCs are stable, synthetic, halogenated alkanes and they contribute to ozone depletion by photolytic processes in the stratosphere [1]. CFCs an SF6 also participate in intensification of the greenhouse effect. The production and release of CFCs increased rapidly between the 1970s and 1980s. Then decreased dramatically from the end of the 1980s because of the Montreal Protocol limitations [2]. The measurements of CFCs and SF6 in air are usually conducted at the so-called clean stations, i.e., at places situated outside of the urban areas influence. In Europe such clean station is the Mace Head (Ireland), which is AGAGE participant since 1987 [3]. In central Europe such measurements are carried out in densely populated urban area of Krakow since 1997. Very interesting is diminishing frequency of the seasonal variability of CFCs concentration pollution events after the date of 1.07.2002 when the Montreal Protocol legislations were implemented in Poland (The Journal of Laws No. 52). This suggests that the most observed sources of CFCs have been localized to the territory of Poland (the wind and air mass movements have still the same statistical character in Krakow region, as before legislation implementation) [4]. The work presents a general view of environmental pollution of Krakow air (in the years 1997-2012) by selected halocarbons i.e., freons F-11 (CFCl3), F-12 (CF2Cl2), F-113 (CCl2FCClF2), chloroform (CHCl3), 1,1,1-trichloroetane (CH3CCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and SF6. The authors wish to acknowledge Prof. R. Weiss from Scripts Oceanography Institute (CA, USA) for preparing of the CFC's primary standard (SIO1993) and Dr M. Maiss from Max-Planck Institute (Germany) for SF6 calibration. The work was financed by grant from polish National Science Centre on the basis of Decision No. DEC-2011/01/N/ST10/07621and is also partially supported by

  14. Freshwater oligochaeta in mining subsidence ponds in the Upper Silesia region of southern Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Krodkiewska, M.

    2006-03-15

    I surveyed the benthic oligochaetes in three coal mining subsidence ponds in a heavily industrialized region of Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The fauna present differed in many respects from that living in natural and unpolluted water bodies. Nineteen species (11 Naididae and eight Tubificidae) were found. The two most consistently abundant species in all three ponds were Limnodrilus hoffimeisteri and Tubifex tubifex, both of which are ubiquitous and common in Poland. Polamothrix bavaricus, which is considered a rare species in Poland, was found consistently in the ponds.

  15. Transforming United States Air Forces in Europe and Empowering Poland: F-16s Fly East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Italy to new bases in Poland. — lech Kaczyń ski President, republic of Poland Strategic, military, and political interests for both Poland and the...pilot at aviano aB, to the author, e-mail, 30 September 2007. 17. “air transport Portal of the european Commis- sion: traffic Management,” http...ec.europa.eu/ transport / air_portal/traffic_management/sesame/index_en.htm (accessed 12 october 2007). 18. the author’s observations during a

  16. Fog water chemical composition in different geographic regions of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaś, Marek; Polkowska, Żaneta; Sobik, Mieczysław; Klimaszewska, Kamila; Nowiński, Kamil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-03-01

    The fog water samples were collected with the use of both passive and active fog collectors during 2005-2006 at 3 sites: lowland in northern Poland (Borucino; 186 m a.s.l.), valley basin in southern Poland (Zakopane; 911 m a.s.l.) and mountain top (Szrenica Mt.; 1330 m a.s.l.) in south-western Poland. For all daily samples (Borucino—25; Zakopane—4 and Szrenica—155), electric conductivity, pH, and concentrations of some anions: Cl -, F -, Br -, NO 2-, NO 3-, SO 42-, PO 43-and cations: NH 4+, Ca 2+, K +, Na + and Mg 2+ were measured. The selected ions were determined using ion suppressed chromatography (IC). Fog consists of a specific type of atmospheric phenomena. Results obtained on the basis of analysis of suitable fog samples can be treated as a source of valuable information on the chemistry of the atmosphere. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences depending on region, altitude, local morphology and, last but not least, fog origin. A distinct contrast is evident in the concentration and chemical composition between lowland radiation fog (represents lower layers of the atmosphere which are more influenced by continental emissions) versus orographic slope fog represented by a summit station, Mt Szrenica. It is partly induced by a distinction in weather conditions favouring fog existence, height of fog formation and its microphysical parameters. Acidity was associated with high concentrations of excess sulphate and nitrate in the fog water samples. Ammonium and calcium concentrations represent the most important neutralizing inputs. Collected cloud water at Szrenica Mt. includes solute contributions from emission sources located at much larger upwind distances. The fact that 95% of fog/cloud deposition is concentrated during SW-W-NW-N-NE, atmospheric circulation exerts an influence on the environmental quality of montane forests in the Sudety Mts. At numerous conspicuous convex landforms, where fog/cloud deposition becomes at least as important

  17. [Implementation of vaccinations in Chechen refugees' children in Poland].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Piotr; Jackowska, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Poland is a destination country or temporary living place for many refugees from Chechnya. Refugees are provided with full, free of charge, health care including the vaccination programme according to the present National Vaccination Programme (NVP). To assess the implementation of vaccinations in Chechen refugees' children in Poland. The group comprised 310 children from the Centre for Foreigners in Warsaw-Bielany. The mean age of the examined children was 7.5 years. The investigations were performed three times during the study--the first was conducted in a group of 220 children in June, the second one in 303 children in August and the third in 310 children in October 2008 (the differences in the numbers resulted from the changes in the size of the Chechen population living in the Centre). The vaccination records were assessed paying special attention to the implementation of vaccinations. During the consecutive two examinations the implementation of vaccination recommendations was analyzed as well as the availability of this information in the records. At every visit the history was obtained on the reasons for not having the vaccination programme implemented. The information on vaccination programme implementation was available in 19, 30 and 45%, of analyzed records from the Centre at the first, second and third visit, respectively. The majority of the obtained data regarded the implementation of vaccinations in children in the first year of life (85%), while the least data was on vaccinations in children over 12 years of age (30%). Similar results were obtained when analyzing a group of 168 children at the all three visits (18, 32 and 48%, respectively). The reasons for non-implementation of vaccinations were as follows: (a) low parents' awareness of the necessity of vaccinations; (b) lack of self-discipline (every other child did not report for a scheduled appointment); (c) relocation of refugees to other Centres; (d) exceedingly frequent postponing of

  18. Years of life lost due to infectious diseases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Bryla, Marek; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bryla, Pawel; Pikala, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Purpose An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999–2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases. Methods The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR), Standardized Death Rates (SDR) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd). Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values. Results Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999–2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05). The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19) (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05) and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04) (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05). The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09) Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05). SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0

  19. Extreme fog events in Poland with respect to circulation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustrnul, Z.; Czekierda, D.; Wypych, A.

    2010-09-01

    Fog is a phenomenon which belongs to a group of so-called hydrometeorites and, according to the different dictionaries, it is a suspension of water droplets or ice crystals in the ground layer of the air that impairs visibility in the horizontal direction below 1 km. The phenomenon of fog, although much less dynamic or violent than other extreme phenomena, such as thunderstorms or hail, is equally dangerous and brings about huge social and economic complications. Land and air transportation suffer and fog may sometimes leads to a complete crippling of the whole economy in an area where fog occurs. The main objective of the study is determination of the circulation types bringing extreme fog events in Poland. The duration of fog at each meteorological station was considered as the main input data originated from 54 synoptic stations located across the country. The mentioned data series cover the period of 56 years (1951-2006). The occurrence of fog depends on meteorological conditions caused to a large extent by a given synoptic situation and local terrain conditions. In this study, according to its objectives, only circulation conditions are taken into consideration. These have been described by 5 different circulation classifications (Grosswetterlagen, Litynski, Osuchowska-Klein, Niedzwiedz and Ustrnul). Situations when this phenomenon occurred across a large part of the country were taken into detailed consideration. Special attention was paid to fog coverage during 24-hour periods. In this work, in light of certain doubts about the homogeneity of the observation material available, the intensity of fog was not included, as it requires additional and very tedious analysis. In the first step all cases of fog during the 1966-2006 study period which lasted 24 hours at more than 10 of the considered weather stations, i.e: at least 5 stations have been considered. As expected, in most cases, either a centre of a classical high pressure system or a high pressure wedge

  20. Science and data science.

    PubMed

    Blei, David M; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-08-07

    Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three is a critical component of data science, we argue that the effective combination of all three components is the essence of what data science is about.

  1. Bio-monitoring of the most industrialized area in Poland: Trees' response to climate and anthropogenic environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Piotrowska, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The carbon isotope discrimination has been proposed as a method for evaluating a decrease in the total amount of atmospheric 13C and 14C that has been caused by fossil-fuel burning (Suess effect) and the ratio between CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance (water use efficiency). In the period of time from 1975 and 2012, Δ14C indicates the presence of local Suess effect. In the period of time prior to 2000, a decrease in conductivity of stomata was associated with a minor changes in photosynthesis net and that elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water use efficiency (approx. by 40%). The usage of carbon isotopes data provides historical records of anthropogenic impact on the environment and allows to identify the behaviour adaptation to the contamination. This project was funded by the National Science Centre allocated on the basis of the decision number DEC-2011/03/D/ST10/05251. This publication is supported under the grant rector in research and development. Silesian University of Technology, grant number 14/990/RGJ17/0077. References: B. Sensula 2016.δ13C and water use efficiency in the glucose of annual pine tree rings as ecological indicators of the forests in the most industrialized part of Poland. Water Air Soil Pollut. B. Sensula 2016.The impact of climate, sulfur dioxide, and industrial dust on δ18O and δ13C in glucose from pine tree rings growing in an industrialized area in the southern part of Poland Water Air Soil Pollut. B. Sensuła, S. Wilczyński, M. Opała. 2015. Tree growth and climate relationship: dynamics of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) growing in the near-source region of the combined heat and power plant during the development of the pro-ecological strategy in Poland. Water Air Soil Pollut. B. Sensula 2015. Spatial and short-temporal variability of δ13C and δ15N and water-use efficiency in pine needles of the three forests along the most industrialized part of Poland

  2. Overt and covert narcissism in Poland and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Zondag, Hessel J; Van Halen, Cor; Wojtkowiak, Joanna

    2009-06-01

    This article reports a study of the relation between narcissism as a personality characteristic and the cultural dimension of individualism/collectivism. Participants from a more collectivistic society (Poland; n = 167) were compared with participants from a more individualistic society (The Netherlands; n = 156). Two dimensions of narcissism were distinguished: overt and covert. The cultural tendency for narcissism was measured by comparing average scores on both types of narcissism in both countries, as well as by the meaning that overt and covert narcissism seems to have for psychological well-being. More specifically, the correlations were compared among both types of narcissism and depression and meaning of life. In the Polish sample, the average score on covert narcissism was higher. In the Dutch sample, on the other hand, depression and meaning of life were significantly related to covert narcissism.

  3. A biological stone from a medieval cemetery in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus.

  4. Minor manifestations in preaxial polydactyly type 1 and Poland complex.

    PubMed

    Halal, F

    1981-01-01

    We report three unrelated patients: two (patients 1 and 3) with preaxial polydactyly type 1 (PPT1), and one (patient 2) with PPT1 and Poland complex, and previously undescribed minor manifestations in the parents. The mother of patient 1 has camptodactyly with mild ulnar deviation of the distal phalanx of left thumb. The mother of patient 2 has symmetrical minor changes of both hands: mild camptodactyly of digits 4 and 5; mild clinodactyly of right 5th digit; absent or hypoplastic DIP flexion creases of digits 2, 3, 4 and 5; and tight skin around the middle phalanx of the 4th fingers. The mother of patient 3 has mild camptodactyly of the proximal phalanx of the thumbs.

  5. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  6. Prevention methods for pest control and their use in Poland.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Prevention methods can still be a cost-effective and efficient tool for pest control. Rational use of prevention methods is a feasible way to reduce dependency on chemical protection in agriculture. Costs, workload and farmers' awareness are key issues, however. In Poland, crop rotation is used as a method for pest control only to a limited extent owing to the high share of cereals in the crop structure. The choice of resistant varieties is satisfactory, but farmers should make use of qualified seed material more often. Liming is recommended on the majority of farms on account of widespread soil acidity. Favourable aspects as regards the prevention of pest development are biodiversity and the popularity of prevention cultivation techniques. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The Myszkow porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Eppinger, R.G.; Lason, K.; Slosarz, J.; Podemski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Myszkow, south-central Poland, lies in the Cracow-Silesian orogenic belt, in the vicinity of a Paleozoic boundary between two tectonic plates. The deposit is hosted in a complex that includes early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks intruded in the late Paleozoic by a predominantly granodioritic pluton. This deposit exhibits many features that are typical of porphyry copper deposits associated with calc-alkaline intrusive rocks, including ore- and alteration-mineral suites, zoning of ore and alteration minerals, fluid-inclusion chemistry, tectonic setting, and structural style of veining. Unusual features of the Myszkow deposit include high concentrations of tungsten and the late Paleozoic (Variscan) age. -Authors

  8. Motherhood after the age of 35 in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rybińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Postponing motherhood is a widespread phenomenon across developed countries, however only few studies look into very late motherhood in post-socialist countries using individual level data. In this study, I look at the context of the first childbirth in Poland in the midst of the political transformation of 1989. Employing sequence analysis I reconstructed life trajectories of women who experienced the transition to adulthood during the late 1980's and the early 1990's and have just completed their fertility histories. Individual data from the 2011 GGS-PL and the 2011 FAMWELL Survey were used. Comparing paths of mothers’ lives, I searched for differences in educational, professional and conjugal careers between women who gave birth before the age of 30 and after the age of 35. The results show how various life careers crisscross over the life course leading women to late motherhood. PMID:25641993

  9. The welfare effects of raising household energy prices in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, C.L.; Wallich, C.I.

    1996-06-01

    We examine the welfare effects from increasing household energy prices in Poland. Subsidizing household energy prices, common in the transition economies, is shown to be highly regressive. The wealthy spend a larger portion of their income on energy and consume more energy in absolute terms. We therefore rule out the oft-used social welfare argument for delaying household energy price increases. Raising prices, while targeting relief to the poor through a social assistance program is the first-best response. However, if governments want to ease the adjustment, several options are open, including: in-kind transfers to the poor, vouchers, in-cash transfers, and lifeline pricing for electricity. Our simulations show that if raising prices to efficient levels is not politically feasible at present and social assistance targeting is sufficiently weak, it may be socially better to use lifeline pricing and a large price increase than an overall, but smaller, price increase.

  10. Studies of the Prefabricated Housing Construction Market in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziszewska-Zielina, Elżbieta; Gleń, Monika

    2014-11-01

    The directions of development of the construction market are not only related to the need to own one's own home but also to increasing functional and economic requirements and conditions of sustainable development. The perception and understanding of prefabrication in housing construction are undoubtedly starting to change. Sustainable construction criteria may constitute a significant turning point and support for the development of new prefabricated housing construction technologies. Entrepreneurs are slowly perceiving an opportunity for the development of prefabrication in the construction market. The implementation and popularisation of ready-made homes will undoubtedly constitute a favourable change in the Polish construction market; however, this will require a modification of habits. This article presents an historical analysis of the development of the prefabricated housing construction market as well as an attempt to answer questions concerning the future of prefabrication in housing construction in Poland based on the conducted studies.

  11. Definition of the "health benefit basket" in poland.

    PubMed

    Kozierkiewicz, Adam; Trabka, Wojciech; Romaszewski, Artur; Gajda, Krzysztof; Gilewski, Dariusz

    2005-12-01

    The subject of "health benefit basket" has been hotly debated for years among the Polish public, but until recently the debate has tended to be largely theoretical and abstract and therefore has lacked an effect on public policy. The situation changed in 2004, for two reasons: first the verdict of the Constitutional Tribunal invalidating the existing health insurance law and, second, Poland's accession to the European Union. The first problem was solved in part by defining a list of specific exclusions in the law and a promise to establish an institution for health technology assessment. The second issue remains open, although to some extend it is being dealt with legally by regulations issued from the Ministry of Health on acceptable waiting times for health services.

  12. [Medical analytical toxicology in Poland in year 2012].

    PubMed

    Burda, Piotr; Gomółka, Ewa; Winnicka, Renata; Olszowy, Zofia; Madej, Teresa; Wendeker, Beata; Sommerfeld, Karina; Zajko, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    There are 12 centers of acute poisoning treatment and 9 round the clock toxicological laboratories. Most of the laboratories access evidence of activity run by National Clinical Toxicology Consultant. The paper presents actual status of medical toxicology laboratories in Poland and summarizes activity of the laboratories in the year 2012. In 2012 toxicological laboratories reported 113,719 assays. There were diagnosed 63.8% men and 34.8% women. The toxicological laboratories determine most substances and markers of exposition to chemical compounds important for diagnosis and treatment of acute poisonings (i.e. ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol, acetaminophen, salicylates, anticonvulsants, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin). There is not possible to determine heavy metals, all medicines and "designed" drugs of abuse in all laboratories. Limited access to reference methods, that enable to confirm results obtained by screening methods (immunological cassette and strip tests) is also a problem.

  13. Statistical analysis of NWP rainfall data from Poland..

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna

    2010-05-01

    A goal of this work is to summarize the latest results of precipitation verification in Poland. In IMGW, COSMO_PL version 4.0 has been running. The model configuration is: 14 km horizontal grid spacing, initial time at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, the forecast range 72 h. The fields from the model had been verified with Polish SYNOP stations. The verification was performed using a new verification tool. For the accumulated precipitation indices FBI, POD, FAR, ETS from contingency table are calculated. In this paper the comparison of monthly and seasonal verification of 6h, 12h, 24h accumulated precipitation in 2009 is presented. Since February 2010 the model with 7 km grid spacing will be running in IMGW. The results of precipitation verification for two different models' resolution will be shown.

  14. Progress towards implementing the e-Bug Project in Poland.

    PubMed

    Olczak-Pienkowska, Anna; Grzesiowski, Pawel

    2011-06-01

    The e-Bug Project provides useful educational tools that can be implemented in primary and secondary schools, and plays important role in reducing the burden of community-acquired infections. Consideration of the Polish education system and educational programmes in schools facilitated the selection of the best age groups for the implementation of e-Bug materials in Poland. The Polish version of the resources has been reviewed by a special group of experts and teachers from pilot schools. The pilot implementation is currently provided by demonstration lessons for educators and recorded as a demonstration material. The e-Bug teaching pack is a valuable resource that is useful for improving knowledge about microorganisms, hygiene and antimicrobial agents, and is aimed at pupils, teachers and parents.

  15. Matters of "conscience": the politics of reproductive healthcare in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mishtal, Joanna Z

    2009-06-01

    The fall of state socialism in Poland in 1989 constituted a critical moment that redefined policies regulating reproductive health and access to care. As the Polish state adopted the discourse and agenda of the Catholic Church in its health policies, reproduction and sexuality became sites of moral governance through the implementation of the Conscience Clause law, which permits healthcare providers to deny medical services citing conscience-based objections. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this article explores the effects of the implementation of the conscience clause and argues that the adoption of this law for individual use paved the way for restrictions on reproductive healthcare on a systemic scale. The special status afforded to the church is highly significant for access to health services deemed by the church to be matters of morality. The Polish case raises concerns about the place of women's rights in postsocialism and the nature of Polish democratization.

  16. [Phosphorus intake in Poland in 1994-2000].

    PubMed

    Gronowska-Senger, Anna; Kotańska, Patrycja

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of the phosphorus intake in 8 types of households with different family number of persons in Poland during 1994-2000. The research was conducted on the basis on households budget food consumption data and tables of food composition and nutritional value. Phosphorus intake per capita per day was compared to RDA at the safe level. The intake of phosphorus was high in all investigated households and ranged between 65-144% above lower RDA limit and 34-96% for upper one. When the family number of persons increased, the intake decreased. The main food sources of phosphorus were: bread, meat and meat products, milk and milk drinks and vegetables and mushrooms. The bread has a highest share in phosphorus supply in households maintained from non-earned sources and the lowest for the non-manual labour position one.

  17. Molecular characterization of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus from Poland.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Agata; van Oers, Monique M; Ziemnicka, Jadwiga; Lipa, Jerzy J; Vlak, Just M

    2005-09-01

    The turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is an important pest insect in Europe, Asia, and Africa. We have genetically characterized and classified a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from A. segetum larvae in Poland (AgseNPV-P). The restriction pattern of AgseNPV-P was distinct from an isolate from England/France (AgseNPV-UK and AgseNPV-F). Sequence analysis of three conserved baculovirus genes, polyhedrin, lef-8 and pif-2, revealed that AgseNPV-P differs substantially from the already described NPVs isolated from A. segetum and possibly represents a new NPV species. Phylogenetic analysis placed AgseNPV-P among group II NPVs and showed the closest relationship to Agrotis ipsilon (Agip) NPV and Spodoptera exigua (Se) MNPV.

  18. [Mites (Acarida) of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Poland].

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, W

    1991-01-01

    400 samples of natural winter debris collected from bee hives, 150 samples of stored honey and 100 samples of pollen collected by bees were examined; full of food and empty honey combs, brood and adult bees were also observed. 100% of samples of debris, 90% of pollen and almost 24% of honey samples contained mites; they were found also on honey combs and on died and living bees (brood, imagines). 33 mite species were found. Besides of parasite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. numerous mites belonging to Acaridae, Ameroseiidae, Tarsonemidae and Tydeidae were frequent. They are often accompanied by predatory mites from families Cheyletidae, Aceosejidae, Laelapidae, Bdellidae and Cunaxidae. 3 stated species--Acotyledon paradoxa Oud., Lasioacarus nidicolus Kadz. et Sev. and Thyreophagus odyneri Fain are new for Poland.

  19. Inbreeding rate and genetic structure of cat populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mucha, S; Wolc, A; Gradowska, A; Szwaczkowski, T

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze effective population size and inbreeding level in populations of cat breeds registered in the Polish Studbook. The Association of Purebred Cat Breeders in Poland provided access to pedigrees of 26725 cats from seven breeds. The most frequent breed was Persian, however increasing tendency in numbers of registered animals from other breeds was recorded in later years. Although the percentage of inbred individuals was increasing over time, mating of close relatives was avoided by most of the breeders, and the average inbreeding coefficient exceeded 5% only for Siberian and Russian breeds. Current analysis suggests that the Polish pedigree cat populations are not threatened by negative effects of inbreeding.

  20. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cat - first detection in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Jędryczko, Roman; Cencek, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite of cattle reproductive system, has been recently discovered as a cause of disease in cats in many countries. T. foetus infects and colonizes cat's ileum, caecum, colon and can lead to enteritis. This paper presents the first clinical case of cat intestinal trichomonosis caused by T. foetus in Poland. The material for this study was a smear collected from a 6-month-old male British Shorthair cat. The presence of parasitic protozoan was determined via microscopic examination and confirmed by amplification of T. foetus rDNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In the first PCR reaction, a DNA of Trichomonadidae was identified and in the second PCR, T. foetus was detected. The T. foetus positive products from the second PCR reaction were sequenced. Interpretation of the sequencing results of obtained amplicons by comparing them with the GenBank database proved that the causative agent, in this case, was T. foetus.

  3. Barriers and Factors Affecting the Scientific Careers of Women Physicists in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwosz, Elzbieta; Leliwa-Kopystynska, Aleksandra; Suchanska, Malgorzata

    2009-04-01

    We present the results of a 2007 study comparing the status of 25 male and 23 female physicists in Poland's largest universities. We offer ideas to help equalize the career paths of male and female scientists.

  4. History of the development of rocket technology and astronautics in Poland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisler, W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of rocket technology in Poland is outlined. The history cites 13th century use of war rockets in combating Tartars as well as 20th century studies of the future and reality of space flights.

  5. Hospital use by the elderly in Poland and the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, W E; Wotjyniak, B; Krzyzanowski, M

    1984-01-01

    Hospital use by elderly patients in Poland and the United States was compared using data from the 1980 General Hospital Morbidity Study (Poland) and the National Hospital Discharge Survey (US). Discharge and days-of-care rates were higher in the US but average lengths of stay were longer in Poland. All three measures increased with advancing age in the US but remained relatively constant or decreased with age in Poland. Although the most frequent causes of hospitalization were similar in the two countries, the characteristic use patterns across age were evident for most frequently occurring disease conditions. The greater use of hospitals in the US is not associated with marked differences between the two countries in health status of the elderly. PMID:6388364

  6. A New Moldavite Sub-Strewn Field in Lower Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skála, R.; Jonášová, Š.; Žák, K.; Ďurišová, J.; Brachaniec, T.; Magna, T.

    2016-08-01

    The moldavites found close to Strzegom (Poland) represent the Central European tektites most distant (~475 km) from the source crater, the Ries impact structure. They were redeposited from yet unknown sub-strewn field north of the Sudetic Mountains.

  7. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  8. Spatial Interpolation of Ewert's Index of Continentality in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanowski, Mariusz; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Kryza, Maciej; Nowosad, Marek

    2017-02-01

    The article presents methodological considerations on the spatial interpolation of Ewert's index of continentality for Poland. The primary objective was to perform spatial interpolation and generate maps of the index combined with selection of an optimal interpolation method and validation of the use of the decision tree proposed by Szymanowski et al. (Meteorol Z 22:577-585, 2013). The analysis involved four selected years and a multi-year average of the period 1981-2010 and was based on data from 111 meteorological stations. Three regression models: multiple linear regression (MLR), geographically weighted regression (GWR), and mixed geographically weighted regression were used in the analysis as well as extensions of two of them to the residual kriging form. The regression models were compared demonstrating a better fit of the local model and, hence, the non-stationarity of the spatial process. However, the decisive role in the selection of the interpolator was assigned to the possibility of extension of the regression model to residual kriging. A key element here is the autocorrelation of the regression residuals, which proved to be significant for MLR and irrelevant for GWR. This resulted in exclusion of geographically weighted regression kriging from further analysis. The multiple linear regression kriging was found as the optimal interpolator. This was confirmed by cross validation combined with an analysis of improvement of the model in accordance with the criterion of the mean absolute error (MAE). The results obtained facilitate modification of the scheme of selection of an optimal interpolator and development of guidelines for automation of interpolation of Ewert's index of continentality for Poland.

  9. Phthalate release in leachate from municipal landfills of central Poland

    PubMed Central

    Wowkonowicz, Paweł; Kijeńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more flexible and malleable. PAEs are bonded physically, not chemically, to the polymeric matrix and can migrate to and leach from the product surface, posing a serious danger to the environment and human health. There have been a number of studies on PAE concentrations in landfill leachate conducted in the EU and around the world, though few in Poland. In the present study, the leachate of five municipal landfills was analyzed for the presence of PAEs. Raw leachate was sampled four times over the period of one year in 2015/16. It was the first large study on this subject in Poland. PAEs were detected in the leachate samples on all of the landfills, thereby indicating that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The following PAEs were detected in at least one sample: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Di-isobutylphthalate (DIBP). Out of all ten PAEs, DEHP was the most predominant, with concentrations up to 73.9 μg/L. DEHP was present in 65% of analyzed samples (in 100% of samples in spring, 80% in winter, and 40% in summer and autumn). In only 25% of all samples DEHP was below the acceptable UE limit for surface water (1.3 μg/L), while 75% was from 1.7 to 56 times higher than that value. On the two largest landfills DEHP concentrations were observed during samples from all four seasons, including on a landfill which has been remediated and closed for the last 5 years. PMID:28358912

  10. Geo-products of urban areas: Silesian Metropolis, Southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chybiorz, Ryszard; Abramowicz, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Silesian Metropolis is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, in the most important industrial region in Poland. It consist of 14 cities with powiat rights, which create the largest urban center in Poland and one of the largest in Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 2 million people live in its territory. A large concentration of the population is associated with industrialization and especially with the development of the mining industry (Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and the processing industry (steelworks, textile industry) at the end of 19th century. One hundred years later, during the creation of the modern sectors of the economy, processes of metallurgy and mining restructuring have been started. Created mechanisms and conditions for development of post-industrial areas were consistent with the principles of sustainable development and had many new features, including cultural and touristic features. The Industrial Monuments Route was opened for the inhabitants and visitors in October 2006. The route joined the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) in 2010. Its most interesting mining attractions are located in Silesian Metropolis, and the most frequently visited object on the route is the Guido Historical Coal Mine in Zabrze and the Historical Silver Mine in Tarnowskie Góry. The project, which is realized in Zabrze, will provide for tourists a system of underground corridors, which were used for coal transportation in the 19th century. Visitors will be able to actively explore the work of miners, moving by underground boats, railway and suspension railway. Surface mines are also available for geotourists. The Ecological and Geological Education Center GEOsfera was created in a former Triassic quarry in Jaworzno. Although the area of the Silesian Metropolis is characterized by a very large devastation of the environment, the following objects were created (and are still created) on the basis of inanimate nature and they have a touristic value for the region

  11. The politics of health technology assessment in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ozieranski, Piotr; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2012-12-01

    First, to identify risks associated with the scientific evaluation of drugs considered for state reimbursement in Poland through exploring strategies of influence employed by multinational drug companies in relation to the Agency for Health Technology Assessment (AHTAPol). Second, to ascertain whether the outcomes of drug evaluation meet the interests of the public payer in reimbursing cost-effective drugs supported by robust pharmacoeconomic evidence. We conducted 109 in-depth semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of stakeholders involved in the reimbursement process in Poland. We analysed four available documentary sources, including recommendations issued by the AHTAPol. AHTAPol recommendations were an instrumental part of the blame avoidance strategy by political elites. Drug producers utilised direct and indirect strategies of influence. The direct strategies involved building relationships with a circle of health technology assessment analysts and medical experts working for the Agency. The indirect strategies employed leaders of opinion in the medical milieu, patient organisations, and political elites to endorse policy positions favourable to drug companies. The AHTAPol positively recommended an increasing proportion of the drugs it assessed, many of them reported as not cost-effective or supported by dubious pharmacoeconomic evidence. The strategies of influence entail a number of risks that may undermine the scientific evaluation of drugs. Some outcomes of drug evaluation may favour the interests of multinational drug companies over those of the public payer. We suggest that the risks involved in drug evaluation might be mitigated through (1) professionalization of health technology assessment; (2) restriction of job seeking and post public-payer employment; (3) disclosure and management of experts' conflicts of interest; (4) institutionalisation of patient and public involvement; and (5) increased institutional separation of the AHTAPol from

  12. Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Polański, Piotr; Ostrek, Joanna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of food poisonings and infections in Poland in 2013. The evaluation was based on the analysis of information from reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of food poisonings and infections, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2006-2013. Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and GIS). In 2013 a further decrease in the number of infections and intoxications with bacterial etiology and an increase in the infections of viral etiology was observed. Furthermore 2013 is another year with low number of cases of trichinellosis (9 cases in total). In 2013 a total number of 491 foodborne infections and intoxications outbreaks were reported in which there were 29,179 persons exposed and 5,664 (including 2 193 children up to 14 years of age) persons ill. Hospitalization was required for 1,445 persons. The most frequent etiological agent in those outbreaks was Salmonella spp.--which was responsible for 36,3% of outbreaks and 21,5% of cases. Viruses were responsible for 29,7 of outbreaks and 45,7 cases, in 19,3% of outbreaks no etiological agent was established. Like in 2012 the most frequent vehicle were dishes made from eggs and milk combined with eggs (9,4% of outbreaks). In 65% of outbreaks reported no vehicle could be found. Moreover in 2013 a total number of 3 outbreaks in which more than 100 cases were reported. The increase in the number of foodborne outbreaks of viral etiology shows the need of adjustment some aspects of epidemiological investigations especially such features as: laboratory conformation of etiological agent of ill persons as well as persons involved in the food processing and meals preparing and the aspect of food samples testing.

  13. A Decade of Invasive Meningococcal Disease Surveillance in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Waśko, Izabela; Kuch, Alicja; Kadłubowski, Marcin; Gołębiewska, Agnieszka; Foryś, Małgorzata; Markowska, Marlena; Ronkiewicz, Patrycja; Wasiak, Katarzyna; Kozińska, Aleksandra; Matynia, Bożena; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2013-01-01

    Background Neisseria meningitidis is a leading etiologic agent of severe invasive disease. The objective of the study was to characterise invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) epidemiology in Poland during the last decade, based on laboratory confirmed cases. Methods The study encompassed all invasive meningococci collected between 2002 and 2011 in the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The isolates were re-identified and characterised by susceptibility testing, MLST analysis, porA and fetA sequencing. A PCR technique was used for meningococcal identification directly from clinical materials. Results In the period studied, 1936 cases of IMD were confirmed, including 75.6% identified by culture. Seven IMD outbreaks, affecting mostly adolescents, were reported; all were caused by serogroup C meningococci of ST-11. The highest incidence was observed among children under one year of age (15.71/100,000 in 2011). The general case fatality rate in the years 2010–2011 was 10.0%. Meningococci of serogroup B, C, Y and W-135 were responsible for 48.8%, 36.6%, 1.2% and 1.2% of cases, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and 84.2% were susceptible to penicillin. MLST analysis (2009–2011) revealed that among serogroup B isolates the most represented were clonal complexes (CC) ST-32CC, ST-18CC, ST-41/44CC, ST-213CC and ST-269CC, and among serogroup C: ST-103CC, ST-41/44CC and ST-11CC. Conclusions The detection of IMD in Poland has changed over time, but observed increase in the incidence of the disease was mostly attributed to changes in the surveillance system including an expanded case definition and inclusion of data from non-culture diagnostics. PMID:23977184

  14. Production lost due to cervical cancer in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Kocot, Ewa; Seweryn, Michał; Koperny, Magdalena

    Poland has one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in Europe. It is related to the problem of late diagnosis and low attendance rate in screening programs. The objective of the study has been to assess the annual production loss due to the cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Poland in 2012. The outcomes have been to provide comprehensive information on cervical cancer's influence on population's ability to work and its overall economic burden for the society. The study has also provided the methodological framework for disease-related production losses in Polish settings. The human capital method was used. The production losses were calculated in both monetary and quantitative terms (working days lost) due to 4 following reasons: 1) temporary disability to work, 2) permanent disability, 3) informal care, and 4) mortality. Cervical cancer resulted in approx. 702 964 working days lost in 2012 due to absence at work for both patients and care givers and a total number of 957 678 working days lost due to patients' mortality. The total value of production lost was assessed at 111.4 million euros. More than 66% of this value was attributed to women's mortality. The calculation of production lost due to cervical cancer burden provides strong evidence to support adequate health promotion and disease prevention actions. Actions promoting cervical cancer screening should be intensified including workplace health promotion activities. Med Pr 2016;67(3):289-299. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Content and bioconcentration of mercury in mushrooms from northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Gucia, M; Brzostowski, A; Kawano, M; Bielawski, L; Frankowska, A; Wyrzykowska, B

    2003-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) was quantified using cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) in the fruiting bodies of nine edible and five inedible mushrooms and in underlying soil substrate samples. In total, 404 samples comprising caps and stalks and 202 samples of soil substrate (0-10 cm layer) were collected in 1996 from Trójmiejski Landscape Park, northern Poland. Mean Hg concentrations in the soil substrate for different species varied between 10 +/- 3 and 780 +/- 500 ng x g(-1) dry wt (range 2.3-1700). Among edible mushroom species, Horse Mushroom (Agaricus arvensis), Brown Birch Scaber Stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), King Bolete (Boletus edulis) and Yellow-cracking Bolete (Xerocomus subtomentosus) contained elevated concentrations of Hg ranging from 1600 +/- 930 to 6800 +/- 4000 ng x g(-1) dry wt in the caps. Concentrations of Hg in the stalks were 2.6 +/- 1.1 to 1.7 +/- 1.0 times lower than those in the caps. Some mushroom species investigated had high Hg levels when compared with specimens collected from the background reference sites elsewhere (located far away from the big cities) in northern Poland. Bioconcentration factors of Hg in the caps of Horse Mushroom, Parasol Mushroom and Brown Birch Scaber Stalk were between 150 +/- 58 and 230 +/- 150 ng x g(-1) dry wt, respectively, and for inedible Pestle-shaged Puffball (Claviata excipulformis) was 960 +/- 300 ng x g(-1) dry wt. Linear regression coefficients between Hg in caps and in stalks and Hg soil concentrations showed a positive relationship for A. arvensis and Horse mushroom (p < 0.05) and a negative correlation for the caps of Death Caps (Amanita phalloides) and Woolly Milk Cap (Lactarius torminosus) (p < 0.05), while for other species no clear trend was found.

  16. How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why

  17. Spatial Interpolation of Ewert's Index of Continentality in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanowski, Mariusz; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Kryza, Maciej; Nowosad, Marek

    2016-10-01

    The article presents methodological considerations on the spatial interpolation of Ewert's index of continentality for Poland. The primary objective was to perform spatial interpolation and generate maps of the index combined with selection of an optimal interpolation method and validation of the use of the decision tree proposed by Szymanowski et al. (Meteorol Z 22:577-585, 2013). The analysis involved four selected years and a multi-year average of the period 1981-2010 and was based on data from 111 meteorological stations. Three regression models: multiple linear regression (MLR), geographically weighted regression (GWR), and mixed geographically weighted regression were used in the analysis as well as extensions of two of them to the residual kriging form. The regression models were compared demonstrating a better fit of the local model and, hence, the non-stationarity of the spatial process. However, the decisive role in the selection of the interpolator was assigned to the possibility of extension of the regression model to residual kriging. A key element here is the autocorrelation of the regression residuals, which proved to be significant for MLR and irrelevant for GWR. This resulted in exclusion of geographically weighted regression kriging from further analysis. The multiple linear regression kriging was found as the optimal interpolator. This was confirmed by cross validation combined with an analysis of improvement of the model in accordance with the criterion of the mean absolute error (MAE). The results obtained facilitate modification of the scheme of selection of an optimal interpolator and development of guidelines for automation of interpolation of Ewert's index of continentality for Poland.

  18. Does an expert-based evaluation allow us to go beyond the Impact Factor? Experiences from building a ranking of national journals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, Emanuel; Rozkosz, Ewa A

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the Polish Journal Ranking, which is used in the research evaluation system in Poland. In 2015, the ranking, which represents all disciplines, allocated 17,437 journals into three lists: A, B, and C. The B list constitutes a ranking of Polish journals that are indexed neither in the Web of Science nor the European Reference Index for the Humanities. This ranking was built by evaluating journals in three dimensions: formal, bibliometric, and expert-based. We have analysed data on 2035 Polish journals from the B list. Our study aims to determine how an expert-based evaluation influenced the results of final evaluation. In our study, we used structural equation modelling, which is regression based, and we designed three pairs of theoretical models for three fields of science: (1) humanities, (2) social sciences, and (3) engineering, natural sciences, and medical sciences. Each pair consisted of the full model and the reduced model (i.e., the model without the expert-based evaluation). Our analysis revealed that the multidimensional evaluation of local journals should not rely only on the bibliometric indicators, which are based on the Web of Science or Scopus. Moreover, we have shown that the expert-based evaluation plays a major role in all fields of science. We conclude with recommendations that the formal evaluation should be reduced to verifiable parameters and that the expert-based evaluation should be based on common guidelines for the experts.

  19. Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Bajpai, Minu; Singh, Amit; Jana, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    Poland syndrome is characterised by unilateral absence of the large pectoral muscle, ipsilateral symbrachydactyly and occasionally other malformations of the anterior chest wall and breast. The condition is more frequent among men and usually occurs on the right hemithorax in the unilateral form. This case is unique because we believe it is a rare case of Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax along with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen from the left subcostal region. PMID:24567179

  20. Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Bajpai, Minu; Singh, Amit; Jana, Manisha

    2014-02-23

    Poland syndrome is characterised by unilateral absence of the large pectoral muscle, ipsilateral symbrachydactyly and occasionally other malformations of the anterior chest wall and breast. The condition is more frequent among men and usually occurs on the right hemithorax in the unilateral form. This case is unique because we believe it is a rare case of Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax along with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen from the left subcostal region.

  1. Dextrocardia in patients with Poland syndrome: phenotypic characterization provides insight into the pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Torre, Michele; Baban, Anwar; Buluggiu, Anna; Costanzo, Sara; Bricco, Lara; Lerone, Margherita; Bianca, Sebastiano; Gatti, Gian Luca; Sénès, Filippo Maria; Valle, Maura; Calevo, Maria Grazia

    2010-05-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by complete or partial agenesis of the pectoralis major muscle variably associated with other thoracic malformations, upper limb malformations, or both. More than 20 patients with dextrocardia and left-sided Poland syndrome have been previously described. The association between these 2 rare anomalies suggests a causal relationship, but the etiopathogenetic mechanism has not been clarified yet. We studied the clinical correlation between these 2 anomalies, and we tried to elucidate whether dextrocardia or Poland syndrome comes first. This is a multicentric multidisciplinary study conducted over the last 5 years. We identified 122 patients with Poland syndrome, and we investigated heart position through different imaging techniques. Logistic regression statistical analyses were carried out. We observed dextrocardia in 14 (11.5%) patients, which was never associated with situs inversus. All of them presented with left-sided Poland syndrome and partial agenesis of 2 or more ribs. Conversely, all patients with Poland syndrome with partial agenesis of 2 or more ribs presented with dextrocardia, whereas dextrocardia was never associated with partial agenesis of a single rib. Three patients with dextrocardia presented with simple congenital heart defects. These findings suggest that mechanical factors during embryonic life could explain the strong association between left-sided Poland syndrome and dextrocardia. According to this hypothesis, partial agenesis of 2 or more ribs is needed to displace the heart toward the right side. The peculiar features of dextrocardia when associated with Poland syndrome (neither associated with situs inversus nor complex intracardiac anomalies) support our hypothesis. 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A rare association of pulmonary hypertension and dextrocardia with Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raval, Jwalant; Nagaraja, Vinayak; Burgess, David; Eshoo, Suzanne; Sadick, Norman; Denniss, A Robert

    2013-09-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality with an estimated incidence of 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 30,000 live births. We report and discuss this rare combination of pulmonary hypertension and dextrocardia with Poland syndrome. This case report also highlights the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms during foetal development and the potential to misdiagnose cardiac ischaemia in a patient with an anatomic anomaly. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Poland’s Role in European and World System of States 1979-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    with a “plastic ballpoint pen , decorated with a photograph of the Pope.” 5 It was an unprecedented situation, because for the first time in the history...pressing national interest in the specific campaign in Iraq.”21 The third set of rationales regarded moral issues such as the humanitarian promotion of...resulting from it. 111 The United States of America should specifically promise Poland to respond militarily, if Poland were to become the target of

  4. Demographic trends and the pension system in Poland--a model approach.

    PubMed

    Fratczak, E; Jozwiak, J

    1991-01-01

    This "article presents the results of projections of the population of Poland by age, sex and marital status till 2050 under different scenarios of fertility, mortality and nuptiality. These results are used for the analysis of future pension expenditures, the number of retirees, the labour force, and the relation between contributions and benefits. Past demographic trends and the development of social security in the post-war period in Poland are discussed as well." excerpt

  5. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  6. Evaluation of the clinical indications, adverse drug reactions, and finasteride use in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2014-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) is one of the most common urinary disorders in elderly men. The symptoms of the disease include prostate gland enlargement, bladder outlet obstruction, and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs). BPH predisposes patients to bladder infections and bladder stone formation and increases their risk of urinary retention, which in turn causes renal failure. Hence, the disease requires surgical treatment. However, over the recent years, the number of surgical interventions performed in pharmacotherapy has significantly reduced because of the increased efficacy of conservative therapy, including combination treatment mostly with 2 groups of drugs, namely, alpha-1-adrenolitics and other 5-alpha-reductase blockers, with a different pharmacological activity [5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical indications, adverse drug reactions, and finasteride use in patients with diagnosed BPH in Poland. We conducted a clinical trial from November 2009 to November 2010 that included 5751 patients who were enrolled in 46 urological centres in Poland. The researchers who conducted the clinical trial were urologists from different regions of Poland. The clinical trial involved 6 follow-up visits. The mean age of the patients was 67 years (range, 45-93 years; median, 67.00; SD, 8.507). The inclusion criteria were as follows: LUTSs, finasteride therapy for at least 2 weeks, age>40 years, and BPH. Patients self-reported data on LUTSs, the symptom frequency, concurrent diseases, and intensification of urinary system symptoms. In addition, additional examinations were performed, including prostate-specific antigen test, urinary tract ultrasonography with evaluation of residual urine and prostate, and uroflowmetry. The study did not exclude data on the combined treatment with finasteride and alpha-1-adrenolitics. Finasteride was demonstrated to be effective, as evidenced by the significant decrease in TPV by 40% even after 12 months. It was

  7. Contemporary changes in precipitation extremes in Poland in comparison to changes in other parts of Baltic Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, Joanna; Jędruszkiewicz, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the paper is detection and attribution of changes in precipitation extremes in Poland on the ground of similar changes in the rest of Baltic Sea Basin. The indices defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) are computed for a number of stations from Poland and surrounding countries. Among them are: Monthly maximum 1-day precipitation (Rx1day), monthly maximum consecutive 5-day precipitation (Rx5day), pricipitation intensity index(RRw,) annual number of days with daily precipitation ≥ 10mm and ≥ 20mm (R10mm and R20mm), maximum length of dry spell (CDD), maximum length of wet spell (CWD), annual total from days when daily total is equal at least 95 percentile and 99 percentile calculated in reference period 1961-1990 from daily totals equal at leat 1 mm (R95pTOT and R99pTOT). The daily precipitation records from more than hundred stations from the period 1951-2012 were used. The changes in annual values and their variability are analysed. The regions of similar changes are distinguished both for Poland and for the whole Baltic Sea Region. In the second part of the paper the attribution of large scale mechanisms causing detected changes is planned. The set of possible large scale predictors is prepared. Among them are indices of atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the European-North Atlantic Region: the North Atlantic Oscillation index, The Scandinavian index, the East Atlantic index, and the Atlantic Multiannual Oscillation. Additionally the large scale fields of sea level pressure and humidity and temperature from low troposphere are used. The records of indices were taken from NCDC (http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/teledoc). The large scale fields data were taken from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis. Among the methodologies used to detect the mechanisms of precipitation extreme changes are: correlation analysis, composites and Canonical Correlation Analysis. The work is supported by grant 2012/05/B/ST10/00945 founded by

  8. Multiple cavernous malformations presenting in a patient with Poland syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; De Salles, Antonio Af

    2011-09-20

    Poland syndrome is a congenital disorder related to chest and hand anomalies on one side of the body. Its etiology remains unclear, with an ipsilateral vascular alteration (of unknown origin) to the subclavian artery in early embryogenesis being the currently accepted theory. Cavernous malformations are vascular hamartomas, which have been linked to a genetic etiology, particularly in familial cases, which commonly present with multiple lesions. Our case report is the first to describe multiple cavernous malformations associated with Poland syndrome, further supporting the vascular etiology theory, but pointing to a genetic rather than a mechanistic factor disrupting blood flow in the corresponding vessels. A 41-year-old Caucasian man with Poland syndrome on the right side of his body presented to our hospital with a secondary generalized seizure and was found to have multiple cavernous malformations distributed in his brain, cerebellum, and brain stem, with a predominance of lesions in the left hemisphere. The distribution of cavernous malformations in the left hemisphere and the right-sided Poland syndrome in our patient could not be explained by a mechanistic disruption of one of the subclavian arteries. A genetic alteration, as in familial cavernous malformations, would be a more appropriate etiologic diagnosis of Poland syndrome in our patient. Further genetic and pathological studies of the involved blood vessels in patients with Poland syndrome could lead to a better understanding of the disease.

  9. [Epidemiological situation of the selected infectious diseases in Poland in 1918-1939].

    PubMed

    Sztuka-Polińska, Urszula

    2002-01-01

    In Poland, during twenty years between the first and the second world war modern methods and remedies were created and applied to save the society from biological extermination caused by the epidemics of acute infectious diseases that existed in the larger areas of the country and other diseases that could threaten the society when brought from abroad. Poland regained its independence in 1918 as a country completely destroyed by war and encompassed three partitioned sectors that differed in wealth, class consciousness, various infrastructure, legislation, epidemiological situation of infectious diseases and threats spreading from abroad. Infectious diseases such as typhus fever, typhoid fever, cholera, smallpox, dysentery and other diseases spreading by alimentary tracts caused the greatest epidemiological problem. The considerable number of smallpox cases was noted in 1920-1922. In the thirties only individual cases occurred. Since 1934 no fatal cases of smallpox were registered. In 1919, in Poland 219,688 cases and 18,641 typhus fever deaths were registered. Between 1930 and 1939 the annual number of cases ranged from 2000 to 4000. In Poland each year between the first and the second world war typhoid fever was a serious sanitary problem. The largest outbreak of dysentery occurred in Poland in 1920-1921 and comprised 64,000 cases, among them 10,000 deaths. Acute childhood diseases such as scarlet fever and diphtheria were in Poland endemic. Number of registered cases was variable.

  10. KAMEDO Report No. 76: Floods in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000.

    PubMed

    Wahren, Håkans; Ridez, Louis; Riddez, Louis; Dellgar, Uno

    2005-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000. These events and their management are reviewed in this Report. The floods in Poland were more extensive than in Sweden as they covered some 10% of Poland's landmass. An estimated 55 persons died as a direct result of the floods in Poland and none were reported due to the flood in Sweden. No epidemics were encountered in either country, presumably related to the extensive use of bottled water and radio instructions to boil all water before its use. The water supply was interrupted and untreated water was taken into the water distribution systems. Chlorination of the water supplies was added in Sweden. Sewage and refuse management was problematic. The heathcare system was impacted profoundly in Poland both by direct damage to hospitals and/or loss of essential services such as electricity and water supplies. Government responses are described with the needs in Poland being extensive including the need for outside assistance. Some pathways used for obtaining aid were outside of government coordination. Comprehensive conclusions and recommendations derived from the observations are provided.

  11. The prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in Poland--current results (2009-2013).

    PubMed

    Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Sroka, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Różycki, Mirosław; Chmurzyńska, Ewa; Bilska-Zając, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Poland. Overall, 1,546 intestinal samples from 15 of the 16 provinces in Poland were examined by the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). The mean prevalence of E. multilocularis in Poland was 16.5% and was found in 14 of the 15 examined provinces. The mean intensity of infection was 2,807 tapeworms per intestine. Distinct differences in prevalence were observed between regions. In some provinces of eastern and southern Poland, the level of prevalence was 50.0% (Warmińsko-Mazurskie), 47.2% (Podkarpackie), 30.4% (Podlaskie) and 28.6% (Małopolskie), while in other provinces (west and south-west), only a few percent was found: 2.0% (Dolnośląskie), 2.5% (Wielkopolskie) and 0.0% (in Opolskie). The border between areas with higher and lower prevalence seems to coincide with a north-south line running through the middle of Poland, with prevalence from 17.5 to 50.0% in the eastern half and from 0.0 to 11.8% in the western half. The dynamic situation observed in the prevalence of this tapeworm indicated the necessity of continuing to monitor the situation concerning E. multilocularis in red foxes in Poland.

  12. Deep reflection seismic imaging in SE Poland using extended correlation method applied to PolandSPAN™ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, M.

    2016-10-01

    Here I apply the extended correlation technique to a 156-km long regional seismic profile, PL1-5100, from the PolandSPAN™ survey located in SE Poland. This method allows the extension of the nominal record length of the survey (12 s in this case) to much longer times (22 s tested here), given that in the field the raw uncorrelated data were stored and a broadband sweep was used. Processing of the ground force correlated data compared to pilot sweep correlated one produced qualitatively similar results. Based on the consistency of the ground force measured along the profile, data were correlated with the mean of the ground force estimates. Results of the processing were validated against the coincident wide-angle reflection/refraction (WARR) profile (CELEBRATION 2000 CEL05 profile) and a deep reflection profile located further to the SE (POLCRUST-01 profile). I found a good correspondence between the wide-angle Moho signature and the near-vertical incidence (NVI) Moho reflectivity, both in terms of the depth and the reflection strength, with the exception of the area of the crustal keel (Moho > 50 km) interpreted from the WARR data, where the NVI reflectivity is observed at depth ca. 47 km. Similarly to POLCRUST-01, line PL1-5100 is portraying the attenuated crust of the East European Platform margin with the dipping crystalline basement down to ca. 20 km depth and the reflective lower crust. Two important fault zones: Izbica-Zamość Fault and Wilczopole Fault Zone are interpreted as the deeply-rooted crustal features, but there is no evidence for the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone itself.

  13. Science in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  14. A new high-resolution sediment record from Lake Gościąż (central Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonk, Alicja; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim; Brykała, Dariusz; Gierszewski, Piotr; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Plessen, Brigit; Schwab, Markus; Słowiński, Michał; Tjallingii, Rik

    2017-04-01

    The varved sediments from Lake Gościąż, located in the Vistula Valley in Central Poland, are an iconic record for palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction (Goslar et al. 2000, Hajdas et al. 1995, Ralska-Jasiewiczowa et al. 1998). Recently, we obtained a set of new sediment cores from Lake Gościąż and established a 21 m long sediment profile. Except of the topmost part of the core, it is continuously laminated down to glacial sands. We aim at applying a comprehensive multi-proxy core analyses combined with monitoring of present-day sedimentation processes. Sediment investigations will include new methods that have been developed or advanced since the previous studies on the Lake Gościąż sediments including continuous micro-facies analyses, μXRF core scanning and tephrochronology. The main aims of our new project are a revision of the existing floating chronology and to synchronise the Lake Gościąż sediment record based on independent isochrones with other European varved lake records like, e.g. Lake Meerfelder Maar, in order to investigate in detail proxy responses to climate change and to decipher regional leads and lags in climate change. Here, we will present (1) the objectives of our new project on this key record of past climate and environmental change and, (2) preliminary results including magnetic susceptibility, μ-XRF core scanning and microfacies images. This study is a contribution to scientific project financed by the National Science Centre, Poland - No DEC-2015/19/B/ST10/03039.

  15. A two-model hydrologic ensemble prediction of hydrograph: case study from the upper Nysa Klodzka river basin (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Mizinski, Bartlomiej

    2016-04-01

    The HydroProg system has been elaborated in frame of the research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 of the National Science Centre of Poland and is steadily producing multimodel ensemble predictions of hydrograph in real time. Although there are six ensemble members available at present, the longest record of predictions and their statistics is available for two data-based models (uni- and multivariate autoregressive models). Thus, we consider 3-hour predictions of water levels, with lead times ranging from 15 to 180 minutes, computed every 15 minutes since August 2013 for the Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland) using the two approaches and their two-model ensemble. Since the launch of the HydroProg system there have been 12 high flow episodes, and the objective of this work is to present the performance of the two-model ensemble in the process of forecasting these events. For a sake of brevity, we limit our investigation to a single gauge located at the Nysa Klodzka river in the town of Klodzko, which is centrally located in the studied basin. We identified certain regular scenarios of how the models perform in predicting the high flows in Klodzko. At the initial phase of the high flow, well before the rising limb of hydrograph, the two-model ensemble is found to provide the most skilful prognoses of water levels. However, while forecasting the rising limb of hydrograph, either the two-model solution or the vector autoregressive model offers the best predictive performance. In addition, it is hypothesized that along with the development of the rising limb phase, the vector autoregression becomes the most skilful approach amongst the scrutinized ones. Our simple two-model exercise confirms that multimodel hydrologic ensemble predictions cannot be treated as universal solutions suitable for forecasting the entire high flow event, but their superior performance may hold only for certain phases of a high flow.

  16. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Goś, Daria; Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9-11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is "healthy as a fish" meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of "healthy fish" results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords-health and fish-which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program.

  17. Diatom-based reconstruction of the Lake Czechowskie trophy status in the last 2000 years (Tuchola Forest, Northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Hübener, Thomas; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grant NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  18. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9–11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is “healthy as a fish” meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of “healthy fish” results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords—health and fish—which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program. PMID:27028803

  19. Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Streptococcus spp. isolated from cases of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kaczorek, E; Małaczewska, J; Wójcik, R; Rękawek, W; Siwicki, A K

    2017-08-01

    Mastitis of dairy cattle is one of the most frequently diagnosed diseases worldwide. The main etiological agents of mastitis are bacteria of the genus Streptococcus spp., in which several antibiotic resistance mechanisms have been identified. However, detailed studies addressing this problem have not been conducted in northeastern Poland. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze, on phenotypic and genotypic levels, the antibiotic resistance pattern of Streptococcus spp. isolated from clinical cases of mastitis from dairy cattle in this region of Poland. The research was conducted using 135 strains of Streptococcus (Streptococcus uberis, n = 53; Streptococcus dysgalactiae, n = 41; Streptococcus agalactiae, n = 27; other streptococci, n = 14). The investigation of the antimicrobial susceptibility to 8 active substances applied in therapy in the analyzed region, as well as a selected bacteriocin (nisin), was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. The presence of selected resistance genes (n = 14) was determined via PCR. We also investigated the correlation between the presence of resistance genes and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the examined strains in vitro. The highest observed resistance of Streptococcus spp. was toward gentamicin, kanamycin, and tetracycline, whereas the highest susceptibility occurred toward penicillin, enrofloxacin, and marbofloxacin. Additionally, the tested bacteriocin showed high efficacy. The presence of 13 analyzed resistance genes was observed in the examined strains [gene mef(A) was not detected]. In most strains, at least one resistance gene, mainly responsible for resistance to tetracyclines [tet(M), tet(K), tet(L)], was observed. However, a relationship between the presence of a given resistance gene and antimicrobial susceptibility on the phenotypic level was not always observed. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hungary and Poland: "Hungary" Stable Partner in Democracy. Building Partnership for Europe: Poland after a Decade System of Transformation. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Steven M.

    This curriculum project provides insight into the transformation processes in which the nations of Hungary and Poland have been participating, from approximately 1979-2002. A major focus of the project is to organize a set of information that teachers and students can analyze and understand the Hungarian and Polish quality of life during the…

  1. [The effect of Lvov medical tradition on development of medical sciences in postwar Wrocław].

    PubMed

    Wojtkiewicz-Rok, Wanda

    2002-01-01

    In 1945 a group of scientists from Jan Kazimierz University of Lvov came to Wroclaw. They undertook a difficult task of rebuilding the local Medical University, which was severely destroyed during the World War II, and organizing medical studies in postwar Wroclaw. 17 of 26 directors of theoretical chairs and clinics which were opened between 1945-50 came from Lvov. In the restored institutions they continued researches which they had begun before the outbreak of the war in 1939.

  2. Test of high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model of Poland by back-azimuthal sections of teleseismic receiver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde-Piorko, Monika; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Geological and seismic structure under area of Poland is well studied by over one hundred thousand boreholes, over thirty deep seismic refraction and wide angle reflection profiles and by vertical seismic profiling, magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric and thermal methods. Compilation of these studies allowed to create a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model down to 60 km depth in the area of Poland (Polkowski et al. 2014). Model also provides details about the geometry of main layers of sediments (Tertiary and Quaternary, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Permian, old Paleozoic), consolidated/crystalline crust (upper, middle and lower) and uppermost mantle. This model gives an unique opportunity for calculation synthetic receiver function and compering it with observed receiver function calculated for permanent and temporary seismic stations. Modified ray-tracing method (Langston, 1977) can be used directly to calculate the response of the structure with dipping interfaces to the incoming plane wave with fixed slowness and back-azimuth. So, 3D P-wave velocity model has been interpolated to 2.5D P-wave velocity model beneath each seismic station and back-azimuthal sections of components of receiver function have been calculated. Vp/Vs ratio is assumed to be 1.8, 1.67, 1.73, 1.77 and 1.8 in the sediments, upper/middle/lower consolidated/crystalline crust and uppermost mantle, respectively. Densities were calculated with combined formulas of Berteussen (1977) and Gardner et al. (1974). Additionally, to test a visibility of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary phases at receiver function sections models have been extended to 250 km depth based on P4-mantle model (Wilde-Piórko et al., 2010). National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284 and by NCN grant UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/06653.

  3. Why on the snow? Winter emergence strategies of snow-active Chironomidae (Diptera) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka; Paasivirta, Lauri; Giłka, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    A long-term study of adult non-biting midges (Chironomidae) active in winter on the snow in mountain areas and lowlands in Poland yielded 35 species. The lowland and mountain communities differed significantly in their specific composition. The mountain assemblage was found to be more diverse and abundant, with a substantial contribution from the subfamily Diamesinae, whereas Orthocladiinae predominated in the lowlands. Orthocladius wetterensis Brundin was the most characteristic and superdominant species in the winter-active chironomid communities in both areas. Only a few specimens and species of snow-active chironomids were recorded in late autumn and early winter. The abundance of chironomids peaked in late February in the mountain and lowland areas with an additional peak in the mountain areas in early April. However, this second peak of activity consisted mainly of Orthocladiinae, as Diamesinae emerged earliest in the season. Most snow-active species emerged in mid- and late winter, but their seasonal patterns differed between the 2 regions as a result of the different species composition and the duration of snow cover in these regions. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests yielded positive results between each season and the number of chironomid individuals recorded in the mountain area. A positive correlation between air temperature, rising to +3.5 °C, and the number of specimens recorded on the snow in the mountain community was statistically significant. The winter emergence and mate-searching strategies of chironomids are discussed in the light of global warming, and a brief compilation of most important published data on the phenomena studied is provided. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. HISTORY OF MEDICINE, SURGERY AND UROLOGY IN BRESLAU/WROCLAW.

    PubMed

    Zajączkowski, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    The development of medicine in Breslau from the 14th century has been described and its famous physicians, above all Silesians, are introduced. The aim of the study is to present the development history of hospital services and the teaching of medicine, and also the development of urology in Breslau. Well known Breslau surgeons who were interested in surgery of the genitourinary system are also presented. The aim of the study is to present a brief history of Breslau medicine and surgery from its beginning to the end of World War II. The development of urology and its separation from surgery after World War II is also briefly described. Professor Florian Nowacki, Breslaus's first urologist, is also introduced. Extensive research was undertaken for the collection of literature and documents in German and Polish archives and libraries to prepare this study.

  5. Dew Formation and Chemistry Near a Motorway in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, Grzegorz; Sobik, Mieczysław; Błaś, Marek; Polkowska, Żaneta; Cichała-Kamrowska, Katarzyna

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the influence of traffic intensity on dew formation efficiency and chemistry is presented. The measurements were conducted near the A4 motorway in SW Poland in almost flat land relief with intense agricultural activity. The dew/hoarfrost was collected by means of insulated plain passive radiative condensers at three sites: AN and AS located in the close vicinity of the motorway (30 m) on the opposite sides of the road, and AR, representing rural background conditions beyond the motorway influence. Measurements were conducted in two short campaigns in April and September 2009 with 9 and 10 collection days respectively. The average daily efficiency of dew formation was 0.179 L/m2. Its value for AN, AS and AR was on average 0.170, 0.199 and 0.173 L/m2, respectively. The efficiency of dew formation at measurement sites located on both sides of the road differed by up to about 200% during an individual dew episode. Maximum daily value reached 0.389 L/m2. The average volume-weighted pH was acidic and ranged from 4.29 (AS) to 4.58 (AR). The electric conductivity (EC) at all measurement sites was relatively low reaching on average 55.9 μS/cm for AN, 62.2 μS/cm for AS and 35.8 μS/cm for AR. The average volume-weighted TIC parameter (total ionic content) reached the value of 0.62 meq/L (AN and AS) and 0.38 meq/L (AR). Both EC and TIC values indicated strong influence of the motorway at sites located in its close vicinity (AN and AS). Depending on airflow direction during individual dew collection events, AN or AS sites were situated alternatively on windward or leeward side of the road, which distinctly influenced dew formation and chemistry: the leeward condenser was characterized by smaller water volume, higher EC and higher TIC when compared both with its windward counterpart and the background site. The ionic structure of the collected samples was similar at all measurement sites. The largest share had NO3 - anion (28-32%) and Ca2+ cation (22-25%). Thus

  6. Legal regulations on occupational health system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dawydzik, L T

    2001-01-01

    Occupational health care has a long tradition in Poland. It has evolved from the industrial health care system established in the post-war period to a modern system defined in the Occupational Health Services Act of 1997. When the process of political and economic transformation began in Poland in 1989, the reforms of the workers' health care became inevitable. The process of introducing and implementing new legal regulations comprised three phases: 1. Introduction of amendments to the Polish Labor Code, according to which employers are now committed to provide their workers with occupational health services (OHS) appropriate to given working conditions. 2. Incorporation into the 1991 Health Care Institutions Act the provisions which allow for the establishment of alternative non-public structures responsible for the health care of the working population. 3. Adoption of the Occupational Health Services Act in 1997, the most important law providing grounds for establishing a most comprehensive system of occupational health services. The Occupational Health Services Act introduces, for the first time, the concept of the OHS system that encompasses the whole working population. The Act outlines a broad range of OHS competences; defines individual tasks; and provides the up-to-date definition of the OHS structure with its two organizational levels, consisting of primary and regional occupational health centers. In addition, the Act specifies the sources of finance for the accomplishment of the defined tasks. Pursuant to the provisions of the Act, OHS units co-operate with employers and employees, bodies supervising working conditions and other organizations involved in occupational health that become their partners in activities aimed at protecting and promoting health of workers. In order to further develop the workers' health care system its constant adaptation to changing conditions is absolutely necessary through: developing modern training for specialists in the

  7. Social attitudes towards floods in Poland - spatial differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacki, W.; Działek, J.; Bokwa, A.

    2012-04-01

    Our paper discusses results of research conducted in Southern Poland focusing on social attitudes towards floods - natural hazards frequently observed in Poland. Lately (e.g. 1997, 2001, 2010) several hundred thousand of people suffered from floods occurring in all examined communities. Presented analyses are based on questionnaire survey in which several criteria were used to select places for studies: objective degree of risk, prior experience of extreme events, size of community, strength of social bonds, social capital and quality of life. Nearly 2000 responses (from 9 communities) were gathered from the survey. Our main research questions were following: - are there differences between attitudes in those communities depending on how frequently they have experienced floods? - does settlement size have an impact on social attitudes towards floods, especially on mitigation behaviour? - are urban inhabitants less adapted to floods be upheld and do rural communities show more activity in the face of natural disasters? - what do information and education policies concerning floods look like? Three dimensions of social attitudes towards natural hazards were analyzed: cognitive (knowledge and awareness of local hazards), emotional (feelings towards hazards, like concern and anxiety); and instrumental (actions taken in response to a potential natural disaster). A combination of these three dimensions produces various types of perception and behaviour towards the perceived hazard (Raaijmakers et al., 2008): ignorance when the local population is unaware of a threat and therefore develops no concern and takes no preventive actions; safety when the local population is aware of a threat, but regards its level as either low or acceptable and is therefore not concerned with the threat and makes no preparations for a disaster; risk reduction when a high level of awareness and concern produces the mechanism of reducing the cognitive dissonance and denial of a disaster threat

  8. Toxic elements and bio-metals in Cantharellus mushrooms from Poland and China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Hanć, Anetta

    2017-04-01

    Data on multi-trace element composition and content relationships have been obtained for Cantharellus cibarius, C. tubaeformis, and C. minor mushrooms from Poland and China by inductive coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectroscopy. There is no previous data published on As, Li, V, Tl, and U in chanterelles from Poland and on Ba, Co, Cr, Ni, Rb, and Sr in chanterelles from China. The results implied a role of the soil background geochemistry at the collection site with the occurrence of Ag, As, Ba, Cr, Cs, Li, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, U, and V in the fruiting bodies. Both geogenic Cd and anthropogenic Cd can contribute in load of this element in chanterelles from the Świetokrzyskie Mts. region in Poland, while geogenic source can be highly dominant in the background areas of Yunnan. An essentiality of Cu and Zn and effort by mushroom to maintain their physiological regulation could be reflected by data for Cantharellus mushrooms from both regions of the world, but its geogenic source (and possibly anthropogenic) can matter also in the region of the Świetokrzyskie Mountains in Poland. The elements Co, Ni, and Tl were at the same order of magnitude in contents in C. cibarius in Poland and Yunnan, China. C. tubaeformis differed from C. cibarius by a lower content of correlated Co, Ni, and Zn. Soil which is polymetallic and highly weathered in Yunnan can be suggested as a natural geogenic source of greater concentrations of As, Ba, Cr, Li, Pb, Sr, U, and V in the chanterelles there while lower of Mn and Rb, when related to chanterelles in Poland. A difference in Cs content between the sites can be attributed as an effect of the (137)Cs release from the Chernobyl accident, in which Poland was much more affected than Yunnan, where deposition was negligible.

  9. Development of urban centres on the western and northern territories of Poland--an attempt of recapitulation by means of the settlement system of Poland.

    PubMed

    Drobek, W; Heffner, K

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss the development of urban areas in western and northern Poland since the 1930s. Sections are included on the development of towns under the German settlement system; changes during military operations between 1939 and 1945; inclusion of towns into the Polish urban system; and prospects of future development.

  10. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  11. Science and Science Fiction

    ScienceCinema

    Scherrer, Robert [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

    2016-07-12

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  12. Science and Science Fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Robert

    2006-03-29

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  13. Hospitalization of injured immigrants in Poland - Demographic profile and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Goryński, Paweł; Seroka, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    More and more immigrants gradually come to Poland. Little is known, however, about their health situation or their injuries. The objective of this study was to analyse the cases of hospitalization of immigrants due to injuries in 2008-2010, including the number and demographic characteristics of the patients, as well as the nature of injury according to ICD-10 (S00-T98). The analysis was conducted on the basis of data from the General Hospital Morbidity Study. All the cases of hospitalization due to injuries were covered by the analysis, and a group of foreigners was compared to the general population. The number of foreigners hospitalized due to injuries ranged from 4.6-21.2 thousand in the subsequent years. The share of hospitalization due to injuries equalled 8.2-11.9% of all foreigners' hospital stay. The majority were males, but the proportion of females gradually increased up to 36.7% in 2010. The average age of the hospitalized gradually decreased to the age of 35.2 in 2010. The structure of the nature of injury was different from that of the general population. Prevailing types of injuries were minor injuries of wrist, hand, ankle and foot. Open wounds of the head were also common. Results of the analysis indicate the most important tendencies related to immigrants' injuries. Further research, as well as monitoring the foreigners' health status is necessary. Taking preventive measures is essential among the most vulnerable group - male immigrants aged 15-19.

  14. Early Holocene hydrology and environments of the Ner River (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Piotr; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Borówka, Ryszard K.; Okupny, Daniel; Pawłowski, Dominik; Peyron, Odille; Stachowicz-Rybka, Renata; Obremska, Milena; Cywa, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    The Ner River valley (central Poland) underwent substantial transformation during the Weichselian-Holocene transition as a result of fluvial processes and climate changes, resulting in the establishment of its present shape in the Holocene. A multiproxy study based on organic deposits from a palaeochannel fill (Lutomiersk-Koziówki) shows that after the channel was cut off during the late glacial termination, it became a shallow oxbow, fed by local springs. In the Boreal period, the oxbow lake was also fed by precipitation and became a telmatic environment overgrown by rush and swamp vegetation. Finally, it was covered by overbank deposits. The first flooding phase (9900-9600 cal. BP) was followed by the accumulation of overbank sediments (after 9500 cal. BP) and flooding increased after ca. 9300-9000 cal. BP. Pollen data provide information on the regional vegetation context for local and regional changes. In the Atlantic period, an increase in both summer and winter temperatures is inferred from the pollen data, corresponding to an expansion of thermophilous deciduous forests. While in general, flooding phases of the Early Holocene are poorly recognised in Eastern Europe, the Lutomiersk-Koziówki site may be considered as one of the reference points for this phenomenon in the region.

  15. Burden of disease caused by local transport in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Transport is a major source of air pollution, noise, injuries and physical activity in the urban environment. The quantification of the health risks and benefits arising from these factors would provide useful information for the planning of cost-effective mitigation actions. In this study we quantified the burden of disease caused by local transport in the city of Warsaw, Poland. The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated for transport related air pollution (particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), cadmium, lead and nickel), noise, injuries and physical activity. Exposure to these factors was based on local and international data, and the exposure-response functions (ERFs) were based on published reviews and recommendations. The uncertainties were quantified and propagated with the Monte Carlo method. Local transport generated air pollution, noise and injuries were estimated to cause approximately 58,000 DALYs in the study area. From this burden 44% was due to air pollution and 46% due to noise. Transport related physical activity was estimated to cause a health benefit of 17,000 DALYs. Main quantified uncertainties were related to disability weight for the annoyance (due to noise) and to the ERFs for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and walking. The results indicate that the health burden of transport could be mitigated by reducing motorized transport, which causes air pollution and noise, and by encouraging walking and cycling in the study area. PMID:26516622

  16. Development of optical fiber technology in Poland 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Wójcik, Waldemar

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a digest of works presented during the XVIth National Symposium on Optical Fibres and Their Applications. The Symposium is organized since 1976. OFTA 2015 was organized by Optical Fibre Laboratory of the Faculty of Chemistry at University of Maria Curie Skłodowska, and Institute of Electronics and Information Technology of Lublin University of Technology, in Nałęczów on 22-25 September 2015. The meeting has gathered around 120 participants who presented 85 research and technical papers. The Symposium organized every 18 months is a good portrait of optical fibre technology development in Poland at university laboratories, governmental institutes, company R&D laboratories, etc. Topical tracks of the Symposium were: optical and photonic materials, technology of classical, tailored and structural photonic optical fibres, light propagation physics in optical fibres, passive and active optical fibre components, optical fibre sensors, passive and active optical fibre networks, optical fibre amplifiers and lasers, optical fibre network issues: modulation, architectures, economy, etc.

  17. Defining HIV Risk and Determining Responsibility in Postsocialist Poland

    PubMed Central

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on 15 months of ethnographic research on HIV prevention programs in Poland, I explore the consequences of the shift from models of HIV prevention that emphasize “risk groups” and AIDS blame, to models that focus on “risky behaviors” and universal risk. The centrality of choice making and individual risk management in these models suggests objective risk assessment free from moralizing arguments. The Polish national prevention strategy shifted to focus on choice making, address all risk groups, and include concrete prevention strategies. This shift created a backlash that resulted in the reassertion of moral arguments about risk and risk groups that positioned those most vulnerable to HIV outside the purview of prevention efforts. AIDS organizations working with marginalized, “morally problematic” populations used the label “at risk” to legitimize claims to resources. They enacted a model of risk reduction in which the relevant actor is the individual buffeted by social forces, and behavior change, and therefore HIV risk reduction, is a long process because of myriad forms of vulnerability clients face. Despite efforts to reconceptualize risk, organizations positioned the individual as the locus of HIV prevention interventions, rather than attempting to address the social context that shapes risk. PMID:20092052

  18. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-04-28

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  19. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zatoński, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2016-12-23

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation.

  20. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS.

  1. Radioactivity of honeys from Poland after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Maria H; Kapała, Jacek; Puścion-Jakubik, Anna; Horembała, Justyna; Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata

    2013-11-01

    Concentration of radioactive isotopes in honey constitutes an important bioindicator of environmental radiation. One hundred six honey samples were collected from hives and from bottled honey provided by beekeepers from north-eastern Poland in 2010, before the Fukushima accident, and during the two-year period directly following this catastrophe (2011-2012). Cesium-137 (Cs-137) and potassium-40 (K-40) were determined in lime, multifloral, buckwheat, honeydew and other kinds of honey samples. The obtained mean concentrations of Cs-137 and K-40 (Bq kg(-1)) in honey samples were: 1.19 and 32.92 in 2010, 0.90 and 31.13 in 2011, 1.31 and 36.06 in 2012, respectively. Significant differences were not observed. Therefore, the studied honey samples collected after the Fukushima accident are found to be safe for humans with levels of Cs-137 and K-40 not posing any threats. However, the total concentration of Cs-137 and K-40 in samples stopped decreasing in 2010-2011 and showed a slight increase in 2012. This relation may suggest the impact of pollution from Fukushima and requires further research in the coming years.

  2. Atmospheric fallout radionuclides in peatland from Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Tomasz; Łokas, Edyta; Kocurek, Justyna; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-09-01

    Two peat profiles were collected in a peat bog located in Southern Poland and their geochronology were determined using (210)Pb, (238,239+240)Pu and (137)Cs radiometric techniques. The (210)Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the Pu isotopes and (137)Cs time markers. Maximum activities of Pu isotopes were found at a depth corresponding to the early 1960s, which is the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. The results showed that the (210)Pb method is the most accurate technique for the determination age and accumulation rate of a peat. The next part of this study calculated linear accumulation rates by analyzing (238,239+240)Pu and (137)Cs vertical distributions in the profiles. Activities of fallout isotopes were also measured in plants covering the peatland. The highest activities of (137)Cs and (210)Pb were found in Calluna vulgaris samples, and (239+240)Pu were found only in two samples (C. vulgaris and leaves of Oxycoccus quadripelatus). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The airborne pollen calendar for Lublin, central-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    An aerobiological study was conducted to investigate the quantity and quality of pollen in the atmosphere of Lublin in central-eastern Poland. Pollen monitoring was carried out in the period 2001-2012 using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The atmospheric pollen season in Lublin lasted, on average, from the end of January to the beginning of October. The mean air temperature during the study period was found to be higher by 1.1 °C than the mean temperature in the period 1951-2000. 56 types of pollen of plants belonging to 41 families were identified. 28 types represented woody plants and 28 represented herbaceous plants. The study distinguished 5 plant taxa the pollen of which was present most abundantly in the air of Lublin, which altogether accounted for 73.4%: Betula, Urtica, Pinus, Poaceae, and Alnus. The mean annual pollen index was 68 706; the largest amount of pollen was recorded in April and accounted for 33.3% of the annual pollen index. The pollen calendar included 28 allergenic plant taxa. The pollen of woody plants had the highest percentage in the pollen spectrum, on average 58.4%. The parameters of the pollen calendar for Lublin were compared with the calendar for central-eastern Europe with regard to the start of the pollen season of particular taxa. The pollen calendar for Lublin was demonstrated to show greater similarity to the calendar for Münster (Germany) than to the calendar for Bratislava (Slovakia).

  4. A Biological Stone from a Medieval Cemetery in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J.; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus. PMID:25275551

  5. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system.

  6. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  7. Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Ż; Błaś, M; Lech, D; Namieśnik, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources.

  8. Perceiving and practicing the nature of nursing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Slusarska, Barbara; Zarzycka, Danuta; Dobrowolska, Beata; Cuber, Tomasz

    2009-04-01

    The social and political transition taking place in Poland during the last decade has resulted in changes in the system of education. The results of empirical studies indicate that both the system of education and the period of its transition exerted an influence on the qualifications of nurses. The focus of the study was the relationship between the selected education factors and the occupational experience of nurses. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey with the use of the authors' version of a questionnaire form. The variables were tested by means of chi-square test and Spearman's correlation test. The investigations covered a group of 324 occupationally active nurses in area of the city of Lublin. The analysis indicates that among many variables concerning education and occupational improvement, only the type of education (1st and 2nd level of occupational differentiation) has a statistically significant effect on auto-defining of nursing in the the nature of occupational activities performed.

  9. Polonium 210Po in cigarettes produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Skwarzec, B; Strumińska, D I; Borylo, A; Ulatowski, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of 210Po determinations in the fourteen most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes, which constitute over 80% of total cigarette consumption in Poland. The 210Po activity in the cigarette samples analysed (tobacco, ash, filter before and after smoking) were measured using alpha spectrometry (Canberra-Packard). The data indicates that there is considerable variation in the polonium content of these brands. The highest 210Po content per sample was found in the cheap "Popularne" brand (24.12 mBq), the lowest in "Caro" (4.23 mBq). There was also a large difference between the polonium remaining in the ash in comparison with its total content in the tobacco in all the brands (from 4.3% for "Golden American" to 71.0% for "Sobieski King-Size"). The analysis has demonstrated that filters absorbed only a small amount of the polonium contained in the tobacco. "Caro" cigarettes have the most efficient filter, retaining 25.1% of the polonium contained in the tobacco, but most filters absorbed only 0.1-7.2% of polonium. The daily inhalation of 210Po by Polish smokers who get through one pack per day ranges from 20 to 215 mBq, but people smoking two or more packs of "Popularne" brand will inhale over 430 mBq of polonium per day.

  10. Lessons from Norovirus Outbreak in Warsaw, Poland, December 2012.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Sylwia; Kruszewska, Żaneta; Lejbrandt, Elżbieta; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Efficient foodborne outbreak investigations are important for identification of gaps in food safety and public health practice. This article reports on an investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak linked to catering food following a Christmas reception at the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene (NIPH-NIH) in Warsaw in December 2012. Of 192 employees eating food at the catering event, 97 (50.5%) developed symptoms. Persons eating dishes with recipes containing frozen carrots were five times more likely to develop gastrointestinal symptoms compared to those who did not eat carrots. Laboratory analysis identified norovirus in stool samples taken from symptomatic persons. Leftover food was not available for testing. The investigators did not collect stool specimens from food handlers and did not conduct trace backs for the suspected food ingredients. This investigation underlines the need for a revision of an existing procedures and importance of their complementation with detailed instructions for the local public health authorities for effective completion of foodborne outbreaks investigations in Poland.

  11. Dietary fluoride intake from infant and toddler formulas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna; Opydo, Jadwiga

    2011-08-01

    Risk of enamel fluorosis associated with excessive fluoride intake during infancy and early childhood has been widely reported in literature. Results of several studies indicate that infant formula consumption, especially in the form of powdered concentrate, may appreciably increase children's fluoride exposure in optimally fluoridated communities. The aim of the study was to measure fluoride content of infant and toddler formulas available in Poland and to discuss implications of the results. Twenty nine brands of powdered formulas were evaluated. Analyzes were performed with the use of ionselective fluoride electrode (09-37 type) and a RAE 111 chloride-silver reference electrode (MARAT). Results revealed that concentration of fluoride in all products was low (mean 29.0 μg/100 g), and that the formula itself is not a significant source of fluoride exposure. However, when reconstituted with water containing more than 0.5 ppm of fluoride, starting formulas and follow-on formulas may provide a daily fluoride intake of above the suggested threshold for fluorosis. Thus, fully formula-fed infants consuming mother milk substitutes prepared with optimally fluoridated water may be at increased risk of dental fluorosis.

  12. Genesis of transverse kame trains in eastern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpiłowski, Sławomir

    2007-01-01

    Transverse kames, forming trains perpendicular to the direction of ice-sheet advance, are rare morphological elements in previously glaciated areas. The genesis of an example from the ice-contact zone of the Wartanian glaciation in eastern Poland is discussed. The transverse kames there form two main, distinctly separated, sub-parallel trains. Their sedimentary successions fill erosional troughs incised in the pre-Wartanian deposits on northern slopes. They consist of thick glaciofluvial sand and glaciofluvial/glaciolacustrine sandy/silty units that are covered with a thin, usually discontinuous, glacial till succession. The genesis of this kame type has been modelled. It is concluded that transverse kames developed in two phases: (1) erosion of the substratum in subglacial channels during initial deglaciation, and (2) glaciofluvial deposition in crevasses during advanced deglaciation (in the form of low-energy fans periodically submerged under stagnant water), followed locally by a cover of flowtills. Both the ablation of the ice and the accumulation of the kame deposits were controlled by the co-occurrence of ice zones either enriched or impoverished with sediment. Zonal enrichment of ice with debris was determined by the development of shear zones over substratum elevations that were inclined up-ice. The formation and subsequent infilling of crevasses both took place in zones of relatively clean ice, so that the resulting kames form a train perpendicular to the direction of ice movement.

  13. First identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in Poland.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin; Fan, Jinghui; Gerber, Priscilla F; Biernacka, Kinga; Stadejek, Tomasz; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2017-02-01

    Porcine parvovirus type 1 is a major causative agent of swine reproductive failure. During the past decade, several new parvoviruses have been discovered in pigs. Porcine parvovirus type 6 (PPV6), recently identified, has been reported in pigs in China and in the USA while the PPV6 status in the European pig population remains undetermined. In the present study, PPV6 DNA was identified in serum samples collected from domestic pigs in Poland. In investigated herds, the prevalence of PPV6 was 14.9 % (15/101 samples). Sequencing was conducted, and 11 nearly complete PPV6 genomes were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PPV6 sequences cluster into four distinct groups, and the Polish PPV6 strains from three individual farms were present in three of these four groups. In addition, the Polish PPV6 strain P15-1 was identified as a putative recombination of an ORF1 from US stains and an ORF2 from Chinese strains. This is the first identification of PPV6 in Europe, and this finding will encourage future epidemiological studies on parvoviruses in European pigs.

  14. Treatment persistence in the use of basal insulins in Poland and Germany
.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Wolfgang; Czech, Marcin; Franek, Edward; Kostev, Karel

    2017-02-01

    To compare short-term basal insulin therapy persistence and its predictors in Poland and Germany. Persistence was defined as proportions of patients remaining on the initial basal insulin (analogs: Poland: n = 6,889, Germany: n = 454,067; neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulins: Poland: n = 50,761, Germany: n = 226,064) over 2 years based on nationwide prescription databases (LRx; IMS Health) in Poland and Germany from 2013 to 2015. Persistence was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves (log-rank tests). Risk of discontinuation of initial basal insulin was investigated using Cox regression models adjusting for age, sex, comedication with other glucose-lowering agents and baseline or comedication with antihypertensives, lipid-lowering drugs, antidepressants, and antiepileptics. In Poland, 2-year persistence was 83.0% in analog insulin and 73.3% in NPH users (p < 0.001). In Germany, persistence was also higher in patients with analog insulins (92.6% vs. 79.0%; p < 0.001). Analog insulin users were less likely to discontinue basal insulin compared with NPH users (adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI): Poland: 0.73 (0.67 - 0.79); Germany: 0.27 (0.27 - 0.28)). Higher age (> 75 vs. ≤ 60 years: Poland: 1.24 (1.16 - 1.33), Germany: 1.09 (1.07 - 1.11)) and GLP-1 receptor agonist use (Poland: 2.76 (1.38 - 5.53), Germany: 1.21 (1.16 - 1.26)) were related to higher risk of discontinuation. Male sex, metformin, sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, and short-acting insulin prescriptions as well as antihypertensive, anti-epileptic, and lipid-lowering drug use were associated with lower risk of discontinuation in both countries (all p < 0.05). This real-world study shows that both in Poland and Germany treatment persistence of newly-prescribed basal insulin is influenced by type of insulin (analog vs. NPH) and by glucose-lowering and other comedications.
.

  15. Poland syndrome: an algorithm to select the appropriate chest wall surgical reconstructive treatment.

    PubMed

    Chiummariello, Stefano; Pica, Alessandra; Guarro, Giuseppe; Arleo, Sergio; Alfano, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Poland syndrome is a constellation of rare congenital anomalies of the chest wall, with or without alterations to the ipsilateral superior extremity. Actually Foucras' classification is commonly used to choose the most appropriate surgical treatment, but often only a radiological classification proves unsatisfactory in order to achieve the best aesthetic result. Since November 2006 in our institute have been treated 6 patients (3 M, 3 F) with Poland Syndrome affected by only chest wall and/or breast deformities. We treated 6 patients opting for different surgical procedures, depending on the deformity detected. We experienced only one procedural complication, a fat necrosis with superior migration of the prosthesis, successfully managed. Surgical alternative treatments of the Poland's abnormalities of the chest wall are independent from the corrective surgery of the ipsilateral affected forearm ad hand. Surgeons should be able to develop an operative plan to address aesthetic goals while preserving muscular functionality. Indeed surgical techniques should be minimally invasive and possible available in every hospital structure. This study has been designed to review a series of surgical options of breast reconstruction in patients with Poland Syndrome in order to develop a new flow chart to plan the best surgical choice analyzing only breast/chest wall deformities according to Blondeel's point of view about reconstruction of the new breast and thoracic wall. Breast reconstruction, Poland syndrome.

  16. Trichinella nativa in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Germany and Poland: possible different origins.

    PubMed

    Chmurzyńska, E; Różycki, M; Bilska-Zając, E; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A; Pozio, E; Cencek, T; Karamon, J

    2013-11-15

    In Germany and Poland, the high population density of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered a public health risk since this wild canid is one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. In 2010 in Poland, a program to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in the red fox population was launched. After two years, Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 44 (2.7%) out of 1634 foxes tested. In Germany in the period 2002-2011, Trichinella spp. larvae were in 27 foxes. The Trichinella species detected were: T. spiralis in 15 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella britovi and one with Trichinella pseudospiralis) and in 9 foxes from Poland; T. britovi in 8 and 32 foxes from Germany and Poland, respectively; and T. pseudospiralis in 1 fox from Germany. The arctic species Trichinella nativa was detected in 3 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella spiralis) and in 1 fox from Poland. The detection of T. nativa outside its known distribution area opens new questions on the ability of this Trichinella species to colonize temperate regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections in young dairy and beef cattle in Poland.

    PubMed

    Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej; Puchalski, Andrzej; Dec, Marta; Stęgierska, Diana; Grooms, Daniel L; Barbu, Nicolas I

    2015-03-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major contributor to bovine respiratory disease complex in dairy and beef calves, especially during the first year of life. There is a lack of comprehensive information about the prevalence of infection in cattle herds in Poland as well as in European countries outside the European Union. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRSV infections in young beef and dairy cattle in southeastern Poland, a region that has direct contact with non-EU countries. Animals & methods: Nasal swabs and sera (n = 120) were obtained from young cattle aged 6-12 months from 45 farms in eastern and southeastern Poland. BRSV antigen detection in the nasal swabs was carried out using a rapid immunomigration assay used in diagnosing human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infections in humans, while antibodies to BRSV were detected in the sera by ELISA antibody detection. The study confirmed the presence of BRSV infections in young cattle under 12 months of age from both dairy and beef herds. BRSV was detected in 27 of the 45 herds (60%) sampled. Findings from this study indicate a high prevalence of BRSV infections in cattle in Poland, which may have a significant influence on health status and animal performance. The prevalence of infection is similar to that in other parts of Poland and other countries in Europe. Development of strategies to reduce BRSV infections is needed to improve health and productivity.

  18. Hydroclimatic shifts recorded in peat archive from Rąbień mire (Central Poland) - better understanding of past climate changes using multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Marcisz, Katarzyna; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Pawłowski, Dominik; Okupny, Daniel; Słowińska, Sandra; Borówka, Ryszard; Kittel, Piotr; Forysiak, Jacek; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    observed in the within the peatland monitoring during the heat wave events in 2015 (Linje mire, Northern Poland). In our opinion, only reconstructions supported by the knowledge of current observations from peatland ecosystems may provide a better interpretation of past climate changes. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants NN 306 27 6735 NN 306 034 040, No 2015/17/B/ST10/03430). This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. We acknowledge support from grant PSPB-013/2010 from Switzerland through the Swiss Contribution to the enlarged European Union.

  19. Transect studies on pine forests along parallel 52° north, 12-32° east and along a pollution gradient in Poland: general assumptions

    Treesearch

    Alicja Breymeyer

    1998-01-01

    The responses of pine forest to changing climate and environmental chemistry were studied along two transects following the pollution and continentality gradients in Poland. One axis begins on the western border of Poland, crosses the country along the 52nd parallel, and ends on the eastern border of Poland in the area of Bialowieza National Park, Biosphere Reserve....

  20. Giving the Spirit a National Form: From Rousseau's Advice to Poland to Habermas' Advice to the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Rousseau's philosophy of education is contained not only in "Emile" (1762), but also in "The Government of Poland" (1772). In each of them he emphasises different aspects of education: How to be a human being? And: How to be a citizen? The main theme investigated by Rousseau in "The Government of Poland", is how a…

  1. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...-1237 (Preliminary)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea... China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia of grain-oriented electrical steel... from Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia. Accordingly, effective September 18...

  2. Fostering Academic Cooperation and Collaboration through the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: A Faculty Research Abroad Program in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barczyk, Casimir C.; Davis, Nancy; Zimmerman, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study is a narrative analysis of participants' perceptions of the development of cross-cultural awareness through "The Faculty Research Abroad Program in Poland," a joint initiative between a regional campus of a Midwestern land grant university and a private university in Poland. The purpose was to foster academic cooperation and…

  3. Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

  4. Giving the Spirit a National Form: From Rousseau's Advice to Poland to Habermas' Advice to the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Rousseau's philosophy of education is contained not only in "Emile" (1762), but also in "The Government of Poland" (1772). In each of them he emphasises different aspects of education: How to be a human being? And: How to be a citizen? The main theme investigated by Rousseau in "The Government of Poland", is how a…

  5. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for…

  6. Projects Submitted by Participants of the Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Poland and Hungary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    These curriculum projects were developed by participants of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Poland and Hungary during the summer of 2000. The following 11 projects are in the collection: "A Thematic Multicultural Interactive School Event on Poland and Hungary: Exploration and Learning for 6-to-9-Year-Olds" (Ruth Albert);…

  7. Science in science fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction, from Star Trek to Star Wars, is hugely popular and pupils will surely have encountered good and bad physics there, but do they really notice? Discussing the science implied in books and movies, such as in the use of transporters, can be a good way of getting students interested in physics.

  8. [Jan Ewangelista Purkynie in medicine, science and the Polish culture].

    PubMed

    Domosławski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The author refers to the place of Jan Ewangelista Purkynie (1787-1868) in the world science and the Czech national culture. Numerous discoveries of Purkynie have still bear his name, e.g. fibers of the hearth conduction system. In the years 1823-1850 he worked as professor of the Department of Physiology in Wrocław and he distinguished himself as a scientist of wide horizons and modern ideas, as well as a teacher and protector of his students. The periodical Opera Omnia that has been published in Prague from 1938 (until now 13 volumes have been published) in volume number six, known as the Wroclaw volume, offers to us works of Purkynie's fourteen doctoral students. One of the them was Bogusław Palicki (1813-1868), author of the doctoral thesis entitled De musculari cordic structura. In 1839 the "Rocznik Wydziału Lekarskiego w Uniwersytecie Jagiellońiskim" /Yearbook of the Jagiellonian University Faculty of Medicine/ published a work describing the fibers of the conductions system of the heart which anticipated a similar work in German. Purkynie had numerous contacts with the liberal Krakow, he visited the health resort in Cieplice where he met Wincenty Pol and Kornel Ujejski. His contacts with Poznański had both scientific and literary character. He was also in touch with Warsaw and the Congress Kingdom. There are also traces of his contacts with the Polish emigration in Paris, which had an interdisciplinary character. The scientific ideas of Purkynie have still been a source of inspiration for Czech and Polish scientists which is confirmed by numerous symposiums and congresses dedicated to him.

  9. Distribution of Ag in Cu-sulfides in Kupferschiefer deposit, SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozub, Gabriela A.

    2014-05-01

    reports on high Ag content reaching 49 wt.% Ag in bornite and 1.8 wt.% Ag in chalcocite occurring due to Ag substitution in Cu-minerals without modification of their crystallographic structure (Salamon 1979; Banaś et al 2007; Kucha 2007; Piestrzyński 2007, Pieczonka 2011). Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the National Science Centre research grant (No 2011/03/N/ST10/04619). References: Kucha H and Mayer W (2007) Geochemistry. [In:] Piestrzyński A (Ed) Monografia KGHM Polska Miedź SA., pp 197-207 (In Polish) Pieczonka J (2011) Factors controlling distribution of ore minerals within copper deposit, Fore-Sudetic Monocline, SW Poland. 195 pp (In Polish) Piestrzyński A (2007) Ore minerals. [In:] Piestrzyński A (Ed) Monografia KGHM Polska Miedź SA., pp 167-197 (in Polish) Salamon W (1979) Occurrence of the Ag and Mo in the Zechstein sediments of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. Prace Mineralogiczne, PAN 62, pp 1-52 (In Polish)

  10. Apatite intergrowths in clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (SW Poland) basanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    during crystallization of fractionated basanite magma. The deep HFSE anomalies suggest that apatite saturation in silicate systems has effect similar to that of carbonatitic melt unmixing in a silicate-carbonatite systems. Funding. This study was possible thanks to the project NCN 2011/03/B/ST10/06248 of Polish National Centre for Science. References Lipa D., Puziewicz J., Ntaflos T., Matusiak-Małek M. (2014): Clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanite of OstrzycaProboszczowicka in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). Geoscience Notes 2.2: in press.

  11. Persistent pollution of Warta river catchment with chromium: case study from central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanski, S.; Lukaczynski, I.; Nikiel, G.; Mizera, J.; Dulinski, M.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Szklarczyk, T.; Wachniew, P.; Witczak, S.; Zurek, A.

    2012-04-01

    Upper reaches of the Warta river, the third largest river in Poland, are located in a densely populated and industrialized area, with presence of heavy industry going back to the second half of the XIX century. Industrial activities include iron smelters in towns of Częstochowa and Zawiercie, large chemical plants (Rudniki and Aniolow) producing predominantly chromium compounds, paper and textile industry, as well as large number of small enterprises specialized in metal coatings (nickel and chromium). Until the 1960s all the industrial and municipal effluents in the region were discharged into the Warta river and its tributaries. Solid wastes were dumped on the surface, mostly without appropriate cover and isolation. This resulted in progressive contamination of surface waters and groundwater with heavy metals, mostly chromium. The upper reaches of the Warta river are located on top of upper Jurassic Major Groundwater Basin (MGWB 326 which is one of four most important groundwater reservoirs in Poland. Almost all potable water demands in the area (ca. 340,000 inhabitants, 800 factories and enterprises) are covered by MGWB 326 (50 deep wells with the average extraction rate of 57,000 m3/d). As the MGWB 326 is mostly phreatic, it has been recognized since long time that persistent pollution of the upper catchment of the Warta river with heavy metals may pose serious thread to quality of this important groundwater resource. In this presentation we summarize the work carried out to date, focused on characterization of the extent and understanding of the mechanisms of pollution of surface water, sediments and groundwater in MGWB 326 with chromium. Historical monitoring data of the levels of chromium in the Warta river and its tributaries are presented, supplemented by the results of measurements of Cr loads in Warta over-bank deposits and Cr levels in groundwater production wells in the area. Three conceptual models of spreading of chromium in the catchment of Warta

  12. Monitoring environmental effects of shale gas exploitation at Wysin in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasocki, Stanislaw; Mirek, Janusz; Bialon, Wojciech; Cielesta, Szymon; Lasak, Mateusz; Cesca, Simone; Lopez Comino, Jose Angel; Dahm, Torsten; Scarpa, Roberto; Gunning, Andrew; Montcoudiol, Nelly; Isherwood, Catherine; Jaroslawski, Janusz; Guzikowski, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    limits for methane, ethane, ethene and propane gases. Air pollution monitoring is performed by means of an automatic station. The station is situated east from the Wysin rig at the distance of some 1200 m. This distance is appropriate in order not to measure a direct emission of pollutants. The station monitors the content of NO, NO2, NOx, CO, PM10, O3, CO2, CH4, NMHC and Radon. At the beginning of SHEER project in May 2015, there was one vertical well at the site, reaching gas-bearing shale formations at the nearly 4km depth. Further on two horizontal wells, each of about 1.7km length, were drilled (late Autumn 2015) and fracked (June - August, 2016). This time table has provided the opportunity to record background seismicity and baseline levels of water and air quality, and then to record the immediate and delayed effects of hydrofracturing operations. The monitoring will continue at least 1.5 year after completion of technological activity at the site. This work was supported within SHEER: "Shale Gas Exploration and Exploitation Induced Risks" project funded from Horizon 2020 - R&I Framework Programme, call H2020-LCE-2014-1 and within statutory activities No3841/E-41/S/2016 of Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland.

  13. Seasonal stability of snow cover in Poland in relation to the atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falarz, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal stability of snow cover (ISS) was defined as a percentage ratio of the real and the potential snow cover duration in a winter season. Main results of the study are as follows: (1) alternately occurring periods of high and low values of the index of snow cover stability did not appeared simultaneously in mountainous and non-mountainous areas; (2) in the majority of Poland area both zonal and meridional components of the atmospheric circulation influence the ISS; however, in south the meridional air flow reveals the stronger impact, mostly due to the intensification of the southern advection by the foehn effect; and (3) changes of two or three indices describing atmospheric circulation explain up to 50 % of the ISS in Poland. The diminishing stability of snow cover in Poland corresponds with an increasing intensity of the advection from the western sector in winter in the second half of the twentieth century in Europe.

  14. Non-market valuation supporting water management: the case study in Czestochowa, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Y.; Godyn, I.; Sauer, J.

    2014-07-01

    Water resources in Poland continue to be under stress despite systematic efforts to safeguard ground and surface water quality and quantity. Groundwater protection from nitrate pollution of human origin requires the development of sewerage systems. Such investments are often financed from public funds that must be formally appraised. The appraisal should be done by a comparison of benefits and costs of investment measures - not only financial but also environmental and social. A significant challenge is the monetization of the effects on the environment. In this paper we use non-market valuation to examine residents' preferences and estimate their willingness to pay for improving drinking water quality. This paper also contributes to the narrow literature on valuation of benefits of measures for groundwater quality improvement by presenting an application of the choice experiment method in the Czestochowa Region of Poland. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study estimating the value of benefits of the groundwater quality improvement in Poland.

  15. Oyster-bioimmured ammonites from the Upper Albian of Annopol, Poland: stratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalski, Marcin; Kennedy, William J.

    2013-12-01

    Machalski, M. and Kennedy, W.J. 2013. Oyster-bioimmured ammonites from the Upper Albian of Annopol, Poland: stratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic implications. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 545-554. Warszawa. Ammonites Mortoniceras (Subschloenbachia) sp. are preserved as attachment scars on the oyster shells from the topmost portion of the Albian succession at Annopol, Poland. These oyster-bioimmured ammonites show a closest affinity to the representatives of Mortoniceras (Subschloenbachia) characteristic of the upper Upper Albian Mortoniceras perinflatum Zone. No ammonites indicative of the uppermost Albian-lowermost Cenomanian Praeschloenbachia briacensis Zone are recorded. Thus, the hiatus at the Albian-Cenomanian boundary at Annopol embraces the latter zone. The presence (and dominance) of Mortoniceras in the upper Upper Albian ammonite assemblage of Annopol suggests that the representatives of this Tethyan genus could migrate into the epicratonic areas of Poland directly from the Tethyan Realm, via the Lwow (Lviv) region.

  16. Demographic and settlement transformations in peripheral regions (based on the example of eastern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszczuk, Andrzej; Wesołowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show specific demographic processes and accompanied transformations of settlement structure in eastern Poland at the turn of the 21st cent. Eastern Poland, covering Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeships, acquired the features of peripheral area in terms of communication and socio-economic aspects as a result of long-lasting historical processes. Unfavourable demographic processes can be observed in eastern Poland. They are accompanied by changes in settlement structure. Depopulation has significant social and economic consequences. The process increases social polarization between different regions in the country and between rural and urban areas. Moreover, the outflow of young and most active population to other regions or abroad is an important barrier for economic revival in peripheral regions. Consequently, unfavourable socio-economic structure in these areas is consolidated or even strengthened. This primarily concerns Lubelskie and Podlaskie voivodeships.

  17. [Epidemiological situation of malaria in Poland--past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Dzbeński, Tadeusz H

    2008-01-01

    In Poland malaria was endemic up to the middle of 60th years of the 20th century. After eradication a total of 11 to 38 imported cases are reported each year, however, no secondary cases or airport malaria have ever been observed in Poland. Is the present favourable epidemiological situation likely to change as a result of global warming and predicted risk of uncontrollable resurgence of malaria in Europe? An epidemiological analysis of past and present malaria situation in Poland allows to conclude, that global warming alone will not be enough to reintroduce malaria into this country. However, re-establishment of endemic malaria will be possible under condition of mass disorganization of public services and mass migration caused usually by wars or natural calamities.

  18. Searching for ivermectin resistance in a Strongylidae population of horses stabled in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zak, A; Siwinska, N; Slowikowska, M; Borowicz, H; Kubiak, K; Hildebrand, J; Popiolek, M; Niedzwiedz, A

    2017-07-03

    There are no available studies describing the possible resistance of strongyles to ivermectin in horses in Poland. One hundred seventy three horses from nine stud farms from South-Western Poland were studied. The effectiveness of ivermectin was studied on the 14th day after ivermectin administration using the fecal egg count reduction test, and a long-term observation of the egg reappearance period was carried out. The fecal study was carried out using a modified McMaster method, which typically detects 20 eggs per gram of stool. The results were subjected to statistical analysis that enabled quantification of the eggs in the stool samples. The study revealed high efficacy of ivermectin on the 14th day after administration without a shortening of the egg reappearance period. The results indicate that strongyles resistance to ivermectin in Poland is not a serious problem.

  19. The Presence of Stimulant Drugs in Wastewater from Krakow (Poland): A Snapshot.

    PubMed

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Dudarska, Agnieszka; Zuba, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of wastewater from Krakow (Poland) for the presence of controlled and uncontrolled stimulant drugs of abuse was performed. Samples were collected from the Plaszow wastewater treatment plant, Krakow, Poland, and prepared by solid phase extraction. The LC-QTOFMS method was applied for identification and quantification of popular stimulants: MDMA, mephedrone, 4-MEC, MDPV and mCPP. Environmental loads of illicit drugs were calculated; the WWTP discharged loads ranging from 3.6 to 6.7 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of MDMA, 3.6 to 7.1 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of mephedrone and 4.8 to 5.8 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of 4-MEC. The results confirmed the growing popularity of new psychoactive substances in Poland.

  20. [Do enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is a significant clinical problem in Poland?].

    PubMed

    Wołkowicz, Tomasz; Szych, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli are poorly discovered pathogenic subgroup of these microorganism. They can cause watery diarrhea witch is often persistent. It seems that infections due to EAEC could comprise significant epidemiologic problem, covered especially children from developing countries and travelers visiting these countries. To find out, whether EAEC could comprise a problem in Poland, we examine 382 E. coli strains isolated from stool samples from patients with diarrhea in Poland in years 1997-2011. Three genes (aggR, aap and aat) were marked by Multiplex-PCR method. Six of examined strains (1.5%) were marked as EAEC and they were isolated equally from children and adults. It seems that EAEC could not comprise a significant problem in Poland but it should be taken in to account as a potential etiologic factor of diarrhea.