Science.gov

Sample records for scientific publication pitfalls

  1. Pitfalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triffet, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Though potentially of great benefit to the nation, the experience of the workshop participants and their discussions with Sea Grant and Land Grant officials make it clear that the Space Grant Program must avoid certain pitfalls of the past and present if it is to be successful. The most important of these are listed and briefly discussed.

  2. Ethics of scientific publication

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Published scientific research breeds the development of clinical management guidelines and pathways. Currently, scholarly proficiency is assessed using numerous primitive metrics for incentives that can kindle publication of hoax or flawed research content. Such flawed data can lead to wastage of resources, time, and most importantly harm to the society. Authors, editors, and peer reviewers need to be genuine in conducting, analyzing, and publication of scientific research. Institutions need to be aware and utilize advanced metrics to assess the scientific reputation of researchers. This short review discusses in brief the common authorship and editorial ethical issues encountered in scientific publication and the newer metrics available for the assessment of scholarly excellence. Editors and peer reviewers need to be acquainted with the common ethical issues and follow consensus international guidelines on publication ethics to tackle them appropriately. PMID:27722097

  3. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  4. [Challenge in scientific publication].

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gilson Luiz; de Freitas, Eliane Gonçalves

    2003-05-01

    We discuss the main problems which make a scientific text difficult to find, to be read or to be accepted by readers. A scientific text is considered a logical argument. Therefore, methods, results and data from literature are premises supporting the conclusions of the work; and in the "Introduction" session, the justification corroborates the objective of the study. This conception makes the text a hermetically coherent structure where only the necessary data should be included (some controversy is still pertinent). In a second step, we show formal mistakes in scientific writing which make texts less attractive. Thus, we give examples of errors or inadequacy of formal aspects of presenting titles, abstracts, results (figures and tables), and grammar mistakes in Portuguese (but also valid for English grammar). After that, we emphasize the need for writing in international language (English) and for publication in periodicals with international impact on the scientific community. Finally, considerations to improve the Brazilian periodicals in the biological area are presented.

  5. [Plagiarism in scientific publications].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    Similar to what occurs in literature, art and other human endeavours, every scientific report is based in previous work done by others. The new paper should add something original but a basic law of scientific honesty demands that any mention ideas, observations or thinking that has been previously proposed or published by others, should be acknowledged properly in the text and in the references. Plagiarism is identified when the authors of a scientific report use ideas or text that belong to others and present them as original, the previous source is concealed or it is referred to in a different context. The authors of a paper that contains plagiarism have the intention to mislead the readers, pretending to be the original authors of an idea that was expressed previously by others, or to be the owners of results shown by them. Plagiarism is a dishonest behaviour and, when discovered, may have dangerous consequences because the editors of the journal may publish a notice of retraction that will be inserted by Medline in both papers: the plagiarized and the plagiarizer, to be noticed by everyone who accesses to either of them in the Internet. PMID:19399315

  6. Scientific Autonomy and Public Oversight

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    When scientific research collides with social values, science’s right to self-governance becomes an issue of paramount concern. In this article, I develop an account of scientific autonomy within a framework of public oversight. I argue that scientific autonomy is justified because it promotes the progress of science, which benefits society, but that restrictions on autonomy can also be justified to prevent harm to people, society, or the environment, and to encourage beneficial research. I also distinguish between different ways of limiting scientific autonomy, and I argue that government involvement in scientific decision-making should usually occur through policies that control the process of science, rather than policies that control the content of science. PMID:19777124

  7. Accelerating scientific publication in biology

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific publications enable results and ideas to be transmitted throughout the scientific community. The number and type of journal publications also have become the primary criteria used in evaluating career advancement. Our analysis suggests that publication practices have changed considerably in the life sciences over the past 30 years. More experimental data are now required for publication, and the average time required for graduate students to publish their first paper has increased and is approaching the desirable duration of PhD training. Because publication is generally a requirement for career progression, schemes to reduce the time of graduate student and postdoctoral training may be difficult to implement without also considering new mechanisms for accelerating communication of their work. The increasing time to publication also delays potential catalytic effects that ensue when many scientists have access to new information. The time has come for life scientists, funding agencies, and publishers to discuss how to communicate new findings in a way that best serves the interests of the public and the scientific community. PMID:26508643

  8. Accelerating scientific publication in biology.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ronald D

    2015-11-01

    Scientific publications enable results and ideas to be transmitted throughout the scientific community. The number and type of journal publications also have become the primary criteria used in evaluating career advancement. Our analysis suggests that publication practices have changed considerably in the life sciences over the past 30 years. More experimental data are now required for publication, and the average time required for graduate students to publish their first paper has increased and is approaching the desirable duration of PhD training. Because publication is generally a requirement for career progression, schemes to reduce the time of graduate student and postdoctoral training may be difficult to implement without also considering new mechanisms for accelerating communication of their work. The increasing time to publication also delays potential catalytic effects that ensue when many scientists have access to new information. The time has come for life scientists, funding agencies, and publishers to discuss how to communicate new findings in a way that best serves the interests of the public and the scientific community.

  9. Going public: good scientific conduct.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem underexposed as ethical challenges. Consequently, individual scientists here tend to be left alone with problems and dilemmas, with no guidance for good conduct. Ideas are presented about how to make up for this omission. Using a practical, ethical approach, the paper attempts to identify ways scientists might deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand, sins of omission-withholding important information from the public-and, on the other hand, abuses of the authority of science in order to gain publicity. Statements from interviews with scientists are used to illustrate how scientists might view the relevance of the issues raised.

  10. Publication ethics and scientific misconduct.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2010-12-01

    To maintain the readers' trust and to uphold the journal's reputation, it is paramount for the entire research, peer reviewer and publication process to follow ethical principles and decisions. Studies involving humans, animals, medical records and human tissues/organs need to be conducted ethically, and the appropriate approvals obtained. The privacy and confidentiality of patients, authors and reviewers should be respected. When required, rights and permissions should be sought. Common forms of scientific misconduct include misappropriation of ideas, violation of generally accepted research practices, failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements, falsification of data, and inappropriate behaviour in relation to misconduct. Authors can expect editorial action to be taken, should duplicate publication, plagiarism and other forms of scientific misconduct be attempted or detected. PMID:21221494

  11. Human brucellosis in South Africa: Public health and diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Wojno, Justyna Maria; Moodley, Clinton; Pienaar, Jaco; Beylis, Natalie; Jacobsz, Lourens; Nicol, Mark P; Rossouw, Jenny; Bamford, Colleen

    2016-09-01

    Human brucellosis in South Africa (SA) is under-diagnosed and under-reported. This is because many clinicians have little or no experience in managing affected patients, and in part because of the nonspecific and insidious nature of the disease. A case of human brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis in a patient from the Western Cape Province of SA is described, and the resulting exposure of staff members at two medical microbiology laboratories, as well as the public health investigation that was conducted, are discussed. This article aims to highlight the need for strengthening integration between public health, medical and veterinary services and exposing deficiencies in public health, veterinary and laboratory practices. PMID:27601111

  12. The martial art of scientific publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. N.

    Publication of scientific results in refereed journals is an essential part of the scientific process. It is the final payoff for the obscure labors that compose scientific research. Unfortunately, effective operation of the publication procedure requires simultaneous rational scientific judgment on the part of the author, the referee, and the editor, and the coincidence of all of these cannot be taken for granted on every given occasion. There are times when the working definition of truth is taken to be the consensus of one's scientific intimates: the “good old boys.” Anything outside that limited horizon is discomforting and improper and is to be barred from consideration.

  13. Scientific publications: now a marketing decision?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have been publishing in journals related to their disciplines. Now with the advent of the internet, many more options are now available and scientific publication has become a marketing decision. Scientific journals are rated by "impact factor" which is based on the average number of cita...

  14. Retractions of scientific publications: responsibility and accountability

    PubMed Central

    Katavić, Vedran

    2014-01-01

    This evidence-based opinion piece gives a short overview of the increase in retractions of publications in scientific journals and discusses various reasons for that increase. Also discussed are some of the recent prominent cases of scientific misconduct, the number of authors with multiple retractions, and problems with reproducibility of published research. Finally, some of the effects of faulty research on science and society, as well as possible solutions are discussed. PMID:24969915

  15. Ranking of Cities According to Public Health Criteria: Pitfalls and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Sandra A.; Levin, Sarah; Zlot, Amy I.; Andrews, Richard R.; Miles, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Popular magazines often rank cities in terms of various aspects of quality of life. Such ranking studies can motivate people to visit or relocate to a particular city or increase the frequency with which they engage in healthy behaviors. With careful consideration of study design and data limitations, these efforts also can assist policymakers in identifying local public health issues. We discuss considerations in interpreting ranking studies that use environmental measures of a city population’s public health related to physical activity, nutrition, and obesity. Ranking studies such as those commonly publicized are constrained by statistical methodology issues and a lack of a scientific basis in regard to design. PMID:15053999

  16. Acid Precipitation: Scientific Progress and Public Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowling, Ellis B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes certain perspectives on scientific research and on the public debates about acid deposition and its effects. Although primary attention is given to European/North American research, the ideas developed are relevant in any world region sensitive to acid deposition resulting from intense industrialization. (Author/JN)

  17. Preparing manuscript: Scientific writing for publication

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Sawhney, Chhavi

    2016-01-01

    Publication has become a burning issue among Indian medical fraternity owing to certain academic and professional necessities. The large number of submissions to the anaesthesia journals has resulted in accumulation of too much below average scientific material. A properly written manuscript is the dream of every editor and reviewer. The art of preparing a manuscript can be acquired only by following certain basic rules and technical aspects, besides knowledge and skills. Before preparing the manuscript, a target journal should be considered. All the instructions to the authors pertaining to that particular journal should be followed meticulously before preparing the manuscript for submission. The basic structure of the manuscript to be followed can be summarised by the acronym IMRaD (introduction, methods, results and discussion). The current review article aims to highlight all those mandatory and desirable features which should be kept in consideration while preparing a scientific manuscript for publication. PMID:27729696

  18. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  19. Positive Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how Cahokia middle and high school students conduct inquiry-based science through a pitfall trap experiment. In a collaborative effort, students designed and conducted pitfall trap investigations that combined their interest in the natural world with their love of technology. The students set up their own experiments to…

  20. The spacelab scientific missions: A comprehensive bibliography of scientific publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Marsha (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    November 1993 represented the 10-year anniversary of the flight of Spacelab 1 mission, with the first precursor mission (OSTA-1) being launched 2 years earlier. Since that time, a total of 27 Shuttle missions has been flown, using the Spacelab system as a facility for conducting scientific research in space. The missions flown to date have allowed a total of approximately 500 Principle Investigator class investigations to be conducted in orbit. These investigations have constituted major scientific efforts in astronomy/astrophysics, atmospheric science, Earth observation, life sciences, microgravity science, and space plasma physics. An initial survey of the scientific products gleaned from Spacelab missions already flown was sent to the Principle Investigators. In that survey, information was gathered from the investigators on the scientific highlights of their investigations and statistical measurements of overall success -- such as papers published. This document is a compilation of the papers that have been published to date in referred literature.

  1. Access to Scientific Publications: The Scientist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Voronin, Yegor; Myrzahmetov, Askar; Bernstein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Background Scientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of open-access journals. Here, we investigated access to publications at a number of institutes and universities around the world, focusing on publications in HIV vaccine research – an area of biomedical research with special importance to the developing world. Methods and Findings We selected research papers in HIV vaccine research field, creating: 1) a first set of 50 most recently published papers with keywords “HIV vaccine” and 2) a second set of 200 articles randomly selected from those cited in the first set. Access to the majority (80%) of the recently published articles required subscription, while cited literature was much more accessible (67% freely available online). Subscriptions at a number of institutions around the world were assessed for providing access to subscription-only articles from the two sets. The access levels varied widely, ranging among institutions from 20% to 90%. Through the WHO-supported HINARI program, institutes in low-income countries had access comparable to that of institutes in the North. Finally, we examined the response rates for reprint requests sent to corresponding authors, a method commonly used before internet access became widespread. Contacting corresponding authors with requests for electronic copies of articles by email resulted in a 55-60% success rate, although in some cases it took up to 1.5 months to get a response. Conclusions While research articles are increasingly available on the internet in open access format, institutional subscriptions continue to play an important role. However, subscriptions do not

  2. Public understanding of science is not scientific literacy

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, A.

    1995-12-31

    The author notes that public understanding of science has, in many quarters, been taken over by the wrong notion of scientific literacy. The need for the scientific community to develop the language that speaks to the public in general is explored. Methodologies to improve communication to the general public and increase their understanding with clearly developed metaphors are examined.

  3. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  4. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers. PMID:24758096

  5. Publication pressure and scientific misconduct in medical scientists.

    PubMed

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Verbeke, Reinout; Smulders, Yvo M

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that scientific misconduct is more common than previously thought. Strong emphasis on scientific productivity may increase the sense of publication pressure. We administered a nationwide survey to Flemish biomedical scientists on whether they had engaged in scientific misconduct and whether they had experienced publication pressure. A total of 315 scientists participated in the survey; 15% of the respondents admitted they had fabricated, falsified, plagiarized, or manipulated data in the past 3 years. Fraud was more common among younger scientists working in a university hospital. Furthermore, 72% rated publication pressure as "too high." Publication pressure was strongly and significantly associated with a composite scientific misconduct severity score.

  6. [Scientific publications: a resource for the physician's intellectual development].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The physician's professional life involves reading and analysis of scientific journals, regardless of the specialization field. The hospital and academic areas lead to the scientific-literary activity development. The aim of this editorial is to make some reflections about the way a physician reaches intellectual development, through the creation of a culture of writing and reading scientific publications.

  7. [SIGAPS, a tool for the analysis of scientific publications].

    PubMed

    Sillet, Arnauld

    2015-04-01

    The System for the Identification, Management and Analysis of Scientific Publications (SIGAPS) is essential for the funding of teaching hospitals on the basis of scientific publications. It is based on the analysis of articles indexed in Medline and is calculated by taking into account the place of the author and the ranking of the journal according to the disciplinary field. It also offers tools for the bibliometric analysis of scientific production.

  8. Writing Research Reports and Scholarly Manuscripts for Journal Publication: Pitfalls and Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Frederick D.

    2006-01-01

    Valuable strategies and guidelines for preparing research reports and scholarly manuscripts for publication in refereed journals are presented with the primary aim of helping prospective authors gain acceptance of their manuscripts for publication. The discussion addresses issues such as developing the research idea or problem from a…

  9. Promises, Pitfalls, and Proposals: Automating Small Public Library Cataloging in a Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Margaret A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of issues that should be addressed when catalogers in small public libraries begin to automate as part of a consortium uses library cooperatives from Massachusetts (Cape Libraries Automated Materials Sharing, CLAMS) and Florida as examples. Topics discussed include characteristics of the catalogers; cataloging standards; decision…

  10. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of Special Publications, Reference Publications, Conference Publications, and Technical Papers, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This catalog lists 239 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered in the NASA scientific and technical information database during accession year 1987. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  11. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This catalog lists 458 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information database during accession year 1991 through 1992. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  12. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1987-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This catalog lists 783 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database during the year's 1987 through 1990. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  13. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This catalog lists 190 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into the NASA scientific and technical information database during accession year 1989. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  14. Lead and Cadmium in Public Health in Nigeria: Physicians Neglect and Pitfall in Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2014-01-01

    Low-level heavy metals exposure may contribute much more toward the causation of chronic disease and impaired functioning than previously thought. Among the suggested preventive and intervention measures for the control of renal diseases are the reduction in the exposure to heavy metals. Although these indicate knowledge and awareness of possible role of some heavy metals in the etiogenesis of some chronic diseases by Nigerian Physicians, heavy metal assay as diagnostic guide in patient management is often omitted in most healthcare settings. This is a synoptic capture of the increased incidence and prevalence of some metabolic disorders where heavy metals may be implicated. A search of the terms heavy metal exposure, source, toxicity, metabolic disorders, poisoning in Nigeria, in bibliographical databases (in English language) such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Africa Journal Online (AJOL) digital library was conducted. Leaded gasoline, refuse dumping, absence of poison information centers, and poor record keeping characterize environmental health in Nigeria. Lead and cadmium are of most significant public health importance in Nigeria. The recognition and inclusion of heavy metals assays in the diagnosis of metabolic disorders may ensure early diagnosis and improve management. PMID:24696827

  15. Digital Format for Depositary Part of Scientific Publications' Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskov, Andrei; Evstigneeva, Galina

    As a rule, any large library has so called depositary part of collection. Specific circulation of these publications is not high, but preservation, conservation and provision of access to given collection need permanent efforts. The paper presents evaluation of expenses and centralized systems efficiency. These systems (e.g. JSTOR, Backfiles for Future) are publicly accessible collections of full text versions of scientific periodicals.

  16. Politics and the Erosion of Federal Scientific Capacity: Restoring Scientific Integrity to Public Health Science

    PubMed Central

    Rest, Kathleen M.; Halpern, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Our nation’s health and prosperity are based on a foundation of independent scientific discovery. Yet in recent years, political interference in federal government science has become widespread, threatening this legacy. We explore the ways science has been misused, the attempts to measure the pervasiveness of this problem, and the effects on our long-term capacity to meet today’s most complex public health challenges. Good government and a functioning democracy require public policy decisions to be informed by independent science. The scientific and public health communities must speak out to defend taxpayer-funded science from political interference. Encouragingly, both the scientific community and Congress are exploring ways to restore scientific integrity to federal policymaking. PMID:17901422

  17. Politics and the erosion of federal scientific capacity: restoring scientific integrity to public health science.

    PubMed

    Rest, Kathleen M; Halpern, Michael H

    2007-11-01

    Our nation's health and prosperity are based on a foundation of independent scientific discovery. Yet in recent years, political interference in federal government science has become widespread, threatening this legacy. We explore the ways science has been misused, the attempts to measure the pervasiveness of this problem, and the effects on our long-term capacity to meet today's most complex public health challenges. Good government and a functioning democracy require public policy decisions to be informed by independent science. The scientific and public health communities must speak out to defend taxpayer-funded science from political interference. Encouragingly, both the scientific community and Congress are exploring ways to restore scientific integrity to federal policymaking.

  18. [Towards a new equitable system of scientific publications].

    PubMed

    Vizcaíno-Salazar, Gilberto

    2009-06-01

    Scientific publications are the most accessible manifestations of research activities and the main mission of public universities and academic communities. The publication legitimizes scientific activity, the authors and the institutions that they promote, but specialized publications have a very small impact on society, since a limited market have implications on their costs' increase and on their possible extinction. In this context, the Open Access initiative (OAI) promotes free access to the scientific knowledge. This movement supports the need for the free availability on Internet of scientific information, for the whole humanity, without restrictions. The modality of open access promotes actions such as stimulus, development and the claim for support for the free subsistence of publications with standards of quality that guarantee a healthy practice, with recognition by the scientific community. In the OAI, the role of the author's copyright should be to grant the control to the authors on the integrity of their work and the right to be adequately recognized and mentioned. It is necessary to emphasize that the OAI will reduce the phenomenon of "lost science", understood as those researches that are never published, taking advantage of the model of development of the Society of the Knowledge and the suitable use of the TICs (technologies of information and communication), to achieve the increment of productivity and the economic and social progress of the countries.

  19. Getting the Public Addicted to Scientific Data Through Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.; Flasher, J. C.; Lodoysamba, S.

    2013-12-01

    Effectively communicating about a scientific topic to the public can be challenging for scientists for a variety reasons that often boil down to an inadequate bridge between general knowledge and the specialized scientific knowledge needed to understand the context of what a scientist from a particular field wishes to convey. This issue makes it difficult for the public to interpret scientific information and leaves it vulnerable to misinterpretation and misrepresentation. Rather than 'dumb down' scientific information to the public, we believe the most effective way to bridge this gap is to provide a means for the public to have easy access to - and get addicted to! - the actual scientific data itself, presented in a straightforward form. To this end, we will discuss an air quality public awareness campaign that we launched in one of the most polluted cities in the world, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, over the past year. We have installed an air quality instrument at a university in Mongolia, and we automatically post data from the instrument on Facebook (UB Air Quality Info) and Twitter (@UB_Air). We provide infographics on how to understand the data, share relevant articles and local activities, and monitor the sites for questions from the public about the data. We also maintain a website that posts aggregate air quality information (http://ubdata.herokuapp.com) and publicly shares the code that automatically connects our air quality instrument to the social media sites. This social media project, the first of its kind in Mongolia, has been an effective way to provide: (1) a quantifiable context to the public about air pollution issues in Ulaanbaatar, (2) a forum for the public and decision makers - from ambassadors to politicians - to engage with experts in the field and each other, and (3) a device that helps prevent misrepresentation (or fabrication) of data for political ends. We will also discuss the broader utility of our project and possible application to other

  20. The Scientific Basis for Law as a Public Health Tool

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Shawna L.; Popovic, Tanja; Briss, Peter A.; Goodman, Richard A.; Thombley, Melisa L.; Hahn, Robert A.; Fox, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    Systematic reviews are generating valuable scientific knowledge about the impact of public health laws, but this knowledge is not readily accessible to policy makers. We identified 65 systematic reviews of studies on the effectiveness of 52 public health laws: 27 of those laws were found effective, 23 had insufficient evidence to judge effectiveness, 1 was harmful, and 1 was found to be ineffective. This is a valuable, scientific foundation—that uses the highest relevant standard of evidence—for the role of law as a public health tool. Additional primary studies and systematic reviews are needed to address significant gaps in knowledge about the laws’ public health impact, as are energetic, sustained initiatives to make the findings available to public policy makers. PMID:19008510

  1. Importance of scientific resources among local public health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Robert P.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Duggan, Kathleen; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the perceived importance of scientific resources for decision-making, among local health department (LHD) practitioners in the U.S. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from LHD practitioners (n=849). Respondents ranked important decision-making resources, methods for learning about public health research, and academic journal use. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression was used to measure associations of individual and LHD characteristics with importance of scientific resources. Results Systematic reviews of scientific literature (24.7%) was most frequently ranked as important among scientific resources, followed by scientific reports (15.9%), general literature review articles (6.5%), and one or a few scientific studies (4.8%). Graduate-level education (aORs ranging from 1.7 to 3.5), larger LHD size (aORs ranging from 2.0 to 3.5), and leadership support (aOR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.3) were associated with a higher ranking of importance of scientific resources. Conclusions Graduate training, larger LHD size, and leadership that supports a culture of evidence-based decision-making may increase the likelihood of practitioners viewing scientific resources as important. Targeting communication channels that practitioners view as important can also guide research dissemination strategies. PMID:25689176

  2. Publication and citation of scientific software with persistent identifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    , reproducibility and reusability, archiving and the use of persistent identifiers, metrics for evaluation and validation, measuring of productivity and impact as well as the dissemination and recognition of scientific achievement. Furthermore, open access and the use and interplay of software publication, data publication and traditional paper publication have to be considered. As a contribution to improve the publication of scientific software, the project SciForge [1], funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), addresses these issues. A network of interested groups and individuals in different research areas contributes to the project to recognize, create, and act upon opportunities for the development of concepts establishing defined processes and a reference platform. Established and working mechanisms, such as the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) based on the Handle System, will be an integral part of the concept. By this way established processes and existing frameworks are extended by new possibilities to publish software and recognize its scientific contributions and achievements. [1] www.gfz-potsdam.de/sciforge

  3. The public's trust in scientific claims regarding offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Juliet E; Feezell, Jessica T; Michaud, Kristy E H; Smith, Eric R A N; Smith, Leeanna

    2010-09-01

    Our study examines how individuals decide which scientific claims and experts to believe when faced with competing claims regarding a policy issue. Using an experiment in a public opinion survey, we test the source content and credibility hypotheses to assess how much confidence people have in reports about scientific studies of the safety of offshore oil drilling along the California coast. The results show that message content has a substantial impact. People tend to accept reports of scientific studies that support their values and prior beliefs, but not studies that contradict them. Previous studies have shown that core values influence message acceptance. We find that core values and prior beliefs have independent effects on message acceptance. We also find that the sources of the claims make little difference. Finally, the public leans toward believing reports that oil drilling is riskier than previously believed.

  4. The public's trust in scientific claims regarding offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Juliet E; Feezell, Jessica T; Michaud, Kristy E H; Smith, Eric R A N; Smith, Leeanna

    2010-09-01

    Our study examines how individuals decide which scientific claims and experts to believe when faced with competing claims regarding a policy issue. Using an experiment in a public opinion survey, we test the source content and credibility hypotheses to assess how much confidence people have in reports about scientific studies of the safety of offshore oil drilling along the California coast. The results show that message content has a substantial impact. People tend to accept reports of scientific studies that support their values and prior beliefs, but not studies that contradict them. Previous studies have shown that core values influence message acceptance. We find that core values and prior beliefs have independent effects on message acceptance. We also find that the sources of the claims make little difference. Finally, the public leans toward believing reports that oil drilling is riskier than previously believed. PMID:21553598

  5. A "Sense of Place" in Public Participation in Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Public participation in scientific research (PPSR) within the natural sciences has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to expand cognitive knowledge and understanding of ecology, with implications regarding individual perspectives, attitudes, and behaviors about the environment and feelings about the personal relevance of science. Yet the…

  6. Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Scientific Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Allan

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of media coverage and public opinion in scientific controversy. A survey of coverage of controversies arising regarding sociobiology, water fluoridation, nuclear power and the Three Mile Island disaster indicates that the media play an active role in shaping and constructing controversy rather than just reporting it. (JMF)

  7. Fiction and scientific communication about volcanoes for the young public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonach, H.; Drouin, V.

    2003-12-01

    Since January 2002, I have developed a new type of interactive web site for scientific news and communications about volcanic activities on the Earth and in our solar system. With the help of a small team (including an illustrator) based in GEOTOP at the University of Quebec in Montreal, I have created a monthly French language site on volcanoes including ongoing activity. Our multimedia site www.vickivolka.uqam.ca, combines open-style scientific news, including texts and pictures with scientific explanations. The originality lies in both the content and site structure. The monthly renewals inform the public on volcanic news but also on academic research and scientific experiments that young people can perform at home. We thus link breaking volcanic news with a deeper understanding of the processes and knowledge. Another original aspect is the use of fictional characters (Vicki and Anaky) who present the news and describe their adventures during the volcanic trips (volcanological, geographical, historic contents). Additional sections include interactive functions. Based on the success of this web site (published at the moment in French) - as evidenced notably by numerous primary school visits - we are planning to translate it in English very soon. This mixture of fiction with real world stories and scientific knowledge is an unusual effort by practising researchers and collaborators to strengthen links between the academic world and the general public, especially with children and educators.

  8. Toolkit for evaluating impacts of public participation in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonney, R.; Phillips, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Toolkit for Evaluating Impacts of Public Participation in Scientific Research is being developed to meet a major need in the field of visitor studies: To provide project developers and other professionals, especially those with limited knowledge or understanding of evaluation techniques, with a systematic method for assessing project impact that facilitates longitudinal and cross-project comparisons. The need for the toolkit was first identified at the Citizen Science workshop held at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in 2007 (McEver et al. 2007) and reaffirmed by a CAISE inquiry group that produced the recent report: "Public Participation in Scientific Research: Defining the Field and Assessing its Potential for Informal Science Education" (Bonney et al. 2009). This presentation will introduce the Toolkit, show how it is intended to be used, and describe ways that project directors can use their programmatic goals and use toolkit materials to outline a plan for evaluating the impacts of their project.

  9. Influencing public policies: Two (very good) reasons to look toward scientific knowledge in public policy.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, François; Bellefleur, Olivier

    2014-07-11

    The healthy public policy movement rests on the belief that a range of public policies should be at least partly informed by evidence demonstrating the positive effects of these policies on population health, health inequalities and their determinants. In order to address certain difficulties that the movement faces, knowledge produced in various scientific disciplines regarding public policies may provide some valuable guidance. In this short commentary, we examine how knowledge from the scientific disciplines investigating public policies makes it possible to address two difficulties in the development of healthy public policies: 1) adequately anticipating the effects of public policies, and 2) assessing the political viability of the policies being promoted. Since urban traffic policies are of interest to most of the other contributors to this supplement, we use examples from this field to illustrate some of our points.

  10. Translating Scientific Conclusions about Risk for Public Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change has been aptly described as a problem of risk management, yet the scientific community has not been successful in helping the public engage in risk management effectively. Behavioral science studies demonstrate that, while the public generally accepts the reality of anthropogenic climate change today, the immanence of impacts and scale of risk and opportunities for effective mitigation are poorly understood. Helping the public overcome these misperceptions and engage in decision-making about climate risks is, perhaps, the climate communication community’s most urgent priority. Scientific writing and graphic conventions are poorly suited for communicating with non-scientists. Using examples from the IPCC 4th Assessment, this session will demonstrate how specific conventions in science writing and graph making have obscured critical information about climate risks. The session will further demonstrate how reformatting the graphical information can create an exceptionally clear picture of where humanity stands and the implications of various emissions pathways for the future. Attendees will appreciate how presentations of science results can be tailored to answer the public’s questions more effectively by highlighting useful information in accurate, yet accessible ways. Decision-makers and the public urgently need information about climate impact risks and the consequences of various emissions pathways. Yet written and graphic descriptions from the IPCC and other assessment agencies burden non-scientists with multiple temperature baselines (e.g., pre-Industrial, mid-20th century, late 20th century, today), two confusingly similar measures for the key human contribution to atmospheric composition (CO2 and CO2-eq), and multiple ways of describing probability and certainty. The public is further confounded by inconsistent graphic conventions in scientific figures, including inconsistent color-coding, labeling, axis orientation, and treatment of

  11. 76 FR 66717 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... announces a public teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring...

  12. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  13. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  14. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara; Adeli, Khosrow

    2014-10-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current article

  15. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application and... importation of marine mammals for scientific research purposes or for public display. (a)...

  16. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application and... importation of marine mammals for scientific research purposes or for public display. (a)...

  17. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application and... importation of marine mammals for scientific research purposes or for public display. (a)...

  18. How to measure the internationality of scientific publications.

    PubMed

    Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Zych, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    Although the term "internationality" has never been defined by consensus, it is commonly used as a synonym of quality. Even though its meaning has never been established, internationality is frequently used to evaluate scientists, publications, or universities in many different countries. The present investigation is based on the opinion about the meaning of the concept "internationality" of the members of scientific community, represented by a broad sample of 16,056 scientists from 109 countries working in all the fields of knowledge defined by UNESCO. The sample was randomly selected from the Web of Science database from the scientists who have published at least one article in one of the journals indexed by the database. A questionnaire based on eleven criteria was designed for the purpose of the study. As a result, the first measure of internationality has been obtained. The most important criteria of internationality are: the publication language, online access, and international publication standards. There are significant differences among geographic zones and fields of knowledge.

  19. Mismatches between 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science.

    PubMed

    Mikulak, Anna

    2011-06-01

    As differentiation within scientific disciplines increases, so does differentiation between the sciences and other ways of knowing. This distancing between 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' cultures reflects differences in what are considered valid and reliable approaches to acquiring knowledge and has played a major role in recent science-oriented controversies. Scientists' reluctance to actively engage in science communication, coupled with journalists' reliance on the norms of balance, conflict, and human interest in covering scientific issues, have combined to exacerbate public mistrust of science on issues like the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. The failure of effective communications between scientists and non-scientists has hindered the progress of both effective science and effective policy. In order to better bridge the gap between the 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' cultures, renewed efforts must be made to encourage substantive public engagement, with the ultimate goal of facilitating an open, democratic policy-making process.

  20. [North-South relations in scientific publications: editorial racism?].

    PubMed

    Victora, Cesar G; Moreira, Carmen B

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to comment on the possible existence of editorial prejudice among the editors of scientific journals from Northern countries against Southern authors. We highlight that a study using bibliometric methods documented an important imbalance in terms of the international scientific production of health researchers from high-income countries (the "North") and those from low and middle-income countries (the "South"). In a survey of Brazilian researchers, three in every four blamed this imbalance, at least in part, on prejudice among international editors. This is supported by the fact that a very small percentage of editorial board members of international journals come from the South. Although prejudice can explain part of the imbalance, there are also specific measures that may increase the likelihood of a paper from the South being accepted in international journals. These include the need to invest in the quality of the written text, and to show empathy with editors and readers, emphasizing the contribution of the manuscript to the international literature. Finally, we discuss whether research carried out in the South should be published in national or international journals, and suggest that there are at least six dimensions to this choice. These include language and target audience; type of contribution to knowledge; generalizability; citation index; speed of publication; and open access. The rapid growth in the number of Brazilian contributions to the international health literature shows that editorial prejudice, although often present, can be effectively offset by research with solid methodology and good-quality presentation.

  1. [War on Drugs or War against Health? The pitfalls for public health of Puerto Rican drug policy].

    PubMed

    Santiago-Negrón, Salvador; Albizu-García, Carmen E

    2003-03-01

    Puerto Rico has followed the United States in adopting drug policy sustained on a criminal justice model that limits the opportunities to address problematic drug use through public health interventions. Demand for illegal drugs is controlled by criminalizing drug use and applying jail sentences for drug offenses. These strategies marginalize drug users and reduce opportunities to minimize health risks applying public health measures. Production and sale of illegal drugs is criminalized with the intent of dissuading drug use, with adverse unintended health effects that impact both drug users and non-drug users in the community. The present work reviews the assumptions of the punitive prohibitionist model and its outcomes that present themselves as public health challenges in Puerto Rico. It also presents those principles that should sustain pragmatic drug policy to address problematic drug use from a health and social perspective.

  2. Abstraction the public from scientific - applied meteorological-climatologic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanoska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical and meteorological statistic processing of meteorological-climatologic data, which includes assessment of the exactness, level of confidence of the average and extreme values, frequencies (probabilities) of the occurrence of each meteorological phenomenon and element e.t.c. helps to describe the impacts climate may have on different social and economic activities (transportation, heat& power generation), as well as on human health. Having in mind the new technology and the commercial world, during the work with meteorological-climatologic data we have meet many different challenges. Priority in all of this is the quality of the meteorological-climatologic set of data. First, we need compatible modern, sophisticated measurement and informatics solution for data. Results of this measurement through applied processing and analyze is the second branch which is very important also. Should we all (country) need that? Today we have many unpleasant events connected with meteorology, many questions which are not answered and all of this has too long lasting. We must give the answers and solve the real and basic issue. In this paper the data issue will be presented. We have too much of data but so little of real and quality applied of them, Why? There is a data for: -public applied -for jurisdiction needs -for getting fast decision-solutions (meteorological-dangerous phenomenon's) -for getting decisions for long-lasting plans -for explore in different sphere of human living So, it is very important for what kind of data we are talking. Does the data we are talking are with public or scientific-applied character? So,we have two groups. The first group which work with the data direct from the measurement place and instrument. They are store a quality data base and are on extra help to the journalists, medical workers, human civil engineers, electromechanical engineers, agro meteorological and forestry engineer e.g. The second group do work with all scientific

  3. 76 FR 47271 - Implementation of Scientific Integrity Principles: Draft Plan for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Implementation of Scientific Integrity Principles: Draft Plan for Public Comment AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: National Science Foundation (NSF) Implementation of Scientific Integrity...

  4. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  5. Public health care in Europe: moral aspirations, ideological obsessions, and structural pitfalls in a post-enlightenment culture.

    PubMed

    Azguridienė, Guoda; Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2015-04-01

    This essay focuses on the challenge European states have imposed on themselves, namely, to provide state-of-the-art health care equally to all and for less than market price. Continued endorsement of that challenge in these states hinges on their character as media democracies: the public is moved by a supposed morally warranted expectation that all should receive adequate health care at no significant personal cost. The structural and economic constraints that hamper such forms of healthcare delivery result in systems that are financially inefficient and fail to provide the quality of treatment patients are led to expect. This essay examines the tension between secular moral claims to social solidarity and the actual limits of accessibility to healthcare services. Its critical focus addresses both the difficulties that result from politicians invoking high moral ideals while framing their decisions around short-term political advantage, and the transformation of the Enlightenment's secular aspirations into a political ideology that distorts such moral ideals. This essay concludes that the commitments to very particular notions of equality and human dignity, which frame contemporary Europe's provision of publicly subsidized health care, have given rise to a governance that is morally incoherent and unsustainable. This failure of public health care in Europe can thus be read as one more belated manifestation of the epistemological and moral failure of the Enlightenment's secularizing project, a failure which should invite contemporary Europeans to honestly face the moral challenge of postmodernity.

  6. Public health care in Europe: moral aspirations, ideological obsessions, and structural pitfalls in a post-enlightenment culture.

    PubMed

    Azguridienė, Guoda; Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2015-04-01

    This essay focuses on the challenge European states have imposed on themselves, namely, to provide state-of-the-art health care equally to all and for less than market price. Continued endorsement of that challenge in these states hinges on their character as media democracies: the public is moved by a supposed morally warranted expectation that all should receive adequate health care at no significant personal cost. The structural and economic constraints that hamper such forms of healthcare delivery result in systems that are financially inefficient and fail to provide the quality of treatment patients are led to expect. This essay examines the tension between secular moral claims to social solidarity and the actual limits of accessibility to healthcare services. Its critical focus addresses both the difficulties that result from politicians invoking high moral ideals while framing their decisions around short-term political advantage, and the transformation of the Enlightenment's secular aspirations into a political ideology that distorts such moral ideals. This essay concludes that the commitments to very particular notions of equality and human dignity, which frame contemporary Europe's provision of publicly subsidized health care, have given rise to a governance that is morally incoherent and unsustainable. This failure of public health care in Europe can thus be read as one more belated manifestation of the epistemological and moral failure of the Enlightenment's secularizing project, a failure which should invite contemporary Europeans to honestly face the moral challenge of postmodernity. PMID:25676731

  7. Mediastinal Imaging Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Sivan; Truong, Mylene T; Marom, Edith M

    2016-06-01

    Potential pitfalls in the interpretation of diseases involving the mediastinum are seen when imaging with computed tomography and [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography. These pitfalls can involve any mediastinal structure, including the mediastinal vessels, heart, lymph nodes, thymus, trachea, esophagus, and fat. Misinterpretation of normal variants or benign conditions as pathology can affect staging and alter treatment. After reading this review, the reader should be able to identify common mediastinal imaging pitfalls and apply ancillary measures to confirm the correct diagnosis and thus reach an accurate diagnosis to facilitate correct patient treatment. PMID:27261349

  8. Persistent data archives, data publication, authorship and scientific recognition (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Why don’t researchers get nearly as much credit for collecting and publishing high-quality data sets as they do for even a preliminary interpretation of data collected by themselves or by others? That does not seem fair! In the natural sciences, observations collected once can almost never be acquired again, nor can many experiments be repeated. These observations, therefore, are unique by definition, and hence might well become immensely valuable to future scientists. One would think, therefore that a premium should be placed on excellent data science, including peer-review, publication in secure, yet transparently accessible locations, commonly accepted citation standards, and full professional credit and recognition accorded to the practitioners. Technological options opened by today’s management, curation and on-line distribution of multi-disciplinary digital data sets make this an achievable goal. The new ICSU World Data System (WDS) is conceived as a global federated system of long-term data archives and data related services covering a wide spectrum of the sciences, and encouraging interdisciplinary science approaches. Because different disciplines (e.g. seismology, oceanography, astronomy, space sciences, biodiversity, health and social sciences) have developed domain-specific efficient answers to their own data challenges, WDS will by necessity evolve as a system of data systems. Nonetheless, certain overarching principles must be shared by all components: the main focus of WDS is on the long-term stewardship of scientific data (so that the value of data holdings might actually increase with time.) This calls, for instance, for the development and adoption of quality control practices, analysis and metadata services, and data publication services that can be recognized across domain boundaries. The latter will require a strong relationship with science publishers and libraries. Another focus point will be assisting scientists in developing a data

  9. Automatic Extraction of Metadata from Scientific Publications for CRIS Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Aleksandar; Ivanovic, Dragan; Milosavljevic, Branko; Konjovic, Zora; Surla, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a system for automatic extraction of metadata from scientific papers in PDF format for the information system for monitoring the scientific research activity of the University of Novi Sad (CRIS UNS). Design/methodology/approach: The system is based on machine learning and performs automatic extraction…

  10. NASA's Plan for Improving Public Access to Federally Funded Scientific Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.

    2013-12-01

    In February, 2013, OSTP issued a policy to all Federal agencies directing those that engage in $100 million or greater of federally funded research and development expenditures to develop an agency public access plan. The plan must consider both digital scientific data and scientific publications. This talk will review how NASA is currently complying with this OSTP directive, and NASA's plan for improving the public's ability to locate and access digital data and scientific publications resulting from NASA funded research. Updating NASA's policy will occur during FY 2014 and implementation of new policies and guidance will be in place by FY 2015.

  11. [Bad behaviors regarding research and scientific and medical publication].

    PubMed

    Sculier, J P

    2013-01-01

    Since a few years, the number of cases of fraud reported in the scientific and medical literature and retraction of articles has increased exponentially. Such fraud is due to fabrication, falsification, theft, embellishment or retention of data, plagiarism, incorrect list of authors or undisclosed conflicts of interest. This tendency has been explained by the need to publish for career advancement or the future of the department, the search for notoriety, the desire to grow rich and the lack of motivation to seek the truth. This crisis can be controlled by measures at different levels: society, universities, scientific institutions, study promoters, scientific and medical journals. A legal framework at EU level would allow to combat such fraud more efficiently.

  12. 78 FR 40743 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC OPHPR) In accordance with... Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR... Address Contact Person for More Information: Marquita Black, Office of Science and Public Health...

  13. 78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal... of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, HHS, 1600 Clifton Road,...

  14. 76 FR 77235 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal... of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, HHS, 1600 Clifton Road...

  15. Turkish endocrine surgery publications in international scientific journals

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Batuhan; Alçı, Erman; Hasanov, Ruslan; Mulailua, Kilongo; Makay, Özer; Koçak, Savaş

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In recent years, major progress has been made in the field of endocrine surgery in Turkey, similar to that in the rest of the world. Parallel to these developments, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications in the related field. Our study aimed to evaluate Turkey’s publications related to endocrine surgery in the international arena. Material and Methods: Members of the general surgery departments from academic centers in Turkey were determined. Using these member names, a PubMed search was performed for English papers related to “endocrine surgery.” For searching papers from non-academic centers, the same engine was used. To reach manuscripts possibly missed by the PubMed search, 3 national calls were made through the website of the Turkish Society of Endocrine Surgery. The obtained papers were divided into “thyroid,” “parathyroid,” “adrenal,” and “neuroendocrine tumors” and were listed according to the publication year. In addition, all manuscripts were listed according to the publishing journal and the 2012 impact factor of that journal. This study did not require ethical approval, because it did not involve evaluation of experimental or patient data. Results: A search of Turkish general surgery clinics revealed 497 international publications, between 1976 and 2012. When listed according to the year of publication, most publications were found to be in the year 2009. Papers appeared mostly in “Surgery Today.” The mean impact factor of the journals where the papers have been published was 1.9 (0.1–13.8). The rates of thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal tissue and neuroendocrine tumors related publications were 69%, 10%, 15% and 6%, respectively. Since this study is not an experimental study or a study related to patient data, we did not apply for ethical approval. Conclusion: The contribution of Turkish general surgeons’ to world science is apparent when evaluated in terms of publications related to

  16. Self-correction in biomedical publications and the scientific impact

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A.; Kitas, George D.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To analyze mistakes and misconduct in multidisciplinary and specialized biomedical journals. Methods We conducted searches through PubMed to retrieve errata, duplicate, and retracted publications (as of January 30, 2014). To analyze publication activity and citation profiles of countries, multidisciplinary, and specialized biomedical journals, we referred to the latest data from the SCImago Journal & Country Rank database. Total number of indexed articles and values of the h-index of the fifty most productive countries and multidisciplinary journals were recorded and linked to the number of duplicate and retracted publications in PubMed. Results Our analysis found 2597 correction items. A striking increase in the number of corrections appeared in 2013, which is mainly due to 871 (85.3%) corrections from PLOS One. The number of duplicate publications was 1086. Articles frequently published in duplicate were reviews (15.6%), original studies (12.6%), and case reports (7.6%), whereas top three retracted articles were original studies (10.1%), randomized trials (8.8%), and reviews (7%). A strong association existed between the total number of publications across countries and duplicate (rs = 0.86, P < 0.001) and retracted items (rs = 0.812, P < 0.001). A similar trend was found between country-based h-index values and duplicate and retracted publications. Conclusion The study suggests that the intensified self-correction in biomedicine is due to the attention of readers and authors, who spot errors in their hub of evidence-based information. Digitization and open access confound the staggering increase in correction notices and retractions. PMID:24577829

  17. Contested evidence: Exposure to competing scientific claims and public support for banning bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul R; Ley, Barbara L

    2014-05-01

    The public controversy surrounding bisphenol A (BPA) revolves around competing claims about what scientific evidence shows regarding the effects of the chemical on human health. This study uses an experiment embedded within a public opinion survey to test the effects of exposure to such claims on public support for banning the use of BPA in products. Exposure to the claim that "there is not enough scientific evidence that BPA harms human health" reduced support, whereas exposure to the claim that there "is enough scientific evidence" failed to increase support. No effect emerged among those simultaneously exposed to both claims. The "not enough evidence" claim influenced less educated respondents and women but not college-educated respondents or men. Aspects of the underlying structure of opinion also differed depending on which claim(s) respondents received. The results illuminate how members of the public respond to competing scientific claims regarding controversial issues.

  18. 78 FR 66938 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC OPHPR) Cancellation This..., Telephone: (404) 639-7325; Facsimile: (404) 639-7977; Email: OPHPR.BSC.Questions@cdc.gov . This notice...

  19. 75 FR 66089 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: There will be a 2-day meeting of the Federal Insecticide,...

  20. 77 FR 1677 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review Methods for Efficacy... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions...

  1. Seminar on Foci for Progress in Scientific Publications: A Summary and Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH.

    A one-day seminar was convened on November 4, 1969, to consider problems involved in communicating scientific information and the progress that has been made in improving the scientific publication mechanism. Thirty participants representing different types of information producers, users, and organizations contributed to the seminar discussion.…

  2. 75 FR 51239 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Bureau of the Census Census Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of the.... Census Bureau) is giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The...: Members of the C-SAC are appointed by the Director, U.S. Census Bureau. The Committee provides...

  3. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  4. 76 FR 65722 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... AGENCY Notification of Two Public Teleconferences; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) to discuss its draft review of EPA's Integrated Science... CASAC was established pursuant to the under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1977, codified at 42...

  5. Publication Bias ( The "File-Drawer Problem") in Scientific Inference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Publication bias arises whenever the probability that a study is published depends on the statistical significance of its results. This bias, often called the file-drawer effect since the unpublished results are imagined to be tucked away in researchers' file cabinets, is potentially a severe impediment to combining the statistical results of studies collected from the literature. With almost any reasonable quantitative model for publication bias, only a small number of studies lost in the file-drawer will produce a significant bias. This result contradicts the well known Fail Safe File Drawer (FSFD) method for setting limits on the potential harm of publication bias, widely used in social, medical and psychic research. This method incorrectly treats the file drawer as unbiased, and almost always miss-estimates the seriousness of publication bias. A large body of not only psychic research, but medical and social science studies, has mistakenly relied on this method to validate claimed discoveries. Statistical combination can be trusted only if it is known with certainty that all studies that have been carried out are included. Such certainty is virtually impossible to achieve in literature surveys.

  6. Enabling public data sharing: encouraging scientific discovery and education.

    PubMed

    Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2009-01-01

    To promote scientific discovery and education, the federated Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) Data Repository (BDR) supports data storage, sharing, querying, and downloading for the biomedical community, enabling the integration of multiple data resources from a single entry point. The BDR encourages data sharing both for investigators requesting assistance with databasing and informatics infrastructure, and for those wishing to extend the reach of existing data resources to be registered with the BDR. Both approaches rely heavily on data integration and knowledge management techniques, ensuring capabilities for intelligent exploration of diverse data resources that make up the BDR's shared environment. Although the development of the BDR has been driven by BIRN testbeds in the fields of neuroscience and neuroimaging, the infrastructure is flexible and extendable to serve a broad array of disciplines, fueling interdisciplinary studies. For a welcoming environment, the BDR provides simple, straightforward policies and procedures for contributing data and for using available data. Contributing investigators provide information through the BDR Gridsphere-based Portal environment to allow meaningful sharing of their data, and, when relevant, supply documentation for human subjects' protection. The BDR aims to provide a common resource to increase the availability of, and access to, rare data; complex, sizable data; and existing data sharing structures in support of research and education in the scientific and clinical communities. PMID:19623484

  7. [Publishing--weighty characteristic of scientific productivity (analysis of scientific publications of 15-years period since Chernobyl catastrophe)].

    PubMed

    Bebeshko, V H; Bazyka, D A; Chumak, A A; Zapisochnyĭ, O Z

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out a complex analysis of scientific reports of the RCRM for the last 15-years since Chernobyl holocaust. One may notice considerable growth of circulation and quality coefficient of publication of scientific research. The tendency shape of the publications over a period of 1986-2001 looks like a straight line and dynamics of references on RCRM publications--an exponential curve. Degree of scientific effort connected with priority directions of the RCRM considerably exceed similar indices in the world. Studies of immunological and hematological irradiation effects, radiation shielding of population, radiation impact on a fetus and offspring are being carried out most intensively nowadays. The article highlights the innovations in the work of the center as a leading part of the research of the RCRM closely tied with the Chernobyl tragedy and its medical consequences, urgent need to improve and develop methodical and directive documents to make better health care management of Ukrainian people suffered from Chernobyl disaster. The above-mentioned consequences and accumulated experience of their resolution having global character, are not only important for Ukraine, but also have an international value.

  8. Toward a Networked Publication and Library System for Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittert, Nicolas; Diepenbroek, Michael; Grobe, Hannes

    2007-11-01

    World Data Center Conference 2007; Bremerhaven, Germany, 7-9 May 2007 Almost 50 years ago, the World Data Center (WDC) system was founded through the International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU) in order to archive and distribute data collected from the observational programs of the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year. Originally established in the United States, Europe, Russia, and Japan, the WDC system has since expanded to 51 centers in 12 countries. Its current holdings are transdisciplinary and include a wide range of solar, geophysical, environmental, and human dimensions data covering timescales ranging from seconds to millennia. These data provide the baseline information for research in many ICSU disciplines, but especially for monitoring changes in the geosphere and biosphere.

  9. Using Astronomy to Promote a Scientific Culture in the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, O.

    2009-05-01

    The new ``Planetario Habana'' Cultural Centre for Science and Technology under construction is a joint project between the Office of the Historian of the City of Havana and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba. The whole centre will be aimed at guiding the interest towards basic sciences and astronomical formation of the people, in the most populated and frequented area of the country. A key objective of this project shall be serving as an instructive motivation and entertainment for the casual or habitual visitors to these facilities, offering them the possibility to enjoy vivid representations, play with interactive amusement equipments and listen to instructive presentations on astronomy and related sciences guided by qualified specialists, professors and outstanding university students. Another fundamental purpose shall be the establishment of a plan for educational complementation in coordination with schools in order to allow children and young people to participate in activities enabling them to get into the fascinating world of Astronomy, Exploration of Outer Space and Life as Cosmic Phenomenon. The setting up of the ``Planetario Habana'' Cultural Centre for Science and Technology will show in function the GOTO Planetarium G Cuba custom obtained under a Japanese Cultural Grant Aid. This centre shall develop into a nonpareil pole in the national environment for the scientific outreach and education of these sciences. Surrounded by the attractiveness of the colonial ``ambience'' of the Old Town of Havana, it shall become a centre for dissemination of information about new discoveries and scientific programs developed at national and international level. Here we present a general view of the project, its objectives, and its present and future development.

  10. Open semantic annotation of scientific publications using DOMEO

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our group has developed a useful shared software framework for performing, versioning, sharing and viewing Web annotations of a number of kinds, using an open representation model. Methods The Domeo Annotation Tool was developed in tandem with this open model, the Annotation Ontology (AO). Development of both the Annotation Framework and the open model was driven by requirements of several different types of alpha users, including bench scientists and biomedical curators from university research labs, online scientific communities, publishing and pharmaceutical companies. Several use cases were incrementally implemented by the toolkit. These use cases in biomedical communications include personal note-taking, group document annotation, semantic tagging, claim-evidence-context extraction, reagent tagging, and curation of textmining results from entity extraction algorithms. Results We report on the Domeo user interface here. Domeo has been deployed in beta release as part of the NIH Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF, http://www.neuinfo.org) and is scheduled for production deployment in the NIF’s next full release. Future papers will describe other aspects of this work in detail, including Annotation Framework Services and components for integrating with external textmining services, such as the NCBO Annotator web service, and with other textmining applications using the Apache UIMA framework. PMID:22541592

  11. Offshore scientific and technical publications, February-July, Spring 1989. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The catalog lists all current (1987-1989) scientific and technical publications of the Offshore Minerals Management Program. The catalog is updated and released on a quarterly basis in winter, spring, summer, and fall. Publications available after July 21, 1989, will be listed in the next issue.

  12. 76 FR 37356 - 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public Meeting; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  13. Ethics and Scientific Integrity in Public Health, Epidemiological and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Barker, Amyre; Dawson, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The ethics and scientific integrity of biomedical and public health research requires that researchers behave in appropriate ways. However, this requires more than following of published research guidelines that seek to prevent scientific misconduct relating to serious deviations from widely accepted scientific norms for proposing, conducting, and reporting research (e.g., fabrication or falsification of research data or failures to report potential conflicts of interest). In this paper we argue for a broader account of scientific integrity, one consistent with that defended by the United States Institute of Medicine, involving a commitment to intellectual honesty and personal responsibility for one’s actions as a researcher and to practices consistent with the responsible conduct of research and protection of the research participants. Maintaining high standards of ethical and scientific integrity helps to maintain public trust in the research enterprise. An increasing number of authors have pointed to the importance of mentoring and education in relation to the responsible conduct of science in preventing transgressions of scientific integrity. Just like in clinical research and biomedicine, epidemiologists and other public health researchers have the responsibility to exhibit and foster the very highest standards of scientific integrity. PMID:24532867

  14. Scientific publications in international anaesthesiology journals: a 10-year survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Qiu, L-X; Wu, F-X; Yang, L-Q; Sun, S; Yu, W F

    2011-03-01

    Significant growth has been seen in the field of anaesthesiology in recent decades. The current geographic distribution of the publications on anaesthesia research may be different from ten years ago. We performed this literature survey to examine the national origin of articles published in international anaesthesiology journals and to evaluate their contribution to anaesthesia research. Articles published in 18 major anaesthesiology journals from 2000 to 2009 were identified from the PubMed database and the Science Citation Index. A total of 30,191 articles were published in the selected 18 journals from 2000 to 2009. The country responsible for the largest number of articles was the United States of America (29.4%), followed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Canada, Australia and France. Denmark, Switzerland and Finland had the largest number of articles per capita. Anesthesia & Analgesia published the most number of articles from 2000 to 2009, followed by Anesthesiology, Pain and the British Journal of Anaesthesia. The numbers of clinical studies and randomised controlled trials decreased markedly from 2000 to 2009.

  15. Scientific publications in international anaesthesiology journals: a 10-year survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Qiu, L-X; Wu, F-X; Yang, L-Q; Sun, S; Yu, W F

    2011-03-01

    Significant growth has been seen in the field of anaesthesiology in recent decades. The current geographic distribution of the publications on anaesthesia research may be different from ten years ago. We performed this literature survey to examine the national origin of articles published in international anaesthesiology journals and to evaluate their contribution to anaesthesia research. Articles published in 18 major anaesthesiology journals from 2000 to 2009 were identified from the PubMed database and the Science Citation Index. A total of 30,191 articles were published in the selected 18 journals from 2000 to 2009. The country responsible for the largest number of articles was the United States of America (29.4%), followed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Canada, Australia and France. Denmark, Switzerland and Finland had the largest number of articles per capita. Anesthesia & Analgesia published the most number of articles from 2000 to 2009, followed by Anesthesiology, Pain and the British Journal of Anaesthesia. The numbers of clinical studies and randomised controlled trials decreased markedly from 2000 to 2009. PMID:21485677

  16. CT Colonography: Pitfalls in Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Kim, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis As with any radiologic imaging test, there are a number of potential interpretive pitfalls at CT colonography (CTC) that need to be recognized and handled appropriately. Perhaps the single most important step in learning to avoid most of these diagnostic traps is simply to be aware of their existence. With a little experience, most of these potential pitfalls will be easily recognized. This review will systematically cover the key pitfalls confronting the radiologist at CTC interpretation, primarily dividing them into those related to technique and those related to underlying anatomy. Tips and pointers for how to effectively handle these potential pitfalls are included. PMID:23182508

  17. [History in the public communication of specialist scientific societies: history marketing].

    PubMed

    Moll, F H; Halling, T; Rathert, P; Fangerau, H

    2014-10-01

    History is nowadays used as an economic factor. The past is therefore specifically targeted and cultivated, which for specialist scientific associations and societies often fullfils totally different functions in comparison to the open market, although the techniques and requirements are similar. Within medical specialties these facts are often still unknown. Museums and archives as well as the historians and curators working in them are very familiar with the special cultures of communication within these scientific communities and they play a major role in the establishment and development of history as a modern part of public relations and public identity. PMID:25292311

  18. 75 FR 54146 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS) to provide advice... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC), Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) AGENCY:...

  19. Trusted Sources: The Role Scientific Societies Can Play in Improving Public Opinions on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, C.; Cairns, A.; Buhrman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public acceptance of the scientific consensus regarding climate change has eroded and misinformation designed to confuse the public is rapidly proliferating. Those issues, combined with an increase of politically motivated attacks on climate scientists and their research, have led to a place where ideology can trump scientific consensus as the foundation for developing policy solutions. The scientific community has been, thus far, unprepared to respond effectively to these developments. However, as a scientific society whose members engage in climate science research, and one whose organizational mission and vision are centered on the concepts of science for the benefit of humanity and ensuring a sustainable future, the American Geophysical Union can, and should, play an important role in reversing this trend. To that end, in 2011, AGU convened a Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication, in which presidents, executive directors, and senior public policy staff from 17 scientific organizations engaged with experts in the social sciences regarding effective communication of climate science and with practitioners from agriculture, energy, and the military. The discussions focused on three key issues: the environment of climate science communication; public understanding of climate change; and the perspectives of consumers of climate science-based information who work with specific audiences. Participants diagnosed previous challenges and failings, enumerated the key constituencies that need to be effectively engaged, and identified the critical role played by cultural cognition—the influence of group values, particularly around equality and authority, individualism, and community; and the perceptions of risk. Since that meeting, AGU has consistently worked to identify and explore ways that it, and its members, and improve the effectiveness of their communication with the public about climate change. This presentation will focus on the insights AGU has

  20. The Role of Emotional Factors in Building Public Scientific Literacy and Engagement with Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R.; Huang, Tai-Chu

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the database from an extensive international study on 15-year-old students (N = 8,815) to analyze the relationship between emotional factors and students' scientific literacy and explore the potential link between the emotions of the students and subsequent public engagement with science. The results revealed that students' scientific literacy is significantly correlated with their interest, enjoyment, and engagement in science learning (p < 0.001). The groups of students with high levels of emotional factors outperform their medium- and low-level counterparts in scientific literacy. Additional comparisons of emotions during science learning between these students and the adult population from another study indicate a number of similarities with the exception that the adults are more involved in learning science through television. It is suggested that improving the emotions that current students experience when learning science is more likely to enhance future public engagement in science-related issues.

  1. English as an International Language of Scientific Publication: A Study of Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gibson; Perez-Llantada, Carmen; Plo, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an issue attracting increasing attention: the possible disadvantage inflicted on non-Anglophone academics by the dominance of English in scientific publication and academic exchange. We critically review the evidence for linguistic disadvantage, noting some of its limitations, and critique the native/non-native distinction as…

  2. Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

  3. Media Violence and the American Public: Scientific Facts versus Media Misinformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushman, Brad J.; Anderson, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how news coverage on the connections between media violence and aggression have left the public confused, examining whether media violence mirrors real world violence and how news reports about media violence and aggression have changed over time. Highlights the entertainment industry and scientific community, discussing why they often…

  4. 76 FR 36544 - Scientific Evaluation of Modified Risk Tobacco Product Applications; Public Workshop; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Scientific Evaluation of Modified Risk Tobacco Product... of public workshop; request for comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Tobacco... evaluation of modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) applications. The Family Smoking Prevention and...

  5. The Public Understanding of Scientific Information: Communicating, Interpreting, and Applying the Science of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Phillips, Linda M.

    2003-01-01

    Research is conducted in abstract contexts that inhibit practical application. In addition, research results are often uncertain and always circumscribed. Lay people have difficulty interpreting results for use in particular situations. The media could play a significant role in the public understanding of scientific information if it would report…

  6. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  7. Media violence and the American public. Scientific facts versus media misinformation.

    PubMed

    Bushman, B J; Anderson, C A

    2001-01-01

    Fifty years of news coverage on the link between media violence and aggression have left the U.S. public confused. Typical news articles pit researchers and child advocates against entertainment industry representatives, frequently giving equal weight to the arguments of both sides. A comparison of news reports and scientific knowledge about media effects reveals a disturbing discontinuity: Over the past 50 years, the average news report has changed from claims of a weak link to a moderate link and then back to a weak link between media violence and aggression. However, since 1975, the scientific confidence and statistical magnitude of this link have been clearly positive and have consistently increased over time. Reasons for this discontinuity between news reports and the actual state of scientific knowledge include the vested interests of the news, a misapplied fairness doctrine in news reporting, and the failure of the research community to effectively argue the scientific case. PMID:11413871

  8. Does the public communication of science influence scientific vocation? Results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Stekolschik, Gabriel; Draghi, Cecilia; Adaszko, Dan; Gallardo, Susana

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if public communication of science and technology (PCST) has any influence on people's decision to become dedicated to scientific research. For this reason, a national survey involving 852 researchers from all disciplines was conducted in Argentina. The results showed that the factors affecting scientific vocation are many, and that, regardless of differences in gender, age or discipline, the greatest influence on the decision to go into scientific research is exerted by teachers. The analysis also demonstrated that different manifestations of PCST (science books, press articles, audiovisual material, and activities such as visits to science museums) play a significant role in awakening the vocation for science. From these results it may be stated that PCST--in addition to its function of informing and forming citizens--exerts a significant influence in fostering scientific vocation.

  9. The annotation and the usage of scientific databases could be improved with public issue tracker software

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Olio, Giovanni Marco; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Laayouni, Hafid

    2010-01-01

    Since the publication of their longtime predecessor The Atlas of Protein Sequences and Structures in 1965 by Margaret Dayhoff, scientific databases have become a key factor in the organization of modern science. All the information and knowledge described in the novel scientific literature is translated into entries in many different scientific databases, making it possible to obtain very accurate information on a biological entity like genes or proteins without having to manually review the literature on it. However, even for the databases with the finest annotation procedures, errors or unclear parts sometimes appear in the publicly released version and influence the research of unaware scientists using them. The researcher that finds an error in a database is often left in a uncertain state, and often abandons the effort of reporting it because of a lack of a standard procedure to do so. In the present work, we propose that the simple adoption of a public error tracker application, as in many open software projects, could improve the quality of the annotations in many databases and encourage feedback from the scientific community on the data annotated publicly. In order to illustrate the situation, we describe a series of errors that we found and helped solve on the genes of a very well-known pathway in various biomedically relevant databases. We would like to show that, even if a majority of the most important scientific databases have procedures for reporting errors, these are usually not publicly visible, making the process of reporting errors time consuming and not useful. Also, the effort made by the user that reports the error often goes unacknowledged, putting him in a discouraging position. PMID:21186182

  10. Proposal Pitfalls Plaguing Researchers: Can Technical Communicators Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemanski, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The facts bear out that the odds are against most scientific researchers and scholars--especially those just starting out--in their attempts to win funding for their research projects through their grant proposals. In this article, the author takes a close look at some of the proposal-related problems and pitfalls that have historically challenged…

  11. Publication trends in newspapers and scientific journals for SSRIs and suicidality: a systematic longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, J F; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; van Thiel, G J M W; Belitser, S V; Raaijmakers, J A M

    2011-01-01

    Background In the period 2003–2008, the regulatory authorities issued several warnings restricting the use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in paediatrics, in reaction to safety concerns regarding the risk of suicidality. In this study, the SSRIs and suicidality controversy serves as a template to analyse the long-term publication trends regarding the benefit/risk profile of medications. The aim is to ascertain differences (in terms of numbers, categories and timing) between negative and positive newspaper and journal articles on SSRIs and suicidality and to ascertain correlations between changes in the reports and regulatory warnings. Methods A systematic review of scientific articles (Embase) and the Netherlands (NL) and the UK newspapers (LexisNexis) was performed between 2000 and 2010. Categorisation was done by ‘effect’ (related treatment effect), ‘type of article’ and ‘age group’. The articles' positive-to-negative effect ratio was determined. Differences in distribution of effect categories were analysed across sources, type of article and age group using the Mann–Whitney (two subgroups) or Kruskal–Wallis test (three or more). Findings In total, 1141 articles were categorised: 352 scientific, 224 Dutch and 565 British newspaper articles. Scientific articles were predominantly on research and were positive, whereas newspaper articles were negative (ratios=3.50—scientific, 0.69—NL and 0.94—UK; p<0.001). Articles on paediatrics were less positive in scientific journals and more negative in newspapers (ratios=2.29—scientific, 0.26—NL and 0.20—UK; p<0.001), while articles on adults were positive overall (ratios=10.0—scientific, 1.06—NL and 1.70—UK; p<0.001). In addition, negative-effect reporting trends were exacerbated following regulatory warnings and were generally opinion articles, both in scientific journals and in newspapers (2003/2004 and after 2007). Interpretation The authors found a positive

  12. Bibliometric analysis of regional Latin America's scientific output in Public Health through SCImago Journal & Country Rank

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the greater framework of the essential functions of Public Health, our focus is on a systematic, objective, external evaluation of Latin American scientific output, to compare its publications in the area of Public Health with those of other major geographic zones. We aim to describe the regional distribution of output in Public Health, and the level of visibility and specialization, for Latin America; it can then be characterized and compared in the international context. Methods The primary source of information was the Scopus database, using the category “Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health”, in the period 1996–2011. Data were obtained through the portal of SCImago Journal and Country Rank. Using a set of qualitative (citation-based), quantitative (document recount) and collaborative (authors from more than one country) indicators, we derived complementary data. The methodology serves as an analytical tool for researchers and scientific policy-makers. Results The contribution of Latin America to the arsenal of world science lies more or less midway on the international scale in terms of its output and visibility. Revealed as its greatest strengths are the high level of specialization in Public Health and the sustained growth of output. The main limitations identified were a relative decrease in collaboration and low visibility. Conclusions Collaboration is a key factor behind the development of scientific activity in Latin America. Although this finding can be useful for formulating research policy in Latin American countries, it also underlines the need for further research into patterns of scientific communication in this region, to arrive at more specific recommendations. PMID:24950735

  13. Economic analysis of scientific publications and implications for energy research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, David

    2016-04-01

    The mix of public and private funding in alternative energy research makes isolating the effect of government funding challenging. Factors such as energy prices and environmental policy influence both private and public R&D decisions, and it may take several years for public R&D’s effect on technology to be realized. Here, by combining data on scientific publications for alternative energy technologies with data on government R&D support, I provide information on the lags between research funding and new publications and link these articles to citations in US energy patents. I find that US$1 million in additional government funding leads to one to two additional publications, but with lags as long as ten years between initial funding and publication. Finally, I show that adjustment costs associated with large increases in research funding are of little concern at current levels of public energy R&D support. These results suggest that there is room to expand public R&D budgets for renewable energy, but that the impact of any such expansion may not be realized for some time.

  14. Pitfalls in homozygosity mapping.

    PubMed

    Miano, M G; Jacobson, S G; Carothers, A; Hanson, I; Teague, P; Lovell, J; Cideciyan, A V; Haider, N; Stone, E M; Sheffield, V C; Wright, A F

    2000-11-01

    There is much interest in use of identity-by-descent (IBD) methods to map genes, both in Mendelian and in complex disorders. Homozygosity mapping provides a rapid means of mapping autosomal recessive genes in consanguineous families by identifying chromosomal regions that show homozygous IBD segments in pooled samples. In this report, we point out some potential pitfalls that arose during the course of homozygosity mapping of the enhanced S-cone syndrome gene, resulting from (1) unexpected allelic heterogeneity, so that the region containing the disease locus was missed as a result of pooling; (2) identification of a homozygous IBD region unrelated to the disease locus; and (3) the potential for inflation of LOD scores as a result of underestimation of the extent of inbreeding, which Broman and Weber suggest may be quite common.

  15. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31...

  16. 42 CFR 82.33 - How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process? 82.33 Section 82.33 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose...

  17. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31...

  18. 42 CFR 82.33 - How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process? 82.33 Section 82.33 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose...

  19. 76 FR 23809 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific... announces a public meeting on May 19 and 20, 2011, of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC... Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk and Exposure Assessment (April 2011 Draft), and...

  20. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31...

  1. 42 CFR 82.33 - How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process? 82.33 Section 82.33 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose...

  2. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31...

  3. 42 CFR 82.33 - How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process? 82.33 Section 82.33 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose...

  4. 42 CFR 82.33 - How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process? 82.33 Section 82.33 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose...

  5. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31...

  6. Explaining the Unexplainable: Translated Scientific Explanations (TSE) in public physics lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapon, Shulamit; Ganiel, Uri; Sheva Eylon, Bat

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the features and design of explanations in public physics lectures. It presents the findings from a comparative study of three exemplary public physics lectures, given by practicing physicists who are acknowledged as excellent public lecturers. The study uses three different perspectives: the lecture, the lecturer, and the audience (high school physics teachers and students). It concludes with a grounded theory explanatory framework for public physics lectures. The framework demonstrates that a "Translated Scientific Explanation" (TSE) draws upon four clusters of explanatory categories: analogical approach, story, knowledge organization, and content. The framework suggests how the lecturer fits the content of the presentation to the audience's knowledge throughout the lecture, taking into account the listeners' lack of necessary prior knowledge.

  7. Mediating objects: scientific and public functions of models in nineteenth-century biology.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- and three-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. I argue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions in the light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverse roles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory. Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often reflect their different audiences that included specialized scientists, students, and the general public. In this sense, models in nineteenth-century biology can be understood as mediators between theory, data, and their diverse audiences.

  8. Perspective: publication ethics and the emerging scientific workforce: understanding "plagiarism" in a global context.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    English has long been the dominant language of scientific publication, and it is rapidly approaching near-complete hegemony. The majority of the scientists publishing in English-language journals are not native English speakers, however. This imbalance has important implications for training concerning ethics and enforcement of publication standards, particularly with respect to plagiarism. The authors suggest that lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as "patchwriting" can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by nonnative speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. They propose that a rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among editors, educators, administrators, and both native-English-speaking and nonnative-English-speaking writers. They offer recommendations for creating environments in which such dialogue and training can occur.

  9. Publication Ethics and the Emerging Scientific Workforce: Understanding ‘Plagiarism’ in a Global Context

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific publication has long been dominated by the English language and is rapidly moving towards near complete hegemony of English, while the majority of the world’s publishing scientists are not native English speakers. This imbalance has important implications for training in and enforcement of publication ethics, particularly with respect to plagiarism. A lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as patchwriting can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by non-native speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. A rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among both native English speaking and non-native English speaking writers, editors, educators, and administrators. Recommendations for educating and training are provided. PMID:22104051

  10. [Scientific production in nutrition and the public perception of hunger and eating in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Marília; Lucatelli, Márcio

    2006-08-01

    There is a contradiction between the perceptions held by different sectors of the Establishment with regard to the questions of hunger and nutrition in Brazil. On the one hand, the flagship of the present Brazilian government's social policy is the "Fome Zero" program. This program is based on the notion that the condition of hunger is socially relevant in this country. On the other hand, the scientific community in the field of nutrition has, through epidemiological studies, highlighted obesity as one of the most serious public health problems in Brazil. The reason why the public perception is dissociated from the production of knowledge on this subject has old roots that are related to the difficulties in institutionalizing science in Brazil. This has been reflected in a relative lack of legitimacy for scientific discourse. The new factor in this situation is the attainment of greater international visibility by the scientific community in nutritional de epidemiology. The future of the practical application of the results from nutritional epidemiology research in Brazil depends on the dynamics of the political agenda regarding hunger and nutrition, and of the sectors associated with this. The objective of this study was to explore this situation by means of analyzing scientometric data on the scientific production, historical data and documents relating to discourse about hunger.

  11. Persistent Identifiers in the Publication and Citation of Scientific Data - Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.

    2008-12-01

    In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through

  12. Open access and openly accessible: a study of scientific publications shared via the internet

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Jonathan D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To determine how often reprints of scientific publications are shared online, whether journal readership level is a predictor, how the amount of file sharing changes with the age of the article, and to what degree open access publications are shared on non-journal websites. Design The internet was searched using an application programming interface to Google, a popular and freely available search engine. Main outcome measures The proportion of reprints of journal articles published between 1994 and 2004 from within 13 subscription based and four open access journals that could be located online at non-journal websites. Results The probability that an article could be found online at a non-journal website correlated with the journal impact factor and the time since initial publication. Papers from higher impact journals and more recent articles were more likely to be located. On average, for the high impact journal articles published in 2003, over a third could be located at non-journal websites. Similar trends were observed for the delayed or full open access publications. Conclusions Decentralised sharing of scientific reprints through the internet creates a degree of de facto open access that, though highly incomplete in its coverage, is none the less biased towards publications of higher popular demand. PMID:15827063

  13. A scientific impact indicator based on the latent ``citability'' of a researcher's publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Joao; Zeng, Xiaohan; Amaral, Luis

    2014-03-01

    How to quantify the impact of a scientist's body of work is currently a matter of great concern. The use of bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index or the Journal Impact Factor, have become widespread despite their known limitations. We surmise that many of the deficiencies of existing bibliometric indicators arise from their heuristic nature. Here, we pursue a principled approach to the development of an indicator to quantify the scientific impact of individual researchers, grounded on the functional form of the distribution of the ultimate number of citations. We validate our approach using the publication records of 1,283 researchers from seven scientific disciplines. Our approach has three distinct advantages. First, it accurately captures the overall scientific impact of researchers, as measured by ultimate citation counts. Second, in contrast to prior bibliometric indicators, our proposed measure does not depend on the number of publications, offering the possibility to compare researchers at different career stages. Third, more than other measures, our index is resistant to manipulation and rewards publication quality over quantity. The authors acknowledge the support of FCT-Portugal grant SFRH/BD/76115/2011 and NSF awards SBE 0624318 and IIS 0830388.

  14. Plagiarism in scientific research and publications and how to prevent it.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2014-04-01

    Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal

  15. Plagiarism in Scientific Research and Publications and How to Prevent It

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal

  16. Plagiarism in scientific research and publications and how to prevent it.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2014-04-01

    Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal

  17. Citation analysis for measuring the value of scientific publications: quality assessment tool or comedy of errors?

    PubMed

    Schoonbaert, D; Roelants, G

    1996-12-01

    The basic concepts of citation analysis and journal impact factors are discussed in the light of quality assessment of scientific publications, individual scientists and research units. The major controversies concerning this topic are addressed: technical limitations, database selectivity, time and discipline-related biases, language and publication type biases, multiple authorship merits and citing motivations. Both positive and negative aspects are put into perspective. The authors conclude that citation analysis, even when based on journal impact factors, can be a worthwhile criterion for evaluating publication records of individual scientists or research units, as long as some of the problems discussed are sufficiently taken into account. However, this conclusion in no way implies that citation analysis may be considered as the one and only evaluation criterion.

  18. [Pitfall in coagulation tests].

    PubMed

    Gähler, Anita; Wuillemin, Walter A

    2013-08-01

    Coagulation assays are prone to pre-analytical problems and results may be influenced by varying clinical and pharmaceutical aspects. Particularly anticoagulants interact with coagulation testing in many ways. Thromboplastin time will be prolonged dose-dependently in patients taking vitamin K antagonists; moreover the new oral anticoagulants have been shown to have variable impact on the results of the thromboplastin time as well as on other coagulation tests, depending on the mechanism of action of these new drugs as well as on the mechanism of the coagulation test. When measuring anti-Xa activity it should be realised that all drugs with anti-Xa activity will influence the result, which means not only heparins but also the new anti-Xa inhibitors. Respective calibration curves are an indispensable condition to provide the clinician with valuable results. On the other hand this implies that the laboratory knows which anticoagulant is given to the patient. This is an example among others that clinical aspects are important to know for proper interpretation of the results of coagulation testing. Other examples are e. g. bleeding disorders, actual bleeding status or thromboembolic events. Several cases are discussed which exemplify possible pitfalls in the interpretation of coagulation testing.

  19. Surgical scientific publication and the 1991-1995 war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dukić, Vanja; Udiljak, Nikola; Bartolić, Nina; Vargović, Martina; Kuduz, Robert; Boban, Natasa; Pećina, Marko; Polasek, Ozren

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical scientific publication in relation to the 1991-1995 war in Croatia, based on the articles indexed in Medline database that were published in 1980-2005 period. The number of articles was extracted from PubMed and analysed with trend analysis, which is preferred analytic approach over calculation of crude publication rates. The results indicate sporadic pre-war output, which was almost completely reduced by the onset of war. During wartime, a significant increasing trend in the number of published surgical articles that were related to warfare was detected (p = 0.003). During the post-war period a gradual shift towards surgical articles that were not related to warfare was detected, also marked by the significant increasing trend (p = 0.027). Both trends were significantly steeper than the overall Croatian biomedical output, suggesting that surgical scientific articles were being published more dynamically than in other biomedical areas in Croatia. The results suggest that war in Croatia has had a strong modifying effect on the surgical scientific output.

  20. An interdisciplinary space of scientific communication in Collective (Public) Health: the journal interface--Communication, Health, Education.

    PubMed

    Cyrino, Antonio Pithon; Lima, Elizabeth Araújo; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Teixeira, Ricardo Rodrigues; Foresti, Miriam Celí Pimentel Porto; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2015-07-01

    This is a reflection upon 17 years of experience in the production of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, the publication "Interface: Communication, Health, Education," whose scope is in the fields of Collective (Public) Health, Education and Communication. It also examines retrospectively the themes published by the journal, seeking to identify them in different sections of this publication. Finally, the evolution of the journal is analyzed.

  1. Improving Scientific Communication and Publication Output in a Multidisciplinary Laboratory: Changing Culture Through Staff Development Workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, Christine F.; Stratton, Kelly G.

    2015-07-13

    Communication plays a fundamental role in science and engineering disciplines. However, many higher education programs provide little, if any, technical communication coursework. Without strong communication skills scientists and engineers have less opportunity to publish, obtain competitive research funds, or grow their careers. This article describes the role of scientific communication training as an innovative staff development program in a learning-intensive workplace – a national scientific research and development laboratory. The findings show that involvement in the workshop has increased overall participating staff annual publications by an average of 61 percent compared to their pre-workshop publishing performance as well as confidence level in their ability to write and publish peer-reviewed literature. Secondary benefits include improved information literacy skills and the development of informal communities of practice. This work provides insight into adult education in the workplace.

  2. Identification of trends in scientific publications related to genetic polymorphisms in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J S; Minasi, L B; da Cruz, A D; Rodrigues, F M

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes is a genetic multifactorial systemic disease that has been extensively studied. Consequently, there is a large volume of scientific literature pertaining to genes associated with gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to characterize the main trends in scientific publications focusing on the associations between genetic polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The related articles were extracted from Scopus using the key words "genetic polymorphism" and "gestational diabetes mellitus"; the collected data focused on various fields (medical, biochemical, etc.) and included papers published within December 2013. One hundred and eighty-three relevant articles published between 1987 and 2013 were identified; we observed a significantly increasing trend in the number of publications pertaining to GDM. A majority of the articles focused on the medical (59.9%), biochemical, and genetics and molecular biological (29.6%) aspects of the disease. The genes coding for transcription factor 7-like 2 and glucokinase (TCF7L2, 29% and GCK, 28%) were predominantly studied and reported. This study helped quantify the growth in research pertaining to GDM; researchers from the USA have published a majority of the publications related to GDM. Several candidate genes have been linked to diabetes; however, the specific gene locus responsible for GDM has not yet been identified. The results of this study could help determine the orientation of future research on genetic factors associated with GDM. PMID:27173344

  3. Scientific basis for the Soviet and Russian radiofrequency standards for the general public.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, Michael; Grigoriev, Yuri; Buschmann, Jochen; Pioli, Claudio

    2012-12-01

    The former Soviet Union (USSR) and the USA were the first countries to introduce standards limiting exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. However, the exposure limits in the USSR standards were always much lower than those in the USA and other countries. The objective of this article is to provide a history of the development of the Soviet and Russian RF standards. In addition, we summarize the scientific evidence used to develop the original USSR RF and subsequent Russian public health standards, as well as the mobile telecommunications standard published in 2003, but we do not critique them. We also describe the protective approaches used by the Soviet and Russian scientists for setting their limits. A translation of the papers of the key studies used to develop their standards is available in the online version of this publication.

  4. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz scientific publication from 1900 to 1917, an exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Weltman, Wanda Latmann

    2002-01-01

    The present article is an exploratory study on the scientific material published by Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) from 1900 to 1917. It aims at characterizing the initial production of the institute and its scientists' concern with information. In order to characterize such production, publication data and citation analysis have been used. Through a comparative analysis of publication data and their citations by other scientists, the author evaluates part of IOC scientists' behavior towards the quality of products and as information users. The present study builds up a general view of those scientists' areas of activities and interests in the period 1900-1917 and characterizes part of their role as information producers and users.

  5. 75 FR 78338 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board will meet on January 6-7, 2011 at the St.... Global AIDS Coordinator, Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's...

  6. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Huamaní, Charles; Romaní, Franco; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Mejia, Miluska O.; Ramos, José Manuel; Espinoza, Manuel; Cabezas, César

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7%) and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country. PMID:25229217

  7. The Disconnect Between Journalism and Science and its Role in Public Misunderstanding of Important Scientific Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulsman, T.

    2006-12-01

    Research shows that Americans' knowledge of science is sorely inaccurate. U.S. adults get most of their knowledge from the popular media, so it has been claimed that problems with media coverage of science are to blame. But this is a simplistic analysis. At their roots, scientific and journalistic modes of inquiry actually share two important normative standards: empiricism and skepticism. On the other hand, news and new scientific knowledge are two very different things. News gathering is guided in large measure by criteria that help journalists decide what is worth covering, as well as by standards of fairness and balance. The overarching goal is to report on things considered newsworthy in a neutral manner. In science, the goal is to ruthlessly discard incorrect ideas to get at the truth about nature. This talk will examine the "good" -- the normative standards that journalists and scientists share, as well as the "bad" -- how the significant disconnects between science and journalism may be contributing to a lack of public understanding of critical scientific issues such as climate change. Among the questions that will be addressed: How do journalists decide what is news? How does science fare when these newsworthiness standards are applied to it? How does the journalistic standard of balance result in inaccurate reporting on climate change? And how might we improve the situation by enhancing communication between scientists and journalist?

  8. Scientific publications in anesthesiology journals from East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The scientific publications in anesthesiology research from East Asian authors have not been reported yet. The present study was designed to analyze the contribution of articles from East Asia to anesthesiology research. Articles published in 17 journals in anesthesiology originating from Japan, China, and South Korea from 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Web of Science. From 2000 to 2009, there were 3,076 articles published from East Asia. During this period, there were a notable decrease in publications from Japan and modest increases in publications from both China and South Korea. The average 5-year impact factor of the published articles was similar among the three regions, and China had the highest average number of citations to each article. Anesthesia & Analgesia published more articles than any other journal from all three regions. Our analysis showed that Japan was the most productive region in East Asia, but there was a notable decrease in publications from Japan in 2000-2009. The impact factor of the articles suggests similar levels of scholarship. Anesthesia & Analgesia was the most popular journal in East Asia.

  9. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community.

  10. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community. PMID:27124610

  11. Masculine Knowledge, the Public Good, and the Scientific Household of Réaumur.

    PubMed

    Terrall, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris (founded 1666), expressions of a masculine culture of science echoed contemporary language used to articulate the aristocracy's value to crown and state--even though the academy was not an aristocratic institution as such. In the eighteenth century, the pursuit of science became a new form of manly service to the crown, often described in terms of useful knowledge and benefit to the public good [le bien public]. This article explores the connection of academic scientific knowledge to the domestic spaces where it was made and, in particular, to the household of R.-A. Ferchault de Réaumur, an exemplary academician. Although Réaumur had neither wife nor children, a complex net of affective ties, some of them familial, linked the members of the household, which accommodated women (the artist Hélène Dumoustier and her female relatives) as well as men (a series of assistants, many of whom eventually entered the academy). As head of this dynamic household, Réaumur produced not only scientific results but also future academicians.

  12. The Scientific Publications of Richard H. Dalitz, FRS (1925-2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Aitchison, Ian J.R.; Close, Frank E.; Gal, Avraham; Millener, D.John

    2006-03-29

    Professor Richard H. Dalitz passed away on January 13, 2006. He was almost 81 years old and his outstanding contributions are intimately connected to some of the major breakthroughs of the 20th century in particle and nuclear physics. These outstanding contributions go beyond the Dalitz Plot, Dalitz Pair and CDD poles that bear his name. He pioneered the theoretical study of strange baryon resonances, of baryon spectroscopy in the quark model, and of hypernuclei, to all of which he made lasting contributions. His formulation of the ''{theta} - {tau} puzzle'' led to the discovery that parity is not a symmetry of the weak interactions. A brief scientific evaluation of Dalitz's major contributions to particle and nuclear physics is hereby presented, followed by the first comprehensive list of his scientific publications, as assembled from several sources. The list is divided into two categories: the first, main part comprises Dalitz's research papers and reviews, including topics in the history of particle physics, biographies and reminescences; the second part lists book reviews, public lectures and obituaries authored by Dalitz, and books edited by him. This provides the first necessary step towards a more systematic research of the Dalitz heritage in modern physics.

  13. [The representation of scientific publications of RAMS in WEB of science: evaluation of current indicators and prospects of their increasing].

    PubMed

    Starodubtsev, V I; Kuznetsov, S L; Kurakova, N G; Tsvetkova, L A

    2012-01-01

    The contribution scientific publications of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS) in the national publication stream, indexed by Web of Science over the past thirty years, was estimated. The indicators of publication activity that are necessary for the institutions of RAMS to achieve in short-term period the conformity with bibliometric indicators, established by Presidential Decree of May 7, 2012 (to increase the share of Russian publications in Web of Science to 2.44% in 2015) were calculated. It is shown that the current structure of global science, where publications in medicine make up for approximately one third of scientific publications in the world, set for RAMS scientists particularly difficult task: to double in three years the number of publications in Web of Sci. In the article are proposed the priorities and the necessary steps to fulfill this task.

  14. Preventing pitfalls in patient surveys.

    PubMed

    Steiber, S R

    1989-05-01

    Properly conceived, customer satisfaction surveys can yield the quantitative data needed to gauge patient satisfaction. But, as the author notes, these surveys can be "a veritable mine field of surprises for the uninitiated." This article, the last in a three-part series on measuring patient satisfaction, describes potential pitfalls and discusses the merits of in-person, mail and telephone surveys. PMID:10293191

  15. Preventing pitfalls in patient surveys.

    PubMed

    Steiber, S R

    1989-05-01

    Properly conceived, customer satisfaction surveys can yield the quantitative data needed to gauge patient satisfaction. But, as the author notes, these surveys can be "a veritable mine field of surprises for the uninitiated." This article, the last in a three-part series on measuring patient satisfaction, describes potential pitfalls and discusses the merits of in-person, mail and telephone surveys.

  16. Scientific publications in endoscopic ultrasonography: changing trends in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Fusaroli, Pietro; Kypreos, Dimitrios; Alma Petrini, Chiara Ada; Caletti, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    The literature about endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is still very prolific although it was introduced in the early 1980s. We aimed to review last decade's scientific production and to compare it with our earlier data about the period from 1980 to 2000. EUS publications of the period January 2001 to January 2010 were retrieved. Reviews, prospective, and retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, surveys, guidelines, and case-series were assessed. Data were collected on the subject-matter, type of publication, number of patients included, publishing journal, most recent impact factor, year of publication, and country accredited for publication. A total of 1763 relevant papers were published in more than 250 journals. The main areas of research were pancreatic disorders, tumors of the gastrointestinal wall, the extrahepatic biliary tree, submucosal lesions, lung cancer, and mediastinal masses. It is interesting to note that the therapeutic applications of EUS accounted for a new field of investigation. The majority of articles comprised retrospective trials and reviews, followed by prospective studies and case series. However, a considerable number of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses was retrieved, which were absent in the earlier survey. United States, Europe, and Japan still possessed a pivotal role on EUS research, but an increasing number of publications has also emerged from other countries. The available literature on EUS keeps expanding, encompassing not only its well-established diagnostic role, but also novel indications and therapeutic interventions. EUS has evolved into a valuable implement of modern clinical practice, with a critical effect on patients' management. A trend toward well-structured studies is evident.

  17. Scientific publications in endoscopic ultrasonography: changing trends in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Fusaroli, Pietro; Kypreos, Dimitrios; Alma Petrini, Chiara Ada; Caletti, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    The literature about endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is still very prolific although it was introduced in the early 1980s. We aimed to review last decade's scientific production and to compare it with our earlier data about the period from 1980 to 2000. EUS publications of the period January 2001 to January 2010 were retrieved. Reviews, prospective, and retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, surveys, guidelines, and case-series were assessed. Data were collected on the subject-matter, type of publication, number of patients included, publishing journal, most recent impact factor, year of publication, and country accredited for publication. A total of 1763 relevant papers were published in more than 250 journals. The main areas of research were pancreatic disorders, tumors of the gastrointestinal wall, the extrahepatic biliary tree, submucosal lesions, lung cancer, and mediastinal masses. It is interesting to note that the therapeutic applications of EUS accounted for a new field of investigation. The majority of articles comprised retrospective trials and reviews, followed by prospective studies and case series. However, a considerable number of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses was retrieved, which were absent in the earlier survey. United States, Europe, and Japan still possessed a pivotal role on EUS research, but an increasing number of publications has also emerged from other countries. The available literature on EUS keeps expanding, encompassing not only its well-established diagnostic role, but also novel indications and therapeutic interventions. EUS has evolved into a valuable implement of modern clinical practice, with a critical effect on patients' management. A trend toward well-structured studies is evident. PMID:21063209

  18. 76 FR 76725 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone... Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the CASAC Ozone Review Panel to conduct a peer review of EPA's Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants...

  19. 77 FR 6796 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    .... The CASAC Ozone Review Panel held a face-to- face meeting on January 9-10, 2012 (as noticed in 76 FR... AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone... Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the CASAC Ozone Review Panel...

  20. 78 FR 55326 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... is open to the public. The meeting will be hosted by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, and led by Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for...

  1. An interdisciplinary space of scientific communication in Collective (Public) Health: the journal interface--Communication, Health, Education.

    PubMed

    Cyrino, Antonio Pithon; Lima, Elizabeth Araújo; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Teixeira, Ricardo Rodrigues; Foresti, Miriam Celí Pimentel Porto; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2015-07-01

    This is a reflection upon 17 years of experience in the production of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, the publication "Interface: Communication, Health, Education," whose scope is in the fields of Collective (Public) Health, Education and Communication. It also examines retrospectively the themes published by the journal, seeking to identify them in different sections of this publication. Finally, the evolution of the journal is analyzed. PMID:26132245

  2. Art, Aesthetics, Design, And Data: Reaching The Public Through Scientific Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmon, R.; Allen, J.; Ward, K.; Carlowicz, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The primary challenge in science communication is attracting a broad audience while maintaining technical accuracy. Scientific topics are often and reflexively considered boring, dry, or difficult by non-scientists. One way to overcome this hurdle and gain the public's attention is through beautiful and striking imagery. Imaging techniques borrowed from art and design can generate interest in technical or abstract concepts. NASA's Earth Observatory routinely uses imagery to communicate current Earth science research. Earth Observatory designers collaborate with NASA scientists to produce imagery using the principles of data visualization. Curiously, the popularity of images tends to be inversely correlated with the scientific content. Simple photographs and illustrations tend to be viewed more often, and more widely shared, than maps and graphs. However, maps of tree density and melt on the Greenland ice sheet are among the most popular images published on the Earth Observatory. These graphics share some features both with each other and our most-viewed natural-color images: clear, relatable themes, intuitive color palettes, and a clean aesthetic. These similarities may explain their success, and provide a roadmap for future data-rich visualizations that engage viewers while communicating complex science.This map of tree density in the united states, based on the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD) is one of the NASA Earth Observatory's most popular data-based images. (Map by Robert Simmon, based on data from Woods Hole Research Center.)

  3. Disasters related to droughts and public health - a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Alpino, Tais Ariza; de Sena, Aderita Ricarda Martins; de Freitas, Carlos Machado

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, the history of droughts has been marked by constant social and health tragedies, with estimates of up to 3 million deaths from the early 19th century until the late 20th century. There is a record of nearly 32,000 events related to the above and more than 96 million people were affected between 1991 and 2010. Although droughts have historically brought disasters to Brazil, which was noted in the scientific expeditions of Arthur Neiva and Belisario Penna that documented these droughts, there have not been many studies on them. The objective of this paper is to present a revision of the scientific articles related to droughts and public health. The following databases were used: PubMed, the Preparation and Response to Disasters Portal from BVS and the Capes Periodical Portal. The descriptors drought and health were used to search titles and summaries of articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Among the repercussions related to health that were discovered: malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, mental health problems, issues relating to water and air quality and commitments made concerning access to health services. As there is a trend for more intense droughts and a scarcity of water until 2030, there is an urgent need for more research and studies in these areas. PMID:26960093

  4. The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowell, J.

    1999-12-01

    The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

  5. Personnel Pitfalls in Cyberworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Thomas E., III

    2007-01-01

    In May 2006 administrators in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District learned that Tamara Hoover, an art teacher at Austin High School, was the subject of several explicit photographs that had been posted on Flickr, a public photograph-sharing website. Purportedly these photographs were posted on Flickr by the teacher's partner without her…

  6. 42 CFR 82.30 - How will NIOSH inform the public of any plans to change scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... change scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process to maintain methods reasonably current with scientific progress? 82.30 Section 82.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... methods reasonably current with scientific progress? Periodically, NIOSH will publish a notice in...

  7. 42 CFR 82.30 - How will NIOSH inform the public of any plans to change scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... change scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process to maintain methods reasonably current with scientific progress? 82.30 Section 82.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... methods reasonably current with scientific progress? Periodically, NIOSH will publish a notice in...

  8. 42 CFR 82.30 - How will NIOSH inform the public of any plans to change scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... change scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process to maintain methods reasonably current with scientific progress? 82.30 Section 82.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... methods reasonably current with scientific progress? Periodically, NIOSH will publish a notice in...

  9. 42 CFR 82.30 - How will NIOSH inform the public of any plans to change scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... change scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process to maintain methods reasonably current with scientific progress? 82.30 Section 82.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... methods reasonably current with scientific progress? Periodically, NIOSH will publish a notice in...

  10. 42 CFR 82.30 - How will NIOSH inform the public of any plans to change scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... change scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process to maintain methods reasonably current with scientific progress? 82.30 Section 82.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... methods reasonably current with scientific progress? Periodically, NIOSH will publish a notice in...

  11. [Evaluation of scientific production in different subareas of Public Health: limits of the current model and contributions to the debate].

    PubMed

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Martin, Denise; Camargo Jr, Kenneth Rochel de; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Cláudia Medina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the limits of the quantitative evaluation model for scientific production in Public Health. An analysis of the scientific production of professors from the various subareas of Public Health was performed for 2010-2012. Distributions of the mean annual score for professors were compared according to subareas. The study estimated the likelihood that 60% of the professors in the graduate studies programs scored P50 (Very Good) or higher in their area. Professors of Epidemiology showed a significantly higher median annual score. Graduate studies programs whose faculty included at least 60% of Epidemiology professors and fewer than 10% from the subarea Social and Human Sciences in Health were significantly more likely to achieve a "Very Good" classification. The observed inequalities in scientific production between different subareas of Public Health point to the need to rethink their evaluation in order to avoid reproducing iniquities that have harmful consequences for the field's diversity.

  12. Technical pitfalls of patellofemoral surgery.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, R A

    1999-10-01

    The major technical pitfalls in the performance of patellofemoral surgery stem from improper patient selection, unrealistic patient expectations, and inappropriate rehabilitation. Proper patient selection requires the physician to spend additional time in communicating with patients obtaining a comprehensive history, and performing a thorough physical examination. Patients' expectations can be realistic if appropriate time is devoted to patient education. A commitment on behalf of patients to undertake a comprehensive postoperative rehabilitation program before proceeding with any surgical procedure helps to enhance patients' success.

  13. Enhancing Scientific Collaboration, Transparency, and Public Access: Utilizing the Second Life Platform to Convene a Scientific Conference in 3-D Virtual Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies reveal a general mistrust of science as well as a distorted perception of the scientific method by the public at-large. Concurrently, the number of science undergraduate and graduate students is in decline. By taking advantage of emergent technologies not only for direct public outreach but also to enhance public accessibility to the science process, it may be possible to both begin a reversal of popular scientific misconceptions and to engage a new generation of scientists. The Second Life platform is a 3-D virtual world produced and operated by Linden Research, Inc., a privately owned company instituted to develop new forms of immersive entertainment. Free and downloadable to the public, Second Life offers an imbedded physics engine, streaming audio and video capability, and unlike other "multiplayer" software, the objects and inhabitants of Second Life are entirely designed and created by its users, providing an open-ended experience without the structure of a traditional video game. Already, educational institutions, virtual museums, and real-world businesses are utilizing Second Life for teleconferencing, pre-visualization, and distance education, as well as to conduct traditional business. However, the untapped potential of Second Life lies in its versatility, where the limitations of traditional scientific meeting venues do not exist, and attendees need not be restricted by prohibitive travel costs. It will be shown that the Second Life system enables scientific authors and presenters at a "virtual conference" to display figures and images at full resolution, employ audio-visual content typically not available to conference organizers, and to perform demonstrations or premier three-dimensional renderings of objects, processes, or information. An enhanced presentation like those possible with Second Life would be more engaging to non- scientists, and such an event would be accessible to the general users of Second Life, who could have an

  14. The rate of growth in scientific publication and the decline in coverage provided by Science Citation Index

    PubMed Central

    von Ins, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The growth rate of scientific publication has been studied from 1907 to 2007 using available data from a number of literature databases, including Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Traditional scientific publishing, that is publication in peer-reviewed journals, is still increasing although there are big differences between fields. There are no indications that the growth rate has decreased in the last 50 years. At the same time publication using new channels, for example conference proceedings, open archives and home pages, is growing fast. The growth rate for SCI up to 2007 is smaller than for comparable databases. This means that SCI was covering a decreasing part of the traditional scientific literature. There are also clear indications that the coverage by SCI is especially low in some of the scientific areas with the highest growth rate, including computer science and engineering sciences. The role of conference proceedings, open access archives and publications published on the net is increasing, especially in scientific fields with high growth rates, but this has only partially been reflected in the databases. The new publication channels challenge the use of the big databases in measurements of scientific productivity or output and of the growth rate of science. Because of the declining coverage and this challenge it is problematic that SCI has been used and is used as the dominant source for science indicators based on publication and citation numbers. The limited data available for social sciences show that the growth rate in SSCI was remarkably low and indicate that the coverage by SSCI was declining over time. National Science Indicators from Thomson Reuters is based solely on SCI, SSCI and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). Therefore the declining coverage of the citation databases problematizes the use of this source. PMID:20700371

  15. Connecting the Public to Scientific Research Data - Science On a Sphere°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, M. A.; Russell, E. L.; Science on a Sphere Datasets

    2011-12-01

    Connecting the Public to Scientific Research Data - Science On a Sphere° Maurice Henderson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Elizabeth Russell, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, University of Colorado Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences Science On a Sphere° is a six foot animated globe developed by the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA, as a means to display global scientific research data in an intuitive, engaging format in public forums. With over 70 permanent installations of SOS around the world in science museums, visitor's centers and universities, the audience that enjoys SOS yearly is substantial, wide-ranging, and diverse. Through partnerships with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, the SOS Data Catalog (http://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/) has grown to a collection of over 350 datasets from NOAA, NASA, and many others. Using an external projection system, these datasets are displayed onto the sphere creating a seamless global image. In a cross-site evaluation of Science On a Sphere°, 82% of participants said yes, seeing information displayed on a sphere changed their understanding of the information. This unique technology captivates viewers and exposes them to scientific research data in a way that is accessible, presentable, and understandable. The datasets that comprise the SOS Data Catalog are scientific research data that have been formatted for display on SOS. By formatting research data into visualizations that can be used on SOS, NOAA and NASA are able to turn research data into educational materials that are easily accessible for users. In many cases, visualizations do not need to be modified because SOS uses a common map projection. The SOS Data Catalog has become a "one-stop shop" for a broad range of global datasets from across NOAA and NASA, and as a result, the traffic on the site is more than just SOS users. While the target audience for this site is SOS users, many

  16. Tackling the "so what" problem in scientific research: a systems-based approach to resource and publication tracking.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul A; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A; Edwards, Terri L; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R; Lane, Lynda D; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R; Pulley, Jill M

    2015-08-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research's (VICTR's) development and implementation of a semiautomated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a "just-in-time" workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt's Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support, (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output, (3) increased awareness of VICTR's scientific portfolio, and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests.

  17. Tackling the "so what" problem in scientific research: a systems-based approach to resource and publication tracking.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul A; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A; Edwards, Terri L; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R; Lane, Lynda D; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R; Pulley, Jill M

    2015-08-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research's (VICTR's) development and implementation of a semiautomated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a "just-in-time" workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt's Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support, (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output, (3) increased awareness of VICTR's scientific portfolio, and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests. PMID:25901872

  18. Tackling the “So What” Problem in Scientific Research: A Systems-Based Approach to Resource and Publication Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul A.; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A.; Edwards, Terri L.; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R.; Lane, Lynda D.; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R.; Pulley, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research’s (VICTR’s) development and implementation of a semi-automated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a “just-in-time” workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt’s Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have: (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support; (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output; (3) increased awareness of VICTR’s scientific portfolio; and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests. PMID:25901872

  19. Influence of PAHO publications on scientific production in the health field in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A

    1996-06-01

    The influence and impact of PAHO publications on scientific production in the field of health in Latin America and the Caribbean was the subject of a study based on a sample of 45 biomedical journals published between 1985 and 1992 in 17 countries of the Region. A total of 8644 works (mostly articles), containing 82,143 citations, were studied. Of these, 3,806 citations were found to refer to works published by PAHO Headquarters in Washington, D.C.-the Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana receiving 1,444 (38% of the total), the English-language Bulletin of PAHO receiving 222 (6%), works in PAHO's Scientific Publications Series receiving 1064 (28%), and works in other PAHO publications receiving 1076 (28%). Overall, PAHO publications appeared to account for a significant share of the citations studied.

  20. Chaos: A New Scientific Paradigm--Or Science by Public Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresden, Max

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of chaos as a major scientific subject and its place in historical, scientific, and technological context. Three sections provide (1) an overview of the scientific paradigm; (2) a review of the ideology of classical mechanics; and (3) examples of classical systems behaving in peculiar, nonintuitive manners. (MDH)

  1. Are Lipases Still Important Biocatalysts? A Study of Scientific Publications and Patents for Technological Forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Daiha, Karina de Godoy; Angeli, Renata; de Oliveira, Sabrina Dias; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2015-01-01

    The great potential of lipases is known since 1930 when the work of J. B. S. Haldane was published. After eighty-five years of studies and developments, are lipases still important biocatalysts? For answering this question the present work investigated the technological development of four important industrial sectors where lipases are applied: production of detergent formulations; organic synthesis, focusing on kinetic resolution, production of biodiesel, and production of food and feed products. The analysis was made based on research publications and patent applications, working as scientific and technological indicators, respectively. Their evolution, interaction, the major players of each sector and the main subject matters disclosed in patent documents were discussed. Applying the concept of technology life cycle, S-curves were built by plotting cumulative patent data over time to monitor the attractiveness of each technology for investment. The results lead to a conclusion that the use of lipases as biocatalysts is still a relevant topic for the industrial sector, but developments are still needed for lipase biocatalysis to reach its full potential, which are expected to be achieved within the third, and present, wave of biocatalysis. PMID:26111144

  2. Are Lipases Still Important Biocatalysts? A Study of Scientific Publications and Patents for Technological Forecasting.

    PubMed

    Daiha, Karina de Godoy; Angeli, Renata; de Oliveira, Sabrina Dias; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2015-01-01

    The great potential of lipases is known since 1930 when the work of J. B. S. Haldane was published. After eighty-five years of studies and developments, are lipases still important biocatalysts? For answering this question the present work investigated the technological development of four important industrial sectors where lipases are applied: production of detergent formulations; organic synthesis, focusing on kinetic resolution, production of biodiesel, and production of food and feed products. The analysis was made based on research publications and patent applications, working as scientific and technological indicators, respectively. Their evolution, interaction, the major players of each sector and the main subject matters disclosed in patent documents were discussed. Applying the concept of technology life cycle, S-curves were built by plotting cumulative patent data over time to monitor the attractiveness of each technology for investment. The results lead to a conclusion that the use of lipases as biocatalysts is still a relevant topic for the industrial sector, but developments are still needed for lipase biocatalysis to reach its full potential, which are expected to be achieved within the third, and present, wave of biocatalysis. PMID:26111144

  3. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: a historic view (1953-2003).

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Federico J

    2004-09-01

    The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953) was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biologia Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine), more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication.

  4. Map of Scientific Publication in the Field of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education in Turkey: A Bibliometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çiftçi, Serife Koza; Danisman, Sahin; Yalçin, Mikail; Tosuntas, Sule Betül; Ay, Yusuf; Sölpük, Nihan; Karadag, Engin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to create a map for the scientific publications in the field of educational sciences and teacher education in Turkey. A bibliometric analysis was carried out with 7681 articles published in 32 different peer reviewed journals between 2005 and 2014. The findings show that one third of all articles were published in core journals…

  5. 75 FR 32763 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... level of detail. As announced February 23, 2010 in 75 FR 8062-8063, the CASAC Particulate Matter Review... Advisory Committee (CASAC) Particulate Matter Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Office announces a public meeting on July 26-27, 2010 of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory...

  6. Group Projects as a Method of Promoting Student Scientific Communication and Collaboration in a Public Health Microbiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Kristen L. W.; Baker, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    Communication of scientific and medical information and collaborative work are important skills for students pursuing careers in health professions and other biomedical sciences. In addition, group work and active learning can increase student engagement and analytical skills. Students in our public health microbiology class were required to work…

  7. 77 FR 14783 - Notification of a Public Meeting and Two Public Teleconferences for the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... External Review Draft--February 2012), and a public teleconference of the Chartered CASAC to conduct a...). The quality review public teleconference of the Chartered CASAC will be held on Monday, July 16, 2012... Chartered CASAC's quality review public teleconference will take place via telephone only. FOR...

  8. Modeling the Uptake of Scientific Information by the Public and Opinion Flow in Society (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Brown, G. D.; Cook, J.

    2013-12-01

    Improved communication of scientific findings requires knowledge not only of how people process information, but also how such information spreads through society and how people's opinions are shaped by those of others. Recent advances in cognitive science have yielded mathematical modeling techniques that permit the detailed analysis of individuals' cognition as well as the behavior of communities in the aggregate. We present two case studies that highlight the insights that can be derived from mathematical models of cognition: We show how rational processing of information (i.e., Bayesian hypothesis revision) can nonetheless give rise to seemingly 'irrational' belief updating, as for example when acceptance of human-caused global warming decreases among conservatives in response to evidence for human-caused global warming. We also show in an agent-based simulation how social norms can lead to polarization of societies. The model assumes that agents located within a social network observe the behavior of neighbours and infer from their behavior the social distribution of particular attitudes (e.g. towards climate change). Agents are assumed to dislike behaviours that are extreme within their neighbourhood (social extremeness aversion), and hence have a tendency to conform. However, agents are also assumed to prefer choices that are consistent with their own true beliefs (authenticity preference). Expression of attitudes reflects a compromise between these opposing principles. The model sheds light on the role of perceived rather than actual social consensus on attitudes to climate change. This is particularly relevant given the widespread perception among those who reject climate science that the percentage of the public that is sharing their beliefs is much higher than it actually is.

  9. Apollo telescope mount. A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) are presented. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications, (2) journal publications submitted, (3) other publications, (4) presentations - national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  10. 75 FR 22779 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review a set of scientific... as ad hoc members of FIFRA SAP for this meeting should be provided on or before May 14, 2010. Webcasting. This meeting may be webcast. Please refer to the FIFRA SAP's website,...

  11. The Scientific Creationist Challenge to the Treatment of Evolution in the Public School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kube-McDowell, Michael P.

    The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the scientific elements of the creationist position, and to provide information and recommendations to educators facing the question of adding creationism to the science curriculum. The claim that creationism is of equal scientific status with evolution is examined in the first part of the…

  12. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  13. 78 FR 938 - Notification of a Public Meeting and a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Committee Lead Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Lead Review Panel to conduct a peer review of EPA's Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Third External Review Draft--November 2012) and EPA's...

  14. Public health nutrition concerns on consumption of red palm-oil (RPO): the scientific facts from literature.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, O E; Amosu, A M

    2010-12-01

    There appears to be a state of uncertainty as far as the health benefits of consumption of Red Palm Oil (RPO) is concerned from public health point of view globally. Literatures are replete with conflicting information on saturated fatty acid content of palm-oil, with caution on the possibility of increasing low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood. The implication of this may be subsequent elevation of serum cholesterol when the oil is consumed. This review paper is aimed at providing scientific facts from well referenced journal articles on public health nutrition benefits of RPO. It considers findings from animal and human experiments, to arrive at conclusion based on scientific evidence on the potential health benefits associated with consumption of RPO. Although, the level of saturated fatty acids content may suggest health risk, the presence of carotenoids and other powerful anti-oxidants in RPO makes it one of the best cooking vegetable oils with health promoting properties.

  15. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) which gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974 is presented. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations - National International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is also included.

  16. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Fields, S. A. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Skylab solar observatory facility that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974 are presented. The analysis of these data is presently under way. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications; (2) journal publications submitted; (3) other publications; (4) presentations-national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  17. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group. PMID:27358575

  18. Interactions of the public and private sectors in drug development: boundaries to protect scientific values while preserving innovation.

    PubMed

    Cassell, Gail H

    2007-03-01

    Industry, academia, and government have developed highly interwoven relationships in the pursuit of biomedical research. Establishing and maintaining boundaries among the public and private sectors at both the institutional level and the individual level is critical to protect core scientific values, preserve innovation, and allow product development to thrive. This article reviews principles that guide the interactions of these Biomdifferent sectors, sharing principles in place at Eli Lilly and Company as an example.

  19. Explaining the Unexplainable: Translated Scientific Explanations (TSE) in Public Physics Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapon, Shulamit; Ganiel, Uri; Eylon, Bat Sheva

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the features and design of explanations in public physics lectures. It presents the findings from a comparative study of three exemplary public physics lectures, given by practicing physicists who are acknowledged as excellent public lecturers. The study uses three different perspectives: the lecture, the lecturer, and the…

  20. Molecular phylogeny: pitfalls and progress.

    PubMed

    Moreira, D; Philippe, H

    2000-03-01

    Molecular phylogeny based on nucleotide or amino acid sequence comparison has become a widespread tool for general taxonomy and evolutionary analyses. It seems the only means to establish a natural classification of microorganisms, since their phenotypic traits are not always consistent with genealogy. After an optimistic period during which comprehensive microbial evolutionary pictures appeared, the discovery of several pitfalls affecting molecular phylogenetic reconstruction challenged the general validity of this approach. In addition to biological factors, such as horizontal gene transfer, some methodological problems may produce misleading phylogenies. They are essentially (i) loss of phylogenetic signal by the accumulation of overlapping mutations, (ii) incongruity between the real evolutionary process and the assumed models of sequence evolution, and (iii) differences of evolutionary rates among species or among positions within a sequence. Here, we discuss these problems and some strategies proposed to overcome their effects.

  1. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications, supplement 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Reports are compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed in this report are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations--National and International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is included together with errata for the first report.

  2. 76 FR 16410 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ..., Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review a set of.... Nominations of candidates to serve as ad hoc members of FIFRA SAP for this meeting should be provided on or before April 6, 2011. Webcast. This meeting may be webcast. Please refer to the FIFRA SAP's Web...

  3. 76 FR 71023 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review Common Effects... of candidates to serve as ad hoc members of FIFRA SAP for this meeting should be provided on or before November 30, 2011. Webcast. This meeting may be webcast. Please refer to the FIFRA SAP's Web...

  4. 78 FR 68836 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Rescheduled Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... FR 64211) (FRL-9902-08). All other information provided in the Federal Register on August 15, 2013 (78 FR 49750) (FRL-9393-3) remains unchanged. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides... meeting of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA...

  5. 78 FR 68439 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Rescheduled Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2013 (78 FR 64211) (FRL-9902-06). All other information provided in the Federal Register on August 9, 2013 (78 FR 48672) (FRL-9394-3) remains unchanged... meeting of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA...

  6. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.31... threatened species or has been designated by the Secretary as depleted, a detailed justification of the need... extent the display is connected with educational or scientific programs. There shall also be included...

  7. 75 FR 22783 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... pesticides, rodent and human metabolic enzymes and their related ontogeny, in vitro pharmacokinetic studies... . ] II. Background A. Purpose of FIFRA SAP FIFRA SAP serves as the primary scientific peer review... and oxidative metabolic enzymes; 2) the ontogeny and differentiation of sodium channels; 3)...

  8. 78 FR 48672 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... of chemical substances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) and FIFRA. Since other..., Insect Resistance Management, Corn rootworm biology and ecology, Population sampling, Bioassay techniques... Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP) and is structured to provide scientific...

  9. 78 FR 27234 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... solicited nominations for the CASAC NO X Primary NAAQS Review Panel on October 17, 2012 (77 FR 63827-63828...); Oxides of Nitrogen Primary NAAQS Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) Primary...

  10. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.

  11. 77 FR 37410 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... teleconference is limited by the number of open ports available. Purpose: The Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC.... This joint BSC-NBSB working group will be charged with conducting a review of CDC's Division of...-7977; Email: OPHPR.BSC.Questions@cdc.gov . The Director, Management Analysis and Services Office,...

  12. Bisphenol A (BPA) in food contact materials - new scientific opinion from EFSA regarding public health risk.

    PubMed

    Ćwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera

    2015-01-01

    The wide use of bisphenol A (BPA) as a monomer in plastics manufacture or epoxy resins intended for food contact materials (FCM) has triggered numerous concerns due to toxicological findings indicating possible endocrine disrupting properties. This article traces the evolution of the scientific opinions since 1986 when the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for BPA and its specific migration limit (SML) from plastic FCM into food were proposed for the first time by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). Resent extensive scientific studies concerning refined data on toxicity and exposure to BPA from food and non-food sources (eg. dust, cosmetics, thermal paper), including the most vulnerable groups of population, allowed the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to reduce the TDI of BPA from previously 50 µg/kg bw/day to now 4 µg/kg bw/day. EFSA's latest scientific opinion published in 2015 concludes that basing on the current estimations of total exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources for infants, children and adolescents is below the temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day. EFSA has also underlined that BPA poses no health risk at the estimated exposure levels of any population age group, including unborn children and the elderly. However, EFSA has indicated that some data on exposure and toxicological effects still require clarifications. PMID:26656411

  13. Bisphenol A (BPA) in food contact materials - new scientific opinion from EFSA regarding public health risk.

    PubMed

    Ćwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera

    2015-01-01

    The wide use of bisphenol A (BPA) as a monomer in plastics manufacture or epoxy resins intended for food contact materials (FCM) has triggered numerous concerns due to toxicological findings indicating possible endocrine disrupting properties. This article traces the evolution of the scientific opinions since 1986 when the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for BPA and its specific migration limit (SML) from plastic FCM into food were proposed for the first time by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). Resent extensive scientific studies concerning refined data on toxicity and exposure to BPA from food and non-food sources (eg. dust, cosmetics, thermal paper), including the most vulnerable groups of population, allowed the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to reduce the TDI of BPA from previously 50 µg/kg bw/day to now 4 µg/kg bw/day. EFSA's latest scientific opinion published in 2015 concludes that basing on the current estimations of total exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources for infants, children and adolescents is below the temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day. EFSA has also underlined that BPA poses no health risk at the estimated exposure levels of any population age group, including unborn children and the elderly. However, EFSA has indicated that some data on exposure and toxicological effects still require clarifications.

  14. Analysis of Research Collaboration between Universities and Private Companies in Spain Based on Joint Scientific Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmeda-Gómez, Carlos; Ovalle-Perandones, María Antonia; de Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article presents the results of a study on scientific collaboration between Spanish universities and private enterprise, measured in terms of the co-authorship of papers published in international journals. Method: Bibliometric analysis of papers published in journals listed in Scopus in 2003-2011. Indicators were calculated for…

  15. Organizing Scientific Meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epple, August

    1997-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: What can go wrong?; 2. The decision: To run or not to run; 3. Scientific and related events: variety delights; 4. Social events: something for every taste and budget; 5. The program: how to accommodate pigs in a poke; 6. Selection of the meeting site: a touch of Russian roulette; 7. The dates of the meeting: you can't win; 8. Publications: cruel and unusual punishment; 9. Selection of participants: how to lose old friends and make new enemies; 10. Committees: you have to live with them; 11. Accompanists: you better love'm; 12. Office and staff: don't take chances; 13. The budget: a jungle with pitfalls; 14. Fund raising: some would rather see their dentist; 15. Allocation of travel support: not much fun either; 16. Schedule of preparations: from dream to reality; 17. Announcements and other information: clarity pays; 18. Design of forms, name tags, tickets, signs and stickers: how about using some common sense?; 19. Satellite meetings: think twice; 20. Checklist of important no-nos; List of appendixes; Appendixes A-R; Index.

  16. [Public scientific knowledge distribution in health information, communication and information technology indexed in MEDLINE and LILACS databases].

    PubMed

    Packer, Abel Laerte; Tardelli, Adalberto Otranto; Castro, Regina Célia Figueiredo

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the distribution of international, regional and national scientific output in health information and communication, indexed in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, between 1996 and 2005. A selection of articles was based on the hierarchical structure of Information Science in MeSH vocabulary. Four specific domains were determined: health information, medical informatics, scientific communications on healthcare and healthcare communications. The variables analyzed were: most-covered subjects and journals, author affiliation and publication countries and languages, in both databases. The Information Science category is represented in nearly 5% of MEDLINE and LILACS articles. The four domains under analysis showed a relative annual increase in MEDLINE. The Medical Informatics domain showed the highest number of records in MEDLINE, representing about half of all indexed articles. The importance of Information Science as a whole is more visible in publications from developed countries and the findings indicate the predominance of the United States, with significant growth in scientific output from China and South Korea and, to a lesser extent, Brazil.

  17. Scientific basis for the study of demineralization of highly mineralized water for use in public water supply systems.

    PubMed Central

    Sidorenko, G I; Rakhmanin, Y A

    1979-01-01

    New criteria (full physiological value and preservation of the properties of drinking water) are scientifically substantiated. Also discussed are indices (minimal admissible and optimal levels of basic water mineralization and calcium content, standards of microelements such as boron and bromine content, content of individual groups of microorganisms, water temperature) for evaluating the quality of demineralized water obtained from brackish and briny water (including water from the sea and ocean) by various methods which are designed for public water supply systems. Research results served as the scientific hygiene basis for the development of a new technology of obtaining drinking water. The necessity for developing a special quality standard for demineralized drinking water is shown. PMID:446445

  18. Bibliography of scientific publications and presentations relating to planetary quarantine: 1966 - 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, F. D.; Nadel, M. R.

    1973-01-01

    A bibliography, which is a compilation of citations relating to planetary quarantine, previously listed in similar publications since 1967, is presented to provide a reference for reviewing planetary quarantine research and development.

  19. Academic medical libraries' policies and procedures for notifying library users of retracted scientific publications.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C

    1998-01-01

    Academic medical libraries have a responsibility to inform library users regarding retracted publications. Many have created policies and procedures that identify flawed journal articles. A questionnaire was sent to the 129 academic medical libraries in the United States and Canada to find out how many had policies and procedures for identifying retracted publications. Of the returned questionnaires, 59% had no policy and no practice for calling the attention of the library user to retracted publications. Forty-one percent of the libraries called attention to retractions with or without a formal policy for doing so. Several responding libraries included their policy statement with the survey. The increasing number of academic medical libraries that realize the importance of having policies and practices in place highlights the necessity for this procedure.

  20. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission: bridging the tension between scientific and public policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Charo, R A

    1998-01-01

    During the period between the early 1980s to the mid 1990s, the U.S. was distinguished from most other developed countries by its lack of a national-level public body to assist the government in its policy-making on topics of biomedical ethics. While Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, and other countries regularly sought advice from public commissions on issues ranging from reproductive technologies to euthanasia, the U.S. relied on myriad state commissions, court decisions, and academic bodies. The result was a pattern of policy-making that was slower and more unpredictable than that of its peers. With the 1996 appointment of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) by President Clinton, there has been a change in the process of U.S. public policy development. This article provides an overview of the NBAC and highlights recent areas of focus and related recommendations.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope - Scientific, Technological and Social Contributions to the Public Discourse on Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has unified the world with a sense of awe and wonder for 2 I years and is currently more scientifically powerful than ever. I will present highlights of discoveries made with the Hubble Space Telescope, including details of planetary weather, star formation, extra-solar planets, colliding galaxies, and a universe expanding with the acceleration of dark energy. I will also present the unique technical challenges and triumphs of this phenomenal observatory, and discuss how our discoveries in the cosmos affect our sense of human unity, significance, and wonder.

  2. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Methods: Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. Results: There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05), especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Discussion: Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count. PMID:26989631

  3. 77 FR 64334 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Panel held a face-to- face meeting on September 11-13, 2012 (as noticed in 77 FR 46755-46756) to review...) Ozone Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the CASAC Ozone...

  4. 78 FR 15369 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal....m. (BSC, OPHPR meeting) April 3, 2013 8:30 a.m.-3:30 p.m. (Joint meeting of the BSC, OPHPR and the... . Matters To Be Discussed: Agenda items for this meeting include: (1) Briefings and BSC deliberation on...

  5. 76 FR 18221 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10 (a) (2) of the Federal... Conference. Please contact the BSC Coordinator (see Contact Person for More Information) to obtain further... Address. For foreign nationals or non-U.S. citizens, pre-approval is required. Please contact the...

  6. 78 FR 56235 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response, (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... this 2-day meeting include: (1) Briefings and BSC deliberation on the following topics: Program... OPHPR BSC; program response to recommendations made in the peer review of the Career Epidemiology...

  7. 77 FR 20823 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... include: (1) Briefings and BSC deliberation on the following topics: CDC Laboratory Preparedness; OPHPR... Management Team; Estimating the Cost of Preparedness; (2) Programmatic responses to...

  8. 76 FR 53474 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10 (a)(2) of the Federal... Person for More Information: Matthew Jennings, OPHPR BSC Coordinator, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd NE., Mailstop....BSC.Questions@cdc.gov . The Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, has been delegated...

  9. 78 FR 49750 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... the Agency. B. Public Meeting The use of RNA Interference (RNAi) gene silencing technology...-transcriptional silencing of gene function is a very rapid process where double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directs sequence-specific degradation of an RNA. The EPA is beginning to receive applications for...

  10. 76 FR 51365 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    .... The Lead Review Panel held a face-to-face meeting on July 20-21, 2011 (as noticed in 76 FR 36120-36121...) Lead Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the CASAC Lead Review...

  11. Public Communication of Science in Blogs: Recontextualizing Scientific Discourse for a Diversified Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzón, María José

    2013-01-01

    New media are having a significant impact on science communication, both on the way scientists communicate with peers and on the dissemination of science to the lay public. Science blogs, in particular, provide an open space for science communication, where a diverse audience (with different degrees of expertise) may have access to science…

  12. Citizen Groups and Scientific Decisionmaking: Does Public Participation Influence Environmental Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Dorothy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the influence of local community groups on agency decisionmaking at hazardous waste sites nationwide. The central purpose of this research is to examine the relative influence of two forms of public participation at Superfund sites: Community Advisory Groups (CAGs) and Technical Assistance Grants (TAGs). When citizens mobilize…

  13. New linked data on research investments: scientific workforce, productivity, and public value

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Julia; Owen-Smith, Jason; Rosen, Rebecca; Weinberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal micro-data derived from transaction level information about wage and vendor payments made by federal grants on multiple U.S. campuses are being developed in a partnership involving researchers, university administrators, representatives of federal agencies, and others. This paper describes the UMETRICS data initiative that has been implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation. The resulting data set reflects an emerging conceptual framework for analyzing the process, products, and impact of research. It grows from and engages the work of a diverse and vibrant community. This paper situates the UMETRICS effort in the context of research evaluation and ongoing data infrastructure efforts in order to highlight its novel and valuable features. Refocusing data construction in this field around individuals, networks, and teams offers dramatic possibilities for data linkage, the evaluation of research investments, and the development of rigorous conceptual and empirical models. Two preliminary analyses of the scientific workforce and network approaches to characterizing scientific teams ground a discussion of future directions and a call for increased community engagement. PMID:26335785

  14. Conflicting stories about public scientific controversies: Effects of news convergence and divergence on scientists' credibility.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jakob D; Hurley, Ryan J

    2012-08-01

    Surveys suggest that approximately one third of news consumers have encountered conflicting reports of the same information. News coverage of science is especially prone to conflict, but how news consumers perceive this situation is currently unknown. College students (N = 242) participated in a lab experiment where they were exposed to news coverage about one of two scientific controversies in the United States: dioxin in sewage sludge or the reintroduction of gray wolves to populated areas. Participants received (a) one news article (control), (b) two news articles that were consistent (convergent), or (c) two news articles that conflicted (divergent). The effects of divergence induced uncertainty differed by news story. Greater uncertainty was associated with increased scientists' credibility ratings for those reading dioxin regulation articles and decreased scientists' credibility ratings for those reading wolf reintroduction articles. Unlike other manifestations of uncertainty in scientific discourse, conflicting stories seem to generate effects that vary significantly by topic. Consistent with uncertainty management theory, uncertainty is embraced or rejected by situation.

  15. Seabird databases and the new paradigm for scientific publication and attribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    For more than 300 years, the peer-reviewed journal article has been the principal medium for packaging and delivering scientific data. With new tools for managing digital data, a new paradigm is emerging—one that demands open and direct access to data and that enables and rewards a broad-based approach to scientific questions. Ground-breaking papers in the future will increasingly be those that creatively mine and synthesize vast stores of data available on the Internet. This is especially true for conservation science, in which essential data can be readily captured in standard record formats. For seabird professionals, a number of globally shared databases are in the offing, or should be. These databases will capture the salient results of inventories and monitoring, pelagic surveys, diet studies, and telemetry. A number of real or perceived barriers to data sharing exist, but none is insurmountable. Our discipline should take an important stride now by adopting a specially designed markup language for annotating and sharing seabird data.

  16. [Quality and integrity in the production and publication of scientific results: data trimming, manipulation and (self) plagiarism].

    PubMed

    Lüscher, T F

    2014-08-01

    The publication of scientific manuscripts is an essential part in the research process and in the attempt to produce novel knowledge: only what is published exists. It is the aim of research to produce reproducible and sustainable knowledge. Reproducible knowledge is based on precise observation, the use of modern methodologies and an appropriate statistical analysis. As a consequence, it must be the intention of any scientist to report the truth and nothing but the truth. This principle requires precision and honesty. Deviation from such a behavior may lead to scientific misconduct: It encompasses the use of inappropriate methods and/or statistics, double publication of data, sloppy data presentation and processing, up to data massaging, manipulation, data theft or fabrication. Famous examples can be found throughout the history of research but it appears that such behavior has recently become more common possibly due to excessive competition, the crucial role of grants for scientific productivity and funding as well as promotion. Accordingly, in the training of researchers it seems essential to emphasize the importance of precise data acquisition and analysis to ascertain reproducible data. Similarly, it must be assured that data sets are only published once, that authors have contributed technically and/or intellectually in an important manner and that the work of other scientists is cited appropriately. Editors and reviewers should carefully assess the quality of submitted manuscripts. In fact, it is the aim of the peer review process to assure as much as possible that the quality of submitted manuscripts meets current methodological as well as ethical standards.

  17. [Pneumonia awareness year, 2004: scientific impact through publications in Archivos de Bronconeumología].

    PubMed

    Rajas Naranjo, Olga; Aspa Marco, Javier

    2006-10-01

    Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious infectious disease. Morbidity and mortality rates continue to be high in spite of major advances and steady progress in diagnosis and treatment. The economic impact of the disease is also great. It is therefore necessary to enlist the public, primary care and emergency physicians, and public policy administrators to join forces to treat and prevent pneumonia for the common good. The annual incidence of pneumonia in the population over the age of 14 years is 1.6 to 2.6 episodes/1000 inhabitants. The mortality rate is 14.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the associated costs are 115 million euros annually. The RESPIRA Foundation and the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) declared 2004 to be pneumonia awareness year with the aim of coordinating efforts to raise awareness, distribute information, and foster debate. PMID:17067522

  18. Public Private Partnerships, Corporate Welfare or Building the Nation's Scientific Infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, C. V.

    1996-03-01

    A debate is taking place in the U.S. concerning the investment of scarce Federal funds in science and technology research. Clouding this discussion is the proliferation of extreme views illustrated in the title of this talk. The impacts of the end of the cold war, the globalization of the economy and the realities of the budget deficit create a situation that cries out for a new social contract between scientists and taxpayers. We need to examine the successes and failures of the last 50 years to form the basis for a set of principles to enable the creation of a new consensus to define the roles of industry, government, universities and national laboratories in the research enterprise. The scientific infrastructure, and by extension, the economic vitality of the U.S., are at risk.

  19. [Equally or equitably? Author roles and co-author shares in scientific publication].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2016-03-27

    In the last decades the share of co-authored and, particularly, multi-authored papers has increased immensely. The paper deals with the causes and consequences of this phenomenon, specifically with those connected with scientometric analyses. Possibilities for fractional count of publications and citations, as well as problems of interpreting h-index and self-citation in case of multi-authored papers are focused upon.

  20. [Ottoman pharmacist Pierre Apéry and his scientifical publications].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Michèle

    2006-01-01

    Pierre Apéry, owner of a laboratory and one of the most famous pharmacy in Istanbul, is a model of life quite devoted to his business. His publications (end of 19th/beginning of 20th century), which plaid a major role in the formation and the dissemination of knowledge about health, are a precious testimony about pharmacy and medicine in the Ottoman Empire. PMID:17152464

  1. Contemporary Cuban Physics Through Scientific Publications: An Insider’s View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Ernesto

    In a previous paper, the author reached some conclusions on the tendencies of the publications by Cuban physicists in international journals (Altshuler, Rev Cub Fís 22(2):173-182, 2005) and called for a systematic bibliometric study of the subject. Such a study has now been undertaken (a contribution to this volume entitled "Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics" by Werner Marx and Manuel Cardona, referred to in this paper as Marx and Cardona) and supports the main conclusions of the former work. The scenario of Cuban physics since 1995 has been conditioned by two main facts interacting in a nontrivial way: the serious material shortages affecting local physics laboratories and bibliographic resources, and an increase in the country's international collaboration. As a positive result, the total volume of Cuban publications in international physics journals has increased since 1995, perhaps reaching a peak around the year 2000, while the number of citations of Cuban papers and the impact of the journals in which they were published have continued to increase since the mid-1990s. Theoretical work produced by physicists from a number of Cuban institutions in international collaborations strongly contribute to those numbers. In the last years, international publications suggest a `self-organized' opening of Cuban physics towards interdisciplinary subjects, which is increasing the `bibliometric visibility' of autochthonous experimental work.

  2. Common problems and pitfalls in gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.

    1986-01-01

    There are several pitfalls and problems associated with the successful design of a new gear transmission. A new design will require the knowledge and experience of several technical areas of engineering. Most of the pitfalls and problems associated with a new design are related to an inadequate evaluation of several areas, such as, the lubrication and cooling requirements, complete static and dynamic load analysis, evaluation of materials and heat treatment and the latest manufacturing technology. Some of the common problems of the gear design process are discussed with recommendations made for avoiding these conditions.

  3. Byssinosis: a role for public health in the face of scientific uncertainty.

    PubMed Central

    Wegman, D H; Levenstein, C; Greaves, I A

    1983-01-01

    Byssinosis, a lung disease caused by cotton dust, has been the subject of recent controversy. Debates over the nature of the disease, possible interactions with cigarette smoking, and the proposed reevaluation of the cotton dust standard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration have tended to overlook the plight of affected workers and to obscure the most effective means for preventing the disease. The present lack of definitive information is no reason for inaction, nor for depriving disabled workers of adequate financial compensation. In this respect, byssinosis is no different from other public health hazards for which action must often be taken on the basis of incomplete evidence. PMID:6217757

  4. Legalization, decriminalization & medicinal use of cannabis: a scientific and public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Svrakic, Dragan M; Lustman, Patrick J; Mallya, Ashok; Lynn, Taylor Andrea; Finney, Rhonda; Svrakic, Neda M

    2012-01-01

    Empirical and clinical studies clearly demonstrate significant adverse effects of cannabis smoking on physical and mental health as well as its interference with social and occupational functioning. These negative data far outweigh a few documented benefits for a limited set of medical indications, for which safe and effective alternative treatments are readily available. If there is any medical role for cannabinoid drugs, it lies with chemically defined compounds, not with unprocessed cannabis plant. Legalization or medical use of smoked cannabis is likely to impose significant public health risks, including an increased risk of schizophrenia, psychosis, and other forms of substance use disorders.

  5. Legalization, decriminalization & medicinal use of cannabis: a scientific and public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Svrakic, Dragan M; Lustman, Patrick J; Mallya, Ashok; Lynn, Taylor Andrea; Finney, Rhonda; Svrakic, Neda M

    2012-01-01

    Empirical and clinical studies clearly demonstrate significant adverse effects of cannabis smoking on physical and mental health as well as its interference with social and occupational functioning. These negative data far outweigh a few documented benefits for a limited set of medical indications, for which safe and effective alternative treatments are readily available. If there is any medical role for cannabinoid drugs, it lies with chemically defined compounds, not with unprocessed cannabis plant. Legalization or medical use of smoked cannabis is likely to impose significant public health risks, including an increased risk of schizophrenia, psychosis, and other forms of substance use disorders. PMID:22675784

  6. [The passing eye: museums, public education, and the visualization of scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Podgorny, Irina

    2005-01-01

    In this examination of certain issues related to the history of museums. An emphasis on the functions and missions entrusted to museums does not necessarily reflect the power museums have to create habits or shape meanings. To the contrary, this may reflect the actual fragility of museums and their need to resort to rhetoric to attract governmental favors and funds. Therefore, concentrating on the monumental, representative, or metaphorical aspects of museums obscures the history of these institutions and of their consolidated practices, there by naturalizing the separation between research space and public space and leaving the historian to play the role of an uninitiated observer of the 'cathedrals of science'.

  7. Challenging Expertise: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on democracy, public participation and scientific authority: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on scientific authority and public participation.

    PubMed

    Sorgner, Helene

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares Feyerabend's arguments in Science in a Free Society to the controversial theory of expertise proposed by Harry Collins and Robert Evans as a Third Wave of Science Studies. Is the legitimacy of democratic decisions threatened by the unquestioned authority of scientific advice? Or does, on the contrary, science need protection from too much democratic participation in technical decisions? Where Feyerabend's political relativism envisions democratic society as inherently pluralist and demands equal contribution of all traditions and worldviews to public decision-making, Collins and Evans hold a conception of elective modernism, defending the reality and value of technical expertise and arguing that science deserves a privileged status in modern democracies, because scientific values are also democratic values. I will argue that Feyerabend's political relativism provides a valuable framework for the evaluation of Collins' and Evans' theory of expertise. By constructing a dialog between Feyerabend and this more recent approach in Science and Technology Studies, the aim of this article is not only to show where the two positions differ and in what way they might be reconciled, but also how Feyerabend's philosophy provides substantial input to contemporary debate.

  8. Challenging Expertise: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on democracy, public participation and scientific authority: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on scientific authority and public participation.

    PubMed

    Sorgner, Helene

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares Feyerabend's arguments in Science in a Free Society to the controversial theory of expertise proposed by Harry Collins and Robert Evans as a Third Wave of Science Studies. Is the legitimacy of democratic decisions threatened by the unquestioned authority of scientific advice? Or does, on the contrary, science need protection from too much democratic participation in technical decisions? Where Feyerabend's political relativism envisions democratic society as inherently pluralist and demands equal contribution of all traditions and worldviews to public decision-making, Collins and Evans hold a conception of elective modernism, defending the reality and value of technical expertise and arguing that science deserves a privileged status in modern democracies, because scientific values are also democratic values. I will argue that Feyerabend's political relativism provides a valuable framework for the evaluation of Collins' and Evans' theory of expertise. By constructing a dialog between Feyerabend and this more recent approach in Science and Technology Studies, the aim of this article is not only to show where the two positions differ and in what way they might be reconciled, but also how Feyerabend's philosophy provides substantial input to contemporary debate. PMID:27269270

  9. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications.

    PubMed

    Achakulvisut, Titipat; Acuna, Daniel E; Ruangrong, Tulakan; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate.

  10. Firearms injuries and deaths: a critical public health issue. American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of firearm deaths and injuries is one of the most complex and controversial issues facing the public health profession in recent years. Laws have been enacted to control or discourage private gun ownership, and especially to eliminate guns from the hands of criminals, but the laws' effects in reducing crime and firearm-related injuries and deaths have been disappointing. Gunshot wounds are the 12th leading cause of death in the United States and more than half of all suicides are committed with guns. There are virtually no reliable data on the number of nonfatal firearm injuries. One of the most troubling aspects of handgun violence is that children often are the victims. Educational efforts have been attempted to promote the safer use of firearms, but they have not led to a significant reduction in the number of fatalities, since most firearm incidents are intended to do harm. PMID:2495544

  11. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications.

    PubMed

    Achakulvisut, Titipat; Acuna, Daniel E; Ruangrong, Tulakan; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate. PMID:27383424

  12. The role of scientific knowledge in shaping public attitudes to GM technologies.

    PubMed

    Mielby, Henrik; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2013-02-01

    Depending on the perceived balance of risk and benefit, and on the perceived unnaturalness, some applications of gene technology appear more acceptable to the public than others. This study asks whether a person's knowledge of biology affects their assessment of these factors differently. A random sample of the Danish population (n = 2000) was presented with questionnaires. The respondent's knowledge was measured by a number of textbook questions on biology. The results indicated that knowledge increases the likelihood that a person will have differentiated opinions on medical and agricultural applications, but decreases the likelihood that he or she will differentiate between cisgenic and transgenic cereals. We discuss the implication that knowledge makes people more likely to base their acceptance on judgements of risks and benefits, rather than on judgements of naturalness. The article concludes that the effect of knowledge on acceptance cannot be generalised wholesale from one application, or method, to others. PMID:23833022

  13. The scientific and public-health imperative for a vaccine against dental caries.

    PubMed

    Taubman, Martin A; Nash, David A

    2006-07-01

    Dental caries is caused by one of the most ubiquitous bacterial infections of humans. In many countries such as Brazil and China, this disease is reaching epidemic proportions, and it is clear that a more effective public-health measure to combat dental caries is needed, because disadvantaged children are the most severely affected. One of the main groups of oral microorganisms, the mutans streptococci, has been associated with the aetiology of dental caries, and preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown the feasibility of interfering with this disease. Moreover, clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to a crucial antigen(s) of mutans streptococci can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. Evidence that this antigen(s) is appropriate for use in a vaccine against dental caries, as well as evidence for an appropriate target population of individuals and a logical time of administration, has now emerged.

  14. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications

    PubMed Central

    Achakulvisut, Titipat; Acuna, Daniel E.; Ruangrong, Tulakan; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate. PMID:27383424

  15. [Scientific research in public health institutions of the City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Fernando; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Eiguch, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals with academic activities offer better services to their patients. The Government of Buenos Aires City (GBAC) has an important network of health facilities, but there is little information regarding their academic activities. Our aim was to estimate the proportion of articles included in MEDLINE originated in GBAC hospitals, to evaluate their contribution regarding the whole country (Argentina), and to describe some characteristics of these papers. It is a cross-sectional study based on a MEDLINE search, using the name of each of the 33 GBAC hospitals in the "affiliation" field. Among 22 million references, 1781 belonged to GBAC hospitals (4.4% of all references from Argentina); 66.5% were in English, 83.7% were related to humans, 30.1% were from the last 5 years, 8.3% included high level scientific evidence research (meta-analysis or randomized controlled trials), and 31.1% included research in children. Regarding the rest of the references from Argentina, those from GBAC hospitals included less papers in English (66.5% vs. 90.0%; OR: 0.22; p < 0.0001), less recent papers (30.1% vs. 34.6%; OR: 0.81; p < 0.0001), more research in humans (83.7% vs. 37.3%; OR: 8.65; p < 0.0001), more randomized controlled trials (8.0% vs. 2.8%; OR: 2,9; p < 0.0001), and more research in children (31.1% vs. 9.2%; OR: 4.44; p < 0.0001). GBAC hospitals contributed with 4.4% of references attributed to Argentina in MEDLINE. References from GBAC hospitals were less recent, and included more randomized controlled trials and research in children.

  16. The Scientific Field during Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976-1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekerman, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina's scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research…

  17. Examining authentic talk and student authorship of scientific ideas: Public pedagogy and affinity space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaton, Adriane McNamara

    One of the great challenges to teachers both historically and contemporarily is to facilitate a classroom as a group of students, while concurrently attending to each individual student. As the profession becomes increasingly aware and sensitive to student (dis)abilities, academic giftedness, pressures of athletics and extra-curricular events, and acknowledges the racial, cultural, sexual, economic, gendered identities of students--- the complexity of each individual student becomes ever more apparent. It is a seemingly insurmountable challenge. This dissertation examines how stem cell unit guided group learning while also attending to the individual learning needs of each student. What makes classroom study unusual in research is that it is completely "usual". This study was not part of a university partnership nor did it take place in an affluent school district. Instead, this unit took place in a large, Midwestern urban high school that was/is often written off as a failing---underscoring that powerful science teaching and learning is occurring in schools society simultaneously portrays as victim and villain in the media. Using a sociocultural lens, this ethnographic study draws upon two frameworks, Wenger's communities of practice (1998) and Hayes and Gee's (2011) public pedagogy, to examine how participation in a debate individualizes and personalizes student knowledge and participation in science. The primary use of a community of practice framework allowed for analysis of the norms, rules, practices, and routines of Classroom 507---to establish the nature of the community of learners in the study. A secondary framework, public pedagogy, allowed for deeper understanding of the practices drawn upon in the classroom through consideration of the design, resources, and an emergent "affinity space". This hybridized analysis led to further understanding of how students and teacher stand to learn, participate, engage and use a classroom lesson, the debate, to serve

  18. Pitfalls in CT recognition of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, H.S.; Aronberg, D.J.; Sagel, S.S.

    1985-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the most accurate radiologic technique for the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes. Since the introduction of thoracic CT, a variety of anatomic structures, both normal and aberrant, have been described that can be confused with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes; these represent potential diagnostic pitfalls. This essay illustrates many of these structures and distinguish them from abnormal lymph nodes.

  19. Pitfalls and Success of Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Marie Egbert

    This report discusses the pitfalls and success of distance learning programs. The report covers instructional alternatives of telecourse, linked courses, computer-aided learning, correspondence courses, and audio/video instruction. Sixteen concerns for distance learning programs are identified; for example: (1) registration procedures for distance…

  20. [Optimizing French scientific and economic performance: the Cifre system of public-private partnership in doctoral research and Servier's contribution].

    PubMed

    Canet, Emmanuel; Grassy, Gérard

    2006-01-01

    The European Union has set itself the daunting target of becoming the world's most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy by 2010. Any hope of success against the United States and the Asian tiger economies lies in the quality of scientific and technological research. In France, postgraduate training has long labored under a deep academia/industry divide. Although the universities have introduced supervised 3 year doctoral courses along the lines of the English-speaking countries, they still produce too many postdocs with little experience or understanding of, and little taste for, the private sector. This ignores career realities: the public sector can offer employment to only half the postdocs it produces. The rest must fall back on positions in the private sector, in some cases with a sense of failure, ill suiting them to drive the intellectual economy forwards compared to their international competitors. To combat the divide and emphasize the quality of the research training available within industry, the public/private National Association for Technical Research (ANRT), acting on behalf of the Ministry of Research, created the Industrial Research Training Agreement (Cifre) scheme in 1981. Higher education laboratories and private companies combine to offer doctoral students the opportunity to undertake their 3 year course in a mixed public/private environment (the exact ratio is not defined but in the case of the Servier Research Group, an early and active participant in the scheme, at least one third of the course is spent in the private sector). The doctoral thesis is thereby transformed into a meaningful career qualification. Funded by the Ministry, with maintenance grants to the students and compensatory payments to the companies, the Cifre scheme, which is currently being expanded, has produced 12,000 postdocs personally and intellectually equipped for careers transiting seamlessly between the public and private sectors, to the enrichment of each.

  1. Pitfalls of CITES Implementation in Nepal: A Policy Gap Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative.

  2. It Ain't (Just) the Heat, It's the Humanity: Increasing Public Understanding of Scientific Consensus and Its Role in Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, P.; Cook, J.; Nuccitelli, D.

    2014-12-01

    An overwhelming scientific consensus exists on the issue of anthropogenic climate change. Unfortunately, public perception of expert agreement remains low- only around 1 in 10 Americans correctly estimates the actual level of consensus on the topic. Moreover, several recent studies have demonstrated the pivotal role that perceived consensus plays in the public's acceptance of key scientific facts about environmental problems, as well as their willingness to support policy to address them. This "consensus gap", between the high level of scientific agreement vs. the public's perception of it, has led to calls for increased consensus messaging. However this call has been challenged by a number of different groups: climate "skeptics" in denial about the existence and validity of the consensus; some social science researchers and journalists who believe that such messages will be ineffective or counterproductive; and even some scientists and science advocates who downplay the value of consensus in science generally. All of these concerns can be addressed by effectively communicating the role of consensus within science to the public, as well as the conditions under which consensus is likely to be correct. Here, we demonstrate that the scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change satisfies these conditions, and discuss past examples of purported consensus that failed or succeeded to satisfy them as well. We conclude by discussing the way in which scientific consensus is interpreted by the public, and how consensus messaging can improve climate literacy.

  3. Adaptive management: Promises and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, Rebecca J.; Lee, Robert G.

    1996-07-01

    Proponents of the scientific adaptive management approach argue that it increases knowledge acquisition rates, enhances information flow among policy actors, and provides opportunities for creating shared understandings. However, evidence from efforts to implement the approach in New Brunswick, British Columbia, Canada, and the Columbia River Basin indicates that these promises have not been met. The data show that scientific adaptive management relies excessively on the use of linear systems models, discounts nonscientific forms of knowledge, and pays inadequate attention to policy processes that promote the development of shared understandings among diverse stakeholders. To be effective, new adaptive management efforts will need to incorporate knowledge from multiple sources, make use of multiple systems models, and support new forms of cooperation among stakeholders.

  4. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications in transplantation journals from Mainland China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan between 2006 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Qiu-Ju; Su, Huai-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the quantity and quality of scientific publications in transplantation fields that were written by researchers from Mainland China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan in the East Asia region. Settings East Asia. Participants and outcome measures Articles except editorials, conference abstracts, letters, news and corrections published in 25 transplantation journals from 2006 to 2015 were screened with the Web of Science database. The number of total and annual articles, article types (study design and transplantation site), impact factor, citations and articles in the high-impact journals was determined to assess the quantity and quality of transplantation research from East Asia. The correlation of socioeconomic factors and annual publications was also analysed. Results From 2006 to 2015, there were 47 141 articles published in transplantation journals, of which researchers from Japan published 3694 articles, followed by Mainland China, South Korea and Taiwan with 2778, 1643 and 951 articles, respectively. Similar trends were observed in accumulated impact factor, accumulated citations, articles in the high-impact journals and articles on transplantation site. Publications from Japan had the highest average impact factor and citation, while those from Mainland China had the lowest. Additionally, in terms of study design, authors from Mainland China contributed to most clinical trials and randomised controlled trials, but authors from Japan contributed to most case reports. The annual numbers of articles from Mainland China and South Korea increased linearly (p<0.05), but those from Japan and Taiwan remained stable for the period studied. The annual numbers of articles from Mainland China and South Korea were positively correlated with gross domestic product (p<0.05). Conclusions Transplantation research productivity in East Asia is highly skewed, with gross domestic product having a significant positive correlation

  5. Publication rates of manuscript presentations at the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons Annual Scientific Conference between 1999 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    Publication is the ultimate desired end point of scientific research. However, oral manuscript presentations of research studies are often referenced in textbooks, journal articles, and industry white papers, and, as a result, influence treatment care plans. No data exist for the actual publication rate of podiatric foot and ankle surgery oral manuscript presentations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the actual publication rates of oral manuscript presentations at the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS) Annual Scientific Conference over 10 years. Print or electronic media for the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference official program between 1999 and 2008 were obtained. Each year's official program was hand searched for any oral manuscript presentation, and, when identified, the title and authors were individually searched through electronic internet-based search engines to determine whether an oral manuscript presentation had been followed by publication of a full-text article. Additionally, pertinent journals were hand searched for potential articles. A total of 67.5% (139/206) oral manuscript presentations were ultimately published in 1 of 12 medical journals in a mean of 14.5 months. All journals except one (91.7%) represented peer-reviewed journals. The publication rate of oral manuscript presentations at the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference is similar to or greater than orthopaedic subspecialties, including foot and ankle surgery, publication rates. Based on the above, attendees of the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference should be aware that the majority of oral manuscript material presented at the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference can be considered as accurate because they survive the rigors of the peer-review process more than two thirds of the time.

  6. Rate and predictors of the conversion of abstracts presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress scientific meetings to full peer-reviewed publications.

    PubMed

    Abuzeid, Wael; Fosbøl, Emil L; Fosbøl, Philip L; Fosbøl, Marie; Zarinehbaf, Sanaz; Ross, Heather; Ko, Dennis T; Bennell, Maria C; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2013-11-01

    The rate of conversion of abstracts presented at scientific meetings into peer-reviewed published manuscripts is an important metric for medical societies, because it facilitates translation of scientific knowledge into practice. We determined the rate and predictors of conversion of scientific abstracts presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress (CCC) from 2006 to 2010 into peer-reviewed article publications within 2 years of their initial presentation. Using a previously validated computer algorithm, we searched the International Statistical Institute Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed full manuscript publications of these abstracts. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent factors associated with successful publication. From 2006 to 2010, 3565 abstracts were presented at the CCC. Overall 24.1% of presented abstracts were published within 2 years of the conference. Mean impact factor for publications was 5.2 (range, 0.4-53.2). The type of presentation (for poster vs oral; odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.83; P < 0.001) and category of presentation (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with successful publication. Late breaking abstracts and those related to cancer and clinical sciences were more likely to be published, compared with prevention, vascular biology, and pediatrics. In conclusion, the publication rate at the CCC is only marginally lower than that reported for large international North American and European cardiology conferences (30.6%). Efforts should focus on several identified barriers to improve conversion of abstracts to full report publication.

  7. Impact of GDP, Spending on R&D, Number of Universities and Scientific Journals on Research Publications among Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al Masri, Abeer A.; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood; Memon, Almas Naeem; Zaidi, Syed Ziauddin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D), number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers), citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index) in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. Materials and Methods In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996–2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters. Results The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996–2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes. Conclusion The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects. PMID:23840471

  8. Avoiding common pitfalls when clustering biological data.

    PubMed

    Ronan, Tom; Qi, Zhijie; Naegle, Kristen M

    2016-01-01

    Clustering is an unsupervised learning method, which groups data points based on similarity, and is used to reveal the underlying structure of data. This computational approach is essential to understanding and visualizing the complex data that are acquired in high-throughput multidimensional biological experiments. Clustering enables researchers to make biological inferences for further experiments. Although a powerful technique, inappropriate application can lead biological researchers to waste resources and time in experimental follow-up. We review common pitfalls identified from the published molecular biology literature and present methods to avoid them. Commonly encountered pitfalls relate to the high-dimensional nature of biological data from high-throughput experiments, the failure to consider more than one clustering method for a given problem, and the difficulty in determining whether clustering has produced meaningful results. We present concrete examples of problems and solutions (clustering results) in the form of toy problems and real biological data for these issues. We also discuss ensemble clustering as an easy-to-implement method that enables the exploration of multiple clustering solutions and improves robustness of clustering solutions. Increased awareness of common clustering pitfalls will help researchers avoid overinterpreting or misinterpreting the results and missing valuable insights when clustering biological data. PMID:27303057

  9. Meaningful public participation in scientific research: How to build an effective site-based long-term education program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, L.

    2013-12-01

    Many site-based educators (Wildlife Refuges, nature centers, Cooperative Extension Programs, schools, arboretums) struggle with developing and implementing cohesive long-term scientific monitoring projects into their existing outreach programming. Moreover, projects that are not meaningful to participants often have little or no sustainable long-term impact. Programs proven most effective are those which 1.) engage the participants in the study design and implementation process, 2.) answer a scientific question posed by site leaders; the data collected supports USA-NPN efforts as well as related site management and monitoring questions, 3.) are built into existing outreach and education programs, using phenology as a lens for understanding both natural and cultural history, and 4.) consistently share outcomes and results with the participants. The USA National Phenology Network's (USA-NPN) Education Program provides phenology curriculum and outreach to educators in formal, non-formal, and informal settings. Materials are designed to serve participants in grades 5-12, higher education, and adult learners. Phenology, used as a lens for place-based education, can inform science, environmental, and climate literacy, as well as other subject areas including cultural studies, art, and language arts. The USA-NPN offers consultation with site leaders on how to successfully engage site-based volunteers and students in long-term phenological studies using Nature's Notebook (NN), the professional and citizen science phenology monitoring program. USA-NPN education and educator instruction materials are designed and field-tested to demonstrate how to implement a long-term NN phenology-monitoring program at such sites. These curricula incorporate monitoring for public visitors, long-term volunteers, and school groups, while meeting the goals of USA-NPN and the site, and can be used as a model for other public participation in science programs interested in achieving similar

  10. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    PubMed

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character. PMID:24452252

  11. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    PubMed Central

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character. PMID:24452252

  12. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    PubMed

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-12-19

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  13. Public debates driven by incomplete scientific data: The cases of evolution theory, global warming and H1N1 pandemic influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2010-09-01

    Public debates driven by incomplete scientific data where nobody can claim absolute certainty, due to the current state of scientific knowledge, are studied. The cases of evolution theory, global warming and H1N1 pandemic influenza are investigated. The first two are of controversial impact while the third is more neutral and resolved. To adopt a cautious balanced attitude based on clear but inconclusive data appears to be a lose-out strategy. In contrast overstating arguments with incorrect claims which cannot be scientifically refuted appears to be necessary but not sufficient to eventually win a public debate. The underlying key mechanisms of these puzzling and unfortunate conclusions are identified using the Galam sequential probabilistic model of opinion dynamics (Galam, 2002 [4], Galam, 2005 [18], Galam and Jacobs, 2007 [19]). It reveals that the existence of inflexible agents and their respective proportions are the instrumental parameters to determine the faith of incomplete scientific data in public debates. Acting on one’s own inflexible proportion modifies the topology of the flow diagram, which in turn can make irrelevant initial supports. On the contrary focusing on open-minded agents may be useless given some topologies. When the evidence is not as strong as claimed, the inflexibles rather than the data are found to drive the opinion of the population. The results shed a new but disturbing light on designing adequate strategies to win a public debate.

  14. Public Participation in Scientific Research: Defining the Field and Assessing Its Potential for Informal Science Education. A CAISE Inquiry Group Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonney, Rick; Ballard, Heidi; Jordan, Rebecca; McCallie, Ellen; Phillips, Tina; Shirk, Jennifer; Wilderman, Candie C.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing number of collaborations between volunteers and professional scientists, research efforts investigating the impacts of such collaborations, which we have termed Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR), have been very limited. Examples of PPSR projects include citizen science, volunteer monitoring, and participatory…

  15. Archaeology and public perception of a trans-scientific problem; disposal of toxic wastes in the unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winograd, Isaac Judah

    1986-01-01

    Predicting the effects of toxic-waste disposal on the environment over periods of millenia to hundreds of millenia is a transscientific problem; that is, one not fully addressed by quantitative scientific and engineering endeavors. Archaeology is a pertinent adjunct to such predictions in several ways. First, and foremost, archaeological records demonstrate that delicate, as well as durable, objects buried in thick unsaturated zones of arid and semiarid environments may survive intact for millenia to tens of millenia. This successful preservation of Late Paleolithic to Iron Age artifacts provides independent support for the tentative favorable conclusions of earth scientists regarding the general utility of thick unsaturated zones for toxic-waste isolation. By analogy with the archaeological record, solidified toxic wastes of low solubility that are buried in arid unsaturated zones should remain isolated from the environment indefinitely; modern man presumably should be able to improve upon the techniques used by his ancestors to isolate and preserve their sacred and utilitarian objects. Second, archaeological evidence pertinent to the fate of objects buried in unsaturated zones-although qualitative in nature and subject to the limitations of arguments by analogy-is meaningful to the public and to the courts who, with some scientists and engineers, are reluctant to rely exclusively on computer-generated predictions of the effects of buried toxic wastes on the environment. Third, the archaeological record issues a warning that our descendants may intrude into our waste disposal sites and that we must therefore take special measures to minimize such entry and, if it occurs, to warn of the dangers by a variety of symbols. And fourth, archaeology provides a record of durable natural and manmade materials that may prove to be suitable for encapsulation of our wastes and from which we can construct warning markers that will last for millenia. For these four reasons

  16. Mainstream Issues of Education and Public Awareness of Space Activities and Sciences among universities and Scientific Institutes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Balbir

    This paper is an effort to study and analyze several constraints and issues of space technology and education that organizations other than governmental organizations face in awareness program. In recent years, advancements in technologies have made it possible for Volunteer and Technical Communities, non-government organizations, private agencies and academic research institutions to provide increasing support to space education management and emphasis on response efforts. Important cornerstones of this effort and support are the possibility to access and take advantage of satellite imagery as well as the use of other space-based technologies such as telecommunications satellites and global navigation satellite systems included in main curriculum plus the implementation of programs for use of high class sophisticated technologies used by industries to the students and researchers of non-space faring nations. The authors recognize the importance of such new methodologies for education and public Awareness. This paper demonstrates many hurdles universities and scientific institutions face including lack of access in terms of financial and technical resources for better support. A new model for coordinated private sector partnership in response to space sciences and education has been discussed. In depth analysis and techniques need to connect these pioneering communities with the space industry as well as the space governmental agencies, with special emphasis on financial constraints. The paper mandates its role to promote the use of space-based information; its established networks bringing together national institutions responsible for these space based activities, as well as other end users, and space solution experts; and its technical foundation, particularly in the area of information technologies. To help building a tighter cooperation and further understanding among all these communities, paper delivers an intensive report and solutions for future

  17. A Comparative Study of Scientific Publications in Health Care Sciences and Services from Mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, and India (2007-2014).

    PubMed

    Lv, Yipeng; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Xu; Xue, Chen; Liu, Yuan; Kang, Peng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-12-24

    In this study, we aimed to compare the quantity and quality of publications in health care sciences and services journals from the Chinese mainland, Taiwan, Japan, and India. Journals in this category of the Science Citation Index Expanded were included in the study. Scientific papers were retrieved from the Web of Science online database. Quality was measured according to impact factor, citation of articles, number of articles published in top 10 journals, and the 10 most popular journals by country (area). In the field of health care sciences and services, the annual incremental rates of scientific articles published from 2007 to 2014 were higher than rates of published scientific articles in all fields. Researchers from the Chinese mainland published the most original articles and reviews and had the highest accumulated impact factors, highest total article citations, and highest average citation. Publications from India had the highest average impact factor. In the field of health care sciences and services, China has made remarkable progress during the past eight years in the annual number and percentage of scientific publications. Yet, there is room for improvement in the quantity and quality of such articles.

  18. A Comparative Study of Scientific Publications in Health Care Sciences and Services from Mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, and India (2007–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yipeng; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Xu; Xue, Chen; Liu, Yuan; Kang, Peng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the quantity and quality of publications in health care sciences and services journals from the Chinese mainland, Taiwan, Japan, and India. Journals in this category of the Science Citation Index Expanded were included in the study. Scientific papers were retrieved from the Web of Science online database. Quality was measured according to impact factor, citation of articles, number of articles published in top 10 journals, and the 10 most popular journals by country (area). In the field of health care sciences and services, the annual incremental rates of scientific articles published from 2007 to 2014 were higher than rates of published scientific articles in all fields. Researchers from the Chinese mainland published the most original articles and reviews and had the highest accumulated impact factors, highest total article citations, and highest average citation. Publications from India had the highest average impact factor. In the field of health care sciences and services, China has made remarkable progress during the past eight years in the annual number and percentage of scientific publications. Yet, there is room for improvement in the quantity and quality of such articles. PMID:26712774

  19. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  20. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  1. Pitfalls and variants in pediatric chest imaging.

    PubMed

    García Asensio, D; Fernández Martín, M

    2016-05-01

    Most pitfalls in the interpretation of pediatric chest imaging are closely related with the technique used and the characteristics of pediatric patients. To obtain a quality image that will enable the correct diagnosis, it is very important to use an appropriate technique. It is important to know how technical factors influence the image and to be aware of the possible artifacts that can result from poor patient cooperation. Moreover, radiologists need to be familiar with the normal anatomy in children, with the classic radiologic findings, and with the anatomic and developmental variants to avoid misinterpreting normal findings as pathological.

  2. Pitfalls of Personal Development Plans--The User Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohnert, Therese; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate which pitfalls users of personal development plans (PDPs) perceive in business and governmental organisations with mandatory PDP use. Hundred and thirty-one written statements of PDP users across three Dutch organisations were analysed and categorised into nine pitfalls. Next to an overall lack of use and…

  3. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B. C.

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009–2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions. PMID:27096432

  4. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009-2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions.

  5. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009-2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions. PMID:27096432

  6. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fangerau, H

    2005-12-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis-obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs-seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924), the founding father of artificial parthenogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research.

  7. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  8. Navigating the pitfalls and promise of landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jonathan L; Brady, Steven P; Wang, Ian J; Spear, Stephen F

    2016-02-01

    The field of landscape genetics has been evolving rapidly since its emergence in the early 2000s. New applications, techniques and criticisms of techniques appear like clockwork with each new journal issue. The developments are an encouraging, and at times bewildering, sign of progress in an exciting new field of study. However, we suggest that the rapid expansion of landscape genetics has belied important flaws in the development of the field, and we add an air of caution to this breakneck pace of expansion. Specifically, landscape genetic studies often lose sight of the fundamental principles and complex consequences of gene flow, instead favouring simplistic interpretations and broad inferences not necessarily warranted by the data. Here, we describe common pitfalls that characterize such studies, and provide practical guidance to improve landscape genetic investigation, with careful consideration of inferential limits, scale, replication, and the ecological and evolutionary context of spatial genetic patterns. Ultimately, the utility of landscape genetics will depend on translating the relationship between gene flow and landscape features into an understanding of long-term population outcomes. We hope the perspective presented here will steer landscape genetics down a more scientifically sound and productive path, garnering a field that is as informative in the future as it is popular now.

  9. Increasing Public Access to Scientific Research through Stakeholder Involvement: Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.; DeLorme, D. E.; Ruple, D.; Graham, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) has the potential to have a myriad of deleterious effects on coastal ecology and human infrastructure. Stakeholders, including managers of coastal resources, must be aware of potential consequences of SLR and adjust their plans accordingly to protect and preserve the resources under their care. Members of the public, particularly those who live or work in coastal areas, should also be informed about the results of scientific research on the effects of SLR. However, research results are frequently published in venues or formats to which resource managers and the broader public have limited access. It is imperative for scientists to move beyond traditional publication venues in order to more effectively disseminate the results of their research (Dennison, W. 2007, Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci. 77, 185). One potentially effective way to advance public access to research is to incorporate stakeholder involvement into the research project process in order to target study objectives and tailor communication products toward stakeholder needs (Lemos, M. & Morehouse, B. 2005, Glob. Env. Chg. 15, 57). However, it is important to manage communication and clarify participant expectations during this type of research (Gawith, M. et al. 2009, Glob. Env. Chg. 19, 113). This presentation describes the process being undertaken by an ongoing 5-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM), to improve accessibility and utility of scientific research results through stakeholder engagement. The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing the ecological risks from SLR along the Mississippi, Alabama and Florida Panhandle coasts, coastal habitats, and floodplains. It has incorporated stakeholder involvement throughout the research process so as to better target and tailor the emerging research products to meet resource managers' needs, as well as to facilitate eventual public dissemination of results. An

  10. Potential Pitfalls in microRNA Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, Pauline; Dittmer, Dirk P.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally influence a wide range of cellular processes such as the host response to viral infection, innate immunity, cell cycle progression, migration and apoptosis through the inhibition of target mRNA translation. Due to the growing number of microRNAs and identification of their functional roles, miRNA profiling of many different sample types has become more expansive, especially with relevance to disease signatures. Here, we address some of the advantages and potential pitfalls of the currently available methods for miRNA expression profiling. Some of the topics discussed include isomiRNAs, comparison of different profiling platforms, normalization strategies and issues with regard to sample preparation and experimental analyses. PMID:22566380

  11. Potential pitfall of the EndoButton.

    PubMed

    Simonian, P T; Behr, C T; Stechschulte, D J; Wickiewicz, T L; Warren, R F

    1998-01-01

    A clinical and cadaveric example show the EndoButton (Acufex Microsurgical Inc, Mansfield, MA), used for anterior cruciate ligament endoscopic fixation, flipping outside the extensor mechanism or vastus lateralis rather than flipping directly outside the lateral femoral cortex. This pitfall was caused by overdrilling the femoral socket beyond the recommended 6 mm and overadvancing the EndoButton beyond the required depth to flip the EndoButton. Overdrilling the femoral socket to a depth of 10 mm still allows the EndoButton to rest properly on the cortex without soft tissue interposition. Increasing angles of knee flexion at the time of Endobutton placement decrease the safe distance beyond the lateral femoral cortex for flipping without soft tissue interposition. There is also potential to flip the EndoButton within the substance of the vastus lateralis, but the flipping action is blunted and not discrete.

  12. Future of ceramic turbochargers: promises and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.P.

    1984-11-01

    The turbocharger is the most likely near-term application of a mass-produced ceramic component applicable to both gasoline and diesel engines. A ten-fold increase in turbocharger use is projected for the US market over the next eight years, and the total worldwide demand at the end of that time will exceed six million units per year. Ceramic turbochargers are expected to play a significant role in that growth. Overall turbocharger costs could decline as much as 50% during the next eight years, largely due to the use of ceramics, and ceramic turbochargers could capture more than 75% of the total market. The difficulties of mass-producing ceramic rotors and other components are discussed as a primary pitfall to the introduction and development of this advanced technology.

  13. Biobanking in Atherosclerotic Disease, Opportunities and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Scholtes, V.P.W; de Vries, J.P.P.M; Catanzariti, L.M; de Kleijn, D.P.V; Moll, F.L; de Borst, G.J; Pasterkamp, G

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Western countries and current research is still focusing on optimizing therapeutic approaches in the battle against this multifactorial disease. Concepts regarding the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases originate from observations of human atherosclerotic tissue obtained from autopsies or during vascular surgery. These observations have helped us to disentangle the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. However, identifying vulnerable patients, those prone to developing cardiovascular complications, remains difficult. The search for predictive cardiovascular biomarkers continues and large, well organized biobanks are needed to discover or validate novel biomarkers. Biobanks are an extremely valuable resource that enables us to study the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on the development of multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis. This review will focus on the advantages and pitfalls in atherosclerotic biobanking. PMID:22294969

  14. Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI publications including PDQ cancer information for patients and health professionals, patient-education publications, fact sheets, dictionaries, NCI blogs and newsletters and major reports.

  15. Microstructure Informed Tractography: Pitfalls and Open Challenges.

    PubMed

    Daducci, Alessandro; Dal Palú, Alessandro; Descoteaux, Maxime; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    One of the major limitations of diffusion MRI tractography is that the fiber tracts recovered by existing algorithms are not truly quantitative. Local techniques for estimating more quantitative features of the tissue microstructure exist, but their combination with tractography has always been considered intractable. Recent advances in local and global modeling made it possible to fill this gap and a number of promising techniques for microstructure informed tractography have been suggested, opening new and exciting perspectives for the quantification of brain connectivity. The ease-of-use of the proposed solutions made it very attractive for researchers to include such advanced methods in their analyses; however, this apparent simplicity should not hide some critical open questions raised by the complexity of these very high-dimensional problems, otherwise some fundamental issues may be pushed into the background. The aim of this article is to raise awareness in the diffusion MRI community, notably researchers working on brain connectivity, about some potential pitfalls and modeling choices that make the interpretation of the outcomes from these novel techniques rather cumbersome. Through a series of experiments on synthetic and real data, we illustrate practical situations where erroneous and severely biased conclusions may be drawn about the connectivity if these pitfalls are overlooked, like the presence of partial/missing/duplicate fibers or the critical importance of the diffusion model adopted. Microstructure informed tractography is a young but very promising technology, and by acknowledging its current limitations as done in this paper, we hope our observations will trigger further research in this direction and new ideas for truly quantitative and biologically meaningful analyses of the connectivity.

  16. Microstructure Informed Tractography: Pitfalls and Open Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Daducci, Alessandro; Dal Palú, Alessandro; Descoteaux, Maxime; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    One of the major limitations of diffusion MRI tractography is that the fiber tracts recovered by existing algorithms are not truly quantitative. Local techniques for estimating more quantitative features of the tissue microstructure exist, but their combination with tractography has always been considered intractable. Recent advances in local and global modeling made it possible to fill this gap and a number of promising techniques for microstructure informed tractography have been suggested, opening new and exciting perspectives for the quantification of brain connectivity. The ease-of-use of the proposed solutions made it very attractive for researchers to include such advanced methods in their analyses; however, this apparent simplicity should not hide some critical open questions raised by the complexity of these very high-dimensional problems, otherwise some fundamental issues may be pushed into the background. The aim of this article is to raise awareness in the diffusion MRI community, notably researchers working on brain connectivity, about some potential pitfalls and modeling choices that make the interpretation of the outcomes from these novel techniques rather cumbersome. Through a series of experiments on synthetic and real data, we illustrate practical situations where erroneous and severely biased conclusions may be drawn about the connectivity if these pitfalls are overlooked, like the presence of partial/missing/duplicate fibers or the critical importance of the diffusion model adopted. Microstructure informed tractography is a young but very promising technology, and by acknowledging its current limitations as done in this paper, we hope our observations will trigger further research in this direction and new ideas for truly quantitative and biologically meaningful analyses of the connectivity. PMID:27375412

  17. Scientific papers presented at the European Congress of Radiology 2000: publication rates and characteristics during the period 2000-2004.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Dasit, Alberto; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sanfeliu, Pilar; Aleixandre, Rafael

    2006-02-01

    To determine the rate at which abstracts orally presented at the ECR 2000 were published between 2000-2004, and to identify predictive factors of publication and differences between abstracts and subsequently published papers. Specific search profiles were devised to retrieve items from the Medline database. From 1020 abstracts originating from 39 countries, 479 articles (publication rate 47%) were subsequently published in 139 Medline-indexed journals, most frequently in European Radiology (14%). Country of origin statistically (P<0.0001) influences the subsequent publication of the abstract, Germany having the highest number of presentations (n=343) and derived articles (publication rate 54%). Abstracts presented by authors from the USA (n=21) had the highest publication rate (76%). Most papers were published within the first 3 years after the meeting, as original articles and in English-language journals. Both the study sample size and the first author frequently changed. Chest and cardiac studies had the highest publication rates (56%, both). In summary, abstracts presented at the ECR 2000 had a high publication rate in Medline-indexed journals. Country of origin and subspecialty of presentation appeared to influence subsequent full publication. More articles were published in European Radiology than in other journal.

  18. Model University Policy Regarding Faculty Publication in Scientific and Technical Scholarly Journals: A Background Paper and Review of the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public-Access Computer Systems Review, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents and discusses a model policy regarding faculty publishing in scientific and technical journals that was developed by the Triangle Research Library Network (North Carolina). Highlights include the current scholarly communication system, including incompatibility between the goals of academic researchers and the goals of publishers;…

  19. Public engagement with scientific evidence in health: A qualitative study among primary-care patients in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Marilyn M; Imbert, Diana; Oh, Eric; Byhoff, Elena; Shea, Judy A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the experience and perspective of patients regarding scientific evidence in health and the degree that this information impacts health behavior and medical decision making. A focus group study was conducted. Participants were recruited from an urban primary-care practice. The focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded by two independent investigators. Emergent themes were identified. Participants (n = 30) ranged in age from 30 to 79 years, 60% were female, 77% were black, and 50% had at least some college experience. Three thematic areas informed a wide range in level of interest regarding scientific study design and result information: (1) scientific literacy, (2) medical decision making style, and (3) impact of culture and community on decision making. Our findings indicate that communication strategies that incorporate key elements of scientific study design, methods, and results will most effectively translate findings from comparative effectiveness research to patient-informed decision making regarding evidence-based health interventions.

  20. What is Authorship, and What Should it Be? A Survey of Prominent Guidelines for Determining Authorship in Scientific Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Holland, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Before the mid 20th century most scientific writing was solely authored (Claxton, 2005; Greene, 2007) and thus it is only relatively recently, as science has grown more complex, that the ethical and procedural issues around authorship have arisen. Fields as diverse as medicine (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2008), mathematics…

  1. The Pleasures and the Pitfalls of Plant Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Classroom plant activities have long been inexpensive, easy to do, and fun for students, and have become more central to biology teaching. Introduces some plant science activities and their pleasures and pitfalls. (ASK)

  2. Pitfalls in Research on School and Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Peter

    1989-01-01

    In describing several pitfalls associated with research on school and teacher effectiveness, the following aspects of effectiveness research are considered: correlation-causation relationship, controlling for background factors, statistical and practical significance, instrumentation problems, regression effects, measurement of change, nonlinear…

  3. Pitfalls in the evaluation of shortness of breath.

    PubMed

    Wills, Charlotte Page; Young, Megann; White, Douglas W

    2010-02-01

    This article illustrates the challenges practitioners face evaluating shortness of breath, a common emergency department complaint. Through a series of patient encounters, pitfalls in the evaluation of shortness of breath are reviewed and discussed. PMID:19945605

  4. Joint ventures: the trends and the potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Wolff, S O

    1985-10-01

    Perhaps the hottest trend today in the health care field is the formation of joint ventures by hospitals and physicians. This article examines some of the critical success factors and the potential pitfalls of hospital physician joint venture arrangements.

  5. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348335

  6. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Typical pitfalls in applications for marketing authorization of biotechnological products in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian K; Schäffner-Dallmann, Gabriele

    2008-11-01

    Although regulatory standards and procedures in Europe have improved following the establishment of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA), the number of major issues with marketing authorization applications for biotechnological products remains high. For example, the pivotal clinical trials of some late-stage failures have been found not to meet the regulatory guidelines of the European Union, and regulators are increasingly concerned that attempts to accelerate the process of biotechnological product development leads to the neglect of important issues. Based on the scientific decisions of the EMEA's major scientific committees, in this article we identify and discuss frequent concerns, and suggest approaches that might enable developers of biotechnological products to avoid these common pitfalls.

  8. The publication of the astronomical observations of Buenaventura Suárez SJ (1679-1750) in European scientific journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2004-12-01

    Many of the observations of Buenaventura Suárez (1679-1750), a Jesuit astronomer who worked in the missions of Paraguay, were made known in prestigious contemporary scientific European periodicals such as the Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Upsalensis and the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Suarez recorded lunar and solar eclipses, and immersions and emersions of the satellites of Jupiter for the purpose of determining the longitude of the mission towns he lived in. He was able to keep abreast of the state of the field and communicate his results through the intermediacy of an epistolary net with correspondents in Europe and the New World.

  9. Sea otters in captivity: applications and implications of husbandry development, public display, scientific research and management, and rescue and rehabilitation for sea otter conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.; Belting, Traci F.; Triggs, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sea otters in captivity began in 1932, producing important insights for conservation. Soviet (initiated in 1932) and United States (1951) studies provided information on captive otter husbandry, setting the stage for eventual large-scale translocations as tools for population restoration. Early studies also informed effective housing of animals in zoos and aquaria, with sea otters first publicly displayed in 1954. Surveys credited displayed otters in convincing the public of conservation values. After early studies, initial scientific data for captive sea otters in aquaria came from work initiated in 1956, and from dedicated research facilities beginning in 1968. Significant achievements have been made in studies of behavior, physiology, reproduction, and high-priority management issues. Larger-scale projects involving translocation and oil spill response provided extensive insights into stress reactions, water quality issues in captivity, and effects of oil spills.

  10. Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a variety of publications available from government and nongovernment sources. The government publications are from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and are designed for educators, students, and the public. (Author/SA)

  11. Museum Exhibition on Testing and Measurement: Scientific Principles, Social Impact of Testing, and Dialogue with the Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi; Alderoqui-Pinus, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with a pioneering project currently being developed, namely, the Exhibition on Testing and Measurement. This interactive traveling exhibition will be presented in science museums in Israel, the United States, and other countries. It has been conceived as an innovative means of familiarizing the public with educational…

  12. 76 FR 52731 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ..., implementation, and policy issues related to the global response to HIV/AIDS. These issues will be of concern as... Board will determine procedures for public participation. For further information about the meeting, please contact Charles Holmes, Chief Medical Officer, Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator at...

  13. 76 FR 36120 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Review Panel to conduct a peer review of EPA's Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (First External...: Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document. DATES: The CASAC Lead Review Panel meeting will be held... given that the CASAC Lead Review Panel will hold a public meeting to peer review EPA's...

  14. 78 FR 33144 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Acting Director of the Office of Research and Science, and the Designated Federal Officer for the SAB... prevention studies and implementation science awards; recommendations to Ambassador Goosby on lubricant safety, and data management. The public may call into this conference call at the following number:...

  15. 78 FR 31626 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Acting Director of the Office of Research and Science, and the Designated Federal Officer for the SAB... prevention studies and implementation science awards; recommendations to Ambassador Goosby on lubricant safety, and data management. The public may call into this conference call at the following number:...

  16. 76 FR 4661 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... take place by phone only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Any member of the public who wants further... (NAAQS) for Ozone (73 FR 16436). The April 7, 2008 letter (EPA-CASAC-08-009) is one of several CASAC... and welfare, respectively (75 FR 2938-3052; January 19, 2010). Since the proposed standards are...

  17. Scientific Publications in Nephrology and Urology Journals from Chinese Authors in East Asia: A 10-Year Survey of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang-Hao; Ye, Chao-Yang; Xu, Cheng-Gang; Rong, Shu; Sun, Li-Jun; Wu, Jun; Dai, Bing; Chen, Dong-Ping; Zhu, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Qiang; Zhao, Xue-Zhi; Mei, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Background Diseases of the kidneys and genitourinary tract are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we compared the quantity and quality of nephrological and urological articles published in international journals from the three major regions of China: the mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). Methods Nephrological and urological articles originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published in 61 journals from 1999–2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the numbers of total articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, case reports, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in the leading general-medicine journals. We used these data to compare the quantity and quality of publication output from the three regions. Results The total number of articles increased significantly from 1999 to 2008 in the three regions. The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from HK since 2004, and surpassed that from TW in 2008. Publications from TW had the highest accumulated IF, total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading general-medicine journals. However, HK publications had the highest average IF. Although ML produced the largest quantity of articles, it exhibited the lowest quality among the three regions. Conclusion The number of nephrological and urological publications originating from the three major regions of China increased significantly from 1999 to 2008. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK was higher than that from ML. PMID:21494662

  18. Scientific publications in ophthalmic journals from China and other top-ranking countries: a 12-year review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eye diseases with increasing mortality are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we study the publication characteristics in international ophthalmic journals of the US, the UK, Germany, Australia, Japan, and China. Methods Articles published in 53 ophthalmic journals from 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the number of articles published each year, analyzed the publication type, and evaluated the accumulated and average impact factors (IFs), and the distribution of articles in ophthalmic journals in relation to IFs. The characteristics of publication outputs from China and other top-ranking countries were compared. Results The total number of articles increased significantly during the past 12 years, with an increase of 51.0%. The growth in the annual number of articles from the US, the UK, Australia, and China showed a significantly positive trend. Publications from the US exceeded those from any other country and had the highest IFs, largest number of total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading ophthalmic journals. During the past 12 years, China contributed 3.5% of the total publications, and the number of Chinese articles showed a more than 6-fold increase (from 99 to 605, R2 =0.947, P<0.001). The numbers of IFs and citations of articles originating in China were mostly lower than for other top-ranking counties. Conclusions Research on ophthalmic journals has maintained an upward growing trend from 2000 to 2011. Chinese ophthalmology research has developed rapidly, but the gap still exists between China and other top-ranking countries for the advanced level of research. PMID:23802511

  19. Evaluating optic nerve damage: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Paul J; Mikelberg, Frederick S

    2009-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy involving loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons at the level of the optic nerve head. This change manifests as thinning and excavation of the neural tissues and nerve fiber layer. Therefore, it has long been known that the structural appearance of the optic nerve head is paramount to both glaucoma diagnosis and to the detection of progression [1-4]. Quantitative imaging methods such as Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) and Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT) show great promise for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma and as these technologies continue to improve, they will become more important in the care of glaucoma. However, these tests cannot replace good clinical examination and indeed they depend upon clinical correlation for correct interpretation. Thus, careful and systematic clinical examination of the optic nerve remains a cornerstone of glaucoma management. In this paper, we outline a few pearls for the examination of the optic nerve and some of the pitfalls to be avoided in optic disc examination. PMID:19834565

  20. Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models.

    PubMed

    Köster, Gerta; Treml, Franz; Gödel, Marion

    2013-06-01

    The social force model of Helbing and Molnár is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution. PMID:23848804

  1. Esophageal Impedance Monitoring: Clinical Pearls and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Karthik; Katzka, David A

    2016-09-01

    The development of intraluminal esophageal impedance monitoring has improved our ability to detect and measure gastroesophageal reflux without dependence on acid content. This ability to detect previously unrecognized weak or nonacid reflux episodes has had important clinical implications in the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In addition, with the ability to assess bolus transit within the esophageal lumen, impedance monitoring has enhanced the recognition and characterization of esophageal motility disorders in patients with nonobstructive dysphagia. The assessment of the intraluminal movement of gas and liquid has also been proven to be of diagnostic value in conditions such as rumination syndrome and excessive belching. Further, alternative applications of impedance monitoring, such as the measurement of mucosal impedance, have provided novel insights into assessing esophageal mucosal integrity changes as a consequence of inflammatory change. Future applications for esophageal impedance monitoring also hold promise in esophageal conditions other than GERD. However, despite all of the clinical benefits afforded by esophageal impedance monitoring, important clinical and technical shortcomings limit its diagnostic value and must be considered when interpreting study results. Overinterpretation of studies or application of impedance monitoring in patients can have deleterious clinical implications. This review will highlight the clinical benefits and limitations of esophageal impedance monitoring and provide clinical pearls and pitfalls associated with this technology.

  2. Esophageal Impedance Monitoring: Clinical Pearls and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Karthik; Katzka, David A

    2016-09-01

    The development of intraluminal esophageal impedance monitoring has improved our ability to detect and measure gastroesophageal reflux without dependence on acid content. This ability to detect previously unrecognized weak or nonacid reflux episodes has had important clinical implications in the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In addition, with the ability to assess bolus transit within the esophageal lumen, impedance monitoring has enhanced the recognition and characterization of esophageal motility disorders in patients with nonobstructive dysphagia. The assessment of the intraluminal movement of gas and liquid has also been proven to be of diagnostic value in conditions such as rumination syndrome and excessive belching. Further, alternative applications of impedance monitoring, such as the measurement of mucosal impedance, have provided novel insights into assessing esophageal mucosal integrity changes as a consequence of inflammatory change. Future applications for esophageal impedance monitoring also hold promise in esophageal conditions other than GERD. However, despite all of the clinical benefits afforded by esophageal impedance monitoring, important clinical and technical shortcomings limit its diagnostic value and must be considered when interpreting study results. Overinterpretation of studies or application of impedance monitoring in patients can have deleterious clinical implications. This review will highlight the clinical benefits and limitations of esophageal impedance monitoring and provide clinical pearls and pitfalls associated with this technology. PMID:27325223

  3. The Impact of Community Design and Land-Use Choices on Public Health: A Scientific Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Dannenberg, Andrew L.; Jackson, Richard J.; Frumkin, Howard; Schieber, Richard A.; Pratt, Michael; Kochtitzky, Chris; Tilson, Hugh H.

    2003-01-01

    The design of a community’s built environment influences the physical and mental health of its residents. Because few studies have investigated this relationship, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted a workshop in May 2002 to help develop a scientific research agenda on these issues. Workshop participants’ areas of expertise included physical activity, injury prevention, air pollution, water quality, urban planning, transportation, architecture, epidemiology, land use, mental health, social capital, housing, and social marketing. This report describes the 37 questions in the resulting research agenda. The next steps are to define priorities and obtain resources. The proposed research will help identify the best practices for designing new communities and revitalizing old ones in ways that promote physical and mental health. PMID:12948970

  4. [Scientific publications of Costa Rica in Science Citation Index bibliometric analysis of the period 1999-2001].

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Bruno; Ainsworth, Shirley

    2002-01-01

    This study analyzed the publications of authors from Costa Rican institutions that were included in the Science Citation Index (SCI) during 1999-2001. Out of the 722 references detected, distributed in 328 journals, 90.7% corresponded to original research articles. The total productivity figures showed a moderately increasing trend, both in absolute and population-adjusted terms, in concordance with previous data recorded for the period 1980-1998. The contribution of Revista de Biología Tropical to these figures corresponded to 10.0%, 8.9%, and 19.1%, for the years 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. The subject distribution of articles followed a similar pattern to that described for 1980-1998, with a predominance of biomedical (33.3%) and biological (27.5%) sciences, followed by agronomical (15.5%) sciences, chemistry (13.6%), physics (5.0%), geological sciences (3.6%), and mathematics (1.5%). Citation analyses for individual publications (up to July 15, 2002) revealed that only 45.2% of the articles had been cited at least once. The ten most cited references were analyzed, varying from 26 to 114 citations. The average citation per article was 2.60, and the average number of authors per article was 2.92. In agreement with data from 1980-1998, the University of Costa Rica appeared as the institution with highest productivity of SCI publications during 1999-2001, with a contribution of 50.0%. The percentage of publications performed without the participation of foreign co-authors showed a change in its decreasing trend of 1980-1998, stabilizing near the range of 25-30% during the period 1999-2001.

  5. Scientific and public responses to the ongoing volcanic crisis at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico: Importance of an effective hazards-warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Tilling, Robert I.

    2008-02-01

    Volcanic eruptions and other potentially hazardous natural phenomena occur independently of any human actions. However, such phenomena can cause disasters when a society fails to foresee the hazardous manifestations and adopt adequate measures to reduce its vulnerability. One of the causes of such a failure is the lack of a consistent perception of the changing hazards posed by an ongoing eruption, i.e., with members of the scientific community, the Civil Protection authorities and the general public having diverging notions about what is occurring and what may happen. The problem of attaining a perception of risk as uniform as possible in a population measured in millions during an evolving eruption requires searching for communication tools that can describe—as simply as possible—the relations between the level of threat posed by the volcano, and the level of response of the authorities and the public. The hazards-warning system adopted at Popocatépetl Volcano, called the Volcanic Traffic Light Alert System (VTLAS), is a basic communications protocol that translates volcano threat into seven levels of preparedness for the emergency-management authorities, but only three levels of alert for the public (color coded green-yellow-red). The changing status of the volcano threat is represented as the most likely scenarios according to the opinions of an official scientific committee analyzing all available data. The implementation of the VTLAS was intended to reduce the possibility of ambiguous interpretations of intermediate levels by the endangered population. Although the VTLAS is imperfect and has not solved all problems involved in mass communication and decision-making during a volcanic crisis, it marks a significant advance in the management of volcanic crises in Mexico.

  6. Scientific and public responses to the ongoing volcanic crisis at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico: Importance of an effective hazards-warning system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Tilling, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions and other potentially hazardous natural phenomena occur independently of any human actions. However, such phenomena can cause disasters when a society fails to foresee the hazardous manifestations and adopt adequate measures to reduce its vulnerability. One of the causes of such a failure is the lack of a consistent perception of the changing hazards posed by an ongoing eruption, i.e., with members of the scientific community, the Civil Protection authorities and the general public having diverging notions about what is occurring and what may happen. The problem of attaining a perception of risk as uniform as possible in a population measured in millions during an evolving eruption requires searching for communication tools that can describe—as simply as possible—the relations between the level of threat posed by the volcano, and the level of response of the authorities and the public. The hazards-warning system adopted at Popocatépetl Volcano, called the Volcanic Traffic Light Alert System(VTLAS), is a basic communications protocol that translates volcano threat into seven levels of preparedness for the emergency-management authorities, but only three levels of alert for the public (color coded green–yellow–red). The changing status of the volcano threat is represented as the most likely scenarios according to the opinions of an official scientific committee analyzing all available data. The implementation of the VTLAS was intended to reduce the possibility of ambiguous interpretations of intermediate levels by the endangered population. Although the VTLAS is imperfect and has not solved all problems involved in mass communication and decision-making during a volcanic crisis, it marks a significant advance in the management of volcanic crises in Mexico.

  7. Open Access Centre at the Nature Research Centre: a facility for enhancement of scientific research, education and public outreach in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šerpenskienė, Silvija; Skridlaitė, Gražina

    2014-05-01

    Open Access Centre (OAC) was established in Vilnius, Lithuania in 2013 as a subdivision of the Nature Research Centre (NRC) operating on the principle of open access for both internal and external users. The OAC consists of 15 units, i.e. 15 NRC laboratories or their branches. Forty four sets of research equipment were purchased. The OAC cooperates with Lithuanian science and studies institutions, business sector and other governmental and public institutions. Investigations can be carried in the Geosciences, Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research, and Ecotoxicology fields. Environmental radioactivity, radioecology, nuclear geophysics, microscopic and chemical composition of natural compounds (minerals, rocks etc.), paleomagnetic, magnetic and environmental investigations, as well as ground and water contamination by oil products and other organic environment polluting compounds, identification of fossils, rocks and minerals can be studied in the Georesearch field. Ecosystems and identification of plants, animals and microorganisms are main subjects of the Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research field. The Ecotoxicologal Research deals with toxic and genotoxic effects of toxic substances and other sources of pollution on macro- and microorganisms and cell cultures. Open access is guaranteed by: (1) providing scientific research and experimental development services; (2) implementing joint business and science projects; (3) using facilities for the training of specialists of the highest qualifications; (4) providing properly qualified and technically trained users with opportunities to carry out their scientific research and/or experiments in the OAC laboratories by themselves. Services provided in the Open Access Centre can be received by both internal and external users: persons undertaking innovative economic activities, students of other educational institutions, interns, external teams of researchers engaged in scientific research activities, teachers

  8. A Secure Web Application Providing Public Access to High-Performance Data Intensive Scientific Resources - ScalaBLAST Web Application

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Darren S.; Peterson, Elena S.; Oehmen, Chris S.

    2008-05-04

    This work presents the ScalaBLAST Web Application (SWA), a web based application implemented using the PHP script language, MySQL DBMS, and Apache web server under a GNU/Linux platform. SWA is an application built as part of the Data Intensive Computer for Complex Biological Systems (DICCBS) project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SWA delivers accelerated throughput of bioinformatics analysis via high-performance computing through a convenient, easy-to-use web interface. This approach greatly enhances emerging fields of study in biology such as ontology-based homology, and multiple whole genome comparisons which, in the absence of a tool like SWA, require a heroic effort to overcome the computational bottleneck associated with genome analysis. The current version of SWA includes a user account management system, a web based user interface, and a backend process that generates the files necessary for the Internet scientific community to submit a ScalaBLAST parallel processing job on a dedicated cluster.

  9. On the pitfalls of peer review

    PubMed Central

    van Gunsteren, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    The review process of academic, scientific research and its basic tenets is considered, thereby distinguishing between (i) reviewing of manuscripts to be published in the scientific literature, (ii) reviewing of research proposals to be financed by funding agencies, (iii) reviewing of educational or research institutions with respect to their proper functioning, and (iv) reviewing of scientists with the aim of appointing or tenuring faculty. PMID:26675931

  10. Scientific publications on systematic review and meta-analysis from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the English literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiping; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2012-03-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are playing an increasingly important role in clinical research and practice. This study aimed to measure the scientific production of systematic review and meta-analysis from the three major regions of China: the Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). English articles on systematic review and meta-analysis from ML, HK, and TW from 2001 to 2010 were retrieved from the PubMed database. The total number of articles, impact factors (IF), and articles published in high-impact journals were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons among the three regions. There were 1 587 published articles from ML (1 292), HK (203), and TW (92) during the past ten years. The annual total numbers of articles in the three regions increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 (from 13 to 677). The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from TW since 2001, and surpassed that from HK in 2003. The accumulated IF of articles from ML (3 488.24) was higher than those from HK (493.16) and TW (216.39). HK had the highest average IF of 3.31, followed by ML of 2.90 and TW of 2.85. Researchers from HK published a larger proportion of papers in high-impact journals than those from ML and TW. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was the most popular journal in China. Chinese authors have been very active to enhance the systematic review and meta-analysis research over the past ten years, especially in ML. The gap between ML and the other two regions has been narrowed. But there is still considerable room for Chinese authors to improve their studies on systematic review and meta-analysis.

  11. Avoiding pitfalls when implementing local area networks in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Kaudewitz, G; Schulte, A

    1995-01-01

    This paper is intended to outline some of the most commonly encountered, but yet still underestimated pitfalls during the implementation of computer systems networks in hospitals and health care institutions and to give information technology planners and responsibles some practical hints for avoiding them. Pitfalls encountered during the difficult process of achieving consensus among all groups concerned on the necessity for electronic data processing in health care institutions will not be addressed here [1], though the authors believe that some major risks for project failure stem from shortcomings in this field. Instead, those pitfalls encountered during project initialization and project realization with the phases of analysis, design, contracting, installation, and maintenance will be discussed. The paper concludes with the authors' opinion that only the application of industry-proven project management and realization techniques will allow health care administrators to cope with the steadily increasing risks for failure of information technology projects in health care.

  12. Straight-line drift fences and pitfall traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Straight-line drift fences typically are short barriers (5-15 m) that direct animals traveling on the substrate surface into traps places at the ends of or beside the barriers. Traps (described below) can be pitfalls, funnel traps, or a combination of the two. Drift fences with pitfall or funnel traps and pitfall traps without fences are used commonly to inventory and monitor populations of amphibians and reptiles. For example, 9 of 17 field studies reported for management of terrestrial vertebrates (Sarzo et al. 1988) used these techniques to sample amphibians. Drift fences with pitfall traps can be used to determine species richness at a site and to detect the presence of rare species. They also can yield data on relative abundances and habitat use of selected species. Pitfall traps arrayed in a grid without fences can also be used to study the population ecology and habitat use of selected species. Population density can be estimated with this latter technique if used in conjunction with mark-recapture techniques (see Chapter 8). Drift fence arrays or pitfall grids can be left in place for long-term monitoring. In this section, I discuss the use of this technique to obtain data on amphibians away from breeding ponds. Use of drift fences and traps to monitory amphibian activity at breeding ponds is discussed in the section "Drift Fences Encircling Breeding Sits", below (technique 9). Some materials and procedures are common to both techniques. Investigators contemplating the use of drift fences and traps in any context should read both accounts.

  13. Academic Debate: Publications Which Promote Political Agendas Have no Place in Scientific and Medical Journals, and Academics Should Refrain from Publishing in Such Journals.

    PubMed

    Glick, Shimon; Clarfield, A Mark; Strous, Rael D; Horton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the full debate held on October 1, 2014, which focused on the following resolution: "Publications which promote political agendas have no place in scientific and medical journals, and academics should refrain from publishing in such journals." The debate moderator was Professor Shimon Glick. Taking the pro stance was Professor A. Mark Clarfield; the con stance was held by Professor Rael D. Strous. Following the first part of the debate, Dr Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief of The Lancet, gave his thoughts on the topic. This was followed by the opportunity for rebuttal by Professors Clarfield and Strous. The debate was summarized and closed by Professor Glick. This paper provides a slightly edited text of the debate, for ease of reading.

  14. Academic Debate: Publications Which Promote Political Agendas Have no Place in Scientific and Medical Journals, and Academics Should Refrain from Publishing in Such Journals

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Shimon; Clarfield, A. Mark; Strous, Rael D.; Horton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the full debate held on October 1, 2014, which focused on the following resolution: “Publications which promote political agendas have no place in scientific and medical journals, and academics should refrain from publishing in such journals.” The debate moderator was Professor Shimon Glick. Taking the pro stance was Professor A. Mark Clarfield; the con stance was held by Professor Rael D. Strous. Following the first part of the debate, Dr Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief of The Lancet, gave his thoughts on the topic. This was followed by the opportunity for rebuttal by Professors Clarfield and Strous. The debate was summarized and closed by Professor Glick. This paper provides a slightly edited text of the debate, for ease of reading. PMID:25717385

  15. How to avoid the ten most frequent EMS pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.

    1982-04-19

    It pays to do your homework before investing in an energy management system if you want to avoid the 10 most common pitfalls listed by users, consultants, and manufacturers as: oversimplification, improper maintenance, failure to involve operating personnel, inaccurate savings estimates, failure to include monitoring capability, incompetent or fradulent firms, improper load control, not allowing for a de-bugging period, failure to include manual override, and software problems. The article describes how each of these pitfalls can lead to poor decisions and poor results. (DCK)

  16. Misdiagnosing Dizzy Patients: Common Pitfalls in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Kevin A; Newman-Toker, David E

    2015-08-01

    This article highlights 5 pitfalls in the diagnosis of common vestibular disorders: (1) overreliance on dizziness symptom type to drive diagnostic inquiry; (2) underuse and misuse of timing and triggers to categorize patients; (3) underuse, misuse, and misconceptions linked to hallmark eye examination findings; (4) overweighting age, vascular risk factors, and neuroexamination to screen for stroke; and (5) overuse and overreliance on head computed tomography to rule out neurologic causes. This article discusses the evidence base describing each pitfall's frequency and likely causes, and potential alternative strategies that might be used to improve diagnostic accuracy or mitigate harms. PMID:26231272

  17. Aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Dani, A A; Kotwal, M N; Kherdekar, M S

    1994-07-01

    FNAC of the major salivary glands was performed on 72 patients during a period of two and a half years. In 64 patients samples were satisfactory. The cytologic diagnosis was correlated with histology available in 36 cases. 21 out of 22 benign lesions and 12 out 4 malignant lesions were correctly identified rendering a diagnostic accuracy of 91 percent. The pitfalls of FNAC of salivary gland lesions are reflected by the overall false positive rate of 5.5 percent of false negative rate of 2.7 percent. Diagnostic pitfalls are due to variability of tumor morphology which makes sampling & interpretation difficult. Multiple sampling and increasing experience help to minimize errors.

  18. Dates of publication of the Zoology parts of the Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76.

    PubMed

    Low, Martyn E Y; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2013-01-01

    The dates of publication and exact titles of the 83 parts of the Zoology of the Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76 are presented. Exact dates of publication for 71 of these parts have been determined using notices of their publication in contemporary publications. The dates of publication of the two Narrative volumes of the voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger (which contain available indications of new names) are also determined.

  19. Public Relations for Community/Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodress, Fred A.

    This monograph is a practical manual on public relations (PR) for community and junior colleges, containing numerous suggestions and recommendations for establishing and operating an effective public relations effort while avoiding PR pitfalls. An overview of the history of public relations in academe, the rationale underlying today's PR programs…

  20. Pitfalls in statistical landslide susceptibility modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Boris; Vorpahl, Peter; Märker, Michael; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The use of statistical methods is a well-established approach to predict landslide occurrence probabilities and to assess landslide susceptibility. This is achieved by applying statistical methods relating historical landslide inventories to topographic indices as predictor variables. In our contribution, we compare several new and powerful methods developed in machine learning and well-established in landscape ecology and macroecology for predicting the distribution of shallow landslides in tropical mountain rainforests in southern Ecuador (among others: boosted regression trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, maximum entropy). Although these methods are powerful, we think it is necessary to follow a basic set of guidelines to avoid some pitfalls regarding data sampling, predictor selection, and model quality assessment, especially if a comparison of different models is contemplated. We therefore suggest to apply a novel toolbox to evaluate approaches to the statistical modelling of landslide susceptibility. Additionally, we propose some methods to open the "black box" as an inherent part of machine learning methods in order to achieve further explanatory insights into preparatory factors that control landslides. Sampling of training data should be guided by hypotheses regarding processes that lead to slope failure taking into account their respective spatial scales. This approach leads to the selection of a set of candidate predictor variables considered on adequate spatial scales. This set should be checked for multicollinearity in order to facilitate model response curve interpretation. Model quality assesses how well a model is able to reproduce independent observations of its response variable. This includes criteria to evaluate different aspects of model performance, i.e. model discrimination, model calibration, and model refinement. In order to assess a possible violation of the assumption of independency in the training samples or a possible

  1. Scientific publications in respiratory journals from Chinese authors in various parts of North Asia: a 10-year survey of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Bo; Du, Ting-Ting; Xie, Ting; Ji, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Zhao-Hong; Liao, Zhuan; Hu, Liang-Hao; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Respiratory disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in China. However, little is known about the research status of respirology in three major regions of China—Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK) and Taiwan (TW). A 10-year survey of literature was conducted to compare the three regions’ outputs in the research of respirology. Design A bibliometric study. Setting China. Participants and outcome measures A literature search in PubMed database, updated as of September 2012, led to the identification of the related articles from 2000 to 2009. The number of total articles, randomised controlled trials, case reports, meta-analysis, impact factors (IF), citations and articles published in top general medicine journals was collected for quantity and quality comparisons. Results 2208 articles were collected, 814 from ML, 909 from TW and 485 from HK. The total number of articles from the three regions has increased significantly from 2000 to 2009. The number of articles published per year from ML has exceeded that from HK in 2005 and TW in 2008. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (3192.417) was much higher than that from ML (2409.956) and HK (1898.312). HK got the highest average IF of respirology articles and the majority of articles were published in top general medicine journals. Conclusions The total number of published articles from the three major regions of China has increased notably from 2000 to 2009. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK is better than that from ML. PMID:24583761

  2. [Principles and criteria used by the National Evaluation Committee of Research Activity (CNEAI-Spain) for the assessment of scientific publications: 1989-2009].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo

    2010-11-01

    Study of the origins, philosophy and history of the criteria used to assess research activities in Spain by the CNEAI. The assessment criteria and quality evidence of publications is discussed. Results are presented on the temporal development of the criteria used, grouped by publication type (articles and books) and fields of knowledge. Between 1989-1996, assessment was based on the definition and goals set by the Spanish scientific framework and on general criteria. Between 1996-2004, the formulation of indicators began to be almost exclusively based on Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Success rates up to 2004 indicate that the evaluation criteria and publishing behaviour matched the "hard sciences", but not the Social Sciences and Economics. In 2005, the criteria used were further developed and reoriented with an eye to softening the preceding JCR-centrism by taking into consideration other databases and defining the quality criteria to be met by journals, books and conferences not included in JCR. Correspondingly, the success rates for 2007 indicate a dramatic recovery in Economics. In the last 4 years, Humanities and Social Sciences have consolidated the further opening of the criteria used with the addition of new benchmarks and the full integration of books. PMID:21044530

  3. Geochemical databases: minding the pitfalls to avoid the pratfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2011-12-01

    The field of geochemistry has been revolutionized in recent years by the advent of databases (PetDB, GEOROC, NAVDAT, etc). A decade ago, a geochemical synthesis required major time investments in order to compile relatively small amounts of fragmented data from large numbers of publications, Now virtually all of the published data on nearly any solid Earth topic can be downloaded to nearly any desktop computer with a few mouse clicks. Most solid Earth talks at international meetings show data compilations from these databases. Applications of the data are playing an increasingly important role in shaping our thinking about the Earth. They have changed some fundamental ideas about the compositional structure of the Earth (for example, showing that the Earth's "trace element depleted upper mantle" is not so depleted in trace elements). This abundance of riches also poses new risks. Until recently, important details associated with data publication (adequate metadata and quality control information) were given low priority, even in major journals. The online databases preserve whatever has been published, irrespective of quality. "Bad data" arises from many causes, here are a few. Some are associated with sample processing, including incomplete dissolution of refractory trace minerals, or inhomogeneous powders, or contamination of key elements during preparation (for example, this was a problem for lead when gasoline was leaded, and for niobium when tungsten-carbide mills were used to powder samples). Poor analytical quality is a continual problem (for example, when elemental abundances are at near background levels for an analytical method). Errors in published data tables (more common than you think) become bad data in the databases. The accepted values of interlaboratory standards change with time, while the published data based on old values stay the same. Thus the pitfalls associated with the new data accessibility are dangerous in the hands of the inexperienced

  4. Payoffs and Pitfalls of a Minority Outreach Program: An Alaskan Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Fowell, S. J.; Wartes, D.; Owens, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a summer bridging program for college-bound high school students from remote Alaskan communities. In the 20+ years since its initiation, more than 50% of RAHI graduates eventually obtained post-secondary degrees. The success of the RAHI program provides insights into how an outreach program can achieve its goals and avoid potential pitfalls. Instrumental to the success of the RAHI program are: longevity; small size (40-45 students per summer); support from the Alaska Native community; academic rigor; aggressive recruiting; establishment of a sense of community amongst participants; and individual mentoring and support. Potential pitfalls include: overextending the program to include too many students; failure to maintain academic rigor in all courses; recruitment of students and staff who do not embrace the program's methods and goals; and attempts to evaluate the program on the basis of short-term results. Alaska Natives in Geosciences introduces college-bound Alaska Native students to the geosciences by teaching a college-level introductory geoscience class as a RAHI elective. By collaborating with RAHI, Alaska Natives in Geosciences takes advantage of RAHI's effective recruitment efforts and proven mentoring program. However, maintaining scientific rigor has been difficult due to large differences in the students' scientific backgrounds, the demands of other courses in the RAHI program and the brevity of the summer session. Immediate post-course survey responses suggest that many RAHI students thought the geoscience class was interesting but too difficult and much too time-consuming. However, surveys of RAHI geoscience students a year later suggest that many found the course a very positive experience. An unanticipated result was that RAHI students who did not take the class also gained some insight into the geosciences.

  5. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia involving the ear from gout: a diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Kelly A; Garcia-Albea, Victoria; Goldberg, Lynne J

    2014-01-01

    The ear is a characteristic location for deposition of uric acid in patients with gout. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia has not been described in this location. We report three patients with tophaceous gout on the ear whose biopsies exhibited epidermal hyperplasia mimicking squamous cell carcinoma, in order to call attention to this potential diagnostic pitfall.

  6. E-Content Development for Languages: Success Factors and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paepe, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the success factors and pitfalls in development of e-content for languages. The factors discussed draw on several years of experience in developing and implementing 95% distance courses for Dutch as a second language in the adult education sector in Flanders and on PhD research at VUB. The CEFR [Common European Framework of…

  7. Five pitfalls of work redesign in acute care.

    PubMed

    Seago, J A

    1997-10-01

    During work redesign in nursing units, five common pitfalls can emerge: moving too fast, failing to involve major stakeholders, discounting bargaining unit contracts, separating training classes and not defining desired outcomes. Suggestions on how to avoid these problems are given. PMID:9369723

  8. Nutrition in the elderly: diet pitfalls and nutrition advice.

    PubMed

    Baker, Herman

    2007-10-01

    This final installment of a special series on nutrition in the elderly considers dietary pitfalls and their sequelae. Years of poor dietary habits contribute to biological risk and lifestyle changes in the elderly. Clinicians must properly evaluate the nutritional status of their older patients to restore nutritional adequacy and healthy aging.

  9. Cases on Global E-Learning Practices: Successes and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ramesh C., Ed.; Mishra, Sanjaya, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Cases on Global E-Learning Practices: Successes and Pitfalls" looks into global practices of e-learning, examining the successes and failures of e-learning professionals. It provides a judicious mix of practical experiences and research in the form of case studies. Written by experts from all over the globe, this book shows how to design…

  10. Scientifically Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Most principals are aware that the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 makes it mandatory for school leaders who depend on federal funding to select and implement programs that are based on scientific research. This publication reviews five documents that offer insights into what is meant by scientifically based research and help school leaders…

  11. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Departments and Agencies Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of my..., and protection of national security. The public must be able to trust the science and scientific..., and integrity. By this memorandum, I assign to the Director of the Office of Science and...

  12. Ethical pitfalls in neonatal comparative effectiveness trials.

    PubMed

    Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    are acting unethically when they make the selection by randomization. Clearly, there is a gulf between the view of the medical profession and that of the regulators regarding the ethical and scientific validity of randomization as a means to select treatments in comparative effectiveness research aimed at reducing uncertainties in care. What are the ways forward? I suggest that, in order for medicine to advance, a paradigm shift is necessary, involving a deeper public (and regulator) understanding of randomization as the fairest approach to allocating treatments that are in wide and accepted use, but where the evidence base is actually uncertain, so that the chance of receiving the as yet unknown best treatment is unaffected by clinician bias, and where care is delivered along a clearly designed, closely monitored pathway. In practice, peer review, regulatory approval, patient involvement and the delivery of explanation and information would be the same as for research involving experimental treatments. The key difference would be that randomization would be the recommended default and patients would be offered the opportunity to opt out, rather than be invited to opt in. For neonatal medicine, this would reduce the risk of 'injurious misconception', where trial entry is inappropriately rejected by parents because of an exaggerated and disproportionate perception of risk [4] that is brought on or magnified by the burden of making decisions at this difficult and stressful time. Randomization to treatments that fall within accepted practice and are considered standard-of-care involves no research-related risks to participants, and as trial data can increasingly be extracted from electronic clinical records [5], the costs and burden of data collection placed upon clinical teams will be minimized and, ultimately, the resolution of uncertainties about treatment can be hastened. It should also be noted that this approach fulfils the four cardinal principles of research

  13. Triggering Reform at Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    An intriguing experiment is afoot in some of the nation's struggling public schools. New "Parent Trigger" laws passed in California and on the agenda in New York, Ohio, Colorado, and Chicago, allow parents of chronically failing schools to unseat the schools' leadership and staff. But the initiative has pitfalls. It's easy to mobilize parents to…

  14. Physiotherapists’ experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a

  15. Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1980-01-01

    The value of communication in the preservation of scientific knowledge is described as it relates to the specialized scientific journals. The discipline of peer review is described as the major factor in keeping the scientific enterprise relatively honest. (SA)

  16. How Environmental "Merchants of Doubt" Use Peer-Reviewed Publication as a Means to Commandeer Scientific Debate: A Case Study of a Publishing Problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, D. I.

    2015-12-01

    This year, the USEPA reported no systemic problem with respect to pollution of potable waters by solutes or natural gas resulting from unconventional drilling for oil and gas, despite attempts by anti-fracking opponents to frighten the public about water pollution from rare circumstances (much as those who have cherry- picked climate data to suggest burning fossil fuels does not affect climate). Scientific "merchants of doubt" have figured out how to use peer-reviewed papers to advocate their bias, regardless of the side for which they advocate. I present a personal example. Prior to the EPA report, authors of a highly-cited peer-reviewed paper argued that more dissolved methane than usual should be expected in ground water located close to unconventional gas wells. This paper figured prominently in the New York State's recent ban on fracking. To test the reproducibility of this conclusion, colleagues and I redid the study but by sampling ~13,000 NE Pennsylvania domestic wells, densely arrayed near ~800 gas wells. Not surprising, we found no systemic relationship between methane in drinking water and proximity to gas wells; failed gas wells actually are rare. The peer reviewed system of publication has been broken for years, because of continual pressure to publish more to achieve academic success coupled to a flood of international submissions. Editors routinely have a difficult time finding senior scientists to agree to review papers, and so they wind up relying more on reviewers suggested by authors, who can and have gamed the peer review system through it. To resolve this problem, I suggest that journal editors be more far more draconian before releasing papers for review and that they enforce clear rubrics to insure that reviewers address reviews properly. Finally, conflict of interest disclosure needs to be clearer, since common assumption that bias inherently evolves from funded research outside of Federal and non-profit organizations, appears to be, at

  17. Private Science and Public Knowledge: The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal and its Use of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, T. J.; Collins, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Shows the part played by formal/informal literatures in the social construction of scientific knowledge, analyzing the work of the "Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal" (which critically investigates fringe-sciences). Indicates that popular literature can deconstruct facts while scientific controversy reveals…

  18. [Floods and public health: a review of the recent scientific literature on the causes, consequences and responses to prevention and mitigation].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli

    2012-06-01

    Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1) causes; 2) consequences; 3) responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention and/or mitigation of the risks and impacts of flooding. Tables for each of the items selected were organized in order to systematize and synthesize the results for causes (attributed to natural and human activities); environmental, infrastructure and services, and health consequences (injuries and diseases classified according to chapters of ICD-10); prevention and mitigation responses and actions. It was concluded that given the scenarios of increased frequency and severity of these events, the challenges facing public health for disaster risk reduction require integrated responses with broad policies for sustainable development. PMID:22699650

  19. Mainstreaming: The Promise and the Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Hails the potential that mainstreaming of the handicapped holds for developing individual potential and enhancing equal educational opportunity, but cautions that extensive retraining of staff and diversification of teaching strategies will be necessary if adequate implementation of Public Law 94-142 is to be achieved. (GC)

  20. Primary Scientific Publication; A Report Prepared (With Special Reference to Physics) for the UNESCO Ad-Hoc Sub-Committee on Methods of Primary Scientific Publication and for the ICSU--UNESCO Joint Study on the Communication of Scientific Information and on the Feasibility of a Worldwide Science Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council of Scientific Unions, Paris (France).

    The data used for this report was prepared mainly from correspondence as described in the introduction, Chapter I. The manufacture, distribution and processing of original scientific information today is considered in Chapter II. This Chapter is devoted to the tasks of establishing precise definitions of the vocabulary used in the field (e.g.…

  1. The value and pitfalls of speculation about science and technology in bioethics: the case of cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Martin Rubio, Tristana; Chandler, Jennifer; Forlini, Cynthia; Lucke, Jayne

    2014-08-01

    In the debate on the ethics of the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals for cognitive performance enhancement in healthy individuals there is a clear division between those who view "cognitive enhancement" as ethically unproblematic and those who see such practices as fraught with ethical problems. Yet another, more subtle issue, relates to the relevance and quality of the contribution of scholarly bioethics to this debate. More specifically, how have various forms of speculation, anticipatory ethics, and methods to predict scientific trends and societal responses augmented or diminished this contribution? In this paper, we use the discussion of the ethics of cognitive enhancement to explore the positive and negative contribution of speculation in bioethics scholarship. First, we review and discuss how speculation has relied on different sets of assumptions regarding the non-medical use of stimulants, namely: (1) terminology and framing; (2) scientific aspects such as efficacy and safety; (3) estimates of prevalence and consequent normalization; and (4) the need for normative reflection and regulatory guidelines. Second, three methodological guideposts are proposed to alleviate some of the pitfalls of speculation: (1) acknowledge assumptions more explicitly and identify the value attributed to assumptions; (2) validate assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) adopt a broad perspective to promote more comprehensive reflection. We conclude that, through the examination of the controversy about cognitive enhancement, we can employ these methodological guideposts to enhance the value of contributions from bioethics and minimize potential epistemic and practical pitfalls in this case and perhaps in other areas of bioethical debate.

  2. Genetic Contributions to Clinical Pain and Analgesia: Avoiding Pitfalls in Genetic Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungsuk; Clark, David; Dionne, Raymond A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of human variations in pain is critical to elucidating the molecular basis of pain sensitivity, variable responses to analgesic drugs, and, ultimately, to individualized treatment of pain and improved public health. With the help of recently accumulated knowledge and advanced technologies, pain researchers hope to gain insight into genetic mechanisms of pain and eventually apply this knowledge to pain treatment. Perspective We critically reviewed the published literature to examine the strength of evidence supporting genetic influences on clinical and human experimental pain. Based on this evidence and the experience of false associations that have occurred in other related disciplines, we provide recommendations for avoiding pitfalls in pain genetic research. PMID:19559388

  3. Herpetological Monitoring Using a Pitfall Trapping Design in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert; Stokes, Drew; Rochester, Carlton; Brehme, Cheryl; Hathaway, Stacie; Case, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The steps necessary to conduct a pitfall trapping survey for small terrestrial vertebrates are presented. Descriptions of the materials needed and the methods to build trapping equipment from raw materials are discussed. Recommended data collection techniques are given along with suggested data fields. Animal specimen processing procedures, including toe- and scale-clipping, are described for lizards, snakes, frogs, and salamanders. Methods are presented for conducting vegetation surveys that can be used to classify the environment associated with each pitfall trap array. Techniques for data storage and presentation are given based on commonly use computer applications. As with any study, much consideration should be given to the study design and methods before beginning any data collection effort.

  4. The neuroscience of empathy: progress, pitfalls and promise.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Jamil; Ochsner, Kevin N; Ochsner, Kevin

    2012-04-15

    The last decade has witnessed enormous growth in the neuroscience of empathy. Here, we survey research in this domain with an eye toward evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. First, we take stock of the notable progress made by early research in characterizing the neural systems supporting two empathic sub-processes: sharing others' internal states and explicitly considering those states. Second, we describe methodological and conceptual pitfalls into which this work has sometimes fallen, which can limit its validity. These include the use of relatively artificial stimuli that differ qualitatively from the social cues people typically encounter and a lack of focus on the relationship between brain activity and social behavior. Finally, we describe current research trends that are overcoming these pitfalls through simple but important adjustments in focus, and the future promise of empathy research if these trends continue and expand.

  5. Three-piece Inflatable Penile Prosthesis: Surgical Techniques and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Al-Enezi, Ahmad; Al-Khadhari, Sulaiman; Al-Shaiji, Tariq F.

    2011-01-01

    Penile prosthesis surgery plays a vital role in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). As far as outcome is concerned, it is one of the most rewarding procedures for both patients and surgeons. We describe our surgical technique for implantation of the three-piece inflatable penile prosthesis and point out the major surgical pitfalls accompanying this procedure and their specific management. The psychological outcome of penile prosthesis surgery is also discussed. Different surgical approaches are available when performing the procedure. A number of procedure-related problems can be encountered and a thorough knowledge of these is of paramount importance. Penile prosthesis surgery has a favorable psychological outcome. Surgery for implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis is a rewarding procedure, with a high yield of patient satisfaction. Urologists should have thorough understanding of the surgical pitfalls peculiar to this procedure and their management. PMID:22413049

  6. Modeling emission from the first explosions: pitfalls and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher Lee; Whalen, Daniel J; Frey, Lucille H

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the explosions of the population III stars have the potential to teach us much about the formation and evolution of these zero metallicity objects. But to reach this potential, we must tie the observed emission to and explosion model. This requires accurate light-curve/spectral calculations. Here we discuss many of the pitfalls and problems involved in such calculations, presenting some preliminary results from radiation-hydrodynamics calculations.

  7. Pitfalls in the assay of carboxymethylcellulase activity. [Sclerotium rolfsii

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, W.A.; Dennison, C.; Quicke, G.V.

    1983-02-01

    A purified endocellulase from Sclerotium rolfsii and a crude cellulase preparation from Trichoderma reesei are used to illustrate several pitfalls associated with the assay of carboxymethylcellulase activity and the subsequent attainment of linear enzyme dilution curves. It is shown that the nature of both the enzymes and the substrate make the assay unsuitable for use in the calculation of enzyme recovery and purity. (Refs. 16).

  8. Industry Support of Medical Research: Important Opportunity or Treacherous Pitfall?

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Meslin, Eric M; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers fund more than half of the medical research in the U.S. Research funding by for-profit companies has increased over the past 20 years, while federal funding has declined. Research funding from for-profit medical companies is seen as tainted by many academicians because of potential biases and prior misbehavior by both investigators and companies. Yet NIH is encouraging partnerships between the public and private sectors to enhance scientific discovery. There are instances, such as methods for improving drug adherence and post-marketing drug surveillance, where the interests of academician researchers and industry could be aligned. We provide examples of ethically performed industry-funded research and a set of principles and benchmarks for ethically credible academic-industry partnerships that could allow academic researchers, for-profit companies, and the public to benefit. PMID:26307387

  9. Scientific integrity memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama signed a presidential memorandum on 9 March to help restore scientific integrity in government decision making. The memorandum directs the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to develop a strategy within 120 days that ensures that "the selection of scientists and technology professionals for science and technology positions in the executive branch is based on those individuals' scientific and technological knowledge, credentials, and experience; agencies make available to the public the scientific or technological findings or conclusions considered or relied upon in policy decisions; agencies use scientific and technological information that has been subject to well-established scientific processes such as peer review; and agencies have appropriate rules and procedures to ensure the integrity of the scientific process within the agency, including whistleblower protection."

  10. Perils and pitfalls of reporting sex differences.

    PubMed

    Maney, Donna L

    2016-02-19

    The idea of sex differences in the brain both fascinates and inflames the public. As a result, the communication and public discussion of new findings is particularly vulnerable to logical leaps and pseudoscience. A new US National Institutes of Health policy to consider both sexes in almost all preclinical research will increase the number of reported sex differences and thus the risk that research in this important area will be misinterpreted and misrepresented. In this article, I consider ways in which we might reduce that risk, for example, by (i) employing statistical tests that reveal the extent to which sex explains variation, rather than whether or not the sexes 'differ', (ii) properly characterizing the frequency distributions of scores or dependent measures, which nearly always overlap, and (iii) avoiding speculative functional or evolutionary explanations for sex-based variation, which usually invoke logical fallacies and perpetuate sex stereotypes. Ultimately, the factor of sex should be viewed as an imperfect, temporary proxy for yet-unknown factors, such as hormones or sex-linked genes, that explain variation better than sex. As scientists, we should be interested in discovering and understanding the true sources of variation, which will be more informative in the development of clinical treatments. PMID:26833839

  11. Ovarian adult stem cells: hope or pitfall?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    For many years, ovarian biology has been based on the dogma that oocytes reserve in female mammals included a finite number, established before or at birth and it is determined by the number and quality of primordial follicles developed during the neonatal period. The restricted supply of oocytes in adult female mammals has been disputed in recent years by supporters of postnatal neo-oogenesis. Recent experimental data showed that ovarian surface epithelium and cortical tissue from both mouse and human were proved to contain very low proportion of cells able to propagate themselves, but also to generate immature oocytes in vitro or in vivo, when transplanted into immunodeficient mice ovaries. By mentioning several landmarks of ovarian stem cell reserve and addressing the exciting perspective of translation into clinical practice as treatment for infertility pathologies, the purpose of this article is to review the knowledge about adult mammalian ovarian stem cells, a topic that, since the first approach quickly attracted the attention of both the scientific media and patients. PMID:25018783

  12. Protein crystallography for aspiring crystallographers or how to avoid pitfalls and traps in macromolecular structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    The number of macromolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank now approaches 100 000, with the vast majority of them determined by crystallographic methods. Thousands of papers describing such structures have been published in the scientific literature, and 20 Nobel Prizes in chemistry or medicine have been awarded for discoveries based on macromolecular crystallography. New hardware and software tools have made crystallography appear to be an almost routine (but still far from being analytical) technique and many structures are now being determined by scientists with very limited experience in the practical aspects of the field. However, this apparent ease is sometimes illusory and proper procedures need to be followed to maintain high standards of structure quality. In addition, many noncrystallographers may have problems with the critical evaluation and interpretation of structural results published in the scientific literature. The present review provides an outline of the technical aspects of crystallography for less experienced practitioners, as well as information that might be useful for users of macromolecular structures, aiming to show them how to interpret (but not overinterpret) the information present in the coordinate files and in their description. A discussion of the extent of information that can be gleaned from the atomic coordinates of structures solved at different resolution is provided, as well as problems and pitfalls encountered in structure determination and interpretation. PMID:24034303

  13. Protein crystallography for aspiring crystallographers or how to avoid pitfalls and traps in macromolecular structure determination.

    PubMed

    Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2013-11-01

    The number of macromolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank now approaches 100,000, with the vast majority of them determined by crystallographic methods. Thousands of papers describing such structures have been published in the scientific literature, and 20 Nobel Prizes in chemistry or medicine have been awarded for discoveries based on macromolecular crystallography. New hardware and software tools have made crystallography appear to be an almost routine (but still far from being analytical) technique and many structures are now being determined by scientists with very limited experience in the practical aspects of the field. However, this apparent ease is sometimes illusory and proper procedures need to be followed to maintain high standards of structure quality. In addition, many noncrystallographers may have problems with the critical evaluation and interpretation of structural results published in the scientific literature. The present review provides an outline of the technical aspects of crystallography for less experienced practitioners, as well as information that might be useful for users of macromolecular structures, aiming to show them how to interpret (but not overinterpret) the information present in the coordinate files and in their description. A discussion of the extent of information that can be gleaned from the atomic coordinates of structures solved at different resolution is provided, as well as problems and pitfalls encountered in structure determination and interpretation.

  14. Lung cancer screening: promise and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine D; Aberle, Denise R; Wood, Douglas E

    2012-01-01

    The results of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) have provided the medical community and American public with considerable optimism about the potential to reduce lung cancer mortality with imaging-based screening. Designed as a randomized trial, the NLST has provided the first evidence of screening benefit by showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality and a 6.7% reduction in all-cause mortality with low dose helical computed tomography (LDCT) screening relative to chest X-ray. The major harms of LDCT screening include the potential for radiation-induced carcinogenesis; high false-positivity rates in individuals without lung cancer, and overdiagnosis. Following the results of the NLST, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) published the first of multiple lung cancer screening guidelines under development by major medical organizations. These recommendations amalgamated screening cohorts, practices, interpretations, and diagnostic follow-up based on the NLST and other published studies to provide guidance for the implementation of LDCT screening. There are major areas of opportunity to optimize implementation. These include standardizing practices in the screening setting, optimizing risk profiles for screening and for managing diagnostic evaluation in individuals with indeterminate nodules, developing interdisciplinary screening programs in conjunction with smoking cessation, and approaching all stakeholders systematically to ensure the broadest education and dissemination of screening benefits relative to risks. The incorporation of validated biomarkers of risk and preclinical lung cancer can substantially enhance the effectiveness screening programs. PMID:24451779

  15. The commercial marketing of healthy lifestyles to address the global child and adolescent obesity pandemic: prospects, pitfalls and priorities.

    PubMed

    Kraak, Vivica I; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Story, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Public- and private-sector initiatives to promote healthy eating and physical activity, called 'healthy lifestyles', are a relatively recent response to the global obesity pandemic. The present paper explores different views about marketing healthy lifestyles with a special emphasis on private-sector initiatives and public-private partnerships designed to reach young people. We discuss aspects of these initiatives and partnerships from three perspectives: (i) the potential for commercial marketing practices to have a favourable influence on reversing global obesity trends (termed prospects); (ii) unresolved dilemmas and challenges that may hinder progress (termed pitfalls); and (iii) the implementation and evaluation of coordinated and systematic actions (termed priorities) that may increase the likelihood that commercially marketed healthy-lifestyle initiatives and public-private partnerships can make a positive contribution to reverse the rise in overweight and obesity among young people globally.

  16. Thermoregulatory Behavior in Diurnal Lizards as a Vehicle for Teaching Scientific Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platz, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Field experiments offer the opportunity for hands on experience with the scientific process. While this is true of a wide variety of activities, many have pitfalls both experimental and logistical that reduce the overall rate of success, in turn, influencing student learning outcomes. Relying on small, territorial, diurnal lizards and an array of…

  17. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  18. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  19. Cultural Diversity in Nursing Education: Perils, Pitfalls, and Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Hedi; Schim, Stephanie; Doorenbos, Ardith

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the classroom challenges nursing educators to identify issues that complicate teaching (perils), analyze barriers for themselves and their students (pitfalls), and select new strategies for working with nontraditional students (pearls). This article identifies concerns arising from attitudes and values within nursing and common approaches to diversity education, and then discusses key issues in nursing education that relate to human nature, culture, faculty workload, and student demographics. Finally, some strategies are proposed for increasing the effectiveness of professional preparation with diverse students through a focus on culturally congruent education and development of faculty cultural competence. PMID:20143759

  20. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Erin G; Reed, Kurt D

    2015-06-01

    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy.

  1. Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nick

    2012-09-01

    Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

  2. Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nick

    2012-09-01

    Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues.

  3. Lost in Translation: Pitfalls in Deciphering Plant Alternative Splicing Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John W.S.; Simpson, Craig G.; Marquez, Yamile; Gadd, Geoffrey M.; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Transcript annotation in plant databases is incomplete and often inaccurate, leading to misinterpretation. As more and more RNA-seq data are generated, plant scientists need to be aware of potential pitfalls and understand the nature and impact of specific alternative splicing transcripts on protein production. A primary area of concern and the topic of this article is the (mis)annotation of open reading frames and premature termination codons. The basic message is that to adequately address expression and functions of transcript isoforms, it is necessary to be able to predict their fate in terms of whether protein isoforms are generated or specific transcripts are unproductive or degraded. PMID:26286536

  4. Benefits and pitfalls of family presence during resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Harteveldt, Rob

    The witnessing of resuscitation by a close family member is becoming increasingly common (Booth et al, 2004), yet the area remains under-researched. Findings from a limited number of studies show mixed feelings among health care staff about the benefits to the relative. However, family members who were present during the resuscitation attempt believed they had contributed in some way to the treatment. Health care providers should be aware of the benefits and pitfalls of family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) so they can make evidence-based decisions.

  5. Chicks' maze learning reinforced by visual pitfall extending downward.

    PubMed

    Hayashibe, K; Hara, M; Tsuji, K

    1989-04-01

    The present study examined whether visually evoked fear of depth could reinforce a particular response of animals, i.e., to special maze learning. The maze was composed of four units of Y-shaped alley. In this maze, the visual pitfalls were set behind corners of the alley in place of a physical barrier. The experiments showed that eight of 13 male chicks could achieve the initial learning and that three successful ones could also achieve reversal learning. The results suggest that the visually evoked fear of depth provided by motion parallax can act as a reinforcer.

  6. Gallium uptake in myositis ossificans. Potential pitfalls in diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, L.; Lee, V.W.; Grant, P.

    1987-04-01

    Seven cases of gallium uptake in myositis ossificans are described. Gallium scans are done frequently in paraplegics, quadriplegics, and comatose patients to look for occult infection. It is important to be aware of possible gallium uptake in myositis ossificans, particularly in the extremities, which is frequent in these patients. Gallium uptake may be present prior to any abnormalities seen on plain films or CT scans. It is important to correlate roentgenograms with abnormal gallium scans, particularly in the extremities, to avoid potential pitfalls in diagnosis and prevent unnecessary antibiotic treatment. A bone scan should be obtained whenever possible, particularly when roentgenograms are negative, to confirm the diagnosis.

  7. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Erin G.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2015-01-01

    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy. PMID:26185270

  8. Artifacts and pitfalls in shoulder magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Gustavo Felix; Macedo, Tulio Augusto Alves

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has revolutionized the diagnosis of shoulder lesions, in many cases becoming the method of choice. However, anatomical variations, artifacts and the particularity of the method may be a source of pitfalls, especially for less experienced radiologists. In order to avoid false-positive and false-negative results, the authors carried out a compilation of imaging findings that may simulate injury. It is the authors' intention to provide a useful, consistent and comprehensive reference for both beginner residents and skilled radiologists who work with musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging, allowing for them to develop more precise reports and helping them to avoid making mistakes.

  9. Safeguards and pitfalls in minimally invasive mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Czesla, Markus; Götte, Julia; Weimar, Timo; Ruttkay, Tamas; Doll, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery has been established in many institutions worldwide. Appropriate indications and patient selection for this procedure must be based on a thorough understanding of its limitations and specific pitfalls. Particular risks can be minimized with careful attention to detail when planning and performing the surgery. The following chapter offers a stepwise description of the procedure; we point out particular advantages, discuss our rationale for certain steps, as well as focus on potential dangers of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. Several graphics have also been provided to illustrate our approach and demonstrate important structural and anatomical concepts of the mitral valve apparatus.

  10. [Searching for new wound healing strategies--problems and pitfalls].

    PubMed

    Waniczek, Dariusz A; Rudzki, Marek K; Buda, Krzysztof K; Arendt, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Authors present the most recent and prospective trends in wound healing procedures, which are expected to solve problems with acute and chronic wounds management. While searching for new strategies to optimize the would healing process, reduce the complication probability, and support or replace the classical treatment procedures, researchers are faced with many diagnostic and therapeutic problems and pitfalls. That leads to creating highly complicated and expensive treatment procedures which, however, have not yet been proven to exceed the effectiveness of the moist wound therapy.

  11. The seven common pitfalls of customer service in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Rene T

    2015-01-01

    Operating simultaneously like a repair shop, prison, and hotel, hospitals are prone to seven common pitfalls in customer service. Patient care is often fragmented, inscrutable, inflexible, insensitive, reactive, myopic, and unsafe. Hospitals are vying to be more high-tech, rather than high-touch even though staff engagement with patients rather than facilities and equipment strongly influence patient satisfaction. Unless processes, policies, and people are made customer-centered, the high quality of the hospital's human and hardware resources will not translate into high patient satisfaction and patient loyalty. PMID:26058286

  12. Grant-Writing Pearls and Pitfalls: Maximizing Funding Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jeffrey C; Pynnonen, Melissa A; St John, Maie; Rosenthal, Eben L; Couch, Marion E; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2016-02-01

    This invited article reviews the grant process to include the following objectives: (1) to provide an understanding of otolaryngology funding mechanisms in the context of career progression; (2) to outline key components of a well-written grant; (3) to highlight vital members of a successful research team, with emphasis on the mentor-mentee relationship; and (4) to clarify grant scoring with emphasis on common pitfalls to avoid. Current otolaryngology funding mechanisms and up-to-date resources are provided. The review is aimed to assist otolaryngology residents, faculty new to the grant process, as well as experienced researchers striving to improve their grant review scores.

  13. Imaging of facial nerve schwannomas: diagnostic pearls and potential pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Mundada, Pravin; Purohit, Bela Satish; Kumar, Tahira Sultana; Tan, Tiong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are uncommon in the facial nerve and account for less than 1% of tumors of temporal bone. They can involve one or more than one segment of the facial nerve. The clinical presentations and the imaging appearances of facial nerve schwannomas are influenced by the topographical anatomy of the facial nerve and vary according to the segment(s) they involve. This pictorial essay illustrates the imaging features of facial nerve schwannomas according to their various anatomical locations and also reviews the pertinent differential diagnoses and potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:26712680

  14. The seven common pitfalls of customer service in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Rene T

    2015-01-01

    Operating simultaneously like a repair shop, prison, and hotel, hospitals are prone to seven common pitfalls in customer service. Patient care is often fragmented, inscrutable, inflexible, insensitive, reactive, myopic, and unsafe. Hospitals are vying to be more high-tech, rather than high-touch even though staff engagement with patients rather than facilities and equipment strongly influence patient satisfaction. Unless processes, policies, and people are made customer-centered, the high quality of the hospital's human and hardware resources will not translate into high patient satisfaction and patient loyalty.

  15. Superficial mucoceles: pitfall in clinical and microscopic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Eveson, J W

    1988-09-01

    Extravasation mucoceles can be so superficial that they are seen as subepithelial blisters. These may rupture and cause superficial painful ulcers, which usually heal quickly. Occasionally such lesions may be seen in association with other mucosal disorders, particularly lichen planus, and a biopsy is undertaken to establish the diagnosis. In addition, the reporting pathologist may make an erroneous diagnosis of a subepithelial vesiculating disorder such as mucous membrane pemphigoid, especially when the clinical history is vague. Eight cases are described that illustrate some of the pitfalls in clinical and microscopical diagnosis of superficial mucoceles.

  16. From pitfall to misdiagnosis and life-threatening treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosildo, J F C

    2012-01-01

    Sixty-four-section multidetector computed tomography angiography (64-SMCTA) is increasingly used for screening and surgical planning of ruptured intracranial aneurysms due to its high sensitivity and positivity and it is less invasive than digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Combination of both is the best tool when diagnosis is inconclusive. Sometimes the use of 64-SMCTA alone may cause interpretation pitfall and unnecessary life-threatening treatment. This case report is about 64-SMCTA interpretation pitfall, a false positive result that occasioned surgery for clipping an intracranial aneurysm which was not found during surgical procedure. The patient survived the life-threatening surgery and she has been doing well over the last two years. A perceptual error and lack of conspicuity due to some limitations of the scanner to disclose a normal anatomic variant were responsible for this false positive. Whenever 64-SMCTA renders inconspicuous images, this result must be seen as inconclusive and hence a meticulous differential diagnosis and DSA are required before any surgical planning.

  17. Pitfalls and limitations in translation from biomarker discovery to clinical utility in predictive and personalised medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of the so-called omics technology, thousands of putative biomarkers have been identified and published, which have dramatically increased the opportunities for developing more effective therapeutics. These opportunities can have profound benefits for patients and for the economics of healthcare. However, the transfer of biomarkers from discovery to clinical practice is still a process filled with lots of pitfalls and limitations, mostly limited by structural and scientific factors. To become a clinically approved test, a potential biomarker should be confirmed and validated using hundreds of specimens and should be reproducible, specific and sensitive. Besides the lack of quality in biomarker validation, a number of other key issues can be identified and should be addressed. Therefore, the aim of this article is to discuss a series of interpretative and practical issues that need to be understood and resolved before potential biomarkers become a clinically approved test or are already on the diagnostic market. Some of these issues are shortly discussed here. PMID:23442211

  18. Professional Scientific Blog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamás

    2009-01-01

    The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bears a resemblance to digital notice boards, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be…

  19. The Art of Scientific Writing: From Student Reports to Professional Publications in Chemistry and Related Fields. 2nd Completely Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Hans F.; Bliefert, Claus; Russey, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Most scientists live in a "publish or perish" environment, but few would describe themselves as brilliant (or enthusiastic) writers. Coming to the aid of all those wishing to improve the quality of their scientific writing--established researchers and aspiring students alike--three experienced authors/scientists from differing backgrounds and…

  20. Scientific Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  1. Symposium Scores Misuse of Scientific Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James H.

    1975-01-01

    Presents examples of misuse of scientific data in the areas of eutrophication, food advertising, and public health. Outlines various ways in which individual scientists can act to ensure the proper use of scientific data. (GS)

  2. Casting: Pearls and pitfalls learned while caring for children's fractures.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Shawn; McDowell, Mitchell; Schlechter, John

    2016-09-18

    Casting is a routine procedure used for fracture care in the pediatric population. The purpose of this review is to provide pearls and pitfalls that our institution has learned from previous literature. When applying the cast, we recommend using cotton padding for the liner and fiberglass or plaster depending on how much swelling is expected. A well-molded cast must be applied in order to prevent further fracture displacement. Cast valving is a valuable technique that allows a decrease in pressure which prevents discomfort and complications like compartment syndrome. Preventing thermal injuries, skin complications, and a wet cast are other important considerations when caring for casts. Appropriate use of a cast saw, avoiding pressure spots, and properly covering the cast are ways to respectively prevent those complications. Lastly, patient education remains one of the most valuable tools in ensuring proper cast maintenance. PMID:27672566

  3. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry. PMID:26744049

  4. Ultrasound pitfalls and artifacts related to six common fetal findings.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Hanna M; Ankola, Anita; Coleman, Beverly

    2012-06-01

    Routine use of ultrasound (US) in antenatal screening has increased over the past decade among both low- and high-risk pregnancies. Recognition of common US imaging pitfalls and artifacts associated with frequently encountered fetal anomalies on obstetric US is imperative to avoid misdiagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present practical tips on how to accurately diagnose 6 fetal anomalies including choroid plexus cyst, mild ventriculomegaly, echogenic intracardiac focus, prominent thymus, mild renal pelviectasis, and echogenic bowel. A suspected fetal anomaly should always be visualized in the correct plane and confirmed in at least one other plane. If the abnormal finding persists, performance of precise measurements in the relevant planes using appropriate gain settings, color Doppler imaging, and the application of specific criteria is necessary to achieve the correct diagnosis and to recommend appropriate patient referral. PMID:22572863

  5. Mastering methodological pitfalls for surviving the metagenomic jungle.

    PubMed

    Delmont, Tom O; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

    2013-08-01

    Metagenomics is a culture- and PCR-independent approach that is now widely exploited for directly studying microbial evolution, microbial ecology, and developing biotechnologies. Observations and discoveries are critically dependent on DNA extraction methods, sequencing technologies, and bioinformatics tools. The potential pitfalls need to be understood and, to some degree, mastered if the resulting data are to survive scrutiny. In particular, methodological variations appear to affect results from different ecosystems differently, thus increasing the risk of biological and ecological misinterpretation. Part of the difficulty is derived from the lack of knowledge concerning the true microbial diversity and because no approach can guarantee accessing microorganisms in the same proportion in which they exist in the environment. However, the variation between different approaches (e.g. DNA extraction techniques, sequence annotation systems) can be used to evaluate whether observations are meaningful. These methodological variations can be integrated into the error analysis before comparing microbial communities. PMID:23757040

  6. Individual therapy for couple problems: perspectives and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Alan S; Burton, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Despite the demonstrated efficacy of conjoint couple therapy, many clients seeking help for couple problems ultimately find themselves in individual therapy for these concerns. Individual therapy for couple problems (ITCP) may evolve from a partner's refusal of conjoint therapy or from the treatment format preferences of either the client or therapist. Having acknowledged the role of partner refusals, we offer some perspectives about the idiosyncratic personal factors and professional background factors that may lead therapists to provide ITCP and discuss the significant pitfalls in its practice. We emphasize five central areas of concern in the ongoing practice of ITCP: structural constraints on change; therapist side-taking and the therapeutic alliance; inaccurate assessments based on individual client reports; therapeutic focus; and ethical issues relevant to both attending and nonattending partners. We conclude by urging that this very important but largely neglected topic be paid greater attention in psychotherapy research, training and continuing education. PMID:24773422

  7. Multi-criteria decision analysis: Limitations, pitfalls, and practical difficulties

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2003-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics women's figure skating competition is used as a case study to illustrate some of the limitations, pitfalls, and practical difficulties of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). The paper compares several widely used models for synthesizing the multiple attributes into a single aggregate value. The various MCDA models can provide conflicting rankings of the alternatives for a common set of information even under states of certainty. Analysts involved in MCDA need to deal with the following challenging tasks: (1) selecting an appropriate analysis method, and (2) properly interpreting the results. An additional trap is the availability of software tools that implement specific MCDA models that can beguile the user with quantitative scores. These conclusions are independent of the decision domain and they should help foster better MCDA practices in many fields including systems engineering trade studies.

  8. Hyperpolarized Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Potential and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (d-DNP) technology has enabled a new paradigm for renal imaging investigations. It allows standard magnetic resonance imaging complementary renal metabolic and functional fingerprints within seconds without the use of ionizing radiation. Increasing evidence supports its utility in preclinical research in which the real-time interrogation of metabolic turnover can aid the physiological and pathophysiological metabolic and functional effects in ex vivo and in vivo models. The method has already been translated to humans, although the clinical value of this technology is unknown. In this paper, I review the potential benefits and pitfalls associated with dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization in preclinical research and its translation to renal patients. PMID:26973539

  9. Proximal humeral osteoarticular allografts: technique, pearls and pitfalls, outcomes.

    PubMed

    Farfalli, German L; Ayerza, Miguel A; Muscolo, D Luis; Aponte-Tinao, Luis A

    2015-12-01

    Allograft transplantation is a biologic reconstruction option for massive bone defects after resection of bone sarcomas. This type of reconstruction not only restores bone stock but it also allows us to reconstruct the joint anatomically. These factors are a major concern, especially in a young and active population.We are describing indications, surgical techniques, pearls and pitfalls, and outcomes of proximal humeral osteoarticular allografts, done at present time in our institution.We found that allograft fractures and articular complications, as epiphyseal resorption and subchondral fracture, are the main complications observed in proximal humerus osteoarticular allograft reconstructions. Nevertheless, only fractures need a reconstruction revision. Joint complications may adversely affect the limb function, but for this reason, an allograft revision is rarely performed.

  10. Disseminated adenovirus infection in an immunocompromised host. Pitfalls in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Landry, M L; Fong, C K; Neddermann, K; Solomon, L; Hsiung, G D

    1987-09-01

    In this report, a bone marrow transplant recipient with rapidly fatal gastroenteritis is presented. The presence of intranuclear inclusions on postmortem light microscopic examination of liver, lung, and small bowel tissue was considered diagnostic of cytomegalovirus infection. However, electron microscopic examination of liver tissue demonstrated adenovirus infection. This was confirmed by isolation of an adenovirus type 2 with unusual laboratory features from liver, lung, colon contents, serum, esophageal swab, and oral ulcerations. Results of a complement fixation test for antibodies to adenovirus performed on postmortem serum samples were negative, and a titer of 1:4 was noted for antibody against cytomegalovirus. This case illustrates the diagnostic pitfalls that may be encountered in establishing a specific viral diagnosis in severely ill patients. PMID:2821806

  11. The neuroaesthetics of prose fiction: pitfalls, parameters and prospects.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of neuroaesthetic studies on prose fiction. This is in contrast to the very many impressive studies that have been conducted in recent times on the neuroaesthetics of sister arts such as painting, music and dance. Why might this be the case, what are its causes and, of greatest importance, how can it best be resolved? In this article, the pitfalls, parameters and prospects of a neuroaesthetics of prose fiction will be explored. The article itself is part critical review, part methodological proposal and part opinion paper. Its aim is simple: to stimulate, excite and energize thinking in the discipline as to how prose fiction might be fully integrated in the canon of neuroaesthetics and to point to opportunities where neuroimaging studies on literary discourse processing might be conducted in collaborative work bringing humanists and scientists together. PMID:26283953

  12. Extrapolation technique pitfalls in asymmetry measurements at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colletti, Katrina; Hong, Ziqing; Toback, David; Wilson, Jonathan S.

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetry measurements are common in collider experiments and can sensitively probe particle properties. Typically, data can only be measured in a finite region covered by the detector, so an extrapolation from the visible asymmetry to the inclusive asymmetry is necessary. Often a constant multiplicative factor is advantageous for the extrapolation and this factor can be readily determined using simulation methods. However, there is a potential, avoidable pitfall involved in the determination of this factor when the asymmetry in the simulated data sample is small. We find that to obtain a reliable estimate of the extrapolation factor, the number of simulated events required rises as the inverse square of the simulated asymmetry; this can mean that an unexpectedly large sample size is required when determining the extrapolation factor.

  13. Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Goodfellow, Michael; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed E.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools. PMID:24992636

  14. Artifacts and pitfalls of high-resolution CT scans.

    PubMed

    Hahn, F J; Chu, W K; Anderson, J C; Dobry, C A

    1985-01-01

    Artifacts on CT images have been observed since the introduction of CT scanners. Some artifacts have been corrected with the improvement of technology and better understanding of the image formation and reconstruction algorithms. Some artifacts, however, are still observable in state-of-the-art high-resolution scans. Many investigations on CT artifacts have been reported. Some artifacts are obvious and some are similar to patterns commonly associated with pathological conditions. The present report summarizes some of the causes of artifacts and presents some artifacts that mimic pathology on clinical scans of the head and spine. It is the intention of this report to bring these artifacts and potential pitfalls to the attention of the radiologists so that misinterpretation can be avoided.

  15. Pitfalls and Limitations in Simultaneous PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Delso, Gaspar; ter Voert, Edwin; de Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous PET/MRI was introduced into the commercial market only a few years ago, and its availability is currently gaining momentum with the introduction of a second-generation PET/MRI system from an additional vendor. Furthermore, there is still an increasing interest in its potential in clinical and research applications. Despite very early technical infancy problems, which meanwhile have been solved, there are still different limitations that have to be worked around in daily routine responsibly by the physicists and physicians. This article gives an overview over the most common technical, logistical, and clinical limitations; artifacts; and pitfalls, without any claim for completeness. The readers will not only learn the background of the limitation but also partly learn about possible solutions. At the end of each paragraph, the readers will find a short summary for an easier overview of the topics discussed.

  16. The Head-fixed Behaving Rat—Procedures and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Cornelius; Hentschke, Harald; Butovas, Sergejus; Haiss, Florent; Stüttgen, Maik C; Gerdjikov, Todor V; Bergner, Caroline G; Waiblinger, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes experimental techniques with head-fixed, operantly conditioned rodents that allow the control of stimulus presentation and tracking of motor output at hitherto unprecedented levels of spatio-temporal precision. Experimental procedures for the surgery and behavioral training are presented. We place particular emphasis on potential pitfalls using these procedures in order to assist investigators who intend to engage in this type of experiment. We argue that head-fixed rodent models, by allowing the combination of methodologies from molecular manipulations, intracellular electrophysiology, and imaging to behavioral measurements, will be instrumental in combining insights into the functional neuronal organization at different levels of observation. Provided viable behavioral methods are implemented, model systems based on rodents will be complementary to current primate models—the latter providing highest comparability with the human brain, while the former offer hugely advanced methodologies on the lower levels of organization, for example, genetic alterations, intracellular electrophysiology, and imaging. PMID:20954892

  17. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry.

  18. Scrum and Global Delivery: Pitfalls and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadun, Cristiano

    Two trends are becoming widespread in software development work—agile development processes and global delivery, both promising sizable benefits in productivity, capacity and so on. Combining the two is a highly attractive possibility, even more so in fast-paced and constrained commercial software engineering projects. However, a degree of conflict exists between the assumptions underlying the two ideas, leading to pitfalls and challenges in agile/distributed projects which are new, both with respect to traditional development and agile or distributed efforts adopted separately. Succeeding in commercial agile/distributed projects implies recognizing these new challenges, proactively planning for them, and actively put in place solutions and methods to overcome them. This chapter illustrates some of the typical challenges that were met during real-world commercial projects, and how they were solved.

  19. Casting: Pearls and pitfalls learned while caring for children's fractures.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Shawn; McDowell, Mitchell; Schlechter, John

    2016-09-18

    Casting is a routine procedure used for fracture care in the pediatric population. The purpose of this review is to provide pearls and pitfalls that our institution has learned from previous literature. When applying the cast, we recommend using cotton padding for the liner and fiberglass or plaster depending on how much swelling is expected. A well-molded cast must be applied in order to prevent further fracture displacement. Cast valving is a valuable technique that allows a decrease in pressure which prevents discomfort and complications like compartment syndrome. Preventing thermal injuries, skin complications, and a wet cast are other important considerations when caring for casts. Appropriate use of a cast saw, avoiding pressure spots, and properly covering the cast are ways to respectively prevent those complications. Lastly, patient education remains one of the most valuable tools in ensuring proper cast maintenance.

  20. The neuroaesthetics of prose fiction: pitfalls, parameters and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of neuroaesthetic studies on prose fiction. This is in contrast to the very many impressive studies that have been conducted in recent times on the neuroaesthetics of sister arts such as painting, music and dance. Why might this be the case, what are its causes and, of greatest importance, how can it best be resolved? In this article, the pitfalls, parameters and prospects of a neuroaesthetics of prose fiction will be explored. The article itself is part critical review, part methodological proposal and part opinion paper. Its aim is simple: to stimulate, excite and energize thinking in the discipline as to how prose fiction might be fully integrated in the canon of neuroaesthetics and to point to opportunities where neuroimaging studies on literary discourse processing might be conducted in collaborative work bringing humanists and scientists together. PMID:26283953

  1. Potential pitfalls of strain rate imaging: angle dependency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, P. L.; Greenberg, N. L.; Drinko, J.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Strain Rate Imaging (SRI) is a new echocardiographic technique that allows for the real-time determination of myocardial SR, which may be used for the early and accurate detection of coronary artery disease. We sought to study whether SR is affected by scan line alignment in a computer simulation and an in vivo experiment. Through the computer simulation and the in vivo experiment we generated and validated safe scanning sectors within the ultrasound scan sector and showed that while SRI will be an extremely valuable tool in detecting coronary artery disease there are potential pitfalls for the unwary clinician. Only after accounting for these affects due to angle dependency, can clinicians utilize SRI's potential as a valuable tool in detecting coronary artery disease.

  2. Maxillary odontogenic myxoma: a diagnostic pitfall on aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Jain, Shyama; Gupta, Sunita

    2002-08-01

    A painless, slow-growing cheek swelling in a young male clinically considered a salivary gland mass was aspirated. Cytology smears were hypocellular. The striking feature was abundant myxoid material with a few monomorphic oval cells, interpreted as myxoid variant of pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequent CT scan was suggestive of a malignant tumor but biopsy confirmed it as myxoma. Myxoma of the jaw is a rare benign tumor that has a tendency for bone destruction, invasion into surrounding structures, and a relatively high recurrence rate. Maxillary myxoma is less frequent but behaves more aggressively than in the mandible, as it spreads through the maxillary sinus. Cytologically, it should be differentiated from other tumors showing predominant myxoid change. Awareness of potential diagnostic pitfalls and careful evaluation of clinical and radiological data is necessary to narrow the differential diagnosis.

  3. Resolution modeling in PET imaging: Theory, practice, benefits, and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Rahmim, Arman; Qi, Jinyi; Sossi, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors review the field of resolution modeling in positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction, also referred to as point-spread-function modeling. The review includes theoretical analysis of the resolution modeling framework as well as an overview of various approaches in the literature. It also discusses potential advantages gained via this approach, as discussed with reference to various metrics and tasks, including lesion detection observer studies. Furthermore, attention is paid to issues arising from this approach including the pervasive problem of edge artifacts, as well as explanation and potential remedies for this phenomenon. Furthermore, the authors emphasize limitations encountered in the context of quantitative PET imaging, wherein increased intervoxel correlations due to resolution modeling can lead to significant loss of precision (reproducibility) for small regions of interest, which can be a considerable pitfall depending on the task of interest. PMID:23718620

  4. Chemometrics applied to vibrational spectroscopy: overview, challenges and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Chemometric multivariate calibration methods are rapidly impacting quantitative infrared spectroscopy in many positive ways. The combination of vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics has been used by industry for quality control and process monitoring. The growth of these methods has been phenomenal in the past decade. Yet, as with any new technology, there are growing pains. The methods are so powerful at finding correlations in the data, that when used without great care they can readily yield results that are not valid for the analysis of future unknown samples. In this paper, the power of the multivariate calibration methods is discussed while pointing out common pitfalls and some remaining challenges that may slow the implementation of chemometrics in research and industry.

  5. Scientific papers for health informatics.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Samáris Ramiro; Duarte, Jacy Marcondes; Bandiera-Paiva, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    From the hypothesis that the development of scientific papers, mainly in interdisciplinary areas such as Health Informatics, may bring difficulties to the author, as had its communicative efficacy decreased or compromising their approval for publication; we aim to make considerations on the main items to good players making this kind of text. The scientific writing has peculiarities that must be taken into consideration when it writes: general characteristics, such as simplicity and objectivity, and characteristics of each area of knowledge, such as terminology, formatting and standardization. The research methodology adopted is bibliographical. The information was based on literature review and the authors' experience, teachers and assessors of scientific methodology in peer review publications in the area. As a result, we designed a checklist of items to be checked before submission of a paper to a scientific publication vehicle in order to contribute to the promotion of research, facilitating the publication and increase its capacity in this important area of knowledge.

  6. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1

    PubMed Central

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I.; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-01-01

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object. PMID:27567755

  7. Herbal hepatotoxicity: Challenges and pitfalls of causality assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury (HILI) represents a particular clinical and regulatory challenge with major pitfalls for the causality evaluation. At the day HILI is suspected in a patient, physicians should start assessing the quality of the used herbal product, optimizing the clinical data for completeness, and applying the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale for initial causality assessment. This scale is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity cases. Its items provide individual scores, which together yield causality levels of highly probable, probable, possible, unlikely, and excluded. After completion by additional information including raw data, this scale with all items should be reported to regulatory agencies and manufacturers for further evaluation. The CIOMS scale is preferred as tool for assessing causality in hepatotoxicity cases, compared to numerous other causality assessment methods, which are inferior on various grounds. Among these disputed methods are the Maria and Victorino scale, an insufficiently qualified, shortened version of the CIOMS scale, as well as various liver unspecific methods such as the ad hoc causality approach, the Naranjo scale, the World Health Organization (WHO) method, and the Karch and Lasagna method. An expert panel is required for the Drug Induced Liver Injury Network method, the WHO method, and other approaches based on expert opinion, which provide retrospective analyses with a long delay and thereby prevent a timely assessment of the illness in question by the physician. In conclusion, HILI causality assessment is challenging and is best achieved by the liver specific CIOMS scale, avoiding pitfalls commonly observed with other approaches. PMID:23704820

  8. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-09-21

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object.

  9. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-09-21

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object. PMID:27567755

  10. Herbal hepatotoxicity: challenges and pitfalls of causality assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-05-21

    The diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury (HILI) represents a particular clinical and regulatory challenge with major pitfalls for the causality evaluation. At the day HILI is suspected in a patient, physicians should start assessing the quality of the used herbal product, optimizing the clinical data for completeness, and applying the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale for initial causality assessment. This scale is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity cases. Its items provide individual scores, which together yield causality levels of highly probable, probable, possible, unlikely, and excluded. After completion by additional information including raw data, this scale with all items should be reported to regulatory agencies and manufacturers for further evaluation. The CIOMS scale is preferred as tool for assessing causality in hepatotoxicity cases, compared to numerous other causality assessment methods, which are inferior on various grounds. Among these disputed methods are the Maria and Victorino scale, an insufficiently qualified, shortened version of the CIOMS scale, as well as various liver unspecific methods such as the ad hoc causality approach, the Naranjo scale, the World Health Organization (WHO) method, and the Karch and Lasagna method. An expert panel is required for the Drug Induced Liver Injury Network method, the WHO method, and other approaches based on expert opinion, which provide retrospective analyses with a long delay and thereby prevent a timely assessment of the illness in question by the physician. In conclusion, HILI causality assessment is challenging and is best achieved by the liver specific CIOMS scale, avoiding pitfalls commonly observed with other approaches.

  11. NASA educational publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This is a catalog of educational and technical publications, sponsored by NASA, that are available to the general public from the Government Printing Office (GPO). The following types of publications are announced: periodicals, educational publications, NASA Facts, posters and wallsheets, other publications of interest to educators, scientific and technical publications, and educational materials from Regional Service Centers.

  12. Evolution of the scientific paper

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper`s development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965-?).

  13. Evolution of the scientific paper

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper's development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965- ).

  14. Limitations and pitfalls of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Garai, Ildikó; Barna, Sandor; Nagy, Gabor; Forgacs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Tektrotyd kit was developed by Polatom company for 99mTc labeling to make an alternative tracer of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy available. Since 2005, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide has been used in clinical imaging and achieved high impact in management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Knowing the limitations and pitfalls is essential to provide ac-curate diagnosis. Therefore, the potential pitfalls associated with the use of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC are reviewed on the basis of own experience. Data were analyzed of 310 patients who underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 99mTc-Tektrotyd. Pitfalls during radiolabeling process or acquisition can worsen the sensitivity of SRS (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy). Recognizing physi-ological and clinical pitfalls, the diagnostic accuracy will improve.

  15. Limitations and pitfalls of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Garai, Ildikó; Barna, Sandor; Nagy, Gabor; Forgacs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Tektrotyd kit was developed by Polatom company for 99mTc labeling to make an alternative tracer of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy available. Since 2005, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide has been used in clinical imaging and achieved high impact in management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Knowing the limitations and pitfalls is essential to provide ac-curate diagnosis. Therefore, the potential pitfalls associated with the use of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC are reviewed on the basis of own experience. Data were analyzed of 310 patients who underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 99mTc-Tektrotyd. Pitfalls during radiolabeling process or acquisition can worsen the sensitivity of SRS (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy). Recognizing physi-ological and clinical pitfalls, the diagnostic accuracy will improve. PMID:27479887

  16. Pitfalls in Persuasion: How Do Users Experience Persuasive Techniques in a Web Service?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerståhl, Katarina; Kotro, Tanja; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa

    Persuasive technologies are designed by utilizing a variety of interactive techniques that are believed to promote target behaviors. This paper describes a field study in which the aim was to discover possible pitfalls of persuasion, i.e., situations in which persuasive techniques do not function as expected. The study investigated persuasive functionality of a web service targeting weight loss. A qualitative online questionnaire was distributed through the web service and a total of 291 responses were extracted for interpretative analysis. The Persuasive Systems Design model (PSD) was used for supporting systematic analysis of persuasive functionality. Pitfalls were identified through situations that evoked negative user experiences. The primary pitfalls discovered were associated with manual logging of eating and exercise behaviors, appropriateness of suggestions and source credibility issues related to social facilitation. These pitfalls, when recognized, can be addressed in design by applying functional and facilitative persuasive techniques in meaningful combinations.

  17. Public health assessment for Scientific Chemical Processing Incorporated, Carlstadt, Bergen County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD070565403. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-16

    The Scientific Chemical Processing (SCP) site is located in Carlstadt Borough, Bergen County, New Jersey. A wide variety of organic and inorganic chemical contaminants (volatiles, acid extractables, base/neutrals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, phenolics, cyanides and petroleum hydrocarbons and metals) were found in site soils and ground water, and in surface water and sediments in the vicinity of the site. The extent and degree of contamination is most severe in the site soils and shallow ground water. Potential human exposure pathways existed prior to the completion of the Interim remedy (June 1992). The site is not being considered for follow-up health activities at this time.

  18. Doppler ultrasound evaluation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt function: pitfalls and artifacts.

    PubMed

    Wachsberg, Ronald H

    2003-09-01

    The current literature reflects controversy regarding the accuracy of Doppler ultrasound for the detection of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) malfunction. Experience has revealed many pitfalls and artifacts that can potentially interfere with the proper performance and interpretation of Doppler studies in patients with TIPS. In this article the author discusses and illustrates the spectrum of pitfalls that may be encountered during Doppler evaluation of TIPS function. PMID:14571161

  19. Scientific millenarianism

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-12-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO{sub 2} warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper.

  20. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  1. Speaking Scientific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter

    1971-01-01

    Suggests changes for science curricula which will improve the understanding...of the scientific language in which the ideas of science and technology are expressed," including increasing the students' facility with numbers, and in the future, an interdisciplinary course demonstrating the approach of physical, biological and behavioral scientists,…

  2. Missed Opportunities in the Patient-Focused Drug Development Public Meeting and Scientific Workshop on Female Sexual Dysfunction Held at the FDA, October 2014.

    PubMed

    Tiefer, Leonore; Laan, Ellen; Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    There were numerous missed opportunities at the October 2014 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) meeting on female sexual dysfunction (FSD). They included opportunities to hear from a diverse range of patients and to engage in evidence-based discussions of unmet medical needs, diagnostic instruments, trial end points, and inclusion criteria for clinical trials. Contributions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) nomenclature, based on extensive research, were dismissed in favor of language favoring a seemingly clear but scientifically unsupportable distinction between women's sexual desire and arousal. Numerous participants, including patients recruited by their physicians, acknowledged travel expenses paid for by interested pharmaceutical companies. Conflicts of interest were manifold. The meeting did not advance the FDA's understanding of women's sexual distress and represents a setback for our field. PMID:26010838

  3. Scientific productivity of Einstein, Freud and Landsteiner.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1996-05-01

    The scientific productivity of Albert Einstein was compared to that of designated controls Karl Landsteiner (an experimental scientist) and Sigmund Freud (an eminent theorist). Three assumptions made for this comparison were (1) that Einstein and his designated controls had equal scientific stature; (2) that their publications were produced in a similar, if not identical, sociocultural milieu; and (3) the number of publications is directly proportional to scientific productivity. At the end of their illustrious careers, Einstein, Freud and Landsteiner accumulated 315, 320 and 345 scientific publications respectively. Einstein was the sole author in 88% of his publications, which validates the third assumption. Thus, one can conclude that quantitative comparison of Einstein's total scientific publications with that of appropriate controls such as Landsteiner and Freud shows that Einstein's chronic ill health did not influence his scientific productivity.

  4. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  5. [Trichinae, pigs and veterinary public health: The introduction of the microscopic world into the scientific basis for meat inspection (Barcelona, 1870s)].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez García, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the 19th century, Spanish authorities began developing specific programs on the safety of certain foods intended for human consumption. This paper analyses the key features that gave rise to the inclusion of the veterinarian in the administrative structure responsible for safeguarding public health. Among the aspects covered, special focus is put on the relationship between human and animal medicine at a time when growing public alarm in relation to certain zoonoses contributed to shaping the notion of veterinary public health. The appearance of a disease in pigs that was transmissible through the consumption of parasitized meat set the scene for veterinary inspection to be associated with the protection of public health. The outbreaks of trichinosis all over Spain in the 1870's proved the existence of contagium animatum in a pre-bacteriology era, and this led to the introduction of improvements in food inspection. In this sense, microscopic examination of pork products encouraged the modernization of inspection tasks undertaken by veterinarians, which had previously focused on the organoleptic evaluation of meat and fish and on unveiling fraud. The introduction of microscopes was widely accepted and established a watershed between acceptable and unacceptable methods of carrying out the examination of meat. Furthermore, this "technological" method of diagnosis brought veterinary medicine closer to other more prestigious health professions, at least in theory. Among other aspects, the acceptance of trichinae as an exogenous cause of disease contributed to 19th century doctors learning about the idea of pathogenic microorganisms from veterinarians. At a social level, the use of the microscope was seen as a way of preventing the transmission to people of an animal disease that was very much in the public eye at the time. From the political point of view, the process -analysed in this paper from the perspective of veterinarians in Barcelona

  6. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  7. Promises and Pitfalls of High-Throughput Biological Assays.

    PubMed

    Finak, Greg; Gottardo, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses some of the pitfalls encountered when performing biomedical research involving high-throughput "omics" data and presents some strategies and guidelines that researchers should follow when undertaking such studies. We discuss common errors in experimental design and data analysis that lead to irreproducible and non-replicable research and provide some guidelines to avoid these common mistakes so that researchers may have confidence in study outcomes, even if the results are negative. We discuss the importance of ranking and prespecifying hypotheses, performing power analysis, careful experimental design, and preplanning of statistical analyses in order to avoid the "fishing expedition" data analysis strategy, which is doomed to fail. The impact of multiple testing on false-positive rates is discussed, particularly in the context of the analysis of high-throughput data, and methods to correct for it are presented, as well as approaches to detect and correct for experimental biases and batch effects, which often plague high-throughput assays. We highlight the importance of sharing data and analysis code to facilitate reproducibility and present tools and software that are appropriate for this purpose. PMID:27115636

  8. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults.

    PubMed

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2015-09-01

    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine.

  9. Cannulation Strategies and Pitfalls in Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, Mahesh; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Abu Saleh, Walid K; Ramlawi, Basel

    2016-01-01

    For any given cardiac surgery, there are two invasive components: the surgical approach and the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. The standard approach for cardiac surgery is the median sternotomy, which offers unrestricted access to the thoracic organs-the heart, lung, and major vessels. However, it carries a long list of potential complications such as wound infection, brachial plexus palsies, respiratory dysfunction, and an unpleasant-looking scar. The cardiopulmonary bypass component also carries potential complications such as end-organ dysfunction, coagulopathy, hemodilution, bleeding, and blood transfusion requirement. Furthermore, the aortic manipulation during cannulation and cross clamping increases the risk of dissection, arterial embolization, and stroke. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is an iconic event in the history of cardiothoracic medicine and has become a widely adapted approach as it minimizes many of the inconvenient side effects associated with the median sternotomy and bypass circuit placement. This type of surgery requires the use of novel perfusion strategies, especially in patients who hold the highest potential for postoperative morbidity. Cannulation techniques are a fundamental element in minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and there are numerous cannulation procedures for each type of minimally invasive operation. In this review, we will highlight the strategies and pitfalls associated with a minimally invasive cannulation. PMID:27127556

  10. ICD monitoring zones: intricacies, pitfalls, and programming tips.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Fadi; Khairy, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) are widely regarded as the treatment of choice for primary and secondary prevention against sudden cardiac death across a broad spectrum of underlying pathologies. Over the past 20 years, ICDs have evolved into complex multifunctional units capable of recording, chronicling, self-testing, and delivering interventional therapies. Technological advances permitted the creation of ICD monitoring zones that are now considered valuable in diagnosing slower, presumably more stable ventricular arrhythmias. They may be helpful especially in patients with unexplained symptoms such as palpitations and/or syncope, particularly in the setting of antiarrhythmic pharmacological therapy that may slow ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Caregivers largely view ICD monitoring zones as passive features that do not interfere or interact with appropriate functioning of active treatment zones. As will be discussed in this clinical review, this is not always the case. Herein, we unravel the intricacies regarding monitoring zone functions and algorithms, highlight potential pitfalls, and offer practical programming tips relevant to each device manufacturer.

  11. Magnetic resonance thermometry: Methodology, pitfalls and practical solutions.

    PubMed

    Winter, Lukas; Oberacker, Eva; Paul, Katharina; Ji, Yiyi; Oezerdem, Celal; Ghadjar, Pirus; Thieme, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Wust, Peter; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2016-01-01

    Clinically established thermal therapies such as thermoablative approaches or adjuvant hyperthermia treatment rely on accurate thermal dose information for the evaluation and adaptation of the thermal therapy. Intratumoural temperature measurements have been correlated successfully with clinical end points. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most suitable technique for non-invasive thermometry avoiding complications related to invasive temperature measurements. Since the advent of MR thermometry two decades ago, numerous MR thermometry techniques have been developed, continuously increasing accuracy and robustness for in vivo applications. While this progress was primarily focused on relative temperature mapping, current and future efforts will likely close the gap towards quantitative temperature readings. These efforts are essential to benchmark thermal therapy efficiency, to understand temperature-related biophysical and physiological processes and to use these insights to set new landmarks for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. With that in mind, this review summarises and discusses advances in MR thermometry, providing practical considerations, pitfalls and technical obstacles constraining temperature measurement accuracy, spatial and temporal resolution in vivo. Established approaches and current trends in thermal therapy hardware are surveyed with respect to potential benefits for MR thermometry. PMID:26708630

  12. Ischaemic conditioning: pitfalls on the path to clinical translation

    PubMed Central

    Przyklenk, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel adjuvant strategies capable of attenuating myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury and reducing infarct size remains a major, unmet clinical need. A wealth of preclinical evidence has established that ischaemic ‘conditioning’ is profoundly cardioprotective, and has positioned the phenomenon (in particular, the paradigms of postconditioning and remote conditioning) as the most promising and potent candidate for clinical translation identified to date. However, despite this preclinical consensus, current phase II trials have been plagued by heterogeneity, and the outcomes of recent meta-analyses have largely failed to confirm significant benefit. As a result, the path to clinical application has been perceived as ‘disappointing’ and ‘frustrating’. The goal of the current review is to discuss the pitfalls that may be stalling the successful clinical translation of ischaemic conditioning, with an emphasis on concerns regarding: (i) appropriate clinical study design and (ii) the choice of the ‘right’ preclinical models to facilitate clinical translation. PMID:25560903

  13. Massively Multiplayer Online Games as Living Laboratories: Opportunities and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducheneaut, Nicolas

    The digital nature of online games makes them particularly amenable to large-scale, automated data collection and analysis; so researchers have begun to use them as living laboratories to test or refine the existing theories of human behavior. On the basis of several years of intensive data collection in several massively multiplayer online games, this chapter addresses three problems concerning validity and generalizability that must be taken into account. First, each game has a set of laws that steer player behavior, thereby introducing confounding factors that have to be taken into account by the researcher. Second, games attract skewed samples of players, and players may adopt transformed personalities inside the game world, which puts into question the validity of extending findings from observations in the digital realm into the physical one. Third, the lack of a clear boundary defining the "game space," illustrated by the many websites and forums for popular games, raises the question of whether online games themselves capture the totality of the user's experience. The problematic mapping between "real-world" behaviors and those in online games presents research opportunities as well as pitfalls that need to be avoided.

  14. Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes—Pitfalls and Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rashmi B.; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease that is caused by a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. While the major environmental factors, diet and activity level, are well known, identification of the genetic factors has been a challenge. However, recent years have seen an explosion of genetic variants in risk and protection of T2D due to the technical development that has allowed genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing. Today, more than 120 variants have been convincingly replicated for association with T2D and many more with diabetes-related traits. Still, these variants only explain a small proportion of the total heritability of T2D. In this review, we address the possibilities to elucidate the genetic landscape of T2D as well as discuss pitfalls with current strategies to identify the elusive unknown heritability including the possibility that our definition of diabetes and its subgroups is imprecise and thereby makes the identification of genetic causes difficult. PMID:25774817

  15. Pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Olympia; Moran, Carla; Halsall, David; Chatterjee, Krishna; Gurnell, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are amongst the most commonly requested laboratory investigations in both primary and secondary care. Fortunately, most TFTs are straightforward to interpret and confirm the clinical impression of euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. However, in an important subgroup of patients the results of TFTs can seem confusing, either by virtue of being discordant with the clinical picture or because they appear incongruent with each other [e.g. raised thyroid hormones (TH), but with non-suppressed thyrotropin (TSH); raised TSH, but with normal TH]. In such cases, it is important first to revisit the clinical context, and to consider potential confounding factors, including alterations in normal physiology (e.g. pregnancy), intercurrent (non-thyroidal) illness, and medication usage (e.g. thyroxine, amiodarone, heparin). Once these have been excluded, laboratory artefacts in commonly used TSH or TH immunoassays should be screened for, thus avoiding unnecessary further investigation and/or treatment in cases where there is assay interference. In the remainder, consideration should be given to screening for rare genetic and acquired disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis [e.g. resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), thyrotropinoma (TSHoma)]. Here, we discuss the main pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of TFTs, and propose a structured algorithm for the investigation and management of patients with anomalous/discordant TFTs. PMID:24275187

  16. Normal Skeletal Maturation and Imaging Pitfalls in the Pediatric Shoulder.

    PubMed

    Zember, Jonathan S; Rosenberg, Zehava S; Kwong, Steven; Kothary, Shefali P; Bedoya, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the shoulder are being performed as a result of greater and earlier participation of children and adolescents in competitive sports such as softball and baseball. However, scant information is available regarding the MR imaging features of the normal sequential development of the shoulder. The authors discuss the radiographic and MR imaging appearances of the normal musculoskeletal maturation patterns of the shoulder, with emphasis on (a) development of secondary ossification centers of the glenoid (including the subcoracoid and peripheral glenoid ossification centers); (b) development of preossification and secondary ossification centers of the humeral head and the variable appearance and number of the secondary ossification centers of the distal acromion, with emphasis on the formation of the os acromiale; (c) development of the growth plates, glenoid bone plates, glenoid bare area, and proximal humeral metaphyseal stripe; and (d) marrow signal alterations in the distal humerus, acromion, and clavicle. In addition, the authors discuss various imaging interpretation pitfalls inherent to the normal skeletal maturation of the shoulder, examining clues that may help distinguish normal development from true disease (eg, osteochondral lesions, labral tears, abscesses, fractures, infection, tendon disease, acromioclavicular widening, and os acromiale). Familiarity with the timing, location, and appearance of maturation patterns in the pediatric shoulder is crucial for correct image interpretation.

  17. Design and statistical analysis of oral medicine studies: common pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Baccaglini, L; Shuster, J J; Cheng, J; Theriaque, D W; Schoenbach, V J; Tomar, S L; Poole, C

    2010-04-01

    A growing number of articles are emerging in the medical and statistics literature that describe epidemiologic and statistical flaws of research studies. Many examples of these deficiencies are encountered in the oral, craniofacial, and dental literature. However, only a handful of methodologic articles have been published in the oral literature warning investigators of potential errors that may arise early in the study and that can irreparably bias the final results. In this study, we briefly review some of the most common pitfalls that our team of epidemiologists and statisticians has identified during the review of submitted or published manuscripts and research grant applications. We use practical examples from the oral medicine and dental literature to illustrate potential shortcomings in the design and analysis of research studies, and how these deficiencies may affect the results and their interpretation. A good study design is essential, because errors in the analysis can be corrected if the design was sound, but flaws in study design can lead to data that are not salvageable. We recommend consultation with an epidemiologist or a statistician during the planning phase of a research study to optimize study efficiency, minimize potential sources of bias, and document the analytic plan.

  18. Corticosteroids in brain cancer patients: benefits and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Jörg; Rao, Krithika; Pastorino, Sandra; Kesari, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used for decades in the treatment of brain tumor patients and belong to the most powerful class of agents in reducing tumor-associated edema and minimizing side effects and the risk of encephalopathy in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Unfortunately, corticosteroids are associated with numerous and well-characterized adverse effects, constituting a major challenge in patients requiring long-term application of corticosteroids. Novel anti-angiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab (Avastin®), which have been increasingly used in cancer patients, are associated with significant steroid-sparing effects, allowing neuro-oncologists to reduce the overall use of corticosteroids in patients with progressive malignant brain tumors. Recent experimental studies have revealed novel insights into the mechanisms and effects of corticosteroids in cancer patients, including modulation of tumor biology, angiogenesis and steroid-associated neurotoxicity. This article summarizes current concepts of using corticosteroids in brain cancer patients and highlights potential pitfalls in their effects on both tumor and neural progenitor cells. PMID:21666852

  19. Cannulation Strategies and Pitfalls in Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ramchandani, Mahesh; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Abu Saleh, Walid K.; Ramlawi, Basel

    2016-01-01

    For any given cardiac surgery, there are two invasive components: the surgical approach and the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. The standard approach for cardiac surgery is the median sternotomy, which offers unrestricted access to the thoracic organs—the heart, lung, and major vessels. However, it carries a long list of potential complications such as wound infection, brachial plexus palsies, respiratory dysfunction, and an unpleasant-looking scar. The cardiopulmonary bypass component also carries potential complications such as end-organ dysfunction, coagulopathy, hemodilution, bleeding, and blood transfusion requirement. Furthermore, the aortic manipulation during cannulation and cross clamping increases the risk of dissection, arterial embolization, and stroke. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is an iconic event in the history of cardiothoracic medicine and has become a widely adapted approach as it minimizes many of the inconvenient side effects associated with the median sternotomy and bypass circuit placement. This type of surgery requires the use of novel perfusion strategies, especially in patients who hold the highest potential for postoperative morbidity. Cannulation techniques are a fundamental element in minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and there are numerous cannulation procedures for each type of minimally invasive operation. In this review, we will highlight the strategies and pitfalls associated with a minimally invasive cannulation. PMID:27127556

  20. Is the tobacco control movement misrepresenting the acute cardiovascular health effects of secondhand smoke exposure? An analysis of the scientific evidence and commentary on the implications for tobacco control and public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    While chronic exposure to secondhand smoke has been well recognized as a cause of heart disease in nonsmokers, there has been recent speculation about the potential acute cardiovascular effects of transient exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmokers; in particular, the possibility that such exposure could increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction even in an otherwise healthy nonsmoker. This paper reviews the claims being made by a number of anti-smoking and public health groups regarding the acute cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke exposure among otherwise healthy adults, analyzes the validity of these claims based on a review of the scientific evidence, and discusses the implications of the findings for tobacco control and public health practice. Based on the analysis, it appears that a large number of anti-smoking organizations are making inaccurate claims that a single, acute, transient exposure to secondhand smoke can cause severe and even fatal cardiovascular events in healthy nonsmokers. The dissemination of inaccurate information by anti-smoking groups to the public in support of smoking bans is unfortunate because it may harm the tobacco control movement by undermining its credibility, reputation, and effectiveness. Disseminating inaccurate information also represents a violation of basic ethical principles that are a core value of public health practice that cannot and should not be sacrificed, even for a noble end such as protecting nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure. How the tobacco control movement responds to this crisis of credibility will go a long way towards determining the future effectiveness of the movement and its ability to continue to save lives and protect the public's health. PMID:17927828

  1. Scientific publications from mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in integrative and complementary medicine journals: a ten-year literature survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Qian; Tao, Kun-Ming; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers from China, the largest user of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), have been publishing an increasing number of scientific articles in world-famous CAM journals in recent years. However, the status of CAM research in the three major regions of China, the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong has, until now, not been reported. In this study, we compared articles from these three regions published in international CAM journals from 2000 to 2009 using PubMed database and the Journal Citation Reports. The study results showed that the number of published articles from Mainland China increased significantly from 2000 to 2009, particularly since 2005. Meanwhile, the number of published articles from Taiwan also increased, whereas those from Hong Kong remained steady. Clinical trials and randomized controlled trials from Chinese authors both took a small percentage of the total. The impact factors of the journals in which these articles were published suggested similar academic levels whereas the average number of citation of articles from the Mainland was less than those from the other two regions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine and Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine were the most popular journals for Chinese authors.

  2. Reframing science communication: How the use of metaphor, rhetoric, and other tools of persuasion can strengthen the public understanding of science (without weakening the integrity of the scientific process)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, Jeanne

    This paper is about "truthiness", its resulting impact on the public understanding of science (and subsequently science policy), and why scientists need to learn how to navigate truthiness in order to ensure that the scientific body of knowledge is both preserved and shared. In order to contend with truthiness, scientists must understand and acknowledge how people receive and process information, how they form their reactions and opinions about it, and how they can be manipulated by various agencies and players to feel and think in certain ways. In order to accomplish these objectives, scientists must also understand various aspects of culture, language, psychology, neuroscience, and communication. Most importantly, scientists must recognize their own humanity, and learn how to accept and work with their own human boundaries. Truth can indeed be beauty. And, there is absolutely nothing unscientific about creating beauty in order to demonstrate and explain truth.

  3. TU-D-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT II: Challenges ' Pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Z; Yin, F; Cho, J

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been effective treatment for the management of various diseases, which often delivers high radiation dose in a single or a few fractions. SBRT therefore demands precise treatment delivery to the tumor while sparing adjacent healthy tissue. Recent developments in image guidance enable target localization with increased accuracy. With such improvements in localization, image-guided SBRT has been widely adopted into clinical practice. In SBRT, high radiation dose is generally delivered with small fields. Therefore, it is crucial to accurately measure dosimetric data for the small fields during commissioning. In addition, image-guided SBRT demands accurate image localization to ensure safety and quality of patient care. Lately, the reports of AAPM TG 142 and TG 104 have been published and added recommendations for imaging devices that are integrated with the linear accelerator for SBRT. Furthermore, various challenges and potential pitfalls lie in the clinical implementation of image-guided SBRT. In this lecture, these challenges and pitfalls of image-guided SBRT will be illustrated and discussed from dosimetric, technical and clinical perspectives.Being a promising technique, image-guided SBRT has shown great potentials, and will lead to more accurate and safer SBRT treatments. Learning Objectives: To understand dosimetric challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT. To understand major clinical challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT. To understand major technical challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT.

  4. Pitfall Traps and Mini-Winkler Extractor as Complementary Methods to Sample Soil Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A C; Batistella, D A; Battirola, L D; Marques, M I

    2016-02-01

    We compared abundance, species richness, and capture efficiency with pitfall traps and mini-Winkler extractors to examine their use as complementary methods for sampling soil Coleoptera during dry (2010) and high water seasons (2011) in three areas, including inundated and non-inundated regions, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We paired treatments with two 10 × 10 m plots in inundated and non-inundated locations that were repeated three times in each location for a total of 18 plots. In each plot, we used nine pitfall traps and collected 2 m(2) of leaf litter and surface soil samples with mini-Winkler extractors. We collected a total of 4260 adult beetles comprising 36 families, 113 genera, and 505 species. Most were caught in pitfalls (69%) and the remainder in the mini-Winkler extractors (31%). Each method provided distinct information about the beetle community: 252 species were captured only in pitfall traps, 147 using only the mini-Winkler extractors, and these methods shared another 106 species. Pitfall and mini-Winkler contribute in different ways for the sampling of the soil beetle community, and so they should be considered complementary for a more thorough assessment of community diversity. PMID:26493175

  5. Pitfalls in RECIST Data Extraction for Clinical Trials: Beyond the Basics

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Richard G.; McGhee, Carrie R.; Lakomkin, Nikita; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) is a standardized methodology for determining therapeutic response to anticancer therapy using changes in lesion appearance on imaging studies. Many radiologists are now using RECIST in their routine clinical workflow, as part of consultative arrangements, or within dedicated imaging core laboratories. Although basic RECIST methodology is well described in published articles and online resources, inexperienced readers may encounter difficulties with certain nuances and subtleties of RECIST. This article illustrates a set of pitfalls in RECIST assessment considered to be “beyond the basics.” These pitfalls were uncovered during a quality improvement review of a recently established cancer imaging core laboratory staffed by radiologists with limited prior RECIST experience. Pitfalls are presented in four categories: (1) baseline selection of lesions, (2) reassessment of target lesions, (3) reassessment of nontarget lesions, and (4) identification of new lesions. Educational and operational strategies for addressing these pitfalls are suggested. Attention to these pitfalls and strategies may improve the overall quality of RECIST assessments performed by radiologists. PMID:25794800

  6. Pitfalls in RECIST Data Extraction for Clinical Trials: Beyond the Basics.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Richard G; McGhee, Carrie R; Lakomkin, Nikita; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2015-06-01

    Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) is a standardized methodology for determining therapeutic response to anticancer therapy using changes in lesion appearance on imaging studies. Many radiologists are now using RECIST in their routine clinical workflow, as part of consultative arrangements, or within dedicated imaging core laboratories. Although basic RECIST methodology is well described in published articles and online resources, inexperienced readers may encounter difficulties with certain nuances and subtleties of RECIST. This article illustrates a set of pitfalls in RECIST assessment considered to be "beyond the basics." These pitfalls were uncovered during a quality improvement review of a recently established cancer imaging core laboratory staffed by radiologists with limited prior RECIST experience. Pitfalls are presented in four categories: (1) baseline selection of lesions, (2) reassessment of target lesions, (3) reassessment of nontarget lesions, and (4) identification of new lesions. Educational and operational strategies for addressing these pitfalls are suggested. Attention to these pitfalls and strategies may improve the overall quality of RECIST assessments performed by radiologists.

  7. 76 FR 36094 - Draft NOAA Scientific Integrity Policy and Handbook; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Draft NOAA Scientific Integrity Policy and Handbook... Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Draft NOAA Scientific Integrity Policy and Handbook for Public Review. SUMMARY: NOAA's draft scientific integrity policy is available for public...

  8. Pitfalls and Limitations of PET/CT in Brain Imaging.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Eric; Bernard Ir, Claire; Hustinx, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Neurologic applications were at the forefront of PET imaging when the technique was developed in the mid-1970s. Although oncologic indications have become prominent in terms of number of studies performed worldwide, neurology remains a major field in which functional imaging provides unique information, both for clinical and research purposes. The evaluation of glucose metabolism using FDG remains the most frequent exploration, but in recent years, alternative radiotracers have been developed, including fluorinated amino acid analogues for primary brain tumor imaging and fluorinated compounds for assessing the amyloid deposits in patients with suspected Alzheimer disease. As the brain is enclosed in the skull, which presents fixed landmarks, it is relatively easy to coregister images obtained with various cross-sectional imaging methods, either functional or anatomical, with a relatively high accuracy and robustness. Nevertheless, PET in neurology has fully benefited from the advent of hybrid imaging. Attenuation and scatter correction is now much faster and equally accurate, using CT as compared with the traditional transmission scan using an external radioactive source. The perfect coregistration with the CT data, which is now systematically performed, also provides its own set of valuable information, for instance regarding cerebral atrophy. However, hybrid imaging in neurology comes with pitfalls and limitations, in addition to those that are well known, for example, blood glucose levels or psychotropic drugs that greatly affect the physiological FDG uptake. Movements of the patient's head, either during the PET acquisition or between the PET and the CT acquisitions will generate artifacts that may be very subtle yet lead to erroneous interpretation of the study. Similarly, quantitative analysis, such as voxel-based analyses, may prove very helpful in improving the diagnostic accuracy and the reproducibility of the reading, but a wide variety of artifacts may

  9. Androgens and doping tests: genetic variation and pit-falls

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2012-01-01

    The large variation in disposition known for most drugs is also true for anabolic androgenic steroids. Genetic factors are probably the single most important cause of this variation. Further, there are reasons to believe that there is a corresponding variation in efficacy of doping agents. Doped individuals employ a large variety of doping strategies in respect of choice of substance, dose, dose interval, duration of treatment and use of other drugs for enforcement of effects or correction of side effects. Metabolic steps up-stream and down-stream of testosterone are genetically variable and contribute substantially to the variation in disposition of testosterone, the most common doping agent in sports and in society. Large inter- and intra-ethnic variation in testosterone glucuronidation and excretion is described as well as the pit-falls in evaluation of testosterone doping test results. The hydrolysis and bioactivation of testosterone enanthate is also genetically variable yielding a 2–3 fold variation in excretion rate and serum concentration, thereby implicating a substantial variation in ‘efficacy’ of testosterone. Given this situation it is logical to adopt the new findings in the doping control programme. The population based cut-off level for the testosterone : epitestosterone ratio should be replaced by a Bayesian interpretation of consecutive tests in the same individual. When combined with the above genetic information the sensitivity of the test is considerably improved. The combination of the three approaches should reduce the rate of falsely negative or positive results and the number of expensive follow-up tests, stipulated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. PMID:22506612

  10. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels: methods, interpretations and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Buczynski, Matthew W; Parsons, Loren H

    2010-01-01

    Endocannabinoids play an important role in a diverse range of neurophysiological processes including neural development, neuroimmune function, synaptic plasticity, pain, reward and affective state. This breadth of influence and evidence for altered endocannabinoid signalling in a variety of neuropathologies has fuelled interest in the accurate quantification of these lipids in brain tissue. Established methods for endocannabinoid quantification primarily employ solvent-based lipid extraction with further sample purification by solid phase extraction. In recent years in vivo microdialysis methods have also been developed for endocannabinoid sampling from the brain interstitial space. However, considerable variability in estimates of endocannabinoid content has led to debate regarding the physiological range of concentrations present in various brain regions. This paper provides a critical review of factors that influence the quantification of brain endocannabinoid content as determined by lipid extraction from bulk tissue and by in vivo microdialysis. A variety of methodological issues are discussed including analytical approaches, endocannabinoid extraction and purification, post-mortem changes in brain endocannabinoid content, cellular reactions to microdialysis probe implantation and caveats related to lipid sampling from the extracellular space. The application of these methods for estimating brain endocannabinoid content and the effects of endocannabinoid clearance inhibition are discussed. The benefits, limitations and pitfalls associated with each approach are emphasized, with an eye toward the appropriate interpretation of data gathered by each method. This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids. To view the editorial for this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00831.x PMID:20590555

  11. Multiparametric MRI of solid renal masses: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, N K; Moosavi, B; McInnes, M D F; Flood, T A; Schieda, N

    2015-03-01

    Functional imaging [diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE)] techniques combined with T2-weighted (T2W) and chemical-shift imaging (CSI), with or without urography, constitutes a comprehensive multiparametric (MP) MRI protocol of the kidneys. MP-MRI of the kidneys can be performed in a time-efficient manner. Breath-hold sequences and parallel imaging should be used to reduce examination time and improve image quality. Increased T2 signal intensity (SI) in a solid renal nodule is specific for renal cell carcinoma (RCC); whereas, low T2 SI can be seen in RCC, angiomyolipoma (AML), and haemorrhagic cysts. Low b-value DWI can replace conventional fat-suppressed T2W. DWI can be performed free-breathing (FB) with two b-values to reduce acquisition time without compromising imaging quality. RCC demonstrates restricted diffusion; however, restricted diffusion is commonly seen in AML and in chronic haemorrhage. CSI must be performed using the correct echo combination at 3 T or T2* effects can mimic intra-lesional fat. Two-dimensional (2D)-CSI has better image quality compared to three-dimensional (3D)-CSI, but volume averaging in small lesions can simulate intra-lesional fat using 2D techniques. SI decrease on CSI is present in both AML and clear cell RCC. Verification of internal enhancement with MRI can be challenging and is improved with image subtraction. Subtraction imaging is prone to errors related to spatial misregistration, which is ameliorated with expiratory phase imaging. SI ratios can be used to confirm subtle internal enhancement and enhancement curves are predictive of RCC subtype. MR urography using conventional extracellular gadolinium must account for T2* effects; however, gadoxetic acid enhanced urography is an alternative. The purpose of this review it to highlight important technical and interpretive pearls and pitfalls encountered with MP-MRI of solid renal masses.

  12. Pitfalls in compound-specific isotope analysis of environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Blessing, Michaela; Jochmann, Maik A; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has evolved as a valuable technique in the field of environmental science, especially in contaminated site assessment. Instrumentation and methods exist for highly precise measurements of the isotopic composition of organic contaminants even in a very low concentration range. Nevertheless, the determination of precise and accurate isotope data of environmental samples can be a challenge. Since CSIA is gaining more and more popularity in the assessment of in situ biodegradation of organic contaminants, an increasing number of authorities and environmental consulting offices are interested in the application of the method for contaminated site remediation. Because of this, it is important to demonstrate the problems and limitations associated with compound-specific isotope measurements of environmental samples. In this review, potential pitfalls of the analytical procedure are critically discussed and strategies to avoid possible sources of error are provided. In order to maintain the analytical quality and to ensure the basis for reliable stable isotope data, recommendations on groundwater sampling, and sample preservation and storage are given. Important aspects of sample preparation and preconcentration techniques to improve sensitivity are highlighted. Problems related to chromatographic resolution and matrix interference are discussed that have to be considered in order to achieve accurate gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry measurements. As a result, the need for a thorough investigation of compound-specific isotope fractionation effects introduced by any step of the overall analytical method by standards with known isotopic composition is emphasized. Finally, we address some important points that have to be considered when interpreting data from field investigations.

  13. Public knowledge and public trust.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As health care applications derived from human genetics research are likely to move increasingly from 'clinic to community', there is growing interest not just in how patients understand and take up health-related genetic information but also in the views of the wider population, as well as a range of professional groups. In this paper, issues relating public knowledge and public trust are raised and discussed in an attempt to move forward debates about public involvement in genomic research and the role of sociologists within interdisciplinary teams. As the field of public understanding of science has developed, we have seen a shift from a focus on the lack of scientific literacy as problem to a recognition of the range of different knowledges that people have and use as they confront science and technology in their everyday lives. As a mood for dialogue pervades many institutions in their relations with 'publics', attention must now be paid to the way in which knowledge and expertise is expressed, heard and acted upon in dialogic encounters. There is increasing concern about public trust in science and calls to increase public confidence, particularly through more open engagement with a range of publics. However, lack of trust or loss of confidence may be constructed as problems rather than reflecting empirical reality, where more complex relationships and attitudes prevail. Lack of trust is often privatized, deeply rooted in lived experience and routinely managed. Trust relations are generally characterized by ambivalence, uncertainty and risk, and are always provisional. Drawing on selected literature and empirical research to review and illustrate this field, this paper argues that scepticism or ambivalence on the part of publics are not necessarily problems to be overcome in the interest of scientific progress, but rather should be mobilized to enhance open and public debates about the nature and direction of genomics research, medicine, and the related

  14. Scientific entrepreneurship in the materials and life science industries.

    PubMed

    Dinglasan, Jose Amado; Anderson, Darren J; Thomas, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Scientists constantly generate great ideas in the laboratory and, as most of us were meant to believe, we should publish or perish. After all, what use is a great scientific idea if it is not shared with the rest of the scientific community? What some scientists forget is that a good idea can be worth something - sometimes it can be worth a lot (of money)! What do you do if you believe that your idea has some commercial potential? How do you turn this idea into a business? This chapter gives the aspiring scientific entrepreneur some (hopefully) valuable advice on topics like choosing the right people for your management team, determining inventorship of the technology and ownership shares in the new company, protecting your intellectual property, and others; finally, it describes some of the various pitfalls you may encounter when commercializing an early stage technology and instructions on how to avoid them. PMID:21424462

  15. Scientific entrepreneurship in the materials and life science industries.

    PubMed

    Dinglasan, Jose Amado; Anderson, Darren J; Thomas, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Scientists constantly generate great ideas in the laboratory and, as most of us were meant to believe, we should publish or perish. After all, what use is a great scientific idea if it is not shared with the rest of the scientific community? What some scientists forget is that a good idea can be worth something - sometimes it can be worth a lot (of money)! What do you do if you believe that your idea has some commercial potential? How do you turn this idea into a business? This chapter gives the aspiring scientific entrepreneur some (hopefully) valuable advice on topics like choosing the right people for your management team, determining inventorship of the technology and ownership shares in the new company, protecting your intellectual property, and others; finally, it describes some of the various pitfalls you may encounter when commercializing an early stage technology and instructions on how to avoid them.

  16. Maintaining the trust of physicians and the public in the medical literature: report of a task force on scientific publishing of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shane, Elizabeth; Civitelli, Roberto; Delmas, Pierre D; Drezner, Marc; Eisman, John A; Lindsay, Robert; Lorenzo, Joseph; Miller, Paul; Ralston, Stuart; Reid, Ian; Siris, Ethel

    2007-11-01

    In 2006, the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research and the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research convened a task force to consider whether and how to change our editorial policies to assure complete and unbiased reporting of clinical trials. We invited editors of journals that publish research on osteoporosis and disorders of bone and mineral metabolism and presidents of related societies to participate. The task force was charged to consider whether journals should (1) adopt the Principles for Protecting Integrity in the Conduct and Reporting of Clinical Trials published in 2006 by the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) and should (2) require authors and sponsors of industry-funded clinical trials to provide a jointly signed letter that states that the authors had full access to all the data and analyses on which the manuscript was based. The AAMC Principles recommend that multicenter trials should designate a Lead Investigator, Steering Committee, and Publication and Analysis (P&A) Committee, which should consist of a majority of academic investigators who are not sponsor employees. The P&A Committee should have the right to access any data generated during a study and to conduct its own statistical analyses. A majority of task force members voted to support the AAMC Principles, to require a letter jointly signed by academic investigators and industry sponsor stating that the authors had access to the data on which the submission was based, and to recommend adoption of these requirements to their respective societies and journals. Broad-based adoption of the AAMC Principles and requirement of a jointly signed attestation of data access by journals that publish clinical trials in diseases of bone and mineral metabolism should improve the position of academic clinical investigators in their interactions with industry and other funding sources.

  17. Abiding by codes of ethics and codes of conduct imposed on members of learned and professional geoscience institutions and - a tiresome formality or a win-win for scientific and professional integrity and protection of the public?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formed the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism ("TG-GGP") to bring together the expanding network of organizations around the world whose primary purpose is self-regulation of geoscience practice. An important part of TG-GGP's mission is to foster a shared understanding of aspects of professionalism relevant to individual scientists and applied practitioners working in one or more sectors of the wider geoscience profession (e.g. research, teaching, industry, geoscience communication and government service). These may be summarised as competence, ethical practice, and professional, technical and scientific accountability. Legal regimes for the oversight of registered or licensed professionals differ around the world and in many jurisdictions there is no registration or licensure with the force of law. However, principles of peer-based self-regulation universally apply. This makes professional geoscience organisations ideal settings within which geoscientists can debate and agree what society should expect of us in the range of roles we fulfil. They can provide the structures needed to best determine what expectations, in the public interest, are appropriate for us collectively to impose on each other. They can also provide the structures for the development of associated procedures necessary to identify and discipline those who do not live up to the expected standards of behaviour established by consensus between peers. Codes of Ethics (sometimes referred to as Codes of Conduct), to which all members of all major professional and/or scientific geoscience organizations are bound (whether or not they are registered or hold professional qualifications awarded by those organisations), incorporate such traditional tenets as: safeguarding the health and safety of the public, scientific integrity, and fairness. Codes also increasingly include obligations concerning welfare of the environment and

  18. Common Pitfalls in Exposure and Response Prevention (EX/RP) for OCD

    PubMed Central

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Williams, Monnica T.; Malcoun, Emily; Yadin, Elna; Foa, Edna B.

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly debilitating disorder. Fortunately there are treatments that help the majority of OCD sufferers. The behavioral treatment with the most empirical support for its efficacy is exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Over the years in our supervision meetings and in our clinical practice we have noted a number of relatively common therapist pitfalls that decrease the effectiveness of EX/RP. These pitfalls include not encouraging patients to approach the most distressing situations, doing imaginal exposure when in vivo is called for (and vice versa), encouraging distraction during exposure, providing reassurance, failing to address the core fear, ineffective handling of mental compulsions, and difficulty working with close others in the patient’s life. In the current article we describe these common pitfalls and how to avoid them. PMID:22924159

  19. Public Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, C. P.

    In this book effects of technological developments on world conditions are discussed on the basis of the author's public statements made between 1959-70. A total of seven pieces is presented under the headings: The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, The Two Cultures: A Second Look, The Case of Leavis and the Serious Case, Science and…

  20. Rethinking scientific responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Meland, Eivind; Hetlevik, Irene; Strand, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Researchers should be made co-responsible for the wider consequences of their research focus and the application of their findings. This paper describes a meta-reflection procedure that can be used as a tool to enhance scientific responsibility and reflective practice. The point of departure is that scientific practice is situated in power relations, has direction and, consequently, power implications. The contextual preconditions and implications of research should be stated and discussed openly. The reflection method aims at revealing both upstream elements, such as for instance preconceptions, and downstream elements, for example, public consequences of research. The validity of research might improve from such discussions. Validity should preferably be understood as a broader concept than the methodological concerns in science. PMID:21266389

  1. [Communication of scientific fraud].

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Rouquette, Sébastien

    2012-09-01

    There is for a scientific journal several levels of communication depending of the degree of suspicion or certainty of a case of error or fraud. The task is increasingly difficult for journal editors as disclosed cases of fraud are more common and scientific communication on this topic is growing. Biomedical fraud is fairly little reported by the mainstream press and causes of this low interest are not currently well understood. The difficulty of processing this type of news for journalists appears to be one possible reason. The potentially numerous and significant consequences of fraud on health professionals are poorly documented. Though it is likely to cause a feeling of distrust and create controversy, the impact of fraud on the general public is poorly studied and appears multifactorial.

  2. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  3. Pitfalls in animal reproduction research: how the animal guards nature's secrets.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J

    2013-08-01

    The estrous cycles of heifers and mares are used for illustrating pitfalls at the animal level in research in reproductive biology. Infrequent monitoring for characterizing the change in hormone concentrations or for detecting a reproductive event can be a pitfall when the interval for obtaining data exceeds the interval between events. For example, hourly collection of blood samples has shown that the luteolytic period (decreasing progesterone) encompasses 24 hours in heifers and mares. Collection of samples every 6-24 hours results in the illusion that luteolysis requires 2-3 days, owing to the occurrence of luteolysis on different days in individuals. A single treatment with PGF2α that causes complete regression of the corpus luteum is an example of an overdose pitfall. A nonphysiological progesterone increase occurs and will be misleading if used for making interpretations on the nature of luteolysis. A pitfall can also occur if a chosen reference point or end point is a poor representation of a physiological event. For example, if on a selected day after ovulation the animals in treatment A are closer on average to luteolysis than animals in treatment B, treatment A will appear to have had an earlier luteolytic effect. Among the techniques that are used directly in the animal, ultrasonography appears to be most prone to research pitfalls. Research during a given month can be confounded by seasonal effects, even in species that ovulate throughout the year. The presence of unknown factors or complex interactions among factors and the sensitivity of the animal to a research procedure separate from the direct effect of a treatment are also research challenges. A hidden factor should be considered nature's challenge to open-minded biologists but a pitfall for the close-minded.

  4. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  5. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  6. Radiation risk and public education

    SciTech Connect

    Faden, R.R.

    1983-03-01

    Two issues which deal with the public's perception of radiation hazards are discussed. The goal of public education about radiation, and the relative role of scientific and moral beliefs in public education are examined. (KRM)

  7. Maxwell's Scientific Papers.

    PubMed

    Everitt, C W

    1967-04-01

    This article is a review of a reprint of the 1890 commemoration edition of The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell (Dover Publications, Inc., New York), $12.50. Vol. 1, 607 pp.; Vol.2, 806 pp. One hundred and one of Maxwell's shorter papers, articles, speeches, and reviews on electricity and magnetism, the dynamical theory of gases, theory of light, color vision and other optical problems, elastic solids, molecular physics, etc., are in this reprint; his longer treatises on electricity and magnetism, heat, and matter and motion are not included. This review is illustrated with photographs from the Maxwell family archives which have not been published before.

  8. Pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vivek; El Asmar, Nadine; Selman, Warren R; Arafah, Baha M

    2015-02-01

    .g., malabsorption, celiac disease) and by the concurrent use of medications that interfere with its metabolism (e.g., inducers and inhibitors of the P450 enzyme system). In this review, the authors aim to review the pitfalls commonly encountered in the workup of patients suspected to have hypercortisolism. The optimal diagnosis and therapy for patients with Cushing's disease require the thorough and close coordination and involvement of all members of the management team.

  9. Possibilities and Pitfalls of a Public Health Agenda for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The 1996 Surgeon General?s Report (SGR), "Physical Activity and Health," was one of the more significant U.S. Federal documents to outline national priorities for health and physical activity. In this monograph Marlene Tappe and Charlene Burgeson and Stephen Cone remind us that "Physical Activity and Health" was the third in a series of Surgeon…

  10. Land-Grant Extension: Defining Public Good and Identifying Pitfalls in Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Land-grant extension is an ongoing example of higher education outreach and community engagement. Population, food, climate, and geographic isolation all factor into the importance of producing and facilitating agricultural knowledge. This qualitative study took place in a geographically isolated region with potential food security issues to…

  11. [Report from the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT). Pitfalls on the way from concept to medical treatment with advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Büttel, I C; Schneider, C K

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are highly innovative and complex medicines. They comprise gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). With the European Regulation on ATMP that came into force in 2008, a consolidated regulatory framework was created, where the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) plays a central role. This article discusses pitfalls and challenges that the CAT has experienced in its discussions of various procedures. Often ATMPs are developed by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) which also face nonscientific challenges. The CAT wishes to meet these challenges on a scientific and regulatory level during its 2010-2015 work program.

  12. A risk-based approach to cleanup: Problems and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.

    1995-10-01

    This paper details information dealing with the meetings of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). Topics discussed include: Radtest program to summarize all data on radiation doses resulting from nuclear weapons testing; current status of US cleanup strategies; development of new milestones for the project due to reduced budgets; health hazards; and risk reduction.

  13. [New forms of scientific communication of medical societies: thoughts on scientific collections and museums for urology].

    PubMed

    Moll, F H; Rathert, P; Skopec, M; Engel, R M; Fangerau, H

    2011-02-01

    Collections from medical societies which are not connected with a university or another public institution cannot be legitimized on the basis of the argument of conserving historical heritage. Even the museum itself with its many tasks and classical site of scientific communication comes into public view and becomes a topic of scientific interest.

  14. Efficient sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods using pitfall traps in arid steppes.

    PubMed

    Cheli, Germán H; Corley, Juan C

    2010-01-01

    Pitfall trapping is probably the most frequently used method for sampling ground-dwelling arthropods. While the capture of specimens in pitfall traps largely depends on the number of individuals in the sampled area, trap design and trapping effort for a given environment, can also affect sampling success. The aim of this study was to determine the best pitfall trapping design for collecting ground-dwelling arthropods in the wind-blown and cold arid steppe areas of Patagonia. We tested four designs of traps, six types of preservative and different times of activation as well as the quantity of traps. Both preservation attributes and sampling efficiency differed between different trap designs and fluids compared. We conclude that in order to obtain reliable data on the structure of a community of ground-dwelling arthropods in Patagonia, at least three pitfall traps per experimental unit are required. In addition, traps should be opened for a minimum of 10 days filled with 300 ml of 30% ethylene glycol. We also suggested the use of a simple trap design (i. e. without funnel or roof). We believe these findings will contribute to more appropriate sampling of the ground dwelling fauna of Patagonia as well as other arid areas, leading to more reliable diversity studies. PMID:21271057

  15. Mini-winkler extractor and pitfall trap as complementary methods to sample formicidae.

    PubMed

    Silva, F H O; Delabie, J H C; dos Santos, G B; Meurer, E; Marques, M I

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps as appropriate and complementary methods to sample ant communities in the phytophysiognomy mosaic in the Poconé Pantanal region, state of Mato Grosso, Brasil. Seven units were studied for landscape, located within a 25 km(2) collection area, formed by thirty 250-m transects, at 1-km intervals in a 5 × 5 km area. Five collection points were marked in each transect at 50-m intervals, totaling 150 points. A collection was made at each sampling point with mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps. Using the mini-Winkler extractor, 1,088 individuals were collected distributed in 20 genera and 55 species, with Solenopsis invicta Buren and Pheidole (gr. biconstricta) sp.1 as the most frequent ants. Using pitfall traps, 2,726 individuals distributed in 24 genera and 48 species were sampled and Dorymyrmex (gr. pyramicus) sp.1 and Pheidole (gr. biconstricta) sp.1 were the most frequent species. A significant difference between the methods was observed in measured species number. The Principal coordinates analysis discriminated two species groups exclusively sampled by the mini-Winkler extractor and another by the pitfall methods. Therefore, it was concluded that these methods were complementary for ant diversity inventories in the Poconé Pantanal region.

  16. The Pitfalls of Mobile Devices in Learning: A Different View and Implications for Pedagogical Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Yu-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Studies have been devoted to the design, implementation, and evaluation of mobile learning in practice. A common issue among students' responses toward this type of learning concerns the pitfalls of mobile devices, including small screen, limited input options, and low computational power. As a result, mobile devices are not always perceived by…

  17. Evaluation of pitfall trapping in northwestern forests: trap arrays with drift fences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R. Bruce; Corn, Paul Stephen

    1987-01-01

    We operated pitfall arrays with 5-m drift fences at 30 stands in western Oregon and Washington for 180 days. Pitfall arrays had a pronounced removal effect on small mammals (but not on the herpetofauna) during the 1st 60 days of trapping. Conventional short (10-day) trapping periods were only adequate to detect the most common mammals. About 60 days were needed to compile a relatively complete species list (>85% of species captured) at each site. Reptiles were caught almost exclusively in the summer; amphibian captures were correlated with increased precipitation in the fall. Short (2.5-m) drift fences were less effective than the standard length of 5 m. Funnel traps captured few forest vertebrates. Pitfalls captured more insectivorous mammals than did snap traps, but snap traps were more effective for a few cricetid rodents. Pitfall arrays are adaptable to many habitats and can help assess the presence of small vertebrates, such as shrews and amphibians, that are undersampled by other techniques.

  18. Empathy and Social-Emotional Learning: Pitfalls and Touchstones for School-Based Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce; DesRoches, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This chapter identifies three common pitfalls in the use of the concept of empathy in formal social-emotional learning interventions: (1) not distinguishing between affective and cognitive empathy ("equivocation"); (2) overestimating the role of the imagination in empathizing ("Piaget's fallacy"); and (3) not accommodating the developmental and…

  19. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Intention-to-treat versus per-protocol analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    During the conduct of clinical trials, it is not uncommon to have protocol violations or inability to assess outcomes. This article in our series on common pitfalls in statistical analysis explains the complexities of analyzing results from such trials and highlights the importance of “intention-to-treat” analysis. PMID:27453832

  20. The Pitfalls of Valenced Labels and the Benefits of Properly Calibrated Psychological Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Replies to comments by Sonja Lyubomirsky (see record 2012-27130-008), Riva Guiseppe (see record 2012-27130-009), and Alan S. Waterman (see record 2012-27130-010) on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001) regarding the pitfalls of valenced labels and the benefits of properly calibrated psychological flexibility.