Science.gov

Sample records for scientifical bases abstract

  1. Writing an abstract for a scientific conference.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, P; van Teijlingen, E; Hundley, V; Simkhada, B D

    2013-01-01

    For most students and junior researchers, writing an abstract for a poster or oral presentation at a conference is the first piece they may write for an audience other than their university tutors or examiners. Since some researchers struggle with this process we have put together some advice on issues to consider when writing a conference abstract. We highlight a number of issues to bear in mind when constructing one's abstract.

  2. Openness versus Secrecy in Scientific Research Abstract

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Openness is one of the most important principles in scientific inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for resolving conflicts between openness and secrecy. “By academic freedom I understand the right to search for the truth and to publish and teach what one holds to be true. This right also implies a duty; one must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. It is evident that any restriction of academic freedom serves to restrain the dissemination of knowledge, thereby impeding rational judgment and action.” Albert Einstein, quotation inscribed on his statute in front of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. PMID:21113394

  3. Discrepancies between proceedings abstracts and posters at a scientific meeting.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A; Zlowodzki, Michael; Bhandari, Mohit

    2005-06-01

    The proceedings handbook of abstracts from scientific meetings aims to provide meeting attendees with an accurate summary of scientific presentations. Given that posters are prepared closer to the meeting than the abstracts for the proceedings book, we hypothesized that there is a high rate of inconsistency between abstracts in the proceedings handbook and the corresponding posters. We compared the poster abstracts printed in the proceedings handbook with the actual posters at the 71st annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in 2004. Our comparison included all 50 trauma posters and 52 adult reconstruction knee posters. This comparison revealed discrepancies in 76% of the presented posters. These changes were detected in all parts of the posters including titles (33%), authorship (49%), methods (8%), results (30%), and conclusions (2%). The sample size changed in 15% of the studies. Discrepancies between the trauma posters versus the adult reconstruction knee posters were similar. Our findings suggest that discrepancies between the poster abstracts in the proceedings handbook and actual poster presentations are common, but changes in conclusions are rare. Meeting attendees should not assume that the proceedings handbook provides an accurate reflection of poster presentations. Visiting the poster section is recommended.

  4. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories (``UC`` categories) established by the Department of Energy`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  5. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories ( UC'' categories) established by the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  6. Titles and abstracts of scientific reports ignore variation among species.

    PubMed

    Migeon, Barbara R

    2014-12-24

    An analysis of more than 1000 research articles in biology reveals that the name of the species being studied is not mentioned in the title or abstract of many articles. Consequently, such data are not easily accessible in the PubMed database. These omissions can mislead readers about the true nature of developmental processes and delay the acceptance of valid species differences. To improve the accuracy of the scientific record, I suggest that journals should require that authors include the name of the species being studied in the title or abstract of submitted papers.

  7. Computing through Scientific Abstractions in SysBioPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Stephan, Eric G.; Gracio, Deborah K.

    2004-10-13

    Today, biologists and bioinformaticists have a tremendous amount of computational power at their disposal. With the availability of supercomputers, burgeoning scientific databases and digital libraries such as GenBank and PubMed, and pervasive computational environments such as the Grid, biologists have access to a wealth of computational capabilities and scientific data at hand. Yet, the rapid development of computational technologies has far exceeded the typical biologist’s ability to effectively apply the technology in their research. Computational sciences research and development efforts such as the Biology Workbench, BioSPICE (Biological Simulation Program for Intra-Cellular Evaluation), and BioCoRE (Biological Collaborative Research Environment) are important in connecting biologists and their scientific problems to computational infrastructures. On the Computational Cell Environment and Heuristic Entity-Relationship Building Environment projects at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are jointly developing a new breed of scientific problem solving environment called SysBioPSE that will allow biologists to access and apply computational resources in the scientific research context. In contrast to other computational science environments, SysBioPSE operates as an abstraction layer above a computational infrastructure. The goal of SysBioPSE is to allow biologists to apply computational resources in the context of the scientific problems they are addressing and the scientific perspectives from which they conduct their research. More specifically, SysBioPSE allows biologists to capture and represent scientific concepts and theories and experimental processes, and to link these views to scientific applications, data repositories, and computer systems.

  8. Are Scientific Abstracts Written in Poetic Verse an Effective Representation of the Underlying Research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970). However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday and Martin, 2003). Research concerning climate change in particular demands to be communicated, because of its global relevance and the potential societal consequences of its findings. This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists. In order to assess this suitability, a survey was conducted in which two different groups of participants were asked questions based on a scientific abstract. One group of participants was given the original scientific abstract, whilst the second group was instead given a poem written about the scientific study. Quantitative analysis found that whilst a scientific audience found a poetic interpretation of a scientific abstract to be no less interesting or inspiring than the original prose, they did find it to be less accessible. However, further qualitative analysis suggested that the poem did a good job in conveying a similar meaning to that presented in the original abstract. The results of this study indicate that whilst for a scientific audience poetry should not replace the prose abstract, it could be used alongside the original format to inspire the reader to find out more about the topic. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of this approach for a general audience. References: HALLIDAY, M. A. K. & MARTIN, J. R. 2003. Writing science: Literacy and discursive power, Taylor & Francis. PURTILL, R. 1970. The purpose of science. Philosophy of Science, 301-306.

  9. Teaching Methods for Science and Technology: Visualized Teaching and Cultivating the Capacity for Scientific Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Improvement of the student's ability to analyze and solve problems by effectively relating the use of visual aids to the cultivation of capacity for scientific abstraction is discussed. These basic theory courses are based on the dialectical materialistic theory of knowledge and Mao's instruction on the unity of theory and reality.'' (SM)

  10. Are scientific abstracts written in poetic verse an effective representation of the underlying research?

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, Sam

    2016-01-01

    The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970). However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday & Martin, 2003). This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists. In order to assess this suitability, a survey was conducted in which two different groups of participants were asked questions based on a scientific abstract. One group of participants was given the original scientific abstract, whilst the second group was instead given a poem written about the scientific study. Quantitative analysis found that whilst a scientific audience found a poetic interpretation of a scientific abstract to be no less interesting or inspiring than the original prose, they did find it to be less accessible. However, further qualitative analysis suggested that the poem did a good job in conveying a similar meaning to that presented in the original abstract. The results of this study indicate that whilst for a scientific audience poetry should not replace the prose abstract, it could be used alongside the original format to inspire the reader to find out more about the topic. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of this approach for a non-expert audience. Alternative version: Are scientific papers understood, By anyone from outside of the field; And is an abstract really any good, If jargon means its secrets aren’t revealed? Could poetry present a different way, Of summing up research in a nutshell;  Presented in a language for the lay, Yet still useful for scientists as well? This study aimed to find if it was

  11. Contextualizing Action for the Abstraction of Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, abstraction is associated with an activity in the sense of activity theory by Vygotsky. To him, participation in social activities is a fundamental act for the child in order to achieve higher mental functions. The present paper aimed to experimentally investigate the abstraction process and illustrate how meaning emerges on social…

  12. Abstraction the public from scientific - applied meteorological-climatologic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanoska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical and meteorological statistic processing of meteorological-climatologic data, which includes assessment of the exactness, level of confidence of the average and extreme values, frequencies (probabilities) of the occurrence of each meteorological phenomenon and element e.t.c. helps to describe the impacts climate may have on different social and economic activities (transportation, heat& power generation), as well as on human health. Having in mind the new technology and the commercial world, during the work with meteorological-climatologic data we have meet many different challenges. Priority in all of this is the quality of the meteorological-climatologic set of data. First, we need compatible modern, sophisticated measurement and informatics solution for data. Results of this measurement through applied processing and analyze is the second branch which is very important also. Should we all (country) need that? Today we have many unpleasant events connected with meteorology, many questions which are not answered and all of this has too long lasting. We must give the answers and solve the real and basic issue. In this paper the data issue will be presented. We have too much of data but so little of real and quality applied of them, Why? There is a data for: -public applied -for jurisdiction needs -for getting fast decision-solutions (meteorological-dangerous phenomenon's) -for getting decisions for long-lasting plans -for explore in different sphere of human living So, it is very important for what kind of data we are talking. Does the data we are talking are with public or scientific-applied character? So,we have two groups. The first group which work with the data direct from the measurement place and instrument. They are store a quality data base and are on extra help to the journalists, medical workers, human civil engineers, electromechanical engineers, agro meteorological and forestry engineer e.g. The second group do work with all scientific

  13. Abstracts from the 2017 American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Annual Scientific Meeting.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    These are the abstracts of the 2017 American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Annual Scientific Meeting. Included here are 120 abstracts that will be presented in March 2017, including research studies from around the globe and the ToxIC collaboration, clinically significant case reports describing new toxicologic phenomena, and encore presentations from other scientific meetings.

  14. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsegian, V. L., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    Includes summaries of six articles dealing with engineering education, population management, blood sampling, international pollution control, environmental quality index, and scientific phases in political science. (CC)

  15. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Included are over 50 abstracts of papers being presented at the 1977 National Association of Biology Teachers Convention. Included in each abstract are the title, author, and summary of the paper. Topics include photographic techniques environmental studies, and biological instruction. (MA)

  16. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  17. Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Yi-Fen; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2012-12-01

    Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more diverse and complex. For revealing how the multi-facets of scientific inquiry are inherently correlated, this study identified descriptors representing features of scientific inquiry and automatically reviewed the research abstracts where these descriptors were used. A cluster analysis was used to analyze 171 relevant article abstracts published in Web of Science from 1986 to 2010, by using the data mining software WordStat v6.1. Networks of descriptors and of research strands showed the inter-relationships among descriptors and the research strands. Through triangulating the categorization results from automatic data-mining and expert researchers' qualitative reviewing, this study identified seven clusters of high-frequency descriptors and nine major strands of current research studies. The nine strands can further be grouped into five research themes: NOS, Knowledge Construction, Inquiry Ability, Explanatory-driven Inquiry, and Professional Development. With different levels of cohesiveness in network, these themes demonstrated that scientific inquiry was composed of different levels of abilities students need to achieve as well as the endeavors of teachers. Through exploring the network shared among most researchers, this study is expected to provide novice researchers information about elements that expert researchers usually consider and further, it is expected to give expert researchers some new directions to explore in research designs.

  18. Toward Routine Automatic Pathway Discovery from On-line Scientific Text Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Ng; Wong

    1999-01-01

    We are entering a new era of research where the latest scientific discoveries are often first reported online and are readily accessible by scientists worldwide. This rapid electronic dissemination of research breakthroughs has greatly accelerated the current pace in genomics and proteomics research. The race to the discovery of a gene or a drug has now become increasingly dependent on how quickly a scientist can scan through voluminous amount of information available online to construct the relevant picture (such as protein-protein interaction pathways) as it takes shape amongst the rapidly expanding pool of globally accessible biological data (e.g. GENBANK) and scientific literature (e.g. MEDLINE). We describe a prototype system for automatic pathway discovery from on-line text abstracts, combining technologies that (1) retrieve research abstracts from online sources, (2) extract relevant information from the free texts, and (3) present the extracted information graphically and intuitively. Our work demonstrates that this framework allows us to routinely scan online scientific literature for automatic discovery of knowledge, giving modern scientists the necessary competitive edge in managing the information explosion in this electronic age.

  19. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/or liability for any errors and/or omissions in any abstract as published.

  20. Analysis-based arguments for abstract data type calculus.

    SciTech Connect

    Rouson, Damian W. I.

    2008-10-01

    Increasing demands on the complexity of scientific models coupled with increasing demands for their scalability are placing programming models on equal footing with the numerical methods they implement in terms of significance. A recurring theme across several major scientific software development projects involves defining abstract data types (ADTs) that closely mimic mathematical abstractions such as scalar, vector, and tensor fields. In languages that support user-defined operators and/or overloading of intrinsic operators, coupling ADTs with a set of algebraic and/or integro-differential operators results in an ADT calculus. This talk will analyze ADT calculus using three tool sets: object-oriented design metrics, computational complexity theory, and information theory. It will be demonstrated that ADT calculus leads to highly cohesive, loosely coupled abstractions with code-size-invariant data dependencies and minimal information entropy. The talk will also discuss how these results relate to software flexibility and robustness.

  1. Abstracts for the 59th Annual Scientific Meeting (November 2011) by American Society of Cytopathology (ASC) at Baltimore, MD, USA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    These are peer-reviewed poster-platform submissions finalized by the Scientific Program Committee. A total of 153 abstracts (14 Platforms [PP1 through PP14] & 139 Posters [1 through 139]) were selected from 161 submissions to be considered for presentation during November 4 – 8, 2011, at the Hilton Baltimore Hotel, to pathologists, cytopathologists, cytotechnologists, residents, fellows, students, and other members of cytopathology-related medical and scientific fields.

  2. Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yi-Fen; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2012-01-01

    Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more…

  3. ABSTRACTS FROM EAST EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL JOURNALS NO. 163 (BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE SERIES).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ABSTRACTS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, *BIOLOGY, *MEDICINE, PARASITES, TOXOPLASMA , ANIMALS, PATHOLOGY, DISEASES, PHYSIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY, DRUGS, BIOCHEMISTRY, PSYCHIATRY, NEUROLOGY, CANCER, INFANTS, CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, VETERINARY MEDICINE

  4. Mutual Alignment Comparison Facilitates Abstraction and Transfer of a Complex Scientific Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Judy M.; Anggoro, Florencia K.; Jee, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about a scientific concept often occurs in the context of unfamiliar examples. Mutual alignment analogy--a type of analogical comparison in which the analogues are only partially understood--has been shown to facilitate learning from unfamiliar examples . In the present study, we examined the role of mutual alignment analogy in the…

  5. The General Base in the Thymidylate Synthase Catalyzed Proton Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Ananda K.; Islam, Zahidul; Krueger, Jonathan; Abeysinghe, Don Thelma; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme thymidylate synthase (TSase), an important chemotherapeutic drug target, catalyzes the formation of 2′-deoxythymidine-5′-monophosphate (dTMP), a precursor of one of the DNA building blocks. TSase catalyzes a multi-step mechanism that includes the abstraction of a proton from the C5 of the substrate 2′-deoxyuridine-5′-monophosphate (dUMP). Previous studies on ecTSase proposed that an active-site residue, Y94 serves the role of the general base abstracting this proton. However, since Y94 is neither very basic, nor connected to basic residues, nor located close enough to the pyrimidine proton to be abstracted, the actual identity of this base remains enigmatic. Based on crystal structures, an alternative hypothesis is that the nearest potential proton-acceptor of C5 of dUMP is a water molecule that is part of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) network comprised of several water molecules and several protein residues including H147, E58, N177, and Y94. Here, we examine the role of the residue Y94 in the proton abstraction step by removing its hydroxyl group (Y94F mutant). We investigated the effect of the mutation on the temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and found that these KIEs are more temperature dependent than those of the wild-type enzyme (WT). These results suggest that the phenolic –OH of Y94 is a component of the transition state for the proton abstraction step. The findings further support the hypothesis that no single functional group is the general base, but a network of bases and hydroxyls (from water molecules and tyrosine) sharing H-bonds across the active site can serve the role of the general base to remove the pyrimidine proton. PMID:25912171

  6. Graph-Based Design Languages: A Lingua Franca for Product Design Including Abstract Geometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Product engineering involves designing and dimensioning a product, including geometric modeling and scientific simulation and analysis to fulfill predetermined requirements. Therefore, the engineering design effort requires a multidisciplinary analysis that is based on a multitude of different models, each of which require a different kind of representation of the same product geometry. The proposed approach uses a design language and a design compiler to translate an abstract source geometry in an abstract representation scheme into an arbitrary target format. With this approach, all models are generated automatically and are consistent with each other.

  7. Towards Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides Based on Abstracts Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa-Santillán, Liliana I.; Sánchez-Escobar, Juan J.; Calixto-Romo, M. Angeles; Barbosa-Santillán, Luis F.

    2016-01-01

    We present an Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides (ISAP) approach based on abstracts meaning. Laboratories and researchers have significantly increased the report of their discoveries related to antibacterial peptides in primary publications. It is important to find antibacterial peptides that have been reported in primary publications because they can produce antibiotics of different generations that attack and destroy the bacteria. Unfortunately, researchers used heterogeneous forms of natural language to describe their discoveries (sometimes without the sequence of the peptides). Thus, we propose that learning the words meaning instead of the antibacterial peptides sequence is possible to identify and predict antibacterial peptides reported in the PubMed engine. The ISAP approach consists of two stages: training and discovering. ISAP founds that the 35% of the abstracts sample had antibacterial peptides and we tested in the updated Antimicrobial Peptide Database 2 (APD2). ISAP predicted that 45% of the abstracts had antibacterial peptides. That is, ISAP found that 810 antibacterial peptides were not classified like that, so they are not reported in APD2. As a result, this new search tool would complement the APD2 with a set of peptides that are candidates to be antibacterial. Finally, 20% of the abstracts were not semantic related to APD2. PMID:27366202

  8. Maximizing the Scientific Return of Low Cost Planetary Missions Using Solar Electric Propulsion(abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Metzger, A.; Pieters, C.; Elphic, R. C.; McCord, T.; Head, J.; Abshire, J.; Philips, R.; Sykes, M.; A'Hearn, M.; Hickman, M.; Sercel, J.; Kluever, C.; Rosenthal, R.; Purdy, W.

    1994-01-01

    After many years of development, solar electric propulsion is now a practical low cost alternative for many planetary missions. In response to the recent Discovery AO, we and a number of colleagues have examined the scientific return from a missioon to map the Moon and then rendezvous with a small body. In planning this mission, we found that solar electric propulsion was quite affordable under the Discovery guidelines, that many targets could be reached more rapidly with solar electric propulsion than chemical propulsion, that a large number of planetary bodies were accessible with modest propulsion systems, and that such missions were quite adaptable, with generous launch windows which minimized mission risks. Moreover, solar electric propulsion is ideally suited for large payloads requiring a large amount of power.

  9. Abstracts for the ninth annual scientific conference of the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) association

    SciTech Connect

    Fernhoff, P.M.

    1996-03-29

    The Ninth Annual Scientific Conference of the Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) Association (USA) met in Atlanta on July 20, 1994. The 17 papers which were presented ranged from those which explored the molecular origins of PWS to those that studied the most effective medical, behavioral, and nutritional management of affected children and adults. Several important messages emerged. The first was that although most patients with PWS have an interstitial deletion of 15q11q13 of paternal origin, and a smaller percentage of patients have maternal disomy, there can be several other morphologic alterations of chromosome 15 which cause PWS. As our understanding of these changes at the molecular level improves, we will better understand the nature of these unusual rearrangements. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial Valley, California as a site for continental scientific drilling. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    The Salton Trough, where seafloor spreading systems of the East Pacific Rise transition into the San Andreas transform fault system, is the site of such continental rifting and basin formation today. The largest thermal anomaly in the trough, the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), is of interest to both thermal regimes and mineral resources investigators. At this site, temperatures >350/sup 0/C and metal-rich brines with 250,000 mg/L TDS have been encountered at <2 km depth. Republic Geothermal Inc. will drill a new well to 3.7 km in the SSGF early in 1983; we propose add-on experiments in it. If funded, we will obtain selective water and core samples and a large-diameter casing installed to 3.7 km will permit later deepening. In Phase 2, the well would be continuously cored to 5.5 km and be available for scientific studies until July 1985. The deepened well would encounter hydrothermal regimes of temperature and pressure never before sampled.

  11. Strengthening Structured Abstracts for Education Research: The Need for Claim-Based Structured Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony E.; Yin, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent policy recommendations involving the putative primacy of randomized clinical trials in educational settings have reignited research paradigm debates. The authors of this article use the vehicle of strengthening structured journal abstracts to point out the argumentative character of all education research claims. They offer suggestions to…

  12. XML Based Scientific Data Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, P.; Zubair, M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The World Wide Web consortium has developed an Extensible Markup Language (XML) to support the building of better information management infrastructures. The scientific computing community realizing the benefits of XML has designed markup languages for scientific data. In this paper, we propose a XML based scientific data management ,facility, XDMF. The project is motivated by the fact that even though a lot of scientific data is being generated, it is not being shared because of lack of standards and infrastructure support for discovering and transforming the data. The proposed data management facility can be used to discover the scientific data itself, the transformation functions, and also for applying the required transformations. We have built a prototype system of the proposed data management facility that can work on different platforms. We have implemented the system using Java, and Apache XSLT engine Xalan. To support remote data and transformation functions, we had to extend the XSLT specification and the Xalan package.

  13. XML Based Scientific Data Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Zubair, M.; Ziebartt, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The World Wide Web consortium has developed an Extensible Markup Language (XML) to support the building of better information management infrastructures. The scientific computing community realizing the benefits of HTML has designed markup languages for scientific data. In this paper, we propose a XML based scientific data management facility, XDMF. The project is motivated by the fact that even though a lot of scientific data is being generated, it is not being shared because of lack of standards and infrastructure support for discovering and transforming the data. The proposed data management facility can be used to discover the scientific data itself, the transformation functions, and also for applying the required transformations. We have built a prototype system of the proposed data management facility that can work on different platforms. We have implemented the system using Java, and Apache XSLT engine Xalan. To support remote data and transformation functions, we had to extend the XSLT specification and the Xalan package.

  14. COMPUTER-AIDED INDEXING OF A SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS JOURNAL BY THE UDC WITH UNIDEK--A CASE STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FREEMAN, ROBERT R.; RUSSELL, MARTIN

    THIS PAPER IS A CASE STUDY OF THE ADOPTION BY GEOSCIENCE ABSTRACTS OF UNIDEK, A COMPUTER-COMPILED SYSTEMATIC SUBJECT INDEX BASED ON THE UNIVERSAL DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION (UDC). EVENTS LEADING TO A DECISION TO ADOPT THE SYSTEM, SOME THEORY OF INDEXES, PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN CONVERSION, AND SOME OF THE RESULTS ACHIEVED ARE REVIEWED. UNIDEK MAKES…

  15. Chemical Abstracts Service approach to management of large data bases.

    PubMed

    Huffenberger, M A; Wigington, R L

    1975-02-01

    When information handling is "the business," as it is at Chemical Abstract Service (CAS), the total organization must be involved in information management. Since 1967, when, as a result of long-range planning efforts, CAS adopted a "data-base approach" to management of both the processing system and the distribution of information files, CAS has been grappling with the problems of managing large collections of information in computer-based systems. This paper describes what has been done at CAS in the management of large files and what we see as necessary, as a result of our experience, to improve and complete the information management system that is the foundation of our production processes.

  16. Automation of Network-Based Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Altintas, I.; Barreto, R.; Blondin, J. M.; Cheng, Z.; Critchlow, T.; Khan, A.; Klasky, Scott A; Ligon, J.; Ludaescher, B.; Mouallem, P. A.; Parker, S.; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, A.; Silva, C.; Vouk, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive, end-to-end, data and workflow management solutions are needed to handle the increasing complexity of processes and data volumes associated with modern distributed scientific problem solving, such as ultra-scale simulations and high-throughput experiments. The key to the solution is an integrated network-based framework that is functional, dependable, fault-tolerant, and supports data and process provenance. Such a framework needs to make development and use of application workflows dramatically easier so that scientists' efforts can shift away from data management and utility software development to scientific research and discovery An integrated view of these activities is provided by the notion of scientific workflows - a series of structured activities and computations that arise in scientific problem-solving. An information technology framework that supports scientific workflows is the Ptolemy II based environment called Kepler. This paper discusses the issues associated with practical automation of scientific processes and workflows and illustrates this with workflows developed using the Kepler framework and tools.

  17. Scientific program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Gerich, C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams is organized jointly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Physics International Company. As in the previous conferences in this series, the program includes the following topics: high-power, electron- and ion-beam acceleration and transport; diode physics; high-power particle beam interaction with plasmas and dense targets; particle beam fusion (inertial confinement); collective ion acceleration; particle beam heating of magnetically confined plasmas; and generation of microwave/free-electron lasers.

  18. Knowledge Base Refinement by Monitoring Abstract Control Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, D. C.; And Others

    Arguing that an explicit representation of the problem-solving method of an expert system shell as abstract control knowledge provides a powerful foundation for learning, this paper describes the abstract control knowledge of the Heracles expert system shell for heuristic classification problems, and describes how the Odysseus apprenticeship…

  19. Problem Based Learning and the scientific process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, Daniel Shaner

    This research project was developed to inspire students to constructively use problem based learning and the scientific process to learn middle school science content. The student population in this study consisted of male and female seventh grade students. Students were presented with authentic problems that are connected to physical and chemical properties of matter. The intent of the study was to have students use the scientific process of looking at existing knowledge, generating learning issues or questions about the problems, and then developing a course of action to research and design experiments to model resolutions to the authentic problems. It was expected that students would improve their ability to actively engage with others in a problem solving process to achieve a deeper understanding of Michigan's 7th Grade Level Content Expectations, the Next Generation Science Standards, and a scientific process. Problem based learning was statistically effective in students' learning of the scientific process. Students statistically showed improvement on pre to posttest scores. The teaching method of Problem Based Learning was effective for seventh grade science students at Dowagiac Middle School.

  20. Rate and predictors of the conversion of abstracts presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress scientific meetings to full peer-reviewed publications.

    PubMed

    Abuzeid, Wael; Fosbøl, Emil L; Fosbøl, Philip L; Fosbøl, Marie; Zarinehbaf, Sanaz; Ross, Heather; Ko, Dennis T; Bennell, Maria C; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2013-11-01

    The rate of conversion of abstracts presented at scientific meetings into peer-reviewed published manuscripts is an important metric for medical societies, because it facilitates translation of scientific knowledge into practice. We determined the rate and predictors of conversion of scientific abstracts presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress (CCC) from 2006 to 2010 into peer-reviewed article publications within 2 years of their initial presentation. Using a previously validated computer algorithm, we searched the International Statistical Institute Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed full manuscript publications of these abstracts. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent factors associated with successful publication. From 2006 to 2010, 3565 abstracts were presented at the CCC. Overall 24.1% of presented abstracts were published within 2 years of the conference. Mean impact factor for publications was 5.2 (range, 0.4-53.2). The type of presentation (for poster vs oral; odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.83; P < 0.001) and category of presentation (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with successful publication. Late breaking abstracts and those related to cancer and clinical sciences were more likely to be published, compared with prevention, vascular biology, and pediatrics. In conclusion, the publication rate at the CCC is only marginally lower than that reported for large international North American and European cardiology conferences (30.6%). Efforts should focus on several identified barriers to improve conversion of abstracts to full report publication.

  1. Eutectic alloys. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, P.

    1980-01-01

    These 250 abstracts from the international literature provide summaries of the preparation, treatments, composition and structure, and properties of eutectic alloys. Techniques for directional solidification and treatments including glazing, coating, and fiber reinforcement are discussed. In addition to the mechanical and thermal properties, the superconducting, corrosion, resistance, and thermionic emission and adsorption properties are described.

  2. Conversion rates of abstracts presented at the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand (USANZ) Annual Scientific Meeting into full-text journal articles.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Peter D; Chalasani, Venu; Woo, Henry H

    2012-08-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? It is well known that the transition of a presented abstract in a scientific meeting to a journal article improves the quality of the meeting and prevents an abstract being incorporated into meta-analyses or practice guidelines without proper appraisal. This is the first analysis of USANZ Annual Scientific Meeting abstracts' conversion to full publication. With relatively low publication rates compared to other international meetings, this review identifies the need for mechanisms to encourage USANZ researchers to convert their abstracts into published articles. The numbers and characteristics of the abstracts presented at the Annual Scientific Meetings (ASM) of the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand (USANZ) that are converted to peer-reviewed publications have not previously been analysed and published. We undertook a review of all abstracts presented at the USANZ ASM from 2005 to 2009. A PubMed search was performed between 15 June and 15 July 2012, using a search algorithm to identify the full-text publications of the presented abstracts. Correlation between abstract characteristics and publication rate was then examined to distinguish the predictors for publications. Of 614 abstracts that were presented at USANZ ASM between 2005 and 2009, 183 papers were published, giving a publication rate of 29.80%. The papers were predominantly published in urological journals and were more likely to be published if they were presented by an international author or were retrospective studies or if basic science research. The mean (SD) time to publication was 14.46 (13.89) months and the mean Impact Factor of journals where papers were published was 2.90. The overall publication rate was relatively low compared with other urological meetings held in America and Europe. USANZ has a challenge of encouraging higher-quality research from the authors to further enhance its publication rate and consequently the

  3. 34 CFR 300.35 - Scientifically based research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scientifically based research. 300.35 Section 300.35... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.35 Scientifically based research. Scientifically based research has the meaning given the term in section 9101(37) of the ESEA. (Authority: 20...

  4. Spatial choices of macaque monkeys based on abstract visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Bures, Jan

    2006-11-01

    Our study investigates whether macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are able to make spatial choices in a real space according to abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen. We tested whether there was a difference in the processing of stimuli reflecting the configuration of a response space ("spatial stimuli") and stimuli of simple geometrical patterns lacking implicit spatial information. We trained two monkeys to choose one of nine touch-holes on a transparent panel attached to a computer monitor according to one of four visual stimuli successively displayed on the screen. The first monkey followed the visual stimuli designed as a representation of the response space ("configurations"), the second monkey observed geometrical patterns or pictures without information about the response space. In the first phase the position or the size of the stimuli varied but the shapes remained the same. In the second phase we changed the stimuli - "configurations" represented the response space in a similar way as in the previous phase, but marked different touch-holes - the patterns were changed entirely. The comparison of these two monkeys using different stimuli was expected to reveal potential differences between pattern discrimination and using configuration information included in the stimuli. The results of this experiment showed that both monkeys were able to use visual stimuli in phase 1 effectively (independently on their position on the screen), but only the monkey that obtained configuration information learnt an effective strategy after the change of stimuli in phase 2.

  5. Space Colonies. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    Approximately 204 citations to the international literature concerning various aspects of space colonies are presented. Topics include the design and construction of space colonies, the effects on humans of long term life in a variety of spaceborne environments, and the potential uses of orbital space stations and lunar bases.

  6. A Framework for Socio-Scientific Issues Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Morgan L.; Sickel, Aaron J.; Muslu, Nilay; Merle-Johnson, Dominike; Witzig, Stephen B.; Izci, Kemal; Sadler, Troy D.

    2013-01-01

    Science instruction based on student exploration of socio-scientific issues (SSI) has been presented as a powerful strategy for supporting science learning and the development of scientific literacy. This paper presents an instructional framework for SSI based education. The framework is based on a series of research studies conducted in a diverse…

  7. Scientific investigations at a lunar base.

    PubMed

    Duke, M B; Mendell, W W

    1988-07-01

    Scientific investigations to be carried out at a lunar base can have significant impact on the location, extent, and complexity of lunar surface facilities. Among the potential research activities to be carried out are: (1) Lunar Science: Studies of the origin and history of the Moon and early solar system, based on lunar field investigations, operation of networks of seismic and other instruments, and collection and analysis of materials; (2) Space Plasma Physics: Studies of the time variation of the charged particles of the solar wind, solar flares and cosmic rays that impact the Moon as it moves in and out of the magnetotail of the Earth; (3) Astronomy: Utilizing the lunar environment and stability of the surface to emplace arrays of astronomical instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum to improve spectral and spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude beyond the Hubble Space Telescope and other space observatories; (4) Fundamental physics and chemistry: Research that takes advantage of the lunar environment, such as high vacuum, low magnetic field, and thermal properties to carry out new investigations in chemistry and physics. This includes material sciences and applications; (5) Life Sciences: Experiments, such as those that require extreme isolation, highly sterile conditions, or very low natural background of organic materials may be possible; and (6) Lunar environmental science: Because many of the experiments proposed for the lunar surface depend on the special environment of the Moon, it will be necessary to understand the mechanisms that are active and which determine the major aspects of that environment, particularly the maintenance of high-vacuum conditions. From a large range of experiments, investigations and facilities that have been suggested, three specific classes of investigations are described in greater detail to show how site selection and base complexity may be affected: (1) Extended geological investigation of a complex

  8. Scientific investigations at a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Mendell, Wendell W.

    Scientific investigations to be carried out at a lunar base can have significant impact on the location, extent, and complexity of lunar surface facilities. Among the potential research activities to be carried out are: (1) Lunar Science: Studies of the origin and history of the Moon and early solar system, based on lunar field investigations, operation of networks of seismic and other instruments, and collection and analysis of materials; (2) Space Plasma Physics: Studies of the time variation of the charged particles of the solar wind, solar flares and cosmic rays that impact the Moon as it moves in and out of the magnetotail of the Earth; (3) Astronomy: Utilizing the lunar environment and stability of the surface to emplace arrays of astronomical instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum to improve spectral and spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude beyond the Hubble Space Telescope and other space observatories; (4) Fundamental physics and chemistry: Research that takes advantage of the lunar environment, such as high vacuum, low magnetic field, and thermal properties to carry out new investigations in chemistry and physics. This includes material sciences and applications; (5) Life Sciences: Experiments, such as those that require extreme isolation, highly sterile conditions, or very low natural background of organic materials may be possible; and (6) Lunar environmental science: Because many of the experiments proposed for the lunar surface depend on the special environment of the Moon, it will be necessary to understand the mechanisms that are active and which determine the major aspects of that environment, particularly the maintenance of high-vacuum conditions. From a large range of experiments, investigations and facilities that have been suggested, three specific classes of investigations are described in greater detail to show how site selection and base complexity may be affected: (1) Extended geological investigation of a complex

  9. Abstraction-based temporal data retrieval for a Clinical Data Repository.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Sovarel, Ana N; Harrison, James H

    2007-10-11

    Disease and patient care processes often create characteristic states, trends, and temporal patterns in clinical events and observations, called temporal abstractions. Identifying patient populations who share similar abstractions may be useful for clinical research, outcomes studies, and quality assurance. In these settings, abstractions may be specific to a query, and thus allowing the specification of abstractions directly in the query would be desirable. We propose a query language for specifying and retrieving clinical data sets that allows specifying abstractions directly, and automatically selects data for retrieval based on the presence of abstractions inferred from the data. We describe the language and a prototype implementation, demonstrate its features with two queries constructed in response to clinical researcher-initiated data requests submitted to our institution's Clinical Data Repository, and report preliminary results from an evaluation of the implementation's performance.

  10. Clinical, developmental and molecular update on Cornelia de Lange syndrome and the cohesin complex: abstracts from the 2014 Scientific and Educational Symposium.

    PubMed

    Kline, Antonie D; Calof, Anne L; Lander, Arthur D; Gerton, Jennifer L; Krantz, Ian D; Dorsett, Dale; Deardorff, Matthew A; Blagowidow, Natalie; Yokomori, Kyoko; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Santos, Rosaysela; Woodman, Julie; Megee, Paul C; O'Connor, Julia T; Egense, Alena; Noon, Sarah; Belote, Maurice; Goodban, Marjorie T; Hansen, Blake D; Timmons, Jenni Glad; Musio, Antonio; Ishman, Stacey L; Bryan, Yvon; Wu, Yaning; Bettini, Laura R; Mehta, Devanshi; Zakari, Musinu; Mills, Jason A; Srivastava, Siddharth; Haaland, Richard E

    2015-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is the most common example of disorders of the cohesin complex, or cohesinopathies. There are a myriad of clinical issues facing individuals with CdLS, particularly in the neurodevelopmental system, which also have implications for the parents and caretakers, involved professionals, therapists, and schools. Basic research in developmental and cell biology on cohesin is showing significant progress, with improved understanding of the mechanisms and the possibility of potential therapeutics. The following abstracts are presentations from the 6th Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Scientific and Educational Symposium, which took place on June 25-26, 2014, in conjunction with the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation National Meeting in Costa Mesa, CA. The Research Committee of the CdLS Foundation organizes the meeting, reviews and accepts abstracts, and subsequently disseminates the information to the families through members of the Clinical Advisory Board. In addition to the scientific and clinical discussions, there were educationally focused talks related to practical aspects of behavior and development. AMA CME credits were provided by Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD.

  11. Region based route planning - Multi-abstraction route planning based on intermediate level vision processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doshi, Rajkumar S.; Lam, Raymond; White, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Intermediate and high level processing operations are performed on vision data for the organization of images into more meaningful, higher-level topological representations by means of a region-based route planner (RBRP). The RBRP operates in terrain scenarios where some or most of the terrain is occluded, proceeding without a priori maps on the basis of two-dimensional representations and gradient-and-roughness information. Route planning is accomplished by three successive abstractions and yields a detailed point-by-point path by searching only within the boundaries of relatively small regions.

  12. Decoding abstract and concrete concept representations based on single-trial fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Baucom, Laura B; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2013-05-01

    Previously, multi-voxel pattern analysis has been used to decode words referring to concrete object categories. In this study we investigated if single-trial-based brain activity was sufficient to distinguish abstract (e.g., mercy) versus concrete (e.g., barn) concept representations. Multiple neuroimaging studies have identified differences in the processing of abstract versus concrete concepts based on the averaged activity across time by using univariate methods. In this study we used multi-voxel pattern analysis to decode functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data when participants perform a semantic similarity judgment task on triplets of either abstract or concrete words with similar meanings. Classifiers were trained to identify individual trials as concrete or abstract. Cross-validated accuracies for classifying trials as abstract or concrete were significantly above chance (P < 0.05) for all participants. Discriminating information was distributed in multiple brain regions. Moreover, accuracy of identifying single trial data for any one participant as abstract or concrete was also reliably above chance (P < 0.05) when the classifier was trained solely on data from other participants. These results suggest abstract and concrete concepts differ in representations in terms of neural activity patterns during a short period of time across the whole brain.

  13. Literature-Based Scientific Learning: A Collaboration Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Susan L.; Somerville, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    Amidst exponential growth of knowledge, student insights into the knowledge creation practices of the scientific community can be furthered by science faculty collaborations with university librarians. The Literature-Based Scientific Learning model advances undergraduates' disciplinary mastery and information literacy through experience with…

  14. Review of Scientific & Technical Numeric Data Base Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Barbara L.

    This examination of numeric data base activities grew out of a continuing effort to develop a system of statistical indicators of scientific and technical communication. A broad mix of directories, listing by subject field, reports, mail inquiries and telephone and face-to-face interviews was used to collect information. Scientific and technical…

  15. Scalability of abstraction-network-based quality assurance to large SNOMED hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Christopher; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Halper, Michael; Gu, Huanying; Chen, Yan; Elhanan, Gai

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction networks are compact summarizations of terminologies used to support orientation and terminology quality assurance (TQA). Area taxonomies and partial-area taxonomies are abstraction networks that have been successfully employed in support of TQA of small SNOMED CT hierarchies. However, nearly half of SNOMED CT's concepts are in the large Procedure and Clinical Finding hierarchies. Abstraction network derivation methodologies applied to those hierarchies resulted in taxonomies that were too large to effectively support TQA. A methodology for deriving sub-taxonomies from large taxonomies is presented, and the resultant smaller abstraction networks are shown to facilitate TQA, allowing for the scaling of our taxonomy-based TQA regimen to large hierarchies. Specifically, sub-taxonomies are derived for the Procedure hierarchy and a review for errors and inconsistencies is performed. Concepts are divided into groups within the sub-taxonomy framework, and it is shown that small groups are statistically more likely to harbor erroneous and inconsistent concepts than large groups.

  16. Learning Scientific Reasoning Skills in Microcomputer-Based Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedler, Yael; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The impact of enhanced observation or enhanced prediction on scientific reasoning about heat energy and temperature problems was investigated. Instruction was successful in improving prediction and observation skills in the microcomputer-based laboratory environment. (CW)

  17. Developing Concept-Based User Interfaces for Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Stephan, Eric G.; Gracio, Deborah K.; Kuchar, Olga A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2006-09-01

    From our interactions with researchers from different scientific fields and disciplines, we have observed that scientists often describe and convey concepts, theories, processes, and results using basic graphs and diagrams. Semantic graphs such as these provide a universal language that all scientists may apply to document their scientific knowledge and to communicate this knowledge to others. Furthermore, studies have shown that the cognitive processing of complex subject matter is improved when the structure of ideas and concepts are made explicit [39] and that semantic graphs may serve as effective “scaffolds” for cognitive processing [29]. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are deploying semantic graphs within scientific computing systems as central user representations of scientific knowledge. These systems provide concept-based user interfaces that allow scientists to visually define and capture conceptual models of their scientific problems, hypotheses, theories, and processes. Once defined, the visual models then become interaction framework for accessing and applying scientific and computational resources and capabilities. In this paper, through the examination of three visual research systems, we illustrate different ways concept-based user interfaces and semantic graph knowledge representations may make scientific knowledge concrete, usable, shareable, and computable in scientific computing systems.

  18. Comparative Efficiency of Searching Titles, Abstracts, and Index Terms in a Free-Text Data Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Barker, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made into the relative performance of the four major Chemical Abstracts Service magnetic tape data-bases. The overall retrieval efficiency of profiles searched against data-bases containing titles only, titles-plus-keywords, and titles-plus-digests, was calculated and these results are presented. (5 references) (Author/NH)

  19. Searching the "Nuclear Science Abstracts" Data Base by Use of the Berkeley Mass Storage System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, J. Joanne; Smith, Gloria L.

    1972-01-01

    Advantages of the Berkeley Mass Storage System (MSS) for information retrieval other than its size are: high serial-read rate, archival data storage; and random-access capability. By use of this device, the search cost in an SDI system based on the Nuclear Science Abstracts" data base was reduced by 20 percent. (6 references) (Author/NH)

  20. The effect of abstract versus concrete framing on judgments of biological and psychological bases of behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nancy S; Johnson, Samuel G B; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung; Knobe, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is frequently described both in abstract, general terms and in concrete, specific terms. We asked whether these two ways of framing equivalent behaviors shift the inferences people make about the biological and psychological bases of those behaviors. In five experiments, we manipulated whether behaviors are presented concretely (i.e. with reference to a specific person, instantiated in the particular context of that person's life) or abstractly (i.e. with reference to a category of people or behaviors across generalized contexts). People judged concretely framed behaviors to be less biologically based and, on some dimensions, more psychologically based than the same behaviors framed in the abstract. These findings held true for both mental disorders (Experiments 1 and 2) and everyday behaviors (Experiments 4 and 5), and yielded downstream consequences for the perceived efficacy of disorder treatments (Experiment 3). Implications for science educators, students of science, and members of the lay public are discussed.

  1. Cornelia de Lange syndrome and molecular implications of the cohesin complex: Abstracts from the 7th biennial scientific and educational symposium 2016.

    PubMed

    Kline, Antonie D; Krantz, Ian D; Deardorff, Matthew A; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Dorsett, Dale; Gerton, Jennifer L; Wu, Meng; Mehta, Devanshi; Mills, Jason A; Carrico, Cheri S; Noon, Sarah; Herrera, Pamela S; Horsfield, Julia A; Bettale, Chiara; Morgan, Jeremy; Huisman, Sylvia A; Moss, Jo; McCleery, Joseph; Grados, Marco; Hansen, Blake D; Srivastava, Siddharth; Taylor-Snell, Emily; Kerr, Lynne M; Katz, Olivia; Calof, Anne L; Musio, Antonio; Egense, Alena; Haaland, Richard E

    2017-02-12

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is due to mutations in the genes for the structural and regulatory proteins that make up the cohesin complex, and is considered a cohesinopathy disorder or, more recently, a transcriptomopathy. New phenotypes have been recognized in this expanding field. There are multiple clinical issues facing individuals with all forms of CdLS, particularly in the neurodevelopmental system, but also gastrointestinal, cardiac, and musculoskeletal. Aspects of developmental and cell biology have found common endpoints in the biology of the cohesin complex, with improved understanding of the mechanisms, easier diagnostic tests, and the possibility of potential therapeutics, all major clinical implications for the individual with CdLS. The following abstracts are the presentations from the 7th Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Scientific and Educational Symposium, June 22-23, 2016, in Orlando, FL, in conjunction with the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation National Meeting. In addition to the scientific and clinical discussions, there were talks related to practical aspects of behavior including autism, transitions, communication, access to medical care, and databases. At the end of the symposium, a panel was held, which included several parents, affected individuals and genetic counselors, and discussed the greatest challenges in life and how this information can assist in guiding future research. The Research Committee of the CdLS Foundation organizes this meeting, reviews, and accepts abstracts, and subsequently disseminates the information to the families through members of the Clinical Advisory Board and publications. AMA CME credits were provided by Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD.

  2. SCIENTIFIC EFFICIENCY OF GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-10-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to <4 m, this represents a small return for a factor of four difference in operating costs. Among the 17 papers that have received {>=}100 citations in 3+ years, only half come from the large (>7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  3. Scientific Efficiency of Ground-based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-10-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to <4 m, this represents a small return for a factor of four difference in operating costs. Among the 17 papers that have received >=100 citations in 3+ years, only half come from the large (>7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  4. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: further delineation of phenotype, cohesin biology and educational focus, 5th Biennial Scientific and Educational Symposium abstracts.

    PubMed

    Kline, Antonie D; Calof, Anne L; Schaaf, Cheri A; Krantz, Ian D; Jyonouchi, Soma; Yokomori, Kyoko; Gauze, Maria; Carrico, Cheri S; Woodman, Julie; Gerton, Jennifer L; Vega, Hugo; Levin, Alex V; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Champion, Michele; Goodban, Marjorie T; O'Connor, Julia T; Pipan, Mary; Horsfield, Julia; Deardorff, Matthew A; Ishman, Stacey L; Dorsett, Dale

    2014-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is the prototype for the cohesinopathy disorders that have mutations in genes associated with the cohesin subunit in all cells. Roberts syndrome is the next most common cohesinopathy. In addition to the developmental implications of cohesin biology, there is much translational and basic research, with progress towards potential treatment for these conditions. Clinically, there are many issues in CdLS faced by the individual, parents and caretakers, professionals, and schools. The following abstracts are presentations from the 5th Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Scientific and Educational Symposium on June 20-21, 2012, in conjunction with the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation National Meeting, Lincolnshire, IL. The research committee of the CdLS Foundation organizes the meeting, reviews and accepts abstracts and subsequently disseminates the information to the families. In addition to the basic science and clinical discussions, there were educationally-focused talks related to practical aspects of management at home and in school. AMA CME credits were provided by Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD.

  5. The Changing Contexts of Aging: Opportunities and Challenges in the New Millennium. Program Abstracts. Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (51st, Philadelphia, PA, November 20-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Gerontologist, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This special issue of "The Gerontologist" contains session by session abstracts from the society's 51st Annual Scientific Meeting. Abstracts are arranged numerically by the number of the session in which they appeared and in the order of presentation within each session. There are a total of 391 sessions. Session topics are not provided; and there…

  6. New Perspectives on Aging in the Post Genome Era. Program Abstracts. Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (52nd, San Francisco, California, November 19-23, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Vernon L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of "The Gerontologist" contains session-by-session abstracts from the society's 52nd Annual Scientific Meeting. Abstracts are arranged numerically by session number and in the order of presentation within each session. There are a total of 375 sessions. An index of participants is provided with references to their…

  7. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  8. Todai Scientific Information Retrieval (TSIR-1) System. II. Generation of a Scientific Literature Data Base in a Center-Oriented Format by a Tape-to-Tape Conversion of CAS SDF Data Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Yammoto, Takeo

    1972-01-01

    Conversion of the Chemical Abstract Service scientific literature data base from Standard Distribution Format to a center-oriented file format, STF, is described. A tape file format is described in which variable length logical records, possibly longer than the blocksize, may be stored safely. (7 references) (Author/NH)

  9. Model-based object classification using unification grammars and abstract representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liburdy, Kathleen A.; Schalkoff, Robert J.

    1993-04-01

    The design and implementation of a high level computer vision system which performs object classification is described. General object labelling and functional analysis require models of classes which display a wide range of geometric variations. A large representational gap exists between abstract criteria such as `graspable' and current geometric image descriptions. The vision system developed and described in this work addresses this problem and implements solutions based on a fusion of semantics, unification, and formal language theory. Object models are represented using unification grammars, which provide a framework for the integration of structure and semantics. A methodology for the derivation of symbolic image descriptions capable of interacting with the grammar-based models is described and implemented. A unification-based parser developed for this system achieves object classification by determining if the symbolic image description can be unified with the abstract criteria of an object model. Future research directions are indicated.

  10. Scalability of Abstraction-Network-Based Quality Assurance to Large SNOMED Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Christopher; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Halper, Michael; Gu, Huanying; Chen, Yan; Elhanan, Gai

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction networks are compact summarizations of terminologies used to support orientation and terminology quality assurance (TQA). Area taxonomies and partial-area taxonomies are abstraction networks that have been successfully employed in support of TQA of small SNOMED CT hierarchies. However, nearly half of SNOMED CT’s concepts are in the large Procedure and Clinical Finding hierarchies. Abstraction network derivation methodologies applied to those hierarchies resulted in taxonomies that were too large to effectively support TQA. A methodology for deriving sub-taxonomies from large taxonomies is presented, and the resultant smaller abstraction networks are shown to facilitate TQA, allowing for the scaling of our taxonomy-based TQA regimen to large hierarchies. Specifically, sub-taxonomies are derived for the Procedure hierarchy and a review for errors and inconsistencies is performed. Concepts are divided into groups within the sub-taxonomy framework, and it is shown that small groups are statistically more likely to harbor erroneous and inconsistent concepts than large groups. PMID:24551393

  11. Professional development model for science teachers based on scientific literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubini, B.; Ardianto, D.; Pursitasari, I. D.; Permana, I.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific literacy is considered as a benchmark of high and low quality of science education in a country. Teachers as a major component of learning at the forefront of building science literacy skills of students in the class. The primary purpose this study is development science teacher coaching model based on scientific literacy. In this article we describe about teacher science literacy and profile coaching model for science’ teachers based on scientific literacy which a part of study conducted in first year. The instrument used in this study consisted of tests, observation sheet, interview guides. The finding showed that problem of low scientific literacy is not only happen the students, but science’ teachers which is a major component in the learning process is still not satisfactory. Understanding science teacher is strongly associated with the background disciplinary. Science teacher was still weak when explaining scientific phenomena, mainly related to the material that relates to the concept of environmental. Coaching model generated from this study consisted of 8 stages by assuming the teacher is an independent learner, so the coaching is done with methods on and off, with time off for activities designed more.

  12. Generic Abstraction of Hardware Control Based on the ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeram, B.; Chiozzi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Cirami, R.; Pokorny, M.; Muders, D.; Wischolek, D.

    2004-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a CORBA-based framework that provides a common and homogeneous infrastructure for the whole ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control (Schwarz et al., 2004). This paper focuses on ACS support for the development of Control System applications. In this domain, ACS provides a generic abstraction of hardware control and monitor points that is independent of the software underneath. This abstraction layer is coupled to the hardware using the DevIO (Device Input/Output) interface, based on the Bridge design pattern. Application developers have to implement DevIO classes that handle the details of the communication with the hardware. ACS itself provides a default DevIO implementation which simply writes and reads into/from a memory location. Currently there are two other major DevIO implementations available: a CAN bus communication, used by ALMA, and a socket based implementation used by the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) project. In spite of using different hardware and control electronics, the DevIO abstraction allows the ALMA and APEX projects to have the same device architecture down to the level of the DevIO implementation.

  13. The Evidence-Based Reasoning Framework: Assessing Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nathaniel J. S.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Timms, Michael; Nagashima, Sam O.; Wilson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Recent science education reforms have emphasized the importance of students engaging with and reasoning from evidence to develop scientific explanations. A number of studies have created frameworks based on Toulmin's (1958/2003) argument pattern, whereas others have developed systems for assessing the quality of students' reasoning to support…

  14. 34 CFR 300.35 - Scientifically based research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scientifically based research. 300.35 Section 300.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  15. 34 CFR 300.35 - Scientifically based research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Scientifically based research. 300.35 Section 300.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  16. 34 CFR 300.35 - Scientifically based research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scientifically based research. 300.35 Section 300.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  17. Scientific Bases of Human-Machine Communication by Voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Ronald W.

    1995-10-01

    The scientific bases for human-machine communication by voice are in the fields of psychology, linguistics, acoustics, signal processing, computer science, and integrated circuit technology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the basic scientific and technological issues in human-machine communication by voice and to point out areas of future research opportunity. The discussion is organized around the following major issues in implementing human-machine voice communication systems: (i) hardware/software implementation of the system, (ii) speech synthesis for voice output, (iii) speech recognition and understanding for voice input, and (iv) usability factors related to how humans interact with machines.

  18. Scientist-Centered Graph-Based Models of Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Stephan, Eric G.; Gracio, Deborah K.; Kuchar, Olga A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2005-07-01

    At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are researching and developing visual models and paradigms that will allow scientists to capture and represent conceptual models in a computational form that may linked to and integrated with scientific data sets and applications. Captured conceptual models may be logical in conveying how individual concepts tie together to form a higher theory, analytical in conveying intermediate or final analysis results, or temporal in describing the experimental process in which concepts are physically and computationally explored. In this paper, we describe and contrast three different research and development systems that allow scientists to capture and interact with computational graph-based models of scientific knowledge. Through these examples, we explore and examine ways in which researchers may graphically encode and apply scientific theory and practice on computer systems.

  19. Facilitating Stewardship of scientific data through standards based workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrakova, I.; Kemp, C.; Potter, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    scientific data acquisition and analysis requirements and effective interoperable data management and delivery. This includes participating in national and international dialogue on development of standards, embedding data management activities in business processes, and developing scientific staff as effective data stewards. Similar approach is applied to the geophysical data. By ensuring the geophysical datasets at GA strictly follow metadata and industry standards we are able to implement a provenance based workflow where the data is easily discoverable, geophysical processing can be applied to it and results can be stored. The provenance based workflow enables metadata records for the results to be produced automatically from the input dataset metadata.

  20. Bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based scientific approaches in medicine.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews contemporary approaches for bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based medicine. In doing so, the author presents a pragmatic assessment of quality, methodology and extent of scientific research in Ayurvedic medicine. The article discusses the meaning of evidence and indicates the need to adopt epistemologically sensitive methods and rigorous experimentation using modern science. The author critically analyzes the status of Ayurvedic medicine based on personal observations, peer interactions and published research. This review article concludes that traditional knowledge systems like Ayurveda and modern scientific evidence-based medicine should be integrated. The author advocates that Ayurvedic researchers should develop strategic collaborations with innovative initiatives like 'Horizon 2020' involving predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM).

  1. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  2. Abstract and keywords.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2008-09-01

    The abstract of a scientific paper represents a concise, accurate and factual mini-version of the paper contents. Abstract format may vary according to the individual journal. For original articles, a structured abstract usually consists of the following headings: aims (or objectives), materials and methods, results and conclusion. A few keywords that capture the main topics of the paper help indexing in the medical literature.

  3. Struggling to understand abstract science topics: a Roundhouse diagram-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James H.

    2002-06-01

    This study explored the effects of Roundhouse diagram construction on a previously low-performing middle school science student's struggles to understand abstract science concepts and principles. It is based on a metacognition-based visual learning model proposed by Wandersee in 1994. Ward and Wandersee introduced the Roundhouse diagram strategy and showed how it could be applied in science education. This article aims at elucidating the process by which Roundhouse diagramming helps learners bootstrap their current understandings to reach the intended meaningful understanding of complex science topics. The main findings of this study are that (a) it is crucial that relevant prior knowledge and dysfunctional alternative conceptions not be ignored during new learning if low-performing science students are to understand science well; (b) as the student's mastery of the Roundhouse diagram construction improved, so did science achievement; and (c) the student's apt choice of concept-related visual icons aided progress toward meaningful understanding of complex science concepts.

  4. A comparison of plan-based and abstract MDP reward shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiadis, Kyriakos; Kudenko, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Reward shaping has been shown to significantly improve an agent's performance in reinforcement learning. As attention is shifting away from tabula-rasa approaches many different reward shaping methods have been developed. In this paper, we compare two different methods for reward shaping; plan-based, in which an agent is provided with a plan and extra rewards are given according to the steps of the plan the agent satisfies, and reward shaping via abstract Markov decision process (MDPs), in which an abstract high-level MDP of the environment is solved and the resulting value function is used to shape the agent. The comparison is conducted in terms of total reward, convergence speed and scaling up to more complex environments. Empirical results demonstrate the need to correctly select and set up reward shaping methods according to the needs of the environment the agents are acting in. This leads to the more interesting question, is there a reward shaping method which is universally better than all other approaches regardless of the environment dynamics?

  5. Utilization of lunar materials and expertise for large scale operations in space: Abstracts. [lunar bases and space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The practicality of exploiting the moon, not only as a source of materials for large habitable structures at Lagrangian points, but also as a base for colonization is discussed in abstracts of papers presented at a special session on lunar utilization. Questions and answers which followed each presentation are included after the appropriate abstract. Author and subject indexes are provided.

  6. A Temporal Abstraction-based Extract, Transform and Load Process for Creating Registry Databases for Research.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Kurc, Tahsin; Overcash, Marc; Cantrell, Dedra; Morris, Tim; Eckerson, Kristi; Tsui, Circe; Willey, Terry; Quyyumi, Arshed; Eapen, Danny; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Ziemer, David; Saltz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    In the CTSA era there is great interest in aggregating and comparing populations across institutions. These sites likely represent data differently in their clinical data warehouses and other databases. Clinical data warehouses frequently are structured in a generalized way that supports many constituencies. For research, there is a need to transform these heterogeneous data into a shared representation, and to perform categorization and interpretation to optimize the data representation for investigators. We are addressing this need by extending an existing temporal abstraction-based clinical database query system, PROTEMPA. The extended system allows specifying data types of interest in federated databases, extracting the data into a shared representation, transforming it through categorization and interpretation, and loading it into a registry database that can be refreshed. Such a registry's access control, data representation and query tools can be tailored to the needs of research while keeping local databases as the source of truth.

  7. (abstract) A Low-Cost Mission to 2060 Chiron Based on the Pluto Fast Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. A.; Salvo, C. G.; Wallace, R. A.; Weinstein, S. S.; Weissman, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Pluto Fast Flyby-based mission to Chiron described in this paper is a low cost, scientifically rewarding, focused mission in the outer solar system. The proposed mission will make a flyby of 2060 Chiron, an active 'comet' with over 10(sup 4) times the mass of Halley, and an eccentric, Saturn-crossing orbit which ranges from 8.5 to 19 AU. This mission concept achieves the flyby 4.2 years after launch on a direct trajectory from Earth, is independent of Jupiter launch windows, and fits within Discovery cost guidelines. This mission offers the scientific opportunity to examine a class of object left unsampled by the trail-blazing Mariners, Pioneers, Voyagers, and missions to Halley. Spacecraft reconnaissance of Chiron addresses unique objectives relating to cometary science, other small bodies, the structure of quasi-bound atmospheres on modest-sized bodies, and the origin of primitive bodies and the giant planets. Owing to Chiron's large size (180based on the opportunity to use the planned Pluto Flyby spare spacecraft and a Proton Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) (the pluto spacecraft is being designed to be compatible with a Proton launch). Backup

  8. Effects of Inquiry-Based Agriscience Instruction on Student Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoron, Andrew C.; Myers, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inquiry-based agriscience instruction on student scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning is defined as the use of the scientific method, inductive, and deductive reasoning to develop and test hypothesis. Developing scientific reasoning skills can provide learners with a connection to the…

  9. Research on Web-based Scientific Computing Legacy Application Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cui, Bin-Ge

    With the development of Internet technology, A legion of scientific computing legacy programs with rich domain knowledge and expertise were distributed across various disciplines. As the program implementations or interfaces and so on, scientific computing legacy programs can not be shared through the Internet. This paper proposes a method of packaging scientific computing legacy programs into DLL(Dynamic Link Library), and packaging them into Web services through the C# reflection, making the scientific computing legacy programs successfully share on the Internet.

  10. [Scientific evidence-based cardiology: the principles and practice].

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A V

    2000-09-01

    Every clinical cardiologist, no matter what the clinical work (invasive or non-invasive), has to face several problems concerning clinical knowledge and medical information in everyday practice. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances in cardiology are occurring at an increasing pace and every cardiologist responsible for patient care in hospitals, clinics or emergency rooms needs to be up-to-date in order to provide the best possible medical care. On the other hand, society is increasingly making doctors accountable for the provision of good quality care in a cost-effective way. In the context of scarce resources, this situation requires a rigorous and rational approach by the individual cardiologist. These apparent contradictions can be solved by practicing evidence-based cardiology (EBC). This review introduces the concept of EBC, its principles, practice, and methodological steps: 1) formulation of a structured clinical activity; 2) scientific evidence; 3) critical appraisal of this evidence using explicit methods; and 4) synthesis and practical application of this evidence. In this sense, EBC arises from the patient, and after the best possible scientific evidence is selected, it is applied to the individual case. EBC allows the individual cardiologist to keep up with the medical literature while improving reading habits and the form in which relevant clinical information is selected. It also increases confidence in the clinical decisions, reducing practice variation as well as improving doctor-patient communication. Lastly EBC can be used as a powerful tool for pre, post and continuous medical education.

  11. Mathematics and Astronomy: Inquire Based Scientific Education at School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Ana I. Gómez

    2010-10-01

    Mathematics is the language of science however, in secondary and high school education students are not made aware of the strong implications behind this statement. This is partially caused because mathematical training and the modelling of nature are not taught together. Astronomy provides firm scientific grounds for this joint training; the mathematics needed is simple, the data can be acquired with simple instrumentation in any place on the planet and the physics is rich with a broad range of levels. In addition, astronomy and space exploration are extremely appealing to young (14-17 years old) students helping to motivate them to study science doing science, i.e. to introduce Inquiry Based Scientific Education (IBSE). Since 1997 a global consortium is being developed to introduce IBSE techniques in secondary/high school education on a global scale: the Global Hands-On Universe association (www.globalhou.org) making use of the astronomical universe as a training lab. This contribution is a brief update on the current activities of the HOU consortium. Relevant URLS: www.globalhou.org, www.euhou.net, www.houspain.com.

  12. Abstracts of the Scientific Programs of the American College Health Association Fifty-Eighth Annual Meeting, April 9-12, 1980, San Diego, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American College Health Association, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts of the sessions include discussions of health education programs, various research models of both health and higher education concern; sessions on dental health, mental health, athletic medicine, and junior and community colleges. The topics of administration, clinical medicine, and environmental health and safety are also covered. (JN)

  13. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume I: Sections 1--Acquisition and Sources; 2--Descriptive Cataloguing; 3--Abstracting and Subject Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The first volume in a series of publications describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. "Acquisition and Sources," by…

  14. Tackling action-based video abstraction of animated movies for video browsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Ott, Laurent; Lambert, Patrick; Coquin, Didier; Pacureanu, Alexandra; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2010-07-01

    We address the issue of producing automatic video abstracts in the context of the video indexing of animated movies. For a quick browse of a movie's visual content, we propose a storyboard-like summary, which follows the movie's events by retaining one key frame for each specific scene. To capture the shot's visual activity, we use histograms of cumulative interframe distances, and the key frames are selected according to the distribution of the histogram's modes. For a preview of the movie's exciting action parts, we propose a trailer-like video highlight, whose aim is to show only the most interesting parts of the movie. Our method is based on a relatively standard approach, i.e., highlighting action through the analysis of the movie's rhythm and visual activity information. To suit every type of movie content, including predominantly static movies or movies without exciting parts, the concept of action depends on the movie's average rhythm. The efficiency of our approach is confirmed through several end-user studies.

  15. [Brazilian scientific production based on Orem's nursing theory: integrative review].

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Maria Lúcia; Fegadoli, Débora; Méier, Marineli Joaquim; Wall, Marilene Loewen; Labronici, Liliana Maria; Raimondo-Ferraz, Maria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Integrative review, held in the databases LILACS, SciELO and BDENF from January 2005 to May 2009, aimed to summarize the Brazilian scientific production based on Orem's Nursing Theory. We obtained 23 articles, analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. It was found that 100% of the studies focused on adults. Of this total, 65,22% returned to the chronicle diseases. In 39,15% of the searches, the theory was used in full and in 34,80% one of the constructs. 91,30% of publications aimed to the construction and deployment of the structured and theoretically grounded practice of care. It was concluded that the theory has been used as theoretical and philosophical basis to justify the practice of nursing in a variety of situations in order to emphasize the role of the nurse in the care.

  16. Creating Web-Based Scientific Applications Using Java Servlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many advantages to developing web-based scientific applications. Any number of people can access the application concurrently. The application can be accessed from a remote location. The application becomes essentially platform-independent because it can be run from any machine that has internet access and can run a web browser. Maintenance and upgrades to the application are simplified since only one copy of the application exists in a centralized location. This paper details the creation of web-based applications using Java servlets. Java is a powerful, versatile programming language that is well suited to developing web-based programs. A Java servlet provides the interface between the central server and the remote client machines. The servlet accepts input data from the client, runs the application on the server, and sends the output back to the client machine. The type of servlet that supports the HTTP protocol will be discussed in depth. Among the topics the paper will discuss are how to write an http servlet, how the servlet can run applications written in Java and other languages, and how to set up a Java web server. The entire process will be demonstrated by building a web-based application to compute stagnation point heat transfer.

  17. Soviet-French working group interpretation of the scientific information during the search for celestial sources of gamma pulses, abstract of reports, 24-30 March 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estulin, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    The progress made and techniques used by the Soviet-French group in the study of gamma and X ray pulses are described in abstracts of 16 reports. Experiments included calibration and operation of various recording instruments designed for measurements involving these pulses, specifically the location of sources of such pulses in outer space. Space vehicles are utilized in conjunction with ground equipment to accomplish these tests.

  18. Trends of psychology-related research on euthanasia: a qualitative software-based thematic analysis of journal abstracts.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Euthanasia has received increasing attention in both academic and public debates as one of the most controversial issues. However, the contribution of psychology-related themes to the topic has had little role on these ongoing debates. The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main themes relating to euthanasia as provided by psychology-related research; (2) to analyze the temporal trends of psychology-related research on euthanasia over the last decades. A comprehensive search of academic literature was conducted on PsychINFO database. A qualitative software-based thematic analysis was carried out on 602 journal abstracts published from 1935 to 2014. This study highlighted four different thematic areas which characterized the scientific discourse on euthanasia: (1) moral values, in terms of religious, philosophical, and social implications concerning the individual's decision to die; (2) professional ethics, in terms of health and social workers' legal responsibility in death assistance; (3) end-of-life care, with regard to medical options provided to support individuals nearing death; and (4) patient's right to healthcare, in terms of access to palliative care and better quality of dying. Euthanasia discourse over the last decades seems to be overall characterized by two main dimensions: (1) the increasing trend of social legitimacy and acceptability of euthanasia over time, which moved from ethical to healthcare issues; and (2) the curvilinear temporal trend about the request/provision process in euthanasia, which moved from patient's decision for ending life (mainly characterizing the most past and recent research) to the role of health professionals (with a peak in the 1990s). The results suggest palliative care as a potential future research area which can provide healthcare providers with skills to 'connect' with patients, understand patients' hidden agendas, and grant a good quality of life and dying process.

  19. Scientific production of Brazilian dermatology: analysis of abstracts submitted at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology (2005 to 2013) and those eventually published*

    PubMed Central

    Holmo, Nicole França; Orasmo, Cinthia Rosane; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the presence of Brazilian physicians in International Meetings of Dermatology has been expressive. In parallel it has also been expressive the submission of poster abstracts in those Meetings. Considering the meetings from 2005 to 2013, 379 posters were presented in meetings of the American Academy of Dermatology. Brazilian universities were the origin of 59.9%. The Brazilian Society of Dermatology's recognized residency programs were the origin of 69.9% of the presented posters. Considering the period from 2005 to 2010 (n = 165 posters) the papers effectively published were 19 (11.5%). PMID:28099621

  20. A knowledge based system for scientific data visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senay, Hikmet; Ignatius, Eve

    1992-01-01

    A knowledge-based system, called visualization tool assistant (VISTA), which was developed to assist scientists in the design of scientific data visualization techniques, is described. The system derives its knowledge from several sources which provide information about data characteristics, visualization primitives, and effective visual perception. The design methodology employed by the system is based on a sequence of transformations which decomposes a data set into a set of data partitions, maps this set of partitions to visualization primitives, and combines these primitives into a composite visualization technique design. Although the primary function of the system is to generate an effective visualization technique design for a given data set by using principles of visual perception the system also allows users to interactively modify the design, and renders the resulting image using a variety of rendering algorithms. The current version of the system primarily supports visualization techniques having applicability in earth and space sciences, although it may easily be extended to include other techniques useful in other disciplines such as computational fluid dynamics, finite-element analysis and medical imaging.

  1. IKOS: A Framework for Static Analysis based on Abstract Interpretation (Tool Paper)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume P.; Laserna, Jorge A.; Shi, Nija; Venet, Arnaud Jean

    2014-01-01

    The RTCA standard (DO-178C) for developing avionic software and getting certification credits includes an extension (DO-333) that describes how developers can use static analysis in certification. In this paper, we give an overview of the IKOS static analysis framework that helps developing static analyses that are both precise and scalable. IKOS harnesses the power of Abstract Interpretation and makes it accessible to a larger class of static analysis developers by separating concerns such as code parsing, model development, abstract domain management, results management, and analysis strategy. The benefits of the approach is demonstrated by a buffer overflow analysis applied to flight control systems.

  2. Design and Assessment of an Assignment-Based Curriculum to Teach Scientific Writing and Scientific Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Rainer E.

    2014-01-01

    A writing-intensive, upper-level undergraduate course which integrates content, context, collaboration, and communication in a unique fashion, is described. The topic of the seminar is "Scientific Writing in Chemistry" and an assignment-based curriculum was developed to instruct students on best practices in all aspects of science…

  3. Identifying scientific artefacts in biomedical literature: the Evidence Based Medicine use case.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Groza, Tudor; Hunter, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) provides a framework that makes use of the current best evidence in the domain to support clinicians in the decision making process. In most cases, the underlying foundational knowledge is captured in scientific publications that detail specific clinical studies or randomised controlled trials. Over the course of the last two decades, research has been performed on modelling key aspects described within publications (e.g., aims, methods, results), to enable the successful realisation of the goals of EBM. A significant outcome of this research has been the PICO (Population/Problem-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome) structure, and its refined version PIBOSO (Population-Intervention-Background-Outcome-Study Design-Other), both of which provide a formalisation of these scientific artefacts. Subsequently, using these schemes, diverse automatic extraction techniques have been proposed to streamline the knowledge discovery and exploration process in EBM. In this paper, we present a Machine Learning approach that aims to classify sentences according to the PIBOSO scheme. We use a discriminative set of features that do not rely on any external resources to achieve results comparable to the state of the art. A corpus of 1000 structured and unstructured abstracts - i.e., the NICTA-PIBOSO corpus - is used for training and testing. Our best CRF classifier achieves a micro-average F-score of 90.74% and 87.21%, respectively, over structured and unstructured abstracts, which represents an increase of 25.48 percentage points and 26.6 percentage points in F-score when compared to the best existing approaches.

  4. A DFT-based investigation of hydrogen abstraction reactions from methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hemelsoet, Karen; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Waroquier, Michel

    2008-11-10

    The growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is in many areas of combustion and pyrolysis of hydrocarbons an inconvenient side effect that warrants an extensive investigation of the underlying reaction mechanism, which is known to be a cascade of radical reactions. Herein, the focus lies on one of the key reaction classes within the coke formation process: hydrogen abstraction reactions induced by a methyl radical from methylated benzenoid species. It has been shown previously that hydrogen abstractions determine the global PAH formation rate. In particular, the influence of the polyaromatic environment on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties is the subject of a thorough exploration. Reaction enthalpies at 298 K, reaction barriers at 0 K, rate constants, and kinetic parameters (within the temperature interval 700-1100 K) are calculated by using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) geometries and BMK/6-311+G(3df,2p) single-point energies. This level of theory has been validated with available experimental data for the abstraction at toluene. The enhanced stability of the product benzylic radicals and its influence on the reaction enthalpies is highlighted. Corrections for tunneling effects and hindered (or free) rotations of the methyl group are taken into account. The largest spreading in thermochemical and kinetic data is observed in the series of linear acenes, and a normal reactivity-enthalpy relationship is obtained. The abstraction of a methyl hydrogen atom at one of the center rings of large methylated acenes is largely preferred. Geometrical and electronic aspects lie at the basis of this striking feature. Comparison with hydrogen abstractions leading to arylic radicals is also made.

  5. Ground-based validation of scientific SCIAMACHY products: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittrock, F.; Fietkau, S.; Heckel, A.; Medeke, T.; Oetjen, H.; Richter, A.; Tarsu, M.; Burrows, J.

    2003-04-01

    In this study data from the Bremian DOAS network for atmospheric measurements (BREDOM) were used to validate columns of O3, NO2, BrO, HCHO and OClO derived from measurements of the SCIAMACHY instrument using the scientific algorithms developed at the University of Bremen. The ground sites range from northern high latitudes (Ny-Ålesund, 79° N, 12°E) over mid-latitudes (Bremen, 53°N, 9°E and Alzate, 46°N, 9°E) to equatorial regions (Nairobi, 1°S, 36° E). Trace gas columns of ozone, NO2, OClO, HCHO, and BrO were retrieved applying the well-known DOAS method to the UV/vis spectra. All ground-based instruments within the network use the MAX (multi axis) DOAS technique. With this it is possible to derive some profile information for the retrieved absorbers, which enables us to further investigate the consistency of trace gas column amounts derived from different platforms.

  6. Web-based visualization of very large scientific astronomy imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, E.; Pillay, R.; Marmo, C.

    2015-04-01

    Visualizing and navigating through large astronomy images from a remote location with current astronomy display tools can be a frustrating experience in terms of speed and ergonomics, especially on mobile devices. In this paper, we present a high performance, versatile and robust client-server system for remote visualization and analysis of extremely large scientific images. Applications of this work include survey image quality control, interactive data query and exploration, citizen science, as well as public outreach. The proposed software is entirely open source and is designed to be generic and applicable to a variety of datasets. It provides access to floating point data at terabyte scales, with the ability to precisely adjust image settings in real-time. The proposed clients are light-weight, platform-independent web applications built on standard HTML5 web technologies and compatible with both touch and mouse-based devices. We put the system to the test and assess the performance of the system and show that a single server can comfortably handle more than a hundred simultaneous users accessing full precision 32 bit astronomy data.

  7. Statistical algorithms for ontology-based annotation of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ontologies encode relationships within a domain in robust data structures that can be used to annotate data objects, including scientific papers, in ways that ease tasks such as search and meta-analysis. However, the annotation process requires significant time and effort when performed by humans. Text mining algorithms can facilitate this process, but they render an analysis mainly based upon keyword, synonym and semantic matching. They do not leverage information embedded in an ontology's structure. Methods We present a probabilistic framework that facilitates the automatic annotation of literature by indirectly modeling the restrictions among the different classes in the ontology. Our research focuses on annotating human functional neuroimaging literature within the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO). We use an approach that combines the stochastic simplicity of naïve Bayes with the formal transparency of decision trees. Our data structure is easily modifiable to reflect changing domain knowledge. Results We compare our results across naïve Bayes, Bayesian Decision Trees, and Constrained Decision Tree classifiers that keep a human expert in the loop, in terms of the quality measure of the F1-mirco score. Conclusions Unlike traditional text mining algorithms, our framework can model the knowledge encoded by the dependencies in an ontology, albeit indirectly. We successfully exploit the fact that CogPO has explicitly stated restrictions, and implicit dependencies in the form of patterns in the expert curated annotations. PMID:25093071

  8. Perceptions That Influence the Maintenance of Scientific Integrity in Community-Based Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…

  9. Definition and Formulation of Scientific Prediction and Its Role in Inquiry-Based Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The formulation of a scientific prediction by students in college-level laboratories is proposed. This activity will develop the students' ability to apply abstract concepts via deductive reasoning. For instances in which a hypothesis will be tested by an experiment, students should develop a prediction that states what sort of experimental…

  10. Development of temporal context-based feature abstractions for enabling monitoring and managing of interventions.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Pei-Yun Sabrina; Ramakrishnan, Sreeram; Yu, Ke; Akushevich, Marina; Sharma, Shweta; Mooiweer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disease self-management programs and intervention/care plan monitoring are often unable to systematically leverage patient-generated information, especially those requiring interpretation of the temporal contexts of the measurement. While existing techniques help in capturing and storing the relevant data, their ability to determine appropriate metrics most sensitive to that individual is limited or non-existent. This is attributable to the lack of unifying models for enabling such interpretations and the non-trivial process required to generate meaningful feature abstractions to support individualized prognosis. To address these issues, a data-driven approach designed to identify the right abstractions for key features relevant to personalization and monitoring of care is discussed.

  11. Scientific misconduct and science ethics: a case study based approach.

    PubMed

    Consoli, Luca

    2006-07-01

    The Schön misconduct case has been widely publicized in the media and has sparked intense discussions within and outside the scientific community about general issues of science ethics. This paper analyses the Report of the official Committee charged with the investigation in order to show that what at first seems to be a quite uncontroversial case, turns out to be an accumulation of many interesting and non-trivial questions (of both ethical and philosophical interest). In particular, the paper intends to show that daily scientific practices are structurally permeated by chronic problems; this has serious consequences for how practicing scientists assess their work in general, and scientific misconduct in particular. A philosophical approach is proposed that sees scientific method and scientific ethics as inextricably interwoven. Furthermore, the paper intends to show that the definition of co-authorship that the members of the Committee use, although perhaps clear in theory, proves highly problematic in practice and raises more questions that it answers. A final plea is made for a more self-reflecting attitude of scientists as far as the moral and methodological profile of science is concerned as a key element for improving not only their scientific achievements, but also their assessment of problematic cases.

  12. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  13. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  14. Earth, soil and environmental science research facility at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source. II. Scientific program and experimental instrumentation (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, S.; Eng., P. J.; Jaski, Y. R.; Lazaraz, N.; Pluth, J.; Murray, P.; Rarback, H.; Rivers, M.

    1996-09-01

    The GSECARS (APS sector 13) scientific program will provide fundamental new information on the deep structure and composition of the Earth and other planets, the formation of economic mineral deposits, the cycles and fate of toxic metals in the environment, and the mechanisms of nutrient uptake and disease in plants. In the four experimental stations (2 per beamline), scientists will have access to three main x-ray techniques: diffraction (microcrystal, powder, diamond anvil cell, and large volume press), fluorescence microprobe, and spectroscopy (conventional, microbeam, liquid and solid surfaces). The high pressure facilities will be capable of x-ray crystallography at P≳360 GPa and T˜6000 K with the diamond anvil cell and P˜25 GPa and T˜2500 °C with the large volume press. Diffractometers will allow study of 1 micrometer crystals and micro-powders. The microprobe (1 micrometer focused beam) will be capable of chemical analyses in the sub-ppm range using wavelength and energy dispersive detectors. Spectroscopy instrumentation will be available for XANES and EXAFS with microbeams as well as high sensitivity conventional XAS and studies of liquid and solid interfaces. Visiting scientists will be able to setup, calibrate, and test experiments in off-line laboratories with equipment such as micromanipulators, optical microscopes, clean bench, glove boxes, high powered optical and Raman spectrometers.

  15. Scientific Inquiry Based Professional Development Models in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corlu, Mehmet Ali; Corlu, M. Sencer

    2012-01-01

    Scientific inquiry helps students develop critical thinking abilities and enables students to think and construct knowledge like a scientist. The study describes a method course implementation at a major public teachers college in Turkey. The main goal of the course was to improve research and teaching abilities of prospective physics teachers…

  16. Variation in the Interpretation of Scientific Integrity in Community-based Participatory Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity means for the professional and community investigators who are involved in CBPR. This analysis explores the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR among 74 professional and community research team members from of 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. It describes the basic definition for scientific integrity and then explores variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR. Variations in the interpretations were associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Professional investigators understood scientific integrity in CBPR as either conceptually or logistically flexible, as challenging to balance with community needs, or no different than traditional scientific integrity. Community investigators interpret other factors as important in scientific integrity, such as trust, accountability, and overall benefit to the community. This research demonstrates that the variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR call for a new definition of scientific integrity in CBPR that takes into account the understanding and needs of all investigators. PMID:24161098

  17. Variation in the interpretation of scientific integrity in community-based participatory health research.

    PubMed

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-11-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity means for the professional and community investigators who are involved in CBPR. This analysis explores the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR among 74 professional and community research team members from of 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. It describes the basic definition for scientific integrity and then explores variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR. Variations in the interpretations were associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Professional investigators understood scientific integrity in CBPR as either conceptually or logistically flexible, as challenging to balance with community needs, or no different than traditional scientific integrity. Community investigators interpret other factors as important in scientific integrity, such as trust, accountability, and overall benefit to the community. This research demonstrates that the variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR call for a new definition of scientific integrity in CBPR that takes into account the understanding and needs of all investigators.

  18. Literature Abstracts.

    PubMed

    S, P; S, A; H, A; M, J D; S, A; Foods, A; S, A; M, J D; S, A; Pharmaceuticals, B; Foods, A

    1971-05-01

    the Firming of the Crumb of Bread', by E. M. A. Willhoft (Lyons Central Labs, 149 Hammersmith Rd., London W14), Chem. Ind. 8 (1970), 1017. 3. Objdve Measurements: 'De la rhéologie des systèmes aqueux à base de gommes', by R. A. Schutz (Mulhouse-Dornach, France), Stärke 22 (1970), 116-125. 3. Objdve Measurements: 'Chopin Teleplastometer Study of Dough Consistency, Preliminary Tests', by J. J. Etienne and M. Dubois (Lab. Grands Moulins, Bobigny, France), Bull. Anciens Elèves Ecole Franç. Meunerie, No. 236 (1970), 94-100. 3. Objdve Measurements: 'The Rheological Evaluation of Semisolids', by L. H. Block and P. P. Lamy (Duquesne Univ. Pittsburgh, and Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, Md., U. S. A.), J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 21 (1970), 645-660. 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Comparison of Tennet Curd Tension with Undenatured Whey Protein as a Measure of Heat Treatment', by U. S. Ashworth and Joseph Nebe (Washington State Univ., Pullman, Wash. 99163, U. S. A.), J. Dairy Sci. 53 (1970), 415-419. 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Gelation Temperatures of Starch as Influenced by Polyhydric and Monohydric Alcohols, Phenols, Carboxylic Acids and Some Other Additives', by S. Y. Gersma (Technical Univ. Delft, Julianalaan 67, Delft, Netherlands), Stärke 22 (1970), 3-9. 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Disodium Dihydrogen Pyrophosphate Blanch and the Texture of French Fries', by A. S. Jaswal (Res. Prod. Counc., Frederickton, New Brunswick, Canada), Am. Potato J. 47 (5) (1970), 145-7. 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Nonstarch Polysaccharides and the Texture of French Fried Potatoes', by A. S. Jaswal (Res. Prod. Counc., Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada), Am. Potato J. 47 (1970), 311-316. 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Food Processing Characteristics of Soybean 11S and 7S Proteins. I. Effect of Difference of Protein Components Among Soybean Varieties on Formation of Tofu-Gel', by K. Saio, M. Kamiya, and T. Watanabe (Food Res. Inst., Ministry of Agric. and Forestry, Japan), Agr. Biol. Chem

  19. Model-based evaluation of scientific impact indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medo, Matúš; Cimini, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    Using bibliometric data artificially generated through a model of citation dynamics calibrated on empirical data, we compare several indicators for the scientific impact of individual researchers. The use of such a controlled setup has the advantage of avoiding the biases present in real databases, and it allows us to assess which aspects of the model dynamics and which traits of individual researchers a particular indicator actually reflects. We find that the simple average citation count of the authored papers performs well in capturing the intrinsic scientific ability of researchers, regardless of the length of their career. On the other hand, when productivity complements ability in the evaluation process, the notorious h and g indices reveal their potential, yet their normalized variants do not always yield a fair comparison between researchers at different career stages. Notably, the use of logarithmic units for citation counts allows us to build simple indicators with performance equal to that of h and g . Our analysis may provide useful hints for a proper use of bibliometric indicators. Additionally, our framework can be extended by including other aspects of the scientific production process and citation dynamics, with the potential to become a standard tool for the assessment of impact metrics.

  20. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  1. An adaptable XML based approach for scientific data management and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Thiel, Florian; Furrer, Daniel; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Qin, Chen; Hackenberg, Georg; Bourgue, Pierre-Emmanuel; Kaltschmidt, David; Wang, Mo

    2008-03-01

    Increased complexity of scientific research poses new challenges to scientific data management. Meanwhile, scientific collaboration is becoming increasing important, which relies on integrating and sharing data from distributed institutions. We develop SciPort, a Web-based platform on supporting scientific data management and integration based on a central server based distributed architecture, where researchers can easily collect, publish, and share their complex scientific data across multi-institutions. SciPort provides an XML based general approach to model complex scientific data by representing them as XML documents. The documents capture not only hierarchical structured data, but also images and raw data through references. In addition, SciPort provides an XML based hierarchical organization of the overall data space to make it convenient for quick browsing. To provide generalization, schemas and hierarchies are customizable with XML-based definitions, thus it is possible to quickly adapt the system to different applications. While each institution can manage documents on a Local SciPort Server independently, selected documents can be published to a Central Server to form a global view of shared data across all sites. By storing documents in a native XML database, SciPort provides high schema extensibility and supports comprehensive queries through XQuery. By providing a unified and effective means for data modeling, data access and customization with XML, SciPort provides a flexible and powerful platform for sharing scientific data for scientific research communities, and has been successfully used in both biomedical research and clinical trials.

  2. Using the high-level based program interface to facilitate the large scale scientific computing.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yizi; Shang, Ling; Gao, Chuanchang; Lu, Guiming; Ye, Yuntao; Jia, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper is to make further research on facilitating the large-scale scientific computing on the grid and the desktop grid platform. The related issues include the programming method, the overhead of the high-level program interface based middleware, and the data anticipate migration. The block based Gauss Jordan algorithm as a real example of large-scale scientific computing is used to evaluate those issues presented above. The results show that the high-level based program interface makes the complex scientific applications on large-scale scientific platform easier, though a little overhead is unavoidable. Also, the data anticipation migration mechanism can improve the efficiency of the platform which needs to process big data based scientific applications.

  3. Using the High-Level Based Program Interface to Facilitate the Large Scale Scientific Computing

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yizi; Shang, Ling; Gao, Chuanchang; Lu, Guiming; Ye, Yuntao; Jia, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper is to make further research on facilitating the large-scale scientific computing on the grid and the desktop grid platform. The related issues include the programming method, the overhead of the high-level program interface based middleware, and the data anticipate migration. The block based Gauss Jordan algorithm as a real example of large-scale scientific computing is used to evaluate those issues presented above. The results show that the high-level based program interface makes the complex scientific applications on large-scale scientific platform easier, though a little overhead is unavoidable. Also, the data anticipation migration mechanism can improve the efficiency of the platform which needs to process big data based scientific applications. PMID:24574931

  4. Abstracting data warehousing issues in scientific research.

    PubMed

    Tews, Cody; Bracio, Boris R

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the Idaho Biomedical Data Management System (IBDMS). This system preprocesses biomedical data from the IMPROVE (Improving Control of Patient Status in Critical Care) library via an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) connection. The ODBC connection allows for local and remote simulations to access filtered, joined, and sorted data using the Structured Query Language (SQL). The tool is capable of providing an overview of available data in addition to user defined data subset for verification of models of the human respiratory system.

  5. Scientific rotoscoping: a morphology-based method of 3-D motion analysis and visualization.

    PubMed

    Gatesy, Stephen M; Baier, David B; Jenkins, Farish A; Dial, Kenneth P

    2010-06-01

    Three-dimensional skeletal movement is often impossible to accurately quantify from external markers. X-ray imaging more directly visualizes moving bones, but extracting 3-D kinematic data is notoriously difficult from a single perspective. Stereophotogrammetry is extremely powerful if bi-planar fluoroscopy is available, yet implantation of three radio-opaque markers in each segment of interest may be impractical. Herein we introduce scientific rotoscoping (SR), a new method of motion analysis that uses articulated bone models to simultaneously animate and quantify moving skeletons without markers. The three-step process is described using examples from our work on pigeon flight and alligator walking. First, the experimental scene is reconstructed in 3-D using commercial animation software so that frames of undistorted fluoroscopic and standard video can be viewed in their correct spatial context through calibrated virtual cameras. Second, polygonal models of relevant bones are created from CT or laser scans and rearticulated into a hierarchical marionette controlled by virtual joints. Third, the marionette is registered to video images by adjusting each of its degrees of freedom over a sequence of frames. SR outputs high-resolution 3-D kinematic data for multiple, unmarked bones and anatomically accurate animations that can be rendered from any perspective. Rather than generating moving stick figures abstracted from the coordinates of independent surface points, SR is a morphology-based method of motion analysis deeply rooted in osteological and arthrological data.

  6. Perceptions that influence the maintenance of scientific integrity in community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and unique concerns. Understanding the perceptions that promote or discourage scientific integrity in CBPR as identified by professional and community investigators is essential to promoting the value of CBPR. This analysis explores the perceptions that facilitate scientific integrity in CBPR as well as the barriers among a sample of 74 professional and community CBPR investigators from 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. There were variations in perceptions associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Perceptions identified to promote and discourage scientific integrity in CBPR by professional and community investigators were external pressures, community participation, funding, quality control and supervision, communication, training, and character and trust. Some perceptions such as communication and training promoted scientific integrity whereas other perceptions, such as a lack of funds and lack of trust could discourage scientific integrity. These results demonstrate that one of the most important perceptions in maintaining scientific integrity in CBPR is active community participation, which enables a co-responsibility by scientists and community members to provide oversight for scientific integrity. Credible CBPR science is crucial to empower the vulnerable communities to be heard by those in positions of power and policy making.

  7. Evaluation of Two PCR-based Swine-specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination on a broad geographic scale is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the specificity, distr...

  8. Plug and Play web-based visualization of mobile air monitoring data (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Real-Time Geospatial (RETIGO) Data Viewer web-based tool is a new program reducing the technical barrier to visualize and understand geospatial air data time series collected using wearable, bicycle-mounted, or vehicle-mounted air sensors. The RETIGO tool, with anticipated...

  9. Machine characterization based on an abstract high-level language machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saavedra-Barrera, Rafael H.; Smith, Alan Jay; Miya, Eugene

    1989-01-01

    Measurements are presented for a large number of machines ranging from small workstations to supercomputers. The authors combine these measurements into groups of parameters which relate to specific aspects of the machine implementation, and use these groups to provide overall machine characterizations. The authors also define the concept of pershapes, which represent the level of performance of a machine for different types of computation. A metric based on pershapes is introduced that provides a quantitative way of measuring how similar two machines are in terms of their performance distributions. The metric is related to the extent to which pairs of machines have varying relative performance levels depending on which benchmark is used.

  10. Are word representations abstract or instance-based? Effects of spelling inconsistency in orthographic learning.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S; Long, Julia

    2011-09-01

    In Experiment 1, 62 10-year-old children studied printed pseudowords with semantic information. The items were later represented in a different format for reading, with half of the items spelled in the same way as before and half displayed in a new phonologically equivalent spelling. In a dictation test, the exposure to an alternative spelling substantially increased the number of errors that matched the alternative spelling, especially in good spellers. Orthographic learning predicted word identification when accuracy on orthographic choice for words was controlled. In Experiment 2, the effects on dictation responses of exposure to a misspelling versus the correct spelling, and the interactive effect of spelling ability, were confirmed relative to a no-exposure control in adults. The results support a single-lexicon view of reading and spelling and have implications for abstractionist and instance-based theories of orthographic representations.

  11. Knowledge management: An abstraction of knowledge base and database management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Joel D.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial intelligence application requirements demand powerful representation capabilities as well as efficiency for real-time domains. Many tools exist, the most prevalent being expert systems tools such as ART, KEE, OPS5, and CLIPS. Other tools just emerging from the research environment are truth maintenance systems for representing non-monotonic knowledge, constraint systems, object oriented programming, and qualitative reasoning. Unfortunately, as many knowledge engineers have experienced, simply applying a tool to an application requires a large amount of effort to bend the application to fit. Much work goes into supporting work to make the tool integrate effectively. A Knowledge Management Design System (KNOMAD), is described which is a collection of tools built in layers. The layered architecture provides two major benefits; the ability to flexibly apply only those tools that are necessary for an application, and the ability to keep overhead, and thus inefficiency, to a minimum. KNOMAD is designed to manage many knowledge bases in a distributed environment providing maximum flexibility and expressivity to the knowledge engineer while also providing support for efficiency.

  12. Abstract Computation in Schizophrenia Detection through Artificial Neural Network Based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, L.; Marins, F.; Magalhães, R.; Marins, N.; Oliveira, T.; Vicente, H.; Abelha, A.; Machado, J.; Neves, J.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia stands for a long-lasting state of mental uncertainty that may bring to an end the relation among behavior, thought, and emotion; that is, it may lead to unreliable perception, not suitable actions and feelings, and a sense of mental fragmentation. Indeed, its diagnosis is done over a large period of time; continuos signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 (six) months. Once detected, the psychiatrist diagnosis is made through the clinical interview and a series of psychic tests, addressed mainly to avoid the diagnosis of other mental states or diseases. Undeniably, the main problem with identifying schizophrenia is the difficulty to distinguish its symptoms from those associated to different untidiness or roles. Therefore, this work will focus on the development of a diagnostic support system, in terms of its knowledge representation and reasoning procedures, based on a blended of Logic Programming and Artificial Neural Networks approaches to computing, taking advantage of a novel approach to knowledge representation and reasoning, which aims to solve the problems associated in the handling (i.e., to stand for and reason) of defective information. PMID:25834836

  13. Theory-guided design of Ti-based binaries for human implants (abstract only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friak, Martin; Sander, Benedikt; Raabe, Dierk; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2008-02-01

    State-of-the-art ab initio methods constitute a solid basis of modern materials science and materials design. The theoretical research is nowadays increasingly combined with mesoscale and macroscale approaches as well as advanced experimental techniques in order to address complex multiscale and finite-temperature phenomena. The applicability of such a interdisciplinary methodology will be exemplified by our development of novel alloys for human implants, particularly the improvement of hip transplants. The progress in this field is severely hampered by a lack of suitable materials which are biocompatible in terms of non-toxicity and mechanical properties. The aim of our research has been therefore to identify metallurgical trends for non-poisonous Ti-based alloys employing quantum-mechanical calculations. Guided by the theoretical calculations of phase stability and elastic properties, selected alloys were actually melted, cast, and heat treated to a homogeneous state. The samples have been experimentally characterized by x-ray methods and electron microscopy, including crystallographic and chemical analysis, and mechanically tested using ultrasound measurements. The experimental data obtained in these experiments are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions.

  14. Core domains of shared decision-making during psychiatric visits: Scientific and preference-based discussions

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Sadaaki; Matthias, Marianne S.; Salyers, Michelle P.

    2014-01-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) is imperative to person-centered care, yet little is known about what aspects of SDM are targeted during psychiatric visits. This secondary data analysis (191 psychiatric visits with 11 providers, coded with a validated SDM coding system) revealed two factors (scientific and preference-based discussions) underlying SDM communication. Preference-based discussion occurred less. Both provider and consumer initiation of SDM elements and decision complexity were associated with greater discussions in both factors, but were more strongly associated with scientific discussion. Longer visit length correlated with only scientific discussion. Providers’ understanding of core domains could facilitate engaging consumers in SDM. PMID:24500023

  15. Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training.

    PubMed

    Pennock, Robert T; O'Rourke, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock's notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations-theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered-that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students to this scientific virtue-based approach.

  16. Designing a Programming-Based Approach for Modelling Scientific Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Gordon; Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard

    2005-01-01

    We describe an iteratively designed sequence of activities involving the modelling of one-dimensional collisions between moving objects based on programming in ToonTalk. Students aged 13-14 years in two settings (London and Cyprus) investigated a number of collision situations, classified into six classes based on the relative velocities and…

  17. Transportable educational programs for scientific and technical professionals: More effective utilization of automated scientific and technical data base systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D.

    1987-01-01

    This grant final report executive summary documents a major, long-term program addressing innovative educational issues associated with the development, administration, evaluation, and widespread distribution of transportable educational programs for scientists and engineers to increase their knowledge of, and facilitate their utilization of automated scientific and technical information storage and retrieval systems. This educational program is of very broad scope, being targeted at Colleges of Engineering and Colleges of Physical sciences at a large number of colleges and universities throughout the United States. The educational program is designed to incorporate extensive hands-on, interactive usage of the NASA RECON system and is supported by a number of microcomputer-based software systems to facilitate the delivery and usage of the educational course materials developed as part of the program.

  18. Are all abstracts created equal??

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann

    2010-05-01

    The preparation of a strong, convincing abstract is a necessary professional skill and prized art form for nurse scientists and clinical scholars. The power and the role of an abstract are often overlooked. Abstracts are used in a variety of scholarly forums including articles submitted for publication, research proposals, and responses to "calls for abstracts" for presentations at scientific conferences. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the highlights of the "art" rather than the "cookbook" details associated with preparing an abstract. Each of the critical stages of abstract development is explored-planning, drafting, reviewing, peer reviewing, editing, and packaging. Likewise, a few, hopefully helpful, hints on developing the six key elements-background, purpose, sample, methods, results, and implications-of the scientific abstract are given. Polishing, the essential skill of preparing an abstract, takes time and persistence and will pay off in the long run. The well-crafted abstract is an initial step in the process of getting research and scholarly pursuits noticed and accepted.

  19. Enumerating Pathways of Proton Abstraction Based on a Spatial and Electrostatic Analysis of Residues in the Catalytic Site

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    The pathways of proton abstraction (PA), a key aspect of most catalytic reactions, is often controversial and highly debated. Ultrahigh-resolution diffraction studies, molecular dynamics, quantum mechanics and molecular mechanic simulations are often adopted to gain insights in the PA mechanisms in enzymes. These methods require expertise and effort to setup and can be computationally intensive. We present a push button methodology – Proton abstraction Simulation (PRISM) – to enumerate the possible pathways of PA in a protein with known 3D structure based on the spatial and electrostatic properties of residues in the proximity of a given nucleophilic residue. Proton movements are evaluated in the vicinity of this nucleophilic residue based on distances, potential differences, spatial channels and characteristics of the individual residues (polarity, acidic, basic, etc). Modulating these parameters eliminates their empirical nature and also might reveal pathways that originate from conformational changes. We have validated our method using serine proteases and concurred with the dichotomy in PA in Class A β-lactamases, both of which are hydrolases. The PA mechanism in a transferase has also been corroborated. The source code is made available at www.sanchak.com/prism. PMID:22745790

  20. A Microcomputer-based Contribution to Scientific and Technological Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo; Gelbman, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to validate the use of microcomputer-based laboratories for the teaching of physics on both theoretical and empirical grounds. Includes a laboratory that addresses the voltage-current characteristics of several components. (Author/MM)

  1. Computer-Based Inquiry into Scientific Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Melissa S.; Szabo, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Problem solving performance of individuals was compared with that of dyads at three levels of mental ability using a computer-based inquiry into the riddle of the frozen Wooly Mammoth. Results indicated significant interactions between grouping and mental ability for certain problem solving internal measures. (RAO)

  2. World Food and Nutrition: The Scientific and Technological Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortman, Sterling

    1980-01-01

    Needs are expressed for the alleviation of world hunger and poverty including the accelerated development and application in each low-income country of a broad spectrum of technologies based on advances in the sciences. Emphasis is on agriculture, transportation and communications systems, and power grids. (Author/SA)

  3. A Diagnostic Reading of Scientifically Based Research for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2005-01-01

    This essay offers a diagnosis of what may be at stake in the current preoccupation with defining science-based educational research. The diagnosis unfolds in several readings: The first is a charitable and considerate appraisal that draws attention to the fact that advocating experimental methods as important to a science of educational research…

  4. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  5. Semantic Normalization and Query Abstraction Based on SNOMED-CT and HL7: Supporting Multicentric Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Paraiso-Medina, Sergio; Perez-Rey, David; Bucur, Anca; Claerhout, Brecht; Alonso-Calvo, Raul

    2015-05-01

    Advances in the use of omic data and other biomarkers are increasing the number of variables in clinical research. Additional data have stratified the population of patients and require that current studies be performed among multiple institutions. Semantic interoperability and standardized data representation are a crucial task in the management of modern clinical trials. In the past few years, different efforts have focused on integrating biomedical information. Due to the complexity of this domain and the specific requirements of clinical research, the majority of data integration tasks are still performed manually. This paper presents a semantic normalization process and a query abstraction mechanism to facilitate data integration and retrieval. A process based on well-established standards from the biomedical domain and the latest semantic web technologies has been developed. Methods proposed in this paper have been tested within the EURECA EU research project, where clinical scenarios require the extraction of semantic knowledge from biomedical vocabularies. The aim of this paper is to provide a novel method to abstract from the data model and query syntax. The proposed approach has been compared with other initiatives in the field by storing the same dataset with each of those solutions. Results show an extended functionality and query capabilities at the cost of slightly worse performance in query execution. Implementations in real settings have shown that following this approach, usable interfaces can be developed to exploit clinical trial data outcomes.

  6. [The overview of research on toxicological (forensic) chemistry based on the materials of the abstracts of dissertation theses. The forms and modes of information].

    PubMed

    Gorbacheva, N A; Orlova, A M

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the system of information about investigations on toxicological (forensic) chemistry carried out for obtaining the scientific degree as it has formed in this country. They present a review and a list of theses and their abstracts in this discipline defended during the period from 1936 to 2010. The analysis of the themes of the studies is performed with reference to the dynamics of preparation of the theses in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  7. Arsenic-based Life: An active learning assignment for teaching scientific discourse.

    PubMed

    Jeremy Johnson, R

    2017-01-02

    Among recent high profile scientific debates was the proposal that life could exist with arsenic in place of phosphorous in its nucleic acids and other biomolecules. Soon after its initial publication, scientists across diverse disciplines began to question this extraordinary claim. Using the original article, its claims, its scientific support, and the ensuing counterarguments, a two-day, active learning classroom exercise was developed focusing on the presentation, evaluation, and discussion of scientific argumentation and discourse. In this culminating assignment of a first semester biochemistry course, undergraduate students analyze the scientific support from the original research articles and then present and discuss multiple scientific rebuttals in a lively, civil classroom debate. Through this assignment, students develop a sense of skepticism, especially for the original arsenic-based life claims, and learn to clearly articulate their counterarguments with scientific support and critical reasoning. With its direct integration into first-semester biochemistry curriculum and the excitement surrounding arsenic based life, this assignment provides a robust, simple, and stimulating framework for introducing scientific discourse and active learning into the undergraduate molecular science curriculum. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):40-45, 2017.

  8. Implementing Web-Based Scientific Inquiry in Preservice Science Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how the Web-based Inquiry for Learning Science (WBI) instrument was used with preservice elementary and secondary science teachers in science methods courses to enhance their understanding of Web-based scientific inquiry. The WBI instrument is designed to help teachers identify Web-based inquiry activities for learning science…

  9. An analysis of learning process based on scientific approach in physical chemsitry experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Febriana, Beta Wulan; Diniaty, Artina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to analysis the quality of learning process based on scientific approach in physical chemistry experiment of Chemistry Education students, Islamic University of Indonesia. The research was descriptive qualitative. The samples of this research were 2nd semester student, class of 2015. Scientific data of learning process were collected by observation sheet and documentation of seven title experimental. The results showed that the achievement of scientific learning process on observing, questioning, experimenting and associating data were 73.98%; 81.79%; 80.74%; and 76.94% respectively, which categorized as medium. Furthermore, for aspect communicating had high category at 86.11% of level achievement.

  10. AMPHION: Specification-based programming for scientific subroutine libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Waldinger, Richard; Stickel, Mark

    1994-01-01

    AMPHION is a knowledge-based software engineering (KBSE) system that guides a user in developing a diagram representing a formal problem specification. It then automatically implements a solution to this specification as a program consisting of calls to subroutines from a library. The diagram provides an intuitive domain oriented notation for creating a specification that also facilitates reuse and modification. AMPHION'S architecture is domain independent. AMPHION is specialized to an application domain by developing a declarative domain theory. Creating a domain theory is an iterative process that currently requires the joint expertise of domain experts and experts in automated formal methods for software development.

  11. World food and nutrition: the scientific and technological base.

    PubMed

    Wortman, S

    1980-07-04

    Alleviation of world hunger and poverty will require the accelerated development and application in each low-income country of a broad spectrum of technologies based on advances in the biological, social, and physical sciences. They will range from improved cropping systems for farmers or small labor-intensive enterprises (small and beautiful) to nationwide transportation and communications systems, power grids, and other distribution and marketing capabilities (big and beautiful). Concerted action through a combination of commodity production campaigns, area development efforts, and overhaul of outdated national agencies offers the best prospect for overcoming both hunger and poverty.

  12. The scientific base of heating water by microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdoǧan, Ender; ćiftçi, Muharrem

    2016-03-01

    This article is based on the master thesis [4] related to our invention which was published in World Intellectual Property Organization (WO/2011/048506) as a microwave water heater. In the project, a prototype was produced to use microwave in industrial heating. In order to produce the prototype, the most appropriate material kind for microwave-water experiments was determined by a new energy loss rate calculation technique. This new energy loss calculation is a determinative factor for material permeability at microwave frequency band (1-100 GHz). This experimental series aim to investigate the rationality of using microwave in heating industry. Theoretically, heating water by microwave (with steady frequency 2.45 GHz) is analyzed from sub-molecular to Classical Mechanic results of heating. In the study, we examined Quantum Mechanical base of heating water by microwave experiments. As a result, we derived a Semi-Quantum Mechanical equation for microwave-water interactions and thus, Wien displacement law can be derived to verify experimental observations by this equation.

  13. Enhancing Eight Grade Students' Scientific Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning through a Web-Based Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Ya-Wen; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the impacts of the Scientific Concept Construction and Reconstruction (SCCR) digital learning system on eighth grade students' concept construction, conceptual change, and scientific reasoning involving the topic of "atoms". A two-factorial experimental design was carried out to investigate the effects of the approach…

  14. Understanding the Impact of an Apprenticeship-Based Scientific Research Program on High School Students' Understanding of Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Baksa, Kristen; Skinner, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of an apprenticeship program on high school students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. Data related to seventeen students' understanding of science and scientific inquiry were collected through open-ended questionnaires. Findings suggest that although engagement in authentic…

  15. T-L Plane Abstraction-Based Energy-Efficient Real-Time Scheduling for Multi-Core Wireless Sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Ki-Seong; Pham, Ngoc-Son; Lee, Sun-Ro; Lee, Chan-Gun

    2016-07-08

    Energy efficiency is considered as a critical requirement for wireless sensor networks. As more wireless sensor nodes are equipped with multi-cores, there are emerging needs for energy-efficient real-time scheduling algorithms. The T-L plane-based scheme is known to be an optimal global scheduling technique for periodic real-time tasks on multi-cores. Unfortunately, there has been a scarcity of studies on extending T-L plane-based scheduling algorithms to exploit energy-saving techniques. In this paper, we propose a new T-L plane-based algorithm enabling energy-efficient real-time scheduling on multi-core sensor nodes with dynamic power management (DPM). Our approach addresses the overhead of processor mode transitions and reduces fragmentations of the idle time, which are inherent in T-L plane-based algorithms. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm compared to other energy-aware scheduling methods on T-L plane abstraction.

  16. Climate Solutions based on advanced scientific discoveries of Allatra physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershigora, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most important international problems of the 21st century. The overall rapid increase in the dynamics of cataclysms, which have been observed in recent decades, is particularly alarming. Howdo modern scientists predict the occurrence of certain events? In meteorology, unusually powerful cumulonimbus clouds are one of the main conditions for the emergence of a tornado. The former, in their turn, are formed during the invasion of cold air on the overheated land surface. The satellite captures the cloud front, and, based on these pictures, scientists make assumptions about the possibility of occurrence of the respective natural phenomena. In fact, mankind visually observes and draws conclusions about the consequences of the physical phenomena which have already taken place in the invisible world, so the conclusions of scientists are assumptions by their nature, rather than precise knowledge of the causes of theorigin of these phenomena in the physics of microcosm. The latest research in the field of the particle physics and neutrino astrophysics, which was conducted by a working team of scientists of ALLATRA International Public Movement (hereinafter ALLATRA SCIENCE group), offers increased opportunities for advanced fundamental and applied research in climatic engineering.

  17. Moving Away from Ones and Zeros, Designing a Ground Data System Based on Higher Levels of Abstraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tankenson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Previous JPL ground systems have been designed with the Ground Data System (GDS) engineer in mind. The focus on these systems has been on packaging and delivery of low level information (frames, packets, telemetry values) to the end user. It was not that long ago when project teams would be huddled over a workstation, examining crude displays of telemetry bits organized in various ways, trying to determine the status of a spacecraft. Understanding the data often required additional levels of GDS expertise, or worse, transformation of the raw data into alternative formats followed by ingestion into other tools so that the data became meaningful. The primary focus was often to answer these types of questions: "Why did this particular frame fail Reed-Solomon decode? Why did this packet get marked as invalid? Why am I missing a block of telemetry from my query?" -- which are completely valid questions to ask from a GDS Engineer's point of view, and large families of tools have been designed to help answer these questions. But these are not the questions that most users care about - which are more like: "Why is the battery state of charge trending down? Show me a summary image report for the last traverse to the target. Show me a data accountability summary for the last DSN pass." Answers to these questions, which are what users are looking for, requires a higher level of abstraction and supporting tools than mining through ones and zeros. JPL has created a next generation capability called the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS) which is designed to support this higher level of abstraction by providing customizable views of the ground system combining collections of lower level information into more meaningful ways. Instead of examining frames, packets, and individual telemetry data points -- MPCS is capable of providing comprehensive summary reports, product status, overall flight/ground event status, as well as payload health summaries. Based on these

  18. Identifying Multiple Levels of Discussion-Based Teaching Strategies for Constructing Scientific Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Grant; Clement, John

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify specific types of discussion-based strategies that two successful high school physics teachers using a model-based approach utilized in attempting to foster students' construction of explanatory models for scientific concepts. We found evidence that, in addition to previously documented dialogical strategies that…

  19. Implementing Scientific-Based Research: Learning from the History of the Reading First Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Shereeza; Walker, David A.; Conderman, Greg; Pasapia, John

    2016-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires that educators at all grade levels use Scientifically Based Research (SBR) instructional practices. Researchers constructed a literature-based model to examine the predictive relationship between a state's comprehensiveness of planned implementation and its capacity to implement the plan. An approach comprised…

  20. Enhancing Scientifically-Based Research for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Alba A.; Yates, James R.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) requirement that schools use instructional strategies based on scientifically-based research (SBR) to improve the academic performance of students. Controversies resulting from the definition of SBR, complexities encountered in conducting research in schools, and the…

  1. Articulating uncertainty as part of scientific argumentation during model-based exoplanet detection tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Teaching scientific argumentation has emerged as an important goal for K-12 science education. In scientific argumentation, students are actively involved in coordinating evidence with theory based on their understanding of the scientific content and thinking critically about the strengths and weaknesses of the cited evidence in the context of the investigation. We developed a one-week-long online curriculum module called "Is there life in space?" where students conduct a series of four model-based tasks to learn how scientists detect extrasolar planets through the “wobble” and transit methods. The simulation model allows students to manipulate various parameters of an imaginary star and planet system such as planet size, orbit size, planet-orbiting-plane angle, and sensitivity of telescope equipment, and to adjust the display settings for graphs illustrating the relative velocity and light intensity of the star. Students can use model-based evidence to formulate an argument on whether particular signals in the graphs guarantee the presence of a planet. Students' argumentation is facilitated by the four-part prompts consisting of multiple-choice claim, open-ended explanation, Likert-scale uncertainty rating, and open-ended uncertainty rationale. We analyzed 1,013 scientific arguments formulated by 302 high school student groups taught by 7 teachers. We coded these arguments in terms of the accuracy of their claim, the sophistication of explanation connecting evidence to the established knowledge base, the uncertainty rating, and the scientific validity of uncertainty. We found that (1) only 18% of the students' uncertainty rationale involved critical reflection on limitations inherent in data and concepts, (2) 35% of students' uncertainty rationale reflected their assessment of personal ability and knowledge, rather than scientific sources of uncertainty related to the evidence, and (3) the nature of task such as the use of noisy data or the framing of

  2. [Investigation methodology and application on scientific and technological personnel of traditional Chinese medical resources based on data from Chinese scientific research paper].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-yan; Li, Yuan-hai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fang-zhou; Wang, Jing; Tian, Ye; Yang, Ce; Liu, Yang; Li, Meng; Sun Li-ying

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the present status of the scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resource science. Based on the data from Chinese scientific research paper, an investigation regarding the number of the personnel, the distribution, their output of paper, their scientific research teams, high-yield authors and high-cited authors was conducted. The study covers seven subfields of traditional Chinese medicine identification, quality standard, Chinese medicine cultivation, harvest processing of TCM, market development and resource protection and resource management, as well as 82 widely used Chinese medicine species, such as Ginseng and Radix Astragali. One hundred and fifteen domain authority experts were selected based on the data of high-yield authors and high-cited authors. The database system platform "Skilled Scientific and Technological Personnel in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resource Science-Chinese papers" was established. This platform successfully provided the retrieval result of the personnel, output of paper, and their core research team by input the study field, year, and Chinese medicine species. The investigation provides basic data of scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine resource science for administrative agencies and also evidence for the selection of scientific and technological personnel and construction of scientific research teams.

  3. Linking Research to Policy, Practice, and Education: Lessons Learned, Tasks Ahead. Program Abstracts. Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (53rd, Washington, DC, November 17-21, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerontologist, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains abstracts from the 53rd annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America. The abstracts are arranged numerically by the session number in which they appear. Several abstracts are listed under each of the 388 sessions. Although the sessions are not limited to one topic, the dominant theme is education concerning all…

  4. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  5. Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students' Development of Scientific Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-06-01

    Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to understand the use of tools in human activity, namely cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). Accordingly, IT-based research tools constitute central moments of scientific research activity and neither can be seen apart from its objectives, nor can it be considered apart from the cultural-historical determined forms of activity (praxis) in which human subjects participate. Based on empirical data involving students participating in research activity, we point out how an appropriate account of IT-based research tools involves subjects' use of tools with respect to the objectives of research activity and the contribution to the praxis of research. We propose to reconceptualize the role of IT-based research tools as contributing to scientific literacy if students apply these tools with respect to the objectives of the research activity and contribute to praxis of research by evaluating and modifying the application of these tools. We conclude this paper by sketching the educational implications of this reconceptualized role of IT-based research tools.

  6. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  7. A distributed computing environment with support for constraint-based task scheduling and scientific experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.P.; Shapiro, L.G.; Tanimoto, S.L.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes a computing environment which supports computer-based scientific research work. Key features include support for automatic distributed scheduling and execution and computer-based scientific experimentation. A new flexible and extensible scheduling technique that is responsive to a user`s scheduling constraints, such as the ordering of program results and the specification of task assignments and processor utilization levels, is presented. An easy-to-use constraint language for specifying scheduling constraints, based on the relational database query language SQL, is described along with a search-based algorithm for fulfilling these constraints. A set of performance studies show that the environment can schedule and execute program graphs on a network of workstations as the user requests. A method for automatically generating computer-based scientific experiments is described. Experiments provide a concise method of specifying a large collection of parameterized program executions. The environment achieved significant speedups when executing experiments; for a large collection of scientific experiments an average speedup of 3.4 on an average of 5.5 scheduled processors was obtained.

  8. Mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon soils: A hypertext-based scientific assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, H.M.; Alban, D.H. ); Johnson, D.W. )

    1992-01-01

    The general objective of this project is the development of a hypertext-based scientific assessment on the subject of mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon in soils. Specifically, the authors want to (1) translate the scientific knowledge base on soil carbon cycling into a form meaningful for policy makers by using the theory of issue-based hypertext for problem solving using the argumentative approach developed by the late Horst Rittel, professor of planning and design at the University of California, Berkeley; (2) provide an organized and evaluated scientific knowledge base on soil carbon dynamics for research scientists to aid in the rapid and economical review and understanding of the subfield of science; and (3) test this new hybrid hypertext and AI methodology for use as a tool for program managers to help them evaluate a research domain to find knowledge gaps, to prioritize these knowledge gaps, to channel available research funding to these projects aimed at filling the most promising knowledge gaps in order to have the greatest possible impact on the entire knowledge base of the field, and to help explicitly measure scientific progress in terms that funding sources can understand. The authors began this project in fall 1991 and expect to complete it by fall 1993.

  9. Promoting Teachers' Use of Scientifically Based Instruction: A Comparison of University versus District Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Han, Insoon; Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa; Fuchs, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a school district adopted Kindergarten Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (K-PALS), a scientifically based, class-wide peer-tutoring program for reading. Sixteen new K-PALS teachers were assigned randomly to receive ongoing support from a university expert or from experienced K-PALS teachers within the district. K-PALS teachers who…

  10. Definitions for the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Scientifically-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of scientifically-based research within No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is to identify and disseminate conclusive information on ?what works? in education, with an emphasis on determining what instructional input (curricula, instructional techniques) works to increase student outcomes such as academic achievement and language proficiency.…

  11. Is Scientifically Based Reading Instruction Effective for Students with Below-Average IQs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allor, Jill H.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cheatham, Jennifer P.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal randomized-control trial investigated the effectiveness of scientifically based reading instruction for students with IQs ranging from 40 to 80, including students with intellectual disability (ID). Students were randomly assigned into treatment (n = 76) and contrast (n = 65) groups. Students in the treatment group received…

  12. Developing Scientific Literacy Skills through Interdisciplinary, Technology-Based Global Simulations: GlobalEd 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Kimberly A.; Brown, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    GlobalEd 2 (GE2) is a set of technology-mediated, problem-based learning (PBL) simulations for middle-grade students, that capitalises on the multidisciplinary nature of the social sciences as an expanded curricular space for students to learn and apply scientific literacies and concepts, while simultaneously also enriching their understanding of…

  13. Excellence in the Knowledge-Based Economy: From Scientific to Research Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter; Young, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the European Union (EU) unveiled its new "Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence." This is not an isolated occurrence; policy-based interest in excellence is growing all over the world. The heightened focus on excellence and, in particular, attempts to define it through quantitative indicators…

  14. On the Cultivation of Automation Majors' Research Innovation Ability Based on Scientific Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lipeng; Li, Mingqiu

    2012-01-01

    Currently, it has become a fundamental goal for the engineering major to cultivate high-quality engineering technicians with innovation ability in scientific research which is an important academic ability necessary for them. This paper mainly explores the development of comprehensive and designing experiments in automation based on scientific…

  15. Investigation the Scientific Creativity of Gifted Students through Project-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Ersin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to identify the scientific creativity of gifted students through project-based activities. In accordance with this purpose, a study has been carried out with 13 gifted students studying in third and fifth grade. In the study, students have been informed about the project development stages and they have been asked…

  16. "Scientifically-Based Research": The Art of Politics and the Distortion of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul; Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The US Federal Government is forcefully prescribing a narrow definition of "scientifically-based" educational research. US policy, emerging from contemporary neoliberal and technocratic viewpoints and funded and propagated on a large scale, has the potential to influence international thinking on educational research. In this article we continue a…

  17. Professional Development in Scientifically Based Reading Instruction: Teacher Knowledge and Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podhajski, Blanche; Mather, Nancy; Nathan, Jane; Sammons, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature and presents data from a study that examined the effects of professional development in scientifically based reading instruction on teacher knowledge and student reading outcomes. The experimental group consisted of four first- and second-grade teachers and their students (n = 33). Three control teachers and…

  18. Scientific Reasoning Abilities of Nonscience Majors in Physics-Based Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on…

  19. Evaluation of Student Models on Current Socio-Scientific Topics Based on System Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuhoglu, Hasret

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to 1) enable primary school students to develop models that will help them understand and analyze a system, through a learning process based on system dynamics approach, 2) examine and evaluate students' models related to socio-scientific issues using certain criteria. The research method used is a case study. The study sample…

  20. Embryonic stem cell-based therapeutics: balancing scientific progress and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Chester, Ronald; Sackstein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The breakneck speed of scientific developments in embryonic stem (ES) cell technologies is, commensurately, ushering forth new bioethical debate(s) regarding these cells. A framework of bioethical principles is presented here to guide biomedical scientists and others engaged in improving human welfare through the application of ES cell-based therapies.

  1. The scientific learning approach using multimedia-based maze game to improve learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Wawan; Hafitriani, Sarah; Prabawa, Harsa Wara

    2016-02-01

    The objective of curriculum 2013 is to improve the quality of education in Indonesia, which leads to improving the quality of learning. The scientific approach and supported empowerment media is one approach as massaged of curriculum 2013. This research aims to design a labyrinth game based multimedia and apply in the scientific learning approach. This study was conducted in one of the Vocational School in Subjects of Computer Network on 2 (two) classes of experimental and control. The method used Mix Method Research (MMR) which combines qualitative in multimedia design, and quantitative in the study of learning impact. The results of a survey showed that the general of vocational students like of network topology material (68%), like multimedia (74%), and in particular, like interactive multimedia games and flash (84%). Multimediabased maze game developed good eligibility based on media and material aspects of each value 840% and 82%. Student learning outcomes as a result of using a scientific approach to learning with a multimediabased labyrinth game increase with an average of gain index about (58%) and higher than conventional multimedia with index average gain of 0.41 (41%). Based on these results the scientific approach to learning by using multimediabased labyrinth game can improve the quality of learning and increase understanding of students. Multimedia of learning based labyrinth game, which developed, got a positive response from the students with a good qualification level (75%).

  2. Extended Problem-Based Learning Improves Scientific Communication in Senior Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolber, Benedict J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a model of extended problem-based learning that instructed upper-level undergraduate students to focus on a single biological problem while improving their critical thinking, presentation, and scientific-writing skills. This course was developed in response to students' requests for formal training in oral presentation…

  3. Confronting Prospective Teachers' Ideas of Evolution and Scientific Inquiry Using Technology and Inquiry-Based Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Munford, Danusa; Friedrichsen, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the need for research in three areas: (1) teachers' understandings of scientific inquiry; (2) conceptual understandings of evolutionary processes; and (3) technology-enhanced instruction using an inquiry approach. The purpose of this study was to determine in what ways "The Galapagos Finches" software-based materials created a…

  4. Influence Based Learning Program Scientific Learning Approach to Science Students Generic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahyuni, Ida; Amdani, Khairul

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of scientific approach based learning program (P2BPS) against generic science skills of students. The method used in this research is "quasi experiment" with "two-group pretest posttest" design.The population in this study were all students who take courses in general physics II at the…

  5. The Development of Environmental Song-Based Materials Using a Scientific Approach for Teaching English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaela, Leonora Saantje

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and validate environmental song-based materials using a scientific approach which follow the stages of research and development. The writer created environmental lyrics and put them on traditional melodies that are familiar to the students. The materials were tried out using preliminary field test, main field…

  6. Scientific method by using project method in acid, base and salt material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriana, Beta Wulan; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Diniaty, Artina

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of scientific method using project method on student's achievement. This research was conducted at SMPN 2 Karanganyar. The descriptive quantitative method was used in this research. Samples were taken two classes using cluster random sampling. Data was obtained based on cognitive instruments. This data represents the value pretest and posttest. Data was analyzed by using descriptive analysis techniques. The results show that the class which using scientific method using project method has an average value of 37.50% of students' achievement (high), 37.50% (moderate) and 4.16% (very low). On the other hand, the class which using one method, scientific method, have the students' achievement at 33.3% (high), 8.33% (moderate) and 20.83% (very low).

  7. Different brain structures associated with artistic and scientific creativity: a voxel-based morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Baoguo; Cao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qunlin; Zhuang, Kaixiang; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is the ability to produce original and valuable ideas or behaviors. In real life, artistic and scientific creativity promoted the development of human civilization; however, to date, no studies have systematically investigated differences in the brain structures responsible for artistic and scientific creativity in a large sample. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study identified differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV) across the brain between artistic and scientific creativity (assessed by the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) in 356 young, healthy subjects. The results showed that artistic creativity was significantly negatively associated with the regional GMV of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In contrast, scientific creativity was significantly positively correlated with the regional GMV of the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG). Overall, artistic creativity was associated with the salience network (SN), whereas scientific creativity was associated with the executive attention network and semantic processing. These results may provide an effective marker that can be used to predict and evaluate individuals’ creative performance in the fields of science and art. PMID:28220826

  8. Understanding the Dialectical Relations Between Everyday Concepts and Scientific Concepts Within Play-Based Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2009-03-01

    In recent times there has been an enormous interest in Vygotsky’s writing on conceptual development, particularly his insights on the differences between everyday and scientific thinking. In drawing upon cultural-historical theory, this paper seeks to examine the relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts within playful contexts, such as preschools, with a view to better understanding how very young children develop conceptual understandings in science. This paper presents an overview of a study which sought to map the transformation and appropriation of scientific concepts within two early childhood settings. Approximately ten weeks of data gathering took place, with video recordings, field notes, photographic documentation, and child and teacher interviews for recording child concept formation within these naturalistic settings. The findings indicate that when teacher programs are more oriented towards concepts rather than materials, children’s play is focused on conceptual connections. Importantly, the study showed that: It was possible to map the multiple and dynamic levels or stratas of thinking that a child or group of children may exhibit within play-based contexts; An analysis of ‘unorganised heaps’ and ‘complexive thinking’ evident in conceptually or materially oriented play-based programs can be determined; the dialectical relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts in play-based programs can be understood; and greater understanding about the nature of concept formation in situated playful contexts have been possible.

  9. Spatial decisions and cognitive strategies of monkeys and humans based on abstract spatial stimuli in rotation test.

    PubMed

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Bures, Jan

    2009-09-08

    We showed previously that macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) could orient in real space using abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen. They made correct choices according to both spatial stimuli (designed as an abstract representation of a real space) and nonspatial stimuli (pictures lacking any inner configuration information). However, we suggested that there were differences in processing spatial and nonspatial stimuli. In the present experiment we show that monkeys could also use as a cue abstract spatial stimuli rotated with respect to the real response space. We studied the ability of monkeys to decode abstract spatial information provided in one spatial frame (computer screen) and to perform spatial choices in another spatial frame (touch panel separated from the screen). We analyzed how the monkeys were affected by the type of training, whether they perceived the stimuli as "spatial" or "nonspatial," and which cues they used to decode them. We compared humans to monkeys in a similar test to find out which cognitive strategy they used and whether they perceive spatial stimuli in the same way. We demonstrated that there were two possible strategies to solve the task, simple "fitting" ignoring rotations and "remapping," when the stimulus was represented as an "abstract space" per se.

  10. Evaluation of an S.D.I. System Based on "Nuclear Science Abstracts" and the Performance of Matching by Words in Titles Compared With Indexing Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, G.; And Others

    A selective dissemination of information service based on computer scanning of Nuclear Science Abstracts tapes has operated at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, England since October, 1968. The performance of the mechanized SDI service has been compared with that of the pre-existing current awareness service which is based on…

  11. The Art of Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremmins, Edward T.

    A three-stage analytical reading method for the composition of informative and indicative abstracts by authors and abstractors is presented in this monograph, along with background information on the abstracting process and a discussion of professional considerations in abstracting. An introduction to abstracts and abstracting precedes general…

  12. What matters in the classroom: A structural model of standards-based scientific literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shive, Louise E.

    For over two decades educators and policy makers have been particularly concerned with student achievement in the wake of A Nation at Risk. A majority of studies indicates that students' family background has the strongest influence on achievement, although characteristics of their teachers and schools have significant impact as well. This study considered achievement in science in particular, investigating the influence of alterable factors within the classroom on students' gains in scientific literacy. Scientific literacy included three elements: content knowledge, scientific process skills, and attitude towards science. Based on a review of the literature on student achievement, a structural equation model was constructed with five latent variables: teacher's education, instructional practices, teacher's attitudes, school's context, and students' scientific literacy. The model was tested using data from the five-month implementation of a standards-based integrated text/technology/laboratory program, Biology: Exploring Life. The sixteen biology teachers completed two pre-implementation surveys, and 664 of their students completed the three pretests and the corresponding posttests. The initial model did not fit well (chi2(80) = 2784.16; chi 2/df = 34.80; GFI = .70; IFI = .49; CFI = .49) and was inadmissible due to the presence of negative variances. After revision of the model, fit improved somewhat (chi2(53) = 1623.97; chi 2/df = 30.64; GFI = .77; IFI = .65; CFI = .65), although a negative variance migrated and persisted. The total effects were greatest for the teacher's attitudes (largely indirect, mediated through instructional practices), followed by school's context, and instructional practices. Teacher's education had the lowest total effects due to almost equal but opposite direct effects (positive) and indirect effects (mediated through instructional practices and teacher's attitudes). The investigator concluded that alterable factors such as teachers

  13. The Effect of Active Learning Based Science Camp Activities on Primary School Students' Opinions towards Scientific Knowledge and Scientific Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydede Yalçin, Meryem Nur

    2016-01-01

    It is important for people to be able to judge the nature while actually living in it to gain the scientific perspective which is an important skill nowadays. Within this importance, the general purpose of this study is to examine the effect of active learning based science camp activities on sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' opinions…

  14. Evidence-Based Practices: Applications of Concrete Representational Abstract Framework across Math Concepts for Students with Mathematics Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Jugnu; Morin, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Students with mathematics disabilities (MD) experience difficulties with both conceptual and procedural knowledge of different math concepts across grade levels. Research shows that concrete representational abstract framework of instruction helps to bridge this gap for students with MD. In this article, we provide an overview of this strategy…

  15. Teaching Problem Solving to Students Receiving Tiered Interventions Using the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence and Schema-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Burton, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical word problems are the most common form of mathematics problem solving implemented in K-12 schools. Identifying key words is a frequent strategy taught in classrooms in which students struggle with problem solving and show low success rates in mathematics. Researchers show that using the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA)…

  16. Identifying Multiple Levels of Discussion-Based Teaching Strategies for Constructing Scientific Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Grant; Clement, John

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify specific types of discussion-based strategies that two successful high school physics teachers using a model-based approach utilized in attempting to foster students' construction of explanatory models for scientific concepts. We found evidence that, in addition to previously documented dialogical strategies that teachers utilize to engage students in effectively communicating their scientific ideas in class, there is a second level of more cognitively focused model-construction-supporting strategies that these teachers utilized in attempting to foster students' learning. A further distinction between macro and micro strategy levels within the set of cognitive strategies is proposed. The relationships between the resulting three levels of strategies are portrayed in a diagramming system that tracks discussions over time. The study attempts to contribute to a clearer understanding of how discussion-leading strategies may be used to scaffold the development of conceptual understanding.

  17. Introduction of a Framework for Dynamic Knowledge Representation of the Control Structure of Transplant Immunology: Employing the Power of Abstraction with a Solid Organ Transplant Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    An, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Agent-based modeling has been used to characterize the nested control loops and non-linear dynamics associated with inflammatory and immune responses, particularly as a means of visualizing putative mechanistic hypotheses. This process is termed dynamic knowledge representation and serves a critical role in facilitating the ability to test and potentially falsify hypotheses in the current data- and hypothesis-rich biomedical research environment. Importantly, dynamic computational modeling aids in identifying useful abstractions, a fundamental scientific principle that pervades the physical sciences. Recognizing the critical scientific role of abstraction provides an intellectual and methodological counterweight to the tendency in biology to emphasize comprehensive description as the primary manifestation of biological knowledge. Transplant immunology represents yet another example of the challenge of identifying sufficient understanding of the inflammatory/immune response in order to develop and refine clinically effective interventions. Advances in immunosuppressive therapies have greatly improved solid organ transplant (SOT) outcomes, most notably by reducing and treating acute rejection. The end goal of these transplant immune strategies is to facilitate effective control of the balance between regulatory T cells and the effector/cytotoxic T-cell populations in order to generate, and ideally maintain, a tolerant phenotype. Characterizing the dynamics of immune cell populations and the interactive feedback loops that lead to graft rejection or tolerance is extremely challenging, but is necessary if rational modulation to induce transplant tolerance is to be accomplished. Herein is presented the solid organ agent-based model (SOTABM) as an initial example of an agent-based model (ABM) that abstractly reproduces the cellular and molecular components of the immune response to SOT. Despite its abstract nature, the SOTABM is able to qualitatively reproduce acute

  18. Introduction of a Framework for Dynamic Knowledge Representation of the Control Structure of Transplant Immunology: Employing the Power of Abstraction with a Solid Organ Transplant Agent-Based Model.

    PubMed

    An, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Agent-based modeling has been used to characterize the nested control loops and non-linear dynamics associated with inflammatory and immune responses, particularly as a means of visualizing putative mechanistic hypotheses. This process is termed dynamic knowledge representation and serves a critical role in facilitating the ability to test and potentially falsify hypotheses in the current data- and hypothesis-rich biomedical research environment. Importantly, dynamic computational modeling aids in identifying useful abstractions, a fundamental scientific principle that pervades the physical sciences. Recognizing the critical scientific role of abstraction provides an intellectual and methodological counterweight to the tendency in biology to emphasize comprehensive description as the primary manifestation of biological knowledge. Transplant immunology represents yet another example of the challenge of identifying sufficient understanding of the inflammatory/immune response in order to develop and refine clinically effective interventions. Advances in immunosuppressive therapies have greatly improved solid organ transplant (SOT) outcomes, most notably by reducing and treating acute rejection. The end goal of these transplant immune strategies is to facilitate effective control of the balance between regulatory T cells and the effector/cytotoxic T-cell populations in order to generate, and ideally maintain, a tolerant phenotype. Characterizing the dynamics of immune cell populations and the interactive feedback loops that lead to graft rejection or tolerance is extremely challenging, but is necessary if rational modulation to induce transplant tolerance is to be accomplished. Herein is presented the solid organ agent-based model (SOTABM) as an initial example of an agent-based model (ABM) that abstractly reproduces the cellular and molecular components of the immune response to SOT. Despite its abstract nature, the SOTABM is able to qualitatively reproduce acute

  19. Research on Drill String Vibration based on the Cepstrum Analysis and Abstracting of SWD Bit Source Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Lan, X.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    From the vibration drilling information of the surface, we can not only provide the drill bit source signal for the SWD(Seismic While Drilling)data interpretation, estimate the condition under the well, but also get such information as the stratum character, the attrited status of the aiguille and the rotating status of the drill string. In SWD pilot data preprocessing, it is very important that effective signals are abstracted from bit. Also, noises are abstracted from rigs and machines on ground. Source signal from bit, because of the broad range of frequencies and short time duration, can be easily affected by noises from rigs and machines. In order to avoid the affection and recover the bit source signals, the source function associated with the surface record is the key approach for processing the SWD signals. Cepstrum analysis is a nonlinear filtering technology, can change the convoluted signals in time domain to added signals in frequency domain. This method can remove the structural reverberation to abstract the source signals by selecting a window function. We discussed the cepstral filtering and abstracted the transient source signals according to the data of drill string simulated experiment. Indoor simulation experiment verifies reliability of cepstrum analysis technology, stifles reverberation of pipe string, and obtains source signal and transfer function. On the basis of noise elimination, analyze vibration signals received by the top of drilling string using cepstrum, stifles long time cycle reverberation, highlights periodic characteristics of signals, which supplies convenience for analysis of drill bit feeble vibration and spreading characteristics. Correlate extracted drill bit source signal with ground records, which improves signal-to-noise ratio of SWD data processing. Although cepstrum can not recover exact source signals, preliminary estimates can still be given for transient source signal in accordance with amplitude and width of the

  20. Are the health messages in schoolbooks based on scientific evidence? A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most textbooks contains messages relating to health. This profuse information requires analysis with regards to the quality of such information. The objective was to identify the scientific evidence on which the health messages in textbooks are based. Methods The degree of evidence on which such messages are based was identified and the messages were subsequently classified into three categories: Messages with high, medium or low levels of evidence; Messages with an unknown level of evidence; and Messages with no known evidence. Results 844 messages were studied. Of this total, 61% were classified as messages with an unknown level of evidence. Less than 15% fell into the category where the level of evidence was known and less than 6% were classified as possessing high levels of evidence. More than 70% of the messages relating to "Balanced Diets and Malnutrition", "Food Hygiene", "Tobacco", "Sexual behaviour and AIDS" and "Rest and ergonomics" are based on an unknown level of evidence. "Oral health" registered the highest percentage of messages based on a high level of evidence (37.5%), followed by "Pregnancy and newly born infants" (35%). Of the total, 24.6% are not based on any known evidence. Two of the messages appeared to contravene known evidence. Conclusion Many of the messages included in school textbooks are not based on scientific evidence. Standards must be established to facilitate the production of texts that include messages that are based on the best available evidence and which can improve children's health more effectively. PMID:21269446

  1. Research Based Science Education: Bringing Authentic Scientific Research into the Secondary Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayers, J.

    2003-12-01

    Teachers and students at Northview High School in Brazil, Indiana have the opportunity to engage in authentic scientific research through our participation in two national projects, TLRBSE and PEPP. Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) is a teacher professional development and retention program coupled with authentic scientific research projects in astronomy. Teacher-Leaders are trained in research-based pedagogy and serve as mentors to less experienced colleagues and work with students to develop science research methods and research projects for the classroom. Astronomical data collected at Kitt Peak by astronomers and teachers is made available on CD for classroom use. Northview is in its second year as a TLRBSE school. The Princeton Earth Physics Project (PEPP) trains mentor teachers in fundamentals of research in seismology. Teachers and students then gain hands on experience in science research through operation of a research quality seismic station sited at the high school. Data from the Northview seismometer are stored locally and also transmitted over the Internet to a database at Indiana University. Students have access to local data as well as seismic databases accessible through the Internet to use for research projects. The Northview Seismic Station has been in operation since 1998. In this presentation, I will describe how these projects have been incorporated into the physics and earth science programs at Northview High School. I will discus how our teachers and students have benefited from the opportunity to take part in hands-on scientific research under the guidance of university faculty. In particular, I will describe our participation in a regional seismic network through seismic data acquisition, data analysis using seismological software, and students' experiences in a university-based student research symposium. I reflect on the some of the successes and barriers to high-school teachers' and students' involvement in

  2. A Case Study of One Instructor's Lecture-Based Teaching of Proof in Abstract Algebra: Making Sense of Her Pedagogical Moves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a case study of the teaching of an undergraduate abstract algebra course, in particular the way the instructor presented proofs. It describes a framework for proof writing based on Selden and Selden (2009) and the work of Alcock (2010) on modes of thought that support proof writing. The paper offers a case study of the teaching of a…

  3. Scaffolding School Pupils' Scientific Argumentation with Evidence-Based Dialogue Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Alexandra

    This chapter reports pilot work investigating the potential of Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping to scaffold young teenagers’ scientific argumentation. Our research objective is to better understand pupils’ usage of dialogue maps created in Compendium to write scientific explanations. The participants were 20 pupils, 12-13 years old, in a summer science course for “gifted and talented” children in the UK. Through qualitative analysis of three case studies, we investigate the value of dialogue mapping as a mediating tool in the scientific reasoning process during a set of learning activities. These activities were published in an online learning environment to foster collaborative learning. Pupils mapped their discussions in pairs, shared maps via the online forum and in plenary discussions, and wrote essays based on their dialogue maps. This study draws on these multiple data sources: pupils’ maps in Compendium, writings in science and reflective comments about the uses of mapping for writing. Our analysis highlights the diversity of ways, both successful and unsuccessful, in which dialogue mapping was used by these young teenagers.

  4. Evaluation of Cache-based Superscalar and Cacheless Vector Architectures for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Carter, Jonathan; Shalf, John; Skinner, David; Ethier, Stephane; Biswas, Rupak; Djomehri, Jahed; VanderWijngaart, Rob

    2003-01-01

    The growing gap between sustained and peak performance for scientific applications has become a well-known problem in high performance computing. The recent development of parallel vector systems offers the potential to bridge this gap for a significant number of computational science codes and deliver a substantial increase in computing capabilities. This paper examines the intranode performance of the NEC SX6 vector processor and the cache-based IBM Power3/4 superscalar architectures across a number of key scientific computing areas. First, we present the performance of a microbenchmark suite that examines a full spectrum of low-level machine characteristics. Next, we study the behavior of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks using some simple optimizations. Finally, we evaluate the perfor- mance of several numerical codes from key scientific computing domains. Overall results demonstrate that the SX6 achieves high performance on a large fraction of our application suite and in many cases significantly outperforms the RISC-based architectures. However, certain classes of applications are not easily amenable to vectorization and would likely require extensive reengineering of both algorithm and implementation to utilize the SX6 effectively.

  5. Scientific evaluation of an intra-curricular educational kit to foster inquiry-based learning (IBL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaes, Nathalie; Cords, Nina; Prasad, Amrita; Fischer, Robert; Euler, Manfred; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-07-01

    Society becomes increasingly dependent on photonics technologies; however there is an alarming lack of technological awareness among secondary school students. They associate photonics with experiments and components in the class room that seem to bear little relevance to their daily life. The Rocard Report [5] highlights the need for fostering students' scientific skills and technological awareness and identifies inquiry based learning (IBL) as a means to achieve this. Students need to actively do science rather than be silent spectators. The `Photonics Explorer' kit was developed as an EU funded project to equip teachers, free-of-charge, with educational material designed to excite, engage and educate European secondary school students using guided inquiry based learning techniques. Students put together their own experiments using up-to-date versatile components, critically interpret results and relate the conclusions to relevant applications in their daily life. They work hands-on with the material, thus developing and honing their scientific and analytical skills that are otherwise latent in a typical class room situation. A qualitative and quantitative study of the impact of the kit in the classroom was undertaken with 50 kits tested in 7 EU countries with over 1500 students in the local language. This paper reports on the results of the EU wide field tests that show the positive impact of the kit in raising the self-efficacy, scientific skills and interest in science among students and the effectiveness of the kit in implementing IBL strategies in classrooms across EU.

  6. Evaluation of cache-based superscalar and cacheless vector architectures for scientific computations

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Canning, Andrew; Carter, Jonathan; Shalf, John; Skinner, David; Ethier, Stephane; Biswas, Rupak; Djomehri, Jahed; Van der Wijngaart, Rob

    2003-05-01

    The growing gap between sustained and peak performance for scientific applications is a well-known problem in high end computing. The recent development of parallel vector systems offers the potential to bridge this gap for many computational science codes and deliver a substantial increase in computing capabilities. This paper examines the intranode performance of the NEC SX-6 vector processor and the cache-based IBM Power3/4 superscalar architectures across a number of scientific computing areas. First, we present the performance of a microbenchmark suite that examines low-level machine characteristics. Next, we study the behavior of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks. Finally, we evaluate the performance of several scientific computing codes. Results demonstrate that the SX-6 achieves high performance on a large fraction of our applications and often significantly out performs the cache-based architectures. However, certain applications are not easily amenable to vectorization and would re quire extensive algorithm and implementation reengineering to utilize the SX-6 effectively.

  7. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  8. Scientific Opportunities for Monitoring at Environmental Remediation Sites (SOMERS): Integrated Systems-Based Approaches to Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Truex, Michael J.; Peterson, Mark; Freshley, Mark D.; Pierce, Eric M.; McCord, John; Young, Michael H.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Miller, Rick; Miracle, Ann L.; Kaback, Dawn; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Rossabi, Joe; Lee, Michelle H.; Bush, Richard P.; Beam , Paul; Chamberlain, G. M.; Marble, Justin; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Collazo, Yvette

    2012-05-15

    Through an inter-disciplinary effort, DOE is addressing a need to advance monitoring approaches from sole reliance on cost- and labor-intensive point-source monitoring to integrated systems-based approaches such as flux-based approaches and the use of early indicator parameters. Key objectives include identifying current scientific, technical and implementation opportunities and challenges, prioritizing science and technology strategies to meet current needs within the DOE complex for the most challenging environments, and developing an integrated and risk-informed monitoring framework.

  9. European Union research in support of environment and health: Building scientific evidence base for policy.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Tuomo; Hoeveler, Arnd; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2017-04-03

    Opinion polls show that the European Union citizens are increasingly concerned about the impact of environmental factors on their health. In order to respond and provide solid scientific evidence for the numerous policies related to the protection of human health and the environment managed at the Union level, the European Union made a substantial investment in research and innovation in the past two decades through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, including the current programme, Horizon 2020, which started in 2014. This policy review paper analysed the portfolio of forty collaborative projects relevant to environment and health, which received a total amount of around 228 million euros from the EU. It gives details on their contents and general scientific trends observed, the profiles of the participating countries and institutions, and the potential policy implications of the results obtained. The increasing knowledge base is needed to make informed policy decisions in Europe and beyond, and should be useful to many stakeholders including the scientific community and regulatory authorities.

  10. Are Opinions Based on Science: Modelling Social Response to Scientific Facts

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Tagüeña-Martínez, Julia; Kaski, Kimmo K.; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2012-01-01

    As scientists we like to think that modern societies and their members base their views, opinions and behaviour on scientific facts. This is not necessarily the case, even though we are all (over-) exposed to information flow through various channels of media, i.e. newspapers, television, radio, internet, and web. It is thought that this is mainly due to the conflicting information on the mass media and to the individual attitude (formed by cultural, educational and environmental factors), that is, one external factor and another personal factor. In this paper we will investigate the dynamical development of opinion in a small population of agents by means of a computational model of opinion formation in a co-evolving network of socially linked agents. The personal and external factors are taken into account by assigning an individual attitude parameter to each agent, and by subjecting all to an external but homogeneous field to simulate the effect of the media. We then adjust the field strength in the model by using actual data on scientific perception surveys carried out in two different populations, which allow us to compare two different societies. We interpret the model findings with the aid of simple mean field calculations. Our results suggest that scientifically sound concepts are more difficult to acquire than concepts not validated by science, since opposing individuals organize themselves in close communities that prevent opinion consensus. PMID:22905117

  11. Are opinions based on science: modelling social response to scientific facts.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Tagüeña-Martínez, Julia; Kaski, Kimmo K; Barrio, Rafael A

    2012-01-01

    As scientists we like to think that modern societies and their members base their views, opinions and behaviour on scientific facts. This is not necessarily the case, even though we are all (over-) exposed to information flow through various channels of media, i.e. newspapers, television, radio, internet, and web. It is thought that this is mainly due to the conflicting information on the mass media and to the individual attitude (formed by cultural, educational and environmental factors), that is, one external factor and another personal factor. In this paper we will investigate the dynamical development of opinion in a small population of agents by means of a computational model of opinion formation in a co-evolving network of socially linked agents. The personal and external factors are taken into account by assigning an individual attitude parameter to each agent, and by subjecting all to an external but homogeneous field to simulate the effect of the media. We then adjust the field strength in the model by using actual data on scientific perception surveys carried out in two different populations, which allow us to compare two different societies. We interpret the model findings with the aid of simple mean field calculations. Our results suggest that scientifically sound concepts are more difficult to acquire than concepts not validated by science, since opposing individuals organize themselves in close communities that prevent opinion consensus.

  12. Scientific reasoning abilities of nonscience majors in physics-based courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.

    2012-06-01

    We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on LCTSR score, the majority of non-STEM students can be classified as either concrete operational or transitional reasoners in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, whereas in the STEM population formal operational reasoners are far more prevalent. In particular, non-STEM students demonstrate significant difficulty with proportional and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Prescores on the LCTSR are correlated with normalized learning gains on various concept inventories. The correlation is strongest for content that can be categorized as mostly theoretical, meaning a lack of directly observable exemplars, and weakest for content categorized as mostly descriptive, where directly observable exemplars are abundant. Although the implementation of research-verified, interactive engagement pedagogy can lead to gains in content knowledge, significant gains in theoretical content (such as force and energy) are more difficult with non-STEM students. We also observe no significant gains on the LCTSR without explicit instruction in scientific reasoning patterns. These results further demonstrate that differences in student populations are important when comparing normalized gains on concept inventories, and the achievement of significant gains in scientific reasoning requires a reevaluation of the traditional approach to physics for non-STEM students.

  13. Students' Participation in an Interdisciplinary, Socioscientific Issues Based Undergraduate Human Biology Major and Their Understanding of Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, Jennifer L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Sherwood, Robert D.; Schlegel, Whitney M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether Socioscientific Issues (SSI) based learning environments affect university students' epistemological understanding of scientific inquiry differently from traditional science educational contexts. We identify and compare conceptions of scientific inquiry of students participating in an…

  14. Lab Coats or Trench Coats? Detective Sleuthing as an Alternative to Scientifically Based Research in Indigenous Educational Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaomea, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Amidst late 19th-century efforts to emphasize modern medicine's transition to a more scientific approach, physicians seeking to represent themselves as scientists began wearing white laboratory coats. Today educational researchers are likewise urged to don metaphorical white coats as scientifically based research is held up as the cure-all for our…

  15. Scientific Evidence-Based Effects of Hydrotherapy on Various Systems of the Body

    PubMed Central

    Mooventhan, A; Nivethitha, L

    2014-01-01

    The use of water for various treatments (hydrotherapy) is probably as old as mankind. Hydrotherapy is one of the basic methods of treatment widely used in the system of natural medicine, which is also called as water therapy, aquatic therapy, pool therapy, and balneotherapy. Use of water in various forms and in various temperatures can produce different effects on different system of the body. Many studies/reviews reported the effects of hydrotherapy only on very few systems and there is lack of studies/reviews in reporting the evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems. We performed PubMed and PubMed central search to review relevant articles in English literature based on “effects of hydrotherapy/balneotherapy” on various systems of the body. Based on the available literature this review suggests that the hydrotherapy has a scientific evidence-based effect on various systems of the body. PMID:24926444

  16. Why educate little scientists? Examining the potential of practice-based scientific literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, D. Kevin; Polman, Joseph L.

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, a number of curriculum reform projects have championed the notion of having students do science in ways that move beyond hands-on work with authentic materials and methods, or developing a conceptual grasp of current theories. These reformers have argued that students should come to an understanding of science through doing the discipline and taking a high degree of agency over investigations from start to finish. This stance has occasionally been mocked by its critics as an attempt to create little scientists - a mission, it is implied, that is either romantic or without purpose. Here, we make the strong case for a practice-based scientific literacy, arguing through three related empirical studies that taking the notion of little scientists seriously might be more productive in achieving current standards for scientific literacy than continuing to refine ideas and techniques based on the coverage of conceptual content. Study 1 is a classroom case study that illustrates how project-based instruction can be carried out when teachers develop guidance and support strategies to bootstrap students' participation in forms of inquiry they are still in the process of mastering. Study 2 shows how sustained on-line work with volunteer scientists appears to influence students' success in formulating credible scientific arguments in written project reports following an authentic genre. Study 3, using data from three suburban high school classes, suggests that involving students in the formulation of research questions and data analysis strategies results in better spontaneous use of empirical data collection and analysis strategies on a transfer task. The study also suggests that failing to involve students in the formulation of research can result in a loss of agency. The implications of these findings for future research and practice are discussed.

  17. Results of data base management system parameterized performance testing related to GSFC scientific applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carchedi, C. H.; Gough, T. L.; Huston, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a variety of tests designed to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of several commercially available data base management system (DBMS) products compatible with the Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 computer system are summarized. The tests were performed on the INGRES, ORACLE, and SEED DBMS products employing applications that were similar to scientific applications under development by NASA. The objectives of this testing included determining the strength and weaknesses of the candidate systems, performance trade-offs of various design alternatives and the impact of some installation and environmental (computer related) influences.

  18. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2004-01-01

    What is involved in consolidating a new mathematical abstraction? This paper examines the work of one student who was working on a task designed to consolidate two recently constructed absolute function abstractions. The study adopts an activity theoretic model of abstraction in context. Selected protocol data are presented. The initial state of…

  19. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  20. NASA Scientific and Technical Information System (STI) and New Directory of Numerical Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J.

    1984-01-01

    The heart of NASA's STI system is a collection of scientific and technical information gathered from worldwide sources. Currently containing over 2.2 million items, the data base is growing at the rate of 140,000 items per year. In addition to announcement journals, information is disseminated through the NASA RECON on-line bibliographic search system. One part of RECON is NALNET which lists journals and books held by the NASA Centers. Another service now accessible by recon is a directory of numerical data bases (DND) which can be shared by NASA staff and contractors. The DND describes each data base and gives the name and phone number of a contact person. A NASA-wide integrated library system is being developed for the Center libraries which will include on-line catalog and subsystems for acquisition, circulation control, information retrieveal, management information, and an authority file. These subsystems can interact with on-line bibliographic, patron, and vendor files.

  1. Importance of H-Abstraction in the Final Step of Nitrosoalkane Formation in the Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Cytochrome P450 by Amine-Containing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hirao, Hajime; Thellamurege, Nandun M.; Chuanprasit, Pratanphorn; Xu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of amine-containing drugs by cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) is prone to form a nitrosoalkane metabolic intermediate (MI), which subsequently coordinates to the heme iron of a P450, to produce a metabolic-intermediate complex (MIC). This type of P450 inhibition, referred to as mechanism-based inactivation (MBI), presents a serious concern in drug discovery processes. We applied density functional theory (DFT) to the reaction between N-methylhydroxylamine (NMH) and the compound I reactive species of P450, in an effort to elucidate the mechanism of the putative final step of the MI formation in the alkylamine metabolism. Our DFT calculations show that H-abstraction from the hydroxyl group of NMH is the most favorable pathway via which the nitrosoalkane intermediate is produced spontaneously. H-abstraction from the N–H bond was slightly less favorable. In contrast, N-oxidation and H-abstraction from the C–H bond of the methyl group had much higher energy barriers. Hence, if the conversion of NMH to nitrosoalkane is catalyzed by a P450, the reaction should proceed preferentially via H-abstraction, either from the O–H bond or from the N–H bond. Our theoretical analysis of the interaction between the MI and pentacoordinate heme moieties provided further insights into the coordination bond in the MIC. PMID:24351842

  2. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  3. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  4. Reification of abstract concepts to improve comprehension using interactive virtual environments and a knowledge-based design: a renal physiology model.

    PubMed

    Alverson, Dale C; Saiki, Stanley M; Caudell, Thomas P; Goldsmith, Timothy; Stevens, Susan; Saland, Linda; Colleran, Kathleen; Brandt, John; Danielson, Lee; Cerilli, Lisa; Harris, Alexis; Gregory, Martin C; Stewart, Randall; Norenberg, Jeffery; Shuster, George; Panaoitis; Holten, James; Vergera, Victor M; Sherstyuk, Andrei; Kihmm, Kathleen; Lui, Jack; Wang, Kin Lik

    2006-01-01

    Several abstract concepts in medical education are difficult to teach and comprehend. In order to address this challenge, we have been applying the approach of reification of abstract concepts using interactive virtual environments and a knowledge-based design. Reification is the process of making abstract concepts and events, beyond the realm of direct human experience, concrete and accessible to teachers and learners. Entering virtual worlds and simulations not otherwise easily accessible provides an opportunity to create, study, and evaluate the emergence of knowledge and comprehension from the direct interaction of learners with otherwise complex abstract ideas and principles by bringing them to life. Using a knowledge-based design process and appropriate subject matter experts, knowledge structure methods are applied in order to prioritize, characterize important relationships, and create a concept map that can be integrated into the reified models that are subsequently developed. Applying these principles, our interdisciplinary team has been developing a reified model of the nephron into which important physiologic functions can be integrated and rendered into a three dimensional virtual environment called Flatland, a virtual environments development software tool, within which a learners can interact using off-the-shelf hardware. The nephron model can be driven dynamically by a rules-based artificial intelligence engine, applying the rules and concepts developed in conjunction with the subject matter experts. In the future, the nephron model can be used to interactively demonstrate a number of physiologic principles or a variety of pathological processes that may be difficult to teach and understand. In addition, this approach to reification can be applied to a host of other physiologic and pathological concepts in other systems. These methods will require further evaluation to determine their impact and role in learning.

  5. A model of scientific attitudes assessment by observation in physics learning based scientific approach: case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusliana Ekawati, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to produce a model of scientific attitude assessment in terms of the observations for physics learning based scientific approach (case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school). Development of instruments in this study adaptation of the Plomp model, the procedure includes the initial investigation, design, construction, testing, evaluation and revision. The test is done in Surakarta, so that the data obtained are analyzed using Aiken formula to determine the validity of the content of the instrument, Cronbach’s alpha to determine the reliability of the instrument, and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis with LISREL 8.50 program. The results of this research were conceptual models, instruments and guidelines on scientific attitudes assessment by observation. The construct assessment instruments include components of curiosity, objectivity, suspended judgment, open-mindedness, honesty and perseverance. The construct validity of instruments has been qualified (rated load factor > 0.3). The reliability of the model is quite good with the Alpha value 0.899 (> 0.7). The test showed that the model fits the theoretical models are supported by empirical data, namely p-value 0.315 (≥ 0.05), RMSEA 0.027 (≤ 0.08)

  6. Text-based plagiarism in scientific publishing: issues, developments and education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-09-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or copying language from sources, has recently become an issue of growing concern in scientific publishing. Use of CrossCheck (a computational text-matching tool) by journals has sometimes exposed an unexpected amount of textual similarity between submissions and databases of scholarly literature. In this paper I provide an overview of the relevant literature, to examine how journal gatekeepers perceive textual appropriation, and how automated plagiarism-screening tools have been developed to detect text matching, with the technique now available for self-check of manuscripts before submission; I also discuss issues around English as an additional language (EAL) authors and in particular EAL novices being the typical offenders of textual borrowing. The final section of the paper proposes a few educational directions to take in tackling text-based plagiarism, highlighting the roles of the publishing industry, senior authors and English for academic purposes professionals.

  7. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis: Volume 1,Scientific Bases and Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Dobson, David

    2001-05-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054 [DIRS 124754

  8. Neural correlates of temporal context retrieval for abstract scrambled phrases: Reducing narrative and familiarity-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Diana, Rachel A

    2017-01-15

    Temporal context, memory for the timing of events, can be assessed using non-temporal strategies such as relative familiarity or inference from a semantic narrative. Neuroimaging studies, which have previously encouraged such strategies, find similar patterns of brain regions involved in both temporal and non-temporal context memory. The present study aims to investigate whether previous findings are driven by the use of non-temporal strategies or whether the same pattern of brain regions is identified when relative familiarity and semantic narrative strategies are discouraged. We used abstract phrases (e.g. alone me leave) created by scrambling familiar three-word phrases. The words in the phrases were less concrete than the object image stimuli used in previous studies of temporal context memory (Jenkins and Ranganath, 2010) and were presented quickly while participants read each word aloud. This differed from previous studies in which participants were encouraged to use narrative strategies during encoding (Tubridy and Davachi, 2011) and was designed to discourage use of narrative strategies. The relative familiarity of the words within each phrase was similar and likely not diagnostic of word order during encoding, in order to minimize the use of relative familiarity strategies. Neuroimaging results indicate that temporal context retrieval was associated with the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, which are regions consistent with the retrieval of non-temporal context in episodic memory, suggesting that previous findings were not driven entirely by non-temporal strategies but rather that temporal memory relies on similar brain regions to non-temporal memory.

  9. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map. PMID:28328983

  10. Fostering Model-Based School Scientific Argumentation Among Prospective Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims both to foster and to assess "school scientific argumentation" among secondary science teachers during their pre-service education. For these purposes, the paper uses the meta-scientific construct of "theoretical model" (proposed by the so-called semantic view of scientific theories from contemporary philosophy of science) in three…

  11. The Model-Based View of Scientific Theories and the Structuring of School Science Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Model theory in contemporary philosophy of science interprets scientific theories as sets of models, and contributes significantly to the understanding of the relation between theories, models, and the real world. The clarification of this relation is fundamental for the understanding of the nature of scientific methods and scientific knowledge…

  12. Authorization of Animal Experiments Is Based on Confidence Rather than Evidence of Scientific Rigor.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Lucile; Reichlin, Thomas S; Nathues, Christina; Würbel, Hanno

    2016-12-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates high risk of bias in preclinical animal research, questioning the scientific validity and reproducibility of published research findings. Systematic reviews found low rates of reporting of measures against risks of bias in the published literature (e.g., randomization, blinding, sample size calculation) and a correlation between low reporting rates and inflated treatment effects. That most animal research undergoes peer review or ethical review would offer the possibility to detect risks of bias at an earlier stage, before the research has been conducted. For example, in Switzerland, animal experiments are licensed based on a detailed description of the study protocol and a harm-benefit analysis. We therefore screened applications for animal experiments submitted to Swiss authorities (n = 1,277) for the rates at which the use of seven basic measures against bias (allocation concealment, blinding, randomization, sample size calculation, inclusion/exclusion criteria, primary outcome variable, and statistical analysis plan) were described and compared them with the reporting rates of the same measures in a representative sub-sample of publications (n = 50) resulting from studies described in these applications. Measures against bias were described at very low rates, ranging on average from 2.4% for statistical analysis plan to 19% for primary outcome variable in applications for animal experiments, and from 0.0% for sample size calculation to 34% for statistical analysis plan in publications from these experiments. Calculating an internal validity score (IVS) based on the proportion of the seven measures against bias, we found a weak positive correlation between the IVS of applications and that of publications (Spearman's rho = 0.34, p = 0.014), indicating that the rates of description of these measures in applications partly predict their rates of reporting in publications. These results indicate that the authorities licensing animal

  13. Authorization of Animal Experiments Is Based on Confidence Rather than Evidence of Scientific Rigor

    PubMed Central

    Nathues, Christina; Würbel, Hanno

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates high risk of bias in preclinical animal research, questioning the scientific validity and reproducibility of published research findings. Systematic reviews found low rates of reporting of measures against risks of bias in the published literature (e.g., randomization, blinding, sample size calculation) and a correlation between low reporting rates and inflated treatment effects. That most animal research undergoes peer review or ethical review would offer the possibility to detect risks of bias at an earlier stage, before the research has been conducted. For example, in Switzerland, animal experiments are licensed based on a detailed description of the study protocol and a harm–benefit analysis. We therefore screened applications for animal experiments submitted to Swiss authorities (n = 1,277) for the rates at which the use of seven basic measures against bias (allocation concealment, blinding, randomization, sample size calculation, inclusion/exclusion criteria, primary outcome variable, and statistical analysis plan) were described and compared them with the reporting rates of the same measures in a representative sub-sample of publications (n = 50) resulting from studies described in these applications. Measures against bias were described at very low rates, ranging on average from 2.4% for statistical analysis plan to 19% for primary outcome variable in applications for animal experiments, and from 0.0% for sample size calculation to 34% for statistical analysis plan in publications from these experiments. Calculating an internal validity score (IVS) based on the proportion of the seven measures against bias, we found a weak positive correlation between the IVS of applications and that of publications (Spearman’s rho = 0.34, p = 0.014), indicating that the rates of description of these measures in applications partly predict their rates of reporting in publications. These results indicate that the authorities licensing

  14. Scientific developments of liquid crystal-based optical memory: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Jai; Chandran, Achu; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2017-01-01

    The memory behavior in liquid crystals (LCs), although rarely observed, has made very significant headway over the past three decades since their discovery in nematic type LCs. It has gone from a mere scientific curiosity to application in variety of commodities. The memory element formed by numerous LCs have been protected by patents, and some commercialized, and used as compensation to non-volatile memory devices, and as memory in personal computers and digital cameras. They also have the low cost, large area, high speed, and high density memory needed for advanced computers and digital electronics. Short and long duration memory behavior for industrial applications have been obtained from several LC materials, and an LC memory with interesting features and applications has been demonstrated using numerous LCs. However, considerable challenges still exist in searching for highly efficient, stable, and long-lifespan materials and methods so that the development of useful memory devices is possible. This review focuses on the scientific and technological approach of fascinating applications of LC-based memory. We address the introduction, development status, novel design and engineering principles, and parameters of LC memory. We also address how the amalgamation of LCs could bring significant change/improvement in memory effects in the emerging field of nanotechnology, and the application of LC memory as the active component for futuristic and interesting memory devices.

  15. Scientific vs. clinical-based knowledge in psychology: a concealed moral conflict.

    PubMed

    Miller, R B

    2001-01-01

    Psychology and the other mental health professions are bitterly divided between the proponents of scientific vs. clinical-based knowledge. Though these two groups agree on little related to assessment, treatment or outcome evaluation, they share a belief in the moral neutrality of the knowledge they do possess. It is argued here that this moral neutrality is a myth, and that it is exactly the unacknowledged and incompatible moral positions inherent in clinical and research practices that are at the center of this controversy. The nature of moral problems, the fundamental moral value positions prevalent in our culture, and the specific moral values associated with each side of this schism are explored. While these moral differences may not all be resolved by being recognized and discussed, the process of dialogue can not but help us bridge the current chasm. To this end it is recommended that psychologists and other mental health professionals adopt a "truth-in-moral-packaging" rule that requires both clinicians and scientific researchers to define openly and clearly the moral objectives that infuse their work.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 150 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1980 through June 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 42)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 174 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1992 through December 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 105 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1986 through December 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 39)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 154 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period Jan. 1991 through Jun. 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 136 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 63 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1989 through December 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 213 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1978 through December 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 172 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1984 through December 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 138 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1979 through December 1979. Each entry cib consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography. A continuing bibliography (supplement 22). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 234 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1982 through December 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 58 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1989 through June 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 25)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 102 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1984 through June 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 45)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 137 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1994 through Jun. 1994. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 33)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 16 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1988 through June 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 24)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 167 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1983 through December 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 31)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1987 through June 1987. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 240 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of January 1979 through June 1979. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 40)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 181 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1991 through December 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 44)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jun. 1993 through Dec. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (Supplement 48)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1995 through December 1995. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 115 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1986 through June 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 41)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1992 through Jun. 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 38)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 132 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1990 through December 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 120 patents and patent applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of July 1980 through December 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 34)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 124 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1988 through December 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 130 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1981 through July 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 109 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during the period July 1985 through December 1985. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 27)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 92 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1985 through June 1985. Each entry consist of a citation, and abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 23)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 129 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1983 through June 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 165 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1981 through December 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 43)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 128 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1993 through Jun. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 76 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1990 through June 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. How is a metabolic intermediate formed in the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 by using 1,1-dimethylhydrazine: hydrogen abstraction or nitrogen oxidation?

    PubMed

    Hirao, Hajime; Chuanprasit, Pratanphorn; Cheong, Ying Yi; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2013-06-03

    A precise understanding of the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) at the quantum mechanical level should allow more reliable predictions of drug-drug interactions than those currently available. Hydrazines are among the molecules that act as mechanism-based inactivators to terminate the function of P450s, which are essential heme enzymes responsible for drug metabolism in the human body. Despite its importance, the mechanism explaining how a metabolic intermediate (MI) is formed from hydrazine is not fully understood. We used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to compare four possible mechanisms underlying the reaction between 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (or unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, UDMH) and the reactive compound I (Cpd I) intermediate of P450. Our DFT calculations provided a clear view on how an aminonitrene-type MI is formed from UDMH. In the most favorable pathway, hydrogen is spontaneously abstracted from the N2 atom of UDMH by Cpd I, followed by a second hydrogen abstraction from the N2 atom by Cpd II. Nitrogen oxidation of nitrogen atoms and hydrogen abstraction from the C-H bond of the methyl group were found to be less favorable than the hydrogen abstraction from the N-H bond. We also found that the reaction of protonated UDMH with Cpd I is rather sluggish. The aminonitrene-type MI binds to the ferric heme more strongly than a water molecule. This is consistent with the notion that the catalytic cycle of P450 is impeded when such an MI is produced through the P450-catalyzed reaction.

  9. Exploring access to scientific literature using content-based image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    The number of articles published in the scientific medical literature is continuously increasing, and Web access to the journals is becoming common. Databases such as SPIE Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, indices such as PubMed, and search engines such as Google provide the user with sophisticated full-text search capabilities. However, information in images and graphs within these articles is entirely disregarded. In this paper, we quantify the potential impact of using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) to access this non-text data. Based on the Journal Citations Report (JCR), the journal Radiology was selected for this study. In 2005, 734 articles were published electronically in this journal. This included 2,587 figures, which yields a rate of 3.52 figures per article. Furthermore, 56.4% of these figures are composed of several individual panels, i.e. the figure combines different images and/or graphs. According to the Image Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (ImageCLEF), the error rate of automatic identification of medical images is about 15%. Therefore, it is expected that, by applying ImageCLEF-like techniques, already 95.5% of articles could be retrieved by means of CBIR. The challenge for CBIR in scientific literature, however, is the use of local texture properties to analyze individual image panels in composite illustrations. Using local features for content-based image representation, 8.81 images per article are available, and the predicted correctness rate may increase to 98.3%. From this study, we conclude that CBIR may have a high impact in medical literature research and suggest that additional research in this area is warranted.

  10. Chang'E-3 data pre-processing system based on scientific workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tan, xu; liu, jianjun; wang, yuanyuan; yan, wei; zhang, xiaoxia; li, chunlai

    2016-04-01

    The Chang'E-3(CE3) mission have obtained a huge amount of lunar scientific data. Data pre-processing is an important segment of CE3 ground research and application system. With a dramatic increase in the demand of data research and application, Chang'E-3 data pre-processing system(CEDPS) based on scientific workflow is proposed for the purpose of making scientists more flexible and productive by automating data-driven. The system should allow the planning, conduct and control of the data processing procedure with the following possibilities: • describe a data processing task, include:1)define input data/output data, 2)define the data relationship, 3)define the sequence of tasks,4)define the communication between tasks,5)define mathematical formula, 6)define the relationship between task and data. • automatic processing of tasks. Accordingly, Describing a task is the key point whether the system is flexible. We design a workflow designer which is a visual environment for capturing processes as workflows, the three-level model for the workflow designer is discussed:1) The data relationship is established through product tree.2)The process model is constructed based on directed acyclic graph(DAG). Especially, a set of process workflow constructs, including Sequence, Loop, Merge, Fork are compositional one with another.3)To reduce the modeling complexity of the mathematical formulas using DAG, semantic modeling based on MathML is approached. On top of that, we will present how processed the CE3 data with CEDPS.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  12. The Effectiveness of the Brain Based Teaching Approach in Enhancing Scientific Understanding of Newtonian Physics among Form Four Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Salmiza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Brain Based Teaching Approach in enhancing students' scientific understanding of Newtonian Physics in the context of Form Four Physics instruction. The technique was implemented based on the Brain Based Learning Principles developed by Caine & Caine (1991, 2003). This brain compatible…

  13. Knowledge-Based Parallel Performance Technology for Scientific Application Competitiveness Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Malony, Allen D; Shende, Sameer

    2011-08-15

    The primary goal of the University of Oregon's DOE "œcompetitiveness" project was to create performance technology that embodies and supports knowledge of performance data, analysis, and diagnosis in parallel performance problem solving. The target of our development activities was the TAU Performance System and the technology accomplishments reported in this and prior reports have all been incorporated in the TAU open software distribution. In addition, the project has been committed to maintaining strong interactions with the DOE SciDAC Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI) and Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS). This collaboration has proved valuable for translation of our knowledge-based performance techniques to parallel application development and performance engineering practice. Our outreach has also extended to the DOE Advanced CompuTational Software (ACTS) collection and project. Throughout the project we have participated in the PERI and TASCS meetings, as well as the ACTS annual workshops.

  14. Globus-based Services for the Hydro-Meteorology Scientific Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Ioan-Lucian; Hofmann, Matthias; Heller, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Scientific workflows in hydro-meteorology involve multiple applications with varying computational requirements. These are best met by different e-Infrastructures in Europe: sequential codes with modest requirements are well suited to resources offered in EGI (European Grid Infrastructure) while parallelized, computationally demanding codes have to run on PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) resources. Access to major Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI) in Europe such as PRACE and EGI is provided by means of grid middleware like Globus, which is available in both eInfrastructures and thus can bridge between them. The consortium "Initiative for Globus in Europe" (IGE - http://www.ige-project.eu) and its community body EGCF (http://www.egcf.eu) act as European provider for Globus technology, offering the resource providers and scientific user communities professional services such as Globus software provisioning and certification, training and documentation, and community software adaptation to Globus technology. This presentation will cover the following two parts: an outline of the IGE/EGCF services for the DRIHM community and an introduction to data handling with Globus Online, with emphasis on the achievements to date. The set of Globus-centered services of potential interest to the hydro-meteorology community have been identified to be: Globus support for: data access and handling: GridFTP, Globus Online, Globus Connect, Globus Storage; computing: GRAM for submission of parallel jobs to PRACE or of high-throughput jobs to EGI; accounting: tracking the usage records with GridSAFE. Infrastructure and workflow integration support such as: setup of virtual organizations for DRIHM community; access to EGI and PRACE infrastructures via Globus-based tools; investigation of workflow interoperability technologies (such as SHIWA). Furthermore, IGE successfully provides access to test bed resources where developers of the DRIHM community can port

  15. Technical Abstracts, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, M.

    1989-05-01

    This document is a compilation of the abstracts from unclassified documents published by Mechanical Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1988. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-90,000 and 100,000 series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides brief descriptions of those documents assigned to the MISC (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. The abstracts cover the broad range of technologies within Mechanical Engineering and are grouped by the principal author's division. An eighth category is devoted to abstracts presented at the CUBE symposium sponsored jointly by LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia Laboratories. Within these areas, abstracts are listed numerically. An author index and title index are provided at the back of the book for cross referencing. The publications listed may be obtained by contacting LLNL's TID library or the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Further information may be obtained by contacting the author directly or the persons listed in the introduction of each subject area.

  16. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  17. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  18. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  19. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  20. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  1. Organizational Communication Abstracts--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Raymond L.; And Others

    This document includes nearly 700 brief abstracts of works published in 1975 that are relevant to the field of organizational communication. The introduction presents a rationale for the project, a review of research methods developed by the authors for the preparation of abstracts, a statement of limitations as to the completeness of the coverage…

  2. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  3. Mad City Mystery: Developing Scientific Argumentation Skills with a Place-based Augmented Reality Game on Handheld Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Kurt D.; Jan, Mingfong

    2007-02-01

    While the knowledge economy has reshaped the world, schools lag behind in producing appropriate learning for this social change. Science education needs to prepare students for a future world in which multiple representations are the norm and adults are required to "think like scientists." Location-based augmented reality games offer an opportunity to create a "post-progressive" pedagogy in which students are not only immersed in authentic scientific inquiry, but also required to perform in adult scientific discourses. This cross-case comparison as a component of a design-based research study investigates three cases (roughly 28 students total) where an Augmented Reality curriculum, Mad City Mystery, was used to support learning in environmental science. We investigate whether augmented reality games on handhelds can be used to engage students in scientific thinking (particularly argumentation), how game structures affect students' thinking, the impact of role playing on learning, and the role of the physical environment in shaping learning. We argue that such games hold potential for engaging students in meaningful scientific argumentation. Through game play, players are required to develop narrative accounts of scientific phenomena, a process that requires them to develop and argue scientific explanations. We argue that specific game features scaffold this thinking process, creating supports for student thinking non-existent in most inquiry-based learning environments.

  4. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community. PMID:27124610

  5. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community.

  6. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses, Volume 1: Scientific Bases and Analyses, Rev 00

    SciTech Connect

    David Dobson

    2001-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23 013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054] [DIRS 124754]). By making the large amount of information developed on Yucca Mountain available in stages, the DOE intends to provide the public and interested parties with time to review the available materials and to formulate and submit

  7. Nicephor[e]: a web-based solution for teaching forensic and scientific photography.

    PubMed

    Voisard, R; Champod, C; Furrer, J; Curchod, J; Vautier, A; Massonnet, G; Buzzini, P

    2007-04-11

    Nicephor[e] is a project funded by "Swiss Virtual Campus" and aims at creating a distant or mixed web-based learning system in forensic and scientific photography and microscopy. The practical goal is to organize series of on-line modular courses corresponding to the educational requirements of undergraduate academic programs. Additionally, this program could be used in the context of continuing educational programs. The architecture of the project is designed to guarantee a high level of knowledge in forensic and scientific photographic techniques, and to have an easy content production and the ability to create a number of different courses sharing the same content. The e-learning system Nicephor[e] consists of three different parts. The first one is a repository of learning objects that gathers all theoretical subject matter of the project such as texts, animations, images, and films. This repository is a web content management system (Typo3) that permits creating, publishing, and administrating dynamic content via a web browser as well as storing it into a database. The flexibility of the system's architecture allows for an easy updating of the content to follow the development of photographic technology. The instructor of a course can decide which modular contents need to be included in the course, and in which order they will be accessed by students. All the modular courses are developed in a learning management system (WebCT or Moodle) that can deal with complex learning scenarios, content distribution, students, tests, and interaction with instructor. Each course has its own learning scenario based on the goals of the course and the student's profile. The content of each course is taken from the content management system. It is then structured in the learning management system according to the pedagogical goals defined by the instructor. The modular courses are created in a highly interactive setting and offer autoevaluating tests to the students. The last

  8. Dynamics study of the OH + NH3 hydrogen abstraction reaction using QCT calculations based on an analytical potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Monge-Palacios, M; Corchado, J C; Espinosa-Garcia, J

    2013-06-07

    To understand the reactivity and mechanism of the OH + NH3 → H2O + NH2 gas-phase reaction, which evolves through wells in the entrance and exit channels, a detailed dynamics study was carried out using quasi-classical trajectory calculations. The calculations were performed on an analytical potential energy surface (PES) recently developed by our group, PES-2012 [Monge-Palacios et al. J. Chem. Phys. 138, 084305 (2013)]. Most of the available energy appeared as H2O product vibrational energy (54%), reproducing the only experimental evidence, while only the 21% of this energy appeared as NH2 co-product vibrational energy. Both products appeared with cold and broad rotational distributions. The excitation function (constant collision energy in the range 1.0-14.0 kcal mol(-1)) increases smoothly with energy, contrasting with the only theoretical information (reduced-dimensional quantum scattering calculations based on a simplified PES), which presented a peak at low collision energies, related to quantized states. Analysis of the individual reactive trajectories showed that different mechanisms operate depending on the collision energy. Thus, while at high energies (E(coll) ≥ 6 kcal mol(-1)) all trajectories are direct, at low energies about 20%-30% of trajectories are indirect, i.e., with the mediation of a trapping complex, mainly in the product well. Finally, the effect of the zero-point energy constraint on the dynamics properties was analyzed.

  9. Ab initio based potential energy surface and kinetics study of the OH + NH3 hydrogen abstraction reaction.

    PubMed

    Monge-Palacios, M; Rangel, C; Espinosa-Garcia, J

    2013-02-28

    A full-dimensional analytical potential energy surface (PES) for the OH + NH3 → H2O + NH2 gas-phase reaction was developed based exclusively on high-level ab initio calculations. This reaction presents a very complicated shape with wells along the reaction path. Using a wide spectrum of properties of the reactive system (equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, and relative energies of the stationary points, topology of the reaction path, and points on the reaction swath) as reference, the resulting analytical PES reproduces reasonably well the input ab initio information obtained at the coupled-cluster single double triple (CCSD(T)) = FULL/aug-cc-pVTZ//CCSD(T) = FC/cc-pVTZ single point level, which represents a severe test of the new surface. As a first application, on this analytical PES we perform an extensive kinetics study using variational transition-state theory with semiclassical transmission coefficients over a wide temperature range, 200-2000 K. The forward rate constants reproduce the experimental measurements, while the reverse ones are slightly underestimated. However, the detailed analysis of the experimental equilibrium constants (from which the reverse rate constants are obtained) permits us to conclude that the experimental reverse rate constants must be re-evaluated. Another severe test of the new surface is the analysis of the kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), which were not included in the fitting procedure. The KIEs reproduce the values obtained from ab initio calculations in the common temperature range, although unfortunately no experimental information is available for comparison.

  10. Using a Scientific Paper Format to Foster Problem-Based, Cohort-Learning in Undergraduate Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, T.; Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Sanford, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Science at the University of Southern Maine implemented a problem-based, cohort-learning curriculum for undergraduate environmental science majors. The curriculum was based on a five-course sequence patterned after the outline of a scientific paper. Under faculty guidance, students select local environmental…

  11. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Osama H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  12. The Effects of Inquiry-Based Computer Simulation with Cooperative Learning on Scientific Thinking and Conceptual Understanding of Gas Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Sopiah; Shariff, Adilah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based computer simulation with heterogeneous-ability cooperative learning (HACL) and inquiry-based computer simulation with friendship cooperative learning (FCL) on (a) scientific reasoning (SR) and (b) conceptual understanding (CU) among Form Four students in Malaysian Smart…

  13. Evidence-Based Dialogue Maps as a Research Tool to Investigate the Quality of School Pupils' Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Alexandra; Shum, Simon Buckingham

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study focuses on the potential of Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping as a participatory action research tool to investigate young teenagers' scientific argumentation. Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping is a technique for representing graphically an argumentative dialogue through Questions, Ideas, Pros, Cons and Data. Our research objective is…

  14. Learning Science Content through Socio-Scientific Issues-Based Instruction: A Multi-Level Assessment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    Science educators have presented numerous conceptual and theoretical arguments in favor of teaching science through the exploration of socio-scientific issues (SSI). However, the empirical knowledge base regarding the extent to which SSI-based instruction supports student learning of science content is limited both in terms of the number of…

  15. Using Social Media to Promote Pre-Service Science Teachers' Practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) - Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitiporntapin, Sasithep; Lankford, Deanna Marie

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses using social media to promote pre-service science teachers' practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) based teaching in a science classroom setting. We designed our research in two phases. The first phase examined pre-service science teachers' perceptions about using social media to promote their SSI-based teaching. The…

  16. Searching Sociological Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the scope, content, and retrieval characteristics of Sociological Abstracts, an online database of literature in the social sciences. Sample searches are displayed, and the strengths and weaknesses of the database are summarized. (FM)

  17. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  18. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  19. PDE-based nonlinear diffusion techniques for denoising scientific and industrial images: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeratunga, Sisira K.; Kamath, Chandrika

    2002-05-01

    Removing noise from data is often the first step in data analysis. Denoising techniques should not only reduce the noise, but do so without blurring or changing the location of the edges. Many approaches have been proposed to accomplish this; in this paper, we focus on one such approach, namely the use of non-linear diffusion operators. This approach has been studied extensively from a theoretical viewpoint ever since the 1987 work of Perona and Malik showed that non-linear filters outperformed the more traditional linear Canny edge detector. We complement this theoretical work by investigating the performance of several isotropic diffusion operators on test images from scientific domains. We explore the effects of various parameters such as the choice of diffusivity function, explicit and implicit methods for the discretization of the PDE, and approaches for the spatial discretization of the non-linear operator etc. We also compare these schemes with simple spatial filters and the more complex wavelet-based shrinkage techniques. Our empirical results show that, with an appropriate choice of parameters, diffusion-based schemes can be as effective as competitive techniques.

  20. Development and Validation of a Multimedia-based Assessment of Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Che-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2015-09-01

    The potential of computer-based assessments for capturing complex learning outcomes has been discussed; however, relatively little is understood about how to leverage such potential for summative and accountability purposes. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a multimedia-based assessment of scientific inquiry abilities (MASIA) to cover a more comprehensive construct of inquiry abilities and target secondary school students in different grades while this potential is leveraged. We implemented five steps derived from the construct modeling approach to design MASIA. During the implementation, multiple sources of evidence were collected in the steps of pilot testing and Rasch modeling to support the validity of MASIA. Particularly, through the participation of 1,066 8th and 11th graders, MASIA showed satisfactory psychometric properties to discriminate students with different levels of inquiry abilities in 101 items in 29 tasks when Rasch models were applied. Additionally, the Wright map indicated that MASIA offered accurate information about students' inquiry abilities because of the comparability of the distributions of student abilities and item difficulties. The analysis results also suggested that MASIA offered precise measures of inquiry abilities when the components (questioning, experimenting, analyzing, and explaining) were regarded as a coherent construct. Finally, the increased mean difficulty thresholds of item responses along with three performance levels across all sub-abilities supported the alignment between our scoring rubrics and our inquiry framework. Together with other sources of validity in the pilot testing, the results offered evidence to support the validity of MASIA.

  1. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  2. Enhancing Middle School Students' Scientific Learning and Motivation through Agent-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C.-H.; Chou, M.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Facing students' decreasing motivation to pursue scientific study, schools and educators need to coordinate new technologies with pedagogical agents to effectively sustain or promote students' scientific learning and motivation to learn. Although the provision of pedagogical agents in student learning has been studied previously, it is not clear…

  3. Arsenic-Based Life: An Active Learning Assignment for Teaching Scientific Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Among recent high profile scientific debates was the proposal that life could exist with arsenic in place of phosphorous in its nucleic acids and other biomolecules. Soon after its initial publication, scientists across diverse disciplines began to question this extraordinary claim. Using the original article, its claims, its scientific support,…

  4. Understanding the Dialectical Relations between Everyday Concepts and Scientific Concepts within Play-Based Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    In recent times there has been an enormous interest in Vygotsky's writing on conceptual development, particularly his insights on the differences between everyday and scientific thinking. In drawing upon cultural-historical theory, this paper seeks to examine the relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts within playful contexts,…

  5. Forensic identification: From a faith-based "Science" to a scientific science.

    PubMed

    Saks, Michael J

    2010-09-10

    This article reviews the fundamental assumptions of forensic identification ("individualization") science and notes the lack of empirical evidence or theory supporting its typical strong claims. The article then discusses three general research strategies for placing these fields on firmer scientific ground. It concludes by suggesting what forensic identification science experts can do while awaiting that scientific foundation.

  6. Bridging Scientific Reasoning and Conceptual Change through Adaptive Web-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Liao, Ya-Wen

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an adaptive digital learning project, Scientific Concept Construction and Reconstruction (SCCR), and examines its effects on 108 8th grade students' scientific reasoning and conceptual change through mixed methods. A one-group pre-, post-, and retention quasi-experimental design was used in the study. All students received tests…

  7. OPASS: An Online Portfolio Assessment and Diagnosis Scheme to Support Web-Based Scientific Inquiry Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Jun-Ming; Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Lu, Chia-Jung

    2011-01-01

    Promoting the development of students' scientific inquiry capabilities is a major learning objective in science education. As a result, teachers require effective assessment approaches to evaluate students' scientific inquiry-related performance. Teachers must also be able to offer appropriate supplementary instructions, as needed, to students.…

  8. Effect of metal ions on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical with hydrogen atom donors. Fine control on hydrogen abstraction reactivity determined by Lewis acid-base interactions.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; Mangiacapra, Livia; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo

    2013-01-09

    A time-resolved kinetic study on the effect of metal ions (M(n+)) on hydrogen abstraction reactions from C-H donor substrates by the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) was carried out in acetonitrile. Metal salt addition was observed to increase the CumO(•) β-scission rate constant in the order Li(+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+). These effects were explained in terms of the stabilization of the β-scission transition state determined by Lewis acid-base interactions between M(n+) and the radical. When hydrogen abstraction from 1,4-cyclohexadiene was studied in the presence of LiClO(4) and Mg(ClO(4))(2), a slight increase in rate constant (k(H)) was observed indicating that interaction between M(n+) and CumO(•) can also influence, although to a limited extent, the hydrogen abstraction reactivity of alkoxyl radicals. With Lewis basic C-H donors such as THF and tertiary amines, a decrease in k(H) with increasing Lewis acidity of M(n+) was observed (k(H)(MeCN) > k(H)(Li(+)) > k(H)(Mg(2+))). This behavior was explained in terms of the stronger Lewis acid-base interaction of M(n+) with the substrate as compared to the radical. This interaction reduces the degree of overlap between the α-C-H σ* orbital and a heteroatom lone-pair, increasing the C-H BDE and destabilizing the carbon centered radical formed after abstraction. With tertiary amines, a >2-order of magnitude decrease in k(H) was measured after Mg(ClO(4))(2) addition up to a 1.5:1 amine/Mg(ClO(4))(2) ratio. At higher amine concentrations, very similar k(H) values were measured with and without Mg(ClO(4))(2). These results clearly show that with strong Lewis basic substrates variations in the nature and concentration of M(n+) can dramatically influence k(H), allowing for a fine control of the substrate hydrogen atom donor ability, thus providing a convenient method for C-H deactivation. The implications and generality of these findings are discussed.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  12. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Minutes No. 21015-04. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding integrated endocrine bioactivity and exposure-based prioritization & screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On December 2-4, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Integrated Endocrine Bioactivity and Exposure-Based Prioritization and Screening” methods. EPA is proposing ...

  13. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  14. Evaluation of university scientific research ability based on the output of sci-tech papers: A D-AHP approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lifang

    2017-01-01

    University scientific research ability is an important indicator to express the strength of universities. In this paper, the evaluation of university scientific research ability is investigated based on the output of sci-tech papers. Four university alliances from North America, UK, Australia, and China, are selected as the case study of the university scientific research evaluation. Data coming from Thomson Reuters InCites are collected to support the evaluation. The work has contributed new framework to the issue of university scientific research ability evaluation. At first, we have established a hierarchical structure to show the factors that impact the evaluation of university scientific research ability. Then, a new MCDM method called D-AHP model is used to implement the evaluation and ranking of different university alliances, in which a data-driven approach is proposed to automatically generate the D numbers preference relations. Next, a sensitivity analysis has been given to show the impact of weights of factors and sub-factors on the evaluation result. At last, the results obtained by using different methods are compared and discussed to verify the effectiveness and reasonability of this study, and some suggestions are given to promote China’s scientific research ability. PMID:28212446

  15. Evaluation of university scientific research ability based on the output of sci-tech papers: A D-AHP approach.

    PubMed

    Zong, Fan; Wang, Lifang

    2017-01-01

    University scientific research ability is an important indicator to express the strength of universities. In this paper, the evaluation of university scientific research ability is investigated based on the output of sci-tech papers. Four university alliances from North America, UK, Australia, and China, are selected as the case study of the university scientific research evaluation. Data coming from Thomson Reuters InCites are collected to support the evaluation. The work has contributed new framework to the issue of university scientific research ability evaluation. At first, we have established a hierarchical structure to show the factors that impact the evaluation of university scientific research ability. Then, a new MCDM method called D-AHP model is used to implement the evaluation and ranking of different university alliances, in which a data-driven approach is proposed to automatically generate the D numbers preference relations. Next, a sensitivity analysis has been given to show the impact of weights of factors and sub-factors on the evaluation result. At last, the results obtained by using different methods are compared and discussed to verify the effectiveness and reasonability of this study, and some suggestions are given to promote China's scientific research ability.

  16. Professional development in scientifically based reading instruction: teacher knowledge and reading outcomes.

    PubMed

    Podhajski, Blanche; Mather, Nancy; Nathan, Jane; Sammons, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature and presents data from a study that examined the effects of professional development in scientifically based reading instruction on teacher knowledge and student reading outcomes. The experimental group consisted of four first- and second-grade teachers and their students (n = 33). Three control teachers and their students (n = 14), from a community of significantly higher socioeconomic demographics, were also followed. Experimental teachers participated in a 35-hour course on instruction of phonemic awareness, phonics, and fluency and were coached by professional mentors for a year. Although teacher knowledge in the experimental group was initially lower than that of the controls, their scores surpassed the controls on the posttest. First-grade experimental students' growth exceeded the controls in letter name fluency, phonemic segmentation, nonsense word fluency, and oral reading. Second-grade experimental students exceeded controls in phonemic segmentation. Although the teacher sample was small, findings suggest that teachers can improve their knowledge concerning explicit reading instruction and that this new knowledge may contribute to student growth in reading.

  17. Milk and acid-base balance: proposed hypothesis versus scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Tanis R; Lyon, Andrew W

    2011-10-01

    Recently the lay press has claimed a hypothetical association among dairy product consumption, generation of dietary acid, and harm to human health. This theoretical association is based on the idea that the protein and phosphate in milk and dairy products make them acid-producing foods, which cause our bodies to become acidified, promoting diseases of modern civilization. Some authors have suggested that dairy products are not helpful and perhaps detrimental to bone health because higher osteoporotic fracture incidence is observed in countries with higher dairy product consumption. However, scientific evidence does not support any of these claims. Milk and dairy products neither produce acid upon metabolism nor cause metabolic acidosis, and systemic pH is not influenced by diet. Observations of higher dairy product intake in countries with prevalent osteoporosis do not hold when urban environments are compared, likely due to physical labor in rural locations. Milk and other dairy products continue to be a good source of dietary protein and other nutrients. Key teaching points: Measurement of an acidic pH urine does not reflect metabolic acidosis or an adverse health condition. The modern diet, and dairy product consumption, does not make the body acidic. Alkaline diets alter urine pH but do not change systemic pH. Net acid excretion is not an important influence of calcium metabolism. Milk is not acid producing. Dietary phosphate does not have a negative impact on calcium metabolism, which is contrary to the acid-ash hypothesis.

  18. Visi—A VTK- and QT-Based Open-Source Project for Scientific Data Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming; Chen, Cheng-Kai

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we present an open-source project, Visi for high-dimensional engineering and scientific data visualization. Visi is with state-of-the-art interactive user interface and graphics kernels based upon Qt (a cross-platform GUI toolkit) and VTK (an object-oriented visualization library). For an initialization of Visi, a preliminary window will be activated by Qt, and the kernel of VTK is simultaneously embedded into the window, where the graphics resources are allocated. Representation of visualization is through an interactive interface so that the data will be rendered according to user's preference. The developed framework possesses high flexibility and extensibility for advanced functions (e.g., object combination, etc) and further applications. Application of Visi to data visualization in various fields, such as protein structure in bioinformatics, 3D semiconductor transistor, and interconnect of very-large scale integration (VLSI) layout is also illustrated to show the performance of Visi. The developed open-source project is available in our project website on the internet [1].

  19. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  20. Constructing scientific literacy in inquiry-based communities of science practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Kristen Adair

    English Language Learners and socioeconomically disadvantaged students were studied from an ethnographic perspective in this research study. These high school students were engaged in the study of local fresh water ecology with their teacher, the researcher. Transcribed audiotapes of students' discourse, their illustrated guides to macroinvertebrates, their macroinvertebrate indices for two fresh water locations, their power point presentations of findings, and transcribed interviews with three focus students were utilized as data. Findings indicated that, for the most part, students were provided opportunities to enact scientific practices and communications and that they did indeed do so. More specifically, students learned to identify questions and concepts that guide ecology research, formulate and revise scientific explanations using logic and evidence, and communicate scientific arguments. However, students were not provided adequate opportunities to practice defending the scientific arguments they constructed and communicated. They also struggled at times to use scientific language. I close with recommendations for teaching and for conducting qualitative research with English Language Learners in science. Qualitative research holds the potential for revealing what science learning opportunities promote scientific literacy development amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged students.

  1. Scientifically Based Research and Peer-Reviewed Research under the IDEA: The Legal Definitions, Applications, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Rose, Tessie

    2009-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the references to "scientifically based research" (SBR) and closely related terms, such as "peer-reviewed research" (PRR), in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) legislation, regulations, commentary, and case law reveal that SBR and its primary variants apply largely to state support…

  2. Mutation-Based Learning to Improve Student Autonomy and Scientific Inquiry Skills in a Large Genetics Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jinlu

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory education can play a vital role in developing a learner's autonomy and scientific inquiry skills. In an innovative, mutation-based learning (MBL) approach, students were instructed to redesign a teacher-designed standard experimental protocol by a "mutation" method in a molecular genetics laboratory course. Students could…

  3. The Effect of Project-Based History and Nature of Science Practices on the Change of Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çibik, Ayse Sert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…

  4. The Goal Specificity Effect on Strategy Use and Instructional Efficiency during Computer-Based Scientific Discovery Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunsting, Josef; Wirth, Joachim; Paas, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Using a computer-based scientific discovery learning environment on buoyancy in fluids we investigated the "effects of goal specificity" (nonspecific goals vs. specific goals) for two goal types (problem solving goals vs. learning goals) on "strategy use" and "instructional efficiency". Our empirical findings close an important research gap,…

  5. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  6. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  7. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  8. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education.…

  9. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  10. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  11. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  12. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  13. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  14. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  15. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  16. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  17. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…

  18. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  19. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  20. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  1. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  2. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  4. Developing CORBA-Based Distributed Scientific Applications from Legacy Fortran Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sang, Janche; Kim, Chan; Lopez, Isaac

    2000-01-01

    Recent progress in distributed object technology has enabled software applications to be developed and deployed easily such that objects or components can work together across the boundaries of the network, different operating systems, and different languages. A distributed object is not necessarily a complete application but rather a reusable, self-contained piece of software that co-operates with other objects in a plug-and-play fashion via a well-defined interface. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), a middleware standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG), uses the Interface Definition Language (IDL) to specify such an interface for transparent communication between distributed objects. Since IDL can be mapped to any programming language, such as C++, Java, Smalltalk, etc., existing applications can be integrated into a new application and hence the tasks of code re-writing and software maintenance can be reduced. Many scientific applications in aerodynamics and solid mechanics are written in Fortran. Refitting these legacy Fortran codes with CORBA objects can increase the codes reusability. For example, scientists could link their scientific applications to vintage Fortran programs such as Partial Differential Equation(PDE) solvers in a plug-and-play fashion. Unfortunately, CORBA IDL to Fortran mapping has not been proposed and there seems to be no direct method of generating CORBA objects from Fortran without having to resort to manually writing C/C++ wrappers. In this paper, we present an efficient methodology to integrate Fortran legacy programs into a distributed object framework. Issues and strategies regarding the conversion and decomposition of Fortran codes into CORBA objects are discussed. The following diagram shows the conversion and decomposition mechanism we proposed. Our goal is to keep the Fortran codes unmodified. The conversion- aided tool takes the Fortran application program as input and helps programmers

  5. SAFRR AND Physics-Based Scenarios: The Power of Scientifically Credible Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. A.; Jones, L.

    2015-12-01

    USGS's SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project and its predecessor, the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project, uses the latest earth science to develop scenarios so that communities can improve disaster resilience. SAFRR has created detailed physics-based natural-disaster scenarios of a M7.8 San Andreas earthquake in southern California (ShakeOut), atmospheric-river storms rivaling the Great California Flood of 1862 (ARkStorm), a Tohoku-sized earthquake and tsunami in the eastern Aleutians (SAFRR Tsunami), and now a M7.05 quake on the Hayward Fault in the San Francisco Bay area (HayWired), as novel ways of providing science for decision making. Each scenario is scientifically plausible, deterministic, and large enough to demand attention but not too large to be believable. The scenarios address interacting hazards, requiring involvement of multiple science disciplines and user communities. The scenarios routinely expose hitherto unknown or ignored vulnerabilities, most often in cascading effects missed when impacts are considered in isolation. They take advantage of story telling to provide decision makers with clear explanations and justifications for mitigation and preparedness actions, and have been used for national-to-local disaster response exercises and planning. Effectiveness is further leveraged by downscaling the scenarios to local levels. For example, although the ARkStorm scenario describes state-scale events and has been used that way by NASA and the Navy, SAFRR also partnered with FEMA to focus on two local areas, Ventura County in the coastal plain and the mountain setting of Lake Tahoe with downstream impacts in Reno, Sparks and Carson City. Downscaling and focused analyses increased usefulness to user communities, drawing new participants into the study. SAFRR scenarios have also motivated new research to answer questions uncovered by stakeholders, closing the circle of co-evolving disaster-science and disaster-response improvements.

  6. Rover-Based Instrumentation and Scientific Investigations During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, L. D.; Graff, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) were recently completed on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and operational constraints were tested in the context of existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration [1]. Several investigations were conducted by the rover mounted instruments to determine key geophysical and geochemical properties of the site, as well as capture the geological context of the area and the samples investigated. The rover traverse and associated science investigations were conducted over a three day period on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. The test area was at an elevation of 11,500 feet and is known as "Apollo Valley" (Fig. 1). Here we report the integration and operation of the rover-mounted instruments, as well as the scientific investigations that were conducted.

  7. Writing a research abstract: eloquence in miniature.

    PubMed

    Papanas, N; Georgiadis, G S; Maltezos, E; Lazarides, M K

    2012-06-01

    Abstracts are summaries, usually of a full article or conference presentation, and may be classified into structured and unstructured ones. The former have a predefined layout necessitating the use of headings. Most journals and conferences now use the structured abstract format. Research abstracts are increasingly vital for scientific communication and are expected to continue playing a key role for the dissemination of medicine in the near future. Abstracts take time and need meticulous preparation. They must aptly summarise the content of the study or presentation and avoid vague statements and poor style. Moreover, they must comply with provided instructions. Finally, they should be pleasant to read and encourage study of the corresponding full work.

  8. OPERATION GREENHOUSE. Scientific Director’s Report of Atomic Weapon Tests at Eniwetok, 1951, Annex 9.5. Base Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-09-01

    Base, Air University 50- -51 Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command 52- -54 1009th Special Weapons Squadron 55 Rand Corporation 56 -57...Atomic Energy Commission (Washington) Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Report Library Sandia Corporation Technical Information Service, Oak...FLEET, EARLY 1951 Craft No. LSU 7 LCM 19 YTL (tug) 4 (1 steel, 3 wood) Water taxi 3 MWB 2 Pontoon barge 1 (self-propelled) Barge 8 (2

  9. [Internationalism and science. Social and scientific bases of the European information science movement].

    PubMed

    Olague de Ros, G; Menendez Navarro, A; Medina Domenech, R M; Astrain Gallart, M

    1997-01-01

    As part of a continuing line of research on scientific documentation we propose in this article a novel approach to the study of the European information science movement at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. We suggest that this movement took place within the context of increasing internationalism of scientific endeavours, a process which was paralleled by the standardization of units, weight and measures for the different sciences. We investigate problems arising from scientific communication in connection with other aspects apparently unrelated to Information Science. Specifically, we refer to conflicts between nationalism and colonialism; concordance and discord between science policy and the corporate interests of nonscientific associations; higher educational policy; the professionalization of sciences; and the economic interests at stake as a consequence of the use of different information models.

  10. Web-based scientific simulation tools for E-ELT instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disseau, K.; Puech, M.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Hammer, F.; Pentericci, L.

    2013-11-01

    In the frame of the EAGLE & OPTIMOS-EVE phase A studies, we have developped a scientific simulator which has been used to constrain the instrument high level specifications. The simulator is coupled to a web interface to allow an easier access by the science teams and run specific simulations covering the scientific objectives. This simulator is now used to constrain the design of MOSAIC, a new MOS concept for the E-ELT. We give a functional description of the simulator and illustrate how it is used in practice to constrain the pixel size of the IFU of MOSAIC.

  11. Python-Based Scientific Analysis and Visualization of Precipitation Systems at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    At NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Python is used several different ways to analyze and visualize precipitating weather systems. A number of different Python-based software packages have been developed, which are available to the larger scientific community. The approach in all these packages is to utilize pre-existing Python modules as well as to be object-oriented and scalable. The first package that will be described and demonstrated is the Python Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) Data Toolkit, or PyAMPR for short. PyAMPR reads geolocated brightness temperature data from any flight of the AMPR airborne instrument over its 25-year history into a common data structure suitable for user-defined analyses. It features rapid, simplified (i.e., one line of code) production of quick-look imagery, including Google Earth overlays, swath plots of individual channels, and strip charts showing multiple channels at once. These plotting routines are also capable of significant customization for detailed, publication-ready figures. Deconvolution of the polarization-varying channels to static horizontally and vertically polarized scenes is also available. Examples will be given of PyAMPR's contribution toward real-time AMPR data display during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx), which took place in the Carolinas during May-June 2014. The second software package is the Marshall Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) Mosaic Python Toolkit, or MMM-Py for short. MMM-Py was designed to read, analyze, and display three-dimensional national mosaicked reflectivity data produced by the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). MMM-Py can read MRMS mosaics from either their unique binary format or their converted NetCDF format. It can also read and properly interpret the current mosaic design (4 regional tiles) as well as mosaics produced prior to late July 2013 (8 tiles). MMM-Py can easily stitch multiple tiles together to provide a

  12. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  13. The Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Scientific Session (5th) Abstracts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Postow Editor-in-Chief Carl Durney Past President DIRECTORS Frank S . Barnes Engineering/Physical Sciences Richard A. TeO Engineering/Physical...Ellen O’Connor Biological/Medical Sciences Ralph J. Smiabwicz Biological/Medical Sciences F. Kristian Storm Biological/Medical Sciences Tom S ...the range 15-30*C to establish the temperature dependence for our system. The crossed-beam spectrophotometer system previously developed In this

  14. Abstraction Augmented Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant

    2010-12-13

    High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.

  15. The On-Line Uv/Vis Spectra Data Base An Example For Interactive Access To Scientific Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noelle, A.; Hartmann, G.; Richter, A.

    2003-04-01

    The basic concept of the on-line "UV/Vis Spectra Data Base" is to provide useful information to the scientific community on a proper basis, especially in times where scientific information becomes more and more a commercial product and is therefore often not within the financial means of those people who actually generated the information. Besides the EGS activities in peer reviewed open access e-publishing (e.g. the journal "Atmopheric Chemistry and Physics", ACP) this concept can help the community to reduce the "digital divide" for scientific and technical information. The on-line data base is maintained by a team consisting of the data base providers, the data producer and its users. The long-term scienctific success depends on the close cooperation of this team. Therefore all scientists are encouraged to join this cooperative effort and support the data base either actively or passively. Active support means the provision of missing or newly measured validated spectral data for inclusion in the data base. Although there is a moderate annual maintenance fee for the data base utilization, those scientists who actively support the data base can use the data base free-of-charge. There is also the possibility to support the data base passively by subscription to the data base. Even those scienctists who do not support the data base can benefit from the "Literature Service" which is free-of-charge. This data base concept differs from other commercial activities on this area and matches the philosophy of Copernicus.

  16. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  17. Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Can Make Scientific Research More Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangera, Gita; Brownell, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Current approaches to improving diversity in scientific research focus on graduating more science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors, but graduation with a STEM undergraduate degree alone is not sufficient for entry into graduate school. Undergraduate independent research experiences are becoming more or less a prerequisite…

  18. Learning to Read in the Wake of Reform: Young Children's Experiences with Scientifically Based Reading Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have called into question the efficacy of prescribed commercial curricula in early childhood classrooms (Genishi & Dyson, 2009). Despite these concerns, federally funded initiatives and such findings as those presented in the Report of the National Early Literacy Panel continue to promote scientifically based…

  19. Talking Relative Age Effects: A Fictional Analysis Based on Scientific Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been a considerable amount of scientific attention dedicated to the reported age discrimination which occurs in youth and elite sport. The purpose of this paper is to examine the notion of relative age effects (RAEs) through a slightly different lens. This paper therefore presents a fictional conversation…

  20. Increasing Scientific Literacy about Global Climate Change through a Laboratory-Based Feminist Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Linda A.; Brenner, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    The authors have developed and implemented a novel general education science course that examines scientific knowledge, laboratory experimentation, and science-related public policy through the lens of feminist science studies. They argue that this approach to teaching general science education is useful for improving science literacy. Goals for…

  1. A Semantic Web-Based Methodology for Describing Scientific Research Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Scientists produce research resources that are useful to future research and innovative efforts. In a typical scientific scenario, the results created by a collaborative team often include numerous artifacts, observations and relationships relevant to research findings, such as programs that generate data, parameters that impact outputs, workflows…

  2. Enhancing Students' Scientific and Quantitative Literacies through an Inquiry-Based Learning Project on Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCright, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Promoting sustainability and dealing with complex environmental problems like climate change demand a citizenry with considerable scientific and quantitative literacy. In particular, students in the STEM disciplines of (biophysical) science, technology, engineering, and mathematics need to develop interdisciplinary skills that help them understand…

  3. Revised scientific names of the genus Hemileia (Uredinales) based on the new ICN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the new International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), one species of fungus can have only one scientific name. The use of separate names for the sexual and asexual states is no longer permitted. All legitimate and validly published names for one species must be considered...

  4. Analysis of Research Collaboration between Universities and Private Companies in Spain Based on Joint Scientific Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmeda-Gómez, Carlos; Ovalle-Perandones, María Antonia; de Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article presents the results of a study on scientific collaboration between Spanish universities and private enterprise, measured in terms of the co-authorship of papers published in international journals. Method: Bibliometric analysis of papers published in journals listed in Scopus in 2003-2011. Indicators were calculated for…

  5. A Study on the Evaluation of Science Projects of Primary School Students Based on Scientific Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Sema Nur; Ozer, Dilek Zeren; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2013-01-01

    This study re-evaluated 454 science projects that were prepared by primary school students between 2007 and 2011 within the scope of Science Projects Event for Primary School Students. Also, submitted to TUBITAK BIDEB Bursa regional science board by MNE regional work groups in accordance with scientific research methods and techniques, including…

  6. Scheduling Multilevel Deadline-Constrained Scientific Workflows on Clouds Based on Cost Optimization

    DOE PAGES

    Malawski, Maciej; Figiela, Kamil; Bubak, Marian; ...

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a cost optimization model for scheduling scientific workflows on IaaS clouds such as Amazon EC2 or RackSpace. We assume multiple IaaS clouds with heterogeneous virtual machine instances, with limited number of instances per cloud and hourly billing. Input and output data are stored on a cloud object store such as Amazon S3. Applications are scientific workflows modeled as DAGs as in the Pegasus Workflow Management System. We assume that tasks in the workflows are grouped into levels of identical tasks. Our model is specified using mathematical programming languages (AMPL and CMPL) and allows us to minimize themore » cost of workflow execution under deadline constraints. We present results obtained using our model and the benchmark workflows representing real scientific applications in a variety of domains. The data used for evaluation come from the synthetic workflows and from general purpose cloud benchmarks, as well as from the data measured in our own experiments with Montage, an astronomical application, executed on Amazon EC2 cloud. We indicate how this model can be used for scenarios that require resource planning for scientific workflows and their ensembles.« less

  7. Assessing Differences in Students' Experiences in Traditional versus Scientific Teaching-Based Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Sarah; Styer, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (IMSA), located in Aurora Illinois, is a public, three-year residential high school for students who are academically talented in mathematics and/or science. The mission statement of IMSA is to "ignite and nurture creative, ethical, scientific minds that advance the human condition." This…

  8. PubFinder: a tool for improving retrieval rate of relevant PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Thomas; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm

    2005-07-01

    Since it is becoming increasingly laborious to manually extract useful information embedded in the ever-growing volumes of literature, automated intelligent text analysis tools are becoming more and more essential to assist in this task. PubFinder (www.glycosciences.de/tools/PubFinder) is a publicly available web tool designed to improve the retrieval rate of scientific abstracts relevant for a specific scientific topic. Only the selection of a representative set of abstracts is required, which are central for a scientific topic. No special knowledge concerning the query-syntax is necessary. Based on the selected abstracts, a list of discriminating words is automatically calculated, which is subsequently used for scoring all defined PubMed abstracts for their probability of belonging to the defined scientific topic. This results in a hit-list of references in the descending order of their likelihood score. The algorithms and procedures implemented in PubFinder facilitate the perpetual task for every scientist of staying up-to-date with current publications dealing with a specific subject in biomedicine.

  9. The Role of Standards-Based Education in Fostering Scientific Literacy in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Societal controversy over the content taught in K-12 science classrooms continues at a time of increasing demand for teacher and school accountability enacted through legislative mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Law. As teachers are held increasingly to nationally-inspired state standards, building blocks for future controversy are being built via inclusion of social and environmental policy agendas related to diversity, multiculturalism and environmental stewardship into these same science standards. While the authors' attempts to include such policies are well intended, they undermine the narrow answer to the question, "What is science?" leaving the door open to inclusion of pseudo-scientific content into the science curriculum in compliance with the perceived mandate of the standards. Disparate interpretation of the language and intent of the standards between that written by scientists, science educators and policy makers relative to that of the teachers, school administrators and parents tasked to implement and work within these standards leaves room for inclusion of much content that most scientists would object to. The resulting controversy and confusion have the potential to undermine public confidence in the scientific community's opinions on geoscience issues precisely at the time that full societal engagement is necessary to deal with climate change and other major environmental challenges. Results from this study suggest using the standards to mandate opening the scientific curriculum to political and social agendas, even under the guise of diversity, multiculturalism and environmental awareness, has created a whole raft of unintended consequences. These same mandates can be interpreted by the general public as also opening the curriculum to other views of science ranging from traditional religious and cultural views to intelligent design and alternative ways of knowing, thereby undermining scientific literacy in the general population

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and section 2 - Indexes. The abstract section cites 217 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1974 through June 1974. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index section contains entries for 2653 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1974. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  11. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  12. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  13. A Semantic Theory of Abstractions: A Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, P. Pandurang; Levy, Alon Y.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic theory of abstractions based on viewing abstractions as interpretations between theories. This theory captures important aspects of abstractions not captured in the theory of abstractions presented by Giunchiglia and Walsh. Instead of viewing abstractions as syntactic mappings, we view abstractions as a two step process: the intended domain model is first abstracted and then a set of (abstract) formulas is constructed to capture the abstracted domain model. Viewing and justifying abstractions as model level transformations is both natural and insightful. We provide a precise characterization of the abstract theory that exactly implements the intended abstraction, and show that this theory, while being axiomatizable, is not always finitely axiomatizable. A simple corollary of the latter result disproves a conjecture made by Tenenberg that if a theory is finitely axiomatizable, then predicate abstraction of that theory leads to a finitely axiomatizable theory.

  14. Advancing scientific base lines for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation in mountain regions in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, C.; Jurt, N. Salzmann, C.; Calanca, P.; Ordonez, A. Diaz, J.; Zappa, T. Jonas M.; Konzelmann, T.; Lagos, P.; Obersteiner, M.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.

    2009-04-01

    Adaptation to climate change impacts is a major challenge for the human society. For countries in development, consistent base lines of expected impacts at the regional scale are required to plan and implement low-cost adaptation measures that effectively address societal needs. However, donors and implementing agencies are often confronted with a lack of scientific data. This poses a serious problem to global adaptation funds, such as the one established under the UNFCCC, which are predominantly directed towards developing countries. This contribution summarizes recent experiences gained from international projects in the Andes, by the Peruvian and Swiss Governments, and the World Bank, on the development of scientific base lines for selected regions in the Peruvian Andes. The focus is on the nexus between water resources, food security and natural disasters. The analysis shows that Peruvian Andes are among the most vulnerable regions to climate change. Negative impacts on water resources are expected from the rapid retreat of glaciers, extended and more frequent drought periods and increasing human needs. Climate change impacts are exacerbated by continued sub-optimal resource management. As a consequence of growing stresses, water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation is increasingly limited. Assessment of the current conditions and reliable projections for the future are hampered by scarce data availability and methodological problems, such as downscaling of global and regional climate scenarios, cross-sector effects, and others. It is critical that related uncertainties, and the propagation thereof, are assessed throughout the impact analysis for an improved management of adaptation measures. Challenges furthermore include communication and understanding among different actors, including the scientific community, political and implementation agencies, and local population. Based on our experiences we will outline a good practice

  15. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 06)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system are cited. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The patent and application for patent citations are indexed according to subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  17. A scientific impact indicator based on the latent ``citability'' of a researcher's publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Joao; Zeng, Xiaohan; Amaral, Luis

    2014-03-01

    How to quantify the impact of a scientist's body of work is currently a matter of great concern. The use of bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index or the Journal Impact Factor, have become widespread despite their known limitations. We surmise that many of the deficiencies of existing bibliometric indicators arise from their heuristic nature. Here, we pursue a principled approach to the development of an indicator to quantify the scientific impact of individual researchers, grounded on the functional form of the distribution of the ultimate number of citations. We validate our approach using the publication records of 1,283 researchers from seven scientific disciplines. Our approach has three distinct advantages. First, it accurately captures the overall scientific impact of researchers, as measured by ultimate citation counts. Second, in contrast to prior bibliometric indicators, our proposed measure does not depend on the number of publications, offering the possibility to compare researchers at different career stages. Third, more than other measures, our index is resistant to manipulation and rewards publication quality over quantity. The authors acknowledge the support of FCT-Portugal grant SFRH/BD/76115/2011 and NSF awards SBE 0624318 and IIS 0830388.

  18. Scientific investigations with the data base HEAO-1 scanning modulator collimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    The hardware specification for the Scanning Modulation Collimator (MC) experiment on HEAO-1 was to measure positions of bright (greater than 10(exp -11) ergs/cm(exp 2)s), hard (1 to 15 keV) x-ray sources to 5-10 arcsec, and to measure their size and structure in three energy bands down to 10 arcsec resolution. The scientific purpose of this specification was to enable the identification of these x-ray sources with optical and radio objects in order to elucidate the x-ray emission mechanism and the nature of the candidate astronomical system. The experiment was an outstanding success. Hardware systems functioned perfectly although loss of one (out of eight) proportional counters degraded our sensitivity by about 10 percent. Our aspect solution of 7 arcsec precision, allowed us to achieve statistic-limited location precision for all but the strongest sources. We vigorously pursued a strategy of determining the scientific importance of each identification, and of publishing each scientific result as it came along.

  19. A Microfilm Index to "Chemical Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  20. Tackling the “So What” Problem in Scientific Research: A Systems-Based Approach to Resource and Publication Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul A.; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A.; Edwards, Terri L.; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R.; Lane, Lynda D.; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R.; Pulley, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research’s (VICTR’s) development and implementation of a semi-automated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a “just-in-time” workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt’s Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have: (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support; (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output; (3) increased awareness of VICTR’s scientific portfolio; and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests. PMID:25901872

  1. Tackling the "so what" problem in scientific research: a systems-based approach to resource and publication tracking.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul A; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A; Edwards, Terri L; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R; Lane, Lynda D; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R; Pulley, Jill M

    2015-08-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research's (VICTR's) development and implementation of a semiautomated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a "just-in-time" workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt's Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support, (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output, (3) increased awareness of VICTR's scientific portfolio, and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests.

  2. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  3. Scientific Visualization, Seeing the Unseeable

    ScienceCinema

    LBNL

    2016-07-12

    June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in bo... June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  4. Statistics and evidence-based veterinary medicine: answers to 21 common statistical questions that arise from reading scientific manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard B; O'Connor, Annette

    2007-05-01

    Evidence-based veterinary medicine relies critically on the scientific validity of research. A component of validity is the statistical design and subsequent analysis of data collected during the study. Correct statistical design reduces bias and improves generalizability, and correct analysis leads to appropriate inferences. Inference is the art and science of making correct decisions based on data. Because veterinarians are responsible for the medical care of their patents, it is also their responsibility to understand inferences about treatments presented in papers. This article is designed to assist veterinarians with the interpretation and understanding of statistics presented in papers.

  5. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  6. Do we know enough? A scientific and ethical analysis of the basis for genetic-based personalized nutrition.

    PubMed

    Görman, Ulf; Mathers, John C; Grimaldi, Keith A; Ahlgren, Jennie; Nordström, Karin

    2013-07-01

    This article discusses the prospects and limitations of the scientific basis for offering personalized nutrition advice based upon individual genetic information. Two divergent scientific positions are presented, with an ethical comment. The crucial question is whether the current knowledge base is sufficiently strong for taking an ethically responsible decision to offer personalized nutrition advice based upon gene-diet-health interaction. According to the first position, the evidence base for translating the outcomes of nutrigenomics research into personalized nutritional advice is as yet immature. There is also limited evidence that genotype-based dietary advice will motivate appropriate behavior changes. Filling the gaps in our knowledge will require larger and better randomized controlled trials. According to the second position, personalized nutrition must be evaluated in relation to generally accepted standard dietary advice-partly derived from epidemiological observations and usually not proven by clinical trials. With personalized nutrition, we cannot demand stronger evidence. In several specific cases of gene-diet interaction, it may be more beneficial for individuals with specific genotypes to follow personalized advice rather than general dietary recommendations. The ethical comment, finally, considers the ethical aspects of deciding how to proceed in the face of such uncertainty. Two approaches for an ethically responsible way forward are proposed. Arguing from a precautionary approach, it is suggested that personalized dietary advice should be offered only when there is strong scientific evidence for health effects, followed by stepwise evaluation of unforeseen behavioral and psychological effects. Arguing from theoretical and applied ethics as well as psychology, it is also suggested that personalized advice should avoid paternalism and instead focus on supporting the autonomous choice of each person.

  7. Event Response by Observatory-based Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: Scientific Need and Technological Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoerger, D. R.; Bradley, A. M.

    2001-12-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) operated from a subsea observatory can provide crucial capabilities for observing dynamic events, such as the large plumes that accompany tectonic or volcanic events. An AUV docked to an observatory node could be recharged and while docked would have continuous communication with researchers ashore. Such a vehicle could reach an event long before we could mount a response with a ship and perhaps quicker than could an AUV launched from an aircraft. Autonomous Underwater Vehicles can be built in a variety of shapes and sizes, which translate into a wide range of capabilities in terms of speed, range, maneuverability, and payload. Likewise, we have a variety of choices for the design of docking stations, navigational infrastructure, in-situ sensing systems and communications capability. All these elements also greatly drive the cost of an AUV, and the best approach could entail providing a mix of vehicles with complementary capabilities. This presentation examines how observatory system architecture, AUV performance characteristics, and sensing capabilities will effect our ability to achieve scientific goals during an event response. This presentation aims to promote a dialogue between engineers and scientists to determine how such an observatory capability can best address scientific needs.

  8. Attitude of Indian dental professionals toward scientific publications: A questionnaire based study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sachdeva, Suresh K.; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Basavraju, Suman; Dutta, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to competitiveness and academic benefits, most dental professionals feel an urgent need to increase their publications. Hence, we explored the attitude of students and faculty members toward scientific publications through a questionnaire. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 13 questions was sent by e-mails and posting the printed copies to dental postgraduate (PG) students (second and third year) and faculty members (n = 500 each). The returned completed questionnaires were analyzed. Results: About 37% of dental PG faculty and 35.6% PG students responded to the questionnaire, with overall response of 72.6%. Among the PG faculty, professors (P) had more scientific publications, followed by senior lecturers (SL) and readers (R). The publications as first or corresponding author were less among both faculty and PG students while co-authorship was more among PG students compared to faculty members. Awareness about the term “plagiarism” was overall high and relatively highest among R, followed by SL, P and PG students. The percentage of publications in fee charging journals was more among PG students than faculty members and self-funding for publication was observed in 86.4% of PG students and 94-100% among faculty members. Conclusion: About 72.6% of dental professionals were involved in publishing of their research work and the number of publications increased steadily with an increase in their academic experience. All the dental professionals concurred publications as the criteria for academic excellence. PMID:26604598

  9. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  10. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  11. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  12. Developing scientific literacy through classroom instruction: Investigating learning opportunities across three modes of inquiry-based science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasnabis, Debi

    Despite wide research-based support for the implementation of inquiry-based science instruction, very few studies have closely examined its enactment across varied modes of instruction. Such studies can contribute to a finer understanding of the knowledge teachers must have in order to implement high-quality inquiry-based science instruction. This dissertation study investigated the enactment of three modes of inquiry-based science instruction by three guest teachers who were university-based researchers. The 50 fourth grade student participants were matched on achievement and prior content knowledge and randomly assigned to one of six small groups across three conditions employing different modes of inquiry-based science instruction: first-hand investigation, second-hand investigation, and an interplay of first- and second-hand investigation (Palincsar and Magnusson, 2001). Children in the first-hand investigation condition directly manipulated scientific phenomena, collected and reported data, and used these data to make knowledge claims. Children in the second-hand investigation condition studied the phenomena by following the investigations of a fictitious scientist who documents her study in an innovative notebook text. Children in the interplay condition experienced an interplay of the first- and second-hand investigations. Guided by sociocognitive theories of learning, the first phase of data analysis identified the differential opportunities for students to engage with scientific practices and conceptual claims across the modes of instruction. The findings from this analytical phase showed that in the context of this study, instruction featuring second-hand investigations provided students with richer opportunities for engaging with scientific practices and conceptual claims as compared to instruction featuring first-hand investigation. Following this, three sets of contrastive case studies were analyzed that demonstrated how opportunities for learning were

  13. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  14. A Classroom-Based Distributed Workflow Initiative for the Early Involvement of Undergraduate Students in Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.

    2013-05-01

    Engaging freshman and sophomore students in meaningful scientific research is challenging because of their developing skill set and their necessary time commitments to regular classwork. A project called the Chondrule Analysis Project was initiated to engage first- and second-year students in an initial research experience and also accomplish several scientific objectives. Students take part in a classroom-based, distributed workflow project that aims to produce high-quality data on the physical dimensions of chondrules, mm-sized spherules contained in primitive meteorites called chondrites. Such data are needed to test astrophysical models for processes acting in the early solar system. Student investigators process X-ray microtomography data with resources contained on portable USB flash drives distributed to them. Students are exposed to data collection, data quality evaluation, interpretation, and presentation of their results. Herein, an introduction to the scientific objectives is given along with an evolutionary history of the project. A description of the current implementation of the course is presented, and future directions are discussed. Anonymous student evaluations of the course are used to demonstrate the educational and engaging nature of the project. Finally, we reflect on the possible benefits of such a project for first- and second-year students within STEM disciplines.

  15. Effects of the Scientific Argumentation Based Learning Process on Teaching the Unit of Cell Division and Inheritance to Eighth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balci, Ceyda; Yenice, Nilgun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of scientific argumentation based learning process on the eighth grade students' achievement in the unit of "cell division and inheritance". It also deals with the effects of this process on their comprehension about the nature of scientific knowledge, their willingness to take part in…

  16. An Integrated Framework for Parameter-based Optimization of Scientific Workflows

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay S.; Sadayappan, P.; Mehta, Gaurang; Vahi, Karan; Deelman, Ewa; Ratnakar, Varun; Kim, Jihie; Gil, Yolanda; Hall, Mary; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Data analysis processes in scientific applications can be expressed as coarse-grain workflows of complex data processing operations with data flow dependencies between them. Performance optimization of these workflows can be viewed as a search for a set of optimal values in a multi-dimensional parameter space. While some performance parameters such as grouping of workflow components and their mapping to machines do not a ect the accuracy of the output, others may dictate trading the output quality of individual components (and of the whole workflow) for performance. This paper describes an integrated framework which is capable of supporting performance optimizations along multiple dimensions of the parameter space. Using two real-world applications in the spatial data analysis domain, we present an experimental evaluation of the proposed framework. PMID:22068617

  17. Turning Vygotsky on His Head: Vygotsky' `Scientifically Based Method' and the Socioculturalist's `Social Other'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, S.

    Vygotsky has become an authority, but the authority has more to do with justifying a sociocultural relativism than it has with his Marxist objectivist approach to psychology and pedagogy. This paper is an attempt to understand Vygotsky's perspective in relation to Marxist epistemology, and will critically examine the sociocultural interpretation of Vygotsky but within the light of his own perspective. It will be shown that the relativism of the sociocultural school not only takes Vygotsky's zone of proximal development out of its social and historical context, but as a consequence downplays the zone of proximal development as a dynamic research methodology. As an extension of the discussion of the zone of proximal development, this paper will also examine the sociocultural interpretation of Vygotsky's relation between scientific and everyday concepts, and the pedagogical consequences of such an interpretation.

  18. Contextual Semantic: A Context-aware Approach for Semantic Web Based Data Extraction from Scientific Articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumlander, Deniss

    The paper explores whether the semantic context is good enough to cope with ever increasing number of available resources in different repositories including the web. Here a problem of identifying authors of scientific papers is used as an example. A set of problem still do arise in case we apply exclusively the semantic context. Fortunately contextual semantic can be used to derive more information required to separate ambiguous cases. Semantic tags, well-structured documents and available databases of articles do provide a possibility to be more context-aware. Under the context we use co-authors names, references and headers to extract key-words and identify the subject. The real complexity of the considering problem comes from the dynamical behaviour of authors as they can change the topic of the research in the next paper. As the final judge the paper proposes applying words usage patterns analysis. Final the contextual intelligence engine is described.

  19. Risk analysis-based food safety policy: scientific factors versus socio-cultural factors.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Mauro; van Knapen, Frans; Brom, Frans W A

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in risk management and the need to incorporate these factors in a standard, internationally recognized (WTO) framework. This was achieved by analysing the relevance of these factors in three cases. It can be concluded that the pre-eminent role of science in food-related regulatory decisions is debatable. At a risk management level, other factors, such as cultural, social, or economic issues, are often more important than scientific advice in determining policy. There is a need for transparency at an international level as trade barriers are gradually being removed and these other factors are becoming more apparent. Therefore it is important that all the factors implicated in the food safety policy-making process are recognized in a standard framework.

  20. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  1. Removing the impact of water abstractions on flow duration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoero, Alessandro; Ganora, Daniele; Galeati, Giorgio; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    Changes and interactions between human system and water cycle are getting increased attention in the scientific community. Commonly discharge data needed for water resources studies were collected close to urban or industrial settlements, thus in environments where the interest for surveying was not merely scientific, but also for socio-economical purposes. Working in non-natural environments we must take into account human impacts, like the one due to water intakes for irrigation or hydropower generation, while assessing the actual water availability and variability in a river. This can became an issue in alpine areas, where hydropower exploitation is heavy and it is common to have water abstraction before a gauge station. To have a gauge station downstream a water intake can be useful to survey the environmental flow release and to record the maximum flood values, which should not be affected by the water abstraction. Nevertheless with this configuration we are unable to define properly the water volumes available in the river, information crucial to assess low flows and investigate drought risk. This situation leads to a substantial difference between observed data (affected by the human impact) and natural data (as would have been without abstraction). A main issue is how to correct these impacts and restore the natural streamflow values. The most obvious and reliable solution would be to ask for abstraction data to water users, but these data are hard to collect. Usually they are not available, because not public or not even collected by the water exploiters. A solution could be to develop a rainfall-run-off model of the basin upstream the gauge station, but this approach needs a great number of data and parameters Working in a regional framework and not on single case studies, our goal is to provide a consistent estimate of the non-impacted statistics of the river (i.e. mean value, L-moments of variation and skewness). We proposed a parsimonious method, based

  2. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  3. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  4. Comparison of Scientific Calipers and Computer-Enabled CT Review for the Measurement of Skull Base and Craniomaxillofacial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Citardi, Martin J.; Herrmann, Brian; Hollenbeak, Chris S.; Stack, Brendan C.; Cooper, Margaret; Bucholz, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, cadaveric studies and plain-film cephalometrics provided information about craniomaxillofacial proportions and measurements; however, advances in computer technology now permit software-based review of computed tomography (CT)-based models. Distances between standardized anatomic points were measured on five dried human skulls with standard scientific calipers (Geneva Gauge, Albany, NY) and through computer workstation (StealthStation 2.6.4, Medtronic Surgical Navigation Technology, Louisville, CO) review of corresponding CT scans. Differences in measurements between the caliper and CT model were not statistically significant for each parameter. Measurements obtained by computer workstation CT review of the cranial skull base are an accurate representation of actual bony anatomy. Such information has important implications for surgical planning and clinical research. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17167599

  5. Discrete Lognormal Model as an Unbiased Quantitative Measure of Scientific Performance Based on Empirical Citation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Joao; Zeng, Xiaohan; Amaral, Luis

    2013-03-01

    Assessing the career performance of scientists has become essential to modern science. Bibliometric indicators, like the h-index are becoming more and more decisive in evaluating grants and approving publication of articles. However, many of the more used indicators can be manipulated or falsified by publishing with very prolific researchers or self-citing papers with a certain number of citations, for instance. Accounting for these factors is possible but it introduces unwanted complexity that drives us further from the purpose of the indicator: to represent in a clear way the prestige and importance of a given scientist. Here we try to overcome this challenge. We used Thompson Reuter's Web of Science database and analyzed all the papers published until 2000 by ~1500 researchers in the top 30 departments of seven scientific fields. We find that over 97% of them have a citation distribution that is consistent with a discrete lognormal model. This suggests that our model can be used to accurately predict the performance of a researcher. Furthermore, this predictor does not depend on the individual number of publications and is not easily ``gamed'' on. The authors acknowledge support from FCT Portugal, and NSF grants

  6. Scientific integrity memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama signed a presidential memorandum on 9 March to help restore scientific integrity in government decision making. The memorandum directs the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to develop a strategy within 120 days that ensures that "the selection of scientists and technology professionals for science and technology positions in the executive branch is based on those individuals' scientific and technological knowledge, credentials, and experience; agencies make available to the public the scientific or technological findings or conclusions considered or relied upon in policy decisions; agencies use scientific and technological information that has been subject to well-established scientific processes such as peer review; and agencies have appropriate rules and procedures to ensure the integrity of the scientific process within the agency, including whistleblower protection."

  7. Temporal and comparative outcomes of cardiac electrophysiology abstracts.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher X; Sun, Michelle T; Cheng, Yi Han; Dang, Jerry; Barlow, David S; Chia, Nicholas H; Wong, Nicole X; Wong, Michelle X; Lau, Dennis H; Brooks, Anthony G; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2013-07-15

    Although conferences are important vehicles for discussing scientific findings, the translation of presented research into peer-reviewed manuscripts is a crucial subsequent step in the research process. Given the evolving subspecialization of cardiology, we sought to characterize the temporal and comparative outcomes of abstracts presented at a subspecialty cardiac electrophysiology conference. Abstracts presented at the Heart Rhythm Society conference (1994 through 2006; HRS abstracts) and abstracts presented at the American Heart Association conference (2003; AHA abstracts) were studied. Subsequent publications, impact factors, and citation rates were determined. A total of 3,850 HRS and 1,000 AHA abstracts were studied. More human abstracts were presented at HRS than AHA (p <0.05). Compared with HRS abstracts, more AHA abstracts were published (p <0.001) and had higher impact factors and citation rates (p <0.001 for both). These differences were attributable in part to the greater proportion of human HRS abstracts. Compared with HRS abstracts, electrophysiology-related AHA abstracts were published less (p <0.001), and these publications had similar impact factors (p = 0.38) although greater citation rates (p = 0.001). The number and publication rate of HRS abstracts increased over the 15-year period, as did their publication impact factors and citation rates (p <0.001 for all). In conclusion, there are significant differences between AHA and HRS abstracts. Although AHA abstracts were more likely to be published overall, the publication rate and impact of electrophysiology abstracts presented at both a subspecialty (HRS) and a major cardiovascular conference (AHA) were comparable. There has also been a growth in the number and impact of cardiac electrophysiology abstracts presented at HRS in recent years.

  8. Visceral leishmaniasis epidemiologic evolution in timeframes, based on demographic changes and scientific achievements in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Conti, Renata Vivas; Moura Lane, Viviane Fragoso; Montebello, Lucia; Pinto Junior, Vitor Laerte

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease of chronic evolution which could be uniformly fatal, if left untreated. Human VL was first described in the Americas in 1913 and in 1936 in Brazil. The number of VL cases in Brazil is increasing steadily in the last three decades. Medical literature highlights this change in the disease epidemiology as a recent urbanization phenomenon, with most of the cases occurring in large cities since 1981, different to that observed previously, like a typical rural endemic. The aim of this study was to create a narrative review of the evolution of VL epidemiology since its first description in Brazil. To describe the process of urbanization of VL, timeframes were created historically consistent with the scientific and public health knowledge obtained about the VL and the demographics changes in Brazil, especially considering the extensive migratory movements in the country due to political or economic events. The first phase of VL was the decades of 30-50 when industrialization triggered internal migration process from countryside to the cities; during this period VL was studied for the first time and described as a rural endemic disease with no relevance to public health. Until the second phase, between the 50s and 80s of the 20th century, demography was characterized by expansion of immigration to the large cities and increase in population density in the suburbs with poor living standards. In this period, there was an advancement in the knowledge of the transmission of the disease being described as the first case acquired in the urban environment. The third phase was characterized by the explosion of cases in Brazilian cities and consolidation of urban endemic transmission. The possibility of urban transmission has been known since the 50s; however, the current phenomenon was due to the creation of ideal conditions for the establishment of transmission cycle in Brazilian cities.

  9. Tools for Scientific Thinking: Microcomputer-Based Laboratories for the Naive Science Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Ronald K.

    A promising new development in science education is the use of microcomputer-based laboratory tools that allow for student-directed data acquisition, display, and analysis. Microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) make use of inexpensive microcomputer-connected probes to measure such physical quantities as temperature, position, and various…

  10. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  11. A Global View Programming Abstraction for Transitioning MPI Codes to PGAS Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; Hernandez, Oscar R; Bernholdt, David E

    2014-01-01

    The multicore generation of scientific high performance computing has provided a platform for the realization of Exascale computing, and has also underscored the need for new paradigms in coding parallel applications. The current standard for writing parallel applications requires programmers to use languages designed for sequential execution. These languages have abstractions that only allow programmers to operate on the process centric local view of data. To provide suitable languages for parallel execution, many research efforts have designed languages based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. Chapel is one of the more recent languages to be developed using this model. Chapel supports multithreaded execution with high-level abstractions for parallelism. With Chapel in mind, we have developed a set of directives that serve as intermediate expressions for transitioning scientific applications from languages designed for sequential execution to PGAS languages like Chapel that are being developed with parallelism in mind.

  12. ChemSem: an extensible and scalable RSS-based seminar alerting system for scientific collaboration.

    PubMed

    Rzepa, Henry S; Wheat, Andrew; Williamson, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    A seminar announcement system based on the extensive use of XML-based data structures, CML/MathML for carrying more domain-specific molecular content, and open source software components is described. The output is a resource description framework (RDF) site summary (RSS) feed, which potentially carries many advantages over conventional announcement mechanisms, including the ability to aggregate and then sort multiple and diverse RSS feeds on the basis of declared metadata and to feed into RDF-based mechanisms for establishing links between different subject areas.

  13. Critical evaluation of scientific articles and other sources of information: an introduction to evidence-based veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, J P

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly review key concepts regarding critical reading of the scientific literature to make informed decisions, in the context of evidence-based veterinary medicine. Key concepts are reviewed, based on the broader experience in human medicine, with adaptations, as indicated, to veterinary medicine. That a paper has been published in a peer-reviewed journal does not guarantee its credibility; guidelines are given regarding the general merit of different kinds of articles, as well as checklists and criteria that can be used to assess a paper. Specific study designs, their merits and limitations, are briefly discussed. Standard numerical indices for assessment of studies involving treatments and for assessments of diagnostic tests are summarized. Criteria for assessing drug trials are presented. The principles of statistical analysis are described, including practical considerations and common errors. Finally, numerous sources of bias are reviewed.

  14. Advancing the Scientific Foundation for Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael C; Blossom, Jennifer B; Evans, Spencer C; Amaro, Christina M; Kanine, Rebecca M

    2016-05-24

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) has become a central focus in clinical child and adolescent psychology. As originally defined, EBP in psychology is the integration of the best available research evidence, patient characteristics, and clinical expertise. Although evidence-based perspectives have garnered widespread acceptance in recent years, there has also been some confusion and disagreement about the 3-part definition of EBP, particularly the role of research. In this article, we first provide a brief review of the development of EBP in clinical child and adolescent psychology. Next, we outline the following 4 points to help clarify the understanding of EBP: (a) knowledge should not be confused with epistemic processes, (b) research on clinician and client factors is needed for EBP, (c) research on assessment is needed for EBP, and (d) the 3-part conceptualization of EBP can serve as a useful framework to guide research. Based on these principles, we put forth a slightly revised conceptualization of EBP, in which the role of research is expanded and more clearly operationalized. Finally, based on our review of the literature, we offer illustrative examples of specific directions for future research to advance the evidence base for EBP in clinical child and adolescent psychology.

  15. [Evidence-Based Knowledge Translation: From Scientific Evidence to Clinical Nursing Practice].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kee-Hsin; Kao, Ching-Chiu; Chen, Chiehfeng

    2016-12-01

    In 1992, Gordon Guyatt coined the term "evidence-based medicine", which has since attracted worldwide attention. In 2007, the Institute of Medicine's Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine set the goal that 90% of clinical decisions would be supported by accurate, timely, and up-to-date clinical information and would reflect the best available evidence by 2020. However, the chasm between knowing and doing remains palpable. In 2000, the Canadian Institute of Health Research applied the term "knowledge translation" to describe the bridge that is necessary to cross the gap between research knowledge and clinical practice. The present paper outlines the conceptual framework, barriers, and promotion strategies for evidence-based knowledge translation and shares clinical experience related to overcoming the seven layers of leakage (aware, accepted, applicable, able, acted on, agreed, and adhered to). We hope that this paper can enhance the public well-being and strengthen the future health care system.

  16. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  17. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  18. Mutation-Based Learning to Improve Student Autonomy and Scientific Inquiry Skills in a Large Genetics Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinlu

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory education can play a vital role in developing a learner's autonomy and scientific inquiry skills. In an innovative, mutation-based learning (MBL) approach, students were instructed to redesign a teacher-designed standard experimental protocol by a “mutation” method in a molecular genetics laboratory course. Students could choose to delete, add, reverse, or replace certain steps of the standard protocol to explore questions of interest to them in a given experimental scenario. They wrote experimental proposals to address their rationales and hypotheses for the “mutations”; conducted experiments in parallel, according to both standard and mutated protocols; and then compared and analyzed results to write individual lab reports. Various autonomy-supportive measures were provided in the entire experimental process. Analyses of student work and feedback suggest that students using the MBL approach 1) spend more time discussing experiments, 2) use more scientific inquiry skills, and 3) find the increased autonomy afforded by MBL more enjoyable than do students following regimented instructions in a conventional “cookbook”-style laboratory. Furthermore, the MBL approach does not incur an obvious increase in labor and financial costs, which makes it feasible for easy adaptation and implementation in a large class. PMID:24006394

  19. The View of Scientific Inquiry Conveyed by Simulation-Based Virtual Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sufen

    2010-01-01

    With an increasing number of studies evincing the effectiveness of simulation-based virtual laboratories (VLs), researchers have discussed replacing traditional laboratories. However, the approach of doing science endorsed by VLs has not been carefully examined. A survey of 233 online VLs revealed that hypothetico-deductive (HD) logic prevails in…

  20. Conducting Scientific Research on Learning and Health Behavior Change with Computer-Based Health Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Lieberman, Debra A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a guide for researchers interested in assessing the effectiveness of serious computer-based games (or video games, digital games, or electronic games) intended to improve health and health care. It presents a definition of health games, a rationale for their use, an overview of the current state of research, and recommendations for…

  1. Inquiring into Familiar Objects: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Introduce Scientific Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks Pries, Caitlin; Hughes, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Learning science vocabulary is an often tedious but important component of many curricula. Frequently, students are expected to learn science vocabulary indirectly, but this method can hinder the success of lower-performing students (Carlisle, Fleming, and Gudbrandsen 2000). We have developed an inquiry-based vocabulary activity wherein students…

  2. Multi-Level Assessment of Scientific Content Knowledge Gains Associated with Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the impact of using a socioscientific issue (SSI) based curriculum on developing science content knowledge. Using a multi-level assessment design, student content knowledge gains were measured before and after implementation of a three-week unit on global warming (a prominent SSI) that explored both the relevant science content…

  3. Developing the Critical Thinking Skills of Astrobiology Students through Creative and Scientific Inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Lemus, Judith D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology. Key Words: Scientific inquiry—Critical thinking—Curriculum development—Astrobiology—Microbialites. Astrobiology 15, 89–99. PMID:25474292

  4. Scientific data requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Each Scientific Data Requirement (SDR) is summarized in terms of professional discipline, research program, technical description, related parameters, geographical extent, resolution, error tolerance,space-based sensors systems, personnel, implementation expert, notes, and references.

  5. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  6. Learning science content through socio-scientific issues-based instruction: a multi-level assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Sami Topçu, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    Science educators have presented numerous conceptual and theoretical arguments in favor of teaching science through the exploration of socio-scientific issues (SSI). However, the empirical knowledge base regarding the extent to which SSI-based instruction supports student learning of science content is limited both in terms of the number of studies that have been conducted in this area and the quality of research. This research sought to answer two questions: (1) To what extent does SSI-based instruction support student learning of science content? and (2) How do assessments at variable distances from the curriculum reveal patterns of learning associated with SSI-based instruction? Sixty-nine secondary students taught by three teachers participated in the study. Three teachers implemented an SSI intervention focused on the use of biotechnology for identifying and treating sexually transmitted diseases. We found that students demonstrated statistically and practically significant gains in content knowledge as measured by both proximal and distal assessments. These findings support the claim that SSI-based teaching can foster content learning and improved performance on high-stakes tests.

  7. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications

    PubMed Central

    Achakulvisut, Titipat; Acuna, Daniel E.; Ruangrong, Tulakan; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate. PMID:27383424

  8. Interim Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-18

    alternatives to these organic solvent based systems have been developed, none equal their effectiveness in performance or cost. Thus far the mechanism of...List of Tables Table 1. List of the composition of the control solvent formulations ____________________________________________ 2 Table 2...topcoats (MIL: 53039 and 85285). Solid-state proton NMR shows the effects of exposure to the control solvent mixtures on the segmental dynamics of

  9. Model-based system engineering approach for the Euclid mission to manage scientific and technical complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo Alvarez, Jose; Metselaar, Harold; Amiaux, Jerome; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Laureijs, René J.; Vavrek, Roland

    2016-08-01

    In the last years, the system engineering field is coming to terms with a paradigm change in the approach for complexity management. Different strategies have been proposed to cope with highly interrelated systems, system of systems and collaborative system engineering have been proposed and a significant effort is being invested into standardization and ontology definition. In particular, Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) intends to introduce methodologies for a systematic system definition, development, validation, deployment, operation and decommission, based on logical and visual relationship mapping, rather than traditional 'document based' information management. The practical implementation in real large-scale projects is not uniform across fields. In space science missions, the usage has been limited to subsystems or sample projects with modeling being performed 'a-posteriori' in many instances. The main hurdle for the introduction of MBSE practices in new projects is still the difficulty to demonstrate their added value to a project and whether their benefit is commensurate with the level of effort required to put them in place. In this paper we present the implemented Euclid system modeling activities, and an analysis of the benefits and limitations identified to support in particular requirement break-down and allocation, and verification planning at mission level.

  10. Toward the Development of a Fundamentally Based Chemical Model for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit Rate Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M.; Pitz, William J.; Curran, Henry J.

    2016-08-25

    Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic model for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. We present calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. Furthermore, these radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by H and Ö atoms and OH, HO2, and CH3 radicals, the rate constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when OH is involved, but the reverse holds true for HO2 radicals. We also determined the subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite model chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.

  11. Toward the Development of a Fundamentally Based Chemical Model for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit Rate Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M.; Pitz, William J.; ...

    2016-08-25

    Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic model for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. We present calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. Furthermore, these radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by H and Ö atoms and OH, HO2, and CH3 radicals, the rate constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when OH is involved, but the reverse holds true for HO2more » radicals. We also determined the subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite model chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.« less

  12. Toward the Development of a Fundamentally Based Chemical Model for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit Rate Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Pitz, William J; Curran, Henry J

    2016-09-15

    Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic model for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. Calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data are presented for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. These radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by Ḣ and Ö atoms and ȮH, HȮ2, and ĊH3 radicals, the rate constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when ȮH is involved, but the reverse holds true for HȮ2 radicals. The subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed is also determined, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite model chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.

  13. Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This TM is a compilation of abstracts of the papers and the posters presented at the conference. Web-based proceedings, including the charts used by the presenters, will be posted on the web shortly after the conference.

  14. The scientific and regulatory rationale for indication extrapolation: a case study based on the infliximab biosimilar CT-P13.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Walter; Louis, Edouard; Danese, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Extrapolation of clinical data from other indications is an important concept in the development of biosimilars. This process depends on strict comparability exercises to establish similarity to the reference medicinal product. However, the extrapolation paradigm has prompted a fierce scientific debate. CT-P13 (Remsima(®), Inflectra(®)), an infliximab biosimilar, is a TNF antagonist used to treat immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. On the basis of totality of similarity data, the EMA approved CT-P13 for all indications held by its reference medicinal product (Remicade(®)) including inflammatory bowel disease. This article reviews the mechanisms of action of TNF antagonists in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and illustrates the comparable profiles of CT-P13 and reference medicinal product on which the extrapolation of indications including inflammatory bowel disease is based.

  15. Tenth annual scientific conference of the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA), July 19, 1995, Seattle, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, V.A.; Hudgins, L.; Cassidy, S.B. |

    1996-09-06

    Each year for the last 10 years, scientists conducting research on Prader-Willi syndrome have come together to exchange information during a scientific conference held in conjunction with the annual Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) meeting. Presentations based on submitted abstracts encompass such varied fields as genetics, endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, psychology, psychiatry, and education. This year`s scientific conference was held in Seattle, Washington, on July 19, 1995, in conjunction with the 14th PWSA (USA) meeting held July 20-23. Seventeen reports were presented at the scientific meeting, the abstracts of which follow.

  16. Genetic algorithm based task reordering to improve the performance of batch scheduled massively parallel scientific applications

    DOE PAGES

    Sankaran, Ramanan; Angel, Jordan; Brown, W. Michael

    2015-04-08

    The growth in size of networked high performance computers along with novel accelerator-based node architectures has further emphasized the importance of communication efficiency in high performance computing. The world's largest high performance computers are usually operated as shared user facilities due to the costs of acquisition and operation. Applications are scheduled for execution in a shared environment and are placed on nodes that are not necessarily contiguous on the interconnect. Furthermore, the placement of tasks on the nodes allocated by the scheduler is sub-optimal, leading to performance loss and variability. Here, we investigate the impact of task placement on themore » performance of two massively parallel application codes on the Titan supercomputer, a turbulent combustion flow solver (S3D) and a molecular dynamics code (LAMMPS). Benchmark studies show a significant deviation from ideal weak scaling and variability in performance. The inter-task communication distance was determined to be one of the significant contributors to the performance degradation and variability. A genetic algorithm-based parallel optimization technique was used to optimize the task ordering. This technique provides an improved placement of the tasks on the nodes, taking into account the application's communication topology and the system interconnect topology. As a result, application benchmarks after task reordering through genetic algorithm show a significant improvement in performance and reduction in variability, therefore enabling the applications to achieve better time to solution and scalability on Titan during production.« less

  17. Genetic algorithm based task reordering to improve the performance of batch scheduled massively parallel scientific applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, Ramanan; Angel, Jordan; Brown, W. Michael

    2015-04-08

    The growth in size of networked high performance computers along with novel accelerator-based node architectures has further emphasized the importance of communication efficiency in high performance computing. The world's largest high performance computers are usually operated as shared user facilities due to the costs of acquisition and operation. Applications are scheduled for execution in a shared environment and are placed on nodes that are not necessarily contiguous on the interconnect. Furthermore, the placement of tasks on the nodes allocated by the scheduler is sub-optimal, leading to performance loss and variability. Here, we investigate the impact of task placement on the performance of two massively parallel application codes on the Titan supercomputer, a turbulent combustion flow solver (S3D) and a molecular dynamics code (LAMMPS). Benchmark studies show a significant deviation from ideal weak scaling and variability in performance. The inter-task communication distance was determined to be one of the significant contributors to the performance degradation and variability. A genetic algorithm-based parallel optimization technique was used to optimize the task ordering. This technique provides an improved placement of the tasks on the nodes, taking into account the application's communication topology and the system interconnect topology. As a result, application benchmarks after task reordering through genetic algorithm show a significant improvement in performance and reduction in variability, therefore enabling the applications to achieve better time to solution and scalability on Titan during production.

  18. Disciplinarity and sport science in Europe: A statistical and sociological study of ECSS conference abstracts.

    PubMed

    Champely, Stéphane; Fargier, Patrick; Camy, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Abstracts of European College of Sports Science conferences (1995-2014) are studied. The number of abstracts has been increasing regularly (+90 per year). This rise is in recent years largely due to extra-European countries. The magnitude and accumulation of the different topics of discussion are examined. An operational criterion determines four stages of evolution of a topic: social network, cluster, specialty, and discipline. The scientific production can, therefore, be classified as disciplinary or non-disciplinary. The disciplinary part is more important but has been less dynamic recently. The cognitive content of sport science is then explored through a multidimensional scaling of the topics based on the keywords used in the abstracts. Three areas are visible: social sciences and humanities, sports medicine and physiology, and biomechanics and neurophysiology. According to the field theory of Bourdieu ( 1975 ), three scientific habitus are distinguished. The logic of academic disciplinary excellence is the consequence of the autonomy of this scientific field, its closure, peer-review process, and barriers to entry. The distribution of scientific capital and professional capital is unequal across the three areas. Basically, conservation strategies of academic disciplinary excellence are predicted in biomechanics and neurophysiology, subversion strategies of interdisciplinarity based on professional concerns can appear in the sports medicine and physiology area, and critical strategies of interdisciplinarity based on social utility in social sciences and humanities. Moreover, additional tensions within these areas are depicted. Lastly methods based on co-citations of disciplines and boundary objects are proposed to find tangible patterns of multidisciplinarity confirming these strategies.

  19. [Musculoskeletal chronic pain: Latin-American expert panel review based on scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Angulo, J; González, R; Hernández, L; Hernández-Ortiz, A; Jaque, J; Lara-Solares, A; Robles San Roman, M; Vacas, J

    2011-08-01

    Based on the continual medical education, in the first trimester of 2010 an expert in pain meeting has being made at Mexico City. The priority of the research was on educate residents of medical school or at their post graduate years, and the priority was on investigate of how our residents use adequate pain medication. In that first meeting at Mexico City, from different countries, the agreement was on inadequate use of pain treatment caused from inadequate education of the proper indication of drugs and other therapies for muscle skeletal pain. We decided to make a Latin American expert recommendation in chronic muscle pain where we include: epidemiological and socioeconomic pain data, actual classification of NSAIDs, pharmacological and other treatment in pain, and side effects of most popular drugs with actual recommendations. We include Medline guides, reviews, randomized studies and meta-analysis from 2001 to 2010.

  20. Watts linkage based large band low frequency sensors for scientific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, F.; Giordano, G.; Acernese, F.; Romano, R.

    2016-07-01

    The UNISA Folded Pendulum class of horizontal and vertical sensors, based on an innovative configuration of the classical Watt's linkage mechanical architecture, allows the design and implementation of very large band monolithic sensors (10-7 Hz to102 Hz), whose sensitivities for the most common applications are defined by the noise introduced by their readouts (e.g. <10-12 m /√{ Hz } with classical LVDT readouts). These unique features, coupled other relevant properties like scalability, compactness, lightness, high directivity, frequency tunability (typical resonance frequencies in the band 10-1 Hz to102 Hz), very high immunity to environmental noises and low cost make this class of sensors very effective for the implementation of uniaxial (horizontal and/or vertical) and triaxial seismometers and accelerometers for ground, space and underwater applications, including UHV and cryogenics ones.

  1. Brain plasticity and functional losses in the aged: scientific bases for a novel intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahncke, Henry W; Bronstone, Amy; Merzenich, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive losses in function across multiple systems, including sensation, cognition, memory, motor control, and affect. The traditional view has been that functional decline in aging is unavoidable because it is a direct consequence of brain machinery wearing down over time. In recent years, an alternative perspective has emerged, which elaborates on this traditional view of age-related functional decline. This new viewpoint--based upon decades of research in neuroscience, experimental psychology, and other related fields--argues that as people age, brain plasticity processes with negative consequences begin to dominate brain functioning. Four core factors--reduced schedules of brain activity, noisy processing, weakened neuromodulatory control, and negative learning--interact to create a self-reinforcing downward spiral of degraded brain function in older adults. This downward spiral might begin from reduced brain activity due to behavioral change, from a loss in brain function driven by aging brain machinery, or more likely from both. In aggregate, these interrelated factors promote plastic changes in the brain that result in age-related functional decline. This new viewpoint on the root causes of functional decline immediately suggests a remedial approach. Studies of adult brain plasticity have shown that substantial improvement in function and/or recovery from losses in sensation, cognition, memory, motor control, and affect should be possible, using appropriately designed behavioral training paradigms. Driving brain plasticity with positive outcomes requires engaging older adults in demanding sensory, cognitive, and motor activities on an intensive basis, in a behavioral context designed to re-engage and strengthen the neuromodulatory systems that control learning in adults, with the goal of increasing the fidelity, reliability, and power of cortical representations. Such a training program would serve a substantial unmet need in

  2. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  3. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  4. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  5. Hospital discharge abstracts have limited accuracy in identifying occurrence of Clostridium difficile infections among hospitalized individuals with inflammatory bowel disease: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harminder; Nugent, Zoann; Yu, B. Nancy; Lix, Lisa M.; Targownik, Laura; Bernstein, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Background Hospital discharge databases are used to study the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CDI in IBD is increasingly important and accurately estimating its occurrence is critical in understanding its comorbidity. There are limited data on the reliability of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) (now widely used in North America) CDI code in determining occurrence of CDI among hospitalized patients. We compared the performance of ICD-10 CDI coding to laboratory confirmed CDI diagnoses. Methods The University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database was used to identify individuals with and without IBD discharged with CDI diagnoses between 07/01/2005 and 3/31/2014. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of ICD-10 CDI code was compared to laboratory CDI diagnoses recorded in a province wide CDI dataset. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to test the predictors of diagnostic inaccuracy of ICD-10 CDI code. Results There were 273 episodes of laboratory confirmed CDI (hospitalized and non-hospitalized) among 7396 individuals with IBD and 536 among 66,297 matched controls. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ICD-10 CDI code in discharge abstracts was 72.8%, 99.6%, 64.1% and 99.7% among those with IBD and 70.8%, 99.9%, 79.0% and 99.9% among those without IBD. Predictors of diagnostic inaccuracy included IBD, older age, increased co-morbidity and earlier years of hospitalization. Conclusions Identification of CDI using ICD-10 CDI code in hospital discharge abstracts may not identify up to 30% of CDI cases, with worse performance among those with IBD. PMID:28199401

  6. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Feakes, Debra A.

    2006-08-09

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  7. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2016-11-22

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have a processing disadvantage in a lexical decision task. We contrast precision to concreteness, a common measure of abstractness based on the proportion of sensory-based information associated with a concept. Since concreteness facilitates cognitive processing, we predict that while both concreteness and precision are measures of abstractness, they will have opposite effects on performance. In two studies we found empirical support for our hypothesis. Precision and concreteness had opposite effects on latency and accuracy in a lexical decision task, and these opposite effects were observable while controlling for word length, word frequency, affective content and semantic diversity. Our results support the view that concepts organization includes amodal semantic structures which are independent of sensory information. They also suggest that we should distinguish between sensory-based and amount-of-information-based abstractness.

  8. Developing a scientific procedure for community based hazard mapping and risk mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrier, M.

    2011-12-01

    As an international exchange student from the Geological Sciences Department at San Diego State University (SDSU), I joined the KKN-PPM program at Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in July 2011 for 12 days (July 4th to July 16th) of its two month duration (July 4th to August 25th). The KKN-PPM group I was attached was designated 154 and was focused in Plosorejo Village, Karanganyar, Kerjo, Central Java, Indonesia. The mission of KKN-PPM 154 was to survey Plosorejo village for existing landslides, to generate a simple hazard susceptibility map that can be understood by local villagers, and then to begin dissemination of that map into the community. To generate our susceptibility map we first conducted a geological survey of the existing landslides in the field study area, with a focus on determining landslide triggers and gauging areas for susceptibility for future landslides. The methods for gauging susceptibility included lithological observation, the presence of linear cracking, visible loss of structural integrity in structures such as villager homes, as well as collaboration with local residents and with the local rescue and response team. There were three color distinctions used in representing susceptibility which were green, where there is no immediate danger of landslide damage; orange, where transportation routes are at risk of being disrupted by landslides; and red, where imminent landslide potential puts a home in direct danger. The landslide inventory and susceptibility data was compiled into digital mediums such as CorelDraw, ArcGIS and Google Earth. Once a technical map was generated, we presented it to the village leadership for confirmation and modification based on their experience. Finally, we began to use the technical susceptibility map to draft evacuation routes and meeting points in the event of landslides, as well as simple susceptibility maps that can be understood and utilized by local villagers. Landslide mitigation

  9. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  10. Impairment-oriented training (IOT)--scientific concept and evidence-based treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Platz, T

    2004-01-01

    Everyday activities can be affected by many different body dysfunctions (impairments). A multi-modal analysis of electric brain activity revealed that movement-related brain activity is differentially altered in patients with different impairments, i.e. paresis, somatosensory deficits, and apraxia. Each body dysfunction has its own characteristics in terms of the resulting sensorimotor control deficits. The Impairment-oriented Training concept intends to characterise the resulting sensorimotor control deficits for each impairment. Based on such analyses two specific training techniques have been developed for stroke patients with mild and severe arm paresis: (1.) The Arm Ability training for mild arm paresis trains different sensorimotor abilities such as dexterity, speed of isolated hand and finger movements, steadiness, aiming, or tracking under visual guidance. Improvement of these motor abilities leads to improved motor performance in every day life circumstances. (2.) The Arm BASI S training for severe arm paresis intends to restore more basic motor control, i.e. the full range of active non-segmented motion of all limb segments, both postural activities and dynamic motion control, interjoint-coordination, and adequate motor control when external forces are applied. Clinical trials with representative study populations supported both techniques' clinical efficacy.

  11. Scientific bases of biomass processing into basic component of aviation fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Lishchiner, I. I.; Malova, O. V.; Tarasov, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    A combination of feedstock pyrolysis and the cracking of the volatile pyrolysis products on the charcoal at 1000 °C allows to obtain a tarless synthesis gas which contains 90 vol% or more of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in approximately equal proportions. Basic component of aviation fuel was synthesized in a two-stage process from gas obtained by pyrolytic processing of biomass. Methanol and dimethyl ether can be efficiently produced in a two-layer loading of methanolic catalyst and γ-Al2O3. The total conversion of CO per pass was 38.2% using for the synthesis of oxygenates a synthesis gas with adverse ratio of H2/CO = 0.96. Conversion of CO to CH3OH was 15.3% and the conversion of CO to dimethyl ether was 20.9%. A high yield of basic component per oxygenates mass (44.6%) was obtained during conversion. The high selectivity of the synthesis process for liquid hydrocarbons was observed. An optimal recipe of aviation fuel B-92 based on a synthesized basic component was developed. The prototype of aviation fuel meets the requirements for B-92 when straight fractions of 50-100 °C (up to 35 wt%), isooctane (up to 10 wt%) and ethyl fluid (2.0 g/kg calculated as tetraethyl lead) is added to the basic component.

  12. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  13. Enhancing the credibility of decisions based on scientific conclusions: transparency is imperative.

    PubMed

    Schreider, Jay; Barrow, Craig; Birchfield, Norman; Dearfield, Kerry; Devlin, Dennis; Henry, Sara; Kramer, Melissa; Schappelle, Seema; Solomon, Keith; Weed, Douglas L; Embry, Michelle R

    2010-07-01

    Transparency and documentation of the decision process are at the core of a credible risk assessment and, in addition, are essential in the presentation of a weight of evidence (WoE)-based approach. Lack of confidence in the risk assessment process (as the basis for a risk management decision), beginning with evaluation of raw data and continuing through the risk decision process, is largely because of issues surrounding transparency. There is a critical need to implement greater transparency throughout the risk assessment process, and although doing so will not guarantee the correctness of the risk assessment or that all risk assessors come up with the same conclusions, it will provide essential information on how a particular conclusion or decision was made, thereby increasing confidence in the conclusions. Recognizing this issue, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute convened a multisector committee tasked with discussing this issue and examining existing guidance and recommendations related to transparency in risk assessment. The committee concluded that transparency is inextricably linked to credibility: credibility of the data, credibility of the risk assessment process, and credibility of the resulting decision making. To increase this credibility, existing guidance concerning criteria elements of transparency related to the risk assessment process must be more widely disseminated and applied, and raw data for studies used in human health and environmental risk assessment must be more widely available. Finally, the decision-making process in risk management must be better documented and a guidance framework established for both the process itself and its communication to the public.

  14. Saline Lakes: Platforms for Place-Based Scientific Inquiry by K-12 Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, H. S.; Chapman, D. S.; Hynek, S. A.; Jarrell, E.; Johnson, W. P.; Naftz, D. L.; Neuman, C. R.; Uno, K.

    2006-12-01

    WEST (Water, the Environment, Science and Teaching) is an NSF-funded GK-12 program at the University of Utah. WEST partners graduate students in the sciences with K-12 teachers to enhance inquiry and place- based science teaching in the Salt Lake City urban area. This region is unique in that habitats relating to the entire local hydrologic cycle are accessible within 30 minutes drive of the city. Great Salt Lake, a large closed-basin lake northwest of the city, generates lake-effect snows that fall on the mountains to the east and serves as the terminal point for rivers and streams that drain over 89,000 km2. The lake's salinity ranges from 14-25% and only a few halophilic species are able to survive in its waters. Despite the low diversity, brine shrimp, brine flies, algae and bacteria are abundant in Great Salt Lake and provide the basis of the food chain for millions of migratory shorebirds and waterfowl that feed in the open water, wetlands and saline flats. WEST has teamed up with researchers from the University of Utah, the USGS, the Utah State Dept. of Environmental Quality, local advocacy groups and a private consulting firm to develop a series of projects that involve K-12 students in an actual research project to study the effects of anthropogenic influences on the lake. The study will produce site-specific water-quality standards to protect the invertebrates, shorebirds, and waterfowl that utilize Great Salt Lake. Students will participate in a research cruise on the lake, collecting samples and data to contribute to an online database that will be shared among participating schools. Students will learn about navigation tools, collect and examine brine shrimp, and measure concentrations of optical brighteners and cyanobacteria as indicators of anthropogenic influences to Great Salt Lake. Parts of the southern arm of the lake are stratified into an upper and lower brine layer and the interface between the two layers can be identified by abrupt changes in

  15. Scientific Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    1919 paper (ref. 9), in which he suggested a Moon rocket. Rock- etry was on a par with extrasensory perception in those days. 38 SCIENTIFIC SA&TLLITES...this way, images of sky can be taken at different wavelengths. The perceptive reader will note that the two zodiacal-light ex- periments described

  16. Scientific Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how scientific documentation is taught in three 50-minute sessions in a technical writing course. Tells how session one distinguishes between in-text notes, footnotes, and reference entries; session two discusses the author-year system of citing references; and session three is concerned with the author-number system of reference…

  17. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  18. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  19. Meaningful public participation in scientific research: How to build an effective site-based long-term education program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, L.

    2013-12-01

    Many site-based educators (Wildlife Refuges, nature centers, Cooperative Extension Programs, schools, arboretums) struggle with developing and implementing cohesive long-term scientific monitoring projects into their existing outreach programming. Moreover, projects that are not meaningful to participants often have little or no sustainable long-term impact. Programs proven most effective are those which 1.) engage the participants in the study design and implementation process, 2.) answer a scientific question posed by site leaders; the data collected supports USA-NPN efforts as well as related site management and monitoring questions, 3.) are built into existing outreach and education programs, using phenology as a lens for understanding both natural and cultural history, and 4.) consistently share outcomes and results with the participants. The USA National Phenology Network's (USA-NPN) Education Program provides phenology curriculum and outreach to educators in formal, non-formal, and informal settings. Materials are designed to serve participants in grades 5-12, higher education, and adult learners. Phenology, used as a lens for place-based education, can inform science, environmental, and climate literacy, as well as other subject areas including cultural studies, art, and language arts. The USA-NPN offers consultation with site leaders on how to successfully engage site-based volunteers and students in long-term phenological studies using Nature's Notebook (NN), the professional and citizen science phenology monitoring program. USA-NPN education and educator instruction materials are designed and field-tested to demonstrate how to implement a long-term NN phenology-monitoring program at such sites. These curricula incorporate monitoring for public visitors, long-term volunteers, and school groups, while meeting the goals of USA-NPN and the site, and can be used as a model for other public participation in science programs interested in achieving similar

  20. Improving Scientific Argumentation Skills by a Problem-Based Learning Environment: Effects of an Elaboration Tool and Relevance of Student Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Robin; Puhl, Thomas; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Starting from difficulties that students of education display when they interpret empirical findings and generate scientific arguments, a problem-based e-learning environment was developed. Based on first evaluation data, an elaboration tool was integrated into the learning environment. The tool consisted of a modelling and an explanation part. In…

  1. AIM satellite-based research bridges the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education programs globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D.; Maggi, B.

    2003-04-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) component of the satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM) will bridge the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education organizations. The informal education materials developed by the EPO will utilize AIM data and educate the public about the environmental implications associated with the data. This will assist with creating a scientifically literate workforce and in developing a citizenry capable of making educated decisions related to environmental policies and laws. The objective of the AIM mission is to understand the mechanisms that cause Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) to form, how their presence affects the atmosphere, and how change in the atmosphere affects them. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) because of their visibility during the night from appropriate locations. The phenomenon of PMCs is an observable indicator of global change, a concern to all citizens. Recent sightings of these clouds over populated regions have compelled AIM educators to expand informal education opportunities to communities worldwide. Collaborations with informal organizations include: Museums/Science Centers; NASA Sun-Earth Connection Forum; Alaska Native Ways of Knowing Project; Amateur Noctilucent Cloud Observers Organization; National Parks Education Programs; After School Science Clubs; Public Broadcasting Associations; and National Public Radio. The Native Ways of Knowing Project is an excellent example of informal collaboration with the AIM EPO. This Alaska based project will assist native peoples of the state with photographing NLCs for the EPO website. It will also aid the EPO with developing materials for informal organizations that incorporate traditional native knowledge and science, related to the sky. Another AIM collaboration that will offer citizens lasting informal education opportunities is the one established with the United States National Parks

  2. Before the Giants: APASS Support to Ambitious Ground-based Galaxy Investigations and Space Missions Serching for Exo-Earths (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) A huge, worldwide effort is underway to reconstruct the structure, kinematics and evolution of our Galaxy with optical spectroscopic techniques, which provide radial velocities and individual chemical abundances in addition to derive fundamental stellar parameters like surface temperature and gravity. RAVE has used for ten years (2003-2013) the 6dF 150-fiber positioner at the 1.3-meter UK Schmidt telescope in Siding Spring, ESO-Gaia has hundreds of nights allocated at the VLT telescopes in Chile with UVES and GIRAFFE multi-fiber instruments, GALAH has been allocated 400 nights in five years with the 400-fiber HERMES spectrograph at the 4-meter Australian telescope. Common to the millions of stars targeted by these surveys (over the range 10 < V < 16 mag) is the lack of suitable, multi-band, accurate optical photometry. In this talk, I review the fundamental role played by APASS in providing such missing photometric information for the stars targeted by these gigantic spectroscopic surveys. The APASS BVgri data are fundamental to support the spectroscopic effort, for example to constrain (when modelled together with 2MASS infrared JHK photometry) the stellar temperature. The APASS data are also crucial in fixing the interstellar reddening and the distance to the target stars, and their importance will be further expanded when APASS ultraviolet (u) and far red (z,Y) magnitudes will become available, as well the unsaturated APASS extension to brighter stars so that most of the bright spectroscopic standards will become within photometric reach.

  3. Scientific knowledge and modern prospecting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuerburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Modern prospecting is the systematic search for specified and generally ill-exposed components of the Earth's crust known as ore. This prospecting depends entirely on reliable, or scientific knowledge for guidance and for recognition of the search objects. Improvement in prospecting results from additions and refinements to scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is an ordered distillation of observations too numerous and too complex in themselves for easy understanding and for effective management. The ordering of these observations is accomplished by an evolutionary hierarchy of abstractions. These abstractions employ simplified descriptions consisting of characterization by selected properties, sampling to represent much larger parts of a phenomenon, generalized mappings of patterns of geometrical and numerical relations among properties, and explanation (theory) of these patterns as functional relations among the selected properties. Each abstraction is predicated on the mode of abstraction anticipated for the next higher level, so that research is a deductive process in which the highest level, theory, is indispensible for the growth and refinement of scientific knowledge, and therefore of prospecting methodology. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  4. PDE-based Non-Linear Diffusion Techniques for Denoising Scientific and Industrial Images: An Empirical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Weeratunga, S K; Kamath, C

    2001-12-20

    Removing noise from data is often the first step in data analysis. Denoising techniques should not only reduce the noise, but do so without blurring or changing the location of the edges. Many approaches have been proposed to accomplish this; in this paper, they focus on one such approach, namely the use of non-linear diffusion operators. This approach has been studied extensively from a theoretical viewpoint ever since the 1987 work of Perona and Malik showed that non-linear filters outperformed the more traditional linear Canny edge detector. They complement this theoretical work by investigating the performance of several isotropic diffusion operators on test images from scientific domains. They explore the effects of various parameters such as the choice of diffusivity function, explicit and implicit methods for the discretization of the PDE, and approaches for the spatial discretization of the non-linear operator etc. They also compare these schemes with simple spatial filters and the more complex wavelet-based shrinkage techniques. The empirical results show that, with an appropriate choice of parameters, diffusion-based schemes can be as effective as competitive techniques.

  5. An Approach to Evaluate Scientist Support in Abstract Workflows and Provenance Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Salayandia, Leonardo; Gates, Ann Q.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

    2012-11-02

    Abstract workflows are useful to bridge the gap between scientists and technologists towards using computer systems to carry out scientific processes. Provenance traces provide evidence required to validate results and support their reuse. Assuming both technologies are based on formal semantics, a knowledge-based system that consistently merges both technologies is useful for scientists that produce data to document their data collecting and transformation processes; it is also useful for scientists that reuse data to assess scientific processes and resulting datasets produced by others. While evaluation of each technology is necessary for a given application, this work discusses their combined evaluation. The claim is that both technologies should complement each other and align consistently to a scientist’s perspective in order to be effective for science. Evaluation criteria are proposed based on lessons learned and exemplified for discussion.

  6. The Scientific Value of Cognitive Load Theory: A Research Agenda Based on the Structuralist View of Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerjets, Peter; Scheiter, Katharina; Cierniak, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, two methodological perspectives are used to elaborate on the value of cognitive load theory (CLT) as a scientific theory. According to the more traditional critical rationalism of Karl Popper, CLT cannot be considered a scientific theory because some of its fundamental assumptions cannot be tested empirically and are thus not…

  7. The Integration of Science and Education as Assessed by the Scientific Community: (Based on the Results of a Sociological Survey)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubova, Larisa; Arzhanykh, Elena

    2009-01-01

    One of the main tasks of a survey by the Center for Science Research and Statistics was to assess the interaction between science and higher education from the standpoint of collaboration between scientific organizations and university science, as well as participation in the educational process by scientific organizations. This article presents a…

  8. Computational Scientific Inquiry with Virtual Worlds and Agent-Based Models: New Ways of Doing Science to Learn Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Richards, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose computational scientific inquiry (CSI) as an innovative model for learning important scientific knowledge and new practices for "doing" science. This approach involves the use of a "game-like" virtual world for students to experience virtual biological fieldwork in conjunction with using an agent-based…

  9. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts.

  10. DNA-based prediction of human externally visible characteristics in forensics: motivations, scientific challenges, and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Manfred; Schneider, Peter M

    2009-06-01

    There will always be criminal cases, where the evidence DNA sample will not match either a suspect's DNA profile, or any in a criminal DNA database. In the absence of DNA-based mass intelligence screenings, including familial searching (both of which may be restricted by legislation), there is only one option to potentially avoid or retrospectively solve "cold cases": the DNA-based prediction of human externally visible characteristics of an unknown person based on the crime scene sample left behind. Predictive DNA markers are expected to be available for some group-specific appearance traits in the near future; although it is unlikely that we will soon be able to understand the biological complexity of individual-specific appearance. In suspect-less cases reliable DNA-based prediction of broader externally visible characteristics from crime scene samples are expected to reduce the potential pool of suspects by allowing police investigations to concentrate on specific groups of people. Here, we aim to describe the forensic motivations for DNA-based prediction of human externally visible traits as well as the scientific challenges of finding predictive DNA markers, and will discuss examples with promising (e.g. sex, eye color and hair color), as well as less promising expectations (e.g. adult body height), in the foreseen future. Despite the complex ethical and legal implications arising from DNA-based prediction of externally visible characteristics, we argue that their use does not lead to a violation of privacy. We suggest that likelihood-based results, rather than DNA data itself, should be provided to the police for investigative purposes avoiding data protection issues. Furthermore, we note that the risk of exacerbating social pressure on minority groups due to DNA-based prediction of externally visible traits in crime cases may be reduced rather than increased compared to a conventional eyewitness testimony. A firm legal basis will need to be established for

  11. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  12. Don’t forget the posters! Quality and content variables associated with accepted abstracts at a national trauma meeting

    PubMed Central

    Dossett, Lesly A.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Zaydfudim, Victor; Kauffmann, Rondi; Shelton, Julia; Wang, Weiwei; Cioffi, William G.; Holcomb, John B.; Cotton, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND As a primary venue for presenting research results, abstracts selected for presentation at national meetings should be of the highest scientific merit and research quality. It is uncertain to what degree this is achieved as the methodological quality of abstracts submitted to national surgical meetings has not been previously described. The objective of this study was to evaluate abstracts presented at a leading trauma meeting for methodological quality. METHODS All abstracts accepted for the 2009 American Association for the Surgery of Trauma meeting were reviewed and scored for methodological quality based on 10 criteria (scores, 0–10; 10 being the highest). Criteria were based on nationally published methodology guidelines. Two independent reviewers who were blinded to institution, region, and author reviewed each abstract. RESULTS A total of 187 abstracts were accepted for presentation (67 oral and 120 posters). The most frequent clinical topics were shock/transfusion (23%), abdomen (12%), and nervous system (11%). Shock/transfusion abstracts were more common in the oral presentations (31% vs. 19%; p =0.06). Abstracts from the northeast and south regions were the most common in both oral (26% and 29%) and posters (25% and 24%). Basic science accounted for 12% of accepted studies, while 51% were clinical and 28% were health services/outcomes. Only 8% of abstracts presented randomized data and only 11% reported null findings. Overall abstract scores ranged from 3 to 10 (median, 7; mean, 7.4). Abstracts selected for poster presentation had an overall higher score than those selected for oral presentation (7.4 ±1.7 vs. 6.8 ±1.7; p =0.02). CONCLUSION Although oral presentations traditionally receive the most attention and interest, the methodological quality of abstracts accepted for poster presentation equals (and sometimes exceeds) that of oral abstracts. Attendees of these national meetings should reconsider their time spent in viewing and visiting

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group conference, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, November 18-19, 1992; abstracts and summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prince, Keith R.; Galloway, Devin L.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1995-01-01

    with this unprecedented increase in pumpage, substantial amounts of land subsidence were observed in several areas of the United States, most notably in Arizona, California, and Texas. Beginning in 1955, under the direction of Joseph Poland, the Geological Survey began the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project," which focused largely on the processes that resulted in land subsidence due to the withdrawal of ground water. This research team gained international renown as they advanced the scientific understanding of aquifer mechanics and land-subsidence theory. The results of field studies by members of this research group not only verified the validity of the application of Terzaghi's consolidation theory to compressible aquifers, but they also provided definitions, methods of quantification, and confirmation of the interrelation among hydraulic head declines, aquifer-system compaction, and land subsidence. In addition to conducting pioneering research, this group also formed a "center of expertise," providing a focal point within the Geological Survey for the dissemination of technology and scientific understanding in aquifer mechanics. However, when the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project" was phased out in 1984, the focal point for technology transfer no longer existed. Interest among various state and local agencies in land subsidence has persisted, and the Geological Survey has continued to participate in a broad spectrum of cooperative and Federally funded projects in aquifer mechanics and land subsidence. These projects are designed to identify and monitor areas with the potential for land subsidence, to conduct basic research in the processes that control land subsidence and the development of earth fissures, as well as to develop new quantitative tools to predict aquifer-system deformation. In 1989 an ad hoc "Aquifer Mechanics and Subsidence Interest Group" (referred to herein as the "Subsidence Interest Group") was formed

  14. Scientific Misconduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2002-12-01

    These cases provide a good basis for discussions of scientific ethics, particularly with respect to the responsibilities of colleagues in collaborative projects. With increasing numbers of students working in cooperative or collaborative groups, there may be opportunities for more than just discussion—similar issues of responsibility apply to the members of such groups. Further, this is an area where, “no clear, widely accepted standards of behavior exist” (1). Thus there is an opportunity to point out to students that scientific ethics, like science itself, is incomplete and needs constant attention to issues that result from new paradigms such as collaborative research. Finally, each of us can resolve to pay more attention to the contributions we and our colleagues make to collaborative projects, applying to our own work no less critical an eye than we would cast on the work of those we don’t know at all.

  15. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  16. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  17. Abstracts of Presentations--Seventh Annual 4S Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    4S - Society for Social Studies of Science, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents abstracts of papers for the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Society for the Social Studies of Science. Topics include, among others, rhetoric of a scientific controversy; recombinant DNA; science and social justice; patent citation analysis; national need and peer-review process; and scientism, romanticism, and social realist images of…

  18. Anatomy of scientific evolution.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making.

  19. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  20. Objects Prompt Authentic Scientific Activities among Learners in a Museum Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2016-01-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science "education" as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme…

  1. Development of a 3D-QSAR model for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors using a combination of fingerprint, docking, and structure-based pharmacophore approaches - Conference Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a serine hydrolase vital for regulating the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in animals, has been used as a target for drugs and pesticides. With the increasing availability of AChE crystal structures, with or without ligands bound, structure-based appr...

  2. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  3. [Special methodology, qualitative methods and abstract concepts].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Ana R

    2010-08-01

    Generally speaking, this paper comments on the role of qualitative methods in scientific psychology. To begin with, general and special methodology are defined; then, the main uses of qualitative methods are described and the focus of the paper on the study of meaning and of abstract concepts in the context of embodied cognition is justified. It is emphasized that three uses of qualitative methods converge in the study of embodied cognition: (1) classification, given that it is centered on concepts, (2) discovery, because theories are not yet well articulated and inductive effort is required, and (3) the study of meaning. The final recommendation is to profit from the opportunity of constructing special techniques that the transformation of cognitive psychology is favoring; in this context, varieties of emotion become a privileged object of study.

  4. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  5. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, P.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  6. Case Studies of the Development of Science Teachers' Practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI)-Based Teaching through a Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitiporntapin, Sasithep; Srisakuna, Suchada

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to assess three case studies of in-service science teachers regarding their practices of socio-scientific issue (SSI)-based teaching as they participated in a specially developed professional development (PD) program. Data were collected throughout the PD program from group discussions, observations, interviews, and the review…

  7. The Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Undergraduate Students' Learning about Solutions and Their Physical Properties and Scientific Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosun, Cemal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on undergraduate students' learning about solutions and their physical properties, and on their scientific processing skills. The quasi experimental study was carried out through non-equivalent control and comparison groups pre-post test design. The data were…

  8. Complex systems approach to scientific publication and peer-review system: development of an agent-based model calibrated with empirical journal data.

    PubMed

    Kovanis, Michail; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe; Trinquart, Ludovic

    Scientific peer-review and publication systems incur a huge burden in terms of costs and time. Innovative alternatives have been proposed to improve the systems, but assessing their impact in experimental studies is not feasible at a systemic level. We developed an agent-based model by adopting a unified view of peer review and publication systems and calibrating it with empirical journal data in the biomedical and life sciences. We modeled researchers, research manuscripts and scientific journals as agents. Researchers were characterized by their scientific level and resources, manuscripts by their scientific value, and journals by their reputation and acceptance or rejection thresholds. These state variables were used in submodels for various processes such as production of articles, submissions to target journals, in-house and external peer review, and resubmissions. We collected data for a sample of biomedical and life sciences journals regarding acceptance rates, resubmission patterns and total number of published articles. We adjusted submodel parameters so that the agent-based model outputs fit these empirical data. We simulated 105 journals, 25,000 researchers and 410,000 manuscripts over 10 years. A mean of 33,600 articles were published per year; 19 % of submitted manuscripts remained unpublished. The mean acceptance rate was 21 % after external peer review and rejection rate 32 % after in-house review; 15 % publications resulted from the first submission, 47 % the second submission and 20 % the third submission. All decisions in the model were mainly driven by the scientific value, whereas journal targeting and persistence in resubmission defined whether a manuscript would be published or abandoned after one or many rejections. This agent-based model may help in better understanding the determinants of the scientific publication and peer-review systems. It may also help in assessing and identifying the most promising alternative systems of peer

  9. A temporal-abstraction system for patient monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Y.; Musen, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    RESUME is a system that performs temporal abstraction of time-stamped data. RESUME is based on a model of three temporal-abstraction mechanisms: point temporal abstraction (a mechanism for abstracting values of several parameters into a value of another parameter); temporal inference (a mechanism for inferring sound logical conclusions over a single interval or two meeting intervals); and temporal interpolation (a mechanism for bridging nonmeeting temporal intervals). Making explicit the knowledge required for temporal abstraction supports the acquisition of that knowledge. PMID:1482852

  10. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    DOEpatents

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  11. Scientific Services on the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David; Joshi, Karuna P.; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milt; Yesha, Yaacov; Nguyen, Phuong

    Scientific Computing was one of the first every applications for parallel and distributed computation. To this date, scientific applications remain some of the most compute intensive, and have inspired creation of petaflop compute infrastructure such as the Oak Ridge Jaguar and Los Alamos RoadRunner. Large dedicated hardware infrastructure has become both a blessing and a curse to the scientific community. Scientists are interested in cloud computing for much the same reason as businesses and other professionals. The hardware is provided, maintained, and administrated by a third party. Software abstraction and virtualization provide reliability, and fault tolerance. Graduated fees allow for multi-scale prototyping and execution. Cloud computing resources are only a few clicks away, and by far the easiest high performance distributed platform to gain access to. There may still be dedicated infrastructure for ultra-scale science, but the cloud can easily play a major part of the scientific computing initiative.

  12. A quantitative empirical analysis of the abstract/concrete distinction.

    PubMed

    Hill, Felix; Korhonen, Anna; Bentz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents original evidence that abstract and concrete concepts are organized and represented differently in the mind, based on analyses of thousands of concepts in publicly available data sets and computational resources. First, we show that abstract and concrete concepts have differing patterns of association with other concepts. Second, we test recent hypotheses that abstract concepts are organized according to association, whereas concrete concepts are organized according to (semantic) similarity. Third, we present evidence suggesting that concrete representations are more strongly feature-based than abstract concepts. We argue that degree of feature-based structure may fundamentally determine concreteness, and we discuss implications for cognitive and computational models of meaning.

  13. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  14. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  15. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  16. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  17. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  18. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVII, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this volume describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered include: (1) the use of message mapping for speaking and writing instruction; (2) group projects and portfolios as evaluation tools; (3) helping students become strategic learners; (4) using writing assignments to ensure…

  19. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  20. On three dimensional object recognition and pose-determination: An abstraction based approach. Ph.D. Thesis - Michigan Univ. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quek, Kok How Francis

    1990-01-01

    A method of computing reliable Gaussian and mean curvature sign-map descriptors from the polynomial approximation of surfaces was demonstrated. Such descriptors which are invariant under perspective variation are suitable for hypothesis generation. A means for determining the pose of constructed geometric forms whose algebraic surface descriptors are nonlinear in terms of their orienting parameters was developed. This was done by means of linear functions which are capable of approximating nonlinear forms and determining their parameters. It was shown that biquadratic surfaces are suitable companion linear forms for cylindrical approximation and parameter estimation. The estimates provided the initial parametric approximations necessary for a nonlinear regression stage to fine tune the estimates by fitting the actual nonlinear form to the data. A hypothesis-based split-merge algorithm for extraction and pose determination of cylinders and planes which merge smoothly into other surfaces was developed. It was shown that all split-merge algorithms are hypothesis-based. A finite-state algorithm for the extraction of the boundaries of run-length regions was developed. The computation takes advantage of the run list topology and boundary direction constraints implicit in the run-length encoding.