Science.gov

Sample records for scientifically principled approach

  1. Risks, scientific uncertainty and the approach of applying precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2009-03-01

    The paper intends to clarify the nature and aspects of risks and scientific uncertainty and also to elaborate the approach of application of precautionary principle for the purpose of handling the risk arising from scientific uncertainty. It explains the relations between risks and the application of precautionary principle at international and domestic levels. In the situations where an international treaty has admitted the precautionary principle and in the situation where there is no international treaty admitting the precautionary principle or enumerating the conditions to take measures, the precautionary principle has a role to play. The paper proposes a decision making tool, containing questions to be asked, to help policymakers to apply the principle. It also proposes a "weighing and balancing" procedure to help them decide the contents of the measure to cope with the potential risk and to avoid excessive measures.

  2. The optimisation approach of ALARA in nuclear practice: an early application of the precautionary principle. Scientific uncertainty versus legal uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lierman, S; Veuchelen, L

    2005-01-01

    The late health effects of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation are subject to scientific controversy: one view finds threats of high cancer incidence exaggerated, while the other view thinks the effects are underestimated. Both views have good scientific arguments in favour of them. Since the nuclear field, both industry and medicine have had to deal with this controversy for many decades. One can argue that the optimisation approach to keep the effective doses as low as reasonably achievable, taking economic and social factors into account (ALARA), is a precautionary approach. However, because of these stochastic effects, no scientific proof can be provided. This paper explores how ALARA and the Precautionary Principle are influential in the legal field and in particular in tort law, because liability should be a strong incentive for safer behaviour. This so-called "deterrence effect" of liability seems to evaporate in today's technical and highly complex society, in particular when dealing with the late health effects of low doses of ionising radiation. Two main issues will be dealt with in the paper: 1. How are the health risks attributable to "low doses" of radiation regulated in nuclear law and what lessons can be learned from the field of radiation protection? 2. What does ALARA have to inform the discussion of the Precautionary Principle and vice-versa, in particular, as far as legal sanctions and liability are concerned? It will be shown that the Precautionary Principle has not yet been sufficiently implemented into nuclear law.

  3. Basic Scientific Principles of Diving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Don

    1976-01-01

    Described are some of the physical and physiological scientific principles related to diving. The article is written as supplementary information for a teacher and includes suggested activities, a keyed test, and a bibliography. This article complements one on Sea Lab II in the same issue. (MA)

  4. What Metadata Principles Apply to Scientific Data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Information researchers and professionals based in the library and information science fields often approach their work through developing and applying defined sets of principles. For example, for over 100 years, the evolution of library cataloging practice has largely been driven by debates (which are still ongoing) about the fundamental principles of cataloging and how those principles should manifest in rules for cataloging. Similarly, the development of archival research and practices over the past century has proceeded hand-in-hand with the emergence of principles of archival arrangement and description, such as maintaining the original order of records and documenting provenance. This project examines principles related to the creation of metadata for scientific data. The presentation will outline: 1) how understandings and implementations of metadata can range broadly depending on the institutional context, and 2) how metadata principles developed by the library and information science community might apply to metadata developments for scientific data. The development and formalization of such principles would contribute to the development of metadata practices and standards in a wide range of institutions, including data repositories, libraries, and research centers. Shared metadata principles would potentially be useful in streamlining data discovery and integration, and would also benefit the growing efforts to formalize data curation education.

  5. Current Status and Future Prospects of Clinical Psychology: Toward a Scientifically Principled Approach to Mental and Behavioral Health Care.

    PubMed

    Baker, Timothy B; McFall, Richard M; Shoham, Varda

    2008-11-01

    , physicians typically shared the attitudes of many of today's clinical psychologists, such as valuing personal experience over scientific research. Medicine was reformed, in large part, by a principled effort by the American Medical Association to increase the science base of medical school education. Substantial evidence shows that many clinical psychology doctoral training programs, especially PsyD and for-profit programs, do not uphold high standards for graduate admission, have high student-faculty ratios, deemphasize science in their training, and produce students who fail to apply or generate scientific knowledge. A promising strategy for improving the quality and clinical and public health impact of clinical psychology is through a new accreditation system that demands high-quality science training as a central feature of doctoral training in clinical psychology. Just as strengthening training standards in medicine markedly enhanced the quality of health care, improved training standards in clinical psychology will enhance health and mental health care. Such a system will (a) allow the public and employers to identify scientifically trained psychologists; (b) stigmatize ascientific training programs and practitioners; (c) produce aspirational effects, thereby enhancing training quality generally; and (d) help accredited programs improve their training in the application and generation of science. These effects should enhance the generation, application, and dissemination of experimentally supported interventions, thereby improving clinical and public health. Experimentally based treatments not only are highly effective but also are cost-effective relative to other interventions; therefore, they could help control spiraling health care costs. The new Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System (PCSAS) is intended to accredit clinical psychology training programs that offer high-quality science-centered education and training, producing graduates who are

  6. Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

  7. Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

  8. Principles and Ethics in Scientific Communication in Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Donev, Doncho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aim: To present the basic principles and standards of scientific communication and writing a paper, to indicate the importance of honesty and ethical approach to research and publication of results in scientific journals, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. Methods: An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author. Results: In the past more than 20 years there is an increasingly emphasized importance of respecting fundamental principles and standards of scientific communication and ethical approach to research and publication of results in peer review journals. Advances in the scientific community is based on honesty and equity of researchers in conducting and publishing the results of research and to develop guidelines and policies for prevention and punishment of publishing misconduct. Today scientific communication standards and definitions of fraud in science and publishing are generally consistent, but vary considerably policies and approach to ethics education in science, prevention and penal policies for misconduct in research and publication of results in scientific journals. Conclusion: It is necessary to further strengthen the capacity for education and research, and raising awareness about the importance and need for education about the principles of scientific communication, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education of the scientific community, in undergraduate teaching and postgraduate master and doctoral studies, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud. PMID:24505166

  9. Principles and ethics in scientific communication in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Donev, Doncho

    2013-12-01

    To present the basic principles and standards of scientific communication and writing a paper, to indicate the importance of honesty and ethical approach to research and publication of results in scientific journals, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author. In the past more than 20 years there is an increasingly emphasized importance of respecting fundamental principles and standards of scientific communication and ethical approach to research and publication of results in peer review journals. Advances in the scientific community is based on honesty and equity of researchers in conducting and publishing the results of research and to develop guidelines and policies for prevention and punishment of publishing misconduct. Today scientific communication standards and definitions of fraud in science and publishing are generally consistent, but vary considerably policies and approach to ethics education in science, prevention and penal policies for misconduct in research and publication of results in scientific journals. It is necessary to further strengthen the capacity for education and research, and raising awareness about the importance and need for education about the principles of scientific communication, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education of the scientific community, in undergraduate teaching and postgraduate master and doctoral studies, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud.

  10. [Ethical principles in human scientific research].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-07-01

    Hippocrates was the first physician to use the scientific method to find rational and not religious or mythic causes, for the etiology of diseases. Hippocrates and Aristoteles did not dare to dissect the human body. Afterwards however, many scientists such as Herophilus, Erasitastrus, Vesalus and Fallopio, performed experiments in human beings using vivisection. According to that age's ideas, there was no cruelty in performing vivisection in criminals, since useful knowledge for the progress of medicine and relief of diseases was obtained. Only during the nineteenth century and with Claude Bernard (1865), the ethical principles of systematic scientific research in humans were defined. These principles were violated by nazi physicians during Hitler's dictatorship in Germany (1933-1945). As a response to these horrors, the Ethical Codes of Nuremberg (1947) and Geneva (1948), that reestablished all the strength of Hippocratic principles, were dictated. The Nuremberg rules enact that a research subject must give a voluntary consent, that the experiment must by necessary and exempt of death risk, that the research must be qualified and that the experiment must be discontinued if there is a risk for the subject. The Geneva statement is a modernized hippocratic oath that protects patient's life above all. These classical rules, in force at the present time, are the essential guides that must be applied by physicians and researchers.

  11. Scientific basis for the Precautionary Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Vineis, Paolo . E-mail: p.vineis@imperial.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    The Precautionary Principle is based on two general criteria: (a) appropriate public action should be taken in response to limited, but plausible and credible, evidence of likely and substantial harm; (b) the burden of proof is shifted from demonstrating the presence of risk to demonstrating the absence of risk. Not much has been written about the scientific basis of the precautionary principle, apart from the uncertainty that characterizes epidemiologic research on chronic disease, and the use of surrogate evidence when human evidence cannot be provided. It is proposed in this paper that a new scientific paradigm, based on the theory of evolution, is emerging; this might offer stronger support to the need for precaution in the regulation of environmental risks. Environmental hazards do not consist only in direct attacks to the integrity of DNA or other macromolecules. They can consist in changes that take place already in utero, and that condition disease risks many years later. Also, environmental exposures can act as 'stressors', inducing hypermutability (the mutator phenotype) as an adaptive response. Finally, environmental changes should be evaluated against a background of a not-so-easily modifiable genetic make-up, inherited from a period in which humans were mainly hunters-gatherers and had dietary habits very different from the current ones.

  12. The Transfer of Scientific Principles Using Concrete and Idealized Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Son, Ji Y.

    2005-01-01

    Participants in 2 experiments interacted with computer simulations designed to foster understanding of scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems. The quality of participants' transportable understanding was measured by the amount of transfer between 2 simulations governed by the same principle. The perceptual concreteness of the…

  13. ORFEUS - Scientific and cost approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graue, R.; Kampf, D.; Rippel, H.

    1993-10-01

    The paper describes the technical and optomechanical concepts of the ORFEUS telescope, which is the primary scientific payload of the free-flying, retrievable, and reusable Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS). Particular attention is given to the scientific targets of the Orfeus telescope and the low-cost approach of the project. The ORFEUS SPAS mission is scheduled to be launched with STS 51 in July 1993 into a 300-km circular orbit, to perform an autonomous free flight for 5-7 days, after which the satellite will be retrieved into the shuttle and returned to earth.

  14. [Scientific evidence-based cardiology: the principles and practice].

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A V

    2000-09-01

    Every clinical cardiologist, no matter what the clinical work (invasive or non-invasive), has to face several problems concerning clinical knowledge and medical information in everyday practice. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances in cardiology are occurring at an increasing pace and every cardiologist responsible for patient care in hospitals, clinics or emergency rooms needs to be up-to-date in order to provide the best possible medical care. On the other hand, society is increasingly making doctors accountable for the provision of good quality care in a cost-effective way. In the context of scarce resources, this situation requires a rigorous and rational approach by the individual cardiologist. These apparent contradictions can be solved by practicing evidence-based cardiology (EBC). This review introduces the concept of EBC, its principles, practice, and methodological steps: 1) formulation of a structured clinical activity; 2) scientific evidence; 3) critical appraisal of this evidence using explicit methods; and 4) synthesis and practical application of this evidence. In this sense, EBC arises from the patient, and after the best possible scientific evidence is selected, it is applied to the individual case. EBC allows the individual cardiologist to keep up with the medical literature while improving reading habits and the form in which relevant clinical information is selected. It also increases confidence in the clinical decisions, reducing practice variation as well as improving doctor-patient communication. Lastly EBC can be used as a powerful tool for pre, post and continuous medical education.

  15. The Existence of Simple Principles Governing Human and Scientific Information Behavior in the System of Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonitz, Manfred

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of scientific information focuses on the effects of two behavioral principles, the holography principle and the maximum speed principle. The system of scientific communication is described, properties of scientific information are suggested, information barriers are considered, and the relationship of behavioral principles and science…

  16. A unifying vision for scientific decision making: the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Scientific Integrity Principles.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Kelly A

    2015-09-01

    In 2014, recognizing the need to have a single document to guide scientific decision making at the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), the Council on Research was charged with developing a scientific integrity policy for the organization. From the Council on Research, four members volunteered to lead this workgroup, which reviewed the literature and best practices for scientific integrity from well-respected organizations, including federal funders of research. It became clear that the scope of this document would be quite broad, given the many scientific activities the Academy is involved in, and that it would be unreasonable to set policy for each of these many situations. Therefore, the workgroup set about defining the scope of scientific activities to be covered and envisioned a set of guiding principles, to which policies from every organizational unit of the Academy could be compared to ensure they were in alignment. While many relevant policies exist already, such as the requirement of a signed conflict of interest disclosure for Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo speakers, the Evidence Analysis Library funding policy, and the Academy's sponsorship policy, the scientific integrity principals are unique in that they provide a unifying vision to which future policies can be compared and approved based on their alignment with the principles. The six principles outlined in this article were approved by the full Council on Research in January 2015 and approved by the Academy's Board of Directors in March 2015. This article covers the scope of the principles, presents the principles and existing related resources, and outlines next steps for the Academy to review and revise current policies and create new ones in alignment with these principles.

  17. A Scientific Approach to Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Describes St. Elizabeth School's (Dallas, Texas) adoption of Stanford University's HumBio curriculum, a human biology program for middle school students, which combines scientific inquiry with basic health information and moral decision-making skills. Highlights the program's emphasis on flexibility and teacher creativity. (MAB)

  18. A Scientific Approach to Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Describes St. Elizabeth School's (Dallas, Texas) adoption of Stanford University's HumBio curriculum, a human biology program for middle school students, which combines scientific inquiry with basic health information and moral decision-making skills. Highlights the program's emphasis on flexibility and teacher creativity. (MAB)

  19. A Scientific Approach to Monitoring Public Perceptions of Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, N. I.; Lee, A. J.; Cribb, J. H. J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a three-year study to evaluate a new approach to increasing the impact and adoption of new scientific findings and technologies. The purpose of the case study was to monitor the public's perception of the severity of problems posed by invasive animal species and of possible methods of managing them. A real-time "moving…

  20. Scientific approaches to science policy.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jeremy M

    2013-11-01

    The development of robust science policy depends on use of the best available data, rigorous analysis, and inclusion of a wide range of input. While director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), I took advantage of available data and emerging tools to analyze training time distribution by new NIGMS grantees, the distribution of the number of publications as a function of total annual National Institutes of Health support per investigator, and the predictive value of peer-review scores on subsequent scientific productivity. Rigorous data analysis should be used to develop new reforms and initiatives that will help build a more sustainable American biomedical research enterprise.

  1. Scientific Versus Humanistic Approaches to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mark E.

    The scientific approach with humans is usually subject to many human and environmental variables that are difficult to control. Reading behavior and reading disability are two of the most researched topics in education and psychology, yet reading research continues to abound with contradictions. Standardized tests, speed reading, and computer…

  2. Science in Writing: Learning Scientific Argument in Principle and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Bagley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the processes of writing in science and in particular the "complex performance" of writing a scientific argument. The article explores in general terms the nature of scientific argumentation in which the author-scientist makes claims, provides evidence to support these claims, and develops chains of scientific…

  3. The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mark D; Dumontier, Michel; Aalbersberg, I Jsbrand Jan; Appleton, Gabrielle; Axton, Myles; Baak, Arie; Blomberg, Niklas; Boiten, Jan-Willem; da Silva Santos, Luiz Bonino; Bourne, Philip E; Bouwman, Jildau; Brookes, Anthony J; Clark, Tim; Crosas, Mercè; Dillo, Ingrid; Dumon, Olivier; Edmunds, Scott; Evelo, Chris T; Finkers, Richard; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Gray, Alasdair J G; Groth, Paul; Goble, Carole; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Heringa, Jaap; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Hooft, Rob; Kuhn, Tobias; Kok, Ruben; Kok, Joost; Lusher, Scott J; Martone, Maryann E; Mons, Albert; Packer, Abel L; Persson, Bengt; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Roos, Marco; van Schaik, Rene; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Schultes, Erik; Sengstag, Thierry; Slater, Ted; Strawn, George; Swertz, Morris A; Thompson, Mark; van der Lei, Johan; van Mulligen, Erik; Velterop, Jan; Waagmeester, Andra; Wittenburg, Peter; Wolstencroft, Katherine; Zhao, Jun; Mons, Barend

    2016-03-15

    There is an urgent need to improve the infrastructure supporting the reuse of scholarly data. A diverse set of stakeholders-representing academia, industry, funding agencies, and scholarly publishers-have come together to design and jointly endorse a concise and measureable set of principles that we refer to as the FAIR Data Principles. The intent is that these may act as a guideline for those wishing to enhance the reusability of their data holdings. Distinct from peer initiatives that focus on the human scholar, the FAIR Principles put specific emphasis on enhancing the ability of machines to automatically find and use the data, in addition to supporting its reuse by individuals. This Comment is the first formal publication of the FAIR Principles, and includes the rationale behind them, and some exemplar implementations in the community.

  4. The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Mark D.; Dumontier, Michel; Aalbersberg, IJsbrand Jan; Appleton, Gabrielle; Axton, Myles; Baak, Arie; Blomberg, Niklas; Boiten, Jan-Willem; da Silva Santos, Luiz Bonino; Bourne, Philip E.; Bouwman, Jildau; Brookes, Anthony J.; Clark, Tim; Crosas, Mercè; Dillo, Ingrid; Dumon, Olivier; Edmunds, Scott; Evelo, Chris T.; Finkers, Richard; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Gray, Alasdair J.G.; Groth, Paul; Goble, Carole; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Heringa, Jaap; ’t Hoen, Peter A.C; Hooft, Rob; Kuhn, Tobias; Kok, Ruben; Kok, Joost; Lusher, Scott J.; Martone, Maryann E.; Mons, Albert; Packer, Abel L.; Persson, Bengt; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Roos, Marco; van Schaik, Rene; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Schultes, Erik; Sengstag, Thierry; Slater, Ted; Strawn, George; Swertz, Morris A.; Thompson, Mark; van der Lei, Johan; van Mulligen, Erik; Velterop, Jan; Waagmeester, Andra; Wittenburg, Peter; Wolstencroft, Katherine; Zhao, Jun; Mons, Barend

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the infrastructure supporting the reuse of scholarly data. A diverse set of stakeholders—representing academia, industry, funding agencies, and scholarly publishers—have come together to design and jointly endorse a concise and measureable set of principles that we refer to as the FAIR Data Principles. The intent is that these may act as a guideline for those wishing to enhance the reusability of their data holdings. Distinct from peer initiatives that focus on the human scholar, the FAIR Principles put specific emphasis on enhancing the ability of machines to automatically find and use the data, in addition to supporting its reuse by individuals. This Comment is the first formal publication of the FAIR Principles, and includes the rationale behind them, and some exemplar implementations in the community. PMID:26978244

  5. Generalized uncertainty principle: Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, A.; Diab, A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we review some highlights from the String theory, the black hole physics and the doubly special relativity and some thought experiments which were suggested to probe the shortest distances and/or maximum momentum at the Planck scale. Furthermore, all models developed in order to implement the minimal length scale and/or the maximum momentum in different physical systems are analyzed and compared. They entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) assuming modified dispersion relation, and therefore are allowed for a wide range of applications in estimating, for example, the inflationary parameters, Lorentz invariance violation, black hole thermodynamics, Saleker-Wigner inequalities, entropic nature of gravitational laws, Friedmann equations, minimal time measurement and thermodynamics of the high-energy collisions. One of the higher-order GUP approaches gives predictions for the minimal length uncertainty. A second one predicts a maximum momentum and a minimal length uncertainty, simultaneously. An extensive comparison between the different GUP approaches is summarized. We also discuss the GUP impacts on the equivalence principles including the universality of the gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action and on the kinetic energy of composite system. The existence of a minimal length and a maximum momentum accuracy is preferred by various physical observations. The concern about the compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action should be addressed. We conclude that the value of the GUP parameters remain a puzzle to be verified.

  6. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers, whether in industry, government or academia. The aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an environmental hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on six endocrine active substances (EAS not necessarily proven EDS), that are representative of a range of endocrine system perturbations and considered to be data-rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organisation for one or more ecologically-relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17á-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17â-trenbolone, tributyltin and vinclozolin. The six case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations, but provided the foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the environmental hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve

  7. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers, whether in industry, government or academia. The aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an environmental hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on six endocrine active substances (EAS not necessarily proven EDS), that are representative of a range of endocrine system perturbations and considered to be data-rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organisation for one or more ecologically-relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17á-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17â-trenbolone, tributyltin and vinclozolin. The six case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations, but provided the foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the environmental hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve

  8. First principles approach to ionicity of fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Valone, Steven M.

    2015-02-01

    We develop a first principles approach towards the ionicity of fragments. In contrast to the bond ionicity, the fragment ionicity refers to an electronic property of the constituents of a larger system, which may vary from a single atom to a functional group or a unit cell to a crystal. The fragment ionicity is quantitatively defined in terms of the coefficients of contributing charge states in a superposition of valence configurations of the system. Utilizing the constrained density functional theory-based computations, a practical method to compute the fragment ionicity from valence electron charge densities, suitably decomposed according to the Fragment Hamiltonian (FH) model prescription for those electron densities, is presented for the first time. The adopted approach is illustrated using BeO, MgO and CaO diatomic molecules as simple examples. The results are compared and discussed with respect to the bond ionicity scales of Phillips and Pauling.

  9. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perception of the Principles of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Sendil; Kaymakci, Güliz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study employing the survey method is to determine the pre-service science teachers' perceptions of the principles of scientific research and to investigate the effects of gender, grade level and the state of following scientific publications on their perceptions. The sampling of the current research is comprised of 125…

  10. Designing Interactive Learning Environments: An Approach from First Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bernard; Cong, Chunyu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Today's technology supports the design of more and more sophisticated interactive learning environments. This paper aims to argue that such design should develop from first principles. Design/methodology/approach: In the paper by first principles is meant: learning theory and principles of course design. These principles are briefly…

  11. Multiple comparisons in drug efficacy studies: scientific or marketing principles?

    PubMed

    Leo, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    When researchers design an experiment to compare a given medication to another medication, a behavioral therapy, or a placebo, the experiment often involves numerous comparisons. For instance, there may be several different evaluation methods, raters, and time points. Although scientifically justified, such comparisons can be abused in the interests of drug marketing. This article provides two recent examples of such questionable practices. The first involves the case of the arthritis drug celecoxib (Celebrex), where the study lasted 12 months but the authors only presented 6 months of data. The second case involves the NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) study evaluating the efficacy of stimulant medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder where ratings made by several groups are reported in contradictory fashion. The MTA authors have not clarified the confusion, at least in print, suggesting that the actual findings of the study may have played little role in the authors' reported conclusions.

  12. Ultrasound in anesthesia: applying scientific principles to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Falyar, Christian R

    2010-08-01

    The use of ultrasound as an adjunct to invasive anesthesia procedures is becoming commonplace. The U.S. Agency for Health Care Quality and the United Kingdom National Institute for Clinical Excellence have identified the role of ultrasound in improving patient safety. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of ultrasound, yet there have also been articles inferring it may not offer additional benefits to traditional landmark techniques. The major disadvantage often cited is that success is user-dependent, and using ultrasound is a unique skill that requires training and experience to become proficient. Modern ultrasound systems incorporate 2 sound technologies to provide users with specific information about what is being viewed. Brightness mode imaging and pulsed-wave Doppler can be combined to reduce potential complications associated with central venous access and regional anesthesia. Human tissue is also an important factor in ultrasound imaging. The different densities of soft tissues, bone, fluid, and air all interact with sound, creating distinctive images that can aid and potentially hinder accuracy. Comprehension of basic ultrasound principles and how it is affected by tissue will enable anesthetists to better understand what is being seen and reduce the potential for errors.

  13. Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Researchers conduct observational human exposure studies to understand how and the extent to which people come into contact with chemicals and environmental stressors in their everyday lives, through the air they breathe, the food and liquids they consume, and the things they touch. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has conducted observational human exposure studies for several decades and uses the information and data from these studies to improve the Agency’s understanding of human exposures to chemicals and other stressors and ultimately to support efforts to improve public health. Because these studies involve people as research participants, they are complex and raise numerous scientific and ethical issues that have to be addressed prior to and during their design and implementation. To ensure that EPA’s research continues to be based on the most up-to-date science and the highest ethical standards, the Agency has developed this document that contains state-of-the-science approaches for conducting observational human exposure studies. This document is not meant to represent an official Agency “guidance document” but, rather, serves as a resource tool and source of information for NERL and other researchers on which to rely as they develop and conduct observational human exposure studies.

  14. Scientific Approaches | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    CPTAC employs two complementary scientific approaches, a "Targeting Genome to Proteome" (Targeting G2P) approach and a "Mapping Proteome to Genome" (Mapping P2G) approach, in order to address biological questions from data generated on a sample.

  15. A Complexity Approach to Evaluating National Scientific Systems through International Scientific Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelnio, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to contribute to a fuller understanding of how international scientific collaboration has affected national scientific systems. It does this by developing three methodological approaches grounded in social complexity theory and applying them to the evaluation of national scientific systems. The first methodology identifies…

  16. The scientific establishment of a new therapeutic intervention for developmental conditions: practical and ethical principles.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Shinji; Ijichi, Naomi

    2003-11-01

    Although the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a major methodological breakthrough extending the limits of objectivity in clinical medical science, clinical trials of surgery have seldom included placebo surgery as a control, for ethical reasons. Especially in clinical studies intended eventually to establish a new intervention for developmental conditions, it has been recognized that there is huge examiner bias. In addition, the many miraculous cases that have been reported in nonsurgical open trials for developmental conditions and have eventually been evaluated as nonspecific positive outcomes in RCTs suggest that empirically promising interventions must be subjected to scientific scrutiny as soon as possible in the field of developmental conditions. Therefore, in childhood neurosurgery, clinical studies to establish a new therapeutic measure for developmental conditions should be designed as rigorously as possible using optimized scientific methods. The worldwide ethical guideline, the Declaration of Helsinki issued by the World Medical Association, can provide principles for the establishment of a new intervention in the treatment of a patient when proven therapeutic methods do not exist or methods used thus far have been ineffective. Physicians' discretion to use unproven or new therapeutic measures for such patients is approved in the presence of efforts of an ethical and scientific approach. Even if the measure is a very promising intervention, the research aspects must completely be demonstrated for informed consent and review by the ethical committee and the trial must be regarded as a clinical research. Especially when an RCT is not possible for ethical reasons, appropriate epidemiological data or animal experiments should suggest that the new measure is effective before a clinical trial. In a clinical setting, where neither epidemiological studies nor animal experimentation can be introduced, if necessary the researcher should collaborate with

  17. Guidelines for a Scientific Approach to Critical Thinking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, D. Alan; Murtagh, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of student learning outcomes can be a powerful tool for improvement of instruction when a scientific approach is taken; unfortunately, many educators do not take full advantage of this approach. This article examines benefits of taking a scientific approach to critical thinking assessment and proposes guidelines for planning,…

  18. 76 FR 47271 - Implementation of Scientific Integrity Principles: Draft Plan for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... public relations activities. A principal goal of public affairs is to help NSF most efficiently achieve... Implementation of Scientific Integrity Principles: Draft Plan for Public Comment AGENCY: National Science...: Draft Plan for Public Comment. SUMMARY: On March 9, 2009, President Obama issued a Memorandum for...

  19. [Patents and scientific research: an ethical-legal approach].

    PubMed

    Darío Bergel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities.

  20. Environmental Defense Fund Oil and Gas Methane Studies: Principles for Collaborating with Industry Partners while Maintaining Scientific Objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) launched a series of 16 research studies in 2012 to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas (O&G) supply chain. In addition to EDF's funding from philanthropic individuals and foundations and in-kind contributions from universities, over forty O&G companies contributed money to the studies. For a subset of studies that required partner companies to provide site access to measure their equipment, five common principles were followed to assure that research was objective and scientifically rigorous. First, academic scientists were selected as principal investigators (PIs) to lead the studies. In line with EDF's policy of not accepting money from corporate partners, O&G companies provided funding directly to academic PIs. Technical work groups and steering committees consisting of EDF and O&G partner staff advised the PIs in the planning and implementation of research, but PIs had the final authority in scientific decisions including publication content. Second, scientific advisory panels of independent experts advised the PIs in the study design, data analysis, and interpretation. Third, studies employed multiple methodologies when possible, including top-down and bottom-up measurements. This helped overcome the limitations of individual approaches to decrease the uncertainty of emission estimates and minimize concerns with data being "cherry-picked". Fourth, studies were published in peer-reviewed journals to undergo an additional round of independent review. Fifth, transparency of data was paramount. Study data were released after publication, although operator and site names of individual data points were anonymized to ensure transparency and allow independent analysis. Following these principles allowed an environmental organization, O&G companies, and academic scientists to collaborate in scientific research while minimizing conflicts of interest. This approach can serve as a model for a scientifically rigorous

  1. The Cyclical Relationship Approach in Teaching Basic Accounting Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golen, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Shows how teachers can provide a more meaningful presentation of various accounting principles by illustrating them through a cyclical relationship approach. Thus, the students see the entire accounting relationship as a result of doing business. (CT)

  2. Design Approaches to Support Preservice Teachers in Scientific Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific modeling. Our work has taken place across multiple years at three university sites, with preservice teachers focused on early childhood, elementary, and middle school teaching. Based on results from our empirical studies supporting these design decisions, we discuss design features of our modeling instruction in each iteration. Our results suggest some successes in supporting preservice teachers in engaging students in modeling practice. We propose design principles that can guide science teacher educators in incorporating modeling in teacher education.

  3. Taking a Lexical Approach to Teaching: Principles and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Nigel

    2002-01-01

    Describes two key principles that are claimed to be at the core of teaching languages, according to the lexical approach. Discusses difficulties with the approach and suggests that there is still much work to be done before the approach can be more fully integrated into mainstream English language teaching instruction. (Author/VWL)

  4. Understanding Scientific Literatures: A Bibliometric Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Joseph C.

    To operate effectively, libraries must develop methods by which to identify literatures of high utility to their clientele and must acquire and organize these literatures in such a way as to optimize their usefulness. One such method, the bibliometric approach, is based on the assumption of certain regularities in patterns of authorship,…

  5. Taking a Scientific Approach to Science Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, S.

    2011-09-01

    It is now well-documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory science courses often fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, these same courses have been found to teach students things we don't intend. Building on a tradition of research, the physics and astronomy education research communities have been investigating the effects of educational reforms at the undergraduate level for decades. Both within these scientific communities and in the fields of education, cognitive science, psychology, and other social sciences, we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students. This presentation will discuss a variety of effective classroom practices, (with an emphasis on peer instruction, "clickers," and small group activities), the surrounding educational structures, and examine assessments which indicate when and why these do (and sometimes do not) work. After a broad survey of education research, we will look at some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments within this field that are being conducted at the University of Colorado. Throughout, we will consider research and practices that can be of value in both physics and astronomy classes, as well as applications to teaching in a variety of environments.

  6. Approaches for advancing scientific understanding of macrosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levy, Ofir; Ball, Becky A.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Cheruvelil, Kendra S.; Finley, Andrew O.; Lottig, Noah R.; Surangi W. Punyasena,; Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Buckley, Lauren B.; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Keitt, Tim H.; Kellner, James R.; Knapp, Alan K.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Tcheng, David; Toomey, Michael; Vargas, Rodrigo; Voordeckers, James W.; Wagner, Tyler; Williams, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of macrosystems ecology (MSE), which focuses on regional- to continental-scale ecological patterns and processes, builds upon a history of long-term and broad-scale studies in ecology. Scientists face the difficulty of integrating the many elements that make up macrosystems, which consist of hierarchical processes at interacting spatial and temporal scales. Researchers must also identify the most relevant scales and variables to be considered, the required data resources, and the appropriate study design to provide the proper inferences. The large volumes of multi-thematic data often associated with macrosystem studies typically require validation, standardization, and assimilation. Finally, analytical approaches need to describe how cross-scale and hierarchical dynamics and interactions relate to macroscale phenomena. Here, we elaborate on some key methodological challenges of MSE research and discuss existing and novel approaches to meet them.

  7. A practical scientific approach to riparian vegetation rehabilitation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ashley A; Erskine, Wayne D

    2003-08-01

    The clearance of indigenous riparian vegetation and removal of large woody debris (LWD) from streams combined with the planting of exotic plant species has resulted in widespread detrimental impacts on the fluvial geomorphology and aquatic ecology of Australian rivers. Vegetation exerts a significant influence on fluvial geomorphology by affecting resistance to flow, bank strength, sediment storage, bed stability and stream morphology and is important for aquatic ecosystem function. As the values of indigenous riparian vegetation are becoming better recognised by Australian river managers, large amounts of money and resources are being invested in the planting of indigenous riparian vegetation as part of river rehabilitation programs. This paper summarises the results of an investigation into the survival, growth and regeneration rates of a series of trial native riparian vegetation plantings on in-channel benches in the Hunter Valley of southeastern Australia. The trials were poorly designed for statistical analysis and the paper highlights a number of shortcomings in the methods used. As a result, a new approach to riparian vegetation rehabilitation is outlined that promotes the use of scientific principles and understanding. Appropriate species should be selected using a combination of remnant vegetation surveys, historical records, palynology and field trials. A number of important factors should be considered in the rehabilitation of riparian vegetation to achieve worthwhile results. These include flood disturbance, vegetation zonation, vegetation succession, substrate composition, corridor planting width, planting techniques, native plant regeneration, LWD recruitment and adaptive ecosystem management. This approach, if adopted, revised and improved by river managers, should result in greater success than has been achieved by previous riparian vegetation rehabilitation efforts in Australia.

  8. Comparative physical education: An international scientific approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudlorz, Paweł

    1989-03-01

    The article describes the growth of research on various topics and ideas in a relatively new field — comparative physical education and sport — since the end of World War II. The field is closely related to comparative education. This is also true as regards its history, definition, aims, etc., and its methodology. Physical educators on the one hand have therefore borrowed methods from comparative educators, and on the other hand have tried to work out their own approaches. Examples of the latter are mentioned. A brief review of the literature is included.

  9. Scientific program construction principles and time allocation scheme for the World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg; Sachkov, Mikhail; Shustov, Boris; Kaigorodov, Pavel; Yáñez, Francisco Javier; Gómez de Castro, Ana Ines

    2011-09-01

    We present scientific program construction principles and a time allocation scheme developed for the World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) mission, which is an international space observatory for observation in UV spectral range 100-300 nm. The WSO-UV consists of a 1.7 m aperture telescope with instrumentation designed to carry out high resolution spectroscopy, long-slit low resolution spectroscopy and direct sky imaging. The WSO-UV Ground Segment is under development by Spain and Russia. They will coordinate the Mission and Science Operations and provide the satellite tracking stations for the project. The WSO-UV will work as a targeted scientific observatory. Three scientific programs will be carried out at the observatory. Core Program of scientific observations, which deserves large amounts of observing time, will be defined by the WSO-UV Science Committee to allow the conduction of high impact or legacy scientific projects. Funding Bodies Program is the guaranteed time granted to each one of the national bodies funding the WSO-UV project. Guest observer program for everyone, or Open Program, consists of astronomical observations obtained with the WSO-UV by astronomers who may or may not belong to the WSO-UV international consortium. It is open to excellent scientific projects from the world-wide community and occupies up to 40% of total observational time. Apart from the particularities associated to a science mission, this new mission will be affected by a new concept of observations management, trying to maximize the scientific return of this mission, and the shared operations between the two sites located in Spain and Russia. A brief summary of the algorithmic strategies analyzed for scheduling optimization is also given in the paper.

  10. Teaching Aldosterone Regulation and Basic Scientific Principles Using a Classic Paper by Dr. James O. Davis and Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanke, Craig J.; Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom discussion of scientific articles can be an effective means of teaching scientific principles and methodology to both undergraduate and graduate science students. The availability of classic papers from the American Physiological Society Legacy Project has made it possible to access articles dating back to the early portions of the 20th…

  11. Scientific principles for the identification of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Roland; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Bergman, Åke; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Degen, Gisela H; Dietrich, Daniel; Greim, Helmut; Håkansson, Helen; Hass, Ulla; Husoy, Trine; Jacobs, Miriam; Jobling, Susan; Mantovani, Alberto; Marx-Stoelting, Philip; Piersma, Aldert; Ritz, Vera; Slama, Remy; Stahlmann, Ralf; van den Berg, Martin; Zoeller, R Thomas; Boobis, Alan R

    2017-02-01

    Endocrine disruption is a specific form of toxicity, where natural and/or anthropogenic chemicals, known as "endocrine disruptors" (EDs), trigger adverse health effects by disrupting the endogenous hormone system. There is need to harmonize guidance on the regulation of EDs, but this has been hampered by what appeared as a lack of consensus among scientists. This publication provides summary information about a consensus reached by a group of world-leading scientists that can serve as the basis for the development of ED criteria in relevant EU legislation. Twenty-three international scientists from different disciplines discussed principles and open questions on ED identification as outlined in a draft consensus paper at an expert meeting hosted by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin, Germany on 11-12 April 2016. Participants reached a consensus regarding scientific principles for the identification of EDs. The paper discusses the consensus reached on background, definition of an ED and related concepts, sources of uncertainty, scientific principles important for ED identification, and research needs. It highlights the difficulty in retrospectively reconstructing ED exposure, insufficient range of validated test systems for EDs, and some issues impacting on the evaluation of the risk from EDs, such as non-monotonic dose-response and thresholds, modes of action, and exposure assessment. This report provides the consensus statement on EDs agreed among all participating scientists. The meeting facilitated a productive debate and reduced a number of differences in views. It is expected that the consensus reached will serve as an important basis for the development of regulatory ED criteria.

  12. On a Bottom-Up Approach to Scientific Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Two popular models of scientific discovery, abduction and the inference to the best explanation (IBE), presuppose that the reason for accepting a hypothetical explanation A comes from the epistemic and/or explanatory force manifested in the fact that observed fact C is an inferred consequence of A. However, not all discoveries take this top-down procedure from A to C, in which the result of discovery A implies the observed fact C. I contend that discovery can be modeled as a bottom-up procedure based on inductive and analogical rules that lead us to infer from C to A. I take the theory of Dignaga, an Indian medieval logician, as a model of this bottom-up approach. My argument has three panels: 1) this bottom-up approach applies to both commonsense and scientific discovery without the assumption that C has to be an inferred consequence of A; 2) this bottom-up approach helps us get around problems that crop up in applying abduction and/or IBE, which means that scientific discovery need not to be modeled exclusively by top-down approaches; and 3) the existence of the bottom-up approach requires a pluralist attitude towards modeling of scientific discovery.

  13. Syllabus for an "Issues Approach" to Teaching Economic Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, Richard H.; Sharp, Ansel M.

    1974-01-01

    This syllabus for an "issues" approach to an introductory economic principles course evolved out of three years of experimentation at Oklahoma State University. The syllabus covers 11 important social issues: population growth, agriculture, higher education, crime, pollution, health, poverty, discrimination, unemployment, inflation, and the energy…

  14. Learning Geometry through Discovery Learning Using a Scientific Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In'am, Akhsanul; Hajar, Siti

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this present research is to analyze the implementation of learning geometry through a scientific learning consisting of three aspects: 1) teacher's activities, 2) students' activities and, 3) the achievement results. The adopted approach is a descriptive-quantitative one and the subject is the Class VII students of Islamic Junior…

  15. A Practitioner Friendly and Scientifically Robust Training Evaluation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review the current state of workplace learning evaluation, to set out the rationale for evaluation along with the barriers that practitioners face when seeking to assess the effectiveness of training and development. Finally, it aims to propose a scientifically robust and practitioner friendly approach to evaluation.…

  16. A Practitioner Friendly and Scientifically Robust Training Evaluation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review the current state of workplace learning evaluation, to set out the rationale for evaluation along with the barriers that practitioners face when seeking to assess the effectiveness of training and development. Finally, it aims to propose a scientifically robust and practitioner friendly approach to evaluation.…

  17. Scientific misconduct and science ethics: a case study based approach.

    PubMed

    Consoli, Luca

    2006-07-01

    The Schön misconduct case has been widely publicized in the media and has sparked intense discussions within and outside the scientific community about general issues of science ethics. This paper analyses the Report of the official Committee charged with the investigation in order to show that what at first seems to be a quite uncontroversial case, turns out to be an accumulation of many interesting and non-trivial questions (of both ethical and philosophical interest). In particular, the paper intends to show that daily scientific practices are structurally permeated by chronic problems; this has serious consequences for how practicing scientists assess their work in general, and scientific misconduct in particular. A philosophical approach is proposed that sees scientific method and scientific ethics as inextricably interwoven. Furthermore, the paper intends to show that the definition of co-authorship that the members of the Committee use, although perhaps clear in theory, proves highly problematic in practice and raises more questions that it answers. A final plea is made for a more self-reflecting attitude of scientists as far as the moral and methodological profile of science is concerned as a key element for improving not only their scientific achievements, but also their assessment of problematic cases.

  18. Applying the Principles of Systems Engineering and Project Management to Optimize Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterkin, Adria J.

    2016-01-01

    Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary practice that analyzes different facets of a suggested area to properly develop and design an efficient system guided by the principles and restrictions of the science community. When entering an institution with quantitative and analytical scientific theory it is important to make sure that all parts of a system correlates in a structured and systematic manner so that all areas of intricacy will be prevented or quickly deduced. My research focused on interpreting and implementing Systems Engineering techniques in the construction, integration and operation of a NASA Radio Jove Kit to Observe Jupiter radio emissions. Jupiter emissions read at very low frequencies so when building the telescope it had to be able to read less than 39.5 MHz. The projected outcome was to receive long L-bursts and short S-burts signals; however, during the time of observation Jupiter was in conjunction with the Sun. We then decided to use the receiver built from the NASA Radio Jove Kit to hook it up to the Karl Jansky telescope to make an effort to listen to solar flares as well, nonetheless, we were unable to identify these signals and further realized they were noise. The overall project was a success in that we were able to apply and comprehend, the principles of Systems Engineering to facilitate the build.

  19. Scientific issues related to Codex Alimentarius goals: a review of principles, with examples.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Arpad; Hathcock, John; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Antoine, Jean-Michel; Edwards, Gareth; Prock, Peter

    2011-06-01

    The Codex Alimentarius provides the food standards and guidelines recognized by the World Trade Organization as the primary authority for use in settlement of related trade disputes. Codex bases its decisions primarily on scientific principles and evidence, although other legitimate factors such as economic and societal values may be considered. Codex has two primary aims: to protect consumers' health and assure fair practices in food trade. Codex documents may provide templates for individual nations but are not binding for domestic policies. Despite many advances over the last couple of decades, misunderstandings and controversies have interfered with important aspects of progress which Codex needs to accomplish, especially in the areas of claims of benefits related to food or nutrient consumption and the establishment of the safety of these items. Claims for health benefits should be based on the totality of available scientific evidence, including observational data collected from large populations as well as the results from randomized clinical trials. Safety should be evaluated by risk assessment on high quality experimental data, with anecdotal information having a lesser role. Regulatory policy would be improved if "history of safe use" were to be better defined and described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effectiveness of the Brain Based Teaching Approach in Enhancing Scientific Understanding of Newtonian Physics among Form Four Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Salmiza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Brain Based Teaching Approach in enhancing students' scientific understanding of Newtonian Physics in the context of Form Four Physics instruction. The technique was implemented based on the Brain Based Learning Principles developed by Caine & Caine (1991, 2003). This brain compatible…

  1. Coarse graining approach to First principles modeling of structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don M; Rusanu, Aurelian; Samolyuk, German D; Wang, Yang; Stoller, Roger E; Zhang, X.-G.; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Classical Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations characterizing extended defects typically require millions of atoms. First principles calculations employed to understand these defect systems at an electronic level cannot, and should not deal with such large numbers of atoms. We present an e cient coarse graining (CG) approach to calculate local electronic properties of large MD-generated structures from the rst principles. We used the Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method for two types of iron defect structures 1) screw-dislocation dipoles and 2) radiation cascades. The multiple scattering equations are solved at fewer sites using the CG. The atomic positions were determined by MD with an embedded atom force eld. The local moments in the neighborhood of the defect cores are calculated with rst-principles based on full local structure information, while atoms in the rest of the system are modeled by representative atoms with approximated properties. This CG approach reduces computational costs signi cantly and makes large-scale structures amenable to rst principles study. Work is sponsored by the USDoE, O ce of Basic Energy Sciences, Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center. This research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the ORNL, which is supported by the O ce of Science of the USDoE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  2. Subject mediation approach for scientific problem solving in Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, Leonid

    2007-08-01

    There exist two principally different approaches to the organization of problem solving in VO: (i) information resources driven approach (choice and integrated definition of resources are made independently of the problem specification); and (ii) scientific problem driven approach (a specification of a problem domain is created, the relevant to the problem resources are identified and semantically mapped into the domain). Intrinsic difficulties of the first approach: semantic gap between resources and the problem, instability of global schema w.r.t. a set of resources, inability of automatic identification of resources for the problem. To implement the second approach a mediation technology is required. On the consolidation phase of the mediator the efforts of the scientific community are focused on the problem definition by specifying the mediator. During the operational phase relevant information resources are identified and expressed in terms of the mediator. Advantages of the mediator approach include truly semantic integration of heterogeneous resources due to their semantic mapping into the mediator; multiple subjects can be semantically integrated applying recursive structure of the mediators.

  3. The Visualization Management System Approach To Visualization In Scientific Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, David M.; Pendley, Michael H.

    1989-09-01

    We introduce the visualization management system (ViMS), a new approach to the development of software for visualization in scientific computing (ViSC). The conceptual foundation for a ViMS is an abstract visualization model which specifies a class of geometric objects, the graphic representations of the objects and the operations on both. A ViMS provides a modular implementation of its visualization model. We describe ViMS requirements and a model-independent ViMS architecture. We briefly describe the vector bundle visualization model and the visualization taxonomy it generates. We conclude by summarizing the benefits of the ViMS approach.

  4. Asymptotic approach to special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortes, J. L.; Mazon, D.

    2010-10-15

    We propose a general framework to describe Planckian deviations from special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle. They are introduced as the leading corrections in an asymptotic approach to special relativity going beyond the energy power expansion of effective field theories. We discuss the conditions in which these Planckian effects might be experimentally observable in the near future, together with the nontrivial limits of applicability of this asymptotic approach that such a situation would produce, both at the very high (ultraviolet) and the very low (infrared) energy regimes.

  5. The Precautionary Principle and statistical approaches to uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Keiding, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2004-01-01

    The central challenge from the Precautionary Principle to statistical methodology is to help delineate (preferably quantitatively) the possibility that some exposure is hazardous, even in cases where this is not established beyond reasonable doubt. The classical approach to hypothesis testing is unhelpful, because lack of significance can be due either to uninformative data or to genuine lack of effect (the Type II error problem). Its inversion, bioequivalence testing, might sometimes be a model for the Precautionary Principle in its ability to "prove the null hypothesis". Current procedures for setting safe exposure levels are essentially derived from these classical statistical ideas, and we outline how uncertainties in the exposure and response measurements affect the no observed adverse effect level, the Benchmark approach and the "Hockey Stick" model. A particular problem concerns model uncertainty: usually these procedures assume that the class of models describing dose/response is known with certainty; this assumption is, however, often violated, perhaps particularly often when epidemiological data form the source of the risk assessment, and regulatory authorities have occasionally resorted to some average based on competing models. The recent methodology of the Bayesian model averaging might be a systematic version of this, but is this an arena for the Precautionary Principle to come into play?

  6. The Spatial Vision Tree: A Generic Pattern Recognition Engine- Scientific Foundations, Design Principles, and Preliminary Tree Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    New foundational ideas are used to define a novel approach to generic visual pattern recognition. These ideas proceed from the starting point of the intrinsic equivalence of noise reduction and pattern recognition when noise reduction is taken to its theoretical limit of explicit matched filtering. This led us to think of the logical extension of sparse coding using basis function transforms for both de-noising and pattern recognition to the full pattern specificity of a lexicon of matched filter pattern templates. A key hypothesis is that such a lexicon can be constructed and is, in fact, a generic visual alphabet of spatial vision. Hence it provides a tractable solution for the design of a generic pattern recognition engine. Here we present the key scientific ideas, the basic design principles which emerge from these ideas, and a preliminary design of the Spatial Vision Tree (SVT). The latter is based upon a cryptographic approach whereby we measure a large aggregate estimate of the frequency of occurrence (FOO) for each pattern. These distributions are employed together with Hamming distance criteria to design a two-tier tree. Then using information theory, these same FOO distributions are used to define a precise method for pattern representation. Finally the experimental performance of the preliminary SVT on computer generated test images and complex natural images is assessed.

  7. The spatial vision tree: a generic pattern recognition engine: scientific foundations, design principles, and preliminary tree design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2010-04-01

    New foundational ideas are used to define a novel approach to generic visual pattern recognition. These ideas proceed from the starting point of the intrinsic equivalence of noise reduction and pattern recognition when noise reduction is taken to its theoretical limit of explicit matched filtering. This led us to think of the logical extension of sparse coding using basis function transforms for both de-noising and pattern recognition to the full pattern specificity of a lexicon of matched filter pattern templates. A key hypothesis is that such a lexicon can be constructed and is, in fact, a generic visual alphabet of spatial vision. Hence it provides a tractable solution for the design of a generic pattern recognition engine. Here we present the key scientific ideas, the basic design principles which emerge from these ideas, and a preliminary design of the Spatial Vision Tree (SVT). The latter is based upon a cryptographic approach whereby we measure a large aggregate estimate of the frequency of occurrence (FOO) for each pattern. These distributions are employed together with Hamming distance criteria to design a two-tier tree. Then using information theory, these same FOO distributions are used to define a precise method for pattern representation. Finally the experimental performance of the preliminary SVT on computer generated test images and complex natural images is assessed.

  8. Bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based scientific approaches in medicine.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews contemporary approaches for bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based medicine. In doing so, the author presents a pragmatic assessment of quality, methodology and extent of scientific research in Ayurvedic medicine. The article discusses the meaning of evidence and indicates the need to adopt epistemologically sensitive methods and rigorous experimentation using modern science. The author critically analyzes the status of Ayurvedic medicine based on personal observations, peer interactions and published research. This review article concludes that traditional knowledge systems like Ayurveda and modern scientific evidence-based medicine should be integrated. The author advocates that Ayurvedic researchers should develop strategic collaborations with innovative initiatives like 'Horizon 2020' involving predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM).

  9. Vapour and acid components separation from gases by membranes principles and engineering approach to membranes development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagramanov, G. G.; Storojuk, I. P.; Farnosova, E. N.

    2016-09-01

    The modern commercially available polymer membranes and membrane modules for purification of gases, containing acid components, simultaneously with dehumidification of treated gas streams, were developed and commercialized in the very end of XXth century. The membranes basic properties - selectivity (separation factor) and permeation flow rates - are relatively far from satisfying the growing and modern-scale industrial need in purification technologies and corresponding equipments. The attempt to formulate the basic principles, scientific and engineering approaches to the development of prospective membranes for the purification of gases, especially such as natural and oil gases, from acid components, simultaneously with drying them, was being made. For this purpose the influence of various factors - polymer nature, membrane type, structure, geometrical and mass-transfer characteristics, etc. - were studied and analyzed in order to formulate the basic principles and demands for development of membranes, capable to withstand successfully the sever conditions of exploitation.

  10. Application of Scientific Approaches for Evaluation of Quality of Learning Objects in eQNet Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Serikoviene, Silvija

    The paper is aimed to analyse the application of several scientific approaches, methods, and principles for evaluation of quality of learning objects for Mathematics subject. The authors analyse the following approaches to minimise subjectivity level in expert evaluation of the quality of learning objects, namely: (1) principles of multiple criteria decision analysis for identification of quality criteria, (2) technological quality criteria classification principle, (3) fuzzy group decision making theory to obtain evaluation measures, (4) normalisation requirement for criteria weights, and (5) scalarisation method for learning objects quality optimisation. Another aim of the paper is to outline the central role of social tagging to describe usage, attention, and other aspects of the context; as well as to help to exploit context data towards making learning object repositories more useful, and thus enhance the reuse. The applied approaches have been used practically for evaluation of learning objects and metadata tagging while implementing European eQNet and te@ch.us projects in Lithuanian comprehensive schools in 2010.

  11. Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

    2015-03-18

    Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners.

  12. Training principles for fascial connective tissues: scientific foundation and suggested practical applications.

    PubMed

    Schleip, Robert; Müller, Divo Gitta

    2013-01-01

    Conventional sports training emphasizes adequate training of muscle fibres, of cardiovascular conditioning and/or neuromuscular coordination. Most sports-associated overload injuries however occur within elements of the body wide fascial net, which are then loaded beyond their prepared capacity. This tensional network of fibrous tissues includes dense sheets such as muscle envelopes, aponeuroses, as well as specific local adaptations, such as ligaments or tendons. Fibroblasts continually but slowly adapt the morphology of these tissues to repeatedly applied challenging loading stimulations. Principles of a fascia oriented training approach are introduced. These include utilization of elastic recoil, preparatory counter movement, slow and dynamic stretching, as well as rehydration practices and proprioceptive refinement. Such training should be practiced once or twice a week in order to yield in a more resilient fascial body suit within a time frame of 6-24 months. Some practical examples of fascia oriented exercises are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionary approach for determining first-principles hamiltonians.

    PubMed

    Hart, Gus L W; Blum, Volker; Walorski, Michael J; Zunger, Alex

    2005-05-01

    Modern condensed-matter theory from first principles is highly successful when applied to materials of given structure-type or restricted unit-cell size. But this approach is limited where large cells or searches over millions of structure types become necessary. To treat these with first-principles accuracy, one 'coarse-grains' the many-particle Schrodinger equation into 'model hamiltonians' whose variables are configurational order parameters (atomic positions, spin and so on), connected by a few 'interaction parameters' obtained from a microscopic theory. But to construct a truly quantitative model hamiltonian, one must know just which types of interaction parameters to use, from possibly 10(6)-10(8) alternative selections. Here we show how genetic algorithms, mimicking biological evolution ('survival of the fittest'), can be used to distil reliable model hamiltonian parameters from a database of first-principles calculations. We demonstrate this for a classic dilemma in solid-state physics, structural inorganic chemistry and metallurgy: how to predict the stable crystal structure of a compound given only its composition. The selection of leading parameters based on a genetic algorithm is general and easily applied to construct any other type of complex model hamiltonian from direct quantum-mechanical results.

  14. OZCAR: the French network of Critical Zone Observatories: principles and scientific objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braud, Isabelle; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Hankard, Fatim; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Nord, Guillaume; Six, Delphine; Galy, Catherine; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Tallec, Tiphaine; Pauwels, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    This contribution aims at presenting the principles that underlined the creation of the OZCAR research infrastructure, gathering various Critical Zone Observatories in France, and the scientific questions that drives the observation settings. The Critical Zone includes the fine zone between the lower atmosphere at the top of the canopy down to the bedrock-soil interface. This lithosphere-atmosphere boundary is critical for the availability of life-sustaining resources and critical for humanity because this is the zone where we live, where we build our cities, from which we extract our food and our water and where we release most of our wastes. This is the fragile zone on which the natural ecosystem relies because this is where nutrients are being released from the rocks. OZCAR is a distributed research infrastructure gathering instrumented sites and catchments on continental surfaces all dedicated to the observation and monitoring of the different compartments of the Critical Zone at the national scale. All these observatories (more that 40) were all built up on specific questions (acid deposition, flood prediction, urban hydrology…), some of them more than 50 years ago, but they have all in common to be highly instrumented, permanently funded as infrastructures. They all share the same overarching goal of understanding and predicting the Critical Zone in a changing world. OZCAR gathers instrumented catchments, hydrogeological sites, peatlands, glacier and permafrost regions and a spatial observatory under the common umbrella of understanding water and biogeochemical cycles and the associated fluxes of energy by using natural gradients and experimentation. Based on the collaboration with Southern Countries, OZCAR's sites have a global coverage including tropical areas and high mountainous regions in the Andes and the Himalaya. OZCAR benefits from a French investments project called CRITEX (Innovative equipment for the critical zone, https://www.critex.fr/critex-3

  15. Applying principles from "Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians" to teaching chemistry in the department of medicine at Chang Gung University.

    PubMed

    Lou, Bih-Show

    2012-02-01

    Similar to the current trends in America that were recognized by the Association of American Medical College and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in their 2009 report titled "Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians," Taiwanese medical students are lacking in their ability to apply their knowledge of basic sciences to real-life situations. The report recommended developing a competency-based approach to learning and also called for an increase in integrated and interdisciplinary courses in the education of medical students. Such a class, which would encourage students to look at biological concepts through chemical and physical principles, has been developed at Chang Gung University, and it strives to develop the medical student's ability to work in groups, think critically, and clearly and convincingly present ideas. The course requires students to present biological topics in groups after working closely with a teacher, and it trains the students to identify useful and trustworthy sources, to constructively criticize each other, and work together to present a cohesive and informative presentation for their peers. From my teaching experience, classes such as this have led me to conclude that the teacher's role does not simply encompass that of the informant, but also the facilitator of the academic success of the students, and this has led me to create certain class policies for teachers that help students of any field success in class. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The Dublin Principles of cooperation among the beverage alcohol industry, governments, scientific researchers, and the public health community.

    PubMed

    Hannum, H

    1997-01-01

    A 3-day Meeting held in Dublin, Ireland on 26-28 May 1997 was organized by the National College of Industrial Relations of Ireland and the US-based International Center for Alcohol Policies. During this Meeting, the 24 participants representing the beverage alcohol industry, governmental organizations and the scientific and public health communities discussed cooperation among all those concerned with alcohol consumption and its effects. These discussions led to the formulation of the 'Dublin Principles of Cooperation'. This special article describes these Principles and comments on them.

  17. Comparison of Resource Platform Selection Approaches for Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2010-03-05

    Cloud computing is increasingly considered as an additional computational resource platform for scientific workflows. The cloud offers opportunity to scale-out applications from desktops and local cluster resources. At the same time, it can eliminate the challenges of restricted software environments and queue delays in shared high performance computing environments. Choosing from these diverse resource platforms for a workflow execution poses a challenge for many scientists. Scientists are often faced with deciding resource platform selection trade-offs with limited information on the actual workflows. While many workflow planning methods have explored task scheduling onto different resources, these methods often require fine-scale characterization of the workflow that is onerous for a scientist. In this position paper, we describe our early exploratory work into using blackbox characteristics to do a cost-benefit analysis across of using cloud platforms. We use only very limited high-level information on the workflow length, width, and data sizes. The length and width are indicative of the workflow duration and parallelism. The data size characterizes the IO requirements. We compare the effectiveness of this approach to other resource selection models using two exemplar scientific workflows scheduled on desktops, local clusters, HPC centers, and clouds. Early results suggest that the blackbox model often makes the same resource selections as a more fine-grained whitebox model. We believe the simplicity of the blackbox model can help inform a scientist on the applicability of cloud computing resources even before porting an existing workflow.

  18. MESA - A new approach to low cost scientific spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, G. W.; Case, C. M.

    1982-09-01

    Today, the greatest obstacle to science and exploration in space is its cost. The present investigation is concerned with approaches for reducing this cost. Trends in the scientific spacecraft market are examined, and a description is presented for the MESA space platform concept. The cost drivers are considered, taking into account planning, technical aspects, and business factors. It is pointed out that the primary function of the MESA concept is to provide a satellite system at the lowest possible price. In order to reach this goal an attempt is made to benefit from all of the considered cost drivers. It is to be tried to work with the customer early in the mission analysis stage in order to assist in finding the right compromise between mission cost and return. A three phase contractual arrangement is recommended for MESA platforms. The phases are related to mission feasibility, specification definition, and design and development. Modular kit design promotes flexibility at low cost.

  19. Design Approaches to Support Preservice Teachers in Scientific Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific…

  20. Distilling structure in Taverna scientific workflows: a refactoring approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scientific workflows management systems are increasingly used to specify and manage bioinformatics experiments. Their programming model appeals to bioinformaticians, who can use them to easily specify complex data processing pipelines. Such a model is underpinned by a graph structure, where nodes represent bioinformatics tasks and links represent the dataflow. The complexity of such graph structures is increasing over time, with possible impacts on scientific workflows reuse. In this work, we propose effective methods for workflow design, with a focus on the Taverna model. We argue that one of the contributing factors for the difficulties in reuse is the presence of "anti-patterns", a term broadly used in program design, to indicate the use of idiomatic forms that lead to over-complicated design. The main contribution of this work is a method for automatically detecting such anti-patterns, and replacing them with different patterns which result in a reduction in the workflow's overall structural complexity. Rewriting workflows in this way will be beneficial both in terms of user experience (easier design and maintenance), and in terms of operational efficiency (easier to manage, and sometimes to exploit the latent parallelism amongst the tasks). Results We have conducted a thorough study of the workflows structures available in Taverna, with the aim of finding out workflow fragments whose structure could be made simpler without altering the workflow semantics. We provide four contributions. Firstly, we identify a set of anti-patterns that contribute to the structural workflow complexity. Secondly, we design a series of refactoring transformations to replace each anti-pattern by a new semantically-equivalent pattern with less redundancy and simplified structure. Thirdly, we introduce a distilling algorithm that takes in a workflow and produces a distilled semantically-equivalent workflow. Lastly, we provide an implementation of our refactoring approach

  1. International Paralympic Committee position stand--background and scientific principles of classification in Paralympic sport.

    PubMed

    Tweedy, S M; Vanlandewijck, Y C

    2011-04-01

    The Classification Code of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), inter alia, mandates the development of evidence-based systems of classification. This paper provides a scientific background for classification in Paralympic sport, defines evidence-based classification and provides guidelines for how evidence-based classification may be achieved. Classification is a process in which a single group of entities (or units) are ordered into a number of smaller groups (or classes) based on observable properties that they have in common, and taxonomy is the science of how to classify. Paralympic classification is interrelated with systems of classification used in two fields: Health and functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is the most widely used classification in the field of functioning and health. To enhance communication, Paralympic systems of classification should use language and concepts that are consistent with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Sport. Classification in sport reduces the likelihood of one-sided competition and in this way promotes participation. Two types of classification are used in sport-performance classification and selective classification. Paralympic sports require selective classification systems so that athletes who enhance their competitive performance through effective training will not be moved to a class with athletes who have less activity limitation, as they would in a performance classification system. Classification has a significant impact on which athletes are successful in Paralympic sport, but unfortunately issues relating to the weighting and aggregation of measures used in classification pose significant threats to the validity of current systems of classification. To improve the validity of Paralympic classification, the IPC Classification Code mandates the development of evidence-based systems of classification, an evidence

  2. A first-principles theoretical approach to heterogeneous nanocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Negreiros, Fabio R; Aprà, Edoardo; Barcaro, Giovanni; Sementa, Luca; Vajda, Stefan; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2012-02-21

    A theoretical approach to heterogeneous catalysis by sub-nanometre supported metal clusters and alloys is presented and discussed. Its goal is to perform a computational sampling of the reaction paths in nanocatalysis via a global search in the phase space of structures and stoichiometry combined with filtering which takes into account the given experimental conditions (catalytically relevant temperature and reactant pressure), and corresponds to an incremental exploration of the disconnectivity diagram of the system. The approach is implemented and applied to the study of propylene partial oxidation by Ag(3) supported on MgO(100). First-principles density-functional theory calculations coupled with a Reactive Global Optimization algorithm are performed, finding that: (1) the presence of an oxide support drastically changes the potential energy landscape of the system with respect to the gas phase, favoring configurations which interact positively with the electrostatic field generated by the surface; (2) the reaction energy barriers for the various mechanisms are crucial in the competition between thermodynamically and kinetically favored reaction products; (3) a topological database of structures and saddle points is produced which has general validity and can serve for future studies or for deriving general trends; (4) the MgO(100) surface captures some major features of the effect of an oxide support and appears to be a good model of a simple oxide substrate; (5) strong cooperative effects are found in the co-adsorption of O(2) and other ligands on small metal clusters. The proposed approach appears as a viable route to advance the role of predictive computational science in the field of heterogeneous nanocatalysis. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  3. A first-principles theoretical approach to heterogeneous nanocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, Fabio R.; Aprà, Edoardo; Barcaro, Giovanni; Sementa, Luca; Vajda, Stefan; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2012-02-01

    A theoretical approach to heterogeneous catalysis by sub-nanometre supported metal clusters and alloys is presented and discussed. Its goal is to perform a computational sampling of the reaction paths in nanocatalysis via a global search in the phase space of structures and stoichiometry combined with filtering which takes into account the given experimental conditions (catalytically relevant temperature and reactant pressure), and corresponds to an incremental exploration of the disconnectivity diagram of the system. The approach is implemented and applied to the study of propylene partial oxidation by Ag3 supported on MgO(100). First-principles density-functional theory calculations coupled with a Reactive Global Optimization algorithm are performed, finding that: (1) the presence of an oxide support drastically changes the potential energy landscape of the system with respect to the gas phase, favoring configurations which interact positively with the electrostatic field generated by the surface; (2) the reaction energy barriers for the various mechanisms are crucial in the competition between thermodynamically and kinetically favored reaction products; (3) a topological database of structures and saddle points is produced which has general validity and can serve for future studies or for deriving general trends; (4) the MgO(100) surface captures some major features of the effect of an oxide support and appears to be a good model of a simple oxide substrate; (5) strong cooperative effects are found in the co-adsorption of O2 and other ligands on small metal clusters. The proposed approach appears as a viable route to advance the role of predictive computational science in the field of heterogeneous nanocatalysis.

  4. [Multimorbidity in general practice and the Ariadne principles. A person-centred approach].

    PubMed

    Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Del Cura-González, Isabel; Prados-Torres, Juan Daniel; Leiva-Fernández, Francisca; López-Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Muth, Christiane

    2017-05-01

    Multimorbidity, defined as the coexistence of two or more chronic conditions in one same individual, has negative consequences for people suffering from it and it poses a real challenge for health systems. In primary care, where most of these patients are attended, the clinical management of multimorbidity can be a complex task due, among others, to the high volume of clinical information that needs to be handled, the scarce scientific evidence available to approach multimorbidity, and the need for coordination among multiple health providers to guarantee continuity of care. Moreover, the adequate implementation of the care plan in these patients requires a process of shared decision making between patient and physician. One of the available tools to support this process, which is specifically directed to patients with multimorbidity in primary care, is described in the present article: the Ariadne principles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Solubility of nonelectrolytes: a first-principles computational approach.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicholas E; Chen, Lin X; Ratner, Mark A

    2014-05-15

    Using a combination of classical molecular dynamics and symmetry adapted intermolecular perturbation theory, we develop a high-accuracy computational method for examining the solubility energetics of nonelectrolytes. This approach is used to accurately compute the cohesive energy density and Hildebrand solubility parameters of 26 molecular liquids. The energy decomposition of symmetry adapted perturbation theory is then utilized to develop multicomponent Hansen-like solubility parameters. These parameters are shown to reproduce the solvent categorizations (nonpolar, polar aprotic, or polar protic) of all molecular liquids studied while lending quantitative rigor to these qualitative categorizations via the introduction of simple, easily computable parameters. Notably, we find that by monitoring the first-order exchange energy contribution to the total interaction energy, one can rigorously determine the hydrogen bonding character of a molecular liquid. Finally, this method is applied to compute explicitly the Flory interaction parameter and the free energy of mixing for two different small molecule mixtures, reproducing the known miscibilities. This methodology represents an important step toward the prediction of molecular solubility from first principles.

  6. Dance Curriculum for Elementary Children. Using a Scientific Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Cynthia

    1986-01-01

    The Biomechanical Principles and Movement Concepts Curriculum for third- through fifth-grade students is described. Basic movements and the amount of time each is to be taught are listed. Activities for application of dance to fitness based on biomechancial principles are given. (MT)

  7. Liquid Water from First Principles: Validation of Different Sampling Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Mundy, C J; Kuo, W; Siepmann, J; McGrath, M J; Vondevondele, J; Sprik, M; Hutter, J; Parrinello, M; Mohamed, F; Krack, M; Chen, B; Klein, M

    2004-05-20

    A series of first principles molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for liquid water to assess the validity and reproducibility of different sampling approaches. These simulations include Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations using the program CPMD with different values of the fictitious electron mass in the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics using the programs CPMD and CP2K in the microcanonical ensemble, and Metropolis Monte Carlo using CP2K in the canonical ensemble. With the exception of one simulation for 128 water molecules, all other simulations were carried out for systems consisting of 64 molecules. It is found that the structural and thermodynamic properties of these simulations are in excellent agreement with each other as long as adiabatic sampling is maintained in the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations either by choosing a sufficiently small fictitious mass in the microcanonical ensemble or by Nos{acute e}-Hoover thermostats in the canonical ensemble. Using the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange and correlation energy functionals and norm-conserving Troullier-Martins or Goedecker-Teter-Hutter pseudopotentials, simulations at a fixed density of 1.0 g/cm{sup 3} and a temperature close to 315 K yield a height of the first peak in the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function of about 3.0, a classical constant-volume heat capacity of about 70 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, and a self-diffusion constant of about 0.1 Angstroms{sup 2}/ps.

  8. A Scientific Approach to Teaching about Evolution and Special Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson that addresses the scientific aspects of the evolution versus special creation controversy by having students gather evidence from the fossil record and analyze that evidence using critical-thinking skills. Contains 13 references. (WRM)

  9. A Scientific Approach to Teaching about Evolution and Special Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson that addresses the scientific aspects of the evolution versus special creation controversy by having students gather evidence from the fossil record and analyze that evidence using critical-thinking skills. Contains 13 references. (WRM)

  10. Principles of protection: a formal approach for evaluating dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Wikman-Svahn, Per; Peterson, Martin; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2006-03-01

    One of the central issues in radiation protection consists in determining what weight should be given to individual doses in relation to collective or aggregated doses. A mathematical framework is introduced in which such assessments can be made precisely in terms of comparisons between alternative distributions of individual doses. In addition to evaluation principles that are well known from radiation protection, a series of principles that are derived from parallel discussions in moral philosophy and welfare economics is investigated. A battery of formal properties is then used to investigate the evaluative principles. The results indicate that one of the new principles, bilinear prioritarianism, may be preferable to current practices, since it satisfies efficiency-related properties better without sacrificing other desirable properties.

  11. Teaching aldosterone regulation and basic scientific principles using a classic paper by Dr. James O. Davis and colleagues.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Craig J; Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C

    2006-12-01

    Classroom discussion of scientific articles can be an effective means of teaching scientific principles and methodology to both undergraduate and graduate science students. The availability of classic papers from the American Physiological Society Legacy Project has made it possible to access articles dating back to the early portions of the 20th century. In this article, we discuss a classic paper from the laboratory of Dr. James O. Davis on the regulation of aldosterone synthesis from the adrenal zona glomerulosa cell. Dr. Davis has conducted much of the seminal research investigating the renin-angiotensin system and the regulation of aldosterone release by angiotensin II. In addition to a characterization of the effects of ACTH on aldosterone regulation, this study is useful for discussing the basic principles of negative feedback pathways of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. This study also provides examples of early bioassay techniques for the detection of angiotensin II and of the importance of quantitative measurements when investigating physiological responses. Three figures and one table are reproduced from the original article along with a series of discussion questions designed to facilitate discovery learning.

  12. Crick's gossip test and Watson's boredom principle: A pseudo-mathematical analysis of effort in scientific research.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-01-01

    Crick and Watson gave complementary advice to the aspiring scientist based on the insight that to do your best work you need to make your greatest possible effort. Crick made the positive suggestion to work on the subject which most deeply interests you, the thing about which you spontaneously gossip - Crick termed this 'the gossip test'. Watson made the negative suggestion of avoiding topics and activities that bore you - which I have termed 'the boredom principle'. This is good advice because science is tough and the easy things have already been done. Solving the harder problems that remain requires a lot of effort. But in modern biomedical science individual effort does not necessarily correlate with career success as measured by salary, status, job security, etc. This is because Crick and Watson are talking about revolutionary science - using Thomas Kuhn's distinction between paradigm-shifting 'revolutionary' science and incremental 'normal' science. There are two main problems with pursuing a career in revolutionary science. The first is that revolutionary science is intrinsically riskier than normal science, the second that even revolutionary success in a scientific backwater may be less career-enhancing than mundane work in a trendy field. So, if you pick your scientific problem using the gossip test and the boredom principle, you might also be committing career suicide. This may explain why so few people follow Crick and Watson's advice. The best hope for future biomedical science is that it will evolve towards a greater convergence between individual effort and career success.

  13. [Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    medico legal and scientific compensation approach to automobile accident is now necessary.

  14. Approaches to Foster Transfer of Formal Principles: Which Route to Take?

    PubMed Central

    Schalk, Lennart; Saalbach, Henrik; Stern, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    Enabling learners to transfer knowledge about formal principles to new problems is a major aim of science and mathematics education, which, however, is notoriously difficult to reach. Previous research advocates different approaches of how to introduce principles to foster the transfer of knowledge about formal principles. One approach suggests teaching a generic formalism of the principles. Another approach suggests presenting (at least) two concrete cases instantiating the principle. A third approach suggests presenting a generic formalism accompanied by a case. As yet, though, empirical results regarding the transfer potential of these approaches are mixed and difficult to integrate as the three approaches have rarely been tested competitively. Furthermore, the approaches have been evaluated in relation to different control conditions, and they have been assessed using varying transfer measures. In the present experiment, we introduced undergraduates to the formal principles of propositional logic with the aim to systematically compare the transfer potential of the different approaches in relation to each other and to a common control condition by using various learning and transfer tasks. Results indicate that all approaches supported successful learning and transfer of the principles, but also caused systematic differences in the magnitude of transfer. Results indicate that the combination of a generic formalism with a case was surprisingly unsuccessful while learners who compared two cases outperformed the control condition. We discuss how the simultaneous assessment of the different approaches allows to more precisely capture the underlying learning mechanisms and to advance theory on how these mechanisms contribute to transfer performance. PMID:26871902

  15. Data First: Building Scientific Reasoning in AP Chemistry via the Concept Development Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichol, Carolyn A.; Szymczyk, Amber J.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the "Data First" approach and shows how the observation and analysis of scientific data can be used as a scaffold to build conceptual understanding in chemistry through inductive reasoning. The "Data First" approach emulates the scientific process by changing the order by which we introduce data. Rather…

  16. Data First: Building Scientific Reasoning in AP Chemistry via the Concept Development Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichol, Carolyn A.; Szymczyk, Amber J.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the "Data First" approach and shows how the observation and analysis of scientific data can be used as a scaffold to build conceptual understanding in chemistry through inductive reasoning. The "Data First" approach emulates the scientific process by changing the order by which we introduce data. Rather…

  17. Evolving the Principles and Practice of Validation for New Alternative Approaches to Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Maurice; Eskes, Chantra

    Validation is essential for the translation of newly developed alternative approaches to animal testing into tools and solutions suitable for regulatory applications. Formal approaches to validation have emerged over the past 20 years or so and although they have helped greatly to progress the field, it is essential that the principles and practice underpinning validation continue to evolve to keep pace with scientific progress. The modular approach to validation should be exploited to encourage more innovation and flexibility in study design and to increase efficiency in filling data gaps. With the focus now on integrated approaches to testing and assessment that are based on toxicological knowledge captured as adverse outcome pathways, and which incorporate the latest in vitro and computational methods, validation needs to adapt to ensure it adds value rather than hinders progress. Validation needs to be pursued both at the method level, to characterise the performance of in vitro methods in relation their ability to detect any association of a chemical with a particular pathway or key toxicological event, and at the methodological level, to assess how integrated approaches can predict toxicological endpoints relevant for regulatory decision making. To facilitate this, more emphasis needs to be given to the development of performance standards that can be applied to classes of methods and integrated approaches that provide similar information. Moreover, the challenge of selecting the right reference chemicals to support validation needs to be addressed more systematically, consistently and in a manner that better reflects the state of the science. Above all however, validation requires true partnership between the development and user communities of alternative methods and the appropriate investment of resources.

  18. Why Not Try a Scientific Approach to Science Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of science education is no longer simply to train that tiny fraction of the population who will become the next generation of scientists. A more scientifically literate populace is needed to address the global challenges that humanity now faces and that only science can explain and possibly mitigate, for example, global warming and…

  19. A Novel Approach to Understanding the Process of Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the basic concepts involved in the process of scientific inquiry can be represented by analogy to a simple game called Battleships. The same processes used in this child's game demonstrate what role hypothesis generation and testing play in the search for truth in nature. The analogy can also be extended to demonstrate how scientists…

  20. Teaching Information Literacy and Scientific Process Skills: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souchek, Russell; Meier, Marjorie

    1997-01-01

    Describes an online searching and scientific process component taught as part of the laboratory for a general zoology course. The activities were designed to be gradually more challenging, culminating in a student-developed final research project. Student evaluations were positive, and faculty indicated that student research skills transferred to…

  1. Teaching Information Literacy and Scientific Process Skills: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souchek, Russell; Meier, Marjorie

    1997-01-01

    Describes an online searching and scientific process component taught as part of the laboratory for a general zoology course. The activities were designed to be gradually more challenging, culminating in a student-developed final research project. Student evaluations were positive, and faculty indicated that student research skills transferred to…

  2. Why Not Try a Scientific Approach to Science Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of science education is no longer simply to train that tiny fraction of the population who will become the next generation of scientists. A more scientifically literate populace is needed to address the global challenges that humanity now faces and that only science can explain and possibly mitigate, for example, global warming and…

  3. The Pacific Oaks College's Prism Principles Professional Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Kalani

    2012-01-01

    In a struggling atmosphere for education, one college is optimistic about the future by offering school districts its PRISM Principles professional development as a means to ensure that "no child is left behind." Pacific Oaks College & Children's School is known for its premiere programs in early childhood education, human…

  4. Children's Use of the Discounting Principle: A Perceptual Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassin, Saul M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Subjects watched animated films depicting the simultaneous movements of two triangles toward a goal. One triangle was pushed by an external object while the other triangle was not. Initially, only college students understood the discounting principle. Kindergarten children, second graders, and fourth graders did not. Revision of the film produced…

  5. The Biopsychosocial Model 25 Years Later: Principles, Practice, and Scientific Inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Borrell-Carrió, Francesc; Suchman, Anthony L.; Epstein, Ronald M.

    2004-01-01

    The biopsychosocial model is both a philosophy of clinical care and a practical clinical guide. Philosophically, it is a way of understanding how suffering, disease, and illness are affected by multiple levels of organization, from the societal to the molecular. At the practical level, it is a way of understanding the patient’s subjective experience as an essential contributor to accurate diagnosis, health outcomes, and humane care. In this article, we defend the biopsychosocial model as a necessary contribution to the scientific clinical method, while suggesting 3 clarifications: (1) the relationship between mental and physical aspects of health is complex—subjective experience depends on but is not reducible to laws of physiology; (2) models of circular causality must be tempered by linear approximations when considering treatment options; and (3) promoting a more participatory clinician-patient relationship is in keeping with current Western cultural tendencies, but may not be universally accepted. We propose a biopsychosocial-oriented clinical practice whose pillars include (1) self-awareness; (2) active cultivation of trust; (3) an emotional style characterized by empathic curiosity; (4) self-calibration as a way to reduce bias; (5) educating the emotions to assist with diagnosis and forming therapeutic relationships; (6) using informed intuition; and (7) communicating clinical evidence to foster dialogue, not just the mechanical application of protocol. In conclusion, the value of the biopsychosocial model has not been in the discovery of new scientific laws, as the term “new paradigm” would suggest, but rather in guiding parsimonious application of medical knowledge to the needs of each patient. PMID:15576544

  6. The Need for More Scientific Approaches to Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Two possible goals for public science communication are: a) improving the public's in-depth understanding of the scientific subject; and b) fostering the public's belief that scientific efforts make a better world. Although (a) is often a natural target when scientists try to communicate their subject, the importance of (b) is underscored by the NSF, who investigated the "cultural authority of science" to understand science's role in policymaking. Surveys consistently find that there is a huge divergence between "knowledge" and "admiration" of science in society because science literacy has very little to do with public perception of science. However, even if both goals could be achieved, it doesn't necessarily mean that the general public will act on scientific advice. Different parts of society have different criteria for reaching judgments about how to act in their best interests. This makes the study of science communication important when controversies arise requiring public engagement. Climate change, sustainability, and water crises are only a few examples of such controversial subjects. Science communication can be designed carefully to sponsor dialogue and participation, to overcome perceptual obstacles, and to engage with stakeholders and the wider public. This study reviews work in social science that tries to answer: When is science communication necessary? What is involved in science communication? What is the role of media in effective science communication? It also reviews common recommendations for improved public engagement by scientists and science organizations. As part of this effort, I will present some portions of my science films. I will conclude with suggestions on what scientific institutions can focus on to build trust, relationships, and participation across segments of the public. Keywords: informal learning, popular science, climate change, water crisis, science communication, science films, science policy.

  7. Oriental approaches to masculine and feminine subtle energy principles.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley

    2005-04-01

    According to ancient Indian and Chinese texts the subtle energy (prana or chi) flows through several thousand anatomically indistinguishable channels or meridians (nadis). Three channels are especially important (ida, pingala, and sushumna). The ida and pingala channels correlate with left and right uninostril breathing, respectively. Like yin and yang, they are considered to represent the masculine and feminine principles present in all creation irrespective of sex. From this perspective these principles are assumed to be present simultaneously in persons of both sexes. This suggests that any sex-specific effects of uninostril breathing may be associated with sex-based physiological differences, not with 'masculine' and 'feminine' attributes of the channels (and the corresponding nostrils).

  8. From principles to practice: a spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Wedding, L M; Friedlander, A M; Kittinger, J N; Watling, L; Gaines, S D; Bennett, M; Hardy, S M; Smith, C R

    2013-12-22

    Increases in the demand and price for industrial metals, combined with advances in technological capabilities have now made deep-sea mining more feasible and economically viable. In order to balance economic interests with the conservation of abyssal plain ecosystems, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a systematic approach to spatial management and zoning of the deep sea. Here, we describe an expert-driven systematic conservation planning process applied to inform science-based recommendations to the International Seabed Authority for a system of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem function in an abyssal Pacific region targeted for nodule mining (e.g. the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone, CCZ). Our use of geospatial analysis and expert opinion in forming the recommendations allowed us to stratify the proposed network by biophysical gradients, maximize the number of biologically unique seamounts within each subregion, and minimize socioeconomic impacts. The resulting proposal for an MPA network (nine replicate 400 × 400 km MPAs) covers 24% (1 440 000 km(2)) of the total CCZ planning region and serves as example of swift and pre-emptive conservation planning across an unprecedented area in the deep sea. As pressure from resource extraction increases in the future, the scientific guiding principles outlined in this research can serve as a basis for collaborative international approaches to ocean management.

  9. From principles to practice: a spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    Wedding, L. M.; Friedlander, A. M.; Kittinger, J. N.; Watling, L.; Gaines, S. D.; Bennett, M.; Hardy, S. M.; Smith, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the demand and price for industrial metals, combined with advances in technological capabilities have now made deep-sea mining more feasible and economically viable. In order to balance economic interests with the conservation of abyssal plain ecosystems, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a systematic approach to spatial management and zoning of the deep sea. Here, we describe an expert-driven systematic conservation planning process applied to inform science-based recommendations to the International Seabed Authority for a system of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem function in an abyssal Pacific region targeted for nodule mining (e.g. the Clarion–Clipperton fracture zone, CCZ). Our use of geospatial analysis and expert opinion in forming the recommendations allowed us to stratify the proposed network by biophysical gradients, maximize the number of biologically unique seamounts within each subregion, and minimize socioeconomic impacts. The resulting proposal for an MPA network (nine replicate 400 × 400 km MPAs) covers 24% (1 440 000 km2) of the total CCZ planning region and serves as example of swift and pre-emptive conservation planning across an unprecedented area in the deep sea. As pressure from resource extraction increases in the future, the scientific guiding principles outlined in this research can serve as a basis for collaborative international approaches to ocean management. PMID:24197407

  10. New approach to flavor symmetry and an extended naturalness principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, S. M.

    2010-09-01

    A class of nonsupersymmetric extensions of the standard model is proposed in which there is a multiplicity of light scalar doublets in a multiplet of a nonabelian family group with the standard model Higgs doublet. Anthropic tuning makes the latter light, and consequently the other scalar doublets remain light because of the family symmetry. The family symmetry greatly constrains the pattern of flavor-changing neutral-current interactions (FCNC) and p decay operators coming from scalar-exchange. Such models show that useful constraints on model-building can come from an extended naturalness principle when the electroweak scale is anthropically tuned.

  11. Semantic Approaches Applied to Scientific Ocean Drilling Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils, D.; Jenkins, C. J.; Arko, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The application of Linked Open Data methods to 40 years of data from scientific ocean drilling is providing users with several new methods for rich-content data search and discovery. Data from the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have been translated and placed in RDF triple stores to provide access via SPARQL, linked open data patterns, and by embedded structured data through schema.org / RDFa. Existing search services have been re-encoded in this environment which allows the new and established architectures to be contrasted. Vocabularies including computed semantic relations between concepts, allow separate but related data sets to be connected on their concepts and resources even when they are expressed somewhat differently. Scientific ocean drilling produces a wide range of data types and data sets: borehole logging file-based data, images, measurements, visual observations and the physical sample data. The steps involved in connecting these data to concepts using vocabularies will be presented, including the connection of data sets through Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID) and open entity collections such as Freebase and dbPedia. Demonstrated examples will include: (i) using RDF Schema for inferencing and in federated searches across NGDC and IODP data, (ii) using structured data in the data.oceandrilling.org web site, (iii) association through semantic methods of age models and depth recorded data to facilitate age based searches for data recorded by depth only.

  12. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  13. Community Relations: DOD’s Approach for Using Resources Reflects Sound Management Principles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    DOD and military service guidance and processes against management principles in federal internal control standards; identified resources...updated form has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget for review and approval. Processes for Reviewing and Approving Community...COMMUNITY RELATIONS DOD’s Approach for Using Resources Reflects Sound Management Principles Report to

  14. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  15. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  16. A Principled Approach to Accountability Assessments for Students with Disabilities. Synthesis Report 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Quenemoen, Rachel F.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Moen, Ross E.; Johnstone, Christopher J.; Liu, Kristi K.; Christensen, Laurene L.; Albus, Debra A.; Altman, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Building on research and practice, the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has revisited and updated its 2001 document that identified principles and characteristics that underlie inclusive assessment and accountability systems. This report on a principled approach to accountability assessments for students with disabilities reflects…

  17. Creative Approaches to Motivational Interviewing: Addressing the Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Allison; Parmenter, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Scholars have suggested that counseling theory is greatly enhanced by adding creative approaches (Degges-White & Davis, 2011). However, few suggestions have been made in the counseling literature indicating how motivational interviewing can be creatively used. In addition, the majority of creative approaches for problem behaviors within the…

  18. Creative Approaches to Motivational Interviewing: Addressing the Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Allison; Parmenter, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Scholars have suggested that counseling theory is greatly enhanced by adding creative approaches (Degges-White & Davis, 2011). However, few suggestions have been made in the counseling literature indicating how motivational interviewing can be creatively used. In addition, the majority of creative approaches for problem behaviors within the…

  19. The Loanable-Funds Approach to Teaching Principles of Macroeconomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisher, Belton; Kopecky, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    Argues for replacing the liquidity-preference approach with the loanable-funds approach in introductory macroeconomics courses. Claims the loanable-funds model allows students to see more clearly relationships between such economic concepts as fiscal policy and interest rates. Illustrates how this model can be used to describe the movement from…

  20. Evaluation of Linked Data Approach on Scientific Geospatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Minnis, P.; Spagenberg, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Vast amount of scientific data are collected from NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), and this creates a challenge to collaborate, discovery, and access large and diverse data sets that can span across multiple discipline. Typically, web tools or services are created to allow users or applications to discover, order, and retrieve the relevant data that resides behind a repository in varying formats and semantics. This access model makes it difficult to search and access data sets across multiple repositories in a quick and efficient manner. The authors describe a framework for transforming various satellite data into Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model where all observations are linked spatially and temporally in a Linked Data context using new and existing vocabularies to describe these observations. Sample case study data sets are transformed and stored into multiple semantic repositories for demonstration and evaluation. The challenges and results from the evaluation are presented and discussed.

  1. Promoting Scientific Integrity in Nursing Research. Part 1: Current Approaches in Doctoral Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Elizabeth R.; Ketefian, Shake

    1995-01-01

    Results from a survey of 38 schools of nursing with doctoral programs indicate that most gave information on misconduct and scientific integrity, but the extent and scope of instruction was marginal or inadequate. Findings suggest the need for a more proactive and consistent approach to promoting scientific integrity in doctoral programs. (JOW)

  2. Probabilistic Approach to Teaching the Principles of Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Emilio

    1976-01-01

    Approaches the representation of quantum mechanics through Hilbert space postulates. Demonstrates that if the representation is to be accurate, an evolution operator of the form of a Hamiltonian must be used. (CP)

  3. Guiding Principles for a Reflexive Approach to Teaching Organisation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Fernanda; Fitzgerald, Anneke

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a reflexive teaching approach, which may make the field of Organisation Studies more permeable to alternative views and thus more responsive to the complexities of processes unfolding in organisations in the context of a rapidly changing world. We contend that reflection on lived experience complements perspectives that…

  4. Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training.

    PubMed

    Pennock, Robert T; O'Rourke, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock's notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations-theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered-that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students to this scientific virtue-based approach.

  5. AVES: A Computer Cluster System approach for INTEGRAL Scientific Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, M.; Martino, B. L.; Natalucci, L.; Umbertini, P.

    The AVES computing system, based on an "Cluster" architecture is a fully integrated, low cost computing facility dedicated to the archiving and analysis of the INTEGRAL data. AVES is a modular system that uses the software resource manager (SLURM) and allows almost unlimited expandibility (65,536 nodes and hundreds of thousands of processors); actually is composed by 30 Personal Computers with Quad-Cores CPU able to reach the computing power of 300 Giga Flops (300x10{9} Floating point Operations Per Second), with 120 GB of RAM and 7.5 Tera Bytes (TB) of storage memory in UFS configuration plus 6 TB for users area. AVES was designed and built to solve growing problems raised from the analysis of the large data amount accumulated by the INTEGRAL mission (actually about 9 TB) and due to increase every year. The used analysis software is the OSA package, distributed by the ISDC in Geneva. This is a very complex package consisting of dozens of programs that can not be converted to parallel computing. To overcome this limitation we developed a series of programs to distribute the workload analysis on the various nodes making AVES automatically divide the analysis in N jobs sent to N cores. This solution thus produces a result similar to that obtained by the parallel computing configuration. In support of this we have developed tools that allow a flexible use of the scientific software and quality control of on-line data storing. The AVES software package is constituted by about 50 specific programs. Thus the whole computing time, compared to that provided by a Personal Computer with single processor, has been enhanced up to a factor 70.

  6. Microstimulation: Principles, Techniques, and Approaches to Somatosensory Neuroprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Semework, Mulugeta

    2015-01-01

    The power of movement of electrically charged particles has been used to alleviate an array of illnesses and help control some human body parts. Microstimulation, the electrical current-driven excitation of neural elements, is now being aimed at brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), brain-controlled external devices that improve quality of life for people such as those who have lost the ability to use their limbs. This effort is motivated by behavioral experiments that indicate a direct link between microstimulation-induced sensory experience and behavior, pointing to the possibility of optimizing and controlling the outputs of BMIs. Several laboratories have focused on using electrical stimulation to return somatosensory feedback from prosthetic limbs directly to the user's central nervous system. However, the difficulty of the problem has led to limited success thus far, and there is a need for a better understanding of the basic principles of neural microstimulation. This article provides a review of the available literature and some recent work at Downstate Medical Center and Columbia University on microstimulation of the primate and rodent somatosensory (S1) cortex and the ventral posterolateral thalamus. It is aimed at contributing to the existing knowledge base to generate good behavioral responses and effective, BMI-appropriate somatosensory feedback. In general, the threshold for the particular brain tissue in response to current-amplitude has to be determined by rigorous experimentation. For consistently reproducible results, hardware and thresholds for microstimulation have to be specified. In addition, effects on motor functions, including unwanted side effects in response to the microstimulation of brain tissue, must be examined to take the field from bench to bedside.

  7. Resonators in quantum optics: A first-principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knöll, L.; Vogel, W.; Welsch, D.-G.

    1991-01-01

    Input-output relations in resonators are studied on the basis of a recently developed field-theoretical approach to the action of passive systems in quantum optics [Knöll, Vogel, and Welsch, Phys. Rev. A 36, 3803 (1987)]. This method allows the rigorous proof of recently adopted quantum stochastic approaches, including the presence of sources that form the active medium in the cavity. Quantum Langevin equations are obtained in a coarse-graining approximation. Moreover, we derive all required commutation relations that have been postulated so far. Correlation functions of the field quantities measured outside the cavity are related to correlation functions of field operators of the intracavity field and the incoming field.

  8. ABINIT: First-principles approach to material and nanosystem properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonze, X.; Amadon, B.; Anglade, P.-M.; Beuken, J.-M.; Bottin, F.; Boulanger, P.; Bruneval, F.; Caliste, D.; Caracas, R.; Côté, M.; Deutsch, T.; Genovese, L.; Ghosez, Ph.; Giantomassi, M.; Goedecker, S.; Hamann, D. R.; Hermet, P.; Jollet, F.; Jomard, G.; Leroux, S.; Mancini, M.; Mazevet, S.; Oliveira, M. J. T.; Onida, G.; Pouillon, Y.; Rangel, T.; Rignanese, G.-M.; Sangalli, D.; Shaltaf, R.; Torrent, M.; Verstraete, M. J.; Zerah, G.; Zwanziger, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    ABINIT [ http://www.abinit.org] allows one to study, from first-principles, systems made of electrons and nuclei (e.g. periodic solids, molecules, nanostructures, etc.), on the basis of Density-Functional Theory (DFT) and Many-Body Perturbation Theory. Beyond the computation of the total energy, charge density and electronic structure of such systems, ABINIT also implements many dynamical, dielectric, thermodynamical, mechanical, or electronic properties, at different levels of approximation. The present paper provides an exhaustive account of the capabilities of ABINIT. It should be helpful to scientists that are not familiarized with ABINIT, as well as to already regular users. First, we give a broad overview of ABINIT, including the list of the capabilities and how to access them. Then, we present in more details the recent, advanced, developments of ABINIT, with adequate references to the underlying theory, as well as the relevant input variables, tests and, if available, ABINIT tutorials. Program summaryProgram title: ABINIT Catalogue identifier: AEEU_v1_0 Distribution format: tar.gz Journal reference: Comput. Phys. Comm. Programming language: Fortran95, PERL scripts, Python scripts Computer: All systems with a Fortran95 compiler Operating system: All systems with a Fortran95 compiler Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Sequential, or parallel with proven speed-up up to one thousand processors. RAM: Ranges from a few Mbytes to several hundred Gbytes, depending on the input file. Classification: 7.3, 7.8 External routines: (all optional) BigDFT [1], ETSF IO [2], libxc [3], NetCDF [4], MPI [5], Wannier90 [6] Nature of problem: This package has the purpose of computing accurately material and nanostructure properties: electronic structure, bond lengths, bond angles, primitive cell size, cohesive energy, dielectric properties, vibrational properties, elastic properties, optical properties, magnetic properties, non-linear couplings, electronic and

  9. Evaluating a Verbal Approach and a Discovery Approach in Learning Selected Science Principles at Two Levels of Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Clifford Calvin

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of a meaningful verbal approach and a guided discovery approach to learning selected science principles at the seventh and ninth grade levels. A total of 72 subjects were randomly selected from the seventh and ninth grades of Arnold Junior High School and Cleveland Senior High School and made up two…

  10. A comparison of bilingual education and generalist teachers' approaches to scientific biliteracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, Esther

    The purpose of this study was to determine if educators were capitalizing on bilingual learners' use of their biliterate abilities to acquire scientific meaning and discourse that would formulate a scientific biliterate identity. Mixed methods were used to explore teachers' use of biliteracy and Funds of Knowledge (Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N., 1992; Gonzales, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) from the students' Latino heritage while conducting science inquiry. The research study explored four constructs that conceptualized scientific biliteracy. The four constructs include science literacy, science biliteracy, reading comprehension strategies and students' cultural backgrounds. There were 156 4th-5th grade bilingual and general education teachers in South Texas that were surveyed using the Teacher Scientific Biliteracy Inventory (TSBI) and five teachers' science lessons were observed. Qualitative findings revealed that a variety of scientific biliteracy instructional strategies were frequently used in both bilingual and general education classrooms. The language used to deliver this instruction varied. A General Linear Model revealed that classroom assignment, bilingual or general education, had a significant effect on a teacher's instructional approach to employ scientific biliteracy. A simple linear regression found that the TSBI accounted for 17% of the variance on 4th grade reading benchmarks. Mixed methods results indicated that teachers were utilizing scientific biliteracy strategies in English, Spanish and/or both languages. Household items and science experimentation at home were encouraged by teachers to incorporate the students' cultural backgrounds. Finally, science inquiry was conducted through a universal approach to science learning versus a multicultural approach to science learning.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Sustainable Approaches and Systems for Scientific Data Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable data systems are critical components of the cyberinfrastructure needed to provide long-term stewardship of scientific data, including Earth science data, throughout their entire life cycle. A variety of approaches may help ensure the sustainability of such systems, but these approaches must be able to survive the demands of competing priorities and decreasing budgets. Analyzing and comparing alternative approaches can identify viable aspects of each approach and inform decisions for developing, managing, and supporting the cyberinfrastructure needed to facilitate discovery, access, and analysis of data by future communities of users. A typology of sustainability approaches is proposed, and example use cases are offered for comparing the approaches over time. These examples demonstrate the potential strengths and weaknesses of each approach under various conditions and with regard to different objectives, e.g., open vs. limited access. By applying the results of these analyses to their particular circumstances, systems stakeholders can assess their options for a sustainable systems approach along with other metrics and identify alternative strategies to ensure the sustainability of the scientific data and information for which they are responsible. In addition, comparing sustainability approaches should inform the design of new systems and the improvement of existing systems to meet the needs for long-term stewardship of scientific data, and support education and workforce development efforts needed to ensure that the appropriate scientific and technical skills are available to operate and further develop sustainable cyberinfrastructure.

  12. Proteomic approaches in biological and medical sciences: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Conrotto, P; Souchelnytskyi, S

    2008-09-01

    After the first introduction of the concept of "proteome" more than 10 years ago, large-scale studies of protein expression, localization, activities and interactions have gained an exponential increase of interest, leading to extensive research and technology development. Proteomics is expansively applied in many areas, ranging from basic research, various disease and malignant tumors diagnostic and biomarker discovery to therapeutic applications. Several proteomics approaches have been developed for protein separation and identification, and for the characterization of protein function and structure. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry have become the most used proteomics methods. These techniques are also under constant development. This review provides an overview of the main techniques and their combinations, used in proteomics. The emphasis is made on description of advantages and disadvantages of each technique, to navigate in selection of the best application for solving a specific problem.

  13. What can we learn from PISA?: Investigating PISA's approach to scientific literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Cheryl Jean

    This dissertation is an investigation of the relationship between the multidimensional conception of scientific literacy and its assessment. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), developed under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the assessment of scientific literacy. PISA developed a continuum of performance for scientific literacy across three competencies (i.e., process, content, and situation). Foundational to the interpretation of PISA science assessment is PISA's definition of scientific literacy, which I argue incorporates three themes drawn from history: (a) scientific way of thinking, (b) everyday relevance of science, and (c) scientific literacy for all students. Three coordinated studies were conducted to investigate the validity of PISA science assessment and offer insight into the development of items to assess scientific 2 literacy. Multidimensional models of the internal structure of the PISA 2003 science items were found not to reflect the complex character of PISA's definition of scientific literacy. Although the multidimensional models across the three competencies significantly decreased the G2 statistic from the unidimensional model, high correlations between the dimensions suggest that the dimensions are similar. A cognitive analysis of student verbal responses to PISA science items revealed that students were using competencies of scientific literacy, but the competencies were not elicited by the PISA science items at the depth required by PISA's definition of scientific literacy. Although student responses contained only knowledge of scientific facts and simple scientific concepts, students were using more complex skills to interpret and communicate their responses. Finally the investigation of different scoring approaches and item response models illustrated different ways to interpret student responses to assessment items. These

  14. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation.

  15. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation. PMID:24416087

  16. Scientific Approach to Renewable Energy Through Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. C.

    Renewable energy is increasingly viewed as critically important globally. Solar cells convert the energy of the sun into electricity. The method of converting solar energy to electricity is pollution free, and appears a good practical solution to the global energy problems. Energy policies have pushed for different technologies to decrease pollutant emissions and reduce global climate change. Photovoltaic technology, which utilizes sunlight to generate energy, is an attractive alternate energy source because it is renewable, harmless and domestically secure. Transparent conducting metal oxides, being n-type were used extensively in the production of heterojunction cells using p-type Cu2O. The long held consensus is that the best approach to improve cell efficiency in Cu2O-based photovoltaic devices is to achieve both p- and n-type Cu2O and thus p-n homojunction of Cu2O solar cells. Silicon, which, next to oxygen, is the most represented element in the earth's crust, is used for the production of monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Silicon is easily obtained and processed and it is not toxic and does not form compounds that would be environmentally harmful. In contemporary electronic industry silicon is the main semiconducting element. Thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells are the basis of a significant technology with major commercial impact on solar energy production. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells such as CuInSe2 (CIS), Cu (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe compound semiconductors are important for terrestrial applications because of their high efficiency, long-term stable performance and potential for low-cost production. Highest record efficiencies of 19.2% for CIGS and 16.5% for CdTe have been achieved.

  17. Approaching actinide(+III) hydration from first principles.

    PubMed

    Wiebke, J; Moritz, A; Cao, X; Dolg, M

    2007-01-28

    A systematic computational approach to An(III) hydration on a density-functional level of theory, using quasi-relativistic 5f-in-core pseudopotentials and valence-only basis sets for the An(III) subsystems, is presented. Molecular structures, binding energies, hydration energies, and Gibbs free energies of hydration have been calculated for [An(III)(OH(2))(h)](3+) (h = 7, 8, 9) and [An(III)(OH(2))(h-1) * OH(2)](3+) (h = 8, 9), using large (7s6p5d2f1g)/[6s5p4d2f1g] An(III) and cc-pVQZ O and H basis sets within the COSMO implicit solvation model. An(III) preferred primary hydration numbers are found to be 8 for all An(III) at the gradient-corrected density-functional level of theory. Second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory predicts preferred primary hydration numbers of 9 and 8 for Ac(III)-Md(III) and No(III)-Lr(III), respectively.

  18. Theorethical principles of fluid managment according to physicochemical Stewart approach.

    PubMed

    Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Szrama, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Interpreting acid base disturbances according to the physicochemical Stewart approach allows the cause of such abnormalities to be discovered. This method is based on three independent variables: SID (strong ion difference), mainly sodium and chloride; weak acids concentration - Atot, mainly albumins and phosphate; and carbon dioxide tension - pCO₂. These three independent variables are responsible for the change of water dissociation and for the change in H+ concentration and, consequently, the change in serum pH value. The SID value of the fluids administered to a patient is responsible for the change of serum SID value and therefore causes a change in the patient's acid base status. During the infusion of a given fluid, the SID value of the serum becomes closer to the SID value of that fluid; on the other hand, the infusion causes a decrease in Atot concentration. In order to avoid acid base disturbances connected with fluid administration, the SID value of fluids being administered should be greater than 0 and lower then the serum SID. It has been suggested that fluids should be given of which the SID value is as close as possible to the actual serum HCO₃ concentration. Knowing the SID value of the fluid administered, and the serum HCO₃ concentration, one can expect a change of serum pH after a fluid infusion. Administering a fluid with a SID greater than the HCO₃ concentration causes a pH increase towards alkalosis. Likewise, administering a a fluid with a SID lower than the HCO₃ concentration causes a pH decrease towards acidosis. It seems that knowledge of the electrolyte concentration and the SID value of an administered fluid is an important factor regarding acid base disturbances.

  19. An analysis of learning process based on scientific approach in physical chemsitry experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Febriana, Beta Wulan; Diniaty, Artina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to analysis the quality of learning process based on scientific approach in physical chemistry experiment of Chemistry Education students, Islamic University of Indonesia. The research was descriptive qualitative. The samples of this research were 2nd semester student, class of 2015. Scientific data of learning process were collected by observation sheet and documentation of seven title experimental. The results showed that the achievement of scientific learning process on observing, questioning, experimenting and associating data were 73.98%; 81.79%; 80.74%; and 76.94% respectively, which categorized as medium. Furthermore, for aspect communicating had high category at 86.11% of level achievement.

  20. An adaptable XML based approach for scientific data management and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Thiel, Florian; Furrer, Daniel; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Qin, Chen; Hackenberg, Georg; Bourgue, Pierre-Emmanuel; Kaltschmidt, David; Wang, Mo

    2008-03-01

    Increased complexity of scientific research poses new challenges to scientific data management. Meanwhile, scientific collaboration is becoming increasing important, which relies on integrating and sharing data from distributed institutions. We develop SciPort, a Web-based platform on supporting scientific data management and integration based on a central server based distributed architecture, where researchers can easily collect, publish, and share their complex scientific data across multi-institutions. SciPort provides an XML based general approach to model complex scientific data by representing them as XML documents. The documents capture not only hierarchical structured data, but also images and raw data through references. In addition, SciPort provides an XML based hierarchical organization of the overall data space to make it convenient for quick browsing. To provide generalization, schemas and hierarchies are customizable with XML-based definitions, thus it is possible to quickly adapt the system to different applications. While each institution can manage documents on a Local SciPort Server independently, selected documents can be published to a Central Server to form a global view of shared data across all sites. By storing documents in a native XML database, SciPort provides high schema extensibility and supports comprehensive queries through XQuery. By providing a unified and effective means for data modeling, data access and customization with XML, SciPort provides a flexible and powerful platform for sharing scientific data for scientific research communities, and has been successfully used in both biomedical research and clinical trials.

  1. Tiered approach into practice: scientific validation for chromatography-based assays in early development - a recommendation from the European Bioanalysis Forum.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Philip; White, Stephen; Dougall, Stuart Mc; Kall, Morten A; Smeraglia, John; Fjording, Marianne Scheel; Knutsson, Magnus

    2015-09-10

    The principles of tiered approach have been part of the bioanalytical toolbox for some years. Nevertheless, an in spite of many valuable discussions in industry, they remain difficult to apply in a harmonized way for a broad array of studies in early drug development where these alternative approaches to regulated validation would make sense. The European Bioanalysis Forum has identified the need to proposes some practical workflows for five categories of studies for chromatography based assays where scientific validation will allow additional freedom while safeguarding scientific rigor and robust documentation: quantification of metabolites in plasma in relation to ICH M3(R2), urine analysis, tissue homogenate analysis, and preclinical and clinical studies in early stages of drug development. The recommendation would introduce a common language and harmonized best practice for these study categories and can help to refocus towards optimized scientific and resource investments for bioanalysis in early drug development.

  2. Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Jeffrey; Sunderland, Terry; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pfund, Jean-Laurent; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Venter, Michelle; Boedhihartono, Agni Klintuni; Day, Michael; Garcia, Claude; van Oosten, Cora; Buck, Louise E

    2013-05-21

    "Landscape approaches" seek to provide tools and concepts for allocating and managing land to achieve social, economic, and environmental objectives in areas where agriculture, mining, and other productive land uses compete with environmental and biodiversity goals. Here we synthesize the current consensus on landscape approaches. This is based on published literature and a consensus-building process to define good practice and is validated by a survey of practitioners. We find the landscape approach has been refined in response to increasing societal concerns about environment and development tradeoffs. Notably, there has been a shift from conservation-orientated perspectives toward increasing integration of poverty alleviation goals. We provide 10 summary principles to support implementation of a landscape approach as it is currently interpreted. These principles emphasize adaptive management, stakeholder involvement, and multiple objectives. Various constraints are recognized, with institutional and governance concerns identified as the most severe obstacles to implementation. We discuss how these principles differ from more traditional sectoral and project-based approaches. Although no panacea, we see few alternatives that are likely to address landscape challenges more effectively than an approach circumscribed by the principles outlined here.

  3. FIRST-PRINCIPLES APPROACHES TO THE STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY OF ATMOSPHERICALLY RELEVANT AQUESOUS INTERFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Mundy, C; Kuo, I W

    2005-06-08

    The field of atmospheric science is very rich in problems ranging from the molecular to the regional and global scale. These problems are often extremely complex, and although the statement of a particular atmospheric science question may be clear, finding a single, concise computational approach to address this question can be daunting. As a result, the broad scope of scientific problems that lie within the umbrella of atmospheric science require a multi-discipline approach. Of particular interest to atmospheric chemists is the role that heterogeneous chemistry plays in the important processes that take place throughout the atmosphere. The definition of heterogeneous is: consisting of dissimilar elements or parts. The chemical environment induced by the presence of the interface can be dramatically different than the corresponding gas- or condensed phase homogeneous environment and can give rise to novel chemistry. Although the importance of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere has been known for decades, a challenge to both experimentalists and theorists in provide simplified models and experiments that can yield insight into the field measurements of the atmospheric process. The use of molecular modeling has been widely used to provide a particle-based picture of atmospherically relevant interfaces to deduce the novel chemistry that is taking place. Unfortunately, even with the most computationally efficient particle-based approach, it is still impossible to model the full ice-crystal in the stratosphere or the sea-salt aerosol in the troposphere. Figure 1 depicts a caricature of the actual system of interest, and highlights the region where efficient molecular modeling can be employed. Although there is seemingly a large disconnect between reality and the model, we hope to convince the reader that there is still much insight to be gained from a particle-based picture. There is a myriad of different approaches to molecular modeling that have been

  4. Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, Jeffrey; Sunderland, Terry; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pfund, Jean-Laurent; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Venter, Michelle; Boedhihartono, Agni Klintuni; Day, Michael; Garcia, Claude; van Oosten, Cora; Buck, Louise E.

    2013-01-01

    “Landscape approaches” seek to provide tools and concepts for allocating and managing land to achieve social, economic, and environmental objectives in areas where agriculture, mining, and other productive land uses compete with environmental and biodiversity goals. Here we synthesize the current consensus on landscape approaches. This is based on published literature and a consensus-building process to define good practice and is validated by a survey of practitioners. We find the landscape approach has been refined in response to increasing societal concerns about environment and development tradeoffs. Notably, there has been a shift from conservation-orientated perspectives toward increasing integration of poverty alleviation goals. We provide 10 summary principles to support implementation of a landscape approach as it is currently interpreted. These principles emphasize adaptive management, stakeholder involvement, and multiple objectives. Various constraints are recognized, with institutional and governance concerns identified as the most severe obstacles to implementation. We discuss how these principles differ from more traditional sectoral and project-based approaches. Although no panacea, we see few alternatives that are likely to address landscape challenges more effectively than an approach circumscribed by the principles outlined here. PMID:23686581

  5. The scientific learning approach using multimedia-based maze game to improve learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Wawan; Hafitriani, Sarah; Prabawa, Harsa Wara

    2016-02-01

    The objective of curriculum 2013 is to improve the quality of education in Indonesia, which leads to improving the quality of learning. The scientific approach and supported empowerment media is one approach as massaged of curriculum 2013. This research aims to design a labyrinth game based multimedia and apply in the scientific learning approach. This study was conducted in one of the Vocational School in Subjects of Computer Network on 2 (two) classes of experimental and control. The method used Mix Method Research (MMR) which combines qualitative in multimedia design, and quantitative in the study of learning impact. The results of a survey showed that the general of vocational students like of network topology material (68%), like multimedia (74%), and in particular, like interactive multimedia games and flash (84%). Multimediabased maze game developed good eligibility based on media and material aspects of each value 840% and 82%. Student learning outcomes as a result of using a scientific approach to learning with a multimediabased labyrinth game increase with an average of gain index about (58%) and higher than conventional multimedia with index average gain of 0.41 (41%). Based on these results the scientific approach to learning by using multimediabased labyrinth game can improve the quality of learning and increase understanding of students. Multimedia of learning based labyrinth game, which developed, got a positive response from the students with a good qualification level (75%).

  6. Game-Based Approaches, Pedagogical Principles and Tactical Constraints: Examining Games Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; García-López, Luis M.; Calderón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball;…

  7. Assessing Financial Education Methods: Principles vs. Rules-of-Thumb Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skimmyhorn, William L.; Davies, Evan R.; Mun, David; Mitchell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Despite thousands of programs and tremendous public and private interest in improving financial decision-making, little is known about how best to teach financial education. Using an experimental approach, the authors estimated the effects of two different education methodologies (principles-based and rules-of-thumb) on the knowledge,…

  8. Principled Eclecticism: Approach and Application in Teaching Writing to ESL/EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharbi, Sultan H.

    2017-01-01

    The principal purpose of this paper is to critically examine and evaluate the efficacy of the principled eclectic approach to teaching English as second/foreign language (ESL/EFL) writing to undergraduate students. The paper illustrates that this new method adapts mainstream writing pedagogies to individual needs of learners of ESL/EFL in order to…

  9. Discrimination Training Reduces High Rate Social Approach Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome: Proof of Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, M.; Allen, D.; Villa, D.; Oliver, C.

    2013-01-01

    This proof of principle study was designed to evaluate whether excessively high rates of social approach behaviors in children with Angelman syndrome (AS) can be modified using a multiple schedule design. Four children with AS were exposed to a multiple schedule arrangement, in which social reinforcement and extinction, cued using a novel…

  10. Discrimination Training Reduces High Rate Social Approach Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome: Proof of Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, M.; Allen, D.; Villa, D.; Oliver, C.

    2013-01-01

    This proof of principle study was designed to evaluate whether excessively high rates of social approach behaviors in children with Angelman syndrome (AS) can be modified using a multiple schedule design. Four children with AS were exposed to a multiple schedule arrangement, in which social reinforcement and extinction, cued using a novel…

  11. Assessing Financial Education Methods: Principles vs. Rules-of-Thumb Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skimmyhorn, William L.; Davies, Evan R.; Mun, David; Mitchell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Despite thousands of programs and tremendous public and private interest in improving financial decision-making, little is known about how best to teach financial education. Using an experimental approach, the authors estimated the effects of two different education methodologies (principles-based and rules-of-thumb) on the knowledge,…

  12. Game-Based Approaches, Pedagogical Principles and Tactical Constraints: Examining Games Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; García-López, Luis M.; Calderón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball;…

  13. New Principles and Basic Approaches for the Curricula of Engineering Degree Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargione, Luiz Antonio

    This paper presents new principles and basic approaches for the curricula of engineering degree courses. The accentuated evolution of engineering, the fast technological transformations and, still, the impact provoked by government regulations in the field of education in Brazil have called attention to these issues. Following these changes, it…

  14. Multiscale modeling approach for calculating grain-boundary energies from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Shenderova, O.A.; Brenner, D.W.; Nazarov, A.A.; Romanov, A.E.; Yang, L.H.

    1998-02-01

    A multiscale modeling approach is proposed for calculating energies of tilt-grain boundaries in covalent materials from first principles over an entire misorientation range for given tilt axes. The method uses energies from density-functional calculations for a few key structures as input into a disclination structural-units model. This approach is demonstrated by calculating energies of {l_angle}001{r_angle}-symmetrical tilt-grain boundaries in diamond. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Code of Practice for Scientific Diving: Principles for the Safe Practice of Scientific Diving in Different Environments. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flemming, N. C., Ed.; Max, M. D., Ed.

    This publication has been prepared to provide scientific divers with guidance on safe practice under varying experimental and environmental conditions. The Code offers advice and recommendations on administrative practices, insurance, terms of employment, medical standards, training standards, dive planning, safety with different breathing gases…

  16. Code of Practice for Scientific Diving: Principles for the Safe Practice of Scientific Diving in Different Environments. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flemming, N. C., Ed.; Max, M. D., Ed.

    This publication has been prepared to provide scientific divers with guidance on safe practice under varying experimental and environmental conditions. The Code offers advice and recommendations on administrative practices, insurance, terms of employment, medical standards, training standards, dive planning, safety with different breathing gases…

  17. Principles and Best Practices Emerging from Data Basin: A Data Platform Supporting Scientific Research and Landscape Conservation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comendant, T.; Strittholt, J. R.; Ward, B. C.; Bachelet, D. M.; Grossman, D.; Stevenson-Molnar, N.; Henifin, K.; Lundin, M.; Marvin, T. S.; Peterman, W. L.; Corrigan, G. N.; O'Connor, K.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-disciplinary team of scientists, software engineers, and outreach staff at the Conservation Biology Institute launched an open-access, web-based spatial data platform called Data Basin (www.databasin.org) in 2010. Primarily built to support research and environmental resource planning, Data Basin provides the capability for individuals and organizations to explore, create, interpret, and collaborate around their priority topics and geographies. We used a stakeholder analysis to assess the needs of data consumers/produces and help prioritize primary and secondary audiences. Data Basin's simple and user-friendly interface makes mapping and geo-processing tools more accessible to less technical audiences. Input from users is considered in system planning, testing, and implementation. The team continually develops using an agile software development approach, which allows new features, improvements, and bug fixes to be deployed to the live system on a frequent basis. The data import process is handled through administrative approval and Data Basin requires spatial data (biological, physical, and socio-economic) to be well-documented. Outreach and training is used to convey the scope and appropriate use of the scientific information and available resources.

  18. Influence Based Learning Program Scientific Learning Approach to Science Students Generic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahyuni, Ida; Amdani, Khairul

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of scientific approach based learning program (P2BPS) against generic science skills of students. The method used in this research is "quasi experiment" with "two-group pretest posttest" design.The population in this study were all students who take courses in general physics II at the…

  19. The Development of Environmental Song-Based Materials Using a Scientific Approach for Teaching English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaela, Leonora Saantje

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and validate environmental song-based materials using a scientific approach which follow the stages of research and development. The writer created environmental lyrics and put them on traditional melodies that are familiar to the students. The materials were tried out using preliminary field test, main field…

  20. Two Approaches to Teaching Young Children Science Concepts, Vocabulary, and Scientific Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Soo-Young; Diamond, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of two different approaches to teaching designed to facilitate children's learning about science concepts and vocabulary related to objects' floating and sinking and scientific problem-solving skills: responsive teaching (RT) and the combination of responsive teaching and explicit instruction (RT + EI).…

  1. The Impact of a Scientific Writing Approach in High School Students' Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimberg, Bruna Irene; Hand, Brian M.

    This study focuses on the impact of scientific writing resulting from an inquiry-based instructional approach on students' critical thinking. Students are encouraged in being actively involved in the process of science, by using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH; Hand and Keys, 1999). The SWH consists of a framework to guide students' science…

  2. Research and Teaching: Undergraduate Science Students' Attitudes toward and Approaches to Scientific Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkade, Heather; Lim, Saw Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a cohort of final-year undergraduate science students were surveyed to examine whether they fully read journal articles, including whether they seek to understand how the results support the conclusions. Their writing was also examined to see if they use deep or surface approaches to scientific writing.

  3. Two Approaches to Teaching Young Children Science Concepts, Vocabulary, and Scientific Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Soo-Young; Diamond, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of two different approaches to teaching designed to facilitate children's learning about science concepts and vocabulary related to objects' floating and sinking and scientific problem-solving skills: responsive teaching (RT) and the combination of responsive teaching and explicit instruction (RT + EI).…

  4. Research and Teaching: Undergraduate Science Students' Attitudes toward and Approaches to Scientific Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkade, Heather; Lim, Saw Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a cohort of final-year undergraduate science students were surveyed to examine whether they fully read journal articles, including whether they seek to understand how the results support the conclusions. Their writing was also examined to see if they use deep or surface approaches to scientific writing.

  5. A Progressive Approach to the Education of Teachers: Some Principles from Bank Street College of Education. Occasional Paper Series 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nager, Nancy; Shapiro, Edna K.

    2007-01-01

    This occasional paper presents Bank Street's approach as represented in a set of five interrelated principles. It begins by briefly describing the origins and rationale of teacher education at Bank Street. From this description are generated principles that emerge from Bank Street's history and practice, linking each principle to classroom images…

  6. Mining of relations between proteins over biomedical scientific literature using a deep-linguistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Schneider, Gerold; Kaljurand, Kaarel; Hess, Michael; Andronis, Christos; Konstandi, Ourania; Persidis, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    The amount of new discoveries (as published in the scientific literature) in the biomedical area is growing at an exponential rate. This growth makes it very difficult to filter the most relevant results, and thus the extraction of the core information becomes very expensive. Therefore, there is a growing interest in text processing approaches that can deliver selected information from scientific publications, which can limit the amount of human intervention normally needed to gather those results. This paper presents and evaluates an approach aimed at automating the process of extracting functional relations (e.g. interactions between genes and proteins) from scientific literature in the biomedical domain. The approach, using a novel dependency-based parser, is based on a complete syntactic analysis of the corpus. We have implemented a state-of-the-art text mining system for biomedical literature, based on a deep-linguistic, full-parsing approach. The results are validated on two different corpora: the manually annotated genomics information access (GENIA) corpus and the automatically annotated arabidopsis thaliana circadian rhythms (ATCR) corpus. We show how a deep-linguistic approach (contrary to common belief) can be used in a real world text mining application, offering high-precision relation extraction, while at the same time retaining a sufficient recall.

  7. Scientific Opportunities for Monitoring at Environmental Remediation Sites (SOMERS): Integrated Systems-Based Approaches to Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Truex, Michael J.; Peterson, Mark; Freshley, Mark D.; Pierce, Eric M.; McCord, John; Young, Michael H.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Miller, Rick; Miracle, Ann L.; Kaback, Dawn; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Rossabi, Joe; Lee, Michelle H.; Bush, Richard P.; Beam , Paul; Chamberlain, G. M.; Marble, Justin; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Collazo, Yvette

    2012-05-15

    Through an inter-disciplinary effort, DOE is addressing a need to advance monitoring approaches from sole reliance on cost- and labor-intensive point-source monitoring to integrated systems-based approaches such as flux-based approaches and the use of early indicator parameters. Key objectives include identifying current scientific, technical and implementation opportunities and challenges, prioritizing science and technology strategies to meet current needs within the DOE complex for the most challenging environments, and developing an integrated and risk-informed monitoring framework.

  8. A Hybrid Human-Computer Approach to the Extraction of Scientific Facts from the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tchoua, Roselyne B.; Chard, Kyle; Audus, Debra; Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan; Foster, Ian

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of valuable data is locked within the millions of research articles published each year. Reading and extracting pertinent information from those articles has become an unmanageable task for scientists. This problem hinders scientific progress by making it hard to build on results buried in literature. Moreover, these data are loosely structured, encoded in manuscripts of various formats, embedded in different content types, and are, in general, not machine accessible. We present a hybrid human-computer solution for semi-automatically extracting scientific facts from literature. This solution combines an automated discovery, download, and extraction phase with a semi-expert crowd assembled from students to extract specific scientific facts. To evaluate our approach we apply it to a challenging molecular engineering scenario, extraction of a polymer property: the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. We demonstrate useful contributions to a comprehensive database of polymer properties. PMID:28649288

  9. A Hybrid Human-Computer Approach to the Extraction of Scientific Facts from the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tchoua, Roselyne B; Chard, Kyle; Audus, Debra; Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan; Foster, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of valuable data is locked within the millions of research articles published each year. Reading and extracting pertinent information from those articles has become an unmanageable task for scientists. This problem hinders scientific progress by making it hard to build on results buried in literature. Moreover, these data are loosely structured, encoded in manuscripts of various formats, embedded in different content types, and are, in general, not machine accessible. We present a hybrid human-computer solution for semi-automatically extracting scientific facts from literature. This solution combines an automated discovery, download, and extraction phase with a semi-expert crowd assembled from students to extract specific scientific facts. To evaluate our approach we apply it to a challenging molecular engineering scenario, extraction of a polymer property: the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. We demonstrate useful contributions to a comprehensive database of polymer properties.

  10. [Ethical principles and approaches to health systems governance research: conceptual and methodological implications].

    PubMed

    Flores, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Governance refers to decision-making processes in which power relationships and actors and institutions' particular interests converge. Situations of consensus and conflict are inherent to such processes. Furthermore, decision-making happens within a framework of ethical principles, motivations and incentives which could be explicit or implicit. Health systems in most Latin-American and Caribbean countries take the principles of equity, solidarity, social participation and the right to health as their guiding principles; such principles must thus rule governance processes. However, this is not always the case and this is where the importance of investigating governance in health systems lies. Making advances in investigating governance involves conceptual and methodological implications. Clarifying and integrating normative and analytical approaches is relevant at conceptual level as both are necessary for an approach seeking to investigate and understand social phenomena's complexity. In relation to methodological level, there is a need to expand the range of variables, sources of information and indicators for studying decision-making aimed to greater equity, health citizenship and public policy efficiency.

  11. A Disciplined Architectural Approach to Scaling Data Analysis for Massive, Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, D. J.; Braverman, A. J.; Cinquini, L.; Turmon, M.; Lee, H.; Law, E.

    2014-12-01

    Data collections across remote sensing and ground-based instruments in astronomy, Earth science, and planetary science are outpacing scientists' ability to analyze them. Furthermore, the distribution, structure, and heterogeneity of the measurements themselves pose challenges that limit the scalability of data analysis using traditional approaches. Methods for developing science data processing pipelines, distribution of scientific datasets, and performing analysis will require innovative approaches that integrate cyber-infrastructure, algorithms, and data into more systematic approaches that can more efficiently compute and reduce data, particularly distributed data. This requires the integration of computer science, machine learning, statistics and domain expertise to identify scalable architectures for data analysis. The size of data returned from Earth Science observing satellites and the magnitude of data from climate model output, is predicted to grow into the tens of petabytes challenging current data analysis paradigms. This same kind of growth is present in astronomy and planetary science data. One of the major challenges in data science and related disciplines defining new approaches to scaling systems and analysis in order to increase scientific productivity and yield. Specific needs include: 1) identification of optimized system architectures for analyzing massive, distributed data sets; 2) algorithms for systematic analysis of massive data sets in distributed environments; and 3) the development of software infrastructures that are capable of performing massive, distributed data analysis across a comprehensive data science framework. NASA/JPL has begun an initiative in data science to address these challenges. Our goal is to evaluate how scientific productivity can be improved through optimized architectural topologies that identify how to deploy and manage the access, distribution, computation, and reduction of massive, distributed data, while

  12. A Survey on Visual Approaches for Analyzing Scientific Literature and Patents.

    PubMed

    Federico, Paolo; Heimerl, Florian; Koch, Steffen; Miksch, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    The increasingly large number of available writings describing technical and scientific progress, calls for advanced analytic tools for their efficient analysis. This is true for many application scenarios in science and industry and for different types of writings, comprising patents and scientific articles. Despite important differences between patents and scientific articles, both have a variety of common characteristics that lead to similar search and analysis tasks. However, the analysis and visualization of these documents is not a trivial task due to the complexity of the documents as well as the large number of possible relations between their multivariate attributes. In this survey, we review interactive analysis and visualization approaches of patents and scientific articles, ranging from exploration tools to sophisticated mining methods. In a bottom-up approach, we categorize them according to two aspects: (a) data type (text, citations, authors, metadata, and combinations thereof), and (b) task (finding and comparing single entities, seeking elementary relations, finding complex patterns, and in particular temporal patterns, and investigating connections between multiple behaviours). Finally, we identify challenges and research directions in this area that ask for future investigations.

  13. Adhesive restorations, centric relation, and the Dahl principle: minimally invasive approaches to localized anterior tooth erosion.

    PubMed

    Magne, Pascal; Magne, Michel; Belser, Urs C

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review biomechanical and occlusal principles that could help optimize the conservative treatment of severely eroded and worn anterior dentition using adhesive restorations. It appears that enamel and dentin bonding, through the combined use of resin composites (on the palatal surface) and indirect porcelain veneers (on the facial/incisal surfaces) can lead to an optimal result from both esthetic and functional/biomechanical aspects. Cases of deep bite combined with palatal erosion and wear can be particularly challenging. A simplified approach is proposed through the use of an occlusal therapy combining centric relation and the Dahl principle to create anterior interocclusal space to reduce the need for more invasive palatal reduction. This approach allows the ultraconservative treatment of localized anterior tooth erosion and wear.

  14. Linking the Long Tail of Data: A Bottoms-up Approach to Connecting Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, B.; Arctur, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Highly curated ontologies are often developed for big scientific data, but the long tail of research data rarely receives the same treatment. The learning curve for Semantic Web technology is steep, and the value of linking each long-tail data set to known taxonomies and ontologies in isolation rarely justifies the level of effort required to bring a Knowledge Engineer into the project. We present an approach that takes a bottoms-up approach of producing a Linked Data model of datasets mechanically, inferring the shape and structure of the data from the original format, and adding derived variables and semantic linkages via iterative, interactive refinements of that model. In this way, the vast corpus of small but rich scientific data becomes part of the greater linked web of knowledge, and the connectivity of that data can be iteratively improved over time.

  15. Reflexive Principlism as an Effective Approach for Developing Ethical Reasoning in Engineering.

    PubMed

    Beever, Jonathan; Brightman, Andrew O

    2016-02-01

    An important goal of teaching ethics to engineering students is to enhance their ability to make well-reasoned ethical decisions in their engineering practice: a goal in line with the stated ethical codes of professional engineering organizations. While engineering educators have explored a wide range of methodologies for teaching ethics, a satisfying model for developing ethical reasoning skills has not been adopted broadly. In this paper we argue that a principlist-based approach to ethical reasoning is uniquely suited to engineering ethics education. Reflexive Principlism is an approach to ethical decision-making that focuses on internalizing a reflective and iterative process of specification, balancing, and justification of four core ethical principles in the context of specific cases. In engineering, that approach provides structure to ethical reasoning while allowing the flexibility for adaptation to varying contexts through specification. Reflexive Principlism integrates well with the prevalent and familiar methodologies of reasoning within the engineering disciplines as well as with the goals of engineering ethics education.

  16. Edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through Scientific Approach to Improve Student Learning Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    This research aim is develop the potential of Taka Bonerate National Park as learning resources through edutourism with scientific approach to improve student learning outcomes. Focus of student learning outcomes are students psychomotor abilities and comprehension on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The edutourism development products are teacher manual, edutourism worksheet, material booklet, guide’s manual, and Taka Bonerate National Park governor manual. The method to develop edutourism products is ADDIE research and development model that consist of analysis, design, development and production, implementation, and evaluation step. The subjects in the implementation step were given a pretest and posttest and observation sheet to see the effect of edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach to student learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The data were analyzed qualitative descriptively. The research result is edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach can improve students learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. Edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park can be an alternative of learning method on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics.

  17. A multi-ontology approach to annotate scientific documents based on a modularization technique.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Priscilla Corrêa E Castro; Moura, Ana Maria de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Maria Cláudia

    2015-12-01

    Scientific text annotation has become an important task for biomedical scientists. Nowadays, there is an increasing need for the development of intelligent systems to support new scientific findings. Public databases available on the Web provide useful data, but much more useful information is only accessible in scientific texts. Text annotation may help as it relies on the use of ontologies to maintain annotations based on a uniform vocabulary. However, it is difficult to use an ontology, especially those that cover a large domain. In addition, since scientific texts explore multiple domains, which are covered by distinct ontologies, it becomes even more difficult to deal with such task. Moreover, there are dozens of ontologies in the biomedical area, and they are usually big in terms of the number of concepts. It is in this context that ontology modularization can be useful. This work presents an approach to annotate scientific documents using modules of different ontologies, which are built according to a module extraction technique. The main idea is to analyze a set of single-ontology annotations on a text to find out the user interests. Based on these annotations a set of modules are extracted from a set of distinct ontologies, and are made available for the user, for complementary annotation. The reduced size and focus of the extracted modules tend to facilitate the annotation task. An experiment was conducted to evaluate this approach, with the participation of a bioinformatician specialist of the Laboratory of Peptides and Proteins of the IOC/Fiocruz, who was interested in discovering new drug targets aiming at the combat of tropical diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Approaches to enhancing radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Reza; Gerber, Thomas C; Balter, Stephen; Brenner, David J; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Einstein, Andrew J; Krumholz, Harlan M; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCollough, Cynthia H; Min, James K; Morin, Richard L; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nasir, Khurram; Redberg, Rita F; Shaw, Leslee J

    2014-11-04

    Education, justification, and optimization are the cornerstones to enhancing the radiation safety of medical imaging. Education regarding the benefits and risks of imaging and the principles of radiation safety is required for all clinicians in order for them to be able to use imaging optimally. Empowering patients with knowledge of the benefits and risks of imaging will facilitate their meaningful participation in decisions related to their health care, which is necessary to achieve patient-centered care. Limiting the use of imaging to appropriate clinical indications can ensure that the benefits of imaging outweigh any potential risks. Finally, the continually expanding repertoire of techniques that allow high-quality imaging with lower radiation exposure should be used when available to achieve safer imaging. The implementation of these strategies in practice is necessary to achieve high-quality, patient-centered imaging and will require a shared effort and investment by all stakeholders, including physicians, patients, national scientific and educational organizations, politicians, and industry.

  19. Procedural justice and the hedonic principle: how approach versus avoidance motivation influences the psychology of voice.

    PubMed

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Karremans, Johan C; van Beest, Ilja

    2006-10-01

    The authors investigate the relation between the hedonic principle (people's motivations to approach pleasure and to avoid pain) and procedural justice. They explore whether approach or avoidance motivation increases the effect that people feel they were treated more fairly following procedures that do versus do not allow them an opportunity to voice their opinion. Experiments 1 and 2 reveal that these procedures influence procedural justice judgments more strongly when people conduct approach motor action (arm flexion) than when they conduct avoidance motor action (arm extension). Experiment 3 indicates that individual-difference measures of participants' approach motivations predicted procedural justice judgments following voice versus no-voice procedures. The authors conclude that people's motivational orientations stimulate their fairness-based reactions to voice procedures.

  20. Scaffolding Middle School Students' Construction of Scientific Explanations: Comparing a cognitive versus a metacognitive evaluation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of scaffolds as cognitive prompts and as metacognitive evaluation on seventh-grade students' growth of content knowledge and construction of scientific explanations in five inquiry-based biology activities. Students' scores on multiple-choice pretest and posttest and worksheets for five inquiry-based activities were analyzed. The results show that the students' content knowledge in all conditions significantly increased from the pretest to posttest. Incorporating cognitive prompts with the explanation scaffolds better facilitated knowledge integration and resulted in greater learning gains of content knowledge and better quality evidence and reasoning. The metacognitive evaluation instruction improved all explanation components, especially claims and reasoning. This metacognitive approach also significantly reduced students' over- or underestimation during peer-evaluation by refining their internal standards for the quality of scientific explanations. The ability to accurately evaluate the quality of explanations was strongly associated with better performance on explanation construction. The cognitive prompts and metacognitive evaluation instruction address different aspects of the challenges faced by the students, and show different effects on the enhancement of content knowledge and the quality of scientific explanations. Future directions and suggestions are provided for improving the design of the scaffolds to facilitate the construction of scientific explanations.

  1. Scientific uses of animals: harm-benefit analysis and complementary approaches to implementing the three Rs.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G; Clark, J MacArthur; Zurlo, J; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M

    2014-04-01

    The principles of humane experimental technique, first described by Russell and Burch in 1959, focus on minimising suffering to animals used for scientific purposes. Internationally, as these principles became embedded in the various systems of oversight for the use of animals in science, attention focused on how to minimise pain, distress and lasting harm to animals while maximising the benefits to be obtained from the work. Suffering can arise from the experimental procedures, but it can also arise from the manner in which the animals are housed and cared for. Increased attention is therefore being paid to the entire lifetime experience of an animal, in order to afford it as good a quality of life as possible. Russell and Burch were also concerned that animals should not be used if alternatives to such use were available, and that animals were not wasted through poor-quality science. This concept is being revisited through new efforts to ensure that experiments are well designed and properly reported in the literature, that all results--positive, negative or neutral--are made available to ensure a complete research record, and that animal models are properly evaluated through periodic systematic reviews. These efforts should ensure that animal use is truly reduced as far as possible and that the benefits derived through the use of animals truly outweigh the harms.

  2. Effectiveness of a scaffolded approach for teaching students to design scientific inquiries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabel, Connie

    Teaching students to design their own science experiments has perplexed science educators for over a hundred years. Throughout the years, a number of approaches have been tried with little success. As the new millennium opens, current curriculum reform efforts are stressing science inquiry and science for all students, but methods for teaching science inquiry have remained elusive. Teaching science inquiry is a complex process that requires students to perform multiple tasks well in order for them to be able to conduct a meaningful scientific investigation. The merging of knowledge gained from the field of educational psychology with advancements made in pedagogy were found to be key factors in successfully teaching students to design their own scientific inquiries. The findings from this research study indicate that a scaffolded approach in all pedagogical aspects contributes to a successful performance from the students in designing their own scientific investigations. A schema using the following steps: question, prior knowledge, design of experiment, gathering data, analysis, and conclusion was found to be effective. Students also exhibited a gain in science inquiry skills and maintained a positive attitude toward science. This method was successful with both genders and both minority and non-minority students. A quasi-experimental research design with three independent variables: teaching method, gender, and ethnicity and three dependent variables: science inquiry skills, ability to design an experiment, and attitude toward science was utilized in this research study.

  3. Testing two principles of the Health Action Process Approach in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lippke, Sonia; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) proposes principles that can be translated into testable hypotheses. This is one of the first studies to have explicitly tested HAPA's first 2 principles, which are (1) health behavior change process can be subdivided into motivation and volition, and (2) volition can be grouped into intentional and action stages. The 3 stage groups are labeled preintenders, intenders, and actors. The hypotheses of the HAPA model were investigated in a sample of 1,193 individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Study participants completed a questionnaire assessing the HAPA variables. The hypotheses were evaluated by examining mean differences of test variables and by the use of multigroup structural equation modeling (MSEM). Findings support the HAPA's 2 principles and 3 distinct stages. The 3 HAPA stages were significantly different in several stage-specific variables, and discontinuity patterns were found in terms of nonlinear trends across means. In terms of predicting goals, action planning, and behavior, differences transpired between the 2 motivational stages (preintenders and intenders), and between the 2 volitional stages (intenders and actors). Results indicate implications for supporting behavior change processes, depending on in which stage a person is at: All individuals should be helped to increase self-efficacy. Preintenders and intenders require interventions targeting outcome expectancies. Actors benefit from an improvement in action planning to maintain and increase their previous behavior. Overall, the first 2 principles of the HAPA were supported and some evidence for the other principles was found. Future research should experimentally test these conclusions. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse children with speech, language and communication needs: Overarching principles, individual approaches.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are working with an increasing number of families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as the world's population continues to become more internationally mobile. The heterogeneity of these diverse populations makes it impossible to identify and document a one size fits all strategy for working with culturally and linguistically diverse families. This paper explores approaches to practice by SLPs identified as specialising in multilingual and multicultural practice in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts from around the world. Data were obtained from ethnographic observation of 14 sites in 5 countries on 4 continents. The sites included hospital settings, university clinics, school-based settings, private practices and Indigenous community-based services. There were 652 individual artefacts collected from the sites which included interview transcripts, photographs, videos, narrative reflections, informal and formal field notes. The data were analysed using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987). From the analysis six overarching Principles of Culturally Competent Practice (PCCP) were identified. These were: (1) identification of culturally appropriate and mutually motivating therapy goals, (2) knowledge of languages and culture, (3) use of culturally appropriate resources, (4) consideration of the cultural, social and political context, (5) consultation with families and communities, and (6) collaboration between professionals. These overarching principles align with the six position statements developed by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech (2012) which aim to enhance the cultural competence of speech pathologists and their practice. The international examples provided in the current study demonstrate the individualised ways that these overarching principles are enacted in a range of different organisational, social, cultural and political contexts

  5. Stage 2 Process Performance Qualification (PPQ): a Scientific Approach to Determine the Number of PPQ Batches.

    PubMed

    Pazhayattil, Ajay; Alsmeyer, Daniel; Chen, Shu; Hye, Maksuda; Ingram, Marzena; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-08-01

    The approach documented in this article reviews data from earlier process validation lifecycle stages with a described statistical model to provide the "best estimate" on the number of process performance qualification (PPQ) batches that should generate sufficient information to make a scientific and risk-based decision on product robustness. This approach is based upon estimation of a statistical confidence from the current product knowledge (Stage 1), historical variability for similar products/processes (batch-to-batch), and label claim specifications such as strength. The analysis is to determine the confidence level with the measurements of the product quality attributes and to compare them with the specifications. The projected minimum number of PPQ batches required will vary depending on the product, process understanding, and attributes, which are critical input parameters for the current statistical model. This new approach considers the critical finished product CQAs (assay, dissolution, and content uniformity), primarily because assay/content uniformity and dissolution as well as strength are the components of the label claim. The key CQAs determine the number of PPQ batches. This approach will ensure that sufficient scientific data is generated to demonstrate process robustness as desired by the 2011 FDA guidance.

  6. Non-animal approaches for consumer safety risk assessments: Unilever's scientific research programme.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Paul; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; Fletcher, Samantha; Gilmour, Nicola; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Merolla, Leona; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona; Westmoreland, Carl

    2009-12-01

    Non-animal based approaches to risk assessment are now routinely used for assuring consumer safety for some endpoints (such as skin irritation) following considerable investment in developing and applying new methods over the past 20 years. Unilever's research programme into non-animal approaches for safety assessment is currently focused on the application of new technologies to risk assessments in the areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhalation toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biological and chemical processes that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement with EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, carcinoGENOMICS), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. COLIPA, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US 'Human Toxicology Project' consortium). 2009 FRAME.

  7. Fist Principles Approach to the Magneto Caloric Effect: Application to Ni2MnGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don; Rusanu, Aurelian; Eisenbach, Markus; Brown, Gregory; Evans, Boyd, III

    2011-03-01

    The magneto-caloric effect (MCE) has potential application in heating and cooling technologies. In this work, we present calculated magnetic structure of a candidate MCE material, Ni 2 MnGa. The magnetic configurations of a 144 atom supercell is first explored using first-principle, the results are then used to fit exchange parameters of a Heisenberg Hamiltonian. The Wang-Landau method is used to calculate the magnetic density of states of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian. Based on this classical estimate, the magnetic density of states is calculated using the Wang Landau method with energies obtained from the first principles method. The Currie temperature and other thermodynamic properties are calculated using the density of states. The relationships between the density of magnetic states and the field induced adiabatic temperature change and isothermal entropy change are discussed. This work was sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (ORNL), by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division; Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (US DOE), and by the Materials Sciences and Engineering Division; Office of Basic Energy Sciences (US DOE).

  8. Blood Falls: A novel management approach for a subglacial feature of outstanding scientific importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J. R.; Penhale, P. A.; Dahood, A.; Biletnikoff, N.; Harris, C. M.

    2012-04-01

    Blood Falls is a subglacial feature located in the ablation zone of the Taylor Glacier, Taylor Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Blood Falls has a unique physical configuration, microbial ecology and geochemistry and consists of a subglacial brine reservoir and an iron-rich, saline surface discharge at the Taylor Glacier terminus. The feature provides a rare opportunity to sample properties of a subglacial reservoir and its ecosystem without the need for direct contact and is a key site for exobiological studies. The Blood Falls subglacial feature is globally unique and of outstanding scientific importance. As such, it warrants special protection from potential damage by drilling and/or surface activities. Moreover, currently subglacial environments are not represented in the Antarctic protected area network. To address these points, the United States National Science Foundation is working with the scientific community to develop at Blood Falls the first subglacial protected area in Antarctica. The protected area aims to maintain the integrity of the Blood Falls system, whilst allowing continued access for scientific and management purposes. Novel management approaches are being designed to protect the values of the site in three dimensions. Specific guidelines on activities conducted within the area, most notably drilling and coring, are being defined in a management plan. This new approach incorporates uncertainties in the location of the Blood Falls brine reservoir and the connectivity of the subglacial hydrological system of the Taylor Glacier. The management approaches employed at Blood Falls draw on the experience of the subglacial research community and potentially offer an effective framework for the protection of other subglacial environments.

  9. Study of mercury thiogallate in defect stannite structure: A first-principle approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.

    2016-05-06

    Quantum mechanical based first principle calculations have been employed to obtain the unit cell lattice parameters of mercury thiogallate (HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}) in defect stannite structure for the first time. For this, we treated HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} in two different types of site symmetries in the same space group. In both the cases obtained unit cell parameters are same, which shows the accuracy of present approach. The electronic band structures show the semiconducting behavior in both the cases. The density of states plot are also studied and discussed.

  10. A novel first-principles approach to effective Hamiltonians for high Tc superconducting cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.-G.; Ku, W.

    2008-03-01

    We report our recent progress of deriving the low-energy effective one-band Hamiltonians for the prototypical cuprate superconductor Ca2CuO2Cl2, based on a newly developed first-principles Wannier-states approach that takes into account large on-site Coulomb repulsion. The apical atom pz state is found to affect the general properties of the low-energy hole state, namely the Zhang-Rice singlet, via additional intra-sublattice hoppings, nearest-neighbor 'super-repulsion,' and other microscopic many-body processes.

  11. A scientific approach to anti-ageing therapies: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Jirillo, E; Candore, G; Magrone, T; Caruso, C

    2008-01-01

    A lasting dream of human beings is to reverse or at least postpone ageing. During the last years, an increasing number of scientific meetings, articles, and books have been devoted to anti-ageing therapies. This subject, full of misleading, simplistic, or wrong ideas, is very popular among the general public, whose imagery has been fascinated by all possible tools to delay ageing, getting immortality. Here, we discuss anti-ageing strategies aimed not to rejuvenate but to slow ageing and delay the onset of age-related diseases. These approaches should be able to substantially slow down the ageing process, extending our productive, youthful lives.

  12. Coarse graining approach to First principles modeling of radiation cascade in large Fe super-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don; Rusanu, Aurelian; Wang, Yang; Stoller, Roger; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Stocks, George

    2012-02-01

    First principles techniques employed to understand systems at an atomistic level are not practical for large systems consisting of millions of atoms. We present an efficient coarse graining approach to bridge the first principles calculations of local electronic properties to classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of large structures. Local atomic magnetic moments in crystalline Fe are perturbed by radiation generated defects. The effects are most pronounced near the defect core and decay with distance. We develop a coarse grained technique based on the Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method that exploits the near-sightedness of the electron Green function. The atomic positions were determined by MD with an embedded atom force field. The local moments in the neighborhood of the defect cores are calculated with first-principles based on full local structure information. Atoms in the rest of the system are modeled by representative atoms with approximated properties. This work was supported by the Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  13. Developing "Personality" Taxonomies: Metatheoretical and Methodological Rationales Underlying Selection Approaches, Methods of Data Generation and Reduction Principles.

    PubMed

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Taxonomic "personality" models are widely used in research and applied fields. This article applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to scrutinise the three methodological steps that are required for developing comprehensive "personality" taxonomies: 1) the approaches used to select the phenomena and events to be studied, 2) the methods used to generate data about the selected phenomena and events and 3) the reduction principles used to extract the "most important" individual-specific variations for constructing "personality" taxonomies. Analyses of some currently popular taxonomies reveal frequent mismatches between the researchers' explicit and implicit metatheories about "personality" and the abilities of previous methodologies to capture the particular kinds of phenomena toward which they are targeted. Serious deficiencies that preclude scientific quantifications are identified in standardised questionnaires, psychology's established standard method of investigation. These mismatches and deficiencies derive from the lack of an explicit formulation and critical reflection on the philosophical and metatheoretical assumptions being made by scientists and from the established practice of radically matching the methodological tools to researchers' preconceived ideas and to pre-existing statistical theories rather than to the particular phenomena and individuals under study. These findings raise serious doubts about the ability of previous taxonomies to appropriately and comprehensively reflect the phenomena towards which they are targeted and the structures of individual-specificity occurring in them. The article elaborates and illustrates with empirical examples methodological principles that allow researchers to appropriately meet the metatheoretical requirements and that are suitable for comprehensively exploring individuals' "personality".

  14. Task-space separation principle: a force-field approach to motion planning for redundant manipulators.

    PubMed

    Tommasino, Paolo; Campolo, Domenico

    2017-02-03

    In this work, we address human-like motor planning in redundant manipulators. Specifically, we want to capture postural synergies such as Donders' law, experimentally observed in humans during kinematically redundant tasks, and infer a minimal set of parameters to implement similar postural synergies in a kinematic model. For the model itself, although the focus of this paper is to solve redundancy by implementing postural strategies derived from experimental data, we also want to ensure that such postural control strategies do not interfere with other possible forms of motion control (in the task-space), i.e. solving the posture/movement problem. The redundancy problem is framed as a constrained optimization problem, traditionally solved via the method of Lagrange multipliers. The posture/movement problem can be tackled via the separation principle which, derived from experimental evidence, posits that the brain processes static torques (i.e. posture-dependent, such as gravitational torques) separately from dynamic torques (i.e. velocity-dependent). The separation principle has traditionally been applied at a joint torque level. Our main contribution is to apply the separation principle to Lagrange multipliers, which act as task-space force fields, leading to a task-space separation principle. In this way, we can separate postural control (implementing Donders' law) from various types of tasks-space movement planners. As an example, the proposed framework is applied to the (redundant) task of pointing with the human wrist. Nonlinear inverse optimization (NIO) is used to fit the model parameters and to capture motor strategies displayed by six human subjects during pointing tasks. The novelty of our NIO approach is that (i) the fitted motor strategy, rather than raw data, is used to filter and down-sample human behaviours; (ii) our framework is used to efficiently simulate model behaviour iteratively, until it converges towards the experimental human strategies.

  15. Teaching the Exclusion Principle with Philosophical Flavor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadmi, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Outlines an approach to the teaching of a chapter in a quantum mechanics course. The exclusion principle is confronted with the principle of the "identity of the indiscernible" of Leibnitz. Concludes that philosophy can never replace scientific research, thus predicting directions of advances of physical theories. (GA)

  16. A knowledge engineering approach to recognizing and extracting sequences of nucleic acids from scientific literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; Maojo, Victor; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a knowledge engineering approach to automatically recognize and extract genetic sequences from scientific articles. To carry out this task, we use a preliminary recognizer based on a finite state machine to extract all candidate DNA/RNA sequences. The latter are then fed into a knowledge-based system that automatically discards false positives and refines noisy and incorrectly merged sequences. We created the knowledge base by manually analyzing different manuscripts containing genetic sequences. Our approach was evaluated using a test set of 211 full-text articles in PDF format containing 3134 genetic sequences. For such set, we achieved 87.76% precision and 97.70% recall respectively. This method can facilitate different research tasks. These include text mining, information extraction, and information retrieval research dealing with large collections of documents containing genetic sequences.

  17. An Automated Application Framework to Model Disordered Materials Based on a High Throughput First Principles Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oses, Corey; Yang, Kesong; Curtarolo, Stefano; Duke Univ Collaboration; UC San Diego Collaboration

    Predicting material properties of disordered systems remains a long-standing and formidable challenge in rational materials design. To address this issue, we introduce an automated software framework capable of modeling partial occupation within disordered materials using a high-throughput (HT) first principles approach. At the heart of the approach is the construction of supercells containing a virtually equivalent stoichiometry to the disordered material. All unique supercell permutations are enumerated and material properties of each are determined via HT electronic structure calculations. In accordance with a canonical ensemble of supercell states, the framework evaluates ensemble average properties of the system as a function of temperature. As proof of concept, we examine the framework's final calculated properties of a zinc chalcogenide (ZnS1-xSex), a wide-gap oxide semiconductor (MgxZn1-xO), and an iron alloy (Fe1-xCux) at various stoichiometries.

  18. First-principles approach to calculating energy level alignment at aqueous semiconductor interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-10-21

    A first-principles approach is demonstrated for calculating the relationship between an aqueous semiconductor interface structure and energy level alignment. The physical interface structure is sampled using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, yielding the interface electrostatic dipole. The GW approach from many-body perturbation theory is used to place the electronic band edge energies of the semiconductor relative to the occupied 1b₁ energy level in water. The application to the specific cases of nonpolar (101¯0 ) facets of GaN and ZnO reveals a significant role for the structural motifs at the interface, including the degree of interface water dissociation and themore » dynamical fluctuations in the interface Zn-O and O-H bond orientations. As a result, these effects contribute up to 0.5 eV.« less

  19. First-principles approach to calculating energy level alignment at aqueous semiconductor interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-10-21

    A first-principles approach is demonstrated for calculating the relationship between an aqueous semiconductor interface structure and energy level alignment. The physical interface structure is sampled using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, yielding the interface electrostatic dipole. The GW approach from many-body perturbation theory is used to place the electronic band edge energies of the semiconductor relative to the occupied 1b₁ energy level in water. The application to the specific cases of nonpolar (101¯0 ) facets of GaN and ZnO reveals a significant role for the structural motifs at the interface, including the degree of interface water dissociation and the dynamical fluctuations in the interface Zn-O and O-H bond orientations. As a result, these effects contribute up to 0.5 eV.

  20. First-Principles Approach to Calculating Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous Semiconductor Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-10-01

    A first-principles approach is demonstrated for calculating the relationship between an aqueous semiconductor interface structure and energy level alignment. The physical interface structure is sampled using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, yielding the interface electrostatic dipole. The GW approach from many-body perturbation theory is used to place the electronic band edge energies of the semiconductor relative to the occupied 1b1 energy level in water. The application to the specific cases of nonpolar (101 ¯0) facets of GaN and ZnO reveals a significant role for the structural motifs at the interface, including the degree of interface water dissociation and the dynamical fluctuations in the interface Zn-O and O-H bond orientations. These effects contribute up to 0.5 eV.

  1. A new approach of analyzing time-varying dynamical equation via an optimal principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Kurths, Jürgen; Xiao, Jinghua; Yang, Yixian; Li, Ang

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an innovative design approach is proposed to solve time-varying dynamical equation, including matrix inverse equation and Sylvester equation. Based on the precondition of the existing solution of time-varying dynamical equation, different from previous approach to solve unknown matrix, an optimal design principle is used to solve the unknown variables. A performance index is introduced based on the inherent properties of the time-varying dynamical equation and Euler equation. The solution of time-varying dynamical equation is converted to an optimal problem of performance index. Furthermore, convergence and sensitivity to additive noise are also analyzed, and simulation results confirm that the method is feasible and effective. Especially, in simulations we design a tunable positive parameter in the dynamic optimization model. The tunable parameter is not only helpful to accelerate its convergence but also reduce its sensitivity to additive noise. Meanwhile the comparative simulation results are shown for the convergence accuracy and robustness of this method.

  2. First-principles approach to investigate toroidal property of magnetoelectric multiferroic GaFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yung-mau

    2016-01-01

    A first-principles approach incorporating the concept of toroidal moments as a measure of the spin vortex is proposed and applied to simulate the toroidization of magnetoelectric multiferroic GaFeO3. The nature of space-inversion and time-reversal violations of ferrotoroidics is reproduced in the simulated magnetic structure of GaFeO3. For undoped GaFeO3, a toroidal moment of -22.38 μB Å per unit cell was obtained, which is the best theoretical estimate till date. Guided by the spin vortex free-energy minimization perturbed by an externally applied field, it was discovered that the minority spin markedly biases the whole toroidization. In summary, this approach not only calculates the toroidal moment but provides a way to understand the toroidal nature of magnetoelectric multiferroics.

  3. Precautionary discourse. Thinking through the distinction between the precautionary principle and the precautionary approach in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Dinneen, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the distinction, arising from the different ways the European Union and United States have come to adopt precaution regarding various environmental and health-related risks, between the precautionary principle and the precautionary approach in both theory and practice. First, this paper addresses how the precautionary principle has been variously defined, along with an exploration of some of the concepts with which it has been associated. Next, it addresses how the distinction between the precautionary principle and precautionary approach manifested itself within the political realm. Last, it considers the theoretical foundation of the precautionary principle in the philosophy of Hans Jonas, considering whether the principled-pragmatic distinction regarding precaution does or doesn't hold up in Jonas' thought.

  4. A Principled Approach to Deriving Approximate Conditional Sampling Distributions in Population Genetics Models with Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Joshua S.; Song, Yun S.

    2010-01-01

    The multilocus conditional sampling distribution (CSD) describes the probability that an additionally sampled DNA sequence is of a certain type, given that a collection of sequences has already been observed. The CSD has a wide range of applications in both computational biology and population genomics analysis, including phasing genotype data into haplotype data, imputing missing data, estimating recombination rates, inferring local ancestry in admixed populations, and importance sampling of coalescent genealogies. Unfortunately, the true CSD under the coalescent with recombination is not known, so approximations, formulated as hidden Markov models, have been proposed in the past. These approximations have led to a number of useful statistical tools, but it is important to recognize that they were not derived from, though were certainly motivated by, principles underlying the coalescent process. The goal of this article is to develop a principled approach to derive improved CSDs directly from the underlying population genetics model. Our approach is based on the diffusion process approximation and the resulting mathematical expressions admit intuitive genealogical interpretations, which we utilize to introduce further approximations and make our method scalable in the number of loci. The general algorithm presented here applies to an arbitrary number of loci and an arbitrary finite-alleles recurrent mutation model. Empirical results are provided to demonstrate that our new CSDs are in general substantially more accurate than previously proposed approximations. PMID:20592264

  5. [Forgoing treatments: a kind of euthanasia? A scientific approach to the debate about end of life decisions].

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Luigi; Busca, Maria Teresa; Busatta, Lucia; Orsi, Luciano; Gristina, Giuseppe R

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade an extensive debate on the topic of end of life decisions has developed in western countries, obtaining a worldwide media relevance. Philosophers, theologians, legal experts and doctors, focus their attention on the three thorny issues of the topic: forgoing treatments, euthanasia and assisted suicide. A thorough and respectful discussion on these issues should include all stakeholders - above all palliative care physicians - and should be encouraged in order to understand the views in favor or against the three practices, checking the different moral positions, and analyzing the cultural, social and legal aspects in the background on one hand, and, on the other, their impact on the health care systems. At present, in the fields of communications and politics, the debate related to the topic of these end of life practices is characterized by a confusion of terms and meanings. As an outcome, the term "euthanasia" is misused as a "container" including forgoing treatments, euthanasia and assisted suicide, while palliative sedation is wrongly considered as a procedure to cause death. This confusing approach does not permit to understand the real issues at the stake, keeping the debate at the tabloid level. Conversely, sharing the precise meaning of the words is the only way to provide tools to make rational, autonomous and responsible decisions, allowing individual informed choices in compliance with the principle of autonomy. This article is not aimed to take a moral stand in favor or against forgoing treatments, euthanasia and assisted suicide. Through an analysis based on scientific criteria, the authors firstly review the definitions of these three practices, examining the concepts enclosed in each term; secondly, they offer a glance on the legal approach to end of life issues in western countries; lastly, they investigate the relationship between these practices and palliative care culture in light of the medical societies official statements

  6. Scientific or regulated validation: a tiered approach? Meeting report from a joint EBF/DVDMDG workshop.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Philip; Lowes, Steve; McDougall, Stuart; Colligon, Irina; Miksic, Joy; Chowdhury, Swapan; White, Steve; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Jenkins, Rand; Kemper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Tiered approach is rapidly gaining interest in the regulated bioanalytical community. Alternative approaches to the workflows as proposed in the regulatory Guidance (US FDA, EMA) are being used in discovery and early drug development, but with a growing array of assay types and studies requiring bioanalytical support in early drug development, the bioanalytical community is discussing how to bring best value to support these studies. Recently, international industry groups like European Bioanalysis Forum and Global Bioanalysis Consortium have discussed and published on the opportunity and need to include tiered approach more systematically in the early drug development support. On the back of these discussions, the Delaware Valley Drug Metabolism Discussion Group together with the European Bioanalysis Forum organized a meeting in Langhorne (PA, USA) to discuss the hurdles and added value of tiered approach with stakeholders from the Bioanalysis, quality assurance and PK community. The discussions focused on proposing scientific validation for studies where there is currently a mixed use of regulatory and tiered approach workflows. The meeting was well attended and the presentations and panel discussions contributed to a better understanding of what the industry is proposing as future practice.

  7. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-12-01

    The scientific discovery process can be advanced by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally, it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. We have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC); the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In this paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.

  8. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-12-23

    The advance of the scientific discovery process is accomplished by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally, it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. Moreover we have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In our paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.

  9. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    DOE PAGES

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; ...

    2015-12-23

    The advance of the scientific discovery process is accomplished by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally,more » it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. Moreover we have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In our paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.« less

  10. The Scientific Approach Learning: How prospective science teachers understand about questioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiyanto; Nugroho, S. E.; Hartono

    2017-04-01

    In the new curriculum, questioning is one of theaspects of scientific approach learning. It means teachers should facilitate students to ask their questions during science learning. The purpose of this research was to reveal the prospective science teachers’ understanding about questioning and how the science teachers implement of that in the scientific approach learning. Data of the prospective science teachers’ understanding was explored from their teaching plan that produced during microteaching. The microteaching is an activity that should be followed by students before they conduct partnership program in school. Data about theimplementation of questioning that conducted by theteacher was be collected by video-assisted observation in junior school science class. The results showed that majority of the prospective science teachers had difficulty to write down in their teaching plan about how to facilitate students to ask their questions, even majority of them understood that questioning is not students’ activity, but it is an activity that should be done by teachers. Based on the observation showed that majority of teachers did not yet implement a learning that facilitates students to ask their questions.

  11. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances.

    PubMed

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T; Biever, Ronald C; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D; Dreier, David A; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-03-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop(®) "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS-not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  12. The precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A Wallace

    2005-06-01

    The Precautionary Principle in its simplest form states: "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause-and-effect relationships are not fully established scientifically". This Principle is the basis for European environmental law, and plays an increasing role in developing environmental health policies as well. It also is used in environmental decision-making in Canada and in several European countries, especially in Denmark, Sweden, and Germany. The Precautionary Principle has been used in the environmental decision-making process and in regulating drugs and other consumer products in the United States. The Precautionary Principle enhances the collection of risk information for, among other items, high production volume chemicals and risk-based analyses in general. It does not eliminate the need for good science or for science-based risk assessments. Public participation is encouraged in both the review process and the decision-making process. The Precautionary Principle encourages, and in some cases may require, transparency of the risk assessment process on health risk of chemicals both for public health and the environment. A debate continues on whether the Principle should embrace the "polluter pays" directive and place the responsibility for providing risk assessment on industry. The best elements of a precautionary approach demand good science and challenge the scientific community to improve methods used for risk assessment.

  13. A structured approach to the study of metabolic control principles in intact and impaired mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Huber, Heinrich J; Connolly, Niamh M C; Dussmann, Heiko; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2012-03-01

    We devised an approach to extract control principles of cellular bioenergetics for intact and impaired mitochondria from ODE-based models and applied it to a recently established bioenergetic model of cancer cells. The approach used two methods for varying ODE model parameters to determine those model components that, either alone or in combination with other components, most decisively regulated bioenergetic state variables. We found that, while polarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) and, therefore, the protomotive force were critically determined by respiratory complex I activity in healthy mitochondria, complex III activity was dominant for ΔΨ(m) during conditions of cytochrome-c deficiency. As a further important result, cellular bioenergetics in healthy, ATP-producing mitochondria was regulated by three parameter clusters that describe (1) mitochondrial respiration, (2) ATP production and consumption and (3) coupling of ATP-production and respiration. These parameter clusters resembled metabolic blocks and their intermediaries from top-down control analyses. However, parameter clusters changed significantly when cells changed from low to high ATP levels or when mitochondria were considered to be impaired by loss of cytochrome-c. This change suggests that the assumption of static metabolic blocks by conventional top-down control analyses is not valid under these conditions. Our approach is complementary to both ODE and top-down control analysis approaches and allows a better insight into cellular bioenergetics and its pathological alterations.

  14. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the Classroom: The Use of Microbial Mats to Teach General Principles in Microbial Ecology, and Scientific Inquiry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beboutl, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin

    2004-01-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on earth, and may also be useful models for the search for life elsewhere. They are centrally important to Astrobiology. In this lecture, we will present an introduction to microbial mats, as well as an introduction to our web-based educational module on the subject of microbial ecology, featuring living mats maintained in a mini "Web Lab" complete with remotely-operable instrumentation. We have partnered with a number of outreach specialists in order to produce an informative and educational web-based presentation, aspects of which will be exported to museum exhibits reaching a wide audience. On our web site, we will conduct regularly scheduled experimental manipulations, linking the experiments to our research activities, and demonstrating fundamental principles of scientific research.

  15. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the Classroom: The Use of Microbial Mats to Teach General Principles in Microbial Ecology, and Scientific Inquiry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beboutl, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin

    2004-01-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on earth, and may also be useful models for the search for life elsewhere. They are centrally important to Astrobiology. In this lecture, we will present an introduction to microbial mats, as well as an introduction to our web-based educational module on the subject of microbial ecology, featuring living mats maintained in a mini "Web Lab" complete with remotely-operable instrumentation. We have partnered with a number of outreach specialists in order to produce an informative and educational web-based presentation, aspects of which will be exported to museum exhibits reaching a wide audience. On our web site, we will conduct regularly scheduled experimental manipulations, linking the experiments to our research activities, and demonstrating fundamental principles of scientific research.

  16. First-Principles Approach to Transient Heat Flow in Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk; Nanoscale Physics Division Team; Thermal Management Center Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We examine heat transfer via quantum advection modes (coherently correlated quantum states) between two thermal baths of different temperatures mediated by quantum system with discrete spectrum of accessible energy levels. Nanoscale transport is treated within the first-principles method by including the superposed wave functions into the quantum expression for heat flux. Our results show the specific modifications of heat transport characteristics due to the dynamics of quantum systems under consideration. Such dynamics is captured by non-steady-state solutions to time-dependent Schrödinger wave equation or by specific solutions of interrelated Pauli rate equations. Since the applicability of Fourier's law is questionable at nanoscale and in the case of transient heat conduction, we pay particular attention to the new physics of post-Fourier heat transport and its further consequences. For instance, the non-equilibrium conditions may establish and maintain certain degree of coherence between correlated quantum states which are involved into the energy conduction process. Understanding and gaining control of coherent manipulations of qubits (two-level quantum systems) is crucial for further development of quantum informatics. This work was supported by Pace University Start-up Grant and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

  17. Guiding principles for the implementation of non-animal safety assessment approaches for cosmetics: skin sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre; Ade, Nadège; Alépée, Nathalie; Aptula, Aynur; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Gilmour, Nicola; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Detlef; Kern, Petra; Kirst, Annette; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Maxwell, Gavin; Rowland, Joanna; Safford, Bob; Schellauf, Florian; Schepky, Andreas; Seaman, Chris; Teichert, Thomas; Tessier, Nicolas; Teissier, Silvia; Weltzien, Hans Ulrich; Winkler, Petra; Scheel, Julia

    2012-06-01

    Characterisation of skin sensitisation potential is a key endpoint for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients especially when significant dermal exposure to an ingredient is expected. At present the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) remains the 'gold standard' test method for this purpose however non-animal test methods are under development that aim to replace the need for new animal test data. COLIPA (the European Cosmetics Association) funds an extensive programme of skin sensitisation research, method development and method evaluation and helped coordinate the early evaluation of the three test methods currently undergoing pre-validation. In May 2010, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held to analyse to what extent skin sensitisation safety assessments for cosmetic ingredients can be made in the absence of animal data. In order to propose guiding principles for the application and further development of non-animal safety assessment strategies it was evaluated how and when non-animal test methods, predictions based on physico-chemical properties (including in silico tools), threshold concepts and weight-of-evidence based hazard characterisation could be used to enable safety decisions. Generation and assessment of potency information from alternative tools which at present is predominantly derived from the LLNA is considered the future key research area.

  18. Development of Teaching Materials Based Interactive Scientific Approach towards the Concept of Social Arithmetic For Junior High School Student

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, M. K.; Pujiastuti, H.; Assaat, L. D.

    2017-02-01

    The scientific approach is the characteristic of the curriculum 2013. In learning to use a scientific approach, learning process consists of five stages: observe, ask, try, reasoning and convey. In the curriculum 2013 the source of learning is a book, print media, electronic and about nature or relevant learning resources. Most of the print instructional materials on the market does not appropriate in the curriculum 2013. Teaching materials with a scientific approach, beside that to the teaching materials should motivate students to not be lazy, do not get bored, and more eager to learn mathematics. So the development of scientific-based interactive teaching materials that if this approach to answer the challenge. The purpose of this research is to create teaching materials appropriate to the curriculum 2013 that is based on scientific approach and interactive. This study used research and developed methodology. The results of this study are scientific based interactive teaching materials can be used by learners. That can be used by learners are then expected to study teaching materials can be used in android smartphone and be used portable.

  19. First-principles approach to excitons in time-resolved and angle-resolved photoemission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfetto, E.; Sangalli, D.; Marini, A.; Stefanucci, G.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we put forward a first-principles approach and propose an accurate diagrammatic approximation to calculate the time-resolved (TR) and angle-resolved photoemission spectrum of systems with excitons. We also derive an alternative formula to the TR photocurrent which involves a single time-integral of the lesser Green's function. The diagrammatic approximation applies to the relaxed regime characterized by the presence of quasistationary excitons and vanishing polarization. The nonequilibrium self-energy diagrams are evaluated using excited Green's functions; since this is not standard, the analytic derivation is presented in detail. The final result is an expression for the lesser Green's function in terms of quantities that can all be calculated in a first-principles manner. The validity of the proposed theory is illustrated in a one-dimensional model system with a direct gap. We discuss possible scenarios and highlight some universal features of the exciton peaks. Our results indicate that the exciton dispersion can be observed in TR and angle-resolved photoemission.

  20. Stream restoration in dynamic fluvial systems: Scientific approaches, analyses, and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-04-01

    In the United States the average annual investment in river restoration programs is approximately $1 billion. Despite this burgeoning industry, the National Water Quality Inventory, which tracks the health of the nation's rivers, has shown no serious improvement in cumulative river health since the early 1990s. In the AGU monographStream Restoration in Dynamic Fluvial Systems: Scientific Approaches, Analyses, and Tools, editors Andrew Simon, Sean J. Bennett, and Janine M. Castro pull together the latest evidence-based understanding of stream restoration practices, with an aim of guiding the further development of the field and helping to right its apparently unsuccessful course. In this interview, Eos talks to Sean J. Bennett, University of Buffalo, about the culture, practice, and promise of restoring rivers.

  1. Methods for the Scientific Study of Discrimination and Health: An Ecosocial Approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The scientific study of how discrimination harms health requires theoretically grounded methods. At issue is how discrimination, as one form of societal injustice, becomes embodied inequality and is manifested as health inequities. As clarified by ecosocial theory, methods must address the lived realities of discrimination as an exploitative and oppressive societal phenomenon operating at multiple levels and involving myriad pathways across both the life course and historical generations. An integrated embodied research approach hence must consider (1) the structural level—past and present de jure and de facto discrimination; (2) the individual level—issues of domains, nativity, and use of both explicit and implicit discrimination measures; and (3) how current research methods likely underestimate the impact of racism on health. PMID:22420803

  2. The French initiative for scientific cores virtual curating : a user-oriented integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignol, Cécile; Godinho, Elodie; Galabertier, Bruno; Caillo, Arnaud; Bernardet, Karim; Augustin, Laurent; Crouzet, Christian; Billy, Isabelle; Teste, Gregory; Moreno, Eva; Tosello, Vanessa; Crosta, Xavier; Chappellaz, Jérome; Calzas, Michel; Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Arnaud, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    Managing scientific data is probably one the most challenging issue in modern science. The question is made even more sensitive with the need of preserving and managing high value fragile geological sam-ples: cores. Large international scientific programs, such as IODP or ICDP are leading an intense effort to solve this problem and propose detailed high standard work- and dataflows thorough core handling and curating. However most results derived from rather small-scale research programs in which data and sample management is generally managed only locally - when it is … The national excellence equipment program (Equipex) CLIMCOR aims at developing French facilities for coring and drilling investigations. It concerns indiscriminately ice, marine and continental samples. As part of this initiative, we initiated a reflexion about core curating and associated coring-data management. The aim of the project is to conserve all metadata from fieldwork in an integrated cyber-environment which will evolve toward laboratory-acquired data storage in a near future. In that aim, our demarche was conducted through an close relationship with field operators as well laboratory core curators in order to propose user-oriented solutions. The national core curating initiative currently proposes a single web portal in which all scientifics teams can store their field data. For legacy samples, this will requires the establishment of a dedicated core lists with associated metadata. For forthcoming samples, we propose a mobile application, under Android environment to capture technical and scientific metadata on the field. This application is linked with a unique coring tools library and is adapted to most coring devices (gravity, drilling, percussion, etc...) including multiple sections and holes coring operations. Those field data can be uploaded automatically to the national portal, but also referenced through international standards or persistent identifiers (IGSN, ORCID and INSPIRE

  3. Discrimination training reduces high rate social approach behaviors in Angelman syndrome: proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Heald, M; Allen, D; Villa, D; Oliver, C

    2013-05-01

    This proof of principle study was designed to evaluate whether excessively high rates of social approach behaviors in children with Angelman syndrome (AS) can be modified using a multiple schedule design. Four children with AS were exposed to a multiple schedule arrangement, in which social reinforcement and extinction, cued using a novel stimulus, were alternated. Twenty-five to 35 discrimination training sessions were conducted and levels of approach behaviors were measured before and after the discrimination training for two children. All four participants evidenced discrimination between conditions of reinforcement and extinction after 16-20 teaching sessions as indicated by lower rates of social approach behaviors in the presence of the S(Δ) for extinction. Reversal effects for the two children for whom this design was implemented were evident. The results demonstrate that after repeated training, the use of a novel stimulus can serve as a cue for children with AS to discriminate adult availability. This is a potentially effective component of a broader intervention strategy but highlights the need for sustained teaching procedures within this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TARGETED PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS: A NEW MOTION ARTIFACT CORRECTION APPROACH FOR NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Meryem A; Selb, Juliette; Cooper, Robert J; Boas, David A

    2014-03-01

    As near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) broadens its application area to different age and disease groups, motion artifacts in the NIRS signal due to subject movement is becoming an important challenge. Motion artifacts generally produce signal fluctuations that are larger than physiological NIRS signals, thus it is crucial to correct for them before obtaining an estimate of stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses. There are various methods for correction such as principle component analysis (PCA), wavelet-based filtering and spline interpolation. Here, we introduce a new approach to motion artifact correction, targeted principle component analysis (tPCA), which incorporates a PCA filter only on the segments of data identified as motion artifacts. It is expected that this will overcome the issues of filtering desired signals that plagues standard PCA filtering of entire data sets. We compared the new approach with the most effective motion artifact correction algorithms on a set of data acquired simultaneously with a collodion-fixed probe (low motion artifact content) and a standard Velcro probe (high motion artifact content). Our results show that tPCA gives statistically better results in recovering hemodynamic response function (HRF) as compared to wavelet-based filtering and spline interpolation for the Velcro probe. It results in a significant reduction in mean-squared error (MSE) and significant enhancement in Pearson's correlation coefficient to the true HRF. The collodion-fixed fiber probe with no motion correction performed better than the Velcro probe corrected for motion artifacts in terms of MSE and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Thus, if the experimental study permits, the use of a collodion-fixed fiber probe may be desirable. If the use of a collodion-fixed probe is not feasible, then we suggest the use of tPCA in the processing of motion artifact contaminated data.

  5. Principles of scarce medical resource allocation in natural disaster relief: a simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Huang, Simin

    2012-01-01

    A variety of triage principles have been proposed. The authors sought to evaluate their effects on how many lives can be saved in a hypothetical disaster. To determine an optimal scarce resource-rationing principle in the emergency response domain, considering the trade-off between lifesaving efficiency and ethical issues. A discrete event simulation model is developed to examine the efficiency of four resource-rationing principles: first come-first served, random, most serious first, and least serious first. Seven combinations of available resources are examined in the simulations to evaluate the performance of the principles under different levels of resource scarcity. The simulation results indicate that the performance of the medical resource allocation principles is related to the level of the resource scarcity. When the level of the scarcity is high, the performances of the four principles differ significantly. The least serious first principle performs best, followed by the random principle; the most serious first principle acts worst. However, when the scarcity is relieved, there are no significant differences among the random, first come-first served, and least serious first principles, yet the most serious first principle still performs worst. Although the least serious first principle exhibits the highest efficiency, it is not ethically flawless. Considering the trade off between the lifesaving efficiency and the ethical issues, random selection is a relatively fair and efficient principle for allocating scarce medical resources in natural disaster responses.

  6. Guiding Students to Develop an Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: A Science Skills Approach to Instruction and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Elisa M.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific…

  7. Guiding Students to Develop an Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: A Science Skills Approach to Instruction and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Elisa M.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific…

  8. Guiding students to develop an understanding of scientific inquiry: a science skills approach to instruction and assessment.

    PubMed

    Stone, Elisa M

    2014-01-01

    New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigations-for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controls-and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level.

  9. Guiding Students to Develop an Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: A Science Skills Approach to Instruction and Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Elisa M.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigations—for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controls—and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level. PMID:24591508

  10. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge via Critical Thinking: A Philosophical Approach to Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talavera, Isidoro

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap between the facts learned in a science course and the higher-cognitive skills of analysis and evaluation necessary for students to secure scientific knowledge and scientific habits of mind. Teaching science is not just about how we do science (i.e., focusing on just "accumulating undigested facts and scientific definitions and…

  11. Integrated argument-based inquiry with multiple representation approach to promote scientific argumentation skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminar, Iin; Muslim, Liliawati, Winny

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify student's written argument embedded in scientific inqury investigation and argumentation skill using integrated argument-based inquiry with multiple representation approach. This research was using quasi experimental method with the nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Sample ot this research was 10th grade students at one of High School in Bandung using two classes, they were 26 students of experiment class and 26 students of control class. Experiment class using integrated argument-based inquiry with multiple representation approach, while control class using argument-based inquiry. This study was using argumentation worksheet and argumentation test. Argumentation worksheet encouraged students to formulate research questions, design experiment, observe experiment and explain the data as evidence, construct claim, warrant, embedded multiple modus representation and reflection. Argumentation testinclude problem which asks students to explain evidence, warrants, and backings support of each claim. The result of this research show experiment class students's argumentation skill performed better than control class students that of experiment class was 0.47 and control class was 0.31. The results of unequal variance t-test for independent means show that students'sargumentationskill of experiment class performed better significantly than students'sargumentationskill of control class.

  12. Brain networks, structural realism, and local approaches to the scientific realism debate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Karen; Hricko, Jonathon

    2017-08-01

    We examine recent work in cognitive neuroscience that investigates brain networks. Brain networks are characterized by the ways in which brain regions are functionally and anatomically connected to one another. Cognitive neuroscientists use various noninvasive techniques (e.g., fMRI) to investigate these networks. They represent them formally as graphs. And they use various graph theoretic techniques to analyze them further. We distinguish between knowledge of the graph theoretic structure of such networks (structural knowledge) and knowledge of what instantiates that structure (nonstructural knowledge). And we argue that this work provides structural knowledge of brain networks. We explore the significance of this conclusion for the scientific realism debate. We argue that our conclusion should not be understood as an instance of a global structural realist claim regarding the structure of the unobservable part of the world, but instead, as a local structural realist attitude towards brain networks in particular. And we argue that various local approaches to the realism debate, i.e., approaches that restrict realist commitments to particular theories and/or entities, are problematic insofar as they don't allow for the possibility of such a local structural realist attitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. First-principles Hubbard U approach for small molecule binding in metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Gregory W.; Lee, Kyuho; Cococcioni, Matteo; Smit, Berend; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    2016-05-01

    We apply first-principles approaches with Hubbard U corrections for calculation of small molecule binding energetics to open-shell transition metal atoms in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Using density functional theory with van der Waals dispersion-corrected functionals, we determine Hubbard U values ab initio through an established linear response procedure for M-MOF-74, for a number of different metal centers (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu). While our ab initio U values differ from those used in previous work, we show that they result in lattice parameters and electronic contributions to CO2-MOF binding energies that lead to excellent agreement with experiments and previous results, yielding lattice parameters within 3%. In addition, U-dependent calculations for an example system, Co-MOF-74, suggest that the CO2 binding energy grows monotonically with the value of Hubbard U, with the binding energy shifting 4 kJ/mol (or 0.041 eV) over the range of U = 0-5.4 eV. These results provide insight into an approximate but computationally efficient means for calculation of small molecule binding energies to open-shell transition metal atoms in MOFs and suggest that the approach can be predictive with good accuracy, independent of the cations used and the availability of experimental data.

  14. A Principled Approach to the Specification of System Architectures for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKelvin, Mark L. Jr.; Castillo, Robert; Bonanne, Kevin; Bonnici, Michael; Cox, Brian; Gibson, Corrina; Leon, Juan P.; Gomez-Mustafa, Jose; Jimenez, Alejandro; Madni, Azad

    2015-01-01

    Modern space systems are increasing in complexity and scale at an unprecedented pace. Consequently, innovative methods, processes, and tools are needed to cope with the increasing complexity of architecting these systems. A key systems challenge in practice is the ability to scale processes, methods, and tools used to architect complex space systems. Traditionally, the process for specifying space system architectures has largely relied on capturing the system architecture in informal descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled design documents and domain expertise. Such informal descriptions often lead to misunderstandings between design teams, ambiguous specifications, difficulty in maintaining consistency as the architecture evolves throughout the system development life cycle, and costly design iterations. Therefore, traditional methods are becoming increasingly inefficient to cope with ever-increasing system complexity. We apply the principles of component-based design and platform-based design to the development of the system architecture for a practical space system to demonstrate feasibility of our approach using SysML. Our results show that we are able to apply a systematic design method to manage system complexity, thus enabling effective data management, semantic coherence and traceability across different levels of abstraction in the design chain. Just as important, our approach enables interoperability among heterogeneous tools in a concurrent engineering model based design environment.

  15. First-principles nonequilibrium Green's-function approach to transient photoabsorption: Application to atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfetto, E.; Uimonen, A.-M.; van Leeuwen, R.; Stefanucci, G.

    2015-09-01

    We put forward a first-principle nonequilibrium Green's-function (NEGF) approach to calculate the transient photoabsorption spectrum of optically thin systems. The method can deal with pump fields of arbitrary strength, frequency, and duration as well as overlapping and nonoverlapping pump and probe pulses. The electron-electron repulsion is accounted for by the correlation self-energy, and the resulting numerical scheme deals with matrices that scale quadratically with the system size. Two recent experiments, the first on helium and the second on krypton, are addressed. For the first experiment we explain the bending of the Autler-Townes absorption peaks with increasing pump-probe delay τ and relate the bending to the thickness and density of the gas. For the second experiment we find that sizable spectral structures of the pump-generated admixture of Kr ions are fingerprints of dynamical correlation effects, and hence they cannot be reproduced by time-local self-energy approximations. Remarkably, the NEGF approach also captures the retardation of the absorption onset of Kr2 + with respect to Kr1 + as a function of τ .

  16. Game-Based Approaches' Pedagogical Principles: Exploring Task Constraints in Youth Soccer.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; González-Víllora, Sixto; García-López, Luis Miguel; Araújo, Duarte

    2015-06-27

    This study tested the use of two pedagogical principles of Game-based approaches, representation and exaggeration, in the context of game performance of U10 soccer players. Twenty-one players participated in two 3 vs. 3 small-sided games. The first small-sided game was modified by representation. The second small-sided game was modified by enhancing the penetration of the defense tactical problem for invasion games. Decision-making and execution were assessed using the Game Performance Evaluation Tool. No significant differences were observed between games in the number of decision-making units related to keeping possession, nor in those related to penetrating the defense. No significant differences were observed in any execution ability (ball control, passing, dribbling and get free movements). The findings suggested that both games could provide similar degeneracy processes to the players for skill acquisition (specific and contextualized task constraints in which they could develop their game performance and the capability to achieve different outcomes in varying contexts). Probably both games had similar learner-environment dynamics leading players to develop their capabilities for adapting their behaviours to the changing performance situations. More research is necessary, from the ecological dynamics point of view, to determine how we should use small-sided games in Game-based approaches.

  17. A model-based approach to monitor complex road-vehicle interactions through first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, T.; Srinivasarengan, K.; Roy, S.; Bilal, S.; Balamuralidhar, P.

    2013-02-01

    The increasing availability of portable computing devices and their interaction with physical systems ask for designing compact models and simulations to understand and characterize such interactions. For instance, monitoring a road's grade using accelerometer stationed inside a moving ground vehicle is an emerging trend in city administration. Typically the focus has largely been to develop algorithms to articulate meaning from that. But, the experimentation cannot provide with an exhaustive analysis of all scenarios and the characteristics of them. We propose an approach of modeling these interactions of physical systems with gadgets through first principles, in a compact manner to focus on limited number of interactions. We derive an approach to model the vehicle interaction with a pothole on a road, a specific case, but allowing for selectable car parameters like natural damped frequency, tire size etc, thus generalizing it. Different road profiles are also created to represent rough road with sharp irregularities. These act as excitation to the moving vehicle and the interaction is computed to determine the vertical/ lateral vibration of the system i.e vehicle with sensors using joint time-frequency signal analysis methods. The simulation is compared with experimental data for validation. We show some directions as to how simulation of such models can reveal different characteristics of the interaction through analysis of their frequency spectrum. It is envisioned that the proposed models will get enriched further as and when large data set of real life data is captured and appropriate sensitivity analysis is done.

  18. A first-principles approach to total-dose hardness assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    A first-principles approach to radiation hardness assurance was described that provides the technical background to the present US and European total-dose radiation hardness assurance test methods for MOS technologies, TM 1019.4 and BS 22900. These test methods could not have been developed otherwise, as their existence depends not on a wealth of empirical comparisons of IC data from ground and space testing, but on a fundamental understanding of MOS defect growth and annealing processes. Rebound testing should become less of a problem for advanced MOS small-signal electronics technologies for systems with total dose requirements below 50--100 krad(SiO{sub 2}) because of trends toward much thinner gate oxides. For older technologies with thicker gate oxides and for power devices, rebound testing is unavoidable without detailed characterization studies to assess the impact of interface traps on devices response in space. The QML approach is promising for future hardened technologies. A sufficient understanding of process effects on radiation hardness has been developed that should be able to reduce testing costs in the future for hardened parts. Finally, it is hoped that the above discussions have demonstrated that the foundation for cost-effective hardness assurance tests is laid with studies of the basic mechanisms of radiation effects. Without a diligent assessment of new radiation effects mechanisms in future technologies, one cannot be assured that the present generation of radiation test standards will continue to apply.

  19. Principles, approaches, and challenges for predicting protein aggregation rates and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Weiss, William F; Young, Teresa M; Roberts, Christopher J

    2009-04-01

    Control and prevention of unwanted aggregation for therapeutic proteins is a ubiquitous hurdle during biopharmaceutical product manufacture, storage, shipping, and administration. Methods to predict the relative or absolute rates of aggregation are therefore of great practical interest in biopharmaceutical research and development. Aggregation is often well-described as a multi-stage process involving unfolding or misfolding of free monomers, along with one or more assembly steps to form soluble or insoluble oligomers or higher-molecular-weight species. This report reviews the current state of the art in experimental and practical theoretical approaches that attempt to predict in vitro protein aggregation rates or propensities relevant to pharmaceutical proteins. Most available approaches fall within four primary categories. The principles and assumptions underlying each category are reviewed, along with advantages and limitations in each case. The importance of appropriate experimental techniques and models to probe and quantify the thermodynamics and/or dynamics of multiple steps or stages within the overall aggregation process is stressed. The primary focus is on aggregation in solution, relevant to parenteral dosage forms. Additional challenges are briefly reviewed.

  20. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

    2014-02-17

    To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors' and investigators' experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 interviews, five focus groups and observations of monitoring practice were conducted. Fieldwork occurred in the places where the monitoring models are coordinated and applied in Thailand, Cambodia, Uganda and Kenya. Participants included those coordinating the monitoring schemes, monitors, senior investigators and research staff. Transcribed textual data from field notes, interviews and focus groups was imported into a qualitative data software program (NVIVO V. 10) and analysed inductively and thematically by a qualitative researcher. The initial coding framework was reviewed internally and two main categories emerged from the subsequent interrogation of the data. The categories that were identified related to the conceptual framing and nature of monitoring, and the practice of monitoring, including relational factors. Particular emphasis was given to the value of a scientific and cooperative style of monitoring as a means of enhancing data quality, trust and transparency. In terms of practice the primary purpose of monitoring was defined as improving the conduct of health research and increasing the capacity of researchers and trial sites. The models studied utilise internal and network wide expertise to improve the ethics and quality of clinical research. They demonstrate how monitoring can be a scientific and constructive exercise rather than a threatening process. The value of cooperative relations needs to be given more emphasis in monitoring activities, which seek to ensure that research protects

  1. The clinical differential approach of Sante De Sanctis in Italian "scientific" psychology.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Sante De Sanctis, a psychiatrist and psychologist, is one of the most representative figures of Italian "scientific" psychology. He is considered one of the founders of the discipline as well as one of its main protagonists in the years between the two World Wars. Both with his extensive scientific productions (which include more than three hundred works) and with his uninterrupted institutional activity, he has left his significant mark on the history of Italian psychology. He was the first professor of Experimental Psychology and was internationally known: some of his works have been published in French, Swiss, American, German, Scandinavian, and English journals, and some of his volumes have been translated into English and German. Together with the other psychologists of the second generation (Binet, Külpe, Münsterberg, Stern, Claparède, Ebbinghaus), he was the Italian psychologist who decided to enrich the classical paradigm of Wundt's physiological psychology, by developing during the twentieth century the program of methodological and epistemological enlargement of the discipline. In his fundamental treatise Psicologia Sperimentale, written in 1929-30, a clear modern conception of psychology emerged: it jointly included both the generalist aspect (with some studies on psychophysical proportionality, thought mimicry, dreams, attention, emotions, etc.) and the applicative one, which included psychopathology, labor psychology, educational psychology, and criminal psychology, all seen in a general experimental framework. The present paper aims precisely to highlight the originality of De Sanctis' experimentalism that applied the differential clinical approach to the discipline of psychology, causing it for the first time in Italy to be seen in a unitary way as both general and applied psychology.

  2. AHA Scientific Statement Population Approaches to Improve Diet, Physical Activity, and Smoking Habits A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Afshin, Ashkan; Benowitz, Neal L.; Bittner, Vera; Daniels, Stephen R.; Franch, Harold A.; Jacobs, David R.; Kraus, William E.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Krummel, Debra A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Zakai, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor lifestyle, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. Methods and Results For this American Heart Association Scientific Statement, the writing group systematically reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for effective population approaches to improve dietary habits, increase physical activity, and reduce tobacco use. Strategies were considered in 6 broad domains: (1) media and education campaigns; (2) labeling and consumer information; (3) taxation, subsidies, and other economic incentives; (4) school and workplace approaches; (5) local environmental changes; and (6) direct restrictions and mandates. The writing group also reviewed the potential contributions of healthcare systems and surveillance systems to behavior change efforts. Several specific population interventions that achieved a Class I or IIa recommendation with grade A or B evidence were identified, providing a set of specific evidence-based strategies that deserve close attention and prioritization for wider implementation. Effective interventions included specific approaches in all 6 domains evaluated for improving diet, increasing activity, and reducing tobacco use. The writing group also identified several specific interventions in each of these domains for which current evidence was less robust, as well as other inconsistencies and evidence gaps, informing the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to evaluate population programs and policies. Conclusions This systematic review identified and graded the evidence for a range of population-based strategies to promote lifestyle change. The findings provide a framework for policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, clinicians, communities, and other

  3. Simple approach to sediment provenance tracing using element analysis and fundamental principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Popelka, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Common sediment fingerprinting techniques use either (1) extensive analytical datasets, sometimes nearly complete with respect to accessible characterization techniques; they are processed by multidimensional statistics based on certain statistical assumptions on distribution functions of analytical results and conservativeness/additivity of some components, or (2) analytically demanding characteristics such as isotope ratios assumed to be unequivocal "labels" on the parent material unaltered by any catchment process. The inherent problem of the approach ad (1) is that interpretation of statistical components ("sources") is done ex post and remains purely formal. The problem of the approach ad (2) is that catchment processes (weathering, transport, deposition) can modify most geochemical parameters of soils and sediments, in other words, that the idea that some geochemistry parameters are "conservative" may be idealistic. Grain-size effects and sediment provenance have a joint influence on chemical composition of fluvial sediments that is indeed not easy to distinguish. Attempts to separate those two main components using only statistics seem risky and equivocal, because grain-size dependence of element composition is nearly individual for each element and reflects sediment maturity and catchment-specific formation transport processes. We suppose that the use of less extensive datasets of analytical results and their interpretation respecting fundamental principles should be more robust than only statistic tools applied to overwhelming datasets. We examined sediment composition, both published by other researchers and gathered by us, and we found some general principles, which are in our opinion relevant for fingerprinting: (1) Concentrations of all elements are grain-size sensitive, i.e. there are no "conservative" elements in conventional sense of provenance- or transport-pathways tracing, (2) fractionation by catchment processes and fluvial transport changes

  4. A model of scientific attitudes assessment by observation in physics learning based scientific approach: case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusliana Ekawati, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to produce a model of scientific attitude assessment in terms of the observations for physics learning based scientific approach (case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school). Development of instruments in this study adaptation of the Plomp model, the procedure includes the initial investigation, design, construction, testing, evaluation and revision. The test is done in Surakarta, so that the data obtained are analyzed using Aiken formula to determine the validity of the content of the instrument, Cronbach’s alpha to determine the reliability of the instrument, and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis with LISREL 8.50 program. The results of this research were conceptual models, instruments and guidelines on scientific attitudes assessment by observation. The construct assessment instruments include components of curiosity, objectivity, suspended judgment, open-mindedness, honesty and perseverance. The construct validity of instruments has been qualified (rated load factor > 0.3). The reliability of the model is quite good with the Alpha value 0.899 (> 0.7). The test showed that the model fits the theoretical models are supported by empirical data, namely p-value 0.315 (≥ 0.05), RMSEA 0.027 (≤ 0.08)

  5. Defending the four principles approach as a good basis for good medical practice and therefore for good medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Gillon, Raanan

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the four prima facie principles-beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for autonomy and justice-afford a good and widely acceptable basis for 'doing good medical ethics'. It confronts objections that the approach is simplistic, incompatible with a virtue-based approach to medicine, that it requires respect for autonomy always to have priority when the principles clash at the expense of clinical obligations to benefit patients and global justice. It agrees that the approach does not provide universalisable methods either for resolving such moral dilemmas arising from conflict between the principles or their derivatives, or universalisable methods for resolving disagreements about the scope of these principles-long acknowledged lacunae but arguably to be found, in practice, with all other approaches to medical ethics. The value of the approach, when properly understood, is to provide a universalisable though prima facie set of moral commitments which all doctors can accept, a basic moral language and a basic moral analytic framework. These can underpin an intercultural 'moral mission statement' for the goals and practice of medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Making a Math Teaching Aids of Junior High School Based on Scientific Approach Through an Integrated and Sustainable Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiastuti, E.; Mashuri

    2017-04-01

    Not all of teachers of Mathematics in Junior High School (JHS) can design and create teaching aids. Moreover, if teaching aids should be designed so that it can be used in learning through scientific approaches. The problem: How to conduct an integrated and sustainable training that the math teacher of JHS, especially in Semarang can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach? The purpose of this study to find a way of integrated and continuous training so that the math teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. This article was based on research with a qualitative approach. Through trials activities of resulting of training model, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), interviews, and triangulation of the results of the research were: (1) Produced a training model of integrated and sustainable that the mathematics teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. (2) In training, there was the provision of material and workshop (3) There was a mentoring in the classroom. (4) Sustainability of the consultation. Our advice: (1) the trainer should be clever, (2) the training can be held at the holidays, while the assistance during the holiday season was over.

  7. Mathematics teachers' beliefs about scientific approach (SA) and implementation in mathematics learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutholib, Ahmad Abdul; Sujadi, Imam; Subanti, Sri

    2017-08-01

    SA is the approach used for the exploration of research and answer questions. Teachers' beliefs have a greater influence than the teacher's knowledge of designing lesson plans in the classroom. The objectives of this study are to explore the teachers' beliefs in SA, to reveal how the beliefs are reflected in classroom practices; and to figure out the factors affecting their beliefs and practices of SA to the teaching of mathematics. This qualitative research applied case study. The data was gained from classroom observation, face-to-face interview, and documentation. Interactive models from Miles and Huberman were used to examine the data. Results of the study: 1) The teachers believe about the conception of SA. They also believe that the SA is important and gives impact to students' progress. They believe that by applying SA, the target of mathematics learning is acquired. As to learning procedure, they believe that SA steps are conducted in sequence by combining some steps for each. 2) Teachers formulate their beliefs of applying the five scientific step of integrating all steps by keeping the sequence. Teachers argue that target of mathematics learning can be attained by some ways, namely presence of theoretical and practical support, teachers' guidance, providing variety of media and motivation to students. 3) There are five factors which influence teachers' beliefs and practices of SA, namely learning and teaching experience, teachers' motivation, sharing with colleagues and facility. This study concludes that teachers believe in the importance of SA, therefore they implement it in the classroom.

  8. A Novel Approach to Measuring Efficiency of Scientific Research Projects: Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dilts, David M; Zell, Adrienne; Orwoll, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Measuring the efficiency of resource allocation for the conduct of scientific projects in medical research is difficult due to, among other factors, the heterogeneity of resources supplied (e.g., dollars or FTEs) and outcomes expected (e.g., grants, publications). While this is an issue in medical science, it has been approached successfully in other fields by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA has a number of advantages over other techniques as it simultaneously uses multiple heterogeneous inputs and outputs to determine which projects are performing most efficiently, referred to as being at the efficiency frontier, when compared to others in the data set. This research uses DEA for the evaluation of supported translational science projects by the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), a NCATS Clinical & Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipient. These results suggest that the primary determinate of overall project efficiency at OCTRI is the amount of funding, with smaller amounts of funding providing more efficiency than larger funding amounts. These results, and the use of DEA, highlight both the success of using this technique in helping determine medical research efficiency and those factors to consider when distributing funds for new projects at CTSAs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Scientific Research for Integrated Solutions to Community Challenges: The Thriving Earth Exchange (TEX) Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udu-gama, N.; Pandya, R.

    2015-12-01

    There is tremendous unmet and sometimes unrealized need for Earth and space science (ESS) expertise as part of civic decisions and local planning for climate change, natural hazards and natural resources. The Thriving Earth Exchange (TEX) helps AGU contribute that expertise to humanity in respectful, integrated ways. TEX brings ESS scientists together with local communities tackling issues of climate change, natural hazards and natural resources to co-design solutions that equitably integrate both scientific and community knowledge. To achieve this ambitious goal, TEX is partnering with organizations that are respected by and knowledgeable about communities both in the United States and internationally. Such partnerships include Rockefeller's 100 Resilient Cities Initiative, ICLEI USA, MIT's Climate Colab, among others. TEX works with these partners to approach communities who are ready to or already addressing ESS related issues. With partners, we help the communities define their goals, develop specific projects, and connect with relevant and helpful ESS scientists. We will also show how we help scientists and community leaders work productively together, and the tools we bring to support their innovation. It will highlight international examples, such as in the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan-Tajikistan, Sri Lanka, and Ethiopia, and provide concrete examples of how these initiatives are helping TEX further expand the frontiers of collaborative research.

  10. A Novel Approach to Measuring Efficiency of Scientific Research Projects: Data Envelopment Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zell, Adrienne; Orwoll, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Measuring the efficiency of resource allocation for the conduct of scientific projects in medical research is difficult due to, among other factors, the heterogeneity of resources supplied (e.g., dollars or FTEs) and outcomes expected (e.g., grants, publications). While this is an issue in medical science, it has been approached successfully in other fields by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA has a number of advantages over other techniques as it simultaneously uses multiple heterogeneous inputs and outputs to determine which projects are performing most efficiently, referred to as being at the efficiency frontier, when compared to others in the data set. Method This research uses DEA for the evaluation of supported translational science projects by the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), a NCATS Clinical & Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipient. Results These results suggest that the primary determinate of overall project efficiency at OCTRI is the amount of funding, with smaller amounts of funding providing more efficiency than larger funding amounts. Conclusion These results, and the use of DEA, highlight both the success of using this technique in helping determine medical research efficiency and those factors to consider when distributing funds for new projects at CTSAs. PMID:26243147

  11. A New Approach in Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for High-Performance Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-01-28

    Scientific applications already generate many terabytes and even petabytes of data from supercomputer runs and large-scale experiments. The need for transferring data chunks of ever-increasing sizes through the network shows no sign of abating. Hence, we need high-bandwidth high speed networks such as ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Network reservation systems, i.e. ESnet's OSCARS (On-demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System) establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits at a certain time, for a certain bandwidth and length of time. OSCARS checks network availability and capacity for the specified period of time, and allocates requested bandwidth for that user if it is available. If the requested reservation cannot be granted, no further suggestion is returned back to the user. Further, there is no possibility from the users view-point to make an optimal choice. We report a new algorithm, where the user specifies the total volume that needs to be transferred, a maximum bandwidth that he/she can use, and a desired time period within which the transfer should be done. The algorithm can find alternate allocation possibilities, including earliest time for completion, or shortest transfer duration - leaving the choice to the user. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks, and a new polynomial algorithm to find possible reservation options according to given constraints. We have implemented our algorithm for testing and incorporation into a future version of ESnet?s OSCARS. Our approach provides a basis for provisioning end-to-end high performance data transfers over storage and network resources.

  12. Developing an approach for first-principles catalyst design: application to carbon-capture catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Heather J; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-02-01

    An approach to catalyst design is presented in which local potential energy surface models are first built to elucidate design principles and then used to identify larger scaffold motifs that match the target geometries. Carbon sequestration via hydration is used as the model reaction, and three- and four-coordinate sp(2) or sp(3) nitrogen-ligand motifs are considered for Zn(II) metals. The comparison of binding, activation and product release energies over a large range of interaction distances and angles suggests that four-coordinate short Zn(II)-Nsp(3) bond distances favor a rapid turnover for CO2 hydration. This design strategy is then confirmed by computationally characterizing the reactivity of a known mimic over a range of metal-nitrogen bond lengths. A search of existing catalysts in a chemical database reveals structures that match the target geometry from model calculations, and subsequent calculations have identified these structures as potentially effective for CO2 hydration and sequestration.

  13. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  14. A novel first principles approach for the estimation of the sieve factor of blood samples.

    PubMed

    Northam, L; Baranoski, G V G

    2010-03-29

    Light may traverse a turbid material, such as blood, without encountering any of its pigment containing structures, a phenomenon known as sieve effect. This phenomenon may result in a decrease in the amount of light absorbed by the material. Accordingly, the corresponding sieve factor needs to be accounted for in optical investigations aimed at the derivation of blood biophysical properties from light transmittance measurements. The existing procedures used for its estimation either lack the flexibility required for practical applications or are based on general formulas that incorporate other light and matter interaction phenomena such as detour (scattering) effects. In this paper, a ray optics framework is proposed to estimate the sieve factor for blood samples. It employs a first principles approach to account for the distribution, orientation and shape of the cells that contain hemoglobin, the essential (oxygen-carrying) pigment found in human blood. Within this framework, ray-casting techniques are used to determine the probability that light can traverse a blood sample without encountering any of these cells. The predictive capabilities of the proposed framework are demonstrated through a series of in silico experiments. Its effectiveness is further illustrated by visualizations depicting the different blood parameterizations considered in the simulations.

  15. Structural data in synthetic biology approaches for studying general design principles of cellular signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Christina; Serrano, Luis

    2012-11-07

    In recent years, high-throughput discovery of macromolecular protein structures and complexes has played a major role in advancing a more systems-oriented view of protein interaction and signaling networks. The design of biological systems often employs structural information or structure-based protein design to successfully implement synthetic signaling circuits or for rewiring signaling flows. Here, we summarize the latest advances in using structural information for studying protein interaction and signaling networks, and in synthetic biology approaches. We then provide a perspective of how combining structural biology with engineered cell signaling modules--using additional information from quantitative biochemistry and proteomics, gene evolution, and mathematical modeling--can provide insight into signaling modules and the general design principles of cell signaling. Ultimately, this will improve our understanding of cell- and tissue-type-specific signal transduction. Integrating the quantitative effects of disease mutations into these systems may provide a basis for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual- and Multi-Energy CT: Principles, Technical Approaches, and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.

    2015-01-01

    In x-ray computed tomography (CT), materials having different elemental compositions can be represented by identical pixel values on a CT image (ie, CT numbers), depending on the mass density of the material. Thus, the differentiation and classification of different tissue types and contrast agents can be extremely challenging. In dual-energy CT, an additional attenuation measurement is obtained with a second x-ray spectrum (ie, a second “energy”), allowing the differentiation of multiple materials. Alternatively, this allows quantification of the mass density of two or three materials in a mixture with known elemental composition. Recent advances in the use of energy-resolving, photon-counting detectors for CT imaging suggest the ability to acquire data in multiple energy bins, which is expected to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio for material-specific imaging. In this review, the underlying motivation and physical principles of dual- or multi-energy CT are reviewed and each of the current technical approaches is described. In addition, current and evolving clinical applications are introduced. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26302388

  17. Developing a curriculum framework for global health in family medicine: emerging principles, competencies, and educational approaches

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognizing the growing demand from medical students and residents for more comprehensive global health training, and the paucity of explicit curricula on such issues, global health and curriculum experts from the six Ontario Family Medicine Residency Programs worked together to design a framework for global health curricula in family medicine training programs. Methods A working group comprised of global health educators from Ontario's six medical schools conducted a scoping review of global health curricula, competencies, and pedagogical approaches. The working group then hosted a full day meeting, inviting experts in education, clinical care, family medicine and public health, and developed a consensus process and draft framework to design global health curricula. Through a series of weekly teleconferences over the next six months, the framework was revised and used to guide the identification of enabling global health competencies (behaviours, skills and attitudes) for Canadian Family Medicine training. Results The main outcome was an evidence-informed interactive framework http://globalhealth.ennovativesolution.com/ to provide a shared foundation to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of global health education programs for Ontario's family medicine residency programs. The curriculum framework blended a definition and mission for global health training, core values and principles, global health competencies aligning with the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) competencies, and key learning approaches. The framework guided the development of subsequent enabling competencies. Conclusions The shared curriculum framework can support the design, delivery and evaluation of global health curriculum in Canada and around the world, lay the foundation for research and development, provide consistency across programmes, and support the creation of learning and evaluation tools to align with the framework. The process used to

  18. Elastic interaction of hydrogen atoms on graphene: A multiscale approach from first principles to continuum elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Vastola, Guglielmo; Jhon, Mark H.; Sullivan, Michael B.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Srolovitz, David J.

    2016-10-01

    The deformation of graphene due to the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms on its surface and the long-range elastic interaction between hydrogen atoms induced by these deformations are investigated using a multiscale approach based on first principles, empirical interactions, and continuum modeling. Focus is given to the intrinsic low-temperature structure and interactions. Therefore, all calculations are performed at T =0 , neglecting possible temperature or thermal fluctuation effects. Results from different methods agree well and consistently describe the local deformation of graphene on multiple length scales reaching 500 Å . The results indicate that the elastic interaction mediated by this deformation is significant and depends on the deformation of the graphene sheet both in and out of plane. Surprisingly, despite the isotropic elasticity of graphene, within the linear elastic regime, atoms elastically attract or repel each other depending on (i) the specific site they are chemisorbed; (ii) the relative position of the sites; (iii) and if they are on the same or on opposite surface sides. The interaction energy sign and power-law decay calculated from molecular statics agree well with theoretical predictions from linear elasticity theory, considering in-plane or out-of-plane deformations as a superposition or in a coupled nonlinear approach. Deviations on the exact power law between molecular statics and the linear elastic analysis are evidence of the importance of nonlinear effects on the elasticity of monolayer graphene. These results have implications for the understanding of the generation of clusters and regular formations of hydrogen and other chemisorbed atoms on graphene.

  19. First-Principles Approach to Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous Semiconductor Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hybertsen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a first principles method to calculate the energy level alignment between semiconductor band edges and reference energy levels at aqueous interfaces. This alignment is fundamental to understand the electrochemical characteristics of any semiconductor electrode in general and the potential for photocatalytic activity in particular. For example, in the search for new photo-catalytic materials, viable candidates must demonstrate both efficient absorption of the solar spectrum and an appropriate alignment of the band edge levels in the semiconductor to the redox levels for the target reactions. In our approach, the interface-specific contribution to the electrostatic step across the interface is evaluated using density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics to sample the physical interface structure and the corresponding change in the electrostatic potential at the interface. The reference electronic levels in the semiconductor and in the water are calculated using the GW approach, which naturally corrects for errors inherent in the use of Kohn-Sham energy eigenvalues to approximate the electronic excitation energies in each material. Taken together, our calculations provide the alignment of the semiconductor valence band edge to the centroid of the highest occupied 1b1 level in water. The known relationship of the 1b1 level to the normal hydrogen electrode completes the connection to electrochemical levels. We discuss specific results for GaN, ZnO, and TiO2. The effect of interface structural motifs, such as different degrees of water dissociation, and of dynamical characteristics, will be presented together with available experimental data. Work supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  20. Developing a curriculum framework for global health in family medicine: emerging principles, competencies, and educational approaches.

    PubMed

    Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Pakes, Barry; Rouleau, Katherine; MacDonald, Colla J; Arya, Neil; Purkey, Eva; Schultz, Karen; Dhatt, Reena; Wilson, Briana; Hadi, Abdullahel; Pottie, Kevin

    2011-07-22

    Recognizing the growing demand from medical students and residents for more comprehensive global health training, and the paucity of explicit curricula on such issues, global health and curriculum experts from the six Ontario Family Medicine Residency Programs worked together to design a framework for global health curricula in family medicine training programs. A working group comprised of global health educators from Ontario's six medical schools conducted a scoping review of global health curricula, competencies, and pedagogical approaches. The working group then hosted a full day meeting, inviting experts in education, clinical care, family medicine and public health, and developed a consensus process and draft framework to design global health curricula. Through a series of weekly teleconferences over the next six months, the framework was revised and used to guide the identification of enabling global health competencies (behaviours, skills and attitudes) for Canadian Family Medicine training. The main outcome was an evidence-informed interactive framework http://globalhealth.ennovativesolution.com/ to provide a shared foundation to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of global health education programs for Ontario's family medicine residency programs. The curriculum framework blended a definition and mission for global health training, core values and principles, global health competencies aligning with the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) competencies, and key learning approaches. The framework guided the development of subsequent enabling competencies. The shared curriculum framework can support the design, delivery and evaluation of global health curriculum in Canada and around the world, lay the foundation for research and development, provide consistency across programmes, and support the creation of learning and evaluation tools to align with the framework. The process used to develop this framework can be applied

  1. The principle of exhaustiveness versus the principle of parsimony: a new approach for the identification of biomarkers from proteomic spot volume datasets based on principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Bobba, Marco; Gosetti, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The field of biomarkers discovery is one of the leading research areas in proteomics. One of the most exploited approaches to this purpose consists of the identification of potential biomarkers from spot volume datasets produced by 2D gel electrophoresis. In this case, problems may arise due to the large number of spots present in each map and the small number of maps available for each class (control/pathological). Multivariate methods are therefore usually applied together with variable selection procedures, to provide a subset of potential candidates. The variable selection procedures available usually pursue the so-called principle of parsimony: the most parsimonious set of spots is selected, providing the best classification performances. This approach is not effective in proteomics since all potential biomarkers must be identified: not only the most discriminating spots, usually related to general responses to inflammatory events, but also the smallest differences and all redundant molecules, i.e. biomarkers showing similar behaviour. The principle of exhaustiveness should be pursued rather than parsimony. To solve this problem, a new ranking and classification method, "Ranking-PCA", based on principal component analysis and variable selection in forward search, is proposed here for the exhaustive identification of all possible biomarkers. The method is successfully applied to three different proteomic datasets to prove its effectiveness.

  2. Authorship matrix: a rational approach to quantify individual contributions and responsibilities in multi-author scientific articles.

    PubMed

    Clement, T Prabhakar

    2014-06-01

    We propose a rational method for addressing an important question-who deserves to be an author of a scientific article? We review various contentious issues associated with this question and recommend that the scientific community should view authorship in terms of contributions and responsibilities, rather than credits. We propose a new paradigm that conceptually divides a scientific article into four basic elements: ideas, work, writing, and stewardship. We employ these four fundamental elements to modify the well-known International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines. The modified ICMJE guidelines are then used as the basis to develop an approach to quantify individual contributions and responsibilities in multi-author articles. The outcome of the approach is an authorship matrix, which can be used to answer several nagging questions related to authorship.

  3. Application of Overlapping Technique in Selection of Scientific Journals for a Particular Discipline--Methodological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pravdic, Nevenka; Oluic-Vukovic, Vesna

    1987-01-01

    Outlines procedures for selecting scientific journals for academic library collections and provides a model which ranks data sources according to their relative weights rather than ranking the journals themselves. Use of the model in scientifically less developed countries is discussed. (Author/LRW)

  4. An Action-Oriented Approach to Gifted Education: Evidence from the Field of Scientific Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinghuan; Liu, Guirong; Lin, Chongde

    2012-01-01

    Eight years ago, the authors carried out a study on scientific creativity. Thirty-four eminent scientists, who had gained great creative scientific achievements in five fields--mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography and life science--were chosen and interviewed. In the study, the authors tried to find out what made a person demonstrate…

  5. An Action-Oriented Approach to Gifted Education: Evidence from the Field of Scientific Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinghuan; Liu, Guirong; Lin, Chongde

    2012-01-01

    Eight years ago, the authors carried out a study on scientific creativity. Thirty-four eminent scientists, who had gained great creative scientific achievements in five fields--mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography and life science--were chosen and interviewed. In the study, the authors tried to find out what made a person demonstrate…

  6. A Comparison of Bilingual Education and Generalist Teachers' Approaches to Scientific Biliteracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Esther

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if educators were capitalizing on bilingual learners. use of their biliterate abilities to acquire scientific meaning and discourse that would formulate a scientific biliterate identity. Mixed methods were used to explore teachers. use of biliteracy and Funds of Knowledge (Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D.,…

  7. A Comparison of Bilingual Education and Generalist Teachers' Approaches to Scientific Biliteracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Esther

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if educators were capitalizing on bilingual learners. use of their biliterate abilities to acquire scientific meaning and discourse that would formulate a scientific biliterate identity. Mixed methods were used to explore teachers. use of biliteracy and Funds of Knowledge (Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D.,…

  8. The Institute for Scientific Information Electronic Library Project: Partnering as the Predominant Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trolley, Jacqueline H.; Cody, Julianne W.

    1997-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information Electronic Library Project (ELP) is a result of user demand for electronic access to scientific journal literature as well as to those journals themselves. This article describes the ELP; examines ELP's partnerships with technological organizations, publishers, librarians, and users; and discusses two core…

  9. Developing a New Teaching Approach for the Chemical Bonding Concept Aligned with Current Scientific and Pedagogical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahum, Tami Levy; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Krajcik, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The traditional pedagogical approach for teaching chemical bonding is often overly simplistic and not aligned with the most up-to-date scientific models. As a result, high-school students around the world lack fundamental understanding of chemical bonding. In order to improve students' understanding of this concept, it was essential to propose a…

  10. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  11. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  12. Promoting Scientific Literacy Using a Sociocritical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching: Concept, Examples, Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    This paper revisits the discussion about the objectives of scientific literacy-oriented chemistry teaching, its connection to the German concept of "Allgemeinbildung", and the debate of "science through education" vs. "education through science". About 10 years ago the sociocritical and problem-oriented approach to…

  13. Scientific & Technological Literacy through TechnoScience2000+: An Approach for In-Service and Preservice Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Scientific and technological literacy (STL) is becoming one of the central planks for development through education on a global scale. Within this global thrust, design and technology in particular are gaining strength as curriculum components either as an individual subject or as contributors to a more broad and inclusive approach to learning.…

  14. Developing a New Teaching Approach for the Chemical Bonding Concept Aligned with Current Scientific and Pedagogical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahum, Tami Levy; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Krajcik, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The traditional pedagogical approach for teaching chemical bonding is often overly simplistic and not aligned with the most up-to-date scientific models. As a result, high-school students around the world lack fundamental understanding of chemical bonding. In order to improve students' understanding of this concept, it was essential to propose a…

  15. Effectiveness of the scientific inquiry approach in teaching natural science to first-year college students in a Philippine university

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Luzviminda Miano

    Student-centered approaches to learning are aligned with the Constructivist Model and have been the focus of much recent science education research in the United States. It is based on the premise that students learn better when they are actively engaged and given the opportunity to construct their own knowledge. In addition, the search continues for effective science curricular and pedagogical approaches that will provide adequate understanding of the nature of science and development of positive attitudes. This study investigated the effectiveness of the scientific inquiry approach, which is a student-centered style of teaching, in improving students' attitudes and understanding of the nature of science. The scientific inquiry approach was used in the teaching of Natural Science in a Philippine university. Pre- and post-surveys on attitude and views about science were administered to 767 first year college students enrolled in the course. The results of the surveys revealed significant differences in both students' views and their attitudes before and after instruction. The overall trend of respondents' answers was changed from a mixed-folk (unscientific) direction to a mixed-expert (scientific) direction. Thus, the study concludes that the scientific inquiry style of teaching makes a significant impact in changing or improving students' attitudes and understanding about the nature of science. This study also showed a positive correlation between students' views and their attitudes toward science.

  16. Management of Teacher Scientific-Methodical Work in Vocational Educational Institutions on the Basis of Project-Target Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakuto, Elena A.; Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Kozlova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the subject under analysis is determined by the lack of theoretical development of the problem of management of teacher scientific-methodical work in vocational educational institutions based upon innovative approaches in the framework of project paradigm. The purpose of the article is to develop and test a science-based…

  17. The Effect of Constructivist Learning Using Scientific Approach on Mathematical Power and Conceptual Understanding of Students Grade IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmaryono, Imam; Suyitno, Hardi

    2016-02-01

    This study used a model of Concurrent Embedded with the aim of: (1) determine the difference between the conceptual understanding and mathematical power of students grade fourth who take the constructivist learning using scientific approach and direct learning, (2) determine the interaction between learning approaches and initial competence on the mathematical power and conceptual of understanding, and (3) describe the mathematical power of students grade fourth. This research was conducted in the fourth grade elementary school early 2015. Data initial competence and mathematical power obtained through tests, and analyzed using statistical tests multivariate and univariate. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) There are differences in the concept of understanding and mathematical power among the students who follow the scientifically-based constructivist learning than students who take the Direct Learning in terms of students initial competency (F = 5.550; p = 0.007 < 0.05), and (2) There is an interaction between the scientific-based constructivist learning approach with an initial competence (high and low) on the ability of concept of understanding and mathematical power (F = 5.259; p =0.033 < 0,05). Observations and in-depth interviews with students, shows that the construction of mathematical power of students have influenced the thinking of students in problem solving and contributes tremendous increase students' math skills. Researcher suggested that the learning of mathematics in schools using scientifically- based constructivist approach to improve the mathematical power of students and conceptual understanding.

  18. Implementing the precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    deFur, Peter L; Kaszuba, Michelle

    2002-04-08

    The precautionary principle can be found in international treaties that protect human health and the environment from a variety of pollutants and perturbations. One of the earliest forms of the precautionary principle was used in the 1980s in Europe to protect the North Sea. In 1992, the Rio Declaration specifically included the precautionary principle in calling on nations to protect the environment. The US articulation that best embodies this approach to environment and human health protection is the Wingspread statement: 'When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken, even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically.' The key element is the matter of acting in the face of uncertainty. Applications of the precautionary principle are not, however, new to US environmental policy and management. The present paper uses case studies to examine the application of the precautionary principle to environmental decisions. These cases range from ecosystem protection on the Charles River, Massachusetts, to the effort to prevent computer crashes at the end of the year 2000. These cases deal with the problem of uncertainty, whether concerning the cause, effect, systemic condition or multiple factors. Uncertainty represents one of the features that provoke controversy over these issues and the precautionary principle.

  19. Evaluation of university scientific research ability based on the output of sci-tech papers: A D-AHP approach.

    PubMed

    Zong, Fan; Wang, Lifang

    2017-01-01

    University scientific research ability is an important indicator to express the strength of universities. In this paper, the evaluation of university scientific research ability is investigated based on the output of sci-tech papers. Four university alliances from North America, UK, Australia, and China, are selected as the case study of the university scientific research evaluation. Data coming from Thomson Reuters InCites are collected to support the evaluation. The work has contributed new framework to the issue of university scientific research ability evaluation. At first, we have established a hierarchical structure to show the factors that impact the evaluation of university scientific research ability. Then, a new MCDM method called D-AHP model is used to implement the evaluation and ranking of different university alliances, in which a data-driven approach is proposed to automatically generate the D numbers preference relations. Next, a sensitivity analysis has been given to show the impact of weights of factors and sub-factors on the evaluation result. At last, the results obtained by using different methods are compared and discussed to verify the effectiveness and reasonability of this study, and some suggestions are given to promote China's scientific research ability.

  20. Evaluation of university scientific research ability based on the output of sci-tech papers: A D-AHP approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lifang

    2017-01-01

    University scientific research ability is an important indicator to express the strength of universities. In this paper, the evaluation of university scientific research ability is investigated based on the output of sci-tech papers. Four university alliances from North America, UK, Australia, and China, are selected as the case study of the university scientific research evaluation. Data coming from Thomson Reuters InCites are collected to support the evaluation. The work has contributed new framework to the issue of university scientific research ability evaluation. At first, we have established a hierarchical structure to show the factors that impact the evaluation of university scientific research ability. Then, a new MCDM method called D-AHP model is used to implement the evaluation and ranking of different university alliances, in which a data-driven approach is proposed to automatically generate the D numbers preference relations. Next, a sensitivity analysis has been given to show the impact of weights of factors and sub-factors on the evaluation result. At last, the results obtained by using different methods are compared and discussed to verify the effectiveness and reasonability of this study, and some suggestions are given to promote China’s scientific research ability. PMID:28212446

  1. Point defects in ZnO: an approach from first principles

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Fumiyasu; Choi, Minseok; Togo, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Recent first-principles studies of point defects in ZnO are reviewed with a focus on native defects. Key properties of defects, such as formation energies, donor and acceptor levels, optical transition energies, migration energies and atomic and electronic structure, have been evaluated using various approaches including the local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to DFT, LDA+U/GGA+U, hybrid Hartree–Fock density functionals, sX and GW approximation. Results significantly depend on the approximation to exchange correlation, the simulation models for defects and the post-processes to correct shortcomings of the approximation and models. The choice of a proper approach is, therefore, crucial for reliable theoretical predictions. First-principles studies have provided an insight into the energetics and atomic and electronic structures of native point defects and impurities and defect-induced properties of ZnO. Native defects that are relevant to the n-type conductivity and the non-stoichiometry toward the O-deficient side in reduced ZnO have been debated. It is suggested that the O vacancy is responsible for the non-stoichiometry because of its low formation energy under O-poor chemical potential conditions. However, the O vacancy is a very deep donor and cannot be a major source of carrier electrons. The Zn interstitial and anti-site are shallow donors, but these defects are unlikely to form at a high concentration in n-type ZnO under thermal equilibrium. Therefore, the n-type conductivity is attributed to other sources such as residual impurities including H impurities with several atomic configurations, a metastable shallow donor state of the O vacancy, and defect complexes involving the Zn interstitial. Among the native acceptor-type defects, the Zn vacancy is dominant. It is a deep acceptor and cannot produce a high concentration of holes. The O interstitial and anti-site are high in formation energy and/or are electrically

  2. Point defects in ZnO: an approach from first principles.

    PubMed

    Oba, Fumiyasu; Choi, Minseok; Togo, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2011-06-01

    Recent first-principles studies of point defects in ZnO are reviewed with a focus on native defects. Key properties of defects, such as formation energies, donor and acceptor levels, optical transition energies, migration energies and atomic and electronic structure, have been evaluated using various approaches including the local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to DFT, LDA+U/GGA+U, hybrid Hartree-Fock density functionals, sX and GW approximation. Results significantly depend on the approximation to exchange correlation, the simulation models for defects and the post-processes to correct shortcomings of the approximation and models. The choice of a proper approach is, therefore, crucial for reliable theoretical predictions. First-principles studies have provided an insight into the energetics and atomic and electronic structures of native point defects and impurities and defect-induced properties of ZnO. Native defects that are relevant to the n-type conductivity and the non-stoichiometry toward the O-deficient side in reduced ZnO have been debated. It is suggested that the O vacancy is responsible for the non-stoichiometry because of its low formation energy under O-poor chemical potential conditions. However, the O vacancy is a very deep donor and cannot be a major source of carrier electrons. The Zn interstitial and anti-site are shallow donors, but these defects are unlikely to form at a high concentration in n-type ZnO under thermal equilibrium. Therefore, the n-type conductivity is attributed to other sources such as residual impurities including H impurities with several atomic configurations, a metastable shallow donor state of the O vacancy, and defect complexes involving the Zn interstitial. Among the native acceptor-type defects, the Zn vacancy is dominant. It is a deep acceptor and cannot produce a high concentration of holes. The O interstitial and anti-site are high in formation energy and/or are electrically

  3. Bridging the Gap between Scientific Data Producers and Consumers: A Provenance Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-06-03

    Despite the methodical and painstaking efforts made by scientists to record their scientific findings and protocols, a knowledge gap problem continues to persist today between producers of scientific results and consumers because technology is performing the exchange of data as opposed to scientists making direct contact. Provenance is a means to formalize how this knowledge is transferred. However, for it to be meaningful to scientists, the provenance research community needs continued contributions from the scientific community to extend and leverage provenance-based vocabularies and technology from the provenance community. Going forward the provenance community must also be vigilant to meet scalability needs of data intensive science

  4. Second principle approach to the analysis of unsteady flow and heat transfer in a tube with arc-shaped corrugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliarini, G.; Vocale, P.; Mocerino, A.; Rainieri, S.

    2017-01-01

    Passive convective heat transfer enhancement techniques are well known and widespread tool for increasing the efficiency of heat transfer equipment. In spite of the ability of the first principle approach to forecast the macroscopic effects of the passive techniques for heat transfer enhancement, namely the increase of both the overall heat exchanged and the head losses, a first principle analysis based on energy, momentum and mass local conservation equations is hardly able to give a comprehensive explanation of how local modifications in the boundary layers contribute to the overall effect. A deeper insight on the heat transfer enhancement mechanisms can be instead obtained within a second principle approach, through the analysis of the local exergy dissipation phenomena which are related to heat transfer and fluid flow. To this aim, the analysis based on the second principle approach implemented through a careful consideration of the local entropy generation rate seems the most suitable, since it allows to identify more precisely the cause of the loss of efficiency in the heat transfer process, thus providing a useful guide in the choice of the most suitable heat transfer enhancement techniques.

  5. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the Classroom: The Use of Microbial Mats to Illustrate and Demonstrate General Principles of Scientific Inquiry and Microbial Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebout, B. M.; Bucaria, R.

    2004-12-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on Earth. As Earth's earliest ecosystems, they are centrally important to understanding the history of life on our planet and are useful models for the search for life elsewhere. As relatively small (but complete) ecosystems, microbial mats are also extremely useful for educational activities. Mats may be used to demonstrate a wide variety of concepts in general and microbial ecology, including the biogeochemical cycling of elements, photosynthesis and respiration, and the and the origin of the Earth's present oxygen containing atmosphere. Microbial mats can be found in a number of common environments accessible to teachers, and laboratory microbial mats can even be constructed using materials purchased from biological supply houses. With funding from NASA's Exobiology program, provided as a supplement to our research funding, we are developing curriculum and web-based activities centered on the use of microbial mats as tools for demonstrating general principles in ecology, and the scientific process. A web site with useful background information and links is now on-line. The curriculum, now in the pilot phase, is an integrated module having Science, Math and Language Art threads. A "Web Lab", featuring living mats maintained in a mini-aquarium, and complete with remotely-operable instrumentation not commonly available in classrooms, will be available to classrooms over the Internet. Using that system, the responses of the mat community to changes in environmental parameters, (e.g., light, pH, flow, and temperature) can be monitored using microsensors. Students will be able to develop hypotheses and propose experiments in the Web Lab to test them. Data from these experiments will be posted in real time and students will be able to collect the data, analyze it, and post results and conclusions back to the web page in a true implementation of the scientific inquiry process. The web site

  6. The Case Study Approach to Teaching Scientific Integrity in Nursing and the Biomedical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrina, Francis L.; Munro, Cindy L.

    1995-01-01

    Graduate courses in scientific integrity typically cover responsible authorship, conflict of interest, handling of misconduct, data management, and treatment of human and animal subjects. Carefully prepared and used case studies are an appropriate teaching method. (SK)

  7. The Case Study Approach to Teaching Scientific Integrity in Nursing and the Biomedical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrina, Francis L.; Munro, Cindy L.

    1995-01-01

    Graduate courses in scientific integrity typically cover responsible authorship, conflict of interest, handling of misconduct, data management, and treatment of human and animal subjects. Carefully prepared and used case studies are an appropriate teaching method. (SK)

  8. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the C: The Use of Microbial Mats to Demonstrate General Principles of Scientific Inquiry and Microbial Ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on Earth. As Earth's earliest ecosystems, they are centrally important to understanding the history of life on our planet and are useful models for the search for life elsewhere. As relatively compact (but complete) ecosystems, microbial mats are also extremely useful for educational activities. Mats may be used to demonstrate a wide variety of concepts in general and microbial ecology, including the biogeochemical cycling of elements, photosynthesis and respiration, and the origin of the Earth's present oxygen containing atmosphere. Microbial mats can be found in a number of common environments accessible to teachers, and laboratory microbial mats can be constructed using materials purchased from biological supply houses. With funding from NASA's Exobiology program, we have developed curriculum and web-based activities centered on the use of microbial mats as tools for demonstrating general principles in ecology, and the scientific process. Our web site (http://microbes.arc.nasa.gov) includes reference materials, lesson plans, and a "Web Lab", featuring living mats maintained in a mini-aquarium. The site also provides information as to how research on microbial mats supports NASA's goals, and various NASA missions. A photo gallery contains images of mats, microscopic views of the organisms that form them, and our own research activities. An animated educational video on the web site uses computer graphic and video microscopy to take students on a journey into a microbial mat. These activities are targeted to a middle school audience and are aligned with the National Science Standards.

  9. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the C: The Use of Microbial Mats to Demonstrate General Principles of Scientific Inquiry and Microbial Ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on Earth. As Earth's earliest ecosystems, they are centrally important to understanding the history of life on our planet and are useful models for the search for life elsewhere. As relatively compact (but complete) ecosystems, microbial mats are also extremely useful for educational activities. Mats may be used to demonstrate a wide variety of concepts in general and microbial ecology, including the biogeochemical cycling of elements, photosynthesis and respiration, and the origin of the Earth's present oxygen containing atmosphere. Microbial mats can be found in a number of common environments accessible to teachers, and laboratory microbial mats can be constructed using materials purchased from biological supply houses. With funding from NASA's Exobiology program, we have developed curriculum and web-based activities centered on the use of microbial mats as tools for demonstrating general principles in ecology, and the scientific process. Our web site (http://microbes.arc.nasa.gov) includes reference materials, lesson plans, and a "Web Lab", featuring living mats maintained in a mini-aquarium. The site also provides information as to how research on microbial mats supports NASA's goals, and various NASA missions. A photo gallery contains images of mats, microscopic views of the organisms that form them, and our own research activities. An animated educational video on the web site uses computer graphic and video microscopy to take students on a journey into a microbial mat. These activities are targeted to a middle school audience and are aligned with the National Science Standards.

  10. [Scientific approach to establishing system of providing first aid care in the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, K I; Dezhurnĭ, L I; Neudakhin, G V

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to evaluation of situation with providing first aid in the Russian Federation. It discusses the necessity to establish first aid system in the Russian Federation and formulates it's principles. The need in establishing such system is caused by necessity to draw a wide range of persons, including those who are not medically educated, to provide first aid service to patients. Also substantiated the need of development and adoption of the legislation that adjusts different aspects of first aid, as well as alteration in a current legislation. Proved the necessity of establishment and functioning of the intersectional coordination council. Consideration is given to principles of functioning of the training system for first aid providers. Principles, which will help to provide them with first aid tools, are substantiated.

  11. First-principles modeling of localized d states with the GW@LDA+U approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong; Gomez-Abal, Ricardo I.; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2010-07-01

    First-principles modeling of systems with localized d states is currently a great challenge in condensed-matter physics. Density-functional theory in the standard local-density approximation (LDA) proves to be problematic. This can be partly overcome by including local Hubbard U corrections (LDA+U) but itinerant states are still treated on the LDA level. Many-body perturbation theory in the GW approach offers both a quasiparticle perspective (appropriate for itinerant states) and an exact treatment of exchange (appropriate for localized states), and is therefore promising for these systems. LDA+U has previously been viewed as an approximate GW scheme. We present here a derivation that is simpler and more general, starting from the static Coulomb-hole and screened exchange approximation to the GW self-energy. Following our previous work for f -electron systems [H. Jiang, R. I. Gomez-Abal, P. Rinke, and M. Scheffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 126403 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.126403] we conduct a systematic investigation of the GW method based on LDA+U(GW@LDA+U) , as implemented in our recently developed all-electron GW code FHI-gap (Green’s function with augmented plane waves) for a series of prototypical d -electron systems: (1) ScN with empty d states, (2) ZnS with semicore d states, and (3) late transition-metal oxides (MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO) with partially occupied d states. We show that for ZnS and ScN, the GW band gaps only weakly depend on U but for the other transition-metal oxides the dependence on U is as strong as in LDA+U . These different trends can be understood in terms of changes in the hybridization and screening. Our work demonstrates that GW@LDA+U with “physical” values of U provides a balanced and accurate description of both localized and itinerant states.

  12. A National Approach to Scientific and Technical Information in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Joseph

    Over the past 30 years, science has placed great stress on the importance of scientific and technical information (STI) to the individual scientist. The Baker, Crawford, Weinberg, SATCOM, Greenberger, and Conference Board reports extended this objective by emphasizing the need for new supporting methodology and by pointing up the critical…

  13. Scientific Literacy: A Non-Traditional Approach to Science for Students Outside of Technical Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotwell, R. Allen

    Although the goal of science courses for non-majors should be to increase the scientific literacy of students, many such courses become watered down versions of courses in the major and do not provide enough depth to make science meaningful to students. At the Wabash Valley Region campus of Ivy Tech State College, in Indiana, a project was…

  14. Towards an Integrated Learning Strategies Approach to Promoting Scientific Literacy in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on selected recent South African research studies that have explored efforts to promote the discussion, writing, and arguing aspects of scientific literacy in primary and middle schools, particularly amongst second-language learners. These studies reveal improvements in the participants' abilities to both use the…

  15. Estimating Creativity with a Multiple-Measurement Approach within Scientific and Artistic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnoli, Sergio; Corazza, Giovanni E.; Runco, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the structure and the composition of a newly developed multifaceted test battery for the measurement of creativity within scientific and artistic domains. By integrating existing procedures for the evaluation of creativity, the new battery promises to become a comprehensive assessment of creativity, encompassing both…

  16. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach to Conducting Scientific Inquiry Activities in a Science Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chu, Hui-Chun; Kinshuk; Chen, Chieh-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Fostering students' scientific inquiry competence has been recognised as being an important and challenging objective of science education. To strengthen the understanding of science theories or notations, researchers have suggested conducting some learning activities in the field via operating relevant devices. In a traditional infield scientific…

  17. Scaffolding Middle School Students' Construction of Scientific Explanations: Comparing a Cognitive versus a Metacognitive Evaluation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of scaffolds as cognitive prompts and as metacognitive evaluation on seventh-grade students' growth of content knowledge and construction of scientific explanations in five inquiry-based biology activities. Students' scores on multiple-choice pretest and posttest and worksheets for five inquiry-based activities…

  18. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach to Conducting Scientific Inquiry Activities in a Science Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chu, Hui-Chun; Kinshuk; Chen, Chieh-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Fostering students' scientific inquiry competence has been recognised as being an important and challenging objective of science education. To strengthen the understanding of science theories or notations, researchers have suggested conducting some learning activities in the field via operating relevant devices. In a traditional infield scientific…

  19. Qualitative Epistemology: A Scientific Platform for the Study of Subjectivity from a Cultural-Historical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patiño, José Fernando; Goulart, Daniel Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the platform of thought proposed by González Rey in the development of qualitative epistemology and the theory of subjectivity. We discuss three core aspects: firstly, the general epistemological problems of modern science, with its non-critical, non-theoretical scientific ideals, and low reflexivity; secondly, we…

  20. Scaffolding Middle School Students' Construction of Scientific Explanations: Comparing a Cognitive versus a Metacognitive Evaluation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of scaffolds as cognitive prompts and as metacognitive evaluation on seventh-grade students' growth of content knowledge and construction of scientific explanations in five inquiry-based biology activities. Students' scores on multiple-choice pretest and posttest and worksheets for five inquiry-based activities…

  1. Estimating Creativity with a Multiple-Measurement Approach within Scientific and Artistic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnoli, Sergio; Corazza, Giovanni E.; Runco, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the structure and the composition of a newly developed multifaceted test battery for the measurement of creativity within scientific and artistic domains. By integrating existing procedures for the evaluation of creativity, the new battery promises to become a comprehensive assessment of creativity, encompassing both…

  2. Application of the Total Quality Management Approach Principles and the ISO 9000 Standards in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo; Frank, Moti

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the applicability of the definition, principles, and underlying strategies of total quality management (TQM) for engineering education. Describes several tools and methods for the implementation of TQM and its suitability for a variety of school activities. Presents a TQM course outline combining lectures, discussions, suggested…

  3. Approaches to learning spatial relationships in gross anatomy: perspective from wider principles of learning.

    PubMed

    Miller, R

    2000-01-01

    When students learn spatial relationships in gross anatomy, as in other areas of study, fundamentals should be learned first; otherwise confusion results. The fundamentals in gross anatomy are defined not in conceptual terms but by principles of visual perception. In particular, they derive from Gestalt principles such as collinearity and symmetry, which generally make learning and recognition of visual patterns easier. The collinearity (straight line formations) and symmetry in the body cavities are obvious when one studies the empty cavities, or body cavities with only a few symmetrical structures in place. These principles are, however, totally obscured if one starts one's study, as in traditional dissection, with the body cavities crammed full of a complex mass of interlocking organs. and their ducts, vessels, etc. Therefore, it is recommended that learning gross anatomy (especially of the body cavities) would be an easier exercise if it started with empty body cavities, then building up, with a careful sequence of prosections, to the more complex and realistic anatomy of the full cavities. This system of learning is perceptually preferable to traditional dissection. However, it needs to be enlivened in several ways, e.g., with respect to design principles evident in anatomical structure (especially for the musculoskeletal system), developmental processes, and sometimes by explicit reference to clinical relevance.

  4. Application of the Total Quality Management Approach Principles and the ISO 9000 Standards in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo; Frank, Moti

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the applicability of the definition, principles, and underlying strategies of total quality management (TQM) for engineering education. Describes several tools and methods for the implementation of TQM and its suitability for a variety of school activities. Presents a TQM course outline combining lectures, discussions, suggested…

  5. Principles of nanoscience: an overview.

    PubMed

    Behari, Jitendra

    2010-10-01

    The scientific basis of nanotechnology as envisaged from the first principles is compared to bulk behavior. Development of nanoparticles having controllable physical and electronic properties has opened up possibility of designing artificial solids. Top down and bottom up approaches are emphasized. The role of nanoparticle (quantum dots) application in nanophotonics (photovoltaic cell), and drug delivery vehicle is discussed. Fundamentals of DNA structure as the prime site in bionanotechnological manipulations is also discussed. A summary of presently available devices and applications are presented.

  6. Twenty First Century Science: Insights from the Design and Implementation of a Scientific Literacy Approach in School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, Robin

    2006-10-01

    Although the term “scientific literacy” has been increasingly used in recent years to characterise the aim of school science education, there is still considerable uncertainty about its meaning and implications for the curriculum. A major national project in England, Twenty First Century Science, is evaluating the feasibility of a more flexible science curriculum structure for 15-year-old and 16-year-old students, centring around a core course for all students with a scientific literacy emphasis. Over 12,000 students in 78 schools have followed this course since September 2003. The development of a detailed teaching programme is an important means of clarifying the meanings and implications of a “scientific literacy” approach. Questionnaire data from teachers at the end of the first and second years of the project (N = 40 and N = 51) show a strongly positive evaluation of the central features of the course design. Teachers perceive the scientific literacy emphasis as markedly increasing student interest and engagement. Key challenges identified are the language and reasoning demands in looking critically at public accounts of science, and the classroom management of more open discussion about science-related issues.

  7. In-orbit Calibration Approach of the Microscope Experiment for the Test of the Equivalence Principle at 10-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradels, Grégory

    Considering the scientific objectives of the MICROSCOPE space mission, very weak accelerations have to be controlled and measured in orbit. Accelerometers, similar in the concept to the MICROSCOPE instrument, have already characterised the vibration environment on board a satellite at low altitude as well as the fluctuation of drag : analysis of the data provided by the CHAMP mission accelerometer have been performed. By modelling the expected acceleration signals applied on the MICROSCOPE instrument in orbit, the developed analytic model of the mission measurement has shown the interest and the requirements for the instrument calibration. Because of the on-ground seismic perturbations, the instrument cannot be calibrated in laboratory and an in-orbit procedure has to be defined. The proposed approach exploits the drag-free system of the satellite and the sensitivity of the accelerometers. Results obtained from the dedicated simulator of the mission are presented. The goal of the CNES-ESA MICROSCOPE space mission is the test of one of the most famous principle in physics, the Equivalence Principle (EP), basement of General Relativity and which fixes the universality of free fall of all bodies in same gravity field. In the establishment of new theory for Grand Unification, evidence of an EP violation may occur from 10-14 for relative ratio of inertial and gravitational mass between two different materials. The verification by experiment of this theoretical expectation becomes then fundamental. The MICROSCOPE mission is also a technological challenge of a dedicated differential accelerometer able to measure, on board a satellite, very weak accelerations acting on two proof masses made of different materials. In the case of a pure inertial orbit, this specific instrument measures the differential acceleration due to the non uniform Earth gravitational field. With the support of a Drag free system, that reduces the amplitude of the non-gravitational forces applied on

  8. New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors: First-Principle OPTical Intercept Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, G.; Lewandowski, A.

    2012-11-01

    A new analytical method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is presented here for optical evaluation of trough collectors. It employs first-principle optical treatment of collector optical error sources and derives analytical mathematical formulae to calculate the intercept factor of a trough collector. A suite of MATLAB code is developed for FirstOPTIC and validated against theoretical/numerical solutions and ray-tracing results. It is shown that FirstOPTIC can provide fast and accurate calculation of intercept factors of trough collectors. The method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes. The FirstOPTIC techniques and analysis may be naturally extended to other types of CSP technologies such as linear-Fresnel collectors and central-receiver towers.

  9. Worldwide Topology of the Scientific Subject Profile: A Macro Approach in the Country Level

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Anegón, Félix; Herrero-Solana, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Background Models for the production of knowledge and systems of innovation and science are key elements for characterizing a country in view of its scientific thematic profile. With regard to scientific output and publication in journals of international visibility, the countries of the world may be classified into three main groups according to their thematic bias. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper aims to classify the countries of the world in several broad groups, described in terms of behavioural models that attempt to sum up the characteristics of their systems of knowledge and innovation. We perceive three clusters in our analysis: 1) the biomedical cluster, 2) the basic science & engineering cluster, and 3) the agricultural cluster. The countries are conceptually associated with the clusters via Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and a Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) map with all the countries is presented. Conclusions/Significance As we have seen, insofar as scientific output and publication in journals of international visibility is concerned, the countries of the world may be classified into three main groups according to their thematic profile. These groups can be described in terms of behavioral models that attempt to sum up the characteristics of their systems of knowledge and innovation. PMID:24349467

  10. Worldwide topology of the scientific subject profile: a macro approach in the country level.

    PubMed

    Moya-Anegón, Félix; Herrero-Solana, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Models for the production of knowledge and systems of innovation and science are key elements for characterizing a country in view of its scientific thematic profile. With regard to scientific output and publication in journals of international visibility, the countries of the world may be classified into three main groups according to their thematic bias. This paper aims to classify the countries of the world in several broad groups, described in terms of behavioural models that attempt to sum up the characteristics of their systems of knowledge and innovation. We perceive three clusters in our analysis: 1) the biomedical cluster, 2) the basic science & engineering cluster, and 3) the agricultural cluster. The countries are conceptually associated with the clusters via Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and a Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) map with all the countries is presented. As we have seen, insofar as scientific output and publication in journals of international visibility is concerned, the countries of the world may be classified into three main groups according to their thematic profile. These groups can be described in terms of behavioral models that attempt to sum up the characteristics of their systems of knowledge and innovation.

  11. Design principles and common pool resource management: an institutional approach to evaluating community management in semi-arid Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Claire H; Huby, Meg; Kiwasila, Hilda; Lovett, Jon C

    2007-07-01

    This paper analyses the role of institutions in the management of common pool resources (CPRs) in semi-arid Tanzania. Common property regimes have often been considered inadequate for the management of CPRs because of the problems of excludability, but they are becoming more widely supported as the way forward to overcome the problems of resource use and degradation in developing countries. A series of design principles for long enduring common property institutions have been proposed by Ostrom, but there is concern that they are not applicable to a wide range of real life situations or that they may be specific to certain types of CPR. Here, we compare these principles to the situation prevailing in 12 villages in six districts in semi-arid Tanzania. Data on management institutions were collected through semi-structured interviews and meetings at district and village level. The combined information was used to make a qualitative assessment of the strength with which each design principle appeared to operate in the management of forest, pasture and water resources. Boundaries, conflict and negotiation in CPR management are of key importance in semi-arid regions. However, the need for flexibility in order to deal with ecological uncertainty means that many management institutions would be considered weak or absent according to the design principle approach. This supports the view that the design principles should not be used as a 'blueprint to be imposed on resource management regimes' rather that they provide a framework for investigating common property regimes with the proviso that, certainly for semi-arid regions, they may highlight where management cannot be explained by institutional theory alone.

  12. Tackling the "so what" problem in scientific research: a systems-based approach to resource and publication tracking.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul A; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A; Edwards, Terri L; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R; Lane, Lynda D; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R; Pulley, Jill M

    2015-08-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research's (VICTR's) development and implementation of a semiautomated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a "just-in-time" workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt's Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support, (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output, (3) increased awareness of VICTR's scientific portfolio, and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests.

  13. Tackling the “So What” Problem in Scientific Research: A Systems-Based Approach to Resource and Publication Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul A.; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A.; Edwards, Terri L.; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R.; Lane, Lynda D.; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R.; Pulley, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research’s (VICTR’s) development and implementation of a semi-automated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a “just-in-time” workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt’s Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have: (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support; (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output; (3) increased awareness of VICTR’s scientific portfolio; and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests. PMID:25901872

  14. Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH): A Streamlined, Systematic, Phased Approach for Determining “What Works” in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Cindy; Hilton, Lara; Elfenbaum, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Answering the question of “what works” in healthcare can be complex and requires the careful design and sequential application of systematic methodologies. Over the last decade, the Samueli Institute has, along with multiple partners, developed a streamlined, systematic, phased approach to this process called the Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH™). The SEaRCH process provides an approach for rigorously, efficiently, and transparently making evidence-based decisions about healthcare claims in research and practice with minimal bias. Methods: SEaRCH uses three methods combined in a coordinated fashion to help determine what works in healthcare. The first, the Claims Assessment Profile (CAP), seeks to clarify the healthcare claim and question, and its ability to be evaluated in the context of its delivery. The second method, the Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature (REAL©), is a streamlined, systematic review process conducted to determine the quantity, quality, and strength of evidence and risk/benefit for the treatment. The third method involves the structured use of expert panels (EPs). There are several types of EPs, depending on the purpose and need. Together, these three methods—CAP, REAL, and EP—can be integrated into a strategic approach to help answer the question “what works in healthcare?” and what it means in a comprehensive way. Discussion: SEaRCH is a systematic, rigorous approach for evaluating healthcare claims of therapies, practices, programs, or products in an efficient and stepwise fashion. It provides an iterative, protocol-driven process that is customized to the intervention, consumer, and context. Multiple communities, including those involved in health service and policy, can benefit from this organized framework, assuring that evidence-based principles determine which healthcare practices with the greatest promise are used for improving the public's health and

  15. Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH): A Streamlined, Systematic, Phased Approach for Determining "What Works" in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wayne B; Crawford, Cindy; Hilton, Lara; Elfenbaum, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Answering the question of "what works" in healthcare can be complex and requires the careful design and sequential application of systematic methodologies. Over the last decade, the Samueli Institute has, along with multiple partners, developed a streamlined, systematic, phased approach to this process called the Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH™). The SEaRCH process provides an approach for rigorously, efficiently, and transparently making evidence-based decisions about healthcare claims in research and practice with minimal bias. SEaRCH uses three methods combined in a coordinated fashion to help determine what works in healthcare. The first, the Claims Assessment Profile (CAP), seeks to clarify the healthcare claim and question, and its ability to be evaluated in the context of its delivery. The second method, the Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature (REAL(©)), is a streamlined, systematic review process conducted to determine the quantity, quality, and strength of evidence and risk/benefit for the treatment. The third method involves the structured use of expert panels (EPs). There are several types of EPs, depending on the purpose and need. Together, these three methods-CAP, REAL, and EP-can be integrated into a strategic approach to help answer the question "what works in healthcare?" and what it means in a comprehensive way. SEaRCH is a systematic, rigorous approach for evaluating healthcare claims of therapies, practices, programs, or products in an efficient and stepwise fashion. It provides an iterative, protocol-driven process that is customized to the intervention, consumer, and context. Multiple communities, including those involved in health service and policy, can benefit from this organized framework, assuring that evidence-based principles determine which healthcare practices with the greatest promise are used for improving the public's health and wellness.

  16. Some Considerations of the Role of Scientific Libraries in the Age of the Scientific and Technical Revolution; An Essay and Approach to the Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozsa, George

    The question to be examined in this essay is whether the practice of scientific libraries (including special libraries and documentation) can rely on well-founded and developed theoretical works or studies as regards the conception of development, the requirements of the scientific and technical revolution, its place in the social division of…

  17. Anatomic diagnosis of congenital heart disease. A practical approach based on the sequentiality principle.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Salazar, Jorge; Curi-Curi, Pedro; Ramírez-Marroquín, Samuel; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Munoz-Castellanos, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Based on the sequentiality principle, this review proposes a practical method that allows the systematization of the anatomic diagnosis of congenital heart disease. We emphasize the need to use sequential connection between the different cardiac segments: atria, ventricles and great arteries. Five ordered steps are defined, which include determination of atrial situs and of the connection features between the ventricles and the great arteries. Related lesions and some additional special features are a second stage in the sequential analysis of congenital heart disease, which is also important for the integral diagnosis.

  18. Layering Principles from One Approach to Isentropic Analysis and Modeling of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulker, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Meteorologists often treat potential temperature (theta)—the temperature a parcel would have if moved adiabatically to the surface—as a vertical coordinate. The resulting layers (isentropes) are lagrangian-like. Bosart, in a 2002 tribute to Reed, writes "PV as a tracer [along isentropes] enabled Reed, Danielson … to adopt a Lagrangian perspective in studies of cyclogenesis and upper-level frontogenesis." Bosart also mentions Shapiro's work on clear-air turbulence and Bleck's modeling: "Bleck ... simulated cyclogenesis using a simple model [on] surfaces of constant potential temperature." From the author's work helping Bleck and Shapiro with isentropic analysis and modeling, the following principles are offered as potentially useful in defining reusable, consistent data layers across space and time in multiple domains. Monotonicity— Layers reflect transformed coordinates, mappable to/from elevation, hence strictly monotonic across the geographic domain. I.e., layers cannot intersect. Bleck devised an invertible algorithm mapping pressure along soundings to a coordinate resembling potential temperature (departing only to maintain monotonicity). A collection of these (at one observing time) is a sampled representation of the transform between (lat, lon, elev) and (lat, lon, theta). Suggested principle: Data layers possess, for a geographic sample set, invertible algorithms to map between elevation and a monotonic transform coordinate. Intralayer Interpolation — The transformed coordinate may need evaluation at points not in the sample set. The Bleck/Shapiro work showed how easily monotonicity is violated when gridding sample data. This problem was solved via another transform: interpolation on the log of layer differences (i.e., thickness). Suggested principle: Data layers possess a monotonicity-preserving algorithm to interpolate coordinate values to geographic points not in the sample set.Representation— The Bleck/Shapiro work entailed no data sharing

  19. Vectorial approach to Huygens's principle for plane waves: circular aperture and zone plates.

    PubMed

    Romero, Julio A; Hernández, Luis

    2006-05-01

    A vectorial equation that describes the Huygens principle was reported, and an expression for the secondary-spherical-wave energy density was found. With a vectorial formulation, we performed an exact calculation for the relative axial intensity of the wave diffracted by an illuminated circular aperture. The off-axis intensity in Fresnel's and Fraunhofer's approximations was calculated. The zone plate was also studied by vectorial formulation. We showed that with increasing number of rings, the intensity maxima magnify as (2n + 2)(2), their full widths decrease, their positions remain unchanged, and secondary maxima appear, in a behavior similar to that for diffraction gratings.

  20. Analysis of scientific argumentation in two physical chemistry classrooms using the POGIL approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Alena C.

    The benefits of facilitating argumentation in science education have been well reported (Jimenez-Aleixandre & Erduran, 2007). Engaging in argumentation has shown to model authentic scientific inquiry as well as promote development of content knowledge. However, less emphasis has been placed on facilitating argumentation in upper level undergraduate courses, though it is important for evaluating undergraduate curricula to characterize upper level students' scientific reasoning. This work considers two implementations of the POGIL physical chemistry curriculum and evaluates the classroom argumentation. The researchers aimed to consider the content of the arguments and dialectical features characteristic of socially constructed arguments (Nielson, 2013). To do this, whole class sessions were videotaped and Toulmin's Argument Pattern (TAP) was used to identify the arguments generated during the class (Erduran, Simon, & Osborne, 2004). A learning progression on chemical thinking (Sevian & Talanquer, 2014) was used as a domain-specific measure of argument quality. Results show differences in argumentation between and across both classrooms that can be explained by analysis of instructor facilitation and the POGIL curriculum. The results from this work will be used to make recommendations for instructor facilitation of argumentation and reform of the POGIL curriculum.

  1. [Sarcoidosis: A Descriptive Approach to the Global Research Network and Recent Scientific Developments].

    PubMed

    Schöffel, N; Kirchdörfer, M; Brüggmann, D; Bundschuh, M; Ohlendorf, D; Groneberg, D A; Bendels, M H K

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis continues to be an underestimated disease that can cause severe morbidity and mortality in individuals. There has, however, been an increasing awareness of this disease as shown by the increasing number of publications since the 1990  s. The large number of available publications makes it challenging for a single scientist to provide an overview of the topic. To quantify the global research activity in this field, a scientometric investigation was conducted. The total number of publications on sarcoidosis was determined in the Web of Science to obtain their bibliometric data for the period 1900-2008. According to the NewQIS-protocol, different visualisation techniques and scientometric methods were applied. A total of 14,190 published items were evaluated. The U.S. takes a leading position in terms of the overall number of publications and collaborations. Prolific institutions and authors are of U.S. origin. Only a relatively small number of international co-operations were identified. The most intensive network is between the "University of Colorado" and the "National Jewish Medical Research Center". "Semenzato, G" has the highest citation rate of all authors. The most productive co-operative author is "du Bois, RM". The scientific interest in the topic sarcoidosis is growing steadily. The influence of international co-operation on scientific progress in this area is of increasing importance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Population approaches to improve diet, physical activity, and smoking habits: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Afshin, Ashkan; Benowitz, Neal L; Bittner, Vera; Daniels, Stephen R; Franch, Harold A; Jacobs, David R; Kraus, William E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Krummel, Debra A; Popkin, Barry M; Whitsel, Laurie P; Zakai, Neil A

    2012-09-18

    Poor lifestyle behaviors, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use, are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group systematically reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for effective population approaches to improve dietary habits, increase physical activity, and reduce tobacco use. Strategies were considered in 6 broad domains: (1) Media and educational campaigns; (2) labeling and consumer information; (3) taxation, subsidies, and other economic incentives; (4) school and workplace approaches; (5) local environmental changes; and (6) direct restrictions and mandates. The writing group also reviewed the potential contributions of healthcare systems and surveillance systems to behavior change efforts. Several specific population interventions that achieved a Class I or IIa recommendation with grade A or B evidence were identified, providing a set of specific evidence-based strategies that deserve close attention and prioritization for wider implementation. Effective interventions included specific approaches in all 6 domains evaluated for improving diet, increasing activity, and reducing tobacco use. The writing group also identified several specific interventions in each of these domains for which current evidence was less robust, as well as other inconsistencies and evidence gaps, informing the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to evaluate population programs and policies. This systematic review identified and graded the evidence for a range of population-based strategies to promote lifestyle change. The findings provide a framework for policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, clinicians, communities, and other stakeholders to understand and implement

  3. Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship: An approach for end-to-end data management and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzayus, K. M.; Garcia, H. E.; Jiang, L.; Michael, P.

    2012-12-01

    As the designated Federal permanent oceanographic data center in the United States, NOAA's National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) has been providing scientific stewardship for national and international marine environmental and ecosystem data for over 50 years. NODC is supporting NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program and the science community by providing end-to-end scientific data management of ocean acidification (OA) data, dedicated online data discovery, and user-friendly access to a diverse range of historical and modern OA and other chemical, physical, and biological oceanographic data. This effort is being catalyzed by the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, but the intended reach is for the broader scientific ocean acidification community. The first three years of the project will be focused on infrastructure building. A complete ocean acidification data content standard is being developed to ensure that a full spectrum of ocean acidification data and metadata can be stored and utilized for optimal data discovery and access in usable data formats. We plan to develop a data access interface capable of allowing users to constrain their search based on real-time and delayed mode measured variables, scientific data quality, their observation types, the temporal coverage, methods, instruments, standards, collecting institutions, and the spatial coverage. In addition, NODC seeks to utilize the existing suite of international standards (including ISO 19115-2 and CF-compliant netCDF) to help our data producers use those standards for their data, and help our data consumers make use of the well-standardized metadata-rich data sets. These tools will be available through our NODC Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship (OADS) web page at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/oceanacidification. NODC also has a goal to provide each archived dataset with a unique ID, to ensure a means of providing credit to the data provider. Working with partner institutions, such as the

  4. The stability analysis of magnetohydrodynamic equilibria - Comparing the thermodynamic approach with the energy principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkmann, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the stability analysis of current-carrying plasmas, i.e., plasma systems that are forced by external mchanisms to carry a nonrelaxing electrical current. Under restriction to translationally invariant configurations, the thermodynamic stability criterion for a multicomponent plasma is rederived within the framework of nonideal MHD. The chosen dynamics neglects scalar resistivity, but allows for other types of dissipation effects both in Ohm's law and in the equation of motion. In the second section of the paper, the thermodynamic stability criterion is compared with the ideal MHD based energy principle of Bernstein et al. With the help of Schwarz's inequality, it is shown that the former criterion is always more 'pessimistic' than the latter, i.e., that thermodynamic stability implies stability according to the MHD principle, but not vice versa. This reuslt confirms the physical plausible idea that dissipational effects tend to weaken the stability properties of current-carrying plasma equilibria by breaking the constraints of ideal MHD and allowing for possibly destabilizing effects such as magnetic field line reconfiguration.

  5. Solar system and equivalence principle constraints on f(R) gravity by the chameleon approach

    SciTech Connect

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2008-05-15

    We study constraints on f(R) dark energy models from solar system experiments combined with experiments on the violation of the equivalence principle. When the mass of an equivalent scalar field degree of freedom is heavy in a region with high density, a spherically symmetric body has a thin shell so that an effective coupling of the fifth force is suppressed through a chameleon mechanism. We place experimental bounds on the cosmologically viable models recently proposed in the literature that have an asymptotic form f(R)=R-{lambda}R{sub c}[1-(R{sub c}/R){sup 2n}] in the regime R>>R{sub c}. From the solar system constraints on the post-Newtonian parameter {gamma}, we derive the bound n>0.5, whereas the constraints from the violations of the weak and strong equivalence principles give the bound n>0.9. This allows a possibility to find the deviation from the {lambda}-cold dark matter ({lambda}CDM) cosmological model. For the model f(R)=R-{lambda}R{sub c}(R/R{sub c}){sup p} with 0

  6. An Approach to Reconciling Competing Ethical Principles in Aggregating Heterogeneous Health Preferences.

    PubMed

    Dewitt, Barry; Davis, Alexander; Fischhoff, Baruch; Hanmer, Janel

    2017-08-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores are used extensively to quantify the effectiveness of medical interventions. Societal preference-based HRQL scores aim to produce societal valuations of health by aggregating valuations from individuals in the general population, where each aggregation procedure embodies different ethical principles, as explained in social choice theory. Using the Health Utilities Index as an exemplar, we evaluate societal preference-based HRQL measures in the social choice theory framework. We find that current preference aggregation procedures are typically justified in terms of social choice theory. However, by convention, they use only one of many possible aggregation procedures (the mean). Central to the choice of aggregation procedure is how to treat preference heterogeneity, which can affect analyses that rely on HRQL scores, such as cost-effectiveness analyses. We propose an analytical-deliberative framework for choosing one (or a set of) aggregation procedure(s) in a socially credible way, which we believe to be analytically sound and empirically tractable, but leave open the institutional mechanism needed to implement it. Socially acceptable decisions about aggregating heterogeneous preferences require eliciting stakeholders' preferences among the set of analytically sound procedures, representing different ethical principles. We describe a framework for eliciting such preferences for the creation of HRQL scores, informed by social choice theory and behavioral decision research.

  7. The flavor-blind principle: A symmetrical approach to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldaña-Salazar, U. J.

    2016-01-01

    We perform a systematic study of the generic Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation, tan2θi j=mi/mj . This study of fermion mixing phenomena leads us to the necessary conditions that are needed in order to obtain it without any approximation. We begin by considering two Dirac fermion families. By means of the hierarchy in the masses, it is found that a sufficient and necessary condition is to have a normal matrix with m11=0 . This matrix can be decomposed into two different linearly independent contributions. The origin for two independent contributions can be explained naturally by what we shall call the flavor-blind principle. This principle states that Yukawa couplings shall be either flavor blind or decomposed into several sets obeying distinct permutation symmetries. In general, it is shown that the symmetry properties of the introduced set of Yukawa matrices follow for n fermion families the unique sequential breaking Sn L⊗Sn R→S(n -1 )L⊗S(n -1 )R→⋯→S2 L⊗S2 R→S2 A . The particular case of three fermion families explains why the four mass ratios parametrization that we recently proposed can be used even in the case of no hierarchical masses.

  8. The stability analysis of magnetohydrodynamic equilibria - Comparing the thermodynamic approach with the energy principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkmann, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the stability analysis of current-carrying plasmas, i.e., plasma systems that are forced by external mchanisms to carry a nonrelaxing electrical current. Under restriction to translationally invariant configurations, the thermodynamic stability criterion for a multicomponent plasma is rederived within the framework of nonideal MHD. The chosen dynamics neglects scalar resistivity, but allows for other types of dissipation effects both in Ohm's law and in the equation of motion. In the second section of the paper, the thermodynamic stability criterion is compared with the ideal MHD based energy principle of Bernstein et al. With the help of Schwarz's inequality, it is shown that the former criterion is always more 'pessimistic' than the latter, i.e., that thermodynamic stability implies stability according to the MHD principle, but not vice versa. This reuslt confirms the physical plausible idea that dissipational effects tend to weaken the stability properties of current-carrying plasma equilibria by breaking the constraints of ideal MHD and allowing for possibly destabilizing effects such as magnetic field line reconfiguration.

  9. Is risk analysis scientific?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part). © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Learning about Cellular Respiration: An Active Approach Illustrating the Process of Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret (Peg)

    1998-01-01

    Details the active-learning approach to teaching cellular respiration in an introductory, one-semester course for nonmajors. Focuses on a laboratory exercise designed to answer the question of what happens to food when eaten. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  11. Learning about Cellular Respiration: An Active Approach Illustrating the Process of Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret (Peg)

    1998-01-01

    Details the active-learning approach to teaching cellular respiration in an introductory, one-semester course for nonmajors. Focuses on a laboratory exercise designed to answer the question of what happens to food when eaten. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  12. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  13. Bibliometric approach of factors affecting scientific productivity in environmental sciences and ecology.

    PubMed

    Dragos, Cristian Mihai; Dragos, Simona Laura

    2013-04-01

    Different academic bibliometric studies have measured the influence of economic, political and linguistic factors in the academic output of countries. Separate analysis in different fields can reveal specific incentive factors. Our study proves that the Environmental Performance Index, computed by Yale University, is highly significant (p<0.01) for the productivity of research and development activities in environmental sciences and ecology. The control variables like education financing, publishing of ISI Thomson domestic journals and the English language are also significant. The methodology uses Ordinary Least Squares multiple regressions with convincing results (R(2)=0.752). The relative positions of the 92 countries in the sample are also discussed. We draw up a ranking of the countries' concern for the environment, considering evenly the scientific productivity and the environment quality. We notice huge differences concerning the number of inhabitants and population income between the countries that dominate the classification and those occupying the last positions.

  14. A principled approach to bio-inspired design of legged locomotion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koditschek, Daniel E.; Full, Robert J.; Buehler, Martin

    2004-09-01

    Casual daily observation provides convincing evidence that animals offer a wealth of inspiration for legged machines. However the lessons of animal motor science are largely written in the grammar of materials properties, and their meaning hidden by the complex interaction of multiply layered functional hierarchies. This paper will review some of the lessons of biological running that we have been able to articulate and begin to prescribe rigorously as manifest in the hexapod robot RHex. Although there is a long way to go before our mathematical analysis catches up with the full range of behaviors this remarkable machine exhibits, we are nevertheless able to make increasingly precise statements about certain control principles and the role they may play in RHex's performance. This ongoing research effort serves as a test case to underscore the huge and still largely untapped potential for mining bioinspiration in legged locomotion systems.

  15. First-Principles Correlated Approach to the Normal State of Strontium Ruthenate

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, S.; Laad, M. S.; Dey, Dibyendu; Maitra, T.; Taraphder, A.

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between multiple bands, sizable multi-band electronic correlations and strong spin-orbit coupling may conspire in selecting a rather unusual unconventional pairing symmetry in layered Sr2RuO4. This mandates a detailed revisit of the normal state and, in particular, the T-dependent incoherence-coherence crossover. Using a modern first-principles correlated view, we study this issue in the actual structure of Sr2RuO4 and present a unified and quantitative description of a range of unusual physical responses in the normal state. Armed with these, we propose that a new and important element, that of dominant multi-orbital charge fluctuations in a Hund’s metal, may be a primary pair glue for unconventional superconductivity. Thereby we establish a connection between the normal state responses and superconductivity in this system. PMID:28220879

  16. Pyro-paraelectric and flexocaloric effects in barium strontium titanate: A first principles approach

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Vaish, Rahul; Chauhan, Aditya; Cuozzo, J.; Lisenkov, S.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-04-18

    Inhomogeneous strain allows the manifestation of an unexplored component of stress-driven caloric effect (flexocaloric effect) and enhanced pyroelectric performance, obtainable significantly beyond the Curie point. A peak temperature change of 1.5 K (at 289 K) was predicted from first-principles-based simulations for Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} under the application of a strain gradient of 1.5 μm{sup −1}. Additionally, enhanced pyro-paraelectric coefficient (pyroelectric coefficient in paraelectric phase) and flexocaloric cooling 11 × 10{sup −4} C m{sup −2 }K{sup −1} and 1.02 K, respectively, could be obtained (at 330 K and 1.5 μm{sup −1}). A comparative analysis with prevailing literature indicates huge untapped potential and warrants further research.

  17. First-Principles Correlated Approach to the Normal State of Strontium Ruthenate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, S.; Laad, M. S.; Dey, Dibyendu; Maitra, T.; Taraphder, A.

    2017-02-01

    The interplay between multiple bands, sizable multi-band electronic correlations and strong spin-orbit coupling may conspire in selecting a rather unusual unconventional pairing symmetry in layered Sr2RuO4. This mandates a detailed revisit of the normal state and, in particular, the T-dependent incoherence-coherence crossover. Using a modern first-principles correlated view, we study this issue in the actual structure of Sr2RuO4 and present a unified and quantitative description of a range of unusual physical responses in the normal state. Armed with these, we propose that a new and important element, that of dominant multi-orbital charge fluctuations in a Hund’s metal, may be a primary pair glue for unconventional superconductivity. Thereby we establish a connection between the normal state responses and superconductivity in this system.

  18. Pyro-paraelectric and flexocaloric effects in barium strontium titanate: A first principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Chauhan, Aditya; Cuozzo, J.; Lisenkov, S.; Ponomareva, I.; Vaish, Rahul

    2016-04-01

    Inhomogeneous strain allows the manifestation of an unexplored component of stress-driven caloric effect (flexocaloric effect) and enhanced pyroelectric performance, obtainable significantly beyond the Curie point. A peak temperature change of 1.5 K (at 289 K) was predicted from first-principles-based simulations for Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 under the application of a strain gradient of 1.5 μm-1. Additionally, enhanced pyro-paraelectric coefficient (pyroelectric coefficient in paraelectric phase) and flexocaloric cooling 11 × 10-4 C m-2 K-1 and 1.02 K, respectively, could be obtained (at 330 K and 1.5 μm-1). A comparative analysis with prevailing literature indicates huge untapped potential and warrants further research.

  19. Binding phenomena and fluorescence quenching. I: Descriptive quantum principles of fluorescence quenching using a supermolecule approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callis, Patrik R.

    2014-12-01

    Principal aspects of fluorescence and quenching are placed on an equal footing consistent with microscopic quantum concepts familiar to all who use fluorescence in the study of association of ligands with proteins. Quenching of fluorophores involved in determination of ligand binding to proteins is described in terms of generic quantum principles using a framework in which the fluorophore and quencher are together considered a “supermolecule”. Quenching then becomes just another form of internal conversion, which in turn leads to new language for defining “dynamic” and “static” quenching, for which there exist disparate definitions. The benefit of casting quenching in this manner, and citing relevant literature, has been to expand the vocabulary and mental imagery associated with quenching.

  20. A Social Identity Approach to Sport Psychology: Principles, Practice, and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tim; Alexander Haslam, S; Coffee, Pete; Lavallee, David

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on social identity theory and self-categorization theory, we outline an approach to sport psychology that understands groups not simply as features of sporting contexts but rather as elements that can be, and often are, incorporated into a person's sense of self and, through this, become powerful determinants of their sport-related behavior. The underpinnings of this social identity approach are outlined, and four key lessons for sport that are indicative of the analytical and practical power of the approach are presented. These suggest that social identity is the basis for sports group (1) behavior, (2) formation and development, (3) support and stress appraisal, and (4) leadership. Building on recent developments within sport science, we outline an agenda for future research by identifying a range of topics to which the social identity approach could fruitfully contribute.

  1. An Involvement-Oriented Approach in a Medium-Sized Marketing Principles Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorkle, Denny E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a proposed involvement-oriented solution to the lecture/discussion and multiple-choice/essay dilemma confronting business classes. The approach is designed to increase the level of active student learning. (JOW)

  2. A self-consistent first-principle based approach to model carrier mobility in organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meded, Velimir; Friederich, Pascal; Symalla, Franz; Neumann, Tobias; Danilov, Denis; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Transport through thin organic amorphous films, utilized in OLEDs and OPVs, has been a challenge to model by using ab-initio methods. Charge carrier mobility depends strongly on the disorder strength and reorganization energy, both of which are significantly affected by the details in environment of each molecule. Here we present a multi-scale approach to describe carrier mobility in which the materials morphology is generated using DEPOSIT, a Monte Carlo based atomistic simulation approach, or, alternatively by molecular dynamics calculations performed with GROMACS. From this morphology we extract the material specific hopping rates, as well as the on-site energies using a fully self-consistent embedding approach to compute the electronic structure parameters, which are then used in an analytic expression for the carrier mobility. We apply this strategy to compute the carrier mobility for a set of widely studied molecules and obtain good agreement between experiment and theory varying over several orders of magnitude in the mobility without any freely adjustable parameters. The work focuses on the quantum mechanical step of the multi-scale workflow, explains the concept along with the recently published workflow optimization, which combines density functional with semi-empirical tight binding approaches. This is followed by discussion on the analytic formula and its agreement with established percolation fits as well as kinetic Monte Carlo numerical approaches. Finally, we skatch an unified multi-disciplinary approach that integrates materials science simulation and high performance computing, developed within EU project MMM@HPC.

  3. A self-consistent first-principle based approach to model carrier mobility in organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meded, Velimir; Friederich, Pascal; Symalla, Franz; Neumann, Tobias; Danilov, Denis; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-31

    Transport through thin organic amorphous films, utilized in OLEDs and OPVs, has been a challenge to model by using ab-initio methods. Charge carrier mobility depends strongly on the disorder strength and reorganization energy, both of which are significantly affected by the details in environment of each molecule. Here we present a multi-scale approach to describe carrier mobility in which the materials morphology is generated using DEPOSIT, a Monte Carlo based atomistic simulation approach, or, alternatively by molecular dynamics calculations performed with GROMACS. From this morphology we extract the material specific hopping rates, as well as the on-site energies using a fully self-consistent embedding approach to compute the electronic structure parameters, which are then used in an analytic expression for the carrier mobility. We apply this strategy to compute the carrier mobility for a set of widely studied molecules and obtain good agreement between experiment and theory varying over several orders of magnitude in the mobility without any freely adjustable parameters. The work focuses on the quantum mechanical step of the multi-scale workflow, explains the concept along with the recently published workflow optimization, which combines density functional with semi-empirical tight binding approaches. This is followed by discussion on the analytic formula and its agreement with established percolation fits as well as kinetic Monte Carlo numerical approaches. Finally, we skatch an unified multi-disciplinary approach that integrates materials science simulation and high performance computing, developed within EU project MMM@HPC.

  4. First-principles approach to investigate toroidal property of magnetoelectric multiferroic GaFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Yung-mau

    2016-01-14

    A first-principles approach incorporating the concept of toroidal moments as a measure of the spin vortex is proposed and applied to simulate the toroidization of magnetoelectric multiferroic GaFeO{sub 3}. The nature of space-inversion and time-reversal violations of ferrotoroidics is reproduced in the simulated magnetic structure of GaFeO{sub 3}. For undoped GaFeO{sub 3}, a toroidal moment of −22.38 μ{sub B} Å per unit cell was obtained, which is the best theoretical estimate till date. Guided by the spin vortex free-energy minimization perturbed by an externally applied field, it was discovered that the minority spin markedly biases the whole toroidization. In summary, this approach not only calculates the toroidal moment but provides a way to understand the toroidal nature of magnetoelectric multiferroics.

  5. New approaches in cataloging and distributing multi-dimensional scientific data: Federal Data Repositories example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.; Thornton, M.; Wei, Y.; Krishna, B.; Frame, M. T.; Zolly, L.; Records, R.; Palanisamy, G.

    2016-12-01

    Observational data should be collected and stored logical and scalable way. Most of the time, observation data capture variables or measurements at an exact point in time and are thus not reproducible. It is therefore imperative that initial data be captured and stored correctly the first time. In this paper, we will discuss how big federal data centers and repositories such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and the USGS's Science Data Catalog (SDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are preparing, storing and distributing huge multi-dimensional scientific data. We will discuss tools and services, including data formats, that are being used within the ORNL DAAC for managing huge data sets such as Daymet, which provides gridded estimates of various daily weather parameters at a 1km x 1km resolution. Recently released, the Daymet version 3[1] data set covers the period from January 1, 1980 to December 31 2015 for North America and Hawaii: including Canada, Mexico, the United States of America, Puerto Rico, and Bermuda. We will also discuss the latest tools and services within ARM and SDC that are built on popular open source software such as Apache Solr 6, Cassandra, Spark, etc. The ARM Data center (http://www.archive.arm.gov/discovery) archives and distributes various data streams, which are collected through the routine operations and scientific field experiments of the ARM Climate Research Facility. The SDC (http://data.usgs.gov/datacatalog/) provides seamless access to USGS research and monitoring data from across the nation. Every month, tens of thousands of users download portions of these datasets totaling to several TBs/month. The popularity of the data result from many characteristics, but at the forefront is the careful consideration of community needs both in terms of data content and accessibility. Fundamental to this is adherence to data archive and distribution best practices providing open

  6. [The scientific discourse about dementia in Germany-first results of the exemplary exercise of an integrative methodological approach].

    PubMed

    Panke-Kochinke, Birgit; Krause, Gabriele; Klimann, Olga

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of the discourse in dealing with people with dementia within the nursing and healthcare research in Germany is previously missing.Aim: How are people with dementia described in the discourse of the German nursing and health care research community and what does that mean for the nursing and health research in Germany? Using an integrative methodological approach, the first steps of an analysis of dementia discourse are developed and exemplarily tested in a selected limited context datjramework. The scientific discourse is focused on the burden or the family aregivers of the person with dementia.They are identified as those who have to handle the burden with their spouse or siblings with dementia. A methodologiCal approach of integrative analysis was tested. According perspectives should be developed to incorporate the perspective of people with dementia in a stronger way.

  7. An alternative channel for the Mitrofanoff principle based on transverse skin flaps: an extraperitoneal minimal invasive approach (the RPM technique).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Antonio; Rondon, Atila; Bacelar, Herick; Leslie, Bruno; Ottoni, Sérgio; Liguori, Riberto; Garrone, Gilmar; Ortiz, Valdemar

    2012-08-01

    The Mitrofanoff principle is a well established strategy in pediatric urology, with the appendix and Yang-Monti tube being the most used channels. The search for an alternative tube with less morbidity is justified. Hence, we present a patient treated via an alternative approach in which the channel was constructed from two lower abdominal transverse skin flaps (the RPM technique). A 17-year-old patient with posterior urethral valves, hypocontractile bladder and experiencing pain on urethral clean intermittent catheterization was selected. The procedure consisted of defining two rectangular transverse skin flaps of 5 × 1 cm opposite to each other. The flaps were rotated 90° and anastomosed to create a tube. A small extraperitoneal bladder wall incision was performed and the tube was connected to the bladder. Two rectal abdomen muscle strips were crossed in the midline as a neosphincter. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and remains continent for intervals of 4 h. The stoma and incision have a good cosmetic aspect at 16 months follow-up. The RPM technique is an alternative approach for a minimal invasive strategy according to the Mitrofanoff principle. Long-term follow-up is necessary to confirm the excellent initial results. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of environmental hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, ...

  9. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of environmental hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, ...

  10. Understanding the Nature of Science and Scientific Progress: A Theory-Building Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuy, Maria; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl; Prinsen, Fleur; Resendes, Monica; Messina, Richard; Hunsburger, Winifred; Teplovs, Chris; Chow, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 Carey and Smith conjectured that the most promising way to boost students' understanding of the nature of science is a "theory-building approach to teaching about inquiry." The research reported here tested this conjecture by comparing results from two Grade 4 classrooms that differed in their emphasis on and technological…

  11. Evaluation of Three Primary Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Scientific Concepts in Persuasive Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loxley, Peter Michael

    2009-01-01

    The research set out in this paper seeks to develop pedagogical knowledge regarding how persuasive teaching approaches can be developed in primary science classrooms. To achieve this, the paper examines three case studies in which the teachers have been charged to develop and implement teaching strategies designed to persuade their children of the…

  12. BioTAP: A Systematic Approach to Teaching Scientific Writing and Evaluating Undergraduate Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Julie; Smith, Robin; Moskovitz, Cary; Sayle, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate theses and other capstone research projects are standard features of many science curricula, but participation has typically been limited to only the most advanced and highly motivated students. With the recent push to engage more undergraduates in research, some faculty are finding that their typical approach to working with thesis…

  13. BioTAP: A Systematic Approach to Teaching Scientific Writing and Evaluating Undergraduate Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Julie; Smith, Robin; Moskovitz, Cary; Sayle, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate theses and other capstone research projects are standard features of many science curricula, but participation has typically been limited to only the most advanced and highly motivated students. With the recent push to engage more undergraduates in research, some faculty are finding that their typical approach to working with thesis…

  14. Installing scientific instruments into a cold LHe dewar - The Gravity Probe B approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmley, Richard T.; Kusunic, Keith; Reynolds, Gary; Stephenson, Sam; Alexander, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Gravity Probe B is an orbital test of Einstein's general theory of relativity using gyroscopes. The precession of the gyroscopes will measure both the geodetic effect (6.6 arcsec/yr) through the curved space-time surrounding the earth and the motional effect (0.042 arcsec/yr) due to the rotating earth dragging space-time around with it. To achieve the extraordinary accuracies needed to measure these small precessions, it is necessary to have the gyroscopes operating in the following environments: a vacuum of less than 10 exp -10 torr; an acceleration level of less than 10 exp -10 g's; a magnetic field of less than 10 exp -7 gauss; and a temperature near 2 K. This paper discusses designs that allow scientific instruments to be installed into a dewar at 4.2 K. Methods for structurally supporting the instruments, transferring heat across joints at low temperature in vacuum, and excluding air during the insertion process are discussed. The structural support method is designed for Shuttle launch loads.

  15. Theobroma cacao L., the Food of the Gods: a scientific approach beyond myths and claims.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, M; Conti, A

    2010-01-01

    Cocoa beans are rich source of polyphenols, contributing about 10% of the dry weight of the whole bean and its derivative chocolate, particularly dark chocolate, is considered one of the major contributors of antioxidants to the American diet after fruits and vegetables. At present the wide variation in cocoa processing and in the content and profile of polyphenols make it difficult to determine to what extent the findings about positive effects expressed in different studies, translate into tangible clinical benefits. Moreover, before claiming any healthy properties to a plant, natural product or food item on human subject, a basic research project approved by scientific and ethical commissions has to be performed. Until now the definition, composition, manufacturing specifications, packaging and labelling of cocoa and chocolate products in Europe, are regulated by "Directive 2000/36/EC of the European parliament and of the council". The definitions take changes in consumer tastes, chocolate composition and labelling into account, but do not consider the real potential of healthy, beneficial and nutraceutical effects. In fact, they fail to establish an official analytical methodology for the quantification of phenolic compounds in cocoa and chocolate. Moreover quantification of these compounds is not used in product classification. This article reviews many qualitative differences of cocoa and chocolate, in particular dark chocolate, aiming to establish the different implications for public health through the use of the analyzed concentration of polyphenols in cocoa products. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Installing scientific instruments into a cold LHe dewar - The Gravity Probe B approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmley, Richard T.; Kusunic, Keith; Reynolds, Gary; Stephenson, Sam; Alexander, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Gravity Probe B is an orbital test of Einstein's general theory of relativity using gyroscopes. The precession of the gyroscopes will measure both the geodetic effect (6.6 arcsec/yr) through the curved space-time surrounding the earth and the motional effect (0.042 arcsec/yr) due to the rotating earth dragging space-time around with it. To achieve the extraordinary accuracies needed to measure these small precessions, it is necessary to have the gyroscopes operating in the following environments: a vacuum of less than 10 exp -10 torr; an acceleration level of less than 10 exp -10 g's; a magnetic field of less than 10 exp -7 gauss; and a temperature near 2 K. This paper discusses designs that allow scientific instruments to be installed into a dewar at 4.2 K. Methods for structurally supporting the instruments, transferring heat across joints at low temperature in vacuum, and excluding air during the insertion process are discussed. The structural support method is designed for Shuttle launch loads.

  17. The individual psychoanalytic psychotherapy of schizophrenia: scientific and clinical approach through a clinical discussion group.

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, P. M.; Benedetti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fifty individual psychotherapies of schizophrenic patients, supervised by a control group for fourteen years, are examined. 80 percent of the patients have shown important clinical progress and, in many cases, have been healed, especially those who continued therapy for more than two years and who had a deep and reciprocal emotional involvement with the therapist during and after treatment; there was a reduction by 70 percent of hospitalizations during this treatment and only one of these had a relapse. Other data confirm the efficacy of psychotherapy; however, to give a new instrument of scientific confirmation to this type of individual and subjective work, we tried to observe how the psychopathological and therapeutic mechanism of "symbiosis" induces personal dynamics in the therapist which are reflected in the control group. The psychopathological symbiotic disturbance of the patient, the therapeutic symbiotic relationship, and the way in which the group reacts to these permit the creation of a useful triangle, both for the therapist to understand his position toward the patient and to confirm or correct the subjective aspects of such a deep and emotional relationship. PMID:4049915

  18. CNS Multiparameter Optimization Approach: Is it in Accordance with Occam's Razor Principle?

    PubMed

    Raevsky, Oleg A

    2016-04-01

    A detailed analysis of the possibility of using the Multiparameter Optimization approach (MPO) for CNS/non-CNS classification of drugs was carried out. This work has shown that MPO descriptors are able to describe only part of chemical transport in the CNS connected with transmembrane diffusion. Hence the "intuitive" CNS MPO approach with arbitrary selection of descriptors and calculations of score functions, search of thresholds of classification, and absence of any chemometric procedures, leads to rather modest accuracy of CNS/non-CNS classification models.

  19. [Principles in the design of surface temperature measurement method via radiation approach].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-fang; Wang, An-quan; Fu, Tai-ran

    2003-04-01

    The fundamental issues in the design of surface temperature measurement method via radiation approach are discussed in this article, such as the spectral and directional complicacy of thermal radiation, the optical design, and the electrocircuit design. A generalized equation for the analysis of temperature measurement method via radiation approach is proposed. The method of absolute value and relative value is compared. Calibration should be made in the absolute value method but not in the relative value method. The former method is not suitable for the measurement of temperature fields while the latter method is.

  20. Understanding and applying the principles of contemporary medical professionalism: illustration of a suggested approach, part 2.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, formal professionalism education, training, and assessment have been introduced to medical schools and accredited residency training programs. Current constructs of medical professionalism characterize it as a multidimensional competency rather than a trait. Medical professionalism is a belief system for organizing and delivering care, in which group members (medical professionals) promise patients and the public that they will self-regulate (ie, ensure that medical professionals live up to standards of competence and ethical values). Physicians who are good professionals have lapses in professionalism. Responses to professional lapses should focus on remediation. Failure of groups of professionals to enforce the standards and values can convey to patients and the public a lack of trustworthiness and thereby undermine the foundation of professionalism, the social contract. The Physician Charter sets forth the 3 fundamental principles and 10 commitments that offer guidance in some of the most challenging situations. One example is illustrated herein and is continued from Part 1 of this two-part series.

  1. A simple principled approach for modeling and understanding uniform color metrics.

    PubMed

    Smet, Kevin A G; Webster, Michael A; Whitehead, Lorne A

    2016-03-01

    An important goal in characterizing human color vision is to order color percepts in a way that captures their similarities and differences. This has resulted in the continuing evolution of "uniform color spaces," in which the distances within the space represent the perceptual differences between the stimuli. While these metrics are now very successful in predicting how color percepts are scaled, they do so in largely empirical, ad hoc ways, with limited reference to actual mechanisms of color vision. In this article our aim is to instead begin with general and plausible assumptions about color coding, and then develop a model of color appearance that explicitly incorporates them. We show that many of the features of empirically defined color order systems (those of Munsell, Pantone, NCS, and others) as well as many of the basic phenomena of color perception, emerge naturally from fairly simple principles of color information encoding in the visual system and how it can be optimized for the spectral characteristics of the environment.

  2. A Different Time-Dependent Variational Principle Approach: Going Beyond Wave Packet Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Paul; Markmann, Andreas; Murillo, Michael; Graziani, Frank; Cimarron Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    During inertial confinement fusion, matter evolves from a solid condensed matter phase through the warm dense matter (WDM) regime to a hot dense matter. In WDM, quantum mechanical effects are important because of both Fermi-Dirac statistics and the rate of electrons transitioning in and out of bound states is large. The time-dependent temperature and quickly changing local environment require a time-dependent quantum method. A converged dynamical quantum simulation is intractable for more than a few particles. Instead, we take as a feasible goal to match the statistical properties of a warm dense plasma. The time-dependent variational principle gives a framework for producing equations of motion. A commonly used ansatz is a Hartree product of isotropic Gaussian wave packets (wave packet molecular dynamics). The resulting dynamics do not produce the right statistics. We therefore introduce a plane wave basis and discuss its advantages and test its ability to reproduce radial distribution functions produced by hyper-netted chain calculations.

  3. A Different Time-Dependent Variational Principle Approach: Going Beyond Wave Packet Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Paul; Markmann, Andreas; Surh, Mike; Murillo, Michael; Graziani, Frank

    2012-02-01

    During inertial confinement fusion, matter evolves from a solid condensed matter phase through the warm dense matter (WDM) regime to a hot dense matter. In WDM, quantum mechanical effects are important because of both Fermi-Dirac statistics and the rate of electrons transitioning in and out of bound states is large. The time-dependent temperature and quickly changing local environment require a time-dependent quantum method. A converged dynamical quantum simulation is intractable for more than a few particles. Instead, we take as a feasible goal to match the statistical properties of a warm dense plasma. The time-dependent variational principle gives a framework for producing equations of motion. A commonly used variational form is a Hartree product of isotropic Gaussian wave packets (wave packet molecular dynamics). The resulting dynamics do not produce the right statistics. We therefore introduce a plane wave basis and discuss its advantages and test its ability to reproduce radial distribution functions produced by hyper-netted chain calculations.

  4. Importance of Scar Prevention and Treatment-An Approach From Wound Care Principles.

    PubMed

    Marini, Leonardo; Odendaal, Derek; Smirnyi, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The increased number of cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures has led to a greater demand to achieve aesthetically acceptable scars. Silicone gel (SG) dressings were evaluated in these cases following the principles of wound care and also minimizing abnormal scar formation. A newly developed solution in wound care in the form of a SG has proven to be a highly effective treatment for a series of 4 clinically challenging cases presented in this article: postprocedure healing after a laser treatment, nonhealing scalp wounds, chronic relapsing xerotic eczematous cheilitis, and the treatment of scars caused by third degree burns. A standard SG was applied to improve the scar outcome of severe burns of a young child. Silicone gels offer excellent clinical results in these 4 cases. In terms of wound care and scar management, they provide a user friendly, convenient application form and increase patient comfort and compliance. To pursue these results, further studies need to be conducted but as of now, there is strong suggestive evidence that SGs indicate beneficial properties for wound care management and scar prevention.

  5. A Simple Principled Approach for Modeling and Understanding Uniform Color Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Smet, Kevin A.G.; Webster, Michael A.; Whitehead, Lorne A.

    2016-01-01

    An important goal in characterizing human color vision is to order color percepts in a way that captures their similarities and differences. This has resulted in the continuing evolution of “uniform color spaces,” in which the distances within the space represent the perceptual differences between the stimuli. While these metrics are now very successful in predicting how color percepts are scaled, they do so in largely empirical, ad hoc ways, with limited reference to actual mechanisms of color vision. In this article our aim is to instead begin with general and plausible assumptions about color coding, and then develop a model of color appearance that explicitly incorporates them. We show that many of the features of empirically-defined color order systems (such as those of Munsell, Pantone, NCS, and others) as well as many of the basic phenomena of color perception, emerge naturally from fairly simple principles of color information encoding in the visual system and how it can be optimized for the spectral characteristics of the environment. PMID:26974939

  6. Understanding the antioxidant behavior of some vitamin molecules: a first-principles density functional approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vipin; Kishor, Shyam; Ramaniah, Lavanya M

    2013-08-01

    The structures, energetics, vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials, electron affinities, and global reactivity descriptors of antioxidant vitamins (both water- and fat-soluble) in neutral, positively charged, and negatively charged states were investigated theoretically. We worked within the framework of first-principles density functional theory (DFT), using the B3LYP functional and both localized (6-311G+(d,p) and plane-wave basis sets. Solvent effects were modeled via the polarizable continuum model (PCM), using the integral equation formalism variant (IEFPCM). From the computed structural parameters, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and spin densities, we deduced that these vitamins prefer to lose electrons to neutral reactive oxygen species (·OH and ·OOH), making them good antioxidants. Conceptual DFT was used to determine global chemical reactivity parameters. The computed chemical hardnesses showed that these antioxidant vitamins are more reactive than neutral reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus supporting their antioxidant character towards these species. However, in the neutral state, these vitamins do not act as antioxidants for [Formula: see text]. The reactivity of vitamins towards ROS depends on the nature of the solvent. Amongst the ROS, ·OH has the greatest propensity to attract electrons from a generic donor. The reactivities of fat-soluble vitamins towards neutral reactive oxygen species were found to be larger than those of water-soluble vitamins towards these species, showing that the former are better antioxidants.

  7. Chemical reactivity analysis of deoxyribonucleosides and deoxyribonucleoside analogues (NRTIs): a first-principles density functional approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vipin; Kishor, Shyam; Ramaniah, Lavanya M

    2012-08-01

    The structures, energetics, as well as several important chemical parameters, of antiretroviral drugs - nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) - and natural deoxyribonucleosides in both neutral, and positively and negatively charged states, are investigated. These studies are carried out within the frame work of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT), using the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) generalized gradient corrections to the local spin density approximation exchange and correlation energy, norm-conserving pseudopotentials and a plane-wave expansion of Kohn-Sham orbitals. Conceptual DFT is used to determine global and local chemical reactivity parameters. Our results are in good agreement with the best available experiments to date. The variation in the bond lengths and bond angles on cation formation indicates that the electron is lost from the base part of these molecules. Further, the presence of the deoxyribose sugar moiety lowers their ionization potential and increases their electron affinity, in comparison to the isolated DNA base. The effectiveness of the drug action in terminating the viral DNA chain, is explained using the global reactivity parameters, by comparing the reactivities of the drug molecules with those of the competing deoxyribonucleosides. The widely followed clinical practice, of avoiding the simultaneous administration of certain drugs, is also explained from the hardness and softness parameters. For most of the drug molecules, our study validates the generally accepted wisdom, that monophosphorylation is the crucial reaction step in the phosphorylation reaction in DNA nucleotide synthesis.

  8. Surface states and positron annihilation spectroscopy: results and prospects from a first-principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callewaert, V.; Saniz, R.; Barbiellini, B.; Partoens, B.

    2017-01-01

    The trapping of positrons at the surface of a material can be exploited to study quite selectively the surface properties of the latter by means of positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques. To support these, it is desirable to be able to theoretically predict the existence of such positronic surface states and to describe their annihilation characteristics with core or valence surface electrons in a reliable way. Here, we build on the well-developed first-principles techniques for the study of positrons in bulk solids as well as on previous models for surfaces, and investigate two schemes that can improve the theoretical description of the interaction of positrons with surfaces. One is based on supplementing the local-density correlation potential with the corrugated image potential at the surface, and the other is based on the weighted-density approximation to correlation. We discuss our results for topological insulators, graphene layers, and quantum dots, with emphasis on the information that can be directly related to experiment. We also discuss some open theoretical problems that should be addressed by future research.

  9. An Approach for Indoor Wayfinding Replicating Main Principles of AN Outdoor Navigation System for Cyclists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makri, A.; Zlatanova, S.; Verbree, E.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents an approach to enhance navigation in indoor environments based on a landmark concept. It has already been proved by empirical research that by using landmarks the wayfinding task can be significantly simplified. Navigation based on landmarks relies on the presence of landmarks at each point along a route where wayfinders might need assistance. The approach presented here is based on the Dutch system for navigation of cyclists. The landmarks that are used in the proposed approach are special signposts containing the necessary directional information in order to guide the wayfinder in the space. The system is quite simple, efficient and satisfactory in providing navigational assistance in indoor space. An important contribution of this research is the generation of an approach to automatically determine the decision points in indoor environments, which makes it possible to apply it to navigational assistance systems in any building. The proposed system is verified by placing numbered landmark-signs in a specific building. Several tests are performed and the results are analysed. The findings of the experiment are very promising, showing that participants reach the destinations without detours.

  10. Principles of Stagewise Separation Process Calculations: A Simple Algebraic Approach Using Solvent Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    A simple liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) system involving a constant partition coefficient based on solute ratios is used to develop an algebraic understanding of multistage contacting in a first-year separation processes course. This algebraic approach to the LLE system is shown to be operable for the introduction of graphical techniques…

  11. Principles of Stagewise Separation Process Calculations: A Simple Algebraic Approach Using Solvent Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    A simple liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) system involving a constant partition coefficient based on solute ratios is used to develop an algebraic understanding of multistage contacting in a first-year separation processes course. This algebraic approach to the LLE system is shown to be operable for the introduction of graphical techniques…

  12. A Novel Laboratory Approach for the Demonstration of Hemodynamic Principles: The Arterial Blood Flow Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djelic, Marina; Mazic, Sanja; Zikic, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of a laboratory training course for medicine students, a new approach for laboratory exercises has been applied to teach the phenomena of circulation. The exercise program included measurements of radial artery blood flow waveform for different age groups using a noninvasive optical sensor. Arterial wave reflection was identified by…

  13. Design Interactive: A Nonlinear, Multimedia Approach to Teaching Introduction to Visual Communication and Principles of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell; Leidig-Farmen, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    As online teaching techniques continue to evolve, new opportunities surface for research and insight regarding best practices for the development and implementation of interactive, multimedia teaching and learning tools. These tools are particularly attractive for courses that lend themselves to a rich media approach. Such is the case for visual…

  14. A Novel Laboratory Approach for the Demonstration of Hemodynamic Principles: The Arterial Blood Flow Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djelic, Marina; Mazic, Sanja; Zikic, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of a laboratory training course for medicine students, a new approach for laboratory exercises has been applied to teach the phenomena of circulation. The exercise program included measurements of radial artery blood flow waveform for different age groups using a noninvasive optical sensor. Arterial wave reflection was identified by…

  15. Design Interactive: A Nonlinear, Multimedia Approach to Teaching Introduction to Visual Communication and Principles of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell; Leidig-Farmen, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    As online teaching techniques continue to evolve, new opportunities surface for research and insight regarding best practices for the development and implementation of interactive, multimedia teaching and learning tools. These tools are particularly attractive for courses that lend themselves to a rich media approach. Such is the case for visual…

  16. Training Effectiveness of Films Developed Using Systems Approach to Training Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biersner, Robert J.

    Two films, "Oxygen Breathing Apparatus Type A-3" and "Damage Control Petty Officer," were developed using an educational systems approach and based on 15 behavioral objectives. The effectiveness of each film was tested using three samples: one which was pretested, viewed the film, and was posttested; another which was pretested and posttested but…

  17. A practical approach for translating climate change adaptation principles into forest management actions

    Treesearch

    Maria K. Janowiak; Christopher W. Swanston; Linda M. Nagel; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews; Anantha Prasad; Matthew P. Peters

    2014-01-01

    There is an ever-growing body of literature on forest management strategies for climate change adaptation; however, few frameworks have been presented for integrating these strategies with the real-world challenges of forest management. We have developed a structured approach for translating broad adaptation concepts into specific management actions and silvicultural...

  18. Principles and Practices of the Circle of Trust[R] Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadsey, Terry; Jackson, Marcy

    2012-01-01

    Through the Center for Courage & Renewal, the authors offer personal and professional retreats and programs designed to explore vocational and life questions, offer renewal and encouragement, and deepen engagement in professional practice. Using what they call the Circle of Trust[R] approach, they invite groups into a communal process based upon a…

  19. A novel approach for urbanization level evaluation based on information entropy principle: A case of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Chai, Lihe

    2015-07-01

    Urbanization level evaluation (ULE) is an important scientific basis for guiding urban managers to make decisions. By introducing information entropy to describe the interactions between all indicators, a holistic structural parameter ξ, its dynamic equation and self-organizing feature map simulation technique are derived to describe the structural evolution of the indicator network. In this way, a novel ULE model is universally proposed. Then, we use the model to assess the evolutionary urbanization level of Beijing during 2005-2012. We calculate structural parameter ξ values of the indicator network with 35 microscopic indicators as nodes. The results show Beijing's urbanization level has ever kept increasing. Large increase of ξ values in 2008 and 2012 represented significant improvements of urbanization level in these two years, while a rapid adjustment of urbanization development occurred in 2010. Five meso-scopic subsystems as urban construction, economic development, social development, ecological environment and urban-rural development affected Beijing's urbanization level in different ways. The radar chart of the model shows the contributions of economic development and urban-rural development to Beijing's urbanization changed most, while poor coordination of urban-rural development largely existed. By showing Beijing's ULE based on two analytical ways, we further discuss the objectivity and flexibility in choosing indicator network. Finally, beyond the application case, we discuss the universality and superiority of the new model.

  20. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. While some of these technologies have been readily incorporated into the study of marine organisms as models for understanding basic biology, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology and biological oceanography has only recently begun to be appreciated. This report defines critical scientific questions in marine biology and biological oceanography, describes the molecular technologies that could be used to answer these questions, and discusses some of the implications and economic opportunities that might result from this research which could potentially improve the international competitive position of the United States in the rapidly growing area of marine biotechnology. The committee recommends that the federal government provide the infrastructure necessary to use the techniques of molecular biology in the marine sciences.

  1. Science and Theatre Education: A Cross-disciplinary Approach of Scientific Ideas Addressed to Student Teachers of Early Childhood Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselfes, Vasilis; Paroussi, Antigoni

    2009-09-01

    There is, in Greece, an ongoing attempt to breach the boundaries established between the different teaching-learning subjects of compulsory education. In this context, we are interested in exploring to what degree the teaching and learning of ideas from the sciences’ “internal life” (Hacking, in: Pickering (ed) Science as practice and culture, 1992) benefits from creatively coming into contact with theatrical education as part of the corresponding curriculum subject. To this end, 57 students of the Early Childhood Education Department of the University of Athens were called to study extracts from Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican, to focus on a subject that the Dialogue’s “interlocutors” forcefully disagree about and to theatrically represent (using shadow theatre techniques) what they considered as being the central idea of this clash of opinions. The results indicate that this attempt leads to a satisfactory understanding of ideas relating to the content and methodology of the natural sciences. At the same time, theatrical education avails itself of the representation of scientific ideas and avoids the clichés and hackneyed techniques that the (often) simplistic choices available in the educational context of early childhood education tend towards. The basic reasons for both facets of this success are: (a) Genuine scientific texts force the students to approach them with seriousness, and all the more so if these recount the manner in which scientific ideas are produced and are embedded in the historical and social context of the age that created them; (b) The theatrical framework, which essentially guides the students’ activities, allows (if not obliges) them to approach scientific issues creatively; in other words, it allows them to create something related to science and recognize it as theirs; and, (c) Both the narrative texts describing processes of “science making” (Bruner, J Sci Educ

  2. Principles and examples of gel-based approaches for phosphoprotein analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Birgit; Mayrhofer, Corina

    2015-01-01

    Methods for analyzing the phosphorylation status of proteins are essential to investigate in detail key cellular processes, including signal transduction and cell metabolism. The transience of this post-translational modification and the generally low abundance of phosphoproteins require specific enrichment and/or detection steps prior to analysis. Here, we describe three gel-based approaches for the analysis of differentially expressed phosphoproteins. These approaches comprise (1) the sequential fluorescence staining of two-dimensional (2-D) gels using Pro-Q(®) Diamond and SYPRO(®) Ruby dyes to visualize and quantify phosphoproteins in total cellular lysates as well as (2) affinity enrichment of phosphoproteins in conjunction with sequential fluorescence staining of the 2-D gels and (3) affinity enrichment of proteins prior to pre-electrophoretic fluorescence labeling and 2-D gel electrophoresis.

  3. An open source approach to enable the reproducibility of scientific workflows in the ocean sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, M.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Hare, J. A.; Maffei, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    - from data source through results publication - are constructed and transparently published via the IPython Notebook. Our current work in development includes the incorporation of the W3C PROV provenance standard into the metadata of the JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) file of each Notebook. We are sharing our design principles for the granularity of these linked data provenance records with others in NOAA and NASA data communities. We conclude by reporting on end-user experience and satisfaction with these new capabilities.

  4. Application of food and feed safety assessment principles to evaluate transgenic approaches to gene modulation in crops.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Wayne; Chassy, Bruce; Ligon, Jim; Meyer, Linda; Petrick, Jay; Zhou, Junguo; Herman, Rod; Delaney, Bryan; Levine, Marci

    2010-07-01

    New crop varieties containing traits such as enhanced nutritional profiles, increased yield, and tolerance to drought are being developed. In some cases, these new traits are dependent on small RNAs or regulatory proteins such as transcription factors (TF) that modify the expression of endogenous plant genes. To date, the food and feed safety of genetically modified (GM) crops has been assessed by the application of a set of internationally accepted procedures for evaluating the safety of GM crops. The goal of this paper is to review the main aspects of the current safety assessment paradigm and to recommend scientifically sound principles for conducting a safety assessment for GM crops that are developed by technologies that modify endogenous plant gene expression. Key considerations for such a safety assessment include the following: (1) RNA and TF are generally recognized as safe (GRAS); (2) Genes encoding RNAi and regulatory proteins such as TFs are an important component of the plantgenome; (3) Crops engineered using RNAi modifications are not expected to produce heterologous proteins; (4) The modulation of TFs may result in quantitative differences in endogenous plant components,which can be assessed through agronomic performance and compositional analysis on a caseby-case basis.

  5. Preservice teachers' discursive approaches to constructing scientific arguments from evidence to claim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, Brent David

    Scientific argumentation has recently become required in K-12 classrooms, but preservice teachers often do not have prior experiences with this practice. The lack of prior experiences has made engaging in argumentation during inquiry-based content courses a priority for science teacher educators because of its importance in science education. Previous research has not examined how preservice teachers construct arguments in classroom interactions. A discourse analysis of twenty-one preservice teachers was conducted to study how preservice teachers constructed arguments within small group activities. Specifically, I drew upon discursive psychology (Potter & Wetherell, 1987) and conversation analysis (Sacks, 1972) to consider how preservice teachers' talk functioned to build arguments, as well as how their talk evolved over the course of the four targeted activities. Findings indicated that the preservice teachers oriented towards institutional norms in constructing arguments. These norms shaped the ways that arguments were constructed. The construction of arguments also included negotiating epistemic authority. This authority was used by a member of the group to take up a leadership position, which they used to direct the group's actions. However, there were moments that other group members attempted to take up epistemic stances, which created instances where members used various talk moves (e.g., overlapping speech, ignoring, and holding the conversational floor) to implicitly disagree with each other. As the activities progressed the students spontaneously adopted asynchronous online collaborative tools that seemed to shape their discourse by decreasing conceptually rich talk. The transition from talk to text also coincided with an increased reliance on the teacher, which changed from focusing on expectations of the assignment to how evidence should be organized. Overall, the findings demonstrated how preservice teachers used discourse, specifically talk, to

  6. Volcanic Ash Hazards and Risk in Argentina: Scientific and Social Collaborative Approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, E. I., II; Violante, R. A.; Vazquez Herrera, M. D.; Martinez Fernandez, M. D. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the absence of alerts or volcanic impacts during 60 years (from 1932, Quizapu-Descabezado Grande -one of the major eruptions of the XX Century- until 1991 Hudson eruption) there was mild remembrance of volcanic hazards in the collective memory of the Argentina citizens. Since then and until April 2015, the social perception changed according to different factors: age, location, education, culture, vulnerability. This variability produces a maze of challenges that go beyond the scientific knowledge. Volcanic health hazards began to be understood in 2008 after the eruption of Chaiten volcano. The particle size of ashfall (<10 μ) and the silica composition were the main factors of concern on epidemiological monitoring. In 2011 the volcanic complex Puyehue - Cordon Caulle eruption produced ashfall through plumes that reached densely populated cities like San Carlos de Bariloche and Buenos Aires. Farther away in South Africa and New Zealand ash plumes forced airlines to cancel local and international flights for several weeks. The fear of another eruption did not wait long when Calbuco volcano started activity in April 2015, it came at a time when Villarrica volcano was also in an eruptive phase, and the SERNAGEOMIN Chile, through the Observatory OVDAS of the Southern Andes, faced multiple natural disasters at the same time, 3 volcanoes in activity, lahars, pyroclastic flows and floods in the North. In Argentina, critical infrastructure, farming, livestock and primary supplies were affected mainly in the western region. Copahue volcano, is increasing unstability on seismic and geochemistry data since 2012. Caviahue resort village, distant only 8 Km. from the active vent happens to be a high vulnerable location. In 2014 GEVAS (Geology, Volcanoes, Environment and Health) Network ARGENTINA Civil Association started collaborative activities with SEGEMAR and in 2015 with the IAPG (Geoethics, Argentina), intending to promote Best Practices in volcanic and geological

  7. Human effects on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems: Integrating scientific approaches to support management and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Crook, David A; Lowe, Winsor H; Allendorf, Frederick W; Erős, Tibor; Finn, Debra S; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Hadwen, Wade L; Harrod, Chris; Hermoso, Virgilio; Jennings, Simon; Kilada, Raouf W; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Hansen, Michael M; Page, Timothy J; Riginos, Cynthia; Fry, Brian; Hughes, Jane M

    2015-11-15

    Understanding the drivers and implications of anthropogenic disturbance of ecological connectivity is a key concern for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Here, we review human activities that affect the movements and dispersal of aquatic organisms, including damming of rivers, river regulation, habitat loss and alteration, human-assisted dispersal of organisms and climate change. Using a series of case studies, we show that the insight needed to understand the nature and implications of connectivity, and to underpin conservation and management, is best achieved via data synthesis from multiple analytical approaches. We identify four key knowledge requirements for progressing our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic impacts on ecological connectivity: autecology; population structure; movement characteristics; and environmental tolerance/phenotypic plasticity. Structuring empirical research around these four broad data requirements, and using this information to parameterise appropriate models and develop management approaches, will allow for mitigation of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Principles in practice: reflections on a 'postpositivist' approach to evaluation research.

    PubMed

    Parry, O; Gnich, W; Platt, S

    2001-04-01

    User participation is currently seen as an ethically appropriate way to proceed when researching disadvantaged groups and it is encouraged by funding agencies. However, the literature rarely discusses the methodological and practical implications for researchers attempting to incorporate user participation into evaluation studies which are informed from an epistemologically opposed (positivist) research paradigm. The paper explores this issue by drawing on the evaluation of a community-based smoking intervention to describe and reflect upon the recruitment, training and employment of local residents as survey interviewers. While the evaluation methodology adopts a quasi-experimental approach, the appointment of local residents as survey interviewers reflects an alternative (interpretive) research tradition. The combined strategy constitutes a postpositivist methodology in that it combines a data collection strategy more akin to interpretive social science while retaining a positivistic epistemological framework. The paper describes some logistics of this approach and problems encountered during the course of survey. While many of the problems described may be routinely associated (although seldom aired) with survey work, particularly in disadvantaged areas, the paper suggests they are also a function of the postpositivist research strategy which we adopted. The failure to involve interviewers in the conception and development of the evaluation meant that they lacked identification with our endeavour and this had practical implications for the survey interviewing. Although the survey was successfully executed and the employment of local residents was a valuable and worthwhile experience, the authors recognize that this narrow conception of user involvement meant that many of the potential benefits (both to the research and the participants) associated with participatory approaches were forfeited.

  9. The role of integrated scientific approach facing the changing ocean policy. The case of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallega, Adalberto

    1999-08-01

    In the mid-1980s the debate about the role of oceanography vis-à-vis the evolving demand for ocean research was initiated in the framework of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. That discussion was basically triggered by the need to meet the demand for research generated by the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (1972). More recently, also as a consequence of the inputs from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, 1992), the discussion of the role of oceanography in the framework of the co-operation between physical and social disciplines was initiated focusing on the prospect of building up the ocean science. The prospect of the ocean science as designed by IOC (1984) was finalised only to integrate the branches of oceanography. To discuss how that design could be implemented on the basis of progress in epistemology and ocean policy, the subject is focused on considering three levels: i) the epistemological level, where the option between positivism- and constructivism- based epistemologies has arisen; ii) the logical level, where the option is concerned with disjunctive and conjunctive logic; and iii) the methodological level, where the option regards the analytical-deductive and the inductive-axiomatic methods. The thesis is sustained that, to meet the demand for management-oriented research, the pathway including constructivist epistemology, conjunctive logic and inductive-axiomatic methods could be usefully adopted as the cement of inter-disciplinarity. The second part of the paper is concerned with the Mediterranean, and how holism-referred and management-aimed investigations might be conducted by applying the above conceptual approach is considered: i) presenting the individual emerging subject areas on which the demand for management patterns is expected to focus in the mid- and long-run; ii) illustrating the major aspects of the individual subject areas to be investigated; iii

  10. Clinical Approach to Parkinson's Disease: Features, Diagnosis, and Principles of Management

    PubMed Central

    Massano, João; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. The condition causes a heavy burden both on those affected, as well as their families. Accurate diagnosis is critical and remains founded on clinical grounds as no specific diagnostic test is available so far. The clinical picture of PD is typical in many instances; however, features distinguishing it from other disorders should be thoroughly sought. Monogenic forms of PD also have some distinctive characteristics in many cases. This text is a roadmap to accurate diagnosis in PD, as it approaches clinical features, diagnostic methodology, and leading differential diagnoses. Therapeutic issues are also briefly discussed. PMID:22675666

  11. Computing the inhomogeneous broadening of electronic transitions in solution: a first-principle quantum mechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Avila Ferrer, Francisco José; Improta, Roberto; Santoro, Fabrizio; Barone, Vincenzo

    2011-10-14

    Starting from Marcus's relationship connecting the inhomogeneous broadening with the solvent reorganization energy and exploiting recent state-specific developments in PCM/TD-DFT calculations, we propose a procedure to estimate the polar broadening of optical transitions. When applied to two representative molecular probes, coumarin C153 and 4-aminophthalimide, in different solvents, our approach provides for the polar broadening values fully consistent with the experimental ones. Thanks to these achievements, for the first time fully ab initio vibrationally resolved absorption spectra in solution are computed, obtaining spectra for coumarin C153 in remarkable agreement with experiments.

  12. An Innovative Approach Using Clinical Simulation to Teach Quality and Safety Principles to Undergraduate Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Mary Ann; Mariani, Bette; Meakim, Colleen

    The aim of this learning experience was to enhance students' knowledge of safety practices. A threefold approach was used, which involved viewing a prerecorded scenario in which safety practices were violated and another scenario that consistently depicted safe practice behaviors. Students then performed an environmental safety check of the physical simulated scene and then participated in a debriefing session. The conceptual basis for this project was the teaching-learning strategy "What's Wrong With This Patient," which requires the learner to evaluate a simulated learning environment to identify safety practices that were not followed and suggest strategies to correct these errors.

  13. [Psychosomatic medicine as a scientific approach for the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Frommer, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Subject of the article is the future of psychosomatic medicine as a science in the 21st century. The state of the art is reviewed from the perspective of philosophy of science and sociology. The subjects of psychosomatic research are dealt with as well as theory and research methodology. Psychosomatic medicine will be influenced by a decrease in concrete interpersonal interaction and an increase in interaction directed by electronic media of communication. Holistic theories will be replaced by a variety of consistent and interdisciplinary informed middle range theories. And, last but not least, naive research concepts of the subjects of psychosomatic research will be supplemented by more complex concepts due to the multiplicity of qualitative and quantitative aspects of psychosomatic phenomena. The theoretical approach developed in this article will be illustrated by concrete examples from some research projects, in particular a project on the psychology of donors in living donor liver transplantation.

  14. Scientific Approach for Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High-Altitude Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böcker, Michael; Vogy, Joachim; Nolle-Gösser, Tanja

    2008-09-01

    The ESO coordinated study “Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High-Altitude Observatories” is based on a psychological approach using a questionnaire for data collection and assessment of high-altitude effects. During 2007 and 2008, data from 28 staff and visitors involved in APEX and ALMA were collected and analysed and the first results of the study are summarised. While there is a lot of information about biomedical changes at high altitude, relatively few studies have focussed on psychological changes, for example with respect to performance of mental tasks, safety consciousness and emotions. Both, biomedical and psychological changes are relevant factors in occupational safety and health. The results of the questionnaire on safety, health and performance issues demonstrate that the working conditions at high altitude are less detrimental than expected.

  15. Biomolecular recognition principles for bionanocombinatorics: an integrated approach to elucidate enthalpic and entropic factors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenghua; Palafox-Hernandez, J Pablo; Law, Wing-Cheung; Hughes, Zak E; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N; Knecht, Marc R; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2013-11-26

    Bionanocombinatorics is an emerging field that aims to use combinations of positionally encoded biomolecules and nanostructures to create materials and devices with unique properties or functions. The full potential of this new paradigm could be accessed by exploiting specific noncovalent interactions between diverse palettes of biomolecules and inorganic nanostructures. Advancement of this paradigm requires peptide sequences with desired binding characteristics that can be rationally designed, based upon fundamental, molecular-level understanding of biomolecule-inorganic nanoparticle interactions. Here, we introduce an integrated method for building this understanding using experimental measurements and advanced molecular simulation of the binding of peptide sequences to gold surfaces. From this integrated approach, the importance of entropically driven binding is quantitatively demonstrated, and the first design rules for creating both enthalpically and entropically driven nanomaterial-binding peptide sequences are developed. The approach presented here for gold is now being expanded in our laboratories to a range of inorganic nanomaterials and represents a key step toward establishing a bionanocombinatorics assembly paradigm based on noncovalent peptide-materials recognition.

  16. [Physical rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis: general principles and high-tech approaches].

    PubMed

    Peresedova, A V; Chernikova, L A; Zavalishin, I A

    2013-01-01

    In a chronic and disabling disease like multiple sclerosis, rehabilitation programs are of major importance for the preservation of physical, physiological, social and professional functioning and improvement of quality of life. Currently, it is generally assumed that physical activity is an important component of non-pharmacological rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis. Properly organized exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements in a number of physiological functions. A multidisciplinary rehabilitative approach should be recommended. The main recommendations for the use of exercise for patients with multiple sclerosis have been listed. An important aspect of the modern physical rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis is the usage of high-tech methods. The published results of robot-assisted training to improve the hand function and walking impairment have been represented. An important trend in the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis is the reduction of postural disorders through training balance coordination. The role of transcranial magnetic stimulation in spasticity reducing is being investigated. The use of telemedicine capabilities is quite promising. Due to the fact that the decline in physical activity can lead to the deterioration of many aspects of physiological functions and, ultimately, to mobility decrease, further research of the role of physical rehabilitation as an important therapeutic approach in preventing the progression of disability in multiple sclerosis is required.

  17. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles.

    PubMed

    Wu, H I; Spence, R D; Sharpe, P J; Goeschl, J D

    1985-11-01

    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  18. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  19. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  20. First-principles thermodynamic screening approach to photo-catalytic water splitting with co-catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Oberhofer, Harald; Reuter, Karsten

    2013-07-28

    We adapt the computational hydrogen electrode approach to explicitly account for photo-generated charges and use it to computationally screen for viable catalyst/co-catalyst combinations for photo-catalytic water splitting. The hole energy necessary to thermodynamically drive the reaction is employed as descriptor for the screening process. Using this protocol and hybrid-level density-functional theory, we show that water oxidation on bare TiO{sub 2} surfaces is thermodynamically more complex than previously thought. This motivates a screening for suitable co-catalysts for this half-reaction, which we carry out for Au particles down to the non-scalable size regime. We find that almost all small Au clusters studied are better suited for water photo-oxidation than an extended Au(111) surface or bare TiO{sub 2} facets.

  1. Guiding principles on how to manage relevant psychological aspects within a CF team: interdisciplinary approaches.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Rita M; Duff, Alistair J A; Ullrich, Gerald; Smrekar, Ulrike; Havermans, Trudy; Bryon, Mandy; Borawska-Kowalczyk, Ula; Malmborg, Maria Sandberg

    2011-06-01

    Managing CF can be emotionally and physically challenging for patients and their relatives. The disease and its treatment influence the ability to tackle normal tasks of daily living and unexpected life events. The context within which psychologists work varies according to different cultural backgrounds and their professional and theoretical memberships. The benchmarks presented here focus on four crucial issues: (i) identifying a common base of tools and theoretical reflections through suggested readings, (ii) interdisciplinary work within a CF team and its importance for both persons with CF and other healthcare professionals, (iii) the benefits of an eclectic approach utilising cognitive-behavioural theories for specific psychological problems and, (iv) effective and evaluated transition programmes from paediatric to adult healthcare services. Copyright © 2011 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Principle approaches to selection of the short-arm centrifuge regimens for extended space flight.

    PubMed

    Vil-Viliams, I F

    1994-07-01

    Eight +Gz regimens on the SAC varying in their values (within 0.8 to 1.6 G), exposures, schedules, etc. were analyzed. Some regimens were combined with water-salt supplements (WSS) or veloergometer training (VE). Weightlessness was simulated by 3- to 28-day water immersion. +3 Gz loads on the centrifuge with the radius of 7.5 m were applied prior to and post immersion. Regimens for human runs on the SAC as a novel, perspective countermeasure for interplanetary expeditions should be selected with due regard of the human tolerance, their efficiency, and subsequent verification and specification in orbital flights. These approaches showed that 3 days of exposure to 1.2 G combined with WSS and 6 days of exposure to G-loads from 0.8 to 1.6 G together with VE were most optimal.

  3. A Conceptual Technique for Laparoscopic Right Hepatectomy Based on Facts and Oncologic Principles: The Caudal Approach.

    PubMed

    Soubrane, Olivier; Schwarz, Lilian; Cauchy, François; Perotto, Laura Ornella; Brustia, Raffaele; Bernard, Denis; Scatton, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate a new conceptual technique of laparoscopic right hepatectomy. Despite significant improvements in surgical care in the last decades, morbidity is still high after major hepatectomy. Blood loss and transfusions are known to significantly increase the risk of postoperative complications and cancer recurrence after liver resection. A laparoscopic approach may improve perioperative outcomes in these cases, but data in literature are limited and the surgical technique is not yet standardized. A new conceptual technique of right hepatectomy was designed using evidence-based facts and oncologic rules: laparoscopy with pneumoperitoneum, low central venous pressure, intermittent pedicle clamping, anterior approach without mobilization, and parenchymal section with ultrasonic dissector. Thirty patients were prospectively enrolled between October 2011 and September 2013. Primary endpoint was intraoperative blood loss. Eighty percent of patients underwent surgery for malignant disease and cirrhosis was present in 11 patients. Benign lesions accounted for 13% of indications, whereas living liver donation was performed in 2 cases. Median blood loss was 100 mL (50-700) and transfusion rate was 7%. Five patients (16.6%) required conversion to laparotomy, including 2 using hybrid technique. The median operative time was 360 minutes (210-510). R0 resection rate was 87% (21/24). Postoperative morbidity rate was 23% (7/30) with 8 complications including 6 Clavien III-IV. No respiratory complication occurred. The median hospital stay was 8 days. No patient died. This study showed that several evidence-based facts could be combined to define a new conceptual technique of laparoscopic right hepatectomy allowing for low blood loss and morbidity.

  4. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    DOE PAGES

    Kenny, Joseph P.; Janssen, Curtis L.; Gordon, Mark S.; ...

    2008-01-01

    Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE) has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also addressmore » interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.« less

  5. Model-based system engineering approach for the Euclid mission to manage scientific and technical complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo Alvarez, Jose; Metselaar, Harold; Amiaux, Jerome; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Laureijs, René J.; Vavrek, Roland

    2016-08-01

    In the last years, the system engineering field is coming to terms with a paradigm change in the approach for complexity management. Different strategies have been proposed to cope with highly interrelated systems, system of systems and collaborative system engineering have been proposed and a significant effort is being invested into standardization and ontology definition. In particular, Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) intends to introduce methodologies for a systematic system definition, development, validation, deployment, operation and decommission, based on logical and visual relationship mapping, rather than traditional 'document based' information management. The practical implementation in real large-scale projects is not uniform across fields. In space science missions, the usage has been limited to subsystems or sample projects with modeling being performed 'a-posteriori' in many instances. The main hurdle for the introduction of MBSE practices in new projects is still the difficulty to demonstrate their added value to a project and whether their benefit is commensurate with the level of effort required to put them in place. In this paper we present the implemented Euclid system modeling activities, and an analysis of the benefits and limitations identified to support in particular requirement break-down and allocation, and verification planning at mission level.

  6. Multidisciplinary approach to childhood epilepsy: exploring the scientific rationale and practical aspects of implementation.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joshua; Plioplys, Sigita; Zelko, Frank; Mass, Sarah; Corns, Christine; Blaufuss, Robert; Nordli, Douglas

    2004-05-01

    The management of childhood epilepsy requires attention to more than seizure control because children with epilepsy often suffer from comorbidities that lead to an increased frequency of psychiatric disease, learning difficulties, and other problems of psychosocial development. These comorbidities can stem in part from the same genetic traits that determine seizure susceptibility. Thus, mutations affecting potassium, calcium, and sodium channels have been linked with epilepsy syndromes and affective and behavioral abnormalities. It is important to consider the effect of antiepilepsy drugs on comorbid conditions and the effect on seizures of drugs used to treat comorbidities. A number of antiepilepsy drugs are available that have minimal adverse cognitive effects, and some can have positive effects on mood and behavior. Epilepsy in a child is a condition that affects and is affected by the entire family situation. In addition to appropriate neuropsychologic evaluation, optimal management of childhood epilepsy also can require the involvement of the social worker, advanced practice nurse, and educational specialist. Many elements of the multidisciplinary team approach can be instituted by the child neurologist in community practice and at large, specialized epilepsy centers.

  7. Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: a scientific statement from the american heart association.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Appel, Lawrence J; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Bisognano, John D; Elliott, William J; Fuchs, Flavio D; Hughes, Joel W; Lackland, Daniel T; Staffileno, Beth A; Townsend, Raymond R; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Many antihypertensive medications and lifestyle changes are proven to reduce blood pressure. Over the past few decades, numerous additional modalities have been evaluated in regard to their potential blood pressure-lowering abilities. However, these nondietary, nondrug treatments, collectively called alternative approaches, have generally undergone fewer and less rigorous trials. This American Heart Association scientific statement aims to summarize the blood pressure-lowering efficacy of several alternative approaches and to provide a class of recommendation for their implementation in clinical practice based on the available level of evidence from the published literature. Among behavioral therapies, Transcendental Meditation (Class IIB, Level of Evidence B), other meditation techniques (Class III, Level of Evidence C), yoga (Class III, Level of Evidence C), other relaxation therapies (Class III, Level of Evidence B), and biofeedback approaches (Class IIB, Level of Evidence B) generally had modest, mixed, or no consistent evidence demonstrating their efficacy. Between the noninvasive procedures and devices evaluated, device-guided breathing (Class IIA, Level of Evidence B) had greater support than acupuncture (Class III, Level of Evidence B). Exercise-based regimens, including aerobic (Class I, Level of Evidence A), dynamic resistance (Class IIA, Level of Evidence B), and isometric handgrip (Class IIB, Level of Evidence C) modalities, had relatively stronger supporting evidence. It is the consensus of the writing group that it is reasonable for all individuals with blood pressure levels >120/80 mm Hg to consider trials of alternative approaches as adjuvant methods to help lower blood pressure when clinically appropriate. A suggested management algorithm is provided, along with recommendations for prioritizing the use of the individual approaches in clinical practice based on their level of evidence for blood pressure lowering, risk-to-benefit ratio, potential

  8. Interfacing parallel scientific applications with multiple visualization systems: The CUMULVS approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, J.A.; Papadopoulos, P.M.

    1998-03-01

    As high-performance computer simulation increasingly replaces more expensive and time-consuming conventional alternatives, namely physical prototyping/experimentation, it becomes important to provide mechanisms for interacting with parallel or distributed simulation programs. Such interactive exchanges can close the loop on simulation experiments by providing visualization of intermediate results and then allowing scientists to respond by manipulating the simulation, while it is running. This type of visualization and computation steering feedback system can dramatically shorten the experimental cycle by pruning off experiments that are quickly seen to be undesirable. Further, such interaction can provide enhanced capabilities for what if analyses, even beyond what would be possible in a physical environment. This approach also introduces new forms of collaboration, by allowing multiple remote collaborators to cooperate and interact via the running simulation programs, each person exploring their own view of the data and then sharing their understanding with the group. The CUMULVS (Collaborative User Migration User Library for Visualization and Steering) system is a middleware library infrastructure that allows multiple, potentially remote, scientists to monitor and coordinate control over a parallel simulation program. Using CUMULVS, various front-end viewers can dynamically attach to a simulation to view snapshots of the ongoing computation, or manipulate (steer) parameters of the simulation, and then detach. The snapshots of intermediate data array values can be rendered using a variant of visualization systems, including AVS, Tcl/Tk, and VTK, or as simple text dumps. CUMULVS provides the interfacing between the simulation tasks and the visualization systems, and transparently handles the viewer connection protocols and the data collection required for decomposed or distributed data. CUMULVS also provides mechanisms for developing fault-tolerant applications in

  9. Sunscreens as a preventative measure in melanoma: an evidence-based approach or the precautionary principle?

    PubMed

    Diffey, B L

    2009-11-01

    Meta-analyses of observational case-control studies have demonstrated no association between sunscreen use and the development of malignant melanoma. To postulate whether modern sunscreens are likely to be effective as a preventative agent in melanoma and, if so, how many cases might be avoided by their use. The potential number of melanomas prevented by encouraging the use of modern, high SPF, broad spectrum sunscreens during recreational summer exposure was estimated by combining the prevalence of their use with the relative risk of melanoma in nonusers compared with those people who regularly use these products. Notwithstanding the inherent uncertainties and assumptions that this approach involves, it is shown that significant numbers of melanomas might be avoided by regular sunscreen use during recreational summer sun exposure, and with them appreciable financial, social and emotional costs, even for very modest estimates of the benefit of broad-spectrum sunscreens. Despite the lack of evidence demonstrating the efficacy of modern sunscreens in preventing melanoma, it is argued that it would be irresponsible not to encourage their use, along with other sun protection strategies, as a means of combating the year-on-year rise in melanoma incidence.

  10. A quantitative dynamical systems approach to differential learning: self-organization principle and order parameter equations.

    PubMed

    Frank, T D; Michelbrink, M; Beckmann, H; Schöllhorn, W I

    2008-01-01

    Differential learning is a learning concept that assists subjects to find individual optimal performance patterns for given complex motor skills. To this end, training is provided in terms of noisy training sessions that feature a large variety of between-exercises differences. In several previous experimental studies it has been shown that performance improvement due to differential learning is higher than due to traditional learning and performance improvement due to differential learning occurs even during post-training periods. In this study we develop a quantitative dynamical systems approach to differential learning. Accordingly, differential learning is regarded as a self-organized process that results in the emergence of subject- and context-dependent attractors. These attractors emerge due to noise-induced bifurcations involving order parameters in terms of learning rates. In contrast, traditional learning is regarded as an externally driven process that results in the emergence of environmentally specified attractors. Performance improvement during post-training periods is explained as an hysteresis effect. An order parameter equation for differential learning involving a fourth-order polynomial potential is discussed explicitly. New predictions concerning the relationship between traditional and differential learning are derived.

  11. From Life in a French Town to the Artificial Heart: An Approach to the Teaching of Scientific French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Margaret E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the experiences of one instructor in designing and implementing a short course in scientific French for upper level students majoring in applied biology at Glasgow College. Materials used and aspects of scientific language chosen are briefly discussed. (LMO)

  12. First principles and effective theory approaches to dynamics of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmamy, Nima

    This dissertation concerns modeling two aspects of dynamics of complex networks: (1) response dynamics and (2) growth and formation. A particularly challenging class of networks are ones in which both nodes and links are evolving over time -- the most prominent example is a financial network. In the first part of the dissertation we present a model for the response dynamics in networks near a metastable point. We start with a Landau-Ginzburg approach and show that the most general lowest order Lagrangians for dynamical weighted networks can be used to derive conditions for stability under external shocks. Using a closely related model, which is easier to solve numerically, we propose a powerful and intuitive set of equations for response dynamics of financial networks. We find the stability conditions of the model and find two phases: "calm" phase , in which changes are sub-exponential and where the system moves to a new, close-by equilibrium; "frantic" phase, where changes are exponential, with negative blows resulting in crashes and positive ones leading to formation of "bubbles". We empirically verify these claims by analyzing data from Eurozone crisis of 2009-2012 and stock markets. We show that the model correctly identifies the time-line of the Eurozone crisis, and in the stock market data it correctly reproduces the auto-correlations and phases observed in the data. The second half of the dissertation addresses the following question: Do networks that form due to local interactions (local in real space, or in an abstract parameter space) have characteristics different from networks formed of random or non-local interactions? Using interacting fields obeying Fokker-Planck equations we show that many network characteristics such as degree distribution, degree-degree correlation and clustering can either be derived analytically or there are analytical bounds on their behaviour. In particular, we derive recursive equations for all powers of the ensemble average

  13. Turning scientific approaches into practical conservation actions: the case of Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, A; Bocco, G; Torres, A

    2001-05-01

    Optimum natural resource management and biodiversity conservation are desirable goals. These, however, often exclude each other, since maximum economic benefits have promoted drastic reductions in biodiversity throughout the world. This dilemma confronts local stakeholders, who usually go for maximizing economic inputs, whereas other social (e.g., academic) sectors are favor conservation practices. In this paper we describe the way two scientific approaches--landscape and participatory research--were used to develop sound and durable land use scenarios. These two approaches included expert knowledge of both social and environmental conditions in indigenous communities. Our major emphasis was given to detect spatially explicit land use scenarios and capacity building in order to construct a decision support system operated by stakeholders of the Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro in Mexico. The system for decision-making was fed with data from inventories of both abiotic and biotic biodiversity components. All research, implementation, and monitoring activities were conducted in close collaboration with members of the indigenous community. As a major result we obtained a number of forest alternative uses that favor emerging markets and make this indigenous community less dependent on a single market. Furthermore, skilled members of the community are now running the automated system for decision-making. In conclusion, our results were better expressed as products with direct benefits in local livelihoods rather than pure academic outputs.

  14. Intuitions, principles and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, A

    2001-01-01

    Some approaches to the assessment of moral intuitions are discussed. The controlled ethical trial isolates a moral issue from confounding factors and thereby clarifies what a person's intuition actually is. Casuistic reasoning from situations, where intuitions are clear, suggests or modifies principles, which can then help to make decisions in situations where intuitions are unclear. When intuitions are defended by a supporting principle, that principle can be tested by finding extreme cases, in which it is counterintuitive to follow the principle. An approach to the resolution of conflict between valid moral principles, specifically the utilitarian and justice principles, is considered. It is argued that even those who justify intuitions by a priori principles are often obliged to modify or support their principles by resort to the consideration of consequences. Key Words: Intuitions • principles • consequences • utilitarianism PMID:11233371

  15. Training in Decision-making Strategies: An approach to enhance students' competence to deal with socio-scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresch, Helge; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    Dealing with socio-scientific issues in science classes enables students to participate productively in controversial discussions concerning ethical topics, such as sustainable development. In this respect, well-structured decision-making processes are essential for elaborate reasoning. To foster decision-making competence, a computer-based programme was developed that trains secondary school students (grades 11-13) in decision-making strategies. The main research question is: does training students to use these strategies foster decision-making competence? In addition, the influence of meta-decision aids was examined. Students conducted a task analysis to select an appropriate strategy prior to the decision-making process. Hence, the second research question is: does combining decision-making training with a task analysis enhance decision-making competence at a higher rate? To answer these questions, 386 students were tested in a pre-post-follow-up control-group design that included two training groups (decision-making strategies/decision-making strategies combined with a task analysis) and a control group (decision-making with additional ecological information instead of strategic training). An open-ended questionnaire was used to assess decision-making competence in situations related to sustainable development. The decision-making training led to a significant improvement in the post-test and the follow-up, which was administered three months after the training. Long-term effects on the quality of the students' decisions were evident for both training groups. Gains in competence when reflecting upon the decision-making processes of others were found, to a lesser extent, in the training group that received the additional meta-decision training. In conclusion, training in decision-making strategies is a promising approach to deal with socio-scientific issues related to sustainable development.

  16. [Principles and criteria used by the National Evaluation Committee of Research Activity (CNEAI-Spain) for the assessment of scientific publications: 1989-2009].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo

    2010-11-01

    Study of the origins, philosophy and history of the criteria used to assess research activities in Spain by the CNEAI. The assessment criteria and quality evidence of publications is discussed. Results are presented on the temporal development of the criteria used, grouped by publication type (articles and books) and fields of knowledge. Between 1989-1996, assessment was based on the definition and goals set by the Spanish scientific framework and on general criteria. Between 1996-2004, the formulation of indicators began to be almost exclusively based on Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Success rates up to 2004 indicate that the evaluation criteria and publishing behaviour matched the "hard sciences", but not the Social Sciences and Economics. In 2005, the criteria used were further developed and reoriented with an eye to softening the preceding JCR-centrism by taking into consideration other databases and defining the quality criteria to be met by journals, books and conferences not included in JCR. Correspondingly, the success rates for 2007 indicate a dramatic recovery in Economics. In the last 4 years, Humanities and Social Sciences have consolidated the further opening of the criteria used with the addition of new benchmarks and the full integration of books.

  17. A Scientific Approach to Cultural Heritage Preservation: A Case Study of Vandalistic Acts on Important Roman Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliberto, Enrico; Spoto, Giuseppe; Matteini, Mauro; Puglisi, Concetto

    1998-10-01

    As an example of the way in which a scientific study can help the restorer in the restoration of important artistic works, the authors report the case study of vandalistic acts on important Roman mosaics. On the night of September 29, 1995, some unknown vandals poured dark brown paint over several of the most beautiful and important mosaics of the Villa del Casale (Piazza Armerina, Italy). The villa, consisting of an extensive network of rooms, galleries, courtyards, and baths, contains some of the largest and most beautiful mosaics surviving from Roman times. Chemical investigations were performed in order to draw up a rapid restoration plan aimed at identifying the substances used and proposing a correct restoration procedure. A multitechnique, analytical approach was used for these investigations because of the highly complex heterogeneity of the materials studied. The results showed that toluidine red was present in the paint as pigment and that the vehicle was made up of a mixture of alkyd resins, together with styrenated compounds and unsaturated long chain-containing oils. Moreover, besides compounds like calcium carbonate, barium sulfate, and aluminum oxide, silver-containing compounds were present in the paint. All of these observations allowed the authors to propose the removal method to be adopted that achieved the restoration of the mosaics.

  18. The future of monitoring in clinical research - a holistic approach: linking risk-based monitoring with quality management principles.

    PubMed

    Ansmann, Eva B; Hecht, Arthur; Henn, Doris K; Leptien, Sabine; Stelzer, Hans Günther

    2013-01-01

    Since several years risk-based monitoring is the new "magic bullet" for improvement in clinical research. Lots of authors in clinical research ranging from industry and academia to authorities are keen on demonstrating better monitoring-efficiency by reducing monitoring visits, monitoring time on site, monitoring costs and so on, always arguing with the use of risk-based monitoring principles. Mostly forgotten is the fact, that the use of risk-based monitoring is only adequate if all mandatory prerequisites at site and for the monitor and the sponsor are fulfilled.Based on the relevant chapter in ICH GCP (International Conference on Harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use - Good Clinical Practice) this publication takes a holistic approach by identifying and describing the requirements for future monitoring and the use of risk-based monitoring. As the authors are operational managers as well as QA (Quality Assurance) experts, both aspects are represented to come up with efficient and qualitative ways of future monitoring according to ICH GCP.

  19. Analysis of metastable ultrasmall titanium oxide clusters using a hybrid global search algorithm and first-principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inclan, Eric; Lassester, Jack; Geohegan, David; Yoon, Mina

    Research in TiO2 materials is highly relevant to energy and device applications, however, precise control of their morphologies and characterization are still a grand challenge in the field. We developed and applied a hybrid optimization algorithm to explore configuration spaces of energetically metastable TiO2. Our approach was to minimize the total energy of TiO2 lusters in order to identify the energy landscape of plausible (TiO2)n (n = 1-100). The hybrid algorithm retained good agreement with a regression on structures published in literature up to n = 25. Using first-principles density functional theory, we analyze basic properties of the hybrid-algorithm generated TiO2 nanoparticles. Our results show the expected convergence to bulk material characteristics as the cluster size increases in that the band gap varies with respect to the size of the nanocluster. The nanoclusters trended toward compact, low surface area structures that share characteristics of the bulk, namely octahedral microstructures as the nanoclusters increased in size. Our study helps in better identifying and characterizing experimentally observed structures. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  20. The future of monitoring in clinical research – a holistic approach: Linking risk-based monitoring with quality management principles

    PubMed Central

    Ansmann, Eva B.; Hecht, Arthur; Henn, Doris K.; Leptien, Sabine; Stelzer, Hans Günther

    2013-01-01

    Since several years risk-based monitoring is the new “magic bullet” for improvement in clinical research. Lots of authors in clinical research ranging from industry and academia to authorities are keen on demonstrating better monitoring-efficiency by reducing monitoring visits, monitoring time on site, monitoring costs and so on, always arguing with the use of risk-based monitoring principles. Mostly forgotten is the fact, that the use of risk-based monitoring is only adequate if all mandatory prerequisites at site and for the monitor and the sponsor are fulfilled. Based on the relevant chapter in ICH GCP (International Conference on Harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use – Good Clinical Practice) this publication takes a holistic approach by identifying and describing the requirements for future monitoring and the use of risk-based monitoring. As the authors are operational managers as well as QA (Quality Assurance) experts, both aspects are represented to come up with efficient and qualitative ways of future monitoring according to ICH GCP. PMID:23382708

  1. Microbial biodiversity: approaches to experimental design and hypothesis testing in primary scientific literature from 1975 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Morris, Cindy E; Bardin, Marc; Berge, Odile; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Fromin, Nathalie; Girardin, Hélène; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Lebaron, Philippe; Thiéry, Jean M; Troussellier, Marc

    2002-12-01

    Research interest in microbial biodiversity over the past 25 years has increased markedly as microbiologists have become interested in the significance of biodiversity for ecological processes and as the industrial, medical, and agricultural applications of this diversity have evolved. One major challenge for studies of microbial habitats is how to account for the diversity of extremely large and heterogeneous populations with samples that represent only a very small fraction of these populations. This review presents an analysis of the way in which the field of microbial biodiversity has exploited sampling, experimental design, and the process of hypothesis testing to meet this challenge. This review is based on a systematic analysis of 753 publications randomly sampled from the primary scientific literature from 1975 to 1999 concerning the microbial biodiversity of eight habitats related to water, soil, plants, and food. These publications illustrate a dominant and growing interest in questions concerning the effect of specific environmental factors on microbial biodiversity, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of this biodiversity, and quantitative measures of population structure for most of the habitats covered here. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals that descriptions of sampling strategies or other information concerning the representativeness of the sample are often missing from publications, that there is very limited use of statistical tests of hypotheses, and that only a very few publications report the results of multiple independent tests of hypotheses. Examples are cited of different approaches and constraints to experimental design and hypothesis testing in studies of microbial biodiversity. To prompt a more rigorous approach to unambiguous evaluation of the impact of microbial biodiversity on ecological processes, we present guidelines for reporting information about experimental design, sampling strategies, and analyses of results in

  2. Microbial Biodiversity: Approaches to Experimental Design and Hypothesis Testing in Primary Scientific Literature from 1975 to 1999

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Cindy E.; Bardin, Marc; Berge, Odile; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Fromin, Nathalie; Girardin, Hélène; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Lebaron, Philippe; Thiéry, Jean M.; Troussellier, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Research interest in microbial biodiversity over the past 25 years has increased markedly as microbiologists have become interested in the significance of biodiversity for ecological processes and as the industrial, medical, and agricultural applications of this diversity have evolved. One major challenge for studies of microbial habitats is how to account for the diversity of extremely large and heterogeneous populations with samples that represent only a very small fraction of these populations. This review presents an analysis of the way in which the field of microbial biodiversity has exploited sampling, experimental design, and the process of hypothesis testing to meet this challenge. This review is based on a systematic analysis of 753 publications randomly sampled from the primary scientific literature from 1975 to 1999 concerning the microbial biodiversity of eight habitats related to water, soil, plants, and food. These publications illustrate a dominant and growing interest in questions concerning the effect of specific environmental factors on microbial biodiversity, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of this biodiversity, and quantitative measures of population structure for most of the habitats covered here. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals that descriptions of sampling strategies or other information concerning the representativeness of the sample are often missing from publications, that there is very limited use of statistical tests of hypotheses, and that only a very few publications report the results of multiple independent tests of hypotheses. Examples are cited of different approaches and constraints to experimental design and hypothesis testing in studies of microbial biodiversity. To prompt a more rigorous approach to unambiguous evaluation of the impact of microbial biodiversity on ecological processes, we present guidelines for reporting information about experimental design, sampling strategies, and analyses of results in

  3. A novel in vitro metabolomics approach for neurotoxicity testing, proof of principle for methyl mercury chloride and caffeine.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Erwin; Morath, Siegfried; Eskes, Chantra; Linge, Jens; Rappsilber, Juri; Honegger, Paul; Hartung, Thomas; Coecke, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for more efficient methods giving insight into the complex mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Testing strategies including in vitro methods have been proposed to comply with this requirement. With the present study we aimed to develop a novel in vitro approach which mimics in vivo complexity, detects neurotoxicity comprehensively, and provides mechanistic insight. For this purpose we combined rat primary re-aggregating brain cell cultures with a mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach. For the proof of principle we treated developing re-aggregating brain cell cultures for 48 h with the neurotoxicant methyl mercury chloride (0.1-100 microM) and the brain stimulant caffeine (1-100 microM) and acquired cellular metabolic profiles. To detect toxicant-induced metabolic alterations the profiles were analysed using commercial software which revealed patterns in the multi-parametric dataset by principal component analyses (PCA), and recognised the most significantly altered metabolites. PCA revealed concentration-dependent cluster formations for methyl mercury chloride (0.1-1 microM), and treatment-dependent cluster formations for caffeine (1-100 microM) at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Four relevant metabolites responsible for the concentration-dependent alterations following methyl mercury chloride treatment could be identified using MS-MS fragmentation analysis. These were gamma-aminobutyric acid, choline, glutamine, creatine and spermine. Their respective mass ion intensities demonstrated metabolic alterations in line with the literature and suggest that the metabolites could be biomarkers for mechanisms of neurotoxicity or neuroprotection. In addition, we evaluated whether the approach could identify neurotoxic potential by testing eight compounds which have target organ toxicity in the liver, kidney or brain at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. PCA revealed cluster formations largely dependent on target organ toxicity indicating possible potential

  4. Validation of a novel approach for dose individualization in pharmacotherapy using gabapentin in a proof of principles study.

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary E; Orcun, Seza; Laínez, José M; Reklaitis, Gintaras V; Suvannasankha, Attaya; Fausel, Chris; Anaissie, Elias J

    2013-07-01

    To demonstrate the premise of individualized dosing charts (IDCs) as a clinical-bedside decision-support tool to individualize dosage regimens for drugs in which the interpatient variability is controlled by the pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of the patient, to calculate the optimal sampling schedule (OSS), which minimizes the number of blood samples per patient. The approach is illustrated with available PK data for gabapentin. Retrospective proof of principles study using gabapentin PK data from a published clinical trial. Nineteen subjects in a trial designed to uncover the importance of the genetic contributions to variability in gabapentin absorption, renal elimination, and transport; subjects were monitored for 36 hours after administration of a single dose of gabapentin 400 mg, and plasma concentrations were determined at 14 time points. When the PK profiles were different between subjects, the IDCs are dramatically different from each other and from the IDC for an "average" patient representing the patient population. The dose amount and dosing interval must be adjusted to maximize the probability of staying within the target concentration range. An optimal sampling methodology based on the assumption-free Bayesian approach is used to distinguish the PK profile of an individual patient from the patient population. In the case of gabapentin, only two optimally selected test blood samples, at 1.5 and 6 hours after administration of a single doses, were necessary. The average sensitivity and the average specificity of the OSS was 99% and 96%, respectively. IDCs display the risk of a patient violating the target concentration range for any dosage regimen. They can be used as a clinical-bedside decision-support tool in a patient-physician partnership to decide on a dose amount and dosing interval that are medically acceptable while practical and convenient to ensure compliance. By using the assumption-free Bayesian approach and the OSS, the number of samples

  5. High throughput exploration of ZrxSi1 - xO2 dielectrics by evolutionary first-principles approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Zeng, Qingfeng; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Dong; Liu, Yunfang

    2014-11-01

    The high throughput approaches aim to discover, screen and optimize materials in a cost-effective way and to shorten their time-to-market. However, computational approaches typically involve a combinatorial explosion problem, to deal with which, we adopted hybrid evolutionary algorithms together with first-principle calculations to explore possible stable and metastable crystal structures of ZrO2-SiO2 dielectrics. The calculation reproduced two already known structures (I41 / amd-ZrSiO4 and I41 / a-ZrSiO4) and predicted two new thermodynamically metastable structures Zr3SiO8 (P 4 bar 3 m) and ZrSi2O6 (P 3 bar 1 m). At ambient pressure, the only thermodynamically stable zirconium silicate is I41 / amd-ZrSiO4 (zircon). Dynamical stability of the new phases has been verified by phonon calculations, and their static dielectric constants are higher than that of the known phases of ZrSiO4. Band structure, density of state, electron localization function and Bader charges are presented and discussed. The new metastable structures are insulators with the DFT band gaps of 3.65 and 3.52 eV, respectively. Calculations show that P 4 bar 3 m-Zr3SiO8 has high dielectric constant (∼20.7), high refractive index (∼2.4) and strong dispersion of light. Global optimization of the dielectric fitness (electric energy density) shows that among crystalline phases of ZrO2-SiO2, maximum occurs for I41 / a-ZrSiO4.

  6. [Scientific and methodological approaches to the organization of the preventive care for children with respiratory diseases associated with the exposure to chemical factors].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtseva, N V; Ustinova, O Iu; Maklakova, O A

    2014-01-01

    There are presented directions of the improvement of strategic approaches to the prevention of respiratory diseases associated with exposure to chemical environmental factors in children. There were substantiated principles of construction of health-preventive technologies, target groups, hygienic and clinical criteria for their formation, volumes and forms of implementation, targeted indices of efficacy.

  7. Understanding the role of scientific evidence in consumer evaluation of natural health products for osteoarthritis an application of the means end chain approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 30% of individuals use natural health products (NHPs) for osteoarthritis-related pain. The Deficit Model for the Public Understanding of Science suggests that if individuals are given more information (especially about scientific evidence) they will make better health-related decisions. In contrast, the Contextual Model argues that scientific evidence is one of many factors that explain how consumers make health-related decisions. The primary objective was to investigate how the level of scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of NHPs impacts consumer decision-making in the self-selection of NHPs by individuals with osteoarthritis. Methods The means-end chain approach to product evaluation was used to compare laddering interviews with two groups of community-dwelling Canadian seniors who had used NHPs to treat their osteoarthritis. Group 1 (n=13) had used only NHPs (glucosamine and/or chondroitin) with “high” scientific evidence of efficacy. Group 2 (n=12) had used NHPs (methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and/or bromelain) with little or no scientific evidence supporting efficacy. Content analysis and generation of hierarchical value maps facilitated the identification of similarities and differences between the two groups. Results The dominant decision-making chains for participants in the two scientific evidence categories were similar. Scientific evidence was an important decision-making factor but not as important as the advice from health care providers, friends and family. Most participants learned about scientific evidence via indirect sources from health care providers and the media. Conclusions The Contextual Model of the public understanding of science helps to explain why our participants believed scientific evidence is not the most important factor in their decision to use NHPs to help manage their osteoarthritis. PMID:23107559

  8. Using Postman and de Bono as Guiding Principles in an Interdisciplinary Standards Based Approach to Technology Analysis for Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Charles K.

    This paper describes a technology assessment curriculum developed at Auburn High School (Virginia). The program was used in Honors Biology and General Chemistry classes and is based on Neil Postman's ten principles of interaction between technology and society and Edward de Bono's "Six Thinking Hats," a system of approaching a problem…

  9. Principles, Practices, and Alternatives in State Methods of Financing Community Colleges and an Approach to their Evaluation, with Pennsylvania a Case State. Report No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, S. V.; Wattenbarger, James L.

    After introducing the financial dilemmas which community colleges face, this paper states the approaches generally advocated for sound community college financing: negotiated budget under full state support, unit rate formulas, minimum foundation funding, and cost-based funding. Criteria related to those principles include: (1) consistency with…

  10. Perceptual and Design Principles for Effective Interactive Visualisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Martin

    This chapter reviews some influential theories and design principles for informing the design of effective interactive visualisation user interfaces (UIs). Several theories and principles are reviewed encompassing perceptual organisation, data graphics, and design principles (e.g. Gestalt laws, data graphics, interaction design and Human-Computer Interaction guidelines). Some example case studies are included in order to illustrate the principal benefits of applying these design principles within the UI. The objective of this review of the principles and approaches to graphical presentation is to highlight how they can be used to emphasise and reveal the most salient properties of a data visualisation, whether it is intended for scientific or for business use. Certain principles are further proposed as a generic set of guidelines for the design of interactive visualisations, which are summarised at the end of the chapter.

  11. The Effect of Using Socio-Scientific Issues Approach in Teaching Environmental Issues on Improving the Students' Ability of Making Appropriate Decisions towards These Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zo'bi, Abdallah Salim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify nature of students' decisions patterns towards environmental issues and the possibility to improve these decisions during teaching process using Socio-Scientific Issues Approach. And to achieve this, the researcher prepared and developed tools of the study represented by a test of open questions focused on…

  12. Evaluation Considerations for Secondary Uses of Clinical Data: Principles for an Evidence-based Approach to Policy and Implementation of Secondary Analysis. A Position Paper from the IMIA Technology Assessment & Quality Development in Health Informatics Working Group.

    PubMed

    Scott, P J; Rigby, M; Ammenwerth, E; Brender McNair, J; Georgiou, A; Hyppönen, H; de Keizer, N; Magrabi, F; Nykänen, P; Gude, W T; Hackl, W

    2017-05-08

    To set the scientific context and then suggest principles for an evidence-based approach to secondary uses of clinical data, covering both evaluation of the secondary uses of data and evaluation of health systems and services based upon secondary uses of data. Working Group review of selected literature and policy approaches. We present important considerations in the evaluation of secondary uses of clinical data from the angles of governance and trust, theory, semantics, and policy. We make the case for a multi-level and multi-factorial approach to the evaluation of secondary uses of clinical data and describe a methodological framework for best practice. We emphasise the importance of evaluating the governance of secondary uses of health data in maintaining trust, which is essential for such uses. We also offer examples of the re-use of routine health data to demonstrate how it can support evaluation of clinical performance and optimize health IT system design. Great expectations are resting upon "Big Data" and innovative analytics. However, to build and maintain public trust, improve data reliability, and assure the validity of analytic inferences, there must be independent and transparent evaluation. A mature and evidence-based approach needs not merely data science, but must be guided by the broader concerns of applied health informatics.

  13. Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Wilensky, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible.…

  14. Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Wilensky, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible.…

  15. A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

  16. A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

  17. Some principles of spatial organization in art.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    Rules of composition in paintings form a rich probe into the principles of perceptual processing that have been discussed for centuries. These principles can be studied by controlled scientific experiments, but an alternative approach is to use the art works themselves as a database for direct analysis. This paper focuses on the analysis of composition in relation to the canvas frame. An underlying principle is the compositional pyramid rising from the bottom of the frame to a center of consciousness high on the midline, which also finds its expression in the configuration of portrait paintings. The analyses presented reveal a dominant positioning principle for one eye in a portrait to lie on the vertical axis with an unbiased accuracy of the order of +/-5%. Analysis of the vertical location shows that the dominant height is at or above the Golden Section level on the vertical axis. In general, the layout of the portrait follows the principle of the compositional pyramid, with a center of consciousness at its apex, but there are many other compositional principles at work in the corpus of portraits in general. Analysis of the portraits of particular artists reveals that special features of their work must be considered in order to identify those that do and do not conform to the eye-centering principle.

  18. Graduate Teaching in Principles of Scientific Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrina, Francis L.; Munro, Cindy L.

    1993-01-01

    Development of a Virginia Commonwealth University course on responsible conduct of science in the biomedical disciplines is described. Issues discussed include course content decisions; use of published resource materials and documents from professional societies, institutions, states, and federal government as teaching tools; and use of case…

  19. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  20. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  1. [The beginning of the first principles: the anthropic principle].

    PubMed

    González de Posada, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    The nowadays classical Anthropic Principle is put both in the historical perspective of the traditional problem of "the place of man in the Universe', and in the confluence of several scientific "border" issues, some of which, due to their problematical nature, are also subject of philosophical analysis. On the one hand, the scientific uses of the Principle, related to the initial and constitutional conditions of "our Universe", are enumerated, as they are supposedly necessary for the appearance and consequent development of Life--up to Man--. On the other, an organized collection of the principles of today's Physics is synthetically exhibited. The object of this work is to determine the intrinsic scientific nature of the Anthropic Principle, and the role it plays in the global frame of the principles of Physics (Astrophysics, Astrobiology and Cosmology).

  2. "Twenty First Century Science": Insights from the Design and Implementation of a Scientific Literacy Approach in School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although the term "scientific literacy" has been increasingly used in recent years to characterise the aim of school science education, there is still considerable uncertainty about its meaning and implications for the curriculum. A major national project in England, "Twenty First Century Science", is evaluating the feasibility…

  3. 5E Mobile Inquiry Learning Approach for Enhancing Learning Motivation and Scientific Inquiry Ability of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ping-Han; Yang, Ya-Ting Carolyn; Chang, Shih-Hui Gilbert; Kuo, Fan-Ray Revon

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many universities have opened courses to increase students' knowledge in the field of nanotechnology. These have been shown to increase students' knowledge of nanotechnology, but beyond this, advanced and applied nanotechnology courses should also focus on learning motivation and scientific enquiry abilities to equip students to…

  4. How to Identify E-Learning Trends in Academic Teaching: Methodological Approaches and the Analysis of Scientific Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Helge; Heise, Linda; Heinz, Matthias; Moebius, Kathrin; Koehler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce methodology and findings of a trend study in the field of e-learning. The overall interest of the study was the analysis of scientific e-learning discourses. What comes next in the field of academic e-learning? Which e-learning trends dominate the discourse at universities? Answering such…

  5. Training in Decision-Making Strategies: An Approach to Enhance Students' Competence to Deal with Socio-Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresch, Helge; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with socio-scientific issues in science classes enables students to participate productively in controversial discussions concerning ethical topics, such as sustainable development. In this respect, well-structured decision-making processes are essential for elaborate reasoning. To foster decision-making competence, a computer-based…

  6. How to Identify E-Learning Trends in Academic Teaching: Methodological Approaches and the Analysis of Scientific Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Helge; Heise, Linda; Heinz, Matthias; Moebius, Kathrin; Koehler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce methodology and findings of a trend study in the field of e-learning. The overall interest of the study was the analysis of scientific e-learning discourses. What comes next in the field of academic e-learning? Which e-learning trends dominate the discourse at universities? Answering such…

  7. Training in Decision-Making Strategies: An Approach to Enhance Students' Competence to Deal with Socio-Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresch, Helge; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with socio-scientific issues in science classes enables students to participate productively in controversial discussions concerning ethical topics, such as sustainable development. In this respect, well-structured decision-making processes are essential for elaborate reasoning. To foster decision-making competence, a computer-based…

  8. Guiding Principles for Data Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The principles in the document are intended to help guide the identification of data needs, promote and optimize full use of existing knowledge, provide consistency in the data request process across all scientific disciplines for pesticide review.

  9. Poststroke Fatigue: Emerging Evidence and Approaches to Management: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, Janice L; Becker, Kyra J; Kim, Jong S; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Saban, Karen L; McNair, Norma; Mead, Gillian E

    2017-07-01

    At least half of all stroke survivors experience fatigue; thus, it is a common cause of concern for patients, caregivers, and clinicians after stroke. This scientific statement provides an international perspective on the emerging evidence surrounding the incidence, prevalence, quality of life, and complex pathogenesis of poststroke fatigue. Evidence for pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for management are reviewed, as well as the effects of poststroke fatigue on both stroke survivors and caregivers. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Scientific background of contemporary approach in the priority areas of medical science in the field of radiation medicine and radiobiology.

    PubMed

    Chumak, A A; Medvedovska, N V; Ovsannikova, L M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To analyze the results of scientific research on the problems of radiation medicine and radiobiology for the further outlining of the priority fields of research in this area. MATERIALS. Perspective plans and annual summary of research (R & D) NAMS of Ukraine, interim and final reports on implementation of research, reports on the activities of institutions, thematic scientific publications. METHODS. Semantic and content analysis, bibliometry, historical and logical analysis. RESULTS. The definition of major oncological risks of radiation effects, study of radiation risks of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, cognitive effects and cataract in liquidators of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident, study of transgenic effects of the brain irradiation, other organs and systems in various stages of ontogenesis in exposed in utero, in offspring of exposed parents; study of the effects of occupational exposure were recognized as perspective and requiring further research in radiation medicine. CONCLUSION. Issues of NNCRM scientific activity are consistent with priority areas of research in Ukraine defined by the Law "On priority directions of science and technology", namely, aimed at substantiating of the development and preservation of human potential, aimed at the creation of modern technologies on prevention and treatment of most common diseases. Chumak A. A., Medvedovska N. V., Ovsjannikova L. M. 2013.

  11. Can Scientific Method Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of changes in science education and scientific literacy is presented in the form of a dialog between the author and his alter ego. Structure of science, myths, facts, methods, and critical rationality are considered. Suggests that scientific principles once considered basic and unchanging are giving way to critical thinking. (DH)

  12. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  13. TSCA Scientific Peer Review Committees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The SACC will provide independent scientific advice and recommendations to the EPA on the scientific basis for risk assessments, methodologies, and pollution prevention measures and approaches for chemicals regulated under TSCA.

  14. The "Push-Pull" Approach to Fast-Track Management Development: A Case Study in Scientific Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fojt, Martin; Parkinson, Stephen; Peters, John; Sandelands, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how a medium sized business has addressed what it has termed a "push-pull" method of management and organization development, based around an action learning approach. Design/methodology/approach: The paper sets out a methodology that other SMEs might look to replicate in their management and…

  15. The "Push-Pull" Approach to Fast-Track Management Development: A Case Study in Scientific Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fojt, Martin; Parkinson, Stephen; Peters, John; Sandelands, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how a medium sized business has addressed what it has termed a "push-pull" method of management and organization development, based around an action learning approach. Design/methodology/approach: The paper sets out a methodology that other SMEs might look to replicate in their management and…

  16. Building Scientific Confidence in the Development and Evaluation of Read-Across Using Tox21 Approaches (SOT Annual Meeting)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acceptance of read-across is an ongoing challenge and several efforts are underway to identify and address major uncertainties associated with read-across. Several approaches have been proposed but to date few case studies if any have evaluated how Tox21 approaches may be instruc...

  17. First-Principles Momentum Dependent Local Ansatz Approach to the Ground-State Properties of Iron-Group Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-08-01

    The ground-state properties of iron-group transition metals from Sc to Cu have been investigated on the basis of the first-principles momentum dependent local ansatz (MLA) theory. Correlation energy gain is found to show large values for Mn and Fe: 0.090 Ry (Mn) and 0.094 Ry (Fe). The Hund-rule coupling energies are found to be 3000 K (Fe), 1400 K (Co), and 300 K (Ni). It is suggested that these values can resolve the inconsistency in magnetic energy between the density functional theory and the first-principles dynamical coherent potential approximation theory at finite temperatures. Charge fluctuations are shown to be suppressed by the intra-orbital correlations and inter-orbital charge-charge correlations, so that they show nearly constant values from V to Fe: 1.57 (V and Cr), 1.52 (Mn), and 1.44 (Fe), which are roughly twice as large as those obtained by the d band model. The amplitudes of local moments are enhanced by the intra-orbital and inter-orbital spin-spin correlations and show large values for Mn and Fe: 2.87 (Mn) and 2.58 (Fe). These values are in good agreement with the experimental values estimated from the effective Bohr magneton number and the inner core photoemission data.

  18. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  19. A Principle of Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett’s model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone. PMID:28223954

  20. A Principle of Intentionality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  1. Medical exposure assessment: the global approach of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shannoun, F

    2015-07-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was established in 1955 to systematically collect, evaluate, publish and share data on the global levels and effects of ionizing radiation from natural and artificial sources. Regular surveys have been conducted to determinate the frequencies of medical radiological procedure, the number of equipment and staffing and the level of global exposure using the health care level (HCL) extrapolation model. UNSCEAR surveys revealed a range of issues relating to participation, survey process, data quality and analysis. Thus, UNSCEAR developed an improvement strategy to address the existing deficiencies in data quality and collection. The major element of this strategy is the introduction of an on-line platform to facilitate the data collection and archiving process. It is anticipated that the number of countries participating in UNSCEAR's surveys will increase in the future, particularly from HCL II-IV countries.

  2. In search of the proper scientific approach: Hayek's views on biology, methodology, and the nature of economics.

    PubMed

    Beck, Naomi

    2009-12-01

    Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992) is mainly known for his defense of free-market economics and liberalism. His views on science--more specifically on the methodological differences between the physical sciences on the one hand, and evolutionary biology and the social sciences on the other--are less well known. Yet in order to understand, and properly evaluate Hayek's political position, we must look at the theory of scientific method that underpins it. Hayek believed that a basic misunderstanding of the discipline of economics and the complex phenomena with which it deals produced misconceptions concerning its method and goals, which led in turn to the adoption of dangerous policies. The objective of this article is to trace the development of Hayek's views on the nature of economics as a scientific discipline and to examine his conclusions concerning the scope of economic prediction. In doing so, I will first show that Hayek's interest in the natural sciences (especially biology), as well as his interest in epistemology, were central to his thought, dating back to his formative years. I will then emphasize the important place of historical analysis in Hayek's reflections on methodology and examine the reasons for his strong criticism of positivism and socialism. Finally, in the third and fourth sections that constitute the bulk of this article, I will show how Hayek's understanding of the data and goal of the social sciences (which he distinguished from those of the physical sciences), culminated in an analogy that sought to establish economics and evolutionary biology as exemplary complex sciences. I will challenge Hayek's interpretation of this analogy through a comparison with Darwin's views in The Origin of Species, and thus open a door to re-evaluating the theoretical foundations of Hayek's political claims.

  3. Prokaryotic regulatory systems biology: Common principles governing the functional architectures of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli unveiled by the natural decomposition approach.

    PubMed

    Freyre-González, Julio A; Treviño-Quintanilla, Luis G; Valtierra-Gutiérrez, Ilse A; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa María; Alonso-Pavón, José A

    2012-10-31

    Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are two of the best-studied prokaryotic model organisms. Previous analyses of their transcriptional regulatory networks have shown that they exhibit high plasticity during evolution and suggested that both converge to scale-free-like structures. Nevertheless, beyond this suggestion, no analyses have been carried out to identify the common systems-level components and principles governing these organisms. Here we show that these two phylogenetically distant organisms follow a set of common novel biologically consistent systems principles revealed by the mathematically and biologically founded natural decomposition approach. The discovered common functional architecture is a diamond-shaped, matryoshka-like, three-layer (coordination, processing, and integration) hierarchy exhibiting feedback, which is shaped by four systems-level components: global transcription factors (global TFs), locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. The first mathematical criterion to identify global TFs, the κ-value, was reassessed on B. subtilis and confirmed its high predictive power by identifying all the previously reported, plus three potential, master regulators and eight sigma factors. The functionally conserved cores of modules, basal cell machinery, and a set of non-orthologous common physiological global responses were identified via both orthologous genes and non-orthologous conserved functions. This study reveals novel common systems principles maintained between two phylogenetically distant organisms and provides a comparison of their lifestyle adaptations. Our results shed new light on the systems-level principles and the fundamental functions required by bacteria to sustain life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Highly frustrated quantum magnetism in the mineral azurite: multi-step approach from first-principles computations to experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Harald O.; Opahle, Ingo; Valenti, Roser; Das, Hena; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri; Lang, Michael; Hu, Shijie; Wang, Xiaoqun; Peters, Robert; Honecker, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    The natural mineral azurite Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 is a frustrated magnet displaying unusual and controversially discussed magnetic behavior. We perform a theoretical study based on density functional theory as well as state-of-the-art numerical many-body calculations [1]. We propose an effective generalized spin-1/2 diamond chain model which provides a consistent description of experiments: low-temperature magnetization, inelastic neutron scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, magnetic susceptibility as well as new specific heat measurements. With this study we demonstrate that the balanced combination of first principles with powerful many-body methods successfully describes the behavior of this frustrated material. [1] H. O. Jeschke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 217201 (2011)

  5. Basic Knowledge for Market Principle: Approaches to the Price Coordination Mechanism by Using Optimization Theory and Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiyoshi, Eitaro; Masuda, Kazuaki

    On the basis of market fundamentalism, new types of social systems with the market mechanism such as electricity trading markets and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trading markets have been developed. However, there are few textbooks in science and technology which present the explanation that Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted as market prices. This tutorial paper explains that (1) the steepest descent method for dual problems in optimization, and (2) Gauss-Seidel method for solving the stationary conditions of Lagrange problems with market principles, can formulate the mechanism of market pricing, which works even in the information-oriented modern society. The authors expect readers to acquire basic knowledge on optimization theory and algorithms related to economics and to utilize them for designing the mechanism of more complicated markets.

  6. Event-based state estimation for a class of complex networks with time-varying delays: A comparison principle approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenbing; Wang, Zidong; Liu, Yurong; Ding, Derui; Alsaadi, Fuad E.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for a class of time-delayed complex networks with event-triggering communication protocol. A novel event generator function, which is dependent not only on the measurement output but also on a predefined positive constant, is proposed with hope to reduce the communication burden. A new concept of exponentially ultimate boundedness is provided to quantify the estimation performance. By means of the comparison principle, some sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee that the estimation error is exponentially ultimately bounded, and then the estimator gains are obtained in terms of the solution of certain matrix inequalities. Furthermore, a rigorous proof is proposed to show that the designed triggering condition is free of the Zeno behavior. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed event-based estimator.

  7. First principles modeling of the metal-electrolyte interface: A novel approach to the study of the electrochemical interface

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Serra, Maria Victoria

    2016-09-12

    The research objective of this proposal is the computational modeling of the metal-electrolyte interface purely from first principles. The accurate calculation of the electrostatic potential at electrically biased metal-electrolyte interfaces is a current challenge for periodic “ab-initio” simulations. It is also an essential requisite for predicting the correspondence between the macroscopic voltage and the microscopic interfacial charge distribution in electrochemical fuel cells. This interfacial charge distribution is the result of the chemical bonding between solute and metal atoms, and therefore cannot be accurately calculated with the use of semi-empirical classical force fields. The project aims to study in detail the structure and dynamics of aqueous electrolytes at metallic interfaces taking into account the effect of the electrode potential. Another side of the project is to produce an accurate method to simulate the water/metal interface. While both experimental and theoretical surface scientists have made a lot of progress on the understanding and characterization of both atomistic structures and reactions at the solid/vacuum interface, the theoretical description of electrochemical interfaces is still lacking behind. A reason for this is that a complete and accurate first principles description of both the liquid and the metal interfaces is still computationally too expensive and complex, since their characteristics are governed by the explicit atomic and electronic structure built at the interface as a response to environmental conditions. This project will characterize in detail how different theoretical levels of modeling describer the metal/water interface. In particular the role of van der Waals interactions will be carefully analyzed and prescriptions to perform accurate simulations will be produced.

  8. Developing the Critical Thinking Skills of Astrobiology Students through Creative and Scientific Inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Lemus, Judith D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology. Key Words: Scientific inquiry—Critical thinking—Curriculum development—Astrobiology—Microbialites. Astrobiology 15, 89–99. PMID:25474292

  9. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Kézsmáki, István; Fishman, Randy S.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO3, its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a first-principles approach, we uncover all possible ME couplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO3. First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of the ME couplings. We find that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamic ME effects in BiFeO3. A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams called non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic ME couplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hidden ME couplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting optical ME effects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes. This manuscript has been written by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan.

  10. A study of low cost approaches to scientific experiment implementation for shuttle launched and serviced automated spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Cost reductions that can be obtained in experiment instrumentation by the use of standardized electronics and by the relaxation of instrument reliability requirements are studied. The feasibility of using standardized equipment for experiment instrumentation is assessed and a system design approach that most effectively incorporates standardized equipment is developed. The level and form of modularization that is appropriate for the standardized equipment is determined. Mission assurance aspects of instrument development are examined to determine the cost reductions that might be derived from the relaxation of reliability requirements and to formulate a systematic approach to the optimization of mission assurance cost reductions. The results of the analyses are applied to a representative model HEAO payload in order to provide a concrete example of the cost reductions that can be achieved by a standardized approach to the instrument electronics.

  11. Energies and wave functions of an off-centre donor in hemispherical quantum dot: Two-dimensional finite difference approach and ritz variational principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakra Mohajer, Soukaina; El Harouny, El Hassan; Ibral, Asmaa; El Khamkhami, Jamal; Assaid, El Mahdi

    2016-09-01

    Eigenvalues equation solutions of a hydrogen-like donor impurity, confined in a hemispherical quantum dot deposited on a wetting layer and capped by an insulating matrix, are determined in the framework of the effective mass approximation. Conduction band alignments at interfaces between quantum dot and surrounding materials are described by infinite height barriers. Ground and excited states energies and wave functions are determined analytically and via one-dimensional finite difference approach in case of an on-center donor. Donor impurity is then moved from center to pole of hemispherical quantum dot and eigenvalues equation is solved via Ritz variational principle, using a trial wave function where Coulomb attraction between electron and ionized donor is taken into account, and by two-dimensional finite difference approach. Numerical codes developed enable access to variations of donor total energy, binding energy, Coulomb correlation parameter, spatial extension and radial probability density with respect to hemisphere radius and impurity position inside the quantum dot.

  12. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    SciTech Connect

    Kezsmarki, I.; Fishman, Randy Scott

    2016-04-18

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO3, its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a firstprinciples approach, we uncover all possibleMEcouplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO3. First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of theMEcouplings.Wefind that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamicME effects in BiFeO3. A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams called non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic MEcouplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hiddenMEcouplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting opticalMEeffects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes.

  13. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    DOE PAGES

    Kezsmarki, I.; Fishman, Randy Scott

    2016-04-18

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO3, its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a firstprinciples approach, we uncover all possibleMEcouplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO3. First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of theMEcouplings.Wefind that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamicME effects in BiFeO3. A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams calledmore » non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic MEcouplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hiddenMEcouplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting opticalMEeffects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes.« less

  14. A new theoretical approach to terrestrial ecosystem science based on multiscale observations and eco-evolutionary optimality principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Iain Colin; Wang, Han; Cornwell, William; Davis, Tyler; Dong, Ning; Evans, Bradley; Keenan, Trevor; Peng, Changhui; Stocker, Benjamin; Togashi, Henrique; Wright, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem science focuses on biophysical interactions of organisms and their abiotic environment, and comprises vital aspects of Earth system function such as the controls of carbon, water and energy exchanges between ecosystems and the atmosphere. Global numerical models of these processes have proliferated, and have been incorporated as standard components of Earth system models whose ambitious goal is to predict the coupled behaviour of the oceans, atmosphere and land on time scales from minutes to millennia. Unfortunately, however, the performance of most current terrestrial ecosystem models is highly unsatisfactory. Models typically fail the most basic observational benchmarks, and diverge greatly from one another when called upon to predict the response of ecosystem function and composition to environmental changes beyond the narrow range for which they were developed. This situation seems to have arisen for two inter-related reasons. First, general principles underlying many basic terrestrial biogeochemical processes have been neither clearly formulated nor adequately tested. Second, extensive observational data sets that could be used to test process formulations have become available only quite recently, long postdating the emergence of the current modelling paradigm. But the situation has changed now and ecosystem science needs to change too, to reflect both recent theoretical advances and the vast increase in the availability of relevant data sets at scales from the leaf to the globe. This presentation will outline an emerging mathematical theory that links biophysical plant and ecosystem processes through testable hypotheses derived from the principle of optimization by natural selection. The development and testing of this theory has depended on the availability of extensive data sets on climate, leaf traits (including δ13C measurements), and ecosystem properties including green vegetation cover and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. Achievements to date

  15. Shared-Book Experience Using Science-Themed Books to Develop Scientific Literacy: An Interactive Approach with Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Mi-Hyun; Keckler, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This paper will explain what a reading teacher learned from working with a group of first-grade struggling readers in a series of shared-book experience classes. The shared-book experience approach used a variety of science-themed books that were aligned with the first-grade curriculum and appropriate for beginning readers. Considering the…

  16. Motivated scientific reasoning biases, epistemological beliefs, and theory polarization: a two-process approach to adolescent cognition.

    PubMed

    Klaczynski, P A

    2000-01-01

    Theory-motivated reasoning biases arise when different reasoning skills are invoked to evaluate evidence that is congruent or incongruent with individuals' belief systems. To explore this phenomenon, 66 early and 73 middle adolescents evaluated evidence relevant to their theories of social class or religion. In both conditions, reasoning biases were found, but in-group biases were evident only in the religion condition. In both conditions, higher order scientific reasoning was used to reject theory-incongruent evidence and judgmental heuristics (i.e., cognitive rules of thumb) were used to evaluate theory-congruent evidence. In both conditions, subsequent to the evidence presentation, adolescents' theories became more extreme (i.e., polarized) than at the outset of the experiment. Beliefs regarding the origin, acquisition, and certainty of knowledge, however, appeared to moderate reasoning biases and theory polarization. Age differences emerged on only one index of bias: In the religion condition, middle adolescents were more likely to treat theory-incongruent evidence as implausible. These findings are pertinent to theories of cognitive development, decision making, rationality, and in-group favoritism.

  17. A new approach to problem of enzymatic catalysis based on excited state of proteins and Le Chatelier's principle.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Leonid F

    2007-08-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that the energy of an exothermic reaction in an aqueous medium can be used to shift the equilibrium in an endothermic reaction involving hydrated ions. This takes place according to Le Chatelier's principle, and the water dissociation in the homogeneous medium at the protein-water interface gives rise to concentration gradients of ions H(+) and OH(-). The hypothesis implies that the chemical conversion of the substrate into the product is preceded by an attack of hydrated ions on the protein and their association on the protein (an attack of the nucleophilic agent with the subsequent proton addition). This leads to the formation of a cyclic peroxide in an amino acid residue and to the transition C=O-->[C=O](*). The return of carbonyl to the ground state ultimately allows to accumulate a part of the free energy and to use it to bring the enzyme to a state where the conformational energy is higher. Thus, an electronically excited state of a protein is regarded as a state required for dark reactions. This means that, along with the substrate sorption on the protein, the other aspect of the behavior of the dynamic system should be taken into account.

  18. First-Principles Momentum Dependent Local Ansatz Approach to the Momentum Distribution Function in Iron-Group Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2017-03-01

    The momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of iron-group transition metals from Sc to Cu have been investigated on the basis of the first-principles momentum dependent local ansatz wavefunction method. It is found that the MDF for d electrons show a strong momentum dependence and a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac distribution function along high-symmetry lines of the first Brillouin zone, while the sp electrons behave as independent electrons. In particular, the deviation in bcc Fe (fcc Ni) is shown to be enhanced by the narrow eg (t2g) bands with flat dispersion in the vicinity of the Fermi level. Mass enhancement factors (MEF) calculated from the jump on the Fermi surface are also shown to be momentum dependent. Large mass enhancements of Mn and Fe are found to be caused by spin fluctuations due to d electrons, while that for Ni is mainly caused by charge fluctuations. Calculated MEF are consistent with electronic specific heat data as well as recent angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy data.

  19. The role of Bi vacancies in the electrical conduction of BiFeO₃: a first-principles approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Sobhan, Mushtaq; Yang, Qian; Anariba, Franklin; Ong, Khuong Phuong; Wu, Ping

    2014-07-28

    We employ first-principles methods to study the mechanism controlling the electrical conduction in BiFeO3 (BFO). We find that under oxygen-rich conditions, Bi vacancies (V(Bi)) have lower defect formation energy than O vacancies (V(O)) (-0.43 eV vs. 3.35 eV), suggesting that V(Bi) are the acceptor defects and control the conductivity of BFO, making it a p-type semiconductor. In order to obtain further insight into the conduction mechanism, we calculate the effect of donor (Sn(4+)) and acceptor (Pb(2+)) impurities in BFO. Results indicate that Sn impurities prefer to substitute Fe sites to form shallow donor defects, which compensate the acceptor levels derived from V(Bi). Meanwhile, Pb atoms favour the substitution of Bi sites to form acceptor defects, reducing the overall concentration of holes (h(+)). Theoretical findings were later surveyed by current-voltage characteristics of Sn- or Pb-doped BFO nanofibers. This study is of general interest in carrier transport in charge compensation semiconductors, and of particular relevance within the context of defect-mediated conductivity in BFO.

  20. Understanding Scientific Knowledge and Communication: Library and Information Science in the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Brett

    1996-01-01

    Describes an experimental undergraduate seminar on the production and dissemination of scientific knowledge. The course takes a multidisciplinary approach, using case studies to draw together theoretical principles from library and information science, the philosophy and sociology of science, critical thinking and problem solving, and the…

  1. The Effectiveness of Scientific Inquiry With/Without Integration of Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chun-Ting; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the difference in effectiveness between two scientific inquiry programs-one with an emphasis on scientific reasoning and one without a scientific reasoning component-on students' scientific concepts, scientific concept-dependent reasoning, and scientific inquiry. A mixed-method approach was used in which 115 grade 5…

  2. The Effectiveness of Scientific Inquiry With/Without Integration of Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chun-Ting; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the difference in effectiveness between two scientific inquiry programs-one with an emphasis on scientific reasoning and one without a scientific reasoning component-on students' scientific concepts, scientific concept-dependent reasoning, and scientific inquiry. A mixed-method approach was used in which 115 grade 5…

  3. Understanding vegetation response to climate variability from space: the scientific objectives, the approach and the concept of the SPECTRA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, M.

    2002-06-01

    The response of vegetation to climate variability is a major scientific question. The monitoring of the carbon stock in terrestrial environments, as well as the improved understanding of the surface-atmosphere interactions controlling the exchange of matter, energy and momentum, is of immediate interest for an improved assessment of the various components of the global carbon cycle. Studies of the Earth System processes at the global scale rely on models that require an advanced understanding and proper characterization of processes at smaller scales. The goal of the SPECTRA mission is to improve the description of those processes by means of better constraints on and parameterizations of the associated models. Many vegetation properties are related to features of reflectance spectra in the region 400 nm - 2500 nm. Detailed observations of spectral reflectance reveal subtle features related to biochemical components of leaves such as chlorophyll and water. The architecture of vegetation canopies determines complex changes of observed reflectance spectra with view and illumination angle. Quantitative analysis of reflectance spectra requires, therefore, an accurate characterization of the anisotropy of reflected radiance. This can be achieved with nearly simultaneous observations at different view angles. Exchange of energy between the biosphere and the atmosphere is an important mechanism determining the response of vegetation to climate variability. This requires measurements of the component temperature of foliage and soil. The prime objective of SPECTRA is to determine the amount, assess the conditions and understand the response of terrestrial vegetation to climate variability and its role in the coupled cycles of energy, water and carbon. The amount and state of vegetation will be determined by the combination of observed vegetation properties and data assimilation. Specifically, the mission will characterize the amount and state of vegetation with observations

  4. Understanding vegetation response to climate variability from space the scientific objectives, the approach and the concept of the Spectra Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, M.; Rast, M.; Baret, F.; Hurk, B.; Knorr, W.; Mauser, W.; Miller, J.; Schaepman, M.; Schimel, D.; Verstraete, M.

    The response of vegetation to climate variability is a major scientific question. The monitoring of the carbon stock in terrestrial environments, as well as the improved understanding of the surface-atmosphere interactions controlling the exchange of matter, energy and momentum, is of immediate interest for an improved assessment of the various components of the global carbon cycle. Studies of the Earth System processes at the global scale rely on models that require an advanced understanding and proper characterization of processes at smaller scales. The goal of the SPECTRA mission is to improve the description of those processes by means of better constraints on and parameterizations of the associated models. Many vegetation properties are related to features of reflectance spectra in the region 400 nm - 2500 nm. Detailed observations of spectral reflectance reveal subtle features related to biochemical components of leaves such as chlorophyll and water. The architecture of vegetation canopies determines complex changes of observed reflectance spectra with view and illumination angle. Quantitative analysis of reflectance spectra requires, therefore, an accurate characterization of the anisotropy of reflected radiance. This can be achieved with nearly - simultaneous observations at different view angles. Exchange of energy between the biosphere and the atmosphere is an important mechanism determining the response of vegetation to climate variability. This requires measurements of the component t mperature ofe foliage and soil. The prime objective of SPECTRA is to determine the amount, assess the conditions and understand the response of terrestrial vegetation to climate variability and its role in the coupled cycles of energy, water and carbon. The amount and state of vegetation will be determined by the combination of observed vegetation properties and data assimilation. Specifically, the mission will characterize the amount and state of vegetation with

  5. Understanding Vegetation Response To Climate Variability From Space: The Scientific Objectives< The Approach and The Concept of The Spectra Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, M.; Rast, M.; Baret, F.; Mauser, W.; Miller, J.; Schaepman, M.; Schimel, D.; Verstraete, M.

    The response of vegetation to climate variability is a major scientific question. The monitoring of the carbon stock in terrestrial environments, as well as the improved understanding of the surface-atmosphere interactions controlling the exchange of mat- ter, energy and momentum, is of immediate interest for an improved assessment of the various components of the global carbon cycle. Studies of the Earth System processes at the global scale rely on models that require an advanced understanding and proper characterization of processes at smaller scales. The goal of the SPECTRA mission is to improve the description of those processes by means of better constraints on and parameterizations of the associated models. Many vegetation properties are related to features of reflectance spectra in the region 400 nm U 2500 nm. Detailed observa- tions of spectral reflectance reveal subtle features related to biochemical components of leaves such as chlorophyll and water. The architecture of vegetation canopies de- termines complex changes of observed reflectance spectra with view and illumination angle. Quantitative analysis of reflectance spectra requires, therefore, an accurate char- acterization of the anisotropy of reflected radiance. This can be achieved with nearly U simultaneous observations at different view angles. Exchange of energy between the biosphere and the atmosphere is an important mechanism determining the response of vegetation to climate variability. This requires measurements of the component tem- perature of foliage and soil. The prime objective of SPECTRA is to determine the amount, assess the conditions and understand the response of terrestrial vegetation to climate variability and its role in the coupled cycles of energy, water and carbon. The amount and state of vegetation will be determined by the combination of observed vegetation properties and data assimilation. Specifically, the mission will character- ize the amount and state of vegetation

  6. Buridan's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamport, Leslie

    2012-08-01

    Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

  7. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  8. A Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) for the Hayabusa 2 Mission to 1999 JU3: The Scientific Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Grott, Matthias; Ho, Tra-Mi; Ulamec, Stepahn; Schmitz, Nicole; Auster, Ulrich; Biele, Jens; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Okada, Tatsuaki; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Watanabe, Sei-ichhiro; Fujimoto, Masaki; Spohn, Tilman; Koncz, Alexander; Michaelis, Harald

    2014-05-01

    MASCOT, a Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout, will support JAXA's Hayabusa 2 mission to investigate the C-type asteroid 1999 JU3 (1). The German Aer-ospace Center (DLR) develops MASCOT with contributions from CNES (France) (2,3). Main objective is to in-situ map the asteroid's geomorpholo-gy, the intimate structure, texture and composition of the regolith (dust, soil and rocks), and the thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties of the sur-face in order to provide ground truth for the orbiter remote measurements, support the selection of sampling sites, and provide context information for the returned samples. MASCOT comprises a payload of four scientific in-struments: camera, radiometer, magnetometer and hyperspectral microscope. C- and D-type asteroids hold clues to the origin of the solar system, the for-mation of planets, the origins of water and life on Earth, the protection of Earth from impacts, and resources for future human exploration. C- and D-types are dark and difficult to study from Earth, and have only been glimpsed by spacecraft. While results from recent missions (e.g., Hayabusa, NEAR (4, 5, 6)) have dramatically increased our understanding of asteroids, important questions remain. For example, characterizing the properties of asteroid regolith in-situ would deliver important ground truth for further understanding telescopic and orbital observations and samples of such aster-oids. MASCOT will descend and land on the asteroid and will change its position two times by hopping. This enables measurements during descent, at the landing and hopping positions #1-3, and during hopping. References: (1) Vilas, F., Astronomical J. 1101-1105, 2008; (2) Ulamec, S., et al., Acta Astronautica, Vol. 93, pp. 460-466; (3) Jaumann et al., 45th LPSC, Houston; (4) Special Issue, Science, Vol. 312 no. 5778, 2006; (5) Special Issue Science, Vol. 333 no. 6046, 2011. (6) Bell, L., Mitton, J-., Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002.

  9. A Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) for the Hayabusa 2 Mission to 1999 JU3: The Scientific Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Grott, Matthias; Ho, Tra-Mie; Ulamec, Stephan; Schmitz, Nicole; Auster, Hans-Ulrich; Biele, Jens; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Okada, Tatsuaki; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Watanabe, Sei-ichhiro; Fujimoto, Masaki; Spohn, Tilman

    2013-04-01

    Mascot, a Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout, will support JAXA's Hayabusa 2 mission to investigate the C-type asteroid 1999 JU3 (1). The German Aero-space Center (DLR) develops Mascot with contributions from CNES (France) (2). Main objective is to in-situ map the asteroid's geomorphology, the intimate structure, texture and composition of the regolith (dust, soil and rocks), and the thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties of the surface in order to provide ground truth for the orbiter remote measurements, sup-port the selection of sampling sites, and provide context information for the returned samples. Mascot comprises a payload of four scientific instruments: camera, radiometer, magnetometer and hyperspectral microscope. C- and D-type asteroids hold clues to the origin of the solar system, the formation of planets, the origins of water and life on Earth, the protection of Earth from impacts, and resources for future human exploration. C- and D-types are dark and difficult to study from Earth, and have only been glimpsed by spacecraft. While results from recent missions (e.g., Hayabusa, NEAR (3, 4, 5)) have dramatically increased our understanding of asteroids, important questions remain. For example, characterizing the properties of asteroid reg-olith in-situ would deliver important ground truth for further understanding telescopic and orbital observations and samples of such asteroids. Mascot will descend and land on the asteroid and will change its position two times by hopping. This enables measurements during descent, at the landing and hopping positions #1-3, and during hopping. References: (1) Vilas, F., Astronomical J. 1101-1105, 2008; (2) Ulamec, S., et al., COSPAR, General Assembly, Mysore/India, 2012; (3) Special Issue, Science, Vol. 312 no. 5778, 2006; (4) Special Issue Science, Vol. 333 no. 6046, 2011; (5) Bell, L., Mitton, J-., Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002.

  10. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory approach to hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance for uranium in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the United States is conducting a geochemical survey for uranium in the Rocky Mountain states of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana and in Alaska. This survey is part of a national hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in which four Department of Energy laboratories will study the uranium resources of the United States to provide data for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The reconnaissance will identify areas having higher than background concentrations of uranium in ground waters, surface waters, and water-transported sediments. The reconnaissance data will be combined with data from airborne radiometric surveys and geological and geophysical investigations to provide an improved estimate for the economics and availability of nuclear fuel resources in the United States and to make information available to industry for use in the exploration and development of uranium resources. Water samples are analyzed for uranium by fluorometry which has a 0.02 parts per billion lower limit of detection. Concentrations of 12 additional elements in water are determined by plasma-source emission spectrography. All sediments are analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting and a 20 parts per billion lower limit of detection. Elemental concentrations in sediments are also determined by neutron activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence, and by arc-source emission spectrography. To date, all of four Rocky Mountain states and about 80% of Alaska have been sampled. About 220,000 samples have been collected from an area of nearly 2,500,000 km/sup 2/. The philosophy, sampling methodology, analytical techniques, and progress of the reconnaissance are described in several published pilot study, reconnaissance, and technical reports. The Los Alamos program was designed to maximize the identification of uranium in terrains of varied geography, geology, and climate.

  11. [The clinical ethics committee (CEC) in the area of conflict between hospital certification, moral pragmatics and scientific approach].

    PubMed

    Bauer, Axel W

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade numerous consultative bodies for bioethical and medical ethical issues have been established. In this study we will introduce the clinical ethics committee (CEC), which can be mainly brought into action for three purposes: discussing moral problems in a hospital's everyday work, developing guidelines for the clinic, and giving further education to the hospital's staff. Starting with the denominational hospitals at the end of the 1990s, CECs have been established in the meantime at a large number of German clinics, often in an interrelation with hospital certification. We will describe the process of establishing a CEC at the university hospital in Mannheim (Baden-Württemberg) and examine its formal structure given by the statutes and the standing orders. An important issue of the CEC's activities consists in individual consultation, for instance concerning withholding or withdrawing life-supporting therapy from comatose patients. First and foremost it has to be clarified whether there is really an ethical problem which cannot be solved by those seeking advice or whether the CEC is just asked a rhetorical question in order to attain allies. In this case disappointment will often be the consequence. The quality of an ethical consultation cannot be treated as equivalent to the correspondence with preconceived moral attitudes. The CEC is not a "moral police" but a multi-professional body, in which scientific medical ethics should play an important but under no circumstances a dominating role. Meaningful criteria and measuring methods to study the effectiveness of clinical ethics committees will have to be evolved and tested in practice as soon as possible.

  12. 2D quantum gravity on compact Riemann surfaces and two-loop partition function: A first principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Adel; Leduc, Laetitia

    2015-07-01

    We study two-dimensional quantum gravity on arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces in the Kähler formalism where the basic quantum field is the (Laplacian of the) Kähler potential. We do a careful first-principles computation of the fixed-area partition function Z [ A ] up to and including all two-loop contributions. This includes genuine two-loop diagrams as determined by the Liouville action, one-loop diagrams resulting from the non-trivial measure on the space of metrics, as well as one-loop diagrams involving various counterterm vertices. Contrary to what is often believed, several such counterterms, in addition to the usual cosmological constant, do and must occur. We consistently determine the relevant counterterms from a one-loop computation of the full two-point Green's function of the Kähler field. Throughout this paper we use the general spectral cutoff regularization developed recently and which is well-suited for multi-loop computations on curved manifolds. At two loops, while all "unwanted" contributions to ln ⁡ (Z [ A ] / Z [A0 ]) correctly cancel, it appears that the finite coefficient of ln ⁡ (A /A0) does depend on the finite part of a certain counterterm coefficient, i.e. on the finite renormalization conditions one has to impose. There exists a choice that reproduces the famous KPZ-scaling, but it seems to be only one consistent choice among others. Maybe, this hints at the possibility that other renormalization conditions could eventually provide a way to circumvent the famous c = 1 barrier.

  13. Implementation and enforcement of the 3Rs principle in the field of transgenic animals used for scientific purposes. Report and recommendations of the BfR expert workshop, May 18-20, 2009, Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kretlow, Ariane; Butzke, Daniel; Goetz, Mario E; Grune, Barbara; Halder, Marlies; Henkler, Frank; Liebsch, Manfred; Nobiling, Rainer; Oelgeschlaeger, Michael; Reifenberg, Kurt; Schaefer, Bernd; Seiler, Andrea; Luch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, 2.7 million vertebrates were used for animal experiments and other scientific purposes in Germany alone. Since 1998 there has been an increase in the number of animals used for research purposes, which is partly attributable to the growing use of transgenic animals. These animals are, for instance, used as in vivo models to mimic human diseases like diabetes, cancer or Alzheimer's disease. Here, transgenic model organisms serve as valuable tools, being instrumental in facilitating the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases, and might contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Due to variable and, sometimes low, efficiency (depending on the species used), however, the generation of such animals often requires a large number of embryo donors and recipients. The experts evaluated methods that could possibly be utilised to reduce, refine or even replace experiments with transgenic vertebrates in the mid-term future. Among the promising alternative model organisms available at the moment are the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Specific cell culture experiments or three-dimensional (3D) tissue models also offer valuable opportunities to replace experiments with transgenic animals or reduce the number of laboratory animals required by assisting in decision-making processes. Furthermore, at the workshop an in vitro technique was presented which permits the production of complete human antibodies without using genetically modified ("humanised") animals. Up to now, genetically modified mice are widely used for this purpose. Improved breeding protocols, enhanced efficiency of mutagenesis as well as training of laboratory personnel and animal keepers can also help to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals. Well-trained staff in particular can help to minimise the pain, suffering and discomfort of animals and, at the same time, improve the quality of data obtained from animal

  14. Fifty Years of Pulsar Candidate Selection: From simple filters to a new principled real-time classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, R. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Cooper, S.; Brooke, J. M.; Knowles, J. D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving survey specifications are causing an exponential rise in pulsar candidate numbers and data volumes. We study the candidate filters used to mitigate these problems during the past fifty years. We find that some existing methods such as applying constraints on the total number of candidates collected per observation, may have detrimental effects on the success of pulsar searches. Those methods immune to such effects are found to be ill-equipped to deal with the problems associated with increasing data volumes and candidate numbers, motivating the development of new approaches. We therefore present a new method designed for on-line operation. It selects promising candidates using a purpose-built tree-based machine learning classifier, the Gaussian Hellinger Very Fast Decision Tree (GH-VFDT), and a new set of features for describing candidates. The features have been chosen so as to i) maximise the separation between candidates arising from noise and those of probable astrophysical origin, and ii) be as survey-independent as possible. Using these features our new approach can process millions of candidates in seconds (˜1 million every 15 seconds), with high levels of pulsar recall (90%+). This technique is therefore applicable to the large volumes of data expected to be produced by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Use of this approach has assisted in the discovery of 20 new pulsars in data obtained during the LOFAR Tied-Array All-Sky Survey (LOTAAS).

  15. Principles for identification of High Potency Category Chemicals for which the Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) approach should not be applied.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie; Safford, Robert J; Lalko, Jon F

    2015-08-01

    An essential step in ensuring the toxicological safety of chemicals used in consumer products is the evaluation of their skin sensitising potential. The sensitising potency, coupled with information on exposure levels, can be used in a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) to determine an acceptable level of a given chemical in a given product. Where consumer skin exposure is low, a risk assessment can be conducted using the Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) approach, avoiding the need to determine potency experimentally. Since skin sensitisation involves chemical reaction with skin proteins, the first step in the DST approach is to assess, on the basis of the chemical structure, whether the chemical is expected to be reactive or not. Our accompanying publication describes the probabilistic derivation of a DST of 64 μg/cm(2) for chemicals assessed as reactive. This would protect against 95% of chemicals assessed as reactive, but the remaining 5% would include chemicals with very high potency. Here we discuss the chemical properties and structural features of high potency sensitisers, and derive an approach whereby they can be identified and consequently excluded from application of the DST.

  16. Problem-Based Learning Model Used to Scientific Approach Based Worksheet for Physics to Develop Senior High School Students Characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulianti, D.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the application of Problem Based Learning(PBL) model aided withscientific approach and character integrated physics worksheets (LKS). Another purpose is to investigate the increase in cognitive and psychomotor learning outcomes and to know the character development of students. The method used in this study was the quasi-experiment. The instruments were observation and cognitive test. Worksheets can improve students’ cognitive, psychomotor learning outcomes. Improvements in cognitive learning results of students who have learned using worksheets are higher than students who received learning without worksheets. LKS can also develop the students’ character.

  17. A Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) for the Hayabusa 2 Mission to 1999 JU3: The Scientific Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf; Bibring, Jean-Piere; Glassmeier, Karl-Heiz; Grott, Mathias; Ho, Tra-Mi; Ulamec, Stefan; Schmitz, Nicole; Auster, Ulrich; Biele, Jens; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Okada, Tatsuaki; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Fujimoto, Masaki; Spohn, Tilman; Koncz, Aalexander; Hercik, Davis; Michaelis, Harald

    2015-04-01

    MASCOT, a Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout, will support JAXA's Hayabusa 2 mission to investigate the C-type asteroid 1999 JU3 (1). The German Aer-ospace Center (DLR) develops MASCOT with contributions from CNES (France) (2,3,4). Main objective is to in-situ map the asteroid's geomorphol-ogy, the intimate mixture, texture and composition of the regolith (dust, soil and rocks), and the thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties of the sur-face in order to provide ground truth for the orbiter remote measurements, support the selection of sampling sites, and provide context information for the returned samples. MASCOT comprises a payload of four scientific in-struments: camera, radiometer, magnetometer and hyperspectral microscope. C- and D-type asteroids hold clues to the origin of the solar system, the for-mation of planets, the origins of water and life on Earth, the protection of Earth from impacts, and resources for future human exploration. C- and D-types are dark and difficult to study from Earth, and have only been glimpsed by spacecraft. While results from recent missions (e.g., Hayabusa, NEAR (5, 6, 7)) have dramatically increased our understanding of asteroids, important questions remain open. For example, characterizing the properties of asteroid regolith in-situ would deliver important ground truth for further understanding telescopic and orbital observations and samples of such asteroids. MASCOT will descend and land on the asteroid and will change its own position up to two times by hopping. This enables measurements during descent, at the landing and hopping positions #1-3, and during hopping. Hayabusa 2 together with MASCOT launched December 3rd 2014, will arrive at 1999JU3 in 2018 and return samples back to Earth in 2020. References: (1) Vilas, F., Astronomical J. 1101-1105, 2008; (2) Ulamec, S., et al., Acta Astronautica, Vol. 93, pp. 460-466; (3) Jaumann et al., 45th LPSC, #1812, Houston; (4) Ho et al., 45th LPSC, #2535, Houston; (5) Spe-cial Issue

  18. A scientific approach to the characterization of the painting materials of Fra Mattia della Robbia polychrome terracotta altarpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Casoli, A.; Mazzeo, R.; Prati, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the last restoration (2008-2011) of the polychrome terracotta altarpiece called Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano (Macerata, Italy), scientific investigations were carried out to acquire detailed information about the painting technique. The identification of materials allowed a correct restoration. The altarpiece is almost entirely realized by Marco della Robbia (Fra Mattia), dates back to the first half of the XVI century and represents an interesting example of painted terracotta produced by using two different techniques: glazed polychrome terracotta and the "cold painting" technique. The characterization of the samples' material constituents was obtained by analysing the cross-sections and the fragments by different techniques (optical, SEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR microscopy as well as GC-MS), as the real nature of a component is often difficult to assess with one single technique. The optical microscope examination of paint cross-sections shows the presence of many layers, indicating the complexity of the paint stratigraphic morphologies. The original polychromy of della Robbia's masterpiece is constituted of cinnabar, red lake, red lead, orpiment, red ochre, lead white, lead tin yellow, green earth and raw umber. Two different types of gilding technique have been distinguished. The first one presents a glue mordant, and the second one shows an oil mordant composed by a mixture of red lead, red ochre, cinnabar and orpiment. The GC-MS analysis allowed the characterisation of linseed oil and a mixture of animal glue and egg as binding media stratigraphically located by the use of ATR-FTIR mapping microscopy. The analytical results of the painted terracotta integrated investigations show that original technique adopted is characterised by the application of pigments in an oil-binding medium directly applied on the substrates, probably treated

  19. Herbal medicine development: a plea for a rigorous scientific foundation.

    PubMed

    Lietman, Paul S

    2012-09-01

    Science, including rigorous basic scientific research and rigorous clinical research, must underlie both the development and the clinical use of herbal medicines. Yet almost none of the hundreds or thousands of articles that are published each year on some aspect of herbal medicines, adheres to 3 simple but profound scientific principles must underlie all of herbal drug development or clinical use. Three fundamental principles that should underlie everyone's thinking about the development and/or clinical use of any herbal medicine. (1) There must be standardization and regulation (rigorously enforced) of the product being studied or being used clinically. (2) There must be scientific proof of a beneficial clinical effect for something of value to the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. (3) There must be scientific proof of safety (acceptable toxicity) for the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. These fundamental principles of science have ramifications for both the scientist and the clinician. It is critically important that both the investigator and the prescriber know exactly what is in the studied or recommended product and how effective and toxic it is. We will find new and useful drugs from natural sources. However, we will have to learn how to study herbal medicines rigorously, and we will have to try to convince the believers in herbal medicines of the wisdom and even the necessity of a rigorous scientific approach to herbal medicine development. Both biomedical science and practicing physicians must enthusiastically accept the responsibility for searching for truth in the discovery and development of new herbal medicines, in the truthful teaching about herbal medicines from a scientific perspective, and in the scientifically proven clinical use of herbal medicines.

  20. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617