Science.gov

Sample records for scientists present research

  1. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  2. The Oratorical Scientist: A Guide for Speechcraft and Presentation for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Public speaking organizations are highly valuable for individuals seeking to improve their skills in speech development and delivery. The methodology of such groups usually focuses on repetitive, guided practice. Toastmasters International, for instance, uses a curriculum based on topical manuals that guide their members through some number of prepared speeches with specific goals for each speech. I have similarly developed a public speaking manual for scientists with the intention of guiding scientists through the development and presentation of speeches that will help them hone their abilities as public speakers. I call this guide The Oratorical Scientist. The Oratorical Scientist will be a free, digital publication that is meant to guide scientists through five specific types of speech that the scientist may be called upon to deliver during their career. These five speeches are: The Coffee Talk, The Educational Talk, Research Talks for General Science Audiences, Research Talks for Specific Subdiscipline Audiences, and Taking the Big Stage (talks for public engagement). Each section of the manual focuses on speech development, rehearsal, and presentation for each of these specific types of speech. The curriculum was developed primarily from my personal experiences in public engagement. Individuals who use the manual may deliver their prepared speeches to groups of their peers (e.g. within their research group) or through video sharing websites like Youtube and Vimeo. Speeches that are broadcast online can then be followed and shared through social media networks (e.g. #OratoricalScientist), allowing a larger audience to evaluate the speech and to provide criticism. I will present The Oratorical Scientist, a guide for scientists to become better public speakers. The process of guided repetitive practice of scientific talks will improve the speaking capabilities of scientists, in turn benefitting science communication and public engagement.

  3. Scientist, researchers, and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, L.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The role of the hidden participants in agenda-setting for environmental issues is discussed. These personnel involve academics, researchers, career bureaucrats, congressional staffers, consultants, and administration appointees below the top level. Scientists have been publicly involved in the acid rain issue from the beginning, using the media to dramatize the possible catastrophic consequences of acid rain. Presently, the scientific community is not in consensus about the solutions to the problem. Since the initial enactment of the National Acid Precipitation Act in 1980, not a single acid rain law has been passed, although many bills have been proposed. Spokesman for the coal and utility industries and Reagan administration personnel have used the scientific disagreements to delay abatement actions and refute claims that acid rain is a severe problem. Another result of the confusion is a distrust and even disdain for academic work. One possible solution to the stalemate is an accurate form for resolving scientific disputes that have a strong political component and that the forum should have a mechanism for converging on accurate science. 19 refs.

  4. Scientists popularizing science: characteristics and impact of TED talk presenters.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Thelwall, Mike; Larivière, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community. PMID:23638069

  5. Scientists Popularizing Science: Characteristics and Impact of TED Talk Presenters

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Thelwall, Mike; Larivière, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community. PMID:23638069

  6. Epistemological undercurrents in scientists' reporting of research to teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasson, George E.; Bentley, Michael L.

    2000-07-01

    Our investigation focused upon how scientists, from both a practical and epistemological perspective, communicated the nature and relevance of their research to classroom teachers. Six scientists were observed during presentations of cutting-edge research at a conference for science teachers. Following the conference, these scientists were interviewed to discern how each perceived the nature of science, technology, and society in relation to his particular research. Data were analyzed to determine the congruence and/or dissimilarity in how scientists described their research to teachers and how they viewed their research epistemologically. We found that a wide array of scientific methodologies and research protocols were presented and that all the scientists expressed links between their research and science-technology-society (STS) issues. When describing their research during interviews, the scientists from traditional content disciplines reflected a strong commitment to empiricism and experimental design, whereas engineers from applied sciences were more focused on problem-solving. Implicit in the data was a commitment to objectivity and the tacit assumption that science may be free of values and ethical assumptions. More dialogue is recommended between the scientific community, science educators, and historians/philosophers of science about the nature of science, STS, and curriculum issues.

  7. Researchers Dispute Notion that America Lacks Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Researchers who track the American labor market told Congress last week that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the United States has more than enough scientists and engineers and that federal agencies and universities should reform the way they train young scientists to better match the supply of scientists with the demand for researchers. At a…

  8. Interview With Steve Platts, Lead Scientist, Cardiovascular Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with Steven Platts, a lead scientist for cardiovascular research at the Johnson Space Center where scientists are studying the effects of long-duration...

  9. Hypatia's Sisters: Biographies of Women Scientists - Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacher, Susan

    This booklet gives two- or three-page biographies of seventeen women scientists. They range in history from Agnodice (physician, 300 B.B.) to Jane Goodall (born 1934). In addition, brief sketches are given of twenty-three other women scientists. This anthology is intended to fill a need for curriculum materials and literature that provide positive…

  10. Patenting for the research scientist: an update.

    PubMed

    Crespi, R Stephen

    2004-12-01

    Academic institutional research constantly produces results worthy of patent protection, but coping with the demands of patent law presents considerable challenges to bioscientists working in these institutions. Inventors need, however, to be aware of recent patent office guidelines and court decisions if they are to seek useful intellectual property as a basis for technology transfer to industry.

  11. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  12. Creation of Educational Resources: A Research Scientist's Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Carol A.

    2004-06-01

    Material and resources for use in science education must contain accurate, up-to-date data and research results. Clearly when curricula and other materials for use in informal science education and for public understanding of science are developed, the direct interaction and influence of research scientists is beneficial. What is the role of scientists in resource development? In colleges and universities, educational materials are scientist-centric since scientists are the principal science educators and therefore create the specific courseware they need. In a pre-college educational environment, and in science museums (for example), appropriate product creation is driven by experienced educators and other experts. The research scientist, drawn from a research environment, may not be the best instigator of those resources.

  13. Engaging basic scientists in translational research: identifying opportunities, overcoming obstacles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This report is based on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s symposium, “Engaging basic Scientists in Translational Research: Identifying Opportunities, Overcoming Obstacles,” held in Chevy Chase, MD, March 24–25, 2011. Meeting participants examined the benefits of engaging basic scientists in translational research, the challenges to their participation in translational research, and the roles that research institutions, funding organizations, professional societies, and scientific publishers can play to address these challenges. PMID:22500917

  14. Views of Translational Research from a Somewhat Translational Scientist

    PubMed Central

    Talman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    This review arose from a talk entitled “Identifying Targets” and given by the author at EB2011 at the invitation of the American Federation for Medical Research (AFMR). The presentation was part of the AFMR workshop entitled “Keys for Translation: Science and Strategy” and focused on identifying clinically relevant targets as a result of observations made during basic scientific studies. The review emphasizes that targets do not have to be the aim that drives basic discovery, but communication between the basic scientist and clinical investigators may aid recognition of such targets and their translation to clinical applications. Using one line of investigator-initiated research from his own laboratory as an example, the author emphasizes that basic discovery must be hypothesis driven and allowed to follow its logical sequence. Finding treatments, while always an aim of biomedical research, may arise as a result of basic studies that were not originally aimed at a target of translational research. PMID:22781556

  15. Helping early career research scientists ascend the professional ladder.

    PubMed

    King, Laina

    2013-08-01

    The Keystone Symposia Early Career Investigator Travel Award initiative is a unique successful research mentoring program tailored for 'end of the pipeline' life and biomedical scientists from academia and industry. Using targeted educational, mentoring, and networking activities, the program benefits early career scientists in solving a specific laboratory-based research question that is limiting their evolving research and could increase their ability to obtain new grants and improve their career progression. PMID:23889774

  16. Creating Catalytic Collaborations between Theater Artists, Scientists, and Research Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Debra

    2012-02-01

    Catalyst Collaborative@MIT (CC@MIT) is a collaboration between MIT and Underground Railway Theater (URT), a company with 30 years experience creating theater through interdisciplinary inquiry and engaging community. CC@MIT is dedicated to creating and presenting plays that deepen public understanding about science, while simultaneously providing artistic and emotional experiences not available in other forms of dialogue about science. CC@MIT engages audiences in thinking about themes in science of social and ethical concern; provides insight into the culture of science and the impact of that culture on society; and examines the human condition through the lens of science that intersects our lives and the lives of scientists. Original productions range from Einstein's Dreams to From Orchids to Octopi -- an evolutionary love story; classics re-framed include The Life of Galileo and Breaking the Code (about Alan Turing). CC@MIT commissions playwrights and scientists to create plays; engages audiences with scientists; performs at MIT and a professional venue near the campus; collaborates with the Cambridge Science Festival and MIT Museum; engages MIT students, as well as youth and children. Artistic Director Debra Wise will address how the collaboration developed, what opportunities are provided by collaborations between theaters and scientific research institutions, and lessons learned of value to the field.

  17. Elementary School Children Contribute to Environmental Research as Citizen Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Miczajka, Victoria L.; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Pufal, Gesine

    2015-01-01

    Research benefits increasingly from valuable contributions by citizen scientists. Mostly, participating adults investigate specific species, ecosystems or phenology to address conservation issues, but ecosystem functions supporting ecosystem health are rarely addressed and other demographic groups rarely involved. As part of a project investigating seed predation and dispersal as ecosystem functions along an urban-rural gradient, we tested whether elementary school children can contribute to the project as citizen scientists. Specifically, we compared data estimating vegetation cover, measuring vegetation height and counting seeds from a seed removal experiment, that were collected by children and scientists in schoolyards. Children counted seeds similarly to scientists but under- or overestimated vegetation cover and measured different heights. We conclude that children can be involved as citizen scientists in research projects according to their skill level. However, more sophisticated tasks require specific training to become familiarized with scientific experiments and the development of needed skills and methods. PMID:26581087

  18. Elementary School Children Contribute to Environmental Research as Citizen Scientists.

    PubMed

    Miczajka, Victoria L; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Pufal, Gesine

    2015-01-01

    Research benefits increasingly from valuable contributions by citizen scientists. Mostly, participating adults investigate specific species, ecosystems or phenology to address conservation issues, but ecosystem functions supporting ecosystem health are rarely addressed and other demographic groups rarely involved. As part of a project investigating seed predation and dispersal as ecosystem functions along an urban-rural gradient, we tested whether elementary school children can contribute to the project as citizen scientists. Specifically, we compared data estimating vegetation cover, measuring vegetation height and counting seeds from a seed removal experiment, that were collected by children and scientists in schoolyards. Children counted seeds similarly to scientists but under- or overestimated vegetation cover and measured different heights. We conclude that children can be involved as citizen scientists in research projects according to their skill level. However, more sophisticated tasks require specific training to become familiarized with scientific experiments and the development of needed skills and methods.

  19. Creatiing a Collaborative Research Network for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, W.

    2012-12-01

    This abstract proposes a discussion of how professional science communication and scientific cooperation can become more efficient through the use of modern social network technology, using the example of Mendeley. Mendeley is a research workflow and collaboration tool which crowdsources real-time research trend information and semantic annotations of research papers in a central data store, thereby creating a "social research network" that is emergent from the research data added to the platform. We describe how Mendeley's model can overcome barriers for collaboration by turning research papers into social objects, making academic data publicly available via an open API, and promoting more efficient collaboration. Central to the success of Mendeley has been the creation of a tool that works for the researcher without the requirement of being part of an explicit social network. Mendeley automatically extracts metadata from research papers, and allows a researcher to annotate, tag and organize their research collection. The tool integrates with the paper writing workflow and provides advanced collaboration options, thus significantly improving researchers' productivity. By anonymously aggregating usage data, Mendeley enables the emergence of social metrics and real-time usage stats on top of the articles' abstract metadata. In this way a social network of collaborators, and people genuinely interested in content, emerges. By building this research network around the article as the social object, a social layer of direct relevance to academia emerges. As science, particularly Earth sciences with their large shared resources, become more and more global, the management and coordination of research is more and more dependent on technology to support these distributed collaborations.

  20. Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D.; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D.; Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Polka, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

  1. Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Gary S; Gunsalus, Kearney T W; MacKellar, Drew C; Mazzilli, Sarah A; Pai, Vaibhav P; Goodwin, Patricia R; Walsh, Erica M; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D; Krukenberg, Kristin A; Polka, Jessica K

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 (nd) and 3 (rd), 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers' synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

  2. Scientists' perspectives on consent in the context of biobanking research

    PubMed Central

    Master, Zubin; Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Most bioethics studies have focused on capturing the views of patients and the general public on research ethics issues related to informed consent for biobanking and only a handful of studies have examined the perceptions of scientists. Capturing the opinions of scientists is important because they are intimately involved with biobanks as collectors and users of samples and health information. In this study, we performed interviews with scientists followed by qualitative analysis to capture the diversity of perspectives on informed consent. We found that the majority of scientists in our study reported their preference for a general consent approach although they do not believe there to be a consensus on consent type. Despite their overall desire for a general consent model, many reported several concerns including donors needing some form of assurance that nothing unethical will be done with their samples and information. Finally, scientists reported mixed opinions about incorporating exclusion clauses in informed consent as a means of limiting some types of contentious research as a mechanism to assure donors that their samples and information are being handled appropriately. This study is one of the first to capture the views of scientists on informed consent in biobanking. Future studies should attempt to generalize findings on the perspectives of different scientists on informed consent for biobanking. PMID:25074466

  3. Scientists' perspectives on consent in the context of biobanking research.

    PubMed

    Master, Zubin; Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    Most bioethics studies have focused on capturing the views of patients and the general public on research ethics issues related to informed consent for biobanking and only a handful of studies have examined the perceptions of scientists. Capturing the opinions of scientists is important because they are intimately involved with biobanks as collectors and users of samples and health information. In this study, we performed interviews with scientists followed by qualitative analysis to capture the diversity of perspectives on informed consent. We found that the majority of scientists in our study reported their preference for a general consent approach although they do not believe there to be a consensus on consent type. Despite their overall desire for a general consent model, many reported several concerns including donors needing some form of assurance that nothing unethical will be done with their samples and information. Finally, scientists reported mixed opinions about incorporating exclusion clauses in informed consent as a means of limiting some types of contentious research as a mechanism to assure donors that their samples and information are being handled appropriately. This study is one of the first to capture the views of scientists on informed consent in biobanking. Future studies should attempt to generalize findings on the perspectives of different scientists on informed consent for biobanking.

  4. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes.

  5. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. PMID:24962114

  6. Scientist to Expose Students to Wetlands Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Marco Giardino, chief of the Applications Integration Division for NASA Stennis Space Center's Earth Science Applications Directorate, has been chosen by the JASON Project to be one of six host researchers for Disappearing Wetlands, which will run through the 2004-05 school year. In the photo, Giardino (left) interprets satellite imagery on the way to an archeological site near Lake Salvador, La., in November 2002. With him is his local guide, Michael Comardelle.

  7. From Research Scientist to Public Outreach: A Personal Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past six years I have made the transition from research oceanographer to an educator and public outreach specialist. The transition has been rewarding but difficult. On the way I had to learn the vocabulary and concepts of education (e.g. authentic assessment), effective web-page styles, and the difference between science and education--they are very different. I also met many enthusiastic and caring teachers who greatly eased my transition to educator. Some lessons learned. First, partner with experts. Successful outreach is a team effort. I was luck to have the opportunity to work closely with a great professor of education, Robert James, a wonderful middle-school teacher and Presidential Awardee, Margaret Hammer, and talented students, Jon Reisch and Don Johnson, from our School of ArchitectureAƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ_zAøs Visualization Laboratory, who combined art and technology. Second, if you are a scientist, realize that scientists are too critical. We look for the one right answer, and for the flaws in data and theory. Educators look for the many ways to present ideas, all equally valid, and they value the worth of all students. AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A.â_oSo radical are the differences between the worlds of science and human affairs that their demands are sometimes in conflict.AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A_A¿A 1/2 -Philander: Our Affair With El Nino, p.5. Second, the web is a very efficient way of reaching many people. Thus, web skills are essential. Third, I am learning to be humble. There is much I need to learn. The skills necessary to be a successful research scientist are not sufficient for being a successful educator. Fourth, assess, assess, and assess. DonAƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ_zAøt assume that what you create serves its purpose. Get feedback from educators, students, and scientists of all levels of experience.

  8. Scientists' Ethical Obligations and Social Responsibility for Nanotechnology Research.

    PubMed

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2016-02-01

    Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research.

  9. Scientists' Ethical Obligations and Social Responsibility for Nanotechnology Research.

    PubMed

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2016-02-01

    Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research. PMID:25721444

  10. Summer Student Research Presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, Carol (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, over 150 undergraduate students and first-year graduate students participated in a variety of research programs coordinated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Education Office in conjunction with the Caltech Student- Faculty Programs Office. The programs give students the opportunity to conduct research under the guidance of an experienced mentor for a 10-week period. Students gain valuable experience while contributing to the ongoing goals of JPL. Students are required to submit progress reports and an abstract, and to give an oral presentation of their projects to an audience of JPL staff and other students. This set of abstracts provides brief descriptions of the projects that were conducted by these students and their mentors. A schedule of student talks is also included.

  11. Maximizing Research Productivity and Recognition: Strategies for Junior Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Pfirman, S.; Culligan, P.; Laird, J.

    2007-12-01

    The post-doc and the first six years of the academic lifecycle are crucial: the performance and decisions a scientist makes during this time often set the stage for the rest of his or her career. We frame our presentation around the criteria that reviewers typically use to assess candidates: reputation, impact, and productivity. Publication productivity is one of the most critical aspects of a researcher's success and the number of publications is often the first item that evaluators look for when reviewing files of job applicants and tenure candidates. Citations are typically used as a measure of impact, but they reflect a complicated set of factors besides quality, for example, visibility, size of citing community, and integration in social and professional networks. Letters of recommendation carry significant weight in evaluations for promotion because they are the only external measure that synthesizes all three parameters: reputation, impact and productivity. We have developed strategies for developing a research plan, getting the most out of scientific meetings, identifying potential letter writers, and integrating research into teaching. In this presentation we combine insights from the literature with our own experiences, to outline these strategies for increasing research productivity, recognition, and impact.

  12. How scientists use social media to communicate their research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population. PMID:22085450

  13. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AS PRESENTED IN SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS AND AS DESCRIBED BY EMINENT SCIENTISTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RIGGSBY, ERNEST DUWARD

    THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD, AS PRESENTED IN SECONDARY AND COLLEGE TEXTBOOKS, IS COMPARED WITH THAT DESCRIBED BY SCIENTISTS. TEN TEXTBOOKS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED FROM THOSE AVAILABLE FOR GRADES 7 THROUGH 9, 10 THROUGH 12, AND 13 AND 14. FORTY SCIENTISTS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED FROM THE COMBINED MEMBERSHIPS OF A LEARNED SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY AND THREE…

  14. Students Engaged in Research - Young Engineers and Scientists (YES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.

    2009-09-01

    During the past 17 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including geosciences), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

  15. Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) -engaging students in research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel; Reiff, Patricia

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) during the past 18 years. The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space sciences), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students' preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

  16. Does Practice Make Perfect? Role of Training and Feedback in Improving Scientists' Presentation Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankersley, R. A.; Bourexis, P.; Kaser, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Within the research and academic communities there is a growing interest in improving the communication skills of scientists, especially their ability to communicate the substance and importance of their research to general audiences. To address this need, we developed an intensive, two-day workshop [Presentation Boot Camp (PBC)] that focuses on presenting scientific concepts and research findings more effectively to both scientific/technical audiences and the general public. Through a series of interactive sessions, participants receive training in planning and preparing presentations that communicate messages more clearly and effectively and that have a lasting impact on the audience. Topics include: knowing and identifying the needs of the audience, highlighting big ideas and take-home messages, designing effective visuals, decoding complex concepts with diagrams, and displaying data in meaningful ways. PBC attendees also receive training in the use and application of the Presentation Skills Protocol (PSP) and associated rubric for evaluating the effectiveness of scientific presentations. The PSP was originally developed as part of a NSF Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education Program (GK-12) to assess and track the impact of the GK-12 experience on the communication skills of Graduate Teaching Fellows. The PSP focuses on eleven presentation skill sets, including organization, accuracy, relevance, message, language, equity, delivery, technology, use of time, questions, and presence. The associated rubric operationally defines each of the skill sets at three categorical levels of competence: (1) proficient, (2) developing, and (3) needs attention. The PSP may be used to (1) provide scientists with regular and consistent feedback on the quality and effectiveness of their classroom and research presentations and (2) design professional development activities and training programs that target specific presentation skills. However, our evaluation results indicate

  17. Training Chief Scientists for the Ocean Research of Tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, C. E.; Alberts, J.

    2012-12-01

    The UNOLS Early Career Chief Scientist Training Program is designed to instruct participants in all of the "cradle to grave" phases of expeditionary oceanography, from the initial proposal, to science and cruise logistics planning, to cruise execution and post-cruise reporting. During the past 2-years, with support from NSF, the program has sponsored three participant-led multi-disciplinary cruises on UNOLS vessels together with pre-cruise informational short courses. Two Senior Scientists and two Marine Technicians work with 14 participants per cruise to accomplish well-scrutinized science plans led by two participant co-chief scientists. Participants are chosen from a pool of applicants based on their passion for oceanography, their desire to take on cruise leadership, the quality and feasibility of a research project they bring to the cruise, and long-term research aims. To date the participants have come from 28 different academic institutions and have included graduate students, post-docs, research scientists, teaching faculty and a center director. Hallmarks of the program lauded by the participants include insight into cruise leadership and ship operations not provided by any other means; new appreciation for other marine science disciplines and sampling techniques; the establishment of collaborations and newly inspired science questions based on shared data; and understanding of what UNOLS is and how UNOLS staff and marine technicians can assist with future seagoing projects.; Multi-coring on R/V Wecoma during September 2011 training cruise (photo P. Suprenand) ; Science party W1109C

  18. Climate Literacy Through Student-Teacher-Scientist Research Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F.; Brooks, D.; Lefer, B.; Linsley, A.; Duckenfield, K.

    2006-12-01

    Expanding on the GLOBE Program's Atmosphere and Aerosol investigations, high school students can conduct Earth System scientific research that promotes scientific literacy in both content and the science process. Through the use of Student-Teacher-Scientist partnerships, Earth system scientific investigations can be conducted that serve the needs of the classroom as well as participating scientific investigators. During the proof-of-concept phase of this partnership model, teachers and their students developed science plans, through consultation with scientists, and began collecting atmospheric and aerosol data in support of the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) campaign in Houston Texas. This effort uses some pre-existing GLOBE materials, but draws on a variety of other resources to tailor the teacher development activities and intended student participation in a way that addresses local and regional problems. Students and teachers have learned about best practices in scientific inquiry and they also helped to expand the pipeline of potential future scientists and researchers for industry, academia, and government. This work began with a Student-Teacher-Scientist partnership started in 2002 during a GLOBE Aerosol Protocol Cross- Ground Validation of AERONET with MODIS Satellite Aerosol Measurements. Several other GLOBE schools, both national and international, have contributed to this research. The current project support of the intensive GoMACCS air quality and atmospheric dynamics field campaign during September and October of 2006. This model will be evaluated for wider use in other project-focused partnerships led by NOAA's Climate Program Office.

  19. Career research opportunities for the medical laboratory scientist.

    PubMed

    McGlasson, David L

    2011-01-01

    Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS) typically practice in hospital laboratories; however there are multiple alternatives in research. This article details the advantages of working in a variety of research laboratory settings. These include public institutions, federal laboratory workplaces, private facilities, and industry settings. A view of the different research laboratory settings such as public institutions, federal laboratory workplaces, private facilities, and industry settings will be provided. An assessment on how MLS professionals can prepare for a career in research is outlined and the report concludes with a brief summary of the various aspects of the research setting.

  20. Engaging Students in Space Research: Young Engineers and Scientists 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.; Reiff, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI and a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their professional mentors during the academic year. During the summer workshop, students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

  1. A Guide for Scientists Interested in Researching Student Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn R.; Anbar, Ariel; Semken, Steve; Mead, Chris; Horodyskyj, Lev; Perera, Viranga; Bruce, Geoffrey; Schönstein, David

    2015-11-01

    Scientists spend years training in their scientific discipline and are well versed the literature, methods, and innovations in their own field. Many scientists also take on teaching responsibilities with little formal training in how to implement their courses or assess their students. There is a growing body of literature of what students know in space science courses and the types of innovations that can work to increase student learning but scientists rarely have exposure to this body of literature. For scientists who are interested in more effectively understanding what their students know or investigating the impact their courses have on students, there is little guidance. Undertaking a more formal study of students poses more complexities including finding robust instruments and employing appropriate data analysis. Additionally, formal research with students involves issues of privacy and human subjects concerns, both regulated by federal laws.This poster details the important decisions and issues to consider for both course evaluation and more formal research using a course developed, facilitated, evaluated and researched by a hybrid team of scientists and science education researchers. HabWorlds, designed and implemented by a team of scientists and faculty at Arizona State University, has been using student data to continually improve the course as well as conduct formal research on students’ knowledge and attitudes in science. This ongoing project has had external funding sources to allow robust assessment not available to most instructors. This is a case study for discussing issues that are applicable to designing and assessing all science courses. Over the course of several years, instructors have refined course outcomes and learning objectives that are shared with students as a roadmap of instruction. The team has searched for appropriate tools for assessing student learning and attitudes, tested them and decided which have worked, or not, for

  2. Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, T.

    1995-12-01

    In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

  3. Scientists, Research Centers and K-12 Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, David G.

    2001-11-01

    In recent years the federal funding agencies have put increased emphasis on the involvement of scientists in K-12 education. This emphasis is seen in the program descriptions for NSF Career awards, for NSF collaborative research centers and for NASA Education and Public Outreach supplemental contracts. There is ample motivation Ð e.g. funding, the health of public education, and the future of the scientific enterprise - for scientists and science research centers to connect to K-12. I will review what the education literature and national reports say about how scientists and research centers should be and should not be, involved in K-12 education. These roles and opportunities will be illustrated by examples of K-12 education outreach from The Science House at NC State and the NSF Center for Environmentally Responsible Solvents and Processes. This material is based upon work supported by the STC Program of the National Science Foundation under Agreement No. CHE-9876674 and by the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  4. Young Engineers & Scientists (YES) - Engaging Teachers in Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and local high schools in San Antonio. It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences, information sciences, and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, C++ programming, the Internet, careers, science ethics, social impact of technology, and other topics; and select their individual research project with their mentor (SwRI staff member) to be completed during the academic year; and 2) A collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors and teachers during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past nineteen (19) years. A total of 258 students have completed or are currently enrolled in YES. Of these students, 38% are females and 57% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local diversity of the San Antonio area. All YES graduates have entered college, several work or have worked for SwRI, two businesses have formed, and three scientific publications have resulted. Sixteen (16) teacher participants have attended the YES workshop and have developed classroom materials based on their experiences in research at SwRI in the past three (3) years. In recognition of its excellence, YES received the Celebrate Success in 1996 and the Outstanding Campus Partner-of-the-Year Award in 2005, both from Northside Independent School District (San Antonio

  5. Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap in group psychotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mark A; Ogrodniczuk, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Sochting, Ingrid

    2010-04-01

    Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap requires a different clinical research paradigm: participatory research that encourages community agency-academic partnerships. In this context, clinicians help define priorities, determine the type of evidence that will have an impact on their practice (affecting the methods that are used to produce the evidence), and develop strategies for translating, implementing, and disseminating their findings into evidence-based practice. Within this paradigm, different roles are assumed by the partners, and sometimes these roles are blended. This paper will consider the perspectives of people who assume these different roles (clinician, researcher, and clinician-researcher) with group psychotherapy as the specific focus. Finally, the establishment of a practice-research network will be discussed as a potentially promising way to better engage group therapists in research.

  6. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  7. Biomedical and Behavioral Research Scientists: Their Training and Supply. Volume 2: Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    Volume Two of a three volume set of the Biomedical and Behavioral Research Scientists study presents tables of data which were required for the study's development by the National Research Council. Data from these tables were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Dental Association, the American Medical…

  8. Translation of clinical research into practice: defining the clinician scientist.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Niharika; Nesbitt, Laquandra; Roghmann, Mary-Claire; Tacket, Carol

    2009-06-01

    Family medicine has evolved into a specialty deeply rooted in clinical service. Because of high demands for clinical practice productivity, family physicians have drifted away from participation in scientific inquiry. There is even an effort in some institutions to reinvent family medicine as a community-based ambulatory specialty, resulting in a further "disconnect" between research and family physicians. A new movement for the efficient translation of laboratory science into clinical applications in the community supports the need for trained community-based clinician scientists. This translational science seeks to take the findings from bench research and clinical trials and study their introduction and dissemination into community-based clinical practice. There is an opportunity for family physicians to become involved in translational research. But, to develop a cadre of translational researchers within the family medicine community, education programs need to train and develop those researchers. Residency education may be an ideal time to begin that training and development.

  9. Involving Scientists in Outreach: Incentives, Barriers, and Recommendations from Research Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, G.; Laursen, S.; Andrews, E.; Weaver, A.; Hanley, D.; Shamatha, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Public agencies that fund scientific research are increasingly requiring that researchers invest some of their funding in education or outreach activities that have a "broader impact." Yet barriers exist that inhibit scientists' motivation to participate in K-12 outreach. We will share findings from a quantitative and qualitative study that examined the motivations, rewards, and obstacles for scientists who participate in outreach. We found that most researchers became interested in doing outreach out of a desire to contribute and an expectation of having fun and enjoying the experience. They typically gave outreach presentations away from work, acted as a resource for school teachers, or helped with teacher professional development. However, scientists viewed outreach as a form of volunteer work that was auxiliary to their other responsibilities. Thus, time constraints, a lack of information about outreach opportunities, and the lower value placed on outreach by departments constituted significant barriers to their participation. Scientists involved in outreach typically found their efforts to be rewarding, but occasionally factors left a negative impression, such as poor audience response, classroom management difficulties, organizational problems, or demonstrations not going as planned. Based upon our findings, we offer recommendations on how scientists' participation and experiences in K-12 outreach can be improved, including how to successfully recruit scientists, create a positive outreach experience, and increase institutional support for outreach work.

  10. Scientists' perspectives on the ethical issues of stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, Holly; Schuppli, Catherine A; Preto, Nina; Lafrenière, Darquise; McDonald, Michael

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes findings from an ethics education project funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network (SCN). The project is part of a larger research initiative entitled "The Stem Cell Research Environment: Drawing the Evidence and Experience Together". The ethics education study began with a series of focus groups with SCN researchers and trainees as part of a "needs assessment" effort. The purpose of these discussions was to identify the main ethical issues associated with stem cell (SC) research from the perspective of the stem cell community. This paper will focus on five prominent themes that emerged from the focus group data including: (1) the source of stem cells; (2) the power of stem cells; (3) working within a charged research environment; (4) the regulatory context; and (5) ethics training for scientists. Additional discussions are planned with others involved in Canadian stem cell research (e.g., research ethics board members, policy makers) to supplement initial findings. These assessment results combined with existing bioethics literature will ultimately inform a web-based ethics education module for the SCN. We believe that our efforts are important for those analyzing the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) in this area because our in depth understanding of stem cell researcher perspectives will enable us to develop more relevant and effective education material, which in turn should help SC researchers address the important ethical challenges in their area.

  11. Research project management 101: insiders' tips from Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristini, Luisa; Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Stichel, Torben

    2016-04-01

    From the very beginning of their career, it is important for Early Career Scientists (ECS) to develop project management skills to be able to organise their research efficiently. ECS are often in charge of specific tasks within their projects or for their teams. However, without specific training or tools, the successful completion of these assignments will depend entirely on the organisational skills of individual researchers. ECS are thus facing "sink-or-swim" situations, which can be either instructive or disastrous for their projects. Here we provide experience-based tips from fellow ECS that can help manage various project activities, including: 1. Communication with supervisors and peers 2. Lab management 3. Field trips (e.g., oceanographic campaigns) 4. Internships and collaborations with other institutions 5. Literature/background research 6. Conference convening These are potential "life buoys" for ECS, which will help them to carry out these tasks efficiently and successfully.

  12. Make Your Mark in Science: Creativity, Presenting, Publishing, and Patents. A Guide for Young Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascheron, Claus; Kickuth, Angela

    2004-01-01

    This excellent guide tells graduate students and other young scientists and engineers everything they need to know to help them work creatively and communicate their achievements in oral presentations and written publications. Also addressing the topics of scientific ethics, electronic publishing, and patents, this concise but comprehensive book…

  13. Research &Discover: A Pipeline of the Next Generation of Earth System Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G. C.; Einaudi, F.; Moore, B.; Salomonson, V.; Campbell, J.

    2006-12-01

    In 2002, the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) started the educational initiative Research &Discover with the goals to: (i) recruit outstanding young scientists into research careers in Earth science and Earth remote sensing (broadly defined), and (ii) support Earth science graduate students enrolled at UNH through a program of collaborative partnerships with GSFC scientists and UNH faculty. To meet these goals, the program consists of a linked set of educational opportunities that begins with a paid summer research internship at UNH for students following their Junior year of college, and is followed by a second paid summer internship at GSFC for students following their Senior year of college. These summer internships are then followed by two-year fellowship opportunities at UNH for graduate studies jointly supervised by UNH faculty and GSFC scientists. After 5 years of implementation, the program has awarded summer research internships to 22 students, and graduate research fellowships to 6 students. These students have produced more than 78 scientific research presentations, 5 undergraduate theses, 2 Masters theses, and 4 peer-reviewed publications. More than 80% of alums are actively pursuing careers in Earth sciences now. In the process, the program has engaged 19 faculty from UNH and 15 scientists from GSFC as advisors/mentors. New collaborations between these scientists have resulted in new joint research proposals, and the development, delivery, and assessment of a new course in Earth System Science at UNH. Research &Discover represents an educational model of collaboration between a national lab and university to create a pipeline of the next generation of Earth system scientists.

  14. Fascia Research from a Clinician/Scientist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Findley, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    The upcoming Third International Fascia Research Congress will have much exciting information for the clinician, as well as for the clinical and basic science researcher. This paper provides a perspective from a clinician/scientist, including the fascial network of body-wide connections between and within individual cells, and sharing of loads between muscle and fascia. Basic studies of fibroblast cell shape show the impact of manual therapy, acupuncture, and yoga-like stretching at the cellular level. Advances in scientific equipment have made it possible to study a layer of hyaluronan fluid, which allows sliding between deep fascia and muscle. Collagen fibers within fascia affect both blood flow to muscles and lymphatic fluid flow. PMID:22211151

  15. A Community of Practice among Educators, Researchers and Scientists for Improving Science Teaching in Southern Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros-Cohernour, Edith J.; Lopez-Avila, Maria T.; Barrera-Bustillos, Maria E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a project aimed to improve the quality of science education in Southeast Mexico by the creation of a community of practice among scientists, researchers and teachers, involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of a professional development program for mathematics, chemistry, biology and physics secondary…

  16. Physician scientist research pathway leading to certification by the American Board of Pathology.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sharon W; Johnson, Rebecca L

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the American Board of Pathology, in response to the pathology community, approved a physician scientist research pathway (PSRP). This brief report summarizes the history of and objectives for creating the physician scientist research pathway and the requirements of the American Board of Pathology for the certification of physician scientist research pathway trainees. PMID:26980045

  17. From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE) Student-Scientist Online Forums: hypothesis-based research examining ways to involve scientists in effective science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.

    2011-12-01

    to students' local environments to deepen students' understanding of earth systems processes. This presentation will provide an overview of the FLEXE project, a partnership between the Ridge2000 research scientists, science learning researchers, and educators, and will report findings from pilot studies implemented in collaboration with the GLOBE program, a worldwide network of scientists, science educators, and their students. FLEXE Forums have been tested with approximately 1400 students in the US, Germany, Australia and Thailand in 2009, and 1100 students in the US, Thailand, England and Costa Rica in 2010. Description of research methods (e.g., educational hypotheses, assessment of student learning and attitudes through analysis of student writing, and "quick question" surveys) and results will be shared, along with current tests examining the transferability of the approach to other scientists/science educator teams.

  18. Evolving research misconduct policies and their significance for physical scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, James J.; Kerch, Helen M.

    2000-03-01

    Scientific misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts, data or ideas; some institutions in the United States have expanded this concept to include "other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice." It is the absence of this OSD clause that distinguishes scientific misconduct policies of the past from the "research misconduct" policies that should be the basis of future federal policy in this area. This paper introduces a standard for judging whether an action should be considered research misconduct as distinguished from scientific misconduct: by this standard, research misconduct must involve activities unique to the practice of science and must have the potential to negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of scientific misconduct is uncertain (only the NIH and the NSF keep formal records), the costs are high in terms of the integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Existing scientific misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at all. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of scientific misconduct. As a consequence, such allegations have been adjudicated in federal courts, rather than judged by scientific peers. The federal government is now establishing a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of which agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject of scientific misconduct allegations, must none! theless become active in the

  19. Presenting and Evaluating Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help authors to think about ways to present qualitative research papers in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. It also discusses methods for reviewers to assess the rigour, quality, and usefulness of qualitative research. Examples of different ways to present data from interviews, observations, and focus groups are included. The paper concludes with guidance for publishing qualitative research and a checklist for authors and reviewers. PMID:21179252

  20. The clinician-scientist: professional dynamics in clinical stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Kovacs, Dana M; Hauskeller, Christine

    2012-05-01

    Clinical applications of biomedical research rely on specialist knowledge provided by professionals who straddle research and therapy, and possess both medical and scientific expertise. To date, this professional group remains under-explored in sociology. Our article presents a case study of clinician-scientists working in stem cell research for heart repair in the UK and Germany who are engaged in double-blind randomised clinical trials using patients' own stem cells. The analysis draws on sociological and medical literature, interviews and ethnographic fieldwork to analyse the experiences and self-rationalisations of a small number of clinician-scientists and the ways in which these professionals portray, explain and justify their role in the wider clinical research environment. We examine our participants' views on the clinical trials they conduct, the challenges they encounter and the ways through which they negotiate a complex disciplinary terrain, and argue that the recent clinical implementation of stem cell research brings clinician-scientists to the fore and provides a renewed platform for their professional legitimisation. The article helps increase our understanding of how randomised clinical trials are involved in consolidating the individual status of actors and the collective standing of clinician-scientists as leaders of change in translational medicine.

  1. IT Tools for Teachers and Scientists, Created by Undergraduate Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, A. Z.; Perry, S.

    2007-12-01

    Interns in the Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) program conduct computer science research for the benefit of earthquake scientists and have created products in growing use within the SCEC education and research communities. SCEC/UseIT comprises some twenty undergraduates who combine their varied talents and academic backgrounds to achieve a Grand Challenge that is formulated around needs of SCEC scientists and educators and that reflects the value SCEC places on the integration of computer science and the geosciences. In meeting the challenge, students learn to work on multidisciplinary teams and to tackle complex problems with no guaranteed solutions. Meantime, their efforts bring fresh perspectives and insight to the professionals with whom they collaborate, and consistently produces innovative, useful tools for research and education. The 2007 Grand Challenge was to design and prototype serious games to communicate important earthquake science concepts. Interns broke themselves into four game teams, the Educational Game, the Training Game, the Mitigation Game and the Decision-Making Game, and created four diverse games with topics from elementary plate tectonics to earthquake risk mitigation, with intended players ranging from elementary students to city planners. The games were designed to be versatile, to accommodate variation in the knowledge base of the player; and extensible, to accommodate future additions. The games are played on a web browser or from within SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects). SCEC-VDO, also engineered by UseIT interns, is a 4D, interactive, visualization software that enables integration and exploration of datasets and models such as faults, earthquake hypocenters and ruptures, digital elevation models, satellite imagery, global isochrons, and earthquake prediction schemes. SCEC-VDO enables the user to create animated movies during a session, and is now part

  2. Criteria for Assessing Quality in Academic Research: The Views of Biomedical Scientists, Clinical Scientists and Social Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; McGuire, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically addresses the claim made by Gibbons et al ("The new production of knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies." Sage, Thousand Oaks, 1994) that a novel form of quality control (associated with Mode 2 knowledge production) is supplementing the "traditional" peer-review process (associated with…

  3. Intra-professional dynamics in translational health research: the perspective of social scientists.

    PubMed

    Currie, Graeme; El Enany, Nellie; Lockett, Andy

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to previous studies, which focus upon the professional dynamics of translational health research between clinician scientists and social scientists (inter-professional contestation), we focus upon contestation within social science (intra-professional contestation). Drawing on the empirical context of Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) in England, we highlight that although social scientists accept subordination to clinician scientists, health services researchers attempt to enhance their position in translational health research vis-à-vis organisation scientists, whom they perceive as relative newcomers to the research domain. Health services researchers do so through privileging the practical impact of their research, compared to organisation scientists' orientation towards development of theory, which health services researchers argue is decoupled from any concern with healthcare improvement. The concern of health services researchers lies with maintaining existing patterns of resource allocation to support their research endeavours, working alongside clinician scientists, in translational health research. The response of organisation scientists is one that might be considered ambivalent, since, unlike health services researchers, they do not rely upon a close relationship with clinician scientists to carry out research, or more generally, garner resource. PMID:24911511

  4. Intra-professional dynamics in translational health research: the perspective of social scientists.

    PubMed

    Currie, Graeme; El Enany, Nellie; Lockett, Andy

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to previous studies, which focus upon the professional dynamics of translational health research between clinician scientists and social scientists (inter-professional contestation), we focus upon contestation within social science (intra-professional contestation). Drawing on the empirical context of Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) in England, we highlight that although social scientists accept subordination to clinician scientists, health services researchers attempt to enhance their position in translational health research vis-à-vis organisation scientists, whom they perceive as relative newcomers to the research domain. Health services researchers do so through privileging the practical impact of their research, compared to organisation scientists' orientation towards development of theory, which health services researchers argue is decoupled from any concern with healthcare improvement. The concern of health services researchers lies with maintaining existing patterns of resource allocation to support their research endeavours, working alongside clinician scientists, in translational health research. The response of organisation scientists is one that might be considered ambivalent, since, unlike health services researchers, they do not rely upon a close relationship with clinician scientists to carry out research, or more generally, garner resource.

  5. The Year of the Solar System Undergraduate Research Conference: Bringing Student Researchers and Scientists Together in a Professional Conference Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Buxner, S.; Joseph, E.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) Undergraduate Research Conference (URC) brought together undergraduate researchers from across the U.S. to interact with each other and with researchers in planetary science. Held in conjunction with the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2011-2014), the YSS URC provided undergraduate researchers the opportunity to present to their research to their peers, and provided practicing scientists the chance to connect with students. Scientists could interact with students in multiple ways. Some provided insight into a planetary science career as an invited panelist; panel topics being 1) Choosing the Graduate School That's Right for You, 2) Women in Planetary Science, and 3) Alternative Careers in Science. Others provided feedback to students on their research during the URC poster session, and still others served as Meeting Mentors during the first day of LPSC. Over the four years of the program more than 50 scientists across NASA, academia and industry participated in the URC. Scientists reported in follow-up evaluations that they participated because they felt it was important to meet and help students, and that it was a way to serve the community. More evaluation data, and instruments, will be discussed.

  6. Guides, Tools, and Clearinghouses: A Presentation of Resources for Scientists Involved in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Meinke, Bonnie; Gross, Nick; Woroner, Morgan

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education Forums help scientists with their engagement in education and public outreach (E/PO) activities. The Forums provide professional development, resources, as well as opportunities to interact with the larger E/PO community. We have conducted both interviews and surveys of space scientists regarding their needs and attitudes about E/PO. The most recent of these was a series of semi-structured interviews with two-dozen DPS members, which allowed the Forums to identify those areas where new or additional resources and support are needed for scientists regarding their E/PO involvement. This poster will present key resources that scientists can use to learn more about the nature of E/PO, how to become involved, how to leverage their efforts, how to find effective and vetted demonstrations and activities, and where to go to make the most impact. The first two of an upcoming series of one-page guides includes “The Quick Introduction to Education and Public Outreach” as well as “Making the Most of Your E/PO Time - Increasing your Efficiency and Impact.” http://smdepo.org/post/7202. The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Resource Sampler offers a list of activities specifically selected for quick access and ease of use. These resources are organized by major science questions, and then by topics such as “Impacts in the Solar System,” “Windy Worlds,” and “Scale in the Solar System.” http://smdepo.org/data/uploads/PS_EPO_Resources_2.pdf Wavelength is a repository of resources for learning at all levels, from outreach programs and after school to formal K-college. All activities held within Wavelength have passed the NASA SMD peer-review for products, ensuring that each has sound content both in science and education. http://nasawavelength.org. The poster will also present the SMD Speaker’s Bureau, Community Workspace, and resources developed by partners, such as the AAS Ambassador Program

  7. Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.

    2006-12-01

    Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group

  8. Recipe for an Eclectic Life as Research Scientist and Mom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Recipe for an Eclectic Life as Research Scientist and Mom Fresh ingredients: curiosity, conviction, who knows what else Spices: equal parts ambition, humility, risk Staples: Boundless energy! This recipe requires a lot of prep time. It makes a great first meal but also "keeps on giving" as leftovers for many meals. It can be set aside and rekindled at various stages but requires frequent touch-ups to stay fresh. This recipe is especially great for large gatherings, eclectic palettes, and it includes a mix of cultural opportunities (AGU council member for example!). First, shop for a graduate department as you might for a farmers' market that has a good feel and good mix of "customers" (grad students) who share your attitude and interests. Then seek out professors and later, career mentors, who not only have great methods and recipes but whose lifestyles seem like good examples. I like my mentors and advisees alike to be approachable, supportive, and dedicated to both problem solving and whole-life choices. For the cooking part of the recipe, you'll certainly need a great partner who is hungry for science and appreciative of those pairings between new discoveries and long-awaited accomplishments. My own husband is a geologist. My professors were in their "late career" stages (one had retired 25 years before; another retired within a year of my degree) and this seemed to foster a philosophical perspective rather than a competitive one. Advice? The keys to my child-rearing recipe were efficiency and concentration: I try to organize and sequence and to save the multi-tasking for cleanups and paperwork. Don't take yourself too seriously: we all think of ourselves as frauds and know-nothings; we all are stretched between worry and guilt when it comes to child rearing. Don't give up: who is to say whether your quest for science isn't as fundamental to your goodness as your maternal drive?

  9. Projects on Education, Research and International Training for Students and Junior Scientists in Atmospheric Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y.; Chen, F.

    2003-12-01

    Stimulated by rapid economic development and the need for better environmental prediction, the atmospheric science communities in East Asia countries have enjoyed considerable growth over the past 10 years. As a result, the East Asia countries have established many exciting and innovative research facilities and projects focusing on atmospheric sciences. Two outstanding examples are the Earth Simulation System facility in Japan and the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) Project in Taiwan. These facilities and projects hold great promise for significant advancement in atmospheric sciences, and present important opportunities for education, research, and international training for American scientists, engineers and educators. Under the support of the International Programs Division of the National Science Foundation, we have established an AWARE (American Workforce and Research and Education, program at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). The purpose of this program is to establish an international linkage between the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the U.S. university community and educational, research and operational institutions in East Asia. Through this program, we provide opportunities for U.S. students and junior scientists to participate in important collaborative research projects between the U.S. and East Asia countries. In this paper, we will describe the program and the various ongoing collaborative research projects. We will also discuss the education, research, and international training experiences of U.S. students in these collaborative research projects.

  10. Geoscience Education Research: The Role of Collaborations with Education Researchers and Cognitive Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.; Tikoff, B.; Shipley, T. F.; Ormand, C. J.; Mcconnell, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience Education Research aims to improve geoscience teaching and learning by understanding clearly the characteristics of geoscience expertise, the path from novice to expert, and the educational practices that can speed students along this path. In addition to expertise in geoscience and education, this research requires an understanding of learning -the domain of cognitive scientists. Beginning in 2002, a series of workshops and events focused on bringing together geoscientists, education researchers, and cognitive scientists to facilitate productive geoscience education research collaborations. These activities produced reports, papers, books, websites and a blog developing a research agenda for geoscience education research at a variety of scales: articulating the nature of geoscience expertise, and the overall importance of observation and a systems approach; focusing attention on geologic time, spatial skills, field work, and complex systems; and identifying key research questions in areas where new technology is changing methods in geoscience research and education. Cognitive scientists and education researchers played critical roles in developing this agenda. Where geoscientists ask questions that spring from their rich understanding of the discipline, cognitive scientists and education researchers ask questions from their experience with teaching and learning in a wide variety of disciplines and settings. These interactions tend to crystallize the questions of highest importance in addressing challenges of geoscience learning and to identify productive targets for collaborative research. Further, they serve as effective mechanisms for bringing research techniques and results from other fields into geoscience education. Working productively at the intersection of these fields requires teams of cognitive scientists, geoscientists, and education reserachers who share enough knowledge of all three domains to have a common articulation of the research

  11. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists' Subscription to Norms of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; De Vries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists' subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as an evaluative norm. (Contains 1…

  12. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists' Subscription to Norms of Research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Melissa S; Ronning, Emily A; Devries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C

    2010-05-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists' subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

  13. APECS: A Model Organization for Bridging Past to Present and Developing a New Generation of Polar Scientists (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, K.; Baeseman, J. L.; Membership, Association Of Polar Early Career Scientists

    2010-12-01

    One of the greatest legacies of the International Polar Year (IPY) is the creation of APECS, the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists. As a grassroots effort, APECS was proposed, formed, and developed by and for early career polar researchers. While the young investigators who founded APECS had talent, ambition, and the desire to make things happen, partnerships with key organizations and experienced leaders in polar science were essential to provide the funding, leadership, and mentorship that has taken the organization well beyond the IPY and to over 2000 members. In four years, APECS has strived to foster the skills of and develop a group of early career interdisciplinary polar scientists through networking and mentoring among themselves and with senior scientists. Through diverse activities including, panel discussions, career development workshops, online seminars, a comprehensive job listing, formal mentoring, meeting travel support, and the APECS Virtual Poster Session, APECS goal is to support the early career researcher being trained to do the science, to become a well-rounded scientist prepared for 21st century careers in science. As part of that training, APECS members are encouraged to participate in activities and training related to science communication, education, and outreach; working with the media; participating in the science / public policy interface; and working with arctic communities and indigenous peoples. During the IPY, APECS members were guest speakers and presenters on International Polar Day activities; they contributed to resources for education and outreach such as the book: Polar Science and Global Climate: An International Resource for Education and Outreach; and they made connections with educators, community groups, the media through in-person presentations, blogs from the field, videos, and much more. Workshops, panels, and online discussions focusing on these activities helped develop the capacity to conduct such

  14. On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research--Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The scientific research enterprise is built on a foundation of trust. Scientists trust that the results reported by others are valid. Society trusts that the results of research reflect an honest attempt by scientists to describe the world accurately and without bias. But this trust will endure only if the scientific community devotes itself to…

  15. Assessing the Impact of Education and Outreach Activities on Research Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Brian M.; Cramer, Catherine B.; Taylor, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of university-level research scientists toward educational and outreach activities that aim to help the general public understand more about their scientific endeavors. Interviews, observations, and survey results from 12 university research scientists, their colleagues, students, and the…

  16. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  17. The Regional Distribution of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976. Research Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Michael G.; Blair, Philip

    Examined are several factors related to regional variations in the number of energy-related scientists and engineers and how this subgroup differs from the base group of scientists and engineers. The emphasis of this research project was to determine the influence of regional differences in industry mix and in staffing patterns within industries…

  18. Increasing the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bioscientists.

    PubMed

    Scita, Giorgio; Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists.  In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.

  19. Increasing the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bioscientists.

    PubMed

    Scita, Giorgio; Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists.  In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug. PMID:27347372

  20. Research Training--Present & Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In 10 papers by independent experts, this volume explores the trends in and prospects for research training in member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. "Problems and Prospects of Research Training in the 1990s" (Stuart Blume) looks at trends in national policy toward research training and issues of quality.…

  1. Research Education of New Scientists: Implications for Science Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan; Divoll, Kent; Rogan-Klyve, Allyson

    2009-01-01

    This study examined an interdisciplinary scientific research project to understand how graduate and undergraduate honors students learn to do science. It was found that the education of the students occurs as part of an apprenticeship. The apprenticeship takes place in research groups. In general, research groups are structured in two ways:…

  2. Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)

    MedlinePlus

    ... establish solid intellectual property protection for the new biotechnology industry. 1981 The Whitehead Institute is established at ... relationship between academic researchers and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. 1995 The NIH and NSF revise their ...

  3. The Continuing Challenges of Translational Research: Clinician-Scientists' Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Tsui, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, revolutionary advances in biomedicine including gene therapy, stem cell research, proteomics, genomics and nanotechnology have highlighted the progressive need to restructure traditional approaches to basic and clinical research in order to facilitate the rapid, efficient integration and translation of these new technologies into novel effective therapeutics. Over the past ten years, funding bodies in the USA and UK such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Medical Research Council (MRC) have been driving translational research by defining and tackling the hurdles but more still remains to be achieved. This article discusses the ongoing challenges translational researchers face and outlines recent initiatives to tackle these including the new changes to translational funding schemes proposed by the NIH and the MRC and the launch of the “European Advanced Translational Research InfraStructure in Medicine” (EATRIS). It is anticipated that initiatives such as these will not only strengthen translational biomedical research programmes already initiated but should lead to rapid benefits to patients and society. PMID:23050194

  4. The role of undergraduate research experiences in producing veterinary scientists.

    PubMed

    Dale, Vicki H M; Pierce, Stephanie E; May, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    This study retrospectively examined the influence of a science-based, research-oriented degree on the career choices of a group of "early emerger" students who had aspired from an early age to become veterinarians but chose instead to pursue an alternative career in veterinary research. This transformation was in large part because of active participation in research, with supervisors acting as role models and mentors. This finding has important implications for teachers and course designers seeking to influence career decision making in both bioveterinary science and professional veterinary programs.

  5. Research and Development in Industry: 1979. Funds, 1979. Scientists and Engineers, January 1980. Surveys of Science Resources Series. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report analyzes data on research and development (R&D) performed by industry during 1979, examines historical trends for key R&D funding variables, and presents information on industry-employed R&D scientists and engineers. Areas addressed in the first section on R&D funds include: major R&D industries (aircraft/missiles, electrical…

  6. Scientists researching teaching: Reforming science education and transforming practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Tarin Harrar

    Reforming science education is a multidimensional and complex undertaking. Of extreme importance is transforming how teachers teach. Answering the equity call of reform initiatives requires focusing on the underlying values and beliefs guiding teacher action and the promotion of inclusive practices (Brickhouse, 2001; Harding, 1994; Eisenhart, Finkel, & Marion, 1995; Mayberry & Rees, 1999; Rodriguez, 1997). Reform efforts within the last decade are being directed at college level science courses. Course and pedagogical transformations are particularly aimed at increasing the numbers of females and persons of color in science and improving the education of preservice teachers. Facilitating transformations toward these goals at the individual and program level is challenging work. This study explores and describes the conditions of the teacher change process toward an inclusive pedagogy. Two science professors affiliated with a reform collaborative were the main participants of the research. The professors, in collaboration with the primary researcher, engaged in assisted action research that lead to the identification and descriptions of their context and practical teaching theories. Among the questions explored were: "How does placing the professor in a position to conduct an assisted action research project help to foster teacher change conditions?" "How do the practical theories guiding the professors' teaching foster or impede inclusionary practice?" "What necessary conditions of the teacher change process toward an inclusive pedagogy emerged from the study?". Using case study and ethnographic qualitative research strategies for data collection and analysis, this study affords a unique perspective through which to consider why and how science professors change their practice. Data indicated that the assisted action research strategy fostered the conditions of teacher change. In addition, findings revealed that the professors shared a teacher and curriculum

  7. Does Gender Affect a Scientist's Research Output in Evolutionary Ecology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Shine, Richard; Lourdais, Olivier

    To examine how an author's gender influences his or her research output, the authors analyzed (not simply scored) more than 900 published articles in nine leading scientific journals in the field of evolutionary ecology. Women were strongly underrepresented in all countries, but this bias is decreasing. Men and women differed significantly in their fields of research, with women preferentially conducting projects on behavior rather than evolution or ecology. Most aspects of the structure of published articles and the level of conceptual generality were unaffected by an author's gender. Because discriminatory practices by reviewers and editors can be manifested in attributes of the articles that survive the review process, the latter result suggests a lack of gender-based discrimination during the review process. Gender differences in research output presumably reflect a complex array of genetic and social influences; a clearer understanding of these causal factors may help identify (and thus reduce) gender-based discrimination.

  8. Science Teachers' Views and Stereotypes of Religion, Scientists and Scientific Research: A call for scientist-science teacher partnerships to promote inquiry-based learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2015-07-01

    Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better understanding of factors that influence their attitudes towards scientific research and scientists' practices is very much needed. Within this context there is a need to re-examine the science teachers' views of scientists and the cultural factors that might have an impact on teachers' views and pedagogical practices. A diverse group of Egyptian science teachers took part in a quantitative-qualitative study using a questionnaire and in-depth interviews to explore their views of scientists and scientific research, and to understand how they negotiated their views of scientists and scientific research in the classroom, and how these views informed their practices of using inquiry in the classroom. The findings highlighted how the teachers' cultural beliefs and views of scientists and scientific research had constructed idiosyncratic pedagogical views and practices. The study suggested implications for further research and argued for teacher professional development based on partnerships with scientists.

  9. NIH research funding and early career physician scientists: continuing challenges in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Howard H.; Deschamps, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Physician scientists (researchers with either M.D. or M.D.-Ph.D. degrees) have the unique potential to combine clinical perspectives with scientific insight, and their participation in biomedical research has long been an important topic for policymakers and educators. Given the recent changes in the research environment, an update and extension of earlier studies of this population was needed. Our findings show that physician scientists are less likely to take a major role in biomedical research than they were in the past. The number of physician scientists receiving postdoctoral research training and career development awards is at an all-time low. Physician scientists today, on average, receive their first major research award (R01 equivalent) at a later age than in the 1980s. The number of first-time R01-equivalent awards to physicians is at the same level as it was 30 yr ago, but physicians now represent a smaller percentage of the grant recipients. The long-term decline in the number of physicians entering research careers was temporarily halted during the period of substantial U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) budget growth (1998–2003). These gains are lost, however, in the subsequent years when NIH budgets failed to keep pace with rising costs.— Garrison, H. H., Deschamps, A. M. NIH research funding and early career physician scientists: continuing challenges in the 21st century. PMID:24297696

  10. Increasing the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bioscientists

    PubMed Central

    Scita, Giorgio; Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists’ motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists.  In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a “basic bibliography” for each new approved drug. PMID:27347372

  11. The Voice of Experience: How Social Scientists Communicate Family Research to Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Bogenschneider, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Because scientific understanding of communicating family research to policymakers is incomplete, qualitative interviews were conducted with social scientists experienced in bridging the gulf between research and family policy. In keeping with the tenets of 2 communities and community dissonance theories, the underutilization of research in…

  12. The Elements of Process in the Research Strategies of American Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, James Royce

    Nine processes of scientific research, (identified from reports of curriculum projects, the philosophy of science literature, and the opinions of science educators), were used to classify 50 strategies that scientists might follow in research. Fifty percent of a stratified random sample of 100 American researchers from each of the physical,…

  13. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumova, A. V.; Khodanovich, M. Y.; Yarnykh, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Second International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research'' was held on the campus of the National Research Tomsk State University (Tomsk, Russia) on September 7-9, 2015. The conference was focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications for biomedical research. The main goal was to bring together basic scientists, clinical researchers and developers of new MRI techniques to bridge the gap between clinical/research needs and advanced technological solutions. The conference fostered research and development in basic and clinical MR science and its application to health care. It also had an educational purpose to promote understanding of cutting-edge MR developments. The conference provided an opportunity for researchers and clinicians to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, and to discuss unsolved problems. The program of the conference was divided into three main topics. First day of the conference was devoted to educational lectures on the fundamentals of MRI physics and image acquisition/reconstruction techniques, including recent developments in quantitative MRI. The second day was focused on developments and applications of new contrast agents. Multinuclear and spectroscopic acquisitions as well as functional MRI were presented during the third day of the conference. We would like to highlight the main developments presented at the conference and introduce the prominent speakers. The keynote speaker of the conference Dr. Vasily Yarnykh (University of Washington, Seattle, USA) presented a recently developed MRI method, macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping, as a unique tool for modifying image contrast and a unique tool for quantification of the myelin content in neural tissues. Professor Yury Pirogov (Lomonosov Moscow State University) described development of new fluorocarbon compounds and applications for biomedicine. Drs. Julia Velikina and Alexey

  14. Research fellowship programs as a pathway for training independent clinical pharmacy scientists.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Eric W; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Kanaan, Abir O; Kiser, Tyree H; Phan, Hanna; Yang, Katherine Y

    2015-03-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Research Affairs Committee published a commentary in 2013 on training clinical pharmacy scientists in the context of changes in economic, professional, political, and research environments. The commentary centered on the opportunities for pharmacists in clinical/translational research including strategies for ACCP, colleges of pharmacy, and the profession to increase the number and impact of clinical pharmacy scientists. A postdoctoral fellowship is cited as a current training pathway, capable of producing independent and productive pharmacy researchers. However, a decline in the number of programs, decreased funding availability, and variability in fellowship program activities and research focus have brought into question the relevance of this research training pathway to meet demand and opportunities. In response to these points, this commentary examines the state of research fellowship training including the current ACCP research fellowship review process, the need for standardization of research fellowship programs, and strategies to strengthen and promote research fellowships as relevant researcher training pathways.

  15. In/dependent Collaborations: Perceptions and Experiences of African Scientists in Transnational HIV Research

    PubMed Central

    Moyi Okwaro, Ferdinand; Geissler, P. W.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines collaboration in transnational medical research from the viewpoint of African scientists working in partnerships with northern counterparts. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV laboratory of an East African state university, with additional data from interviews with scientists working in related research institutions. Collaboration is today the preferred framework for the mechanisms by which northern institutions support research in the south. The concept signals a shift away from the legacy of unequal (post‐) colonial power relations, although, amid persisting inequalities, the rhetorical emphasis on equality might actually hinder critical engagement with conflicts of interest and injustice. To collaborate, African scientists engage various strategies: They establish a qualified but flexible, non‐permanent workforce, diversify collaborators and research areas, source complementary funding to assemble infrastructures, and maintain prospective research populations to attract transnational clinical trials. Through this labor of collaboration, they sustain their institutions under prevailing conditions of scarcity. PMID:25800667

  16. In/dependent Collaborations: Perceptions and Experiences of African Scientists in Transnational HIV Research.

    PubMed

    Moyi Okwaro, Ferdinand; Geissler, P W

    2015-12-01

    This article examines collaboration in transnational medical research from the viewpoint of African scientists working in partnerships with northern counterparts. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV laboratory of an East African state university, with additional data from interviews with scientists working in related research institutions. Collaboration is today the preferred framework for the mechanisms by which northern institutions support research in the south. The concept signals a shift away from the legacy of unequal (post-) colonial power relations, although, amid persisting inequalities, the rhetorical emphasis on equality might actually hinder critical engagement with conflicts of interest and injustice. To collaborate, African scientists engage various strategies: They establish a qualified but flexible, non-permanent workforce, diversify collaborators and research areas, source complementary funding to assemble infrastructures, and maintain prospective research populations to attract transnational clinical trials. Through this labor of collaboration, they sustain their institutions under prevailing conditions of scarcity.

  17. Network of nanomedicine researches: impact of Iranian scientists

    PubMed Central

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Riazi, Shukuh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We may define the nanomedicine as the use of nanotechnology in the health care, disease diagnoses and treatment in order to maintain and increase the health status of a population through improve pharmacotherapy. The main objective of the current study is to analyze and visualize the co-authorship network of all papers in the field of nanomedicine published throughout 2002-2014 in journals and indexed in the Web of Science database. Methods: The Web of Science database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of nanomedicine through 2002-2014. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers. Results: Total number of papers extracted from the Web of Science in the field of nanomedicine was 3092 through 2002-2014. Analysis of data showed that the research activities in the field of nanomedicine increased steadily through the period of study. USA, China, and India were the most prolific countries in the field. The dominant language of publications was English. The co-authorship connection revealed a network with a density of 0.0006. Conclusion: Nanomedicine researches have markedly been increased in Iran. Ninety-five percent of Iranian papers were cooperated with multi-authors. The collaboration coefficient degree was 0.731. PMID:26929924

  18. "ocean Discovery": At-Sea Research Opportunities for the Next Generation of Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisak, M.; Frank, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) explores and studies the nation's ocean frontiers using innovation and cutting edge technologies. CIOERT is committed to bringing "science at sea" experiences to university students, in the context of a complete research project-from data collection to presentation. Multidisciplinary :Ocean Discovery" cruises, designed to communicate the excitement of research and discovery to university students at a critical stage of their career decision-making have been incorporated into CIOERT's two Florida Shelf Edge Explorations , including use of the Johnson-Sea-Link II submersible (2010) and the University of Connecticut's K2 ROV (2011) CIOERT's "Ocean Discovery. "Ocean Discovery" provides a high-quality research experience for students by engagement in ocean research through shipboard data collections and analyses. Student research questions are created in association with CIOERT research projects and result in a written paper and poster presentation. Through active engagement in the entire process of research, students not only increase their understanding of the scientific process, but they will also observe, study, and characterize ocean conditions and selected benthic and pelagic habitats across the continental shelf. Student presentations impact their peers and younger students who may then also aspire to ocean-related careers. Student experiences and knowledge are transferred to the general public, college students, pre-college teachers, and their students via presentations and web-based resources. There is a high probability the Ocean Discovery students will become tomorrow's marine scientists, educators, and managers, all working, directly or indirectly, in support of NOAA's mission.;

  19. To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jarrett E. K.; Ranganathan, Jai; Walker, Barbara L. E.; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or “fanbase” and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public. PMID:25494306

  20. To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Ranganathan, Jai; Walker, Barbara L E; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or "fanbase" and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public.

  1. Survivors and scientists: Hiroshima, Fukushima, and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1975-2014.

    PubMed

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, I reflect on the Radiation Effects Research Foundation and its ongoing studies of long-term radiation risk. Originally called the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1947-1975), the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has carried out epidemiological research tracking the biomedical effects of radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for almost 70 years. Radiation Effects Research Foundation scientists also played a key role in the assessment of populations exposed at Chernobyl and are now embarking on studies of workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. I examine the role of estimating dosimetry in post-disaster epidemiology, highlight how national identity and citizenship have mattered in radiation risk networks, and track how participants interpreted the relationships between nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Industrial interests in Japan and the United States sought to draw a sharp line between the risks of nuclear war and the risks of nuclear power, but the work of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (which became the basis of worker protection standards for the industry) and the activism of atomic bomb survivors have drawn these two nuclear domains together. This is so particularly in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, Japan's 'third atomic bombing'. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation is therefore a critical node in a complex global network of scientific institutions that adjudicate radiation risk and proclaim when it is present and when absent. Its history, I suggest, can illuminate some properties of modern disasters and the many sciences that engage with them.

  2. Survivors and scientists: Hiroshima, Fukushima, and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1975-2014.

    PubMed

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, I reflect on the Radiation Effects Research Foundation and its ongoing studies of long-term radiation risk. Originally called the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1947-1975), the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has carried out epidemiological research tracking the biomedical effects of radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for almost 70 years. Radiation Effects Research Foundation scientists also played a key role in the assessment of populations exposed at Chernobyl and are now embarking on studies of workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. I examine the role of estimating dosimetry in post-disaster epidemiology, highlight how national identity and citizenship have mattered in radiation risk networks, and track how participants interpreted the relationships between nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Industrial interests in Japan and the United States sought to draw a sharp line between the risks of nuclear war and the risks of nuclear power, but the work of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (which became the basis of worker protection standards for the industry) and the activism of atomic bomb survivors have drawn these two nuclear domains together. This is so particularly in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, Japan's 'third atomic bombing'. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation is therefore a critical node in a complex global network of scientific institutions that adjudicate radiation risk and proclaim when it is present and when absent. Its history, I suggest, can illuminate some properties of modern disasters and the many sciences that engage with them. PMID:27263236

  3. Quality assurance and quality control of geochemical data—A primer for the research scientist

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Geochemistry is a constantly expanding science. More and more, scientists are employing geochemical tools to help answer questions about the Earth and earth system processes. Scientists may assume that the responsibility of examining and assessing the quality of the geochemical data they generate is not theirs but rather that of the analytical laboratories to which their samples have been submitted. This assumption may be partially based on knowledge about internal and external quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) programs in which analytical laboratories typically participate. Or there may be a perceived lack of time or resources to adequately examine data quality. Regardless of the reason, the lack of QA/QC protocols can lead to the generation and publication of erroneous data. Because the interpretations drawn from the data are primary products to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stakeholders, the consequences of publishing erroneous results can be significant. The principal investigator of a scientific study ultimately is responsible for the quality and interpretation of the project's findings, and thus must also play a role in the understanding, implementation, and presentation of QA/QC information about the data. Although occasionally ignored, QA/QC protocols apply not only to procedures in the laboratory but also in the initial planning of a research study and throughout the life of the project. Many of the tenets of developing a sound QA/QC program or protocols also parallel the core concepts of developing a good study: What is the main objective of the study? Will the methods selected provide data of enough resolution to answer the hypothesis? How should samples be collected? Are there known or unknown artifacts or contamination sources in the sampling and analysis methods? Assessing data quality requires communication between the scientists responsible for designing the study and those collecting samples, analyzing samples, treating data, and

  4. A successful research-based partnership between university scientists and high school teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, H.W.; Woodworth, D.L.; Kreuzer, K.N.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this program was to involve students in real-world science through collaboration on a research project with university scientists. The North Carolina Biotechnology Center (NCBC) and a Duke University Medical Center laboratory identified a line of experimentation that was both relevant to the focus of the lab, and technically and intellectually appropriate for the high school setting. The investigations involve restriction mapping of transposon insertions in thegenome of bacteriophage T4. Teachers involved in the project were already familiar with restriction analysis through prior attendance at labs. In summer 1992, NCBC staff and the Duke scientists held a workshop to orient ten teachers to the project and prepare materials for analysis by their students. During the school year, a member of the lab visited each classroom and discusses the project. Students conducted mapping experiments and presented their data at a conference in the spring of 1993. Twenty insertions were mapped in the first year. In the 1993 teacher workshop, teachers isolated new mutants and screened them for sensitivity to the anti-tumor drug studied by the Duke group, identifying several mutants of interest. Now in its second year, the collaboration has generated valuable scientific results and inspired independent spin-off activities. Impact on teachers and students has been evaluated through questionnaires.

  5. Is there a glass ceiling for highly cited scientists at the top of research universities?

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-12-01

    University leaders aim to protect, shape, and promote the missions of their institutions. I evaluated whether top highly cited scientists are likely to occupy these positions. Of the current leaders of 96 U.S. high research activity universities, only 6 presidents or chancellors were found among the 4009 U.S. scientists listed in the ISIHighlyCited.com database. Of the current leaders of 77 UK universities, only 2 vice-chancellors were found among the 483 UK scientists listed in the same database. In a sample of 100 top-cited clinical medicine scientists and 100 top-cited biology and biochemistry scientists, only 1 and 1, respectively, had served at any time as president of a university. Among the leaders of 25 U.S. universities with the highest citation volumes, only 12 had doctoral degrees in life, natural, physical or computer sciences, and 5 of these 12 had a Hirsch citation index m < 1.0. The participation of highly cited scientists in the top leadership of universities is limited. This could have consequences for the research and overall mission of universities.

  6. “A Good Personal Scientific Relationship”: Philip Morris Scientists and the Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper examines the efforts of consultants affiliated with Philip Morris (PM), the world's leading transnational tobacco corporation, to influence scientific research and training in Thailand via the Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI). A leading Southeast Asian institute for environmental health science, the CRI is headed by Professor Dr. Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn, the daughter of the King of Thailand, and it has assumed international significance via its designation as a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre in December 2005. Methods and Findings This paper analyses previously confidential tobacco industry documents that were made publicly available following litigation in the United States. PM documents reveal that ostensibly independent overseas scientists, now identified as industry consultants, were able to gain access to the Thai scientific community. Most significantly, PM scientist Roger Walk has established close connections with the CRI. Documents indicate that Walk was able to use such links to influence the study and teaching of environmental toxicology in the institute and to develop relations with key officials and local scientists so as to advance the interests of PM within Thailand and across Asia. While sensitivities surrounding royal patronage of the CRI make public criticism extremely difficult, indications of ongoing involvement by tobacco industry consultants suggest the need for detailed scrutiny of such relationships. Conclusions The establishment of close links with the CRI advances industry strategies to influence scientific research and debate around tobacco and health, particularly regarding secondhand smoke, to link with academic institutions, and to build relationships with national elites. Such strategies assume particular significance in the national and regional contexts presented here amid the globalisation of the tobacco pandemic. From an international perspective, particular concern is

  7. Modelling the Information Seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Haugan, Merete

    1997-01-01

    Engineers and research scientists at Statoil's Research Center in Trondheim, Norway were interviewed to determine information-seeking patterns. Eight characteristics were identified: surveying, chaining, monitoring, browsing, distinguishing, filtering, extracting, and ending. The results showed that although there were differences in the features…

  8. Development of Teachers as Scientists in Research Experiences for Teachers Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Courtney; Hardin, Emily; Klein-Gardner, Stacy; Benson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the teachers' development as scientists for participants in three National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Teachers. Participants included secondary science and math teachers with varying levels of education and experience who were immersed in research environments related to engineering and science topics.…

  9. Questions Students Ask: Bridging the Gap between Scientists and Students in a Research Institute Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2010-01-01

    It was proposed that an analysis of the questions students anticipate asking, and ask, could provide information about an enculturation encounter between Year 13 biology students and scientists working in a biomedical-clinical research unit. As part of a day-long intervention at this research institute, small groups of students (10-15) met with…

  10. Quantifying the Burden of Writing Research Articles in a Second Language: Data from Mexican Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…

  11. A Teacher Research Experience: Immersion Into the World of Practicing Ocean Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Professional development standards for science teachers encourage opportunities for intellectual professional growth, including participation in scientific research (NRC, 1996). Strategies to encourage the professional growth of teachers of mathematics and science include partnerships with scientists and immersion into the world of scientists and mathematicians (Loucks-Horsley, Love, Stiles, Mundry, & Hewson, 2003). A teacher research experience (TRE) can often offer a sustained relationship with scientists over a prolonged period of time. Research experiences are not a new method of professional development (Dubner, 2000; Fraser-Abder & Leonhardt, 1996; Melear, 1999; Raphael et al., 1999). Scientists serve as role models and "coaches" for teachers a practice which has been shown to dramatically increase the transfer of knowledge, skill and application to the classroom (Joyce & Showers, 2002). This study investigated if and how secondary teachers' beliefs about science, scientific research and science teaching changed as a result of participation in a TRE. Six secondary science teachers participated in a 12 day research cruise. Teachers worked with scientists, the ships' crew and other teachers conducting research and designing lessons for use in the classroom. Surveys were administered pre and post TRE to teachers and their students. Additionally, teachers were interviewed before, during and after the research experience, and following classroom observations before and after the research cruise. Teacher journals and emails, completed during the research cruise, were also analyzed. Results of the study highlight the use of authentic research experiences to retain and renew science teachers, the impact of the teachers' experience on students, and the successes and challenges of implementing a TRE during the academic year.

  12. Evaluating Academic Scientists Collaborating in Team-Based Research: A Proposed Framework.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Madhu; Messinger, Shari; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Goldberg, Judith D; Lindsell, Christopher J; Morton, Sally C; Pollock, Brad H; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Welty, Leah J; Parker, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Criteria for evaluating faculty are traditionally based on a triad of scholarship, teaching, and service. Research scholarship is often measured by first or senior authorship on peer-reviewed scientific publications and being principal investigator on extramural grants. Yet scientific innovation increasingly requires collective rather than individual creativity, which traditional measures of achievement were not designed to capture and, thus, devalue. The authors propose a simple, flexible framework for evaluating team scientists that includes both quantitative and qualitative assessments. An approach for documenting contributions of team scientists in team-based scholarship, nontraditional education, and specialized service activities is also outlined. Although biostatisticians are used for illustration, the approach is generalizable to team scientists in other disciplines.The authors offer three key recommendations to members of institutional promotion committees, department chairs, and others evaluating team scientists. First, contributions to team-based scholarship and specialized contributions to education and service need to be assessed and given appropriate and substantial weight. Second, evaluations must be founded on well-articulated criteria for assessing the stature and accomplishments of team scientists. Finally, mechanisms for collecting evaluative data must be developed and implemented at the institutional level. Without these three essentials, contributions of team scientists will continue to be undervalued in the academic environment. PMID:25993282

  13. Evaluating Academic Scientists Collaborating in Team-Based Research: A Proposed Framework.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Madhu; Messinger, Shari; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Goldberg, Judith D; Lindsell, Christopher J; Morton, Sally C; Pollock, Brad H; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Welty, Leah J; Parker, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Criteria for evaluating faculty are traditionally based on a triad of scholarship, teaching, and service. Research scholarship is often measured by first or senior authorship on peer-reviewed scientific publications and being principal investigator on extramural grants. Yet scientific innovation increasingly requires collective rather than individual creativity, which traditional measures of achievement were not designed to capture and, thus, devalue. The authors propose a simple, flexible framework for evaluating team scientists that includes both quantitative and qualitative assessments. An approach for documenting contributions of team scientists in team-based scholarship, nontraditional education, and specialized service activities is also outlined. Although biostatisticians are used for illustration, the approach is generalizable to team scientists in other disciplines.The authors offer three key recommendations to members of institutional promotion committees, department chairs, and others evaluating team scientists. First, contributions to team-based scholarship and specialized contributions to education and service need to be assessed and given appropriate and substantial weight. Second, evaluations must be founded on well-articulated criteria for assessing the stature and accomplishments of team scientists. Finally, mechanisms for collecting evaluative data must be developed and implemented at the institutional level. Without these three essentials, contributions of team scientists will continue to be undervalued in the academic environment.

  14. The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists - A Model for Young Researcher Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Baeseman, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Established in 2006 by young researchers in the early stages of the International Polar Year (IPY), the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) has evolved into the pre-eminent international organization for polar researchers at early stages of their careers. Now comprising around 2000 members from approximately 45 countries, APECS represents a body of undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the cryosphere with the key aim of raising the profile of polar research by providing a continuum of leadership that is both international and interdisciplinary in focus, and stimulating collaborative projects in research, education and outreach. APECS provides a strong voice for young researchers, enabling information sharing between early-career and more established professionals, promoting and organizing science, education and outreach events, and being actively involved with other organizations in the support of polar research activities. These activities are guided by three overarching goals: *Facilitate international and interdisciplinary networking to share ideas and experiences and to develop new research directions and collaborations; *Provide opportunities for professional career development; and *Promote education and outreach as integral components of polar research and to stimulate future generations of polar researchers. This presentation highlights the major achievements of APECS since its inception as well as future steps that APECS plans to take to ensure its sustainability. APECS can serve as a model for other groups looking to encourage the next generation of researchers. Since its founding, APECS has strived to develop strong partnerships with international organizations and scientific bodies. This network has not only facilitated early-career representation on an international level but has also furthered many education and outreach

  15. Boundary-Work in the Health Research Field: Biomedical and Clinician Scientists' Perceptions of Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Funding agencies in Canada are attempting to break down the organizational boundaries between disciplines to promote interdisciplinary research and foster the integration of the social sciences into the health research field. This paper explores the extent to which biomedical and clinician scientists' perceptions of social science research operate…

  16. The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists - Developing a Continuum of Polar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Baeseman, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Established in 2006 by young researchers in the early stages of the International Polar Year (IPY), the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) has evolved into the pre-eminent international organization for polar researchers at early stages of their careers. Now comprising around 2600 members from approximately 74 countries, APECS represents a body of students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the cryosphere with the key aim of raising the profile of polar research by providing a continuum of leadership that is both international and interdisciplinary in focus, and stimulating collaborative projects in research, education and outreach. APECS provides a strong voice for young researchers, enabling information sharing between early-career and more established professionals, promoting and organizing science, education and outreach events, and being actively involved with other organizations in the support of polar research. These activities are guided by three overarching goals: *Facilitate international and interdisciplinary networking to share ideas and experiences and to develop new research directions and collaborations; *Provide opportunities for professional career development; and *Promote education and outreach as integral components of polar research and to stimulate future generations of polar researchers. This presentation highlights the major achievements of APECS since its inception as well as future steps that APECS plans to take to ensure its sustainability. Since its founding, APECS has strived to develop strong partnerships with international organizations and scientific bodies. This network has not only facilitated early-career representation on an international level but has also furthered many education and outreach opportunities for young polar researchers. APECS core programs that include career development workshops and panels (including several associated

  17. Engaging Scientists in Education; the benefits of teacher-researcher pairs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.

    2015-12-01

    There are many benefits to developing and nurturing teacher-scientist collaborations within schools and school systems. Scientists understand the content, are up to date on the latest, most current information and discoveries, and generally convey a real excitement about their work. Teachers understand effective teaching as well as behavioral methods, have access to school resources, understand school policies and procedures, and can follow through for sustained learning. However, teachers and scientists also come from very different cultures with generally different values, expectations, and approaches. In this talk, we will examine the existing research on teacher-researcher pairs, identify programs that have been successful using this formalism, and build a model for effective team building, planning, and execution.

  18. To a young basic scientist, about to embark on a program of translational research.

    PubMed

    Critchfield, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    From recent commentaries about the role of basic behavior scientists in translational research, I distill some advice to young investigators who seek to apply their basic science training to translational studies. Among the challenges are (a) devising use-inspired research programs that complement, and are not redundant with, existing efforts in basic and applied behavior analysis; and (b) making tactical decisions, such as the selection of methods and collaborators, based on the research topic rather than, necessarily, the existing traditions in behavioral research. Finally, it must be recognized that although use-inspired basic research has the potential to attract support to basic laboratories and contribute to "saving the world," neither of these outcomes is guaranteed. I discuss the relative risks for basic scientists who proceed with use-inspired basic research rather than ignore such translational questions.

  19. Lost in Translation: Communications of Natural Hazards Research by Physical Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, B. D.; Petley, D.

    2009-09-01

    Financial losses due to natural hazards have increased dramatically over recent years, placing an increasing strain on national and global resources, particularly those in developing areas of the world. The number of scientists and amount of resources committed to natural hazards has also increased, as is illustrated by the surge of scientific conferences and groups worldwide that have a natural hazards focus. Here we reflect briefly on four key issues facing the science community with respect to the natural hazards community: (i) Communication between natural and social scientists; (ii) Interdisciplinary approaches to research; (iii) Knowledge to practice; (iv) Uncertainty. For each of these four major areas of immediate concern, which we recognize have been broadly addressed by other bodies (e.g., the ProVentium Consortium), we discuss the issue from our perspective as physical scientists. We conclude: (i) Wider integration and discussion between physical and social scientists is essential, supported by realistic analyses of the approaches used and their efficacy in different contexts; (ii) That although interdisciplinary research between physical scientists in a given field (e.g. landslides, earthquakes) and those in a cognate area (e.g. mathematics, statistics, biology) is laudable, more efforts are needed to increase actual exchange of knowledge between the groups (vs. a bolt on approach to one group working in isolation of the other); (iii) There continues to be a need to find new and innovative ways to exchange information between the science and practitioner communities, increasing the speed and quantity of knowledge that finds its way to practice; (iv) More, better funded, and larger concentrated efforts are urgently needed on the communication of scientific uncertainty from scientists to non-scientists.

  20. Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) - Engaging Students and Teachers in Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Reiff, P.

    2012-10-01

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for the past 20 years. The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including astronomy), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Twenty-one YES 2012 students developed a website for the Dawn Mission (yesserver.space.swri.edu) and five high school science teachers are developing space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

  1. Engaging Scientists with the CosmoQuest Citizen Science Virtual Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Gay, Pamela L.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Noel-Storr, Jacob; CosmoQuest Team

    2016-10-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate missions and research return more data than subject matter experts (SMEs – scientists and engineers) can effectively utilize. Citizen scientist volunteers represent a robust pool of energy and talent that SMEs can draw upon to advance projects that require the processing of large quantities of images, and other data. The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility has developed roles and pathways to engage SMEs in ways that advance the education of the general public while producing science results publishable in peer-reviewed journals, including through the CosmoQuest Facility Small Grants Program and CosmoAcademy. Our Facility Small Grants Program is open to SMEs to fund them to work with CosmoQuest and engage the public in analysis. Ideal projects have a specific and well-defined need for additional eyes and minds to conduct basic analysis and data collection (such as crater counting, identifying lineaments, etc.) Projects selected will undergo design and implementation as Citizen Science Portals, and citizen scientists will be recruited and trained to complete the project. Users regularly receive feedback on the quality of their data. Data returned will be analyzed by the SME and the CQ Science Team for joint publication in a peer-reviewed journal. SMEs are also invited to consider presenting virtual learning courses in the subjects of their choice in CosmoAcademy. The audience for CosmoAcademy are lifelong-learners and education professionals. Classes are capped at 10, 15, or 20 students. CosmoAcademy can also produce video material to archive seminars long-term. SMEs function as advisors in many other areas of CosmoQuest, including the Educator's Zone (curricular materials for K-12 teachers), Science Fair Projects, and programs that partner to produce material for podcasts and planetaria. Visit the CosmoQuest website at cosmoquest.org to learn more, and to investigate current opportunities to engage with us. CosmoQuest is funded

  2. Questions Students Ask: Bridging the gap between scientists and students in a research institute classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Bev; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2010-01-01

    It was proposed that an analysis of the questions students anticipate asking, and ask, could provide information about an enculturation encounter between Year 13 biology students and scientists working in a biomedical-clinical research unit. As part of a day-long intervention at this research institute, small groups of students (10-15) met with scientists (two) for a 15-minute discussion period. Pre- and post-questionnaires from 398 students provided data on intended, and judged best questions that were categorised and analysed into five categories: nature of science, science information, citizen decisions, personal, and no response/other. Chi Square analysis showed that students' areas of interest shifted to a personal perspective as a result of the intervention. Twenty students were interviewed who provided explanations for their questions. Analysis of their responses showed students were: developing an understanding of scientific practice as a journey, making identity links, using the personal as a knowledge bridge, acknowledging a commonality of values, and demonstrating that such an enculturation can be a transformative experience. These students engaged with a community of scientists at a physical, cognitive, and personal level. Physically they engaged with the practice of science in the laboratory, cognitively they were able to develop an understanding about how science knowledge was developed, and personally they were able to identify with science and scientists. The shift in students' questions showed that the intervention influenced their views on science and scientists to a broader understanding of scientific literacy.

  3. 1990 National Compensation Survey of Research and Development Scientists and Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report presents the results of the fourth in a new series of surveys of compensation and benefits for research and development (R D) scientists and engineers (S Es). The 1990 Survey represents the largest nationwide database of its kind, covering 104 establishments which provided data on almost 41,000 degreed researchers in the hard'' sciences. The fundamental nature of the survey has not changed: the focus is still on medium- and large-sized establishments which employ at least 100 degreed S Es in R D. The 1990 Survey contains data which cover about 18% of all establishments eligible to participate, encompassing approximately 18% of all eligible employees. As in the last three years, the survey sample constitutes a fairly good representation of the entire population of eligible establishments on the basis of business sector, geographic location, and size. Maturity-based analyses of salaries for some 34,000 nonsupervisory researchers are provided, as are job content-based analyses of more than 27,000 individual contributors and almost 5000 first level supervisors and division directors. Compensation policies and practices data are provided for 102 establishments, and benefits plans for 62 establishments are analyzed.

  4. U. K. Scientists Fret Over Slide in Funding for University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1986-01-01

    The declining level of government support for research has provoked concern regarding the impact on British science and scientists' morale and has triggered the formation of a lobbying group called Save British Science. Major issues (including financial considerations) are reported and discussed. (JN)

  5. AGU scientists urge Congress to invest in research and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothacker, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    With the "fiscal cliff" of sequestration drawing closer and threatening to hit basic science research funding with an 8.2% cut, according to an estimate by the Office of Management and Budget, congressional compromise on a budget plan is more urgent than ever. To discuss the value of scientific research and education with their senators and representatives, 55 Earth and space scientists from 17 states came to Washington, D. C., on 11-12 September to participate in the fifth annual Geosciences Congressional Visits Day sponsored by AGU and six other geoscience organizations. Although their specialties varied from space weather to soil science, the scientists engaged members of Congress and their staff in a total of 116 meetings to discuss a common goal: securing continued, steady investment in the basic scientific research that allows scientists to monitor natural hazards, manage water and energy resources, and develop technologies that spur economic growth and job creation. To make the most of these visits on 12 September, participants attended a training session the previous day, during which they learned about the details of the policy- making process and current legislative developments and practiced conducting a congressional meeting. Congressional Science Fellows, including past AGU fellow Rebecca French, described their experiences as scientists working on Capitol Hill, and White House policy analyst Bess Evans discussed the president's stance on sequestration and funding scientific research.

  6. Promoting an Inclusive Image of Scientists among Students: Towards Research Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Tosun, Ozge; Turgut, Sebnem; Orenler, Sefika; Sengul, Kubra; Top, Gokce

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effects of a teaching intervention, the design of which is informed by evidence from educational theories and research data, on students' images of scientists. A quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent pre-test-post-test control group (CG) was used to compare the outcomes of the intervention. The…

  7. Scientific Uncertainty in News Coverage of Cancer Research: Effects of Hedging on Scientists' and Journalists' Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.

    2008-01-01

    News reports of scientific research are rarely hedged; in other words, the reports do not contain caveats, limitations, or other indicators of scientific uncertainty. Some have suggested that hedging may influence news consumers' perceptions of scientists' and journalists' credibility (perceptions that may be related to support for scientific…

  8. Scientist-Teacher Partnerships as Professional Development: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcuts, Meredith Harris

    2009-01-01

    The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership…

  9. International Arctic Research Collaborations: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    International cooperation on Arctic research has a long and storied history, predating even the first International Polar Year in 1881. But scientists want to improve and expand current efforts to conduct international Arctic research, despite politcal and legal barriers that can hamper it. A review of the past and present aspects of such research can inform that effort. As part of a six month fellowship at the Center for Science Diplomacy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science I studied the history and current status of international cooperation in the Arctic. I will report on my findings, which include the fact that some of the first substantial international environmental research and regulatory cooperation began in the far North. My session will identify the elements that make international research collaborations successful, for example more than a century of cooperative work by Russian and Norwegian fishery scientists to monitor and regulate the cod trade in the Barents Sea. And it will explore the challenges that can threaten such collaborations. These can include rules that stymie data collection, block the import of certain analytical equipment across national boundaries, and bar the export of soil or water samples. I will mention specific complications to recent international arctic research projects. These include the SWERUS cruise, a joint effort between Sweden, Russia and the US, an effort to study carbon fluxes over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in 2014. The session will also review progress towards a new international agreeement, first proposed by the US, on improving arctic research cooperation. That deal is focused on removing the bureacratic and legal barriers to scientists seeking to conduct arctic research on foreign waters and land.

  10. Creating Science Education Specialists and Scientific Literacy in Students through a Successful Partnership among Scientists, Science Teachers, and Education Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metoyer, S.; Prouhet, T.; Radencic, S.

    2007-12-01

    studies, survey results, and descriptive categories. Costs and benefits to the scientist are discussed through the use of case studies, surveys, and observations. Third, student learning outcomes from a case study are presented. It is argued that the partnership created the opportunity for the integration of imaginative tools of science (specifically GIS in the case study) and authentic science inquiry. The last component is the discussion of the various tools of science utilized by the scientists for their research, taught to the science teachers by the scientists, and then taught to the students by the science teachers. At each step the technology was modified to fit the levels and applications of the specific science teacher, the grade level taught, and the content area taught. Examples of imaginative tools utilized include Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), Google Earth, time-lapse photography, digital microscopy, and Excel. In summary, by examining this collaborative partnership through the lens of the scientists, the science teachers, and the science teachers' students it is evident that this partnership has created new science education specialists and can ultimately improve scientific literacy in K-12 students. Reference: NRC (2005). How Students Learn. The National Academies Press. Washington D.C.

  11. Mastering the art of public presentation: evaluation of agronomist and soil scientist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When the communication of scientific or technical information occurs in a public space, effective speakers follow a formula for content delivery. Participant observation of 11 presentations during a 2009 Field Day and content analysis of videotaped faculty and scientists’ oral performances generated...

  12. Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) 2010 - Engaging Teachers in Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    During the past 18 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering, to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice, and to promote teacher development in STEM fields. This is accomplished by allowing students and teachers to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space science), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. A total of 239 students have completed YES or are currently enrolled. Of these students, 38% are females and 56% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local ethnic diversity, and 67% represent underserved groups. Presently, there are 21 students and 9 secondary school teachers enrolled in the YES 2010/2011 Program. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students and teachers experience the research environment and a collegial mentorship where they complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science (this year was ESA's Rosetta Mission) and high school STEM teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Teachers participate in an in-service workshop to share their developed classroom materials and spread awareness of space-related research. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real

  13. Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) 2009 - Engaging Students and Teachers in Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    During the past 17 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering, to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice, and to promote teacher development in STEM fields. This is accomplished by allowing students and teachers to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space science), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. A total of 218 students have completed YES or are currently enrolled. Of these students, 37% are females and 56% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local ethnic diversity, and 67% represent underserved groups. Presently, there are 20 students and 3 teachers enrolled in the YES 2009/2010 Program. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students and teachers experience the research environment and a collegial mentorship where they complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Teachers participate in an in-service workshop to share classroom materials and spread awareness of space-related research. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science (this year was NASA's MMS Mission) and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with

  14. Hypercompetition in biomedical research evaluation and its impact on young scientist careers.

    PubMed

    Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous changes in the modes of publication and dissemination of biomedical information, with the introduction of countless new publishers and publishing models, as well as alternative modes of research evaluation. In parallel, we are witnessing an unsustainable explosion in the amount of information generated by each individual scientist, at the same time as many countries' shrinking research budgets are greatly increasing the competition for research funding. In such a hypercompetitive environment, how does one measure excellence? This contribution will provide an overview of some of the ongoing changes in authorship practices in the biomedical sciences, and also the consequences of hypercompetition to the careers of young scientists, from the perspective of a tenured young faculty member in the biomedical sciences. It will also provide some suggestions as to alternate dissemination and evaluation practices that could reverse current trends. [Int Microbiol 18(4):253-261 (2015)].

  15. Hypercompetition in biomedical research evaluation and its impact on young scientist careers.

    PubMed

    Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous changes in the modes of publication and dissemination of biomedical information, with the introduction of countless new publishers and publishing models, as well as alternative modes of research evaluation. In parallel, we are witnessing an unsustainable explosion in the amount of information generated by each individual scientist, at the same time as many countries' shrinking research budgets are greatly increasing the competition for research funding. In such a hypercompetitive environment, how does one measure excellence? This contribution will provide an overview of some of the ongoing changes in authorship practices in the biomedical sciences, and also the consequences of hypercompetition to the careers of young scientists, from the perspective of a tenured young faculty member in the biomedical sciences. It will also provide some suggestions as to alternate dissemination and evaluation practices that could reverse current trends. [Int Microbiol 18(4):253-261 (2015)]. PMID:27611678

  16. Scientist-teacher partnerships as professional development: An action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcuts, Meredith Harris

    The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study's findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses -- that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.

  17. Scientist-Teacher Partnerships as Professional Development: An Action Research Study

    SciTech Connect

    Willcuts, Meredith H.

    2009-04-01

    The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study’s findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses – that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.

  18. Crocodile years: the traditional image of science and physical scientists' participation in weapons research

    SciTech Connect

    Crews, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis examines one dimension of the relationship between science and the arms race. More specifically, it develops and empirically examines a theoretical model of the relationship between the social demand for defense-related and weapons research, traditional scientific values related to the worldview of classical physics, and differential participation by physical scientists in such research. The theoretical model suggests that an antiquated traditional image of science exists, and that it may explain, in part, participation by physical scientists in defense-related or weapons research. Two major hypotheses are suggested by the model: first, that a constellation of values representing a traditional image of science obtains today among young physical scientists; and second, that those who currently engage (or are willing to engage) in defense-related or weapons research are more likely to agree with the values implicit in the traditional image of science than those who do not (or would not) engage in such research. The theoretical model is located within the sociologies of knowledge and science. This study includes chapters that provide an overview of the literature of these subdisciplines. This investigation concludes with an empirical examination of the model and hypotheses.

  19. Implementing 'translational' biomedical research: convergence and divergence among clinical and basic scientists.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Myfanwy; Barry, Christine A; Donovan, Jenny L; Sandall, Jane; Wolfe, Charles D A; Boaz, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Universities are increasingly regarded as key actors in the new 'knowledge economy', with requirements to produce market-oriented knowledge and engage in commercialization. This is of particular significance in the biomedical field, reflecting the perceived gap between success in terms of scientific discoveries and its transformation into products. The dominant discourse attributes this situation to 'blocks' in the translational pathway from 'bench to bedside', leading to policies to 'reengineer' the research enterprise. This study examines a pilot initiative established by the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC). This involved employing a change agent (Research Translator) supported by a small amount of translational funding to promote the culture and practice of translational research at a university/hospital site in England. An ethnographically informed case study involving semi-structured and open exploratory interviews, observation and document review, was conducted in 2008. Analysis and interpretation were informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice applied to science. The requirements of translational research promoted by the Research Translator and its sources of capital (authority, prestige etc) were largely congruent with the 'field' of clinical science. In contrast, translational research diverged from perceptions of 'legitimate' science and requirements for capital accumulation held by the majority of basic scientists who often described this research as 'high risk' and were resistant to the Research Translator's advice. However some differences in motivations and practices were identified within groups of scientists associated with career stage, work environment and specialty. We argue that there are convergent and divergent forces that influence scientists' readiness to adopt a market-oriented translational research model and in turn facilitate or constrain the effectiveness of a knowledge broker. We also identify ways in which current structures and

  20. Implementing 'translational' biomedical research: convergence and divergence among clinical and basic scientists.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Myfanwy; Barry, Christine A; Donovan, Jenny L; Sandall, Jane; Wolfe, Charles D A; Boaz, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Universities are increasingly regarded as key actors in the new 'knowledge economy', with requirements to produce market-oriented knowledge and engage in commercialization. This is of particular significance in the biomedical field, reflecting the perceived gap between success in terms of scientific discoveries and its transformation into products. The dominant discourse attributes this situation to 'blocks' in the translational pathway from 'bench to bedside', leading to policies to 'reengineer' the research enterprise. This study examines a pilot initiative established by the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC). This involved employing a change agent (Research Translator) supported by a small amount of translational funding to promote the culture and practice of translational research at a university/hospital site in England. An ethnographically informed case study involving semi-structured and open exploratory interviews, observation and document review, was conducted in 2008. Analysis and interpretation were informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice applied to science. The requirements of translational research promoted by the Research Translator and its sources of capital (authority, prestige etc) were largely congruent with the 'field' of clinical science. In contrast, translational research diverged from perceptions of 'legitimate' science and requirements for capital accumulation held by the majority of basic scientists who often described this research as 'high risk' and were resistant to the Research Translator's advice. However some differences in motivations and practices were identified within groups of scientists associated with career stage, work environment and specialty. We argue that there are convergent and divergent forces that influence scientists' readiness to adopt a market-oriented translational research model and in turn facilitate or constrain the effectiveness of a knowledge broker. We also identify ways in which current structures and

  1. Development of Teachers as Scientists in Research Experiences for Teachers Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Courtney; Hardin, Emily; Klein-Gardner, Stacy; Benson, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the teachers' development as scientists for participants in three National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Teachers. Participants included secondary science and math teachers with varying levels of education and experience who were immersed in research environments related to engineering and science topics. Teachers' functionality as scientists was assessed in terms of independence, focus, relationships with mentors, structure, and ability to create new concepts. Hierarchies developed within these constructs allowed tracking of changes in functionality throughout the 6-week programs. Themes were further identified in teachers' weekly journal entries and exit interviews through inductive coding. Increases in functionality as scientists were observed for all teachers who completed both the program and exit interview ( n = 27). Seven of the 27 teachers reached high science functionality; however, three of the teachers did not reach high functionality in any of the constructs during the program. No differences were observed in demographics or teaching experience between those who did and did not reach high functionality levels. Inductive coding revealed themes such as teachers' interactions with mentors and connections made between research and teaching, which allowed for descriptions of experiences for teachers at high and low levels of functionality. Teachers at high functionality levels adjusted to open-ended environments, transitioned from a guided experience to freedom, felt useful in the laboratory, and were self-motivated. In contrast, teachers at low functionality levels did not have a true research project, primarily focused on teaching aspects of the program, and did not display a transition of responsibilities.

  2. CosmoQuest – Scientist Engagement with the Public and Schools via a Virtual Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Buxner, Sanlyn; Gay, Pamela L.; Grier, Jennifer A.; Lehan, Cory; CosmoQuest Team

    2016-06-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility where science data can be analyzed by teams of interested citizen scientists from across the world. Scientists can apply to have their data analyzed through crowdsourcing in our online observatory, which generates validated and publishable results (Robbins et al 2014). Scientists have the opportunity to provide connections to teachers in classrooms so that students can analyze original data and understand the process that astronomers go through from image to result. Scientists can also teach online classes for different audiences including formal classroom teachers, informal educators, and lifelong learners to further the broader impacts of their work and increase engagement in their scientific endeavors. We provide training, through online and in-person workshops, on how to incorporate your datasets into the observatory and how to deliver online classes through our CosmoAcademy. This work is funded in part by NASA Cooperative Agreement Notice number NNX16AC68A. For more information, visit http://cosmoquest.org/.

  3. A Research Scientist's Perspective on Professional Development of Secondary Earth Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. K.

    2001-05-01

    A variety of roles are available for research scientists to become involved with education and public outreach (EPO) activities, ranging from working with K-12 students in the classroom to participating in the informal education venue. I have chosen to devote my EPO efforts primarily to the professional development of secondary Earth science teachers. This sector of educators generally has a good science content knowledge base, but many of these teachers struggle with the implementation of inquiry-based learning in their classrooms. Scientist-teaching pairing - either through workshops, such as the CIRES Earthworks program, or working with teachers in the laboratory - is an effective avenue for guiding teachers through the process of scientific inquiry. When science mentors model the scientific process, teachers develop the techniques of hypothesis formulation, experimental design, data analysis, and communication of data. Teacher workshops add the extra bonus of allowing participants to guide their peers through their personally developed projects. This activity builds confidence in the teacher's abilities to transfer the process of scientific inquiry to their own classroom. Standing on the sidelines, the scientist can offer advice on effective implementation ideas. Benefits to scientists involved in this type of EPO activity include expanding their teaching repertoire, satisfaction in the knowledge that they are effecting science education reform; and having fun!

  4. CosmoQuest - Scientist Engagement with the Public and Schools via a Virtual Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Buxner, Sanlyn; Gay, Pamela L.; Grier, Jennifer A.; Lehan, Cory; CosmoQuest Team

    2016-06-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility where science data can be analyzed by teams of interested citizen scientists from across the world. Scientists can apply to have their data analyzed through crowdsourcing in our online observatory, which generates validated and publishable results (Robbins et al 2014). Scientists have the opportunity to provide connections to teachers in classrooms so that students can analyze original data and understand the process that astronomers go through from image to result. Scientists can also teach online classes for different audiences including formal classroom teachers, informal educators, and lifelong learners to further the broader impacts of their work and increase engagement in their scientific endeavors. We provide training, through online and in-person workshops, on how to incorporate your datasets into the observatory and how to deliver online classes through our CosmoAcademy. This work is funded in part by NASA Cooperative Agreement Notice number NNX16AC68A. For more information, visit http://cosmoquest.org/.

  5. Networks of Collaboration among Scientists in a Center for Diabetes Translation Research

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jenine K.; Wong, Roger; Thompson, Kellie; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Background Transdisciplinary collaboration is essential in addressing the translation gap between scientific discovery and delivery of evidence-based interventions to prevent and treat diabetes. We examined patterns of collaboration among scientists at the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research. Methods Members (n = 56) of the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research were surveyed about collaboration overall and on publications, presentations, and grants; 87.5% responded (n = 49). We used traditional and network descriptive statistics and visualization to examine the networks and exponential random graph modeling to identify predictors of collaboration. Results The 56 network members represented nine disciplines. On average, network members had been affiliated with the center for 3.86 years (s.d. = 1.41). The director was by far the most central in all networks. The overall and publication networks were the densest, while the overall and grant networks were the most centralized. The grant network was the most transdisciplinary. The presentation network was the least dense, least centralized, and least transdisciplinary. For every year of center affiliation, network members were 10% more likely to collaborate (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00–1.21) and 13% more likely to write a paper together (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Network members in the same discipline were over twice as likely to collaborate in the overall network (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.40–3.15); however, discipline was not associated with collaboration in the other networks. Rank was not associated with collaboration in any network. Conclusions As transdisciplinary centers become more common, it is important to identify structural features, such as a central leader and ongoing collaboration over time, associated with scholarly productivity and, ultimately, with advancing science and practice. PMID:26301873

  6. Preparing the Next Generation of Environmental Scientists to Work at the Frontier of Data-Intensive Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The science necessary to unravel complex environmental problems confronts severe computational challenges - coping with huge volumes of heterogeneous data, spanning vast spatial scales at high resolution, and requiring integration of disparate measurements from multiple disciplines. But as cyberinfrastructure advances to support such work, scientists in many fields lack sufficient computational skills to participate in interdisciplinary, data-intensive research. In response, we developed innovative training workshops for early-career scientists, in order to explore both the needs and solutions for training next-generation scientists in skills for data-intensive environmental research. In 2013 and 2014 we ran intensive 3-week training workshops for early-career researchers. One of the workshops was run concurrently in California and North Carolina, connected by virtual technologies and coordinated schedules. We attracted applicants to the workshop with the opportunity to pursue data-intensive small-group research projects that they proposed. This approach presented a realistic possibility that publishable products could result from 3 weeks of focused hands-on classroom instruction combined with self-directed group research in which instructors were present to assist trainees. Instruction addressed 1) collaboration modes and technologies, 2) data management, preservation, and sharing, 3) preparing data for analysis using scripting, 4) reproducible research, 5) sustainable software practices, 6) data analysis and modeling, and 7) communicating results to broad communities. The most dramatic improvements in technical skills were in data management, version control, and working with spatial data outside of proprietary software. In addition, participants built strong networks and collaborative skills that later resulted in a successful student-led grant proposal, published manuscripts, and participants reported that the training was a highly influential experience.

  7. International scientists' priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Murray A; Ankley, Gerald T; Boxall, Alistair B A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence is needed to inform regulatory and policy responses that address potential risks. A recent "big questions" exercise with participants largely from North America identified 22 important research questions around the risks of PPCP in the environment that would help address the most pressing knowledge gaps over the next decade. To expand that analysis, we developed a survey that was completed by 535 environmental scientists from 57 countries, of whom 49% identified environmental or analytical chemistry as their primary disciplinary background. They ranked the 22 original research questions and submitted 171 additional candidate research questions they felt were also of high priority. Of the original questions, the 3 perceived to be of highest importance related to: 1) the effects of long-term exposure to low concentrations of PPCP mixtures on nontarget organisms, 2) effluent treatment methods that can reduce the effects of PPCPs in the environment while not increasing the toxicity of whole effluents, and 3) the assessment of the environmental risks of metabolites and environmental transformation products of PPCPs. A question regarding the role of cultural perspectives in PPCP risk assessment was ranked as the lowest priority. There were significant differences in research orientation between scientists who completed English and Chinese language versions of the survey. We found that the Chinese respondents were strongly orientated to issues of managing risk profiles, effluent treatment, residue bioavailability, and regional assessment. Among English language respondents, further differences in research orientation were associated with respondents' level of consistency when ranking the survey

  8. Conducting research in risk communication that is both beneficial for stakeholders and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    One of the key tasks for disaster risk reduction is raising awareness. On way to increase it is through risk communication, including visual risk communication. Previous research showed that visual risk communication linked to natural hazards is mostly evaluated in terms of user's requirements, ability to understand the content, or satisfaction with the diverse components of the tool(s): Its impact on risk awareness is not researched. Most of the risk communication evaluations are performed in a lab-type environments and thus their conclusions might not be fully valid in real life settings. Our approach differs in the sense that we decided to test a real communication effort. However, we did not use an existing one but designed our own. This process was conducted according to collaborative research principles, meaning that we created the communication effort in collaboration with the local stakeholders in order to respect the social environment of the case study. Moreover, our research activity should be beneficial and significant for the community in which we work as well as for science. This contribution will present the process that allowed us to design an exhibition in the Ubaye Valley (France) and the methodology that was developed to measure changes in risk awareness. During a 2-years project, we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). Informal meetings with local stakeholders were organized to determine what they perceived as the needs in term of risk communication and to investigate the potential to develop activities that would benefit both them and us. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. We proposed the content and this was adjusted in interaction with the stakeholders. Later local technicians and inhabitants contributed to the content of the exhibition and regional stakeholders helped with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, employees of the public library took

  9. Veterans Administration support for medical research: opinions of the endangered species of physician-scientists.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Stanley; Crabbe, John C; Cooper, George; Finkelman, Fred; Largman, Corey; McCarley, Robert W; Rice, Louis; Rubin, Janet; Richardson, Bruce; Seil, Frederick; Snider, Gordon L; Vandenbark, Arthur A

    2004-10-01

    Over the past three decades the Veterans Affairs (VA) Research program has evolved into a powerful, peer-reviewed funding mechanism for basic and translational research that has resulted in numerous important contributions to medical science and improvements in patient care. Continuity in VA Merit Review funding has fostered and nurtured the scientific careers of a large number of physician-scientists who have remained devoted to the mission of performing creative and innovative research that affects the patient care mission of the VA. VA medical research policies have undergone a major overhaul in the past year. Although many of these changes (de-emphasizing bench research and revamping the peer review process) have recently been reversed, the future direction of VA research remains in flux. The goal of this manuscript is to demonstrate the importance of the Merit Review medical research funding mechanism not just to the VA, but to the entire nation's health care system. To achieve this goal, the opinions of 65 established VA medical investigators were obtained regarding the past success and future direction of VA research. The conclusions reached include the following. 1) Merit Review research funding has been essential to the training, recruitment, and retention of productive VA physician-scientists. 2) The VA research program has contributed both basic and clinical innovations that have led to improvements in medical care. Contributions of VA researchers to excellence in many aspects of patient care at VA hospitals have been extraordinary. 3) Development of initiatives that entice outstanding Ph.D.'s to develop their careers in the VA has been crucial to the success of the program. 4) The VA research program has fostered a mutually beneficial relationship with affiliated medical schools. 5) Better methods to quantify VA research contributions and outcomes are essential for future program development. PMID:15466355

  10. Continuing to conduct research in nursing homes despite controversial findings: reflections by a research scientist.

    PubMed

    Kayser-Jones, Jeanie

    2003-01-01

    To illustrate the potential controversial nature of the research findings, the author first presents data from an ongoing study on the care of terminally ill nursing home residents, then responds to the question: "How can you go into nursing homes, find out all that you do, publish your findings, and continue to gain access to nursing homes?" Strategies used over the past 20 years to gain this access and to develop and maintain harmonious relationships during and after the data collection process are presented. The author emphasizes the importance of conducting research in settings that may generate controversial findings. Furthermore, she states that these findings should be presented to advocates and policy makers who are in a position to bring about changes that will improve the quality of care.

  11. Improving the Climate for Female Scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killeen, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    In the summer of 2000, at the invitation of the former Director of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a committee of senior female scientists affiliated with the American Physical Society's Committee on the Status of Women in Physics visited NCAR and NCAR's parent organization, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). The purpose of the site visit was to develop recommendations designed to improve the climate for women scientists at NCAR. This site visit and the subsequent written report and response from NCAR/UCAR management were instrumental in the establishment of a series of new programs and recruitment/mentoring activities that have had a significant impact at NCAR. The APS Committee's report included recommendations in the areas of: staff recruitment and demographic balance; communication and consistent implementation of policies; mentoring and career development programs; and "family friendliness". The constructive and helpful report of the visiting APS committee was openly shared with staff and led to a series of discussions, debates, actions, and programs at NCAR that continue to this day. This poster will describe the APS Committee's recommendations, the institutional process that occurred in response to this study, and the resulting actions and their impact at the national center. Specific progress since the site visit has included a doubling of the percentage participation by females in the ladder (tenure-equivalent) scientist track at NCAR to a level that now significantly exceeds the national average for tenured or tenure-track female faculty at Ph.D.-granting institutions in the geosciences.

  12. Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.

    2010-05-01

    The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

  13. Personality Traits Are Associated with Research Misbehavior in Dutch Scientists: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tijdink, Joeri K.; Bouter, Lex M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Smulders, Yvo M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior. Methods Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65%) from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ), and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score. Findings Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06–1.53) with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors) (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively), and self-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) as compared to postgraduate PhD fellows. Conclusions Machiavellianism may be a risk factor for research misbehaviour. Narcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research. PMID:27684371

  14. Epidemiologists, social scientists, and the structure of medical research on AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Packard, R M; Epstein, P

    1991-01-01

    The development of medical research on AIDS in Africa resembles earlier efforts to understand the epidemiology of TB and syphilis in Africa. In all three cases early research focused on why these diseases exhibited different epidemiological patterns in Africa than in the west. Early explanations of these differences focused on the peculiarities of African behavior, while largely excluding from vision a range of environmental factors. These parallels provide a framework for examining how western ideas about AIDS in Africa developed, the role of social scientists in the formation of these ideas, and how these initial perceptions shaped the subsequent development of AIDS research, encouraging a premature narrowing of research questions. The paper warns that, as in the histories of TB and syphilis research, this early closure may generate inadequate and inappropriate responses to the African AIDS epidemic and limit our understanding of the disease.

  15. 2013 Occupant Protection Risk Standing Review Panel Status Review Comments to the Human Research Program, Chief Scientist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    On December 17, 2013, the OP Risk SRP, participants from the JSC, HQ, and NRESS participated in a WebEx/teleconference. The purpose of the call was to allow the SRP members to: 1. Receive an update by the Human Research Program (HRP) Chief Scientist or Deputy Chief Scientist on the status of NASA's current and future exploration plans and the impact these will have on the HRP. 2. Receive an update on any changes within the HRP since the 2012 SRP meeting. 3. Receive an update by the Element or Project Scientist(s) on progress since the 2012 SRP meeting. 4. Participate in a discussion with the HRP Chief Scientist, Deputy Chief Scientist, and the Element regarding possible topics to be addressed at the next SRP meeting.

  16. Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Jessica R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

  17. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  18. Every scientist is a memory researcher: Suggestions for making research more memorable.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    Independent of the actual results, some scientific articles are more memorable than others. As anyone who has written an article collaboratively knows, there are numerous ways a manuscript can be written to convey the same general ideas. To aid with this, many scientific writing books and editorials provide advice, often anecdotal, on how to make articles more memorable. Here I ground these suggestions with empirical support from memory research. Specifically, I suggest that researchers consider how to emphasize their work's novelty, strive to describe their work using concrete, easy-to-understand terms, and use caution when attempting to evoke an emotional response in the reader. I also discuss considerations in title selections and conference presentations.

  19. Earth2Class Overview: An Innovative Program Linking Classroom Educators and Research Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M.; Iturrino, G. J.; Baggio, F. D.; Assumpcao, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Earth2Class (E2C) workshops, held at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), provide an effective model for improving knowledge, teaching, and technology skills of middle and high school science educators through ongoing interactions with research scientists and educational technology. With support from an NSF GeoEd grant, E2C has developed monthly workshops, web-based resources, and summer institutes in which classroom teachers and research scientists have produced exemplar curriculum materials about a wide variety of cutting-edge geoscience investigations suitable for dissemination to teachers and students. Some of the goals of this program are focused to address questions such as: (1) What aspects of the E2C format and educational technology most effectively connect research discoveries with classroom teachers and their students? (2) What benefits result through interactions among teachers from highly diverse districts and backgrounds with research scientists, and what benefits do the scientists gain from participation? (3) How can the E2C format serve as a model for other research institution-school district partnerships as a mechanism for broader dissemination of scientific discoveries? E2C workshops have linked LDEO scientists from diverse research specialties-seismology, marine geology, paleoclimatology, ocean drilling, dendrochronology, remote sensing, impact craters, and others-with teachers from schools in the New York metropolitan area. Through the workshops, we have trained teachers to enhance content knowledge in the Earth Sciences and develop skills to incorporate new technologies. We have made a special effort to increase the teaching competency of K-12 Earth Sciences educators serving in schools with high numbers of students from underrepresented groups, thereby providing greater role models to attract students into science and math careers. E2C sponsored Earth Science Teachers Conferences, bringing together educators from New York and New

  20. Women scientists in typhus research during the first half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Lindenmann, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Several women scientists have contributed to typhus research, which carried an exceptionally high risk of laboratory infection. The work of five of them, Ida Bengtson (1881-1952), Muriel Robertson (1883-1973), Hilda Sikora (1889-1974), Hélène Sparrow (1891-1970) and Clara Nigg (1897-1986), is reviewed and the names of several others are mentioned. The lives of these women seem typical of rickettsiologists and reflect the disasters that befell the world during the first half of the twentieth century.

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 14: An analysis of the technical communications practices reported by Israeli and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Elazar, David; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their view about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are working in cryogenics, adaptive walls, and magnetic suspension. A slightly modified version was sent to Israeli aerospace engineers and scientists working at Israel Aircraft Industries, LTD. Responses of the Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  2. Building Successful Partnerships Between Scientists and Educators to Bridge Scientific Research to Education and Outreach Audiences at a National Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Henderson, S.; Carbone, L.; Eastburn, T.; Russell, R.; Gardiner, L.; Ammann, C.; Carlson, D.; Deluca, C.; Fried, A.; Killeen, T.; Laursen, K.; Lopez, R.; Lu, G.; Marsh, D.; Mearns, L.; Otto-Bleisner, B.; Richmond, A.; Richter, D.; Hughes, J.; Alexander, C.; Gombosi, T.; Haines-Stiles, G.

    2003-12-01

    The scientific missions of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) community offer numerous opportunities to integrate content on atmospheric, climate, and related sciences into formal and informal public education and outreach programs. The UCAR Office of Education and Outreach currently coordinates a variety of partnerships with science PI's catalyzing activities that include work-study experiences for teachers and students in the laboratory; creation of EO resources for scientists to utilize when visiting K-12 classrooms; extension of exhibit content in K-12 teacher guides; topic-specific web site content for the public, K-12, and undergraduates; professional development for K-12 educators; and public broadcast quality documentation of emerging technology. This presentation will review how these partnerships are developed, what works best, and plans for the future drawing from examples of collaborations with scientists. The scientists represent the NSF-funded Analytical Photonics and Optoelectronics Laboratory (APOL), the Boston University Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling, and the High Altitude Instrumented Platform for Environmental Research Program (HIAPER); the NASA-funded Earth System Modeling Framework; collaborations with the Windows to the Universe project sponsored by multiple agencies; the NCAR Climate Assessment Initiative; and several NASA-funded Sun-Earth Connection Research Programs.

  3. The talent process of successful academic women scientists at elite research universities in New York state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaenzig, Lisa M.

    women scientists at elite research universities in New York. A criterion sample (n=94) was selected resulting in forty-one successful academic women scientists as the study participants, representing a response rate of 43.6%. Findings include the important roles of parents, teachers, mentors and collaborators on the talent development process of the participants. The perception of the study participants was that there were multiple facilitators to their talent development process, while few barriers were acknowledged. The most important barriers cited by participants were perceptions of institutional culture and sexism. Implications for practice in both gifted and higher education are suggested, based on the findings of the study. For gifted education, these suggestions include the need to provide parental education programs emphasizing the importance of intellectual engagement at home, providing dedicated time for science in primary education, and fostering science and mathematics opportunities, particularly for girls and young women. Stressing the importance of hard work, persistence and intelligent risk-taking are also important for encouraging girls in science. For higher education, the study provides models of success of academic women scientists, outlines the importance of mentors and collaborators, and emphasizes the critical role that institutions and departments play in facilitating or impeding women's career development as academics. The current study suggests several areas for further research to continue the exploration of the talent development influences on academic women scientists. Based on the findings of this study, recommended studies include examining the differences of generational cohorts; probing the roles of collaborators/mentor colleagues; exploring differences for women from various ethnic and racial backgrounds; replicating the current study with larger populations of women scientists; investigating the role of facilitative school environments

  4. The talent process of successful academic women scientists at elite research universities in New York state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaenzig, Lisa M.

    women scientists at elite research universities in New York. A criterion sample (n=94) was selected resulting in forty-one successful academic women scientists as the study participants, representing a response rate of 43.6%. Findings include the important roles of parents, teachers, mentors and collaborators on the talent development process of the participants. The perception of the study participants was that there were multiple facilitators to their talent development process, while few barriers were acknowledged. The most important barriers cited by participants were perceptions of institutional culture and sexism. Implications for practice in both gifted and higher education are suggested, based on the findings of the study. For gifted education, these suggestions include the need to provide parental education programs emphasizing the importance of intellectual engagement at home, providing dedicated time for science in primary education, and fostering science and mathematics opportunities, particularly for girls and young women. Stressing the importance of hard work, persistence and intelligent risk-taking are also important for encouraging girls in science. For higher education, the study provides models of success of academic women scientists, outlines the importance of mentors and collaborators, and emphasizes the critical role that institutions and departments play in facilitating or impeding women's career development as academics. The current study suggests several areas for further research to continue the exploration of the talent development influences on academic women scientists. Based on the findings of this study, recommended studies include examining the differences of generational cohorts; probing the roles of collaborators/mentor colleagues; exploring differences for women from various ethnic and racial backgrounds; replicating the current study with larger populations of women scientists; investigating the role of facilitative school environments

  5. Getting to Yes: Supporting Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; Smith, L. K.

    2011-12-01

    Research scientists are busy people, with many demands on their time and few institutional rewards for engagement in education and public outreach (EPO). However, scientist involvement in education has been called for by funding agencies, education researchers and the scientific organizations. In support of this idea, educators consistently rate interaction with scientists as the most meaningful element of an outreach project. What factors help scientists become engaged in EPO, and why do scientists stay engaged? This presentation describes the research-based motivations and barriers for scientists to be engaged in EPO, presents strategies for overcoming barriers, and describes elements of EPO that encourage and support scientist engagement.

  6. Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

  7. Next Generation Scientists - Creating opportunities for high school students through astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Madeline; Cebulla, Hannah; Powers, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Through various opportunities and experiences with extracurricular scientific research, primarily astronomical research with programs like NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP), and the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT), we have noticed a change in our learning style, career path, and general outlook on the scientific community that we strongly believe could also be added to the lives of many other high school students given similar opportunities. The purpose of our poster is to emphasize the importance of granting high school students opportunities to explore different styles and methods of learning. We believe that although crucial, a basic high school education is not enough to expose young adults to the scientific community and create enough interest for a career path. As a result, we wish to show that more of these programs and opportunities should be offered to a greater number of students of all ages, allowing them to explore their passions, develop their understanding of different fields, and determine the paths best suited to their interests. Within our poster, we will emphasize how these programs have specifically impacted our lives, what we hope to see in the future, and how we hope to attain the growth of such opportunities. We include such proposals as; increasing outreach programs, expanding the exposure of young students to the sciences, both in the classroom and out, allowing high school students to participate in active scientific research, and involving students in hands-on activities/experiments within school clubs, the classroom, at home, or at local events. Spreading these opportunities to directly interact with the sciences in similar manners as that of professional scientists will allow students to discover their interests, realize what being a scientist truly entails, and allow them to take the first steps into following their career paths.

  8. The Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences (CURE): a model for training underserved scientists in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Franco, Idalid; Bailey, LeeAnn O; Bakos, Alexis D; Springfield, Sanya A

    2011-03-01

    Mentoring is a critical aspect of research and training; and the adoption of a successful mentoring model for guiding researchers through the educational pipeline is lacking. The Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences (CURE) program was established in the Comprehensive Minority Biomedical Branch; which is part of the National Cancer Institute. This program offers unique training and career development opportunities to enhance diversity in cancer research. The CURE initiative focuses on broadening the cadre of underserved investigators engaging in cancer research. CURE begins with high school students and fosters scientific, academic and research excellence throughout the trainee's educational progression. The program supports students throughout the entirety of their training career. During this period, the trainee matures into a competitive early stage investigator; capable of securing advanced research project funding in academic and industry workforces. Thus, the CURE program provides a comprehensive vehicle for training and reinforces the critical mass of underserved investigators conducting cancer research.

  9. A partnership between biologic/biomedical research scientists and precollege educators

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, N.P.

    1994-12-31

    A model program has been developed to provide a mechanism for precollege educators to interact with university faculty who are working scientists. Components of the program included an in-depth laboratory experience which involved pairing active research faculty in the biomedical sciences with the educators for a seven week period during the summer; a supportive curriculum in the biomedical sciences to enhance and enrich the laboratory experience; construction of a teaching module by the educators which can be brought back to their schools to improve their science education programs; and development of means of disseminating the modules at the local, regional, and national levels. Excellent modules were developed by the teachers in a wide variety of disciplines. Formative evaluation of the program by the teachers indicated a very high degree of enthusiasm for all aspects of the program. This model will support the development of programs that join working scientists and precollege educators in enhancing science education in the biomedical sciences. It will have a multiplier effect far beyond the participants, impacting on fellow educators, students considering careers in the sciences, and the lay public.

  10. Present tense commentary: a qualitative research technique.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, T

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes Present Tense Commentary (PTC) as a technique to gather rich data which satisfies the requirements of a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to research. Using PTC, the informant is encouraged to relieve significant events by conveying them to the researcher as if they are happening now. This process demands greater cognitive ability, greater exposure to the event and more thorough grammatical correctness than in a standard interview situation. The reward, however, is insight for the informant and the researcher into the meaning and understanding, otherwise concealed within the experience. PTC was used as the third phase of data collection in a study involving eight student nurses undertaking the Diploma in Higher Education, Nursing Studies Course (Project 2000). The intention of the study is to illuminate the student's development and their socialization into nursing and to portray the total learning milieu for the students as they describe it. The technique has enabled the students to record experiences in clinical practice, reflect upon them and identify their own development during the course. PTC contrasts with traditional interview methods because it empowers the informant and addresses their agenda and not the researcher's. This paper gives a brief rationale for selecting PTC and describes the process of preparing informants and conducting the technique. The paper focuses upon issues related to philosophical and ethical considerations and recommends that the technique is recognized as a valuable phenomenological tool. PMID:10335198

  11. The present position in Brucella phage research

    PubMed Central

    Droževkina, M. S.

    1963-01-01

    It is only comparatively recently that efforts to isolate and purify stable Brucella phages have met with success. This success has important implications for the epidemiology and possibly the control of brucellosis, and the author has therefore thought it opportune to summarize and review the present state of research on Brucella phages. After giving an outline of the history of Brucella phage isolation, she goes into the methodology of phage isolation from numerous sources, of phage reinforcement, and of determination of the lytic activity of phage. This is followed by a discussion of the biological properties, morphology and typing of Brucella phage, and of lysogeny in Brucella. Finally, she reviews the promising research that is being done on Brucella typing with specific phage and on the use of antiphage serum in diagnosis, and discusses the possible use of phage in the treatment and prevention of brucellosis. PMID:14043752

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 28: The technical communication practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communication practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions; second, to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of the undergraduate course in technical communication; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to Russian aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) and to their U.S. counterparts at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Russian and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 29: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third; to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists in Japan and at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Japanese and U.S. surveys were 85 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Japanese and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 17: A comparison of the technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and NASA Ames Research Center, and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Dutch and U.S. surveys were 55 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented.

  15. Animated Graphics in Meteorological Research and Presentations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotjahn, Richard; Chervin, Robert M.

    1984-11-01

    For the past two years, the authors have been involved in the production of computer-animated movies at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The computer-generated frames are high-quality graphs of two- and three-dimensional variables featuring trajectories, contour lines, shading patterns, or three-dimensional surfaces (viewed in perspective). The original application was for comparing the FGGE dataset motion fields with satellite film loops. Applications have broadened to include model-generated data. Computer animation is particularly useful for efficiently previewing and presenting large quantities of data. Experiments with stereo images have also been made.

  16. Effects of an Educational Intervention on Female Biomedical Scientists' Research Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Lori L.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Gundermann, Dawn M.; Ward, Earlise C.; Slattery, Angela; King, Andrea; Scott, Denise; Taylor, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Women and people of color continue to be underrepresented among biomedical researchers to an alarming degree. Research interest and subsequent productivity have been shown to be affected by the research training environment through the mediating effects of research self-efficacy. This article presents the findings of a study to determine whether a…

  17. Promoting seismology education through collaboration between university research scientists and school teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, M. R.; Ellins, K. K.; Boyd, D.; Mote, A. S.; Pulliam, J.; Frohlich, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Participation in the NSF-sponsored Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution teacher professional development project paved the way for several teachers to receive educational seismometers and join the IRIS Seismograph in Schools program. This, in turn, has led to secondary school teachers working with university seismologists on research projects. Examples are the NSF-EarthScope SIEDCAR (Seismic Investigation of Edge Driven Convection Associated with the Rio Grande Rift) project; field studies to compile felt-reports for Texas earthquakes, some which may have been induced by human activities; and a seismic study of the Texas Gulf Coast to investigate ocean-continent transition processes along a passive margin. Such collaborations are mutually beneficial in nature. They help scientists to accomplish their research objectives, involve teachers and their students in the authentic, inquiry-based science, promote public awareness of such projects, and open the doors to advancement opportunities for those teachers involved. In some cases, bringing together research scientists and teachers results in collaborations that produce publishable research. In order to effectively integrate seismology research into 7-12 grade education, one of us (Brunt) established the Eagle Pass Junior High Seismology Team in connection with IRIS Seismograph in Schools, station EPTX (AS-1 seismograph), to teach students about earthquakes using authentic real-time data. The concept has sparked interest among other secondary teachers, leading to the creation of two similarly organized seismology teams: WPTX (Boyd, Williams Preparatory School, Dallas) and THTX (Mote, Ann Richards School for Young Women Leaders, Austin). Although the educational seismometers are basic instruments, they are effective educational tools. Seismographs in schools offer students opportunities to learn how earthquakes are recorded and how modern seismometers work, to collect and interpret seismic data, and to

  18. Understanding Scientists' Involvement in Education--Their Interests, Activities, and Needs: Research Results from the ReSciPE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, H.; Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Melton, G.

    2006-12-01

    The involvement of scientists in education has been cited by national leaders as essential for strengthening US science education at the K-12 and higher levels. While many individuals and groups have developed expertise in designing and implementing programs that engage scientists with students or teachers, there is little research evidence that helps us understand what motivates or discourages scientists from such involvement, the benefits and costs to them of participating, and the barriers they face that must be addressed to involve them effectively. The ReSciPE Project (Resources for Scientists in Partnership with Education) has offered a workshop on "Scientific Inquiry in the K-12 Classroom" to over 300 scientists and science educators across the US. These workshops have reached a wide audience of science professionals who undertake activities in science education, whether individual or institution-based work, for work or as a volunteer. The project aims to help these "education-engaged scientists" pursue their education work more effectively, but has also drawn on this group as a research sample for an evaluation-with-research study to investigate scientists' involvement in education. Pre- and post-surveys have enabled us to characterize the demographics of the participants and measure their self-reported knowledge and learning about education, especially inquiry-based science. Follow- up interviews have provided insight into their education activities, motivations, interests, difficulties, and needs. We will report on recent research findings from this study and place them in context of national needs and efforts to engage scientists in education.

  19. Stakeholder participation in research design and decisions: scientists, fishers, and mercury in saltwater fish.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Fote, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Individuals who fish and eat self-caught fish make decisions about where to fish, the type to eat, and the quantity to eat. Federal and state agencies often issue consumption advisories for some fish with high mercury (Hg) concentrations, but seldom provide either the actual metal levels to the general public, or identify the fish that have low contaminant levels. Community participatory research is of growing importance in defining, studying, and resolving complex exposure and risk issues, and this paper is at the intersection of traditional stakeholder approaches and community-based participatory research. The objective of this paper is to describe the process whereby stakeholders (fishers), were involved in directing and refining research questions to address their particular informational needs about mercury levels in fish, potential risks, and methods to maintain health, by balancing the risks and benefits of fish consumption. A range of stakeholders, mainly individual fishers, fishing organizations, and other scientists, were involved at nearly every stage. Community participants influenced many aspects of the design and implementation of the research, in the determination of which fish species to sample, in the collection of the samples, and in the final analyses and synthesis, as well as the communication of results and implications of the research through their fishing club publications, talks and gatherings. By involving the most interested and affected communities, the data and conclusions are relevant to their needs because the fish examined were those they ate and wanted information about, and directly address concerns about the risk from consuming self-caught fish. Although mercury levels in fish presumed to be high in mercury are known, little information was available to the fishermen on mercury levels in fish that were low and thus provided little risk to their families. While community participatory research is more time-consuming and expensive

  20. Stakeholder Participation in Research Design and Decisions: Scientists, Fishers, and Mercury in Saltwater Fish

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Fote, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who fish and eat self-caught fish make decisions about where to fish, the type to eat, and the quantity to eat. Federal and state agencies often issue consumption advisories for some fish with high mercury (Hg) concentrations, but seldom provide either the actual metal levels to the general public, or identify the fish that have low contaminant levels. Community participatory research is of growing importance in defining, studying, and resolving complex exposure and risk issues, and this paper is at the intersection of traditional stakeholder approaches and community-based participatory research. The objective of this paper is to describe the process whereby stakeholders (fishers), were involved in directing and refining research questions to address their particular informational needs about mercury levels in fish, potential risks, and methods to maintain health, by balancing the risks and benefits of fish consumption. A range of stakeholders, mainly individual fishers, fishing organizations, and other scientists, were involved at nearly every stage. Community participants influenced many aspects of the design and implementation of the research, in the determination of which fish species to sample, in the collection of the samples, and in the final analyses and synthesis, as well as the communication of results and implications of the research through their fishing club publications, talks and gatherings. By involving the most interested and affected communities, the data and conclusions are relevant to their needs because the fish examined were those they ate and wanted information about, and directly address concerns about the risk from consuming self-caught fish. Although mercury levels in fish presumed to be high in mercury are known, little information was available to the fishermen on mercury levels in fish that were low and thus provided little risk to their families. While community participatory research is more time-consuming and expensive

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 18: A comparison of the technical communication practices of aerospace engineers and scientists in India and the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

  2. Animal Research in Space: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Kenneth; Sun, Sidney; Tomko, David

    Animals, principally non-human primates, were the early pioneers of spaceflight demonstrating that higher organisms could survive the rigors of launch to low earth orbit and the unique microgravity and radiation environment of orbital spaceflight. Following dispelling the fears that spaceflight could cause major disruptions in key body systems, non-human primates gave way to rodent research, particularly rats, in order to increase the number of specimens per flight opportunity, reduce the cost of support equipment, and to focus on how animals adapt to the near absence of gravity. In the virtual absence of gravity, changes were observed in the musculoskeletal system, sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and other systems. To accommodate rodents during spaceflight special facilities had to be developed for both crewed and unscrewed space vehicles. e.g. the Space Shuttle, and free flyers like the Russian Cosmos biosatellites, respectively. With a crew onboard, scientists have the opportunity to use them to obtain samples from the animals, measure physiological function, observe and record animal behavior, and administer drugs or challenges. However, on free flyers one can utilize materials and techniques not possible on crewed spacecraft due to safety, cost, and/or flight resources or competing priorities. This presentation will provide a brief glimpse of some of the highlights in the history of animal research in space, recent results, and current prospects for the next decade, i.e., flight opportunities, rodent habitats, and support equipment for rodent research.

  3. Oxidation of Ethidium Using TAML Activators: A Model for High School Research Performed in Partnership with University Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueyo, Natalie C.; Raub, Andrew G.; Jackson, Sean; Metz, Madalyn M.; Mount, Allegra C.; Naughton, Kyle L.; Eaton, Ashley L.; Thomas, Nicole M.; Hastings, Peter; Greaves, John; Blumberg, Bruce; Collins, Terrence J.; Sogo, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    A chemical research program at a public high school has been developed. The full-year Advanced Chemical Research class (ACR) in the high school enrolls 20-30 seniors each year, engaging them in long-term experimental projects. Through partnerships involving university scientists, ACR high school students have had the opportunity to explore a…

  4. Secondary Students' Attitudes to Animal Research: Examining the Potential of a Resource to Communicate the Scientist's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev; Birdsall, Sally

    2015-01-01

    A DVD resource that provided a scientist's perspective on the use of animals in research and teaching was evaluated with a questionnaire that asked students' views pre and post their access to the resource. Thirty-nine secondary students (Y10-Y13) took part in three different teaching programmes that provided information about animal research and…

  5. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller{close_quote}s special lecture on {open_quote}{open_quote}New Internal Combustion Engine{close_quote}{close_quote} for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept {open_quote}{open_quote}Cannonball Target{close_quote}{close_quote} which became later to be recognize as a same concept of {open_quote}{open_quote}Hohlraum Target{close_quote}{close_quote} from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement {open_quote}{open_quote}Madrid Manifest{close_quote}{close_quote} which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O{close_quote}Leary{close_quote}s openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. Student cognitive growth and attitudinal changes through conducting authentic research in the Young Scientist Program at Zoo Atlanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, La Tanya Danielle

    This purpose of this study was to determine if authentic research conducted by students in the Young Scientist Program: (a) enhanced scientific research skills, (b) increased cognitive growth in the areas of animal behavior and characteristics, and (c) affected attitudes toward scientific research, science, and zoo-related issues. During the nine-week program, 18 students from Liberty High School completed program-related activities in their classrooms, and at Zoo Atlanta. Here, students completed authentic research in the form of animal behavior research projects. Research-based activities included forming hypotheses based on animal behavior, creating and maintaining ethograms, and making behavioral observations. This was a mixed method study, in which, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed in an attempt to answer the following research questions: (1) How does conducting authentic research within the Young Scientist Program enhance student scientific research skills? (2) How does participation in the Young Scientist Program increase student knowledge of animal behavior and characteristics? (3) How does the Young Scientist Program affect student attitudes? Data were collected pre, mid, and post program. Data sources included: (a) surveys, (b) interviews, (c) student research papers, and (d) researcher field notes. The data were analyzed through a framework of four methodological lenses: (a) knowledge of scientific research, (b) knowledge of animals, (c) attitudes toward scientific research, and (d) attitudes toward science and zoo-related issues. Surveys included knowledge tests and attitude scales. Overall, knowledge test results implied that as students progressed through the Young Scientist Program, their research skills, knowledge of scientific research, and knowledge of their animal were enhanced. Attitudinal data obtained from the attitude scales suggested that students' attitudes toward scientific research, science, and zoo

  7. Becoming a scientist: The role of undergraduate research in students' cognitive, personal, and professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Anne-Barrie; Laursen, Sandra L.; Seymour, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of summer undergraduate research (UR) experiences at four liberal arts colleges, where faculty and students work collaboratively on a project of mutual interest in an apprenticeship of authentic science research work, analysis of the accounts of faculty and student participants yields comparative insights into the structural elements of this form of UR program and its benefits for students. Comparison of the perspectives of faculty and their students revealed considerable agreement on the nature, range, and extent of students' UR gains. Specific student gains relating to the process of becoming a scientist were described and illustrated by both groups. Faculty framed these gains as part of professional socialization into the sciences. In contrast, students emphasized their personal and intellectual development, with little awareness of their socialization into professional practice. Viewing study findings through the lens of social constructivist learning theories demonstrates that the characteristics of these UR programs, how faculty practice UR in these colleges, and students' outcomes - including cognitive and personal growth and the development of a professional identity - strongly exemplify many facets of these theories, particularly, student-centered and situated learning as part of cognitive apprenticeship in a community of practice.

  8. Preparing new Earth Science teachers via a collaborative program between Research Scientists and Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grcevich, Jana; Pagnotta, Ashley; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Shara, Michael; Flores, Kennet; Nadeau, Patricia A.; Sessa, Jocelyn; Ustunisik, Gokce; Zirakparvar, Nasser; Ebel, Denton; Harlow, George; Webster, James D.; Kinzler, Rosamond; MacDonald, Maritza B.; Contino, Julie; Cooke-Nieves, Natasha; Howes, Elaine; Zachowski, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) Program at the American Museum of Natural History is a innovative program designed to prepare participants to be world-class Earth Science teachers. New York State is experiencing a lack of qualified Earth Science teachers, leading in the short term to a reduction in students who successfully complete the Earth Science Regents examination, and in the long term potential reductions in the number of students who go on to pursue college degrees in Earth Science related disciplines. The MAT program addresses this problem via a collaboration between practicing research scientists and education faculty. The faculty consists of curators and postdoctoral researchers from the Departments of Astrophysics, Earth and Planetary Sciences, and the Division of Paleontology, as well as doctoral-level education experts. During the 15-month, full-time program, students participate in a residency program at local urban classrooms as well as taking courses and completing field work in astrophysics, geology, earth science, and paleontology. The program targets high-needs schools with diverse populations. We seek to encourage, stimulate interest, and inform the students impacted by our program, most of whom are from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds, about the rich possibilities for careers in Earth Science related disciplines and the intrinsic value of the subject. We report on the experience of the first and second cohorts, all of whom are now employed in full time teaching positions, and the majority in high needs schools in New York State.

  9. The Present State of Family Relations Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenry, Patrick C.; Price, Sharon

    1984-01-01

    Family relations research in the areas of family formation, premarital sexuality, mate selection, marital satisfaction, parenthood, and midlife transitions is examined and imperatives for future research are outlined. (SK)

  10. Perceptions of Research Scientists and Science Educators Regarding Science Education: Call for Synergy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melear, Claudia T.

    Improvement in science teacher education has been called for by several scientists and science education organizations. The concept of synergy is suggested as a model for enhanced improvements in the overall preparation of science teachers due to positive interactions between groups responsible for science teacher education, scientists, and…

  11. 2010 NASA-AIHEC Summer Research Experience: Students and Teachers from TCUs Engage in GIS/Remote Sensing with Researchers and Scientists--Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.; Mell, V.; Maynard, N.

    2010-12-01

    Researchers and scientists from the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde joined with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and present a Summer Research Experience (SRE) that trained 21 students and 10 faculty members from 9 of the 36 Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs) which comprise the American Indian Higher Education Council (AIHEC). The 10-week SRE program was an inquiry-based introduction to remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and field science research methods. Teams of students and TCU faculty members developed research projects that explored climate change, energy development, contamination of water and air, fire damage in forests, and lost cultural resources on tribal lands. The UNH-Grand Ronde team presented SRE participants with an initial three-week workshop in the use of research tools and development of research projects. During the following seven weeks, the team conferred weekly with SRE participants to monitor and support their progress. Rock provided specific guidance on numerous scientific questions. Carlson coached students on writing and organization and provided laboratory analysis of foliar samples. Mell provided support on GIS technology. Eight of the SRE college teams completed substantial research projects by the end of the SRE while one other team developed a method for future research. Seventeen students completed individual research papers, oral presentations and posters. Nineteen students and all teachers maintained regular and detailed communication with the UNH-Grand Ronde mentors throughout the ten-week program. The SRE produced several significant lessons learned regarding outreach educational programs in inquiry-based science and technology applications. These include: Leadership by an active research scientist (Rock) inspired and supported students and teachers in developing their own scientific inquiries. An intensive schedule of

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 41: Technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists: International perspective on aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The studies had the following objectives: (1) to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions, (2) to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists, (3) to investigate their use of libraries and technical information centers, (4) to investigate their use of and the importance to them of computer and information technology, (5) to examine their use of electronic networks, and (6) to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. Self-administered (mail) questionnaires were distributed to Dutch aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR) in the Netherlands, the NASA Ames Research Center in the U.S., and the NASA Langley Research Center in the U.S. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  13. Scientists as Producers, Presenters, Videographers, Distributors and 'Stars': The Revolution In Science Filmmaking, from COSMOS to iPhones on Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.; Morris, K.

    2013-12-01

    In 1980, Carl Sagan's COSMOS received ratings of some 16 million and won three Emmys and a Peabody award. Sagan was hailed as a 'Showman of Science' by Time magazine, confirming his status as a science superstar. Haines-Stiles, 1st author for this presentation, was a Senior Producer and series director on what was for several decades PBS's highest-rated science series. Some researchers still consider primetime series on national networks as THE way to engage and inform audiences. But a revolution in both the making and consuming of science film and television has transformed the media landscape from high profile series such as COSMOS to more of a 'horizontal' ecosystem in which different formats for diverse audiences via multiple distribution networks are the norm. From the early 1990's the Internet has played an increasingly prominent role in this revolution. In 1993, Haines-Stiles and Akuginow added interactivity to traditional one-way TV broadcasts with 'Dale's Dive Diary,' in what was arguably the world's first science blog, detailing online the joys and rigors of working in Antarctica. Increasingly, the evolution of media allowed for the documentation of the process of doing science along with "eureka" discoveries and press conference results. In POLAR-PALOOZA (PPZA) this new perspective was further extended by taking Arctic and Antarctic researchers on the road to science museums in some 25 communities across the USA for spoken-word performances supported by High Definition video profiles of scientists at work at remote locations. In one instance, a researcher was given a crash course in videography and loaned a low-cost prosumer camcorder to take with her to the heart of East Antarctica. Excellent video was captured, and made part of large screen presentations in IMAX-scale theaters. In addition to the Summative Evaluation (required by project sponsors, NSF and NASA) which focused on audience responses, a recent research paper by communications scholar, Kim

  14. Collaboration between research scientists and educators to prepare new Earth Science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Grcevich, J.; Shara, M.; Mac Low, M.; Flores, K.; Nadeau, P. A.; Sessa, J.; Ustunisik, G.; Zirakparvar, N.; Ebel, D.; Harlow, G.; Webster, J. D.; Kinzler, R.; MacDonald, M. B.; Contino, J.; Cooke-Nieves, N.; Howes, E.; Zachowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) Program at the American Museum of Natural History is a first-of-its-kind program designed to prepare participants to be world-class Earth Science teachers. The lack of Earth Science teachers in New York State has resulted in fewer students taking the statewide Earth Science Regents Exam, which negatively affects graduation rates and reduces the number of students who pursue related college degrees. The MAT program was designed to address this problem, and is the result of a collaboration between research scientists and educators at the Museum, with faculty comprised of curators and postdoctoral researchers from the Departments of Astrophysics, Earth and Planetary Sciences, and the Division of Paleontology, as well as doctoral-level Education faculty. The full-time, 15-month program combines courses and field work in astrophysics, geology, earth science, and paleontology at the Museum with pedagogical coursework and a teaching residency in local urban classrooms. The MAT program targets high-needs schools with diverse student populations and therefore has the potential to stimulate interest and achievement in a variety of STEM fields among thousands of students from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds. The first cohort of candidates entered the MAT program in June of 2012 and finished in August of 2013. Nineteen new Regents-qualified Earth Science teachers are now in full-time teaching positions at high-needs schools in New York State. We report on the experience of the first cohort as well as the continuation of the program for current and future cohorts of teacher candidates.

  15. Unique collaboration between research scientists and educators to prepare new Earth Science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Grcevich, J.; Shara, M.; Mac Low, M.; Lepine, S.; Nadeau, P.; Flores, K.; Sessa, J.; Zirakparvar, N.; Ustunisik, G.; Kinzler, R.; Macdonald, M.; Contino, J.; Cooke-Nieves, N.; Zachowski, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) Program at the American Museum of Natural History is a first-of-its-kind program designed to prepare participants to be world-class Earth Science teachers. The dearth of Earth Science teachers in New York State has resulted in fewer students taking the statewide Earth Science Regents Exam, which negatively affects graduation rates and reduces the number of students who pursue related college degrees. The MAT program was designed to address this problem, and is the result of a collaboration between research scientists and educators at the Museum, with faculty comprised of curators and postdoctoral researchers from the Departments of Astrophysics, Earth and Planetary Sciences, and the Division of Paleontology, as well as doctoral-level Education faculty. The full-time, 15-month program combines courses and field work in astrophysics, geology, earth science, and paleontology at the Museum with pedagogical coursework and real-world teaching experience in local urban classrooms. The program is part of New York State’s Race to the Top initiative and particularly targets high-needs schools with diverse student populations. Because of this, the MAT program has the potential to stimulate interest and achievement in a variety of STEM fields among thousands of students from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds. The first cohort of teacher candidates entered the MAT program in June of 2012. They represent diverse scientific expertise levels, geographic backgrounds, and career stages. We report on the first six months of this pilot program as well as the future plans and opportunities for prospective teacher candidates.

  16. The Role of Scientist Mentors on Teachers' Perceptions of the Community of Science during a Summer Research Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Roxanne; Molyneaux, Kristen; Dixon, Pat

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the mentor relationships between science teachers and their scientist mentors in a summer Research Experience for Teachers program at a United States national laboratory facility. Using mixed methods, the authors surveyed and interviewed (semi-structured) the eleven participating teachers before and after the program. The…

  17. Sustainable Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  18. The Present Status of Psychodramatic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, John

    Two major trends in psychodramatic research during the last 10 years are delineated: (1) evaluating its effectiveness as a form of therapy; and (2) varying the communications process via role playing to produce attitude change. Examples of both are given. The author concludes that findings to date may well dissatisfy the practicing psychodramatist…

  19. Present challenges of research and technology politics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulow, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Research and technology in Germany are discussed. The rapid transfer of scientific knowledge and techniques from the laboratory to the manufacturing and industrial communities is identified as a priority. It is recommended that the government give maximum support to the aviation and space flight industries.

  20. Inspiring Future Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

  1. Using Authentic Data in High School Earth System Science Research - Inspiring Future Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, L. F.

    2006-05-01

    Using authentic data in a science research class is an effective way to teach students the scientific process, problem solving, and communication skills. In Frederick County Public Schools, MD a course has been developed to hone scientific research skills, and inspire interest in careers in science and technology. The Earth System Science Research course provides eleventh and twelfth grade students an opportunity to study Earth System Science using the latest information developed through current technologies. The system approach to this course helps students understand the complexity and interrelatedness of the Earth system. Consequently students appreciate the dynamics of local and global environments as part of a complex system. This course is an elective offering designed to engage students in the study of the atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere. This course allows students to utilize skills and processes gained from previous science courses to study the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the Earth system. The research component of the course makes up fifty percent of course time in which students perform independent research on the interactions within the Earth system. Students are required to produce a scientific presentation to communicate the results of their research. Posters are then presented to the scientific community. Some of these presentations have led to internships and other scientific opportunities.

  2. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller's special lecture on ``New Internal Combustion Engine'' for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept ``Cannonball Target'' which became later to be recognize as a same concept of ``Hohlraum Target'' from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement ``Madrid Manifest'' which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O'Leary's openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. The implosion experiments by GEKKO XII Osaka demonstrated a high temperature compression of DT fuel up to 10 keV, neutron yield 1013 and a high density compression of CDT hollow shell pellet to reach 1000 g/cm3 respectively. These results gave us a strong

  3. Some subjective reactions of a behavioral scientist involved in thanatological research.

    PubMed

    Devins, G M

    Ethical and pragmatic considerations often preclude the application of classical experimental approaches to in vivo thanatological research. While quasi-experimental and correlational designs may be employed to circumvent a number of potential problems, many more empirically testable research questions simply remain unaskable in the applied setting. Clearly, extra-experimental sources of information are of particular value in such situations. The present paper reports some of the observations and subjective reactions experienced by the writer while engaged in a series of experimental thanatological research studies. The issues addressed include the motivations of thanatological investigators and research participants, personal awareness of death, displacement of grief, anxieties about personal utility, paternalism, and honesty (i.e., frankness) as a primary ethic in facilitating a peaceful, "natural," death in the moribund individual.

  4. Evaluation of a Computer-Based Current Awareness Service for Swedish Social Scientists. Research Report No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle; Hoglund, Lars

    This report presents results from an evaluation of a current awareness service for Swedish social scientists. The service was based on the computerized version of Social Science Citation Index (SSCI). For the study an evaluation model was developed where the interaction between user and system is evaluated according to specific criteria for each…

  5. Computer networking for scientists.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D M; Landweber, L H; Fuchs, I H; Farber, D J; Adrion, W R

    1986-02-28

    Scientific research has always relied on communication for gathering and providing access to data; for exchanging information; for holding discussions, meetings, and seminars; for collaborating with widely dispersed researchers; and for disseminating results. The pace and complexity of modern research, especially collaborations of researchers in different institutions, has dramatically increased scientists' communications needs. Scientists now need immediate access to data and information, to colleagues and collaborators, and to advanced computing and information services. Furthermore, to be really useful, communication facilities must be integrated with the scientist's normal day-to-day working environment. Scientists depend on computing and communications tools and are handicapped without them. PMID:17740290

  6. Reward Systems and NSF University Research Centers: The Impact of Tenure on University Scientists' Valuation of Applied and Commercially Relevant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, P. Craig; Ponomariov, Branco L.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past three decades, U.S. science policy has shifted from decentralized support of small, investigator-initiated research projects to more centralized, block grant-based, multidisciplinary research centers. No matter one's take on the "revolutionary" nature of this shift, a major consequence is that university scientists, now more than…

  7. Training and retaining of underrepresented minority physician scientists - a Hispanic perspective: NICHD-AAP workshop on research in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Valcarcel, M; Diaz, C; Santiago-Borrero, P J

    2006-07-01

    In a workshop organized by NICHD and the AAP in January 2004, we addressed and discussed issues related to a Hispanic perspective in Training and Retaining of underrepresented minority physician scientists in the United States. A review of the literature related to training of underrepresented minority physicians in the United States (US) was performed, giving emphasis to those related to the Hispanic population. Success and failure in training and retention of Hispanic physician scientists and trainees was examined. An underrepresentation of Hispanic minorities in medical research workforce was found. This fact has recently resulted in efforts to increase their recruitment and there is a mandate by the National Institute of Health (NIH) for their inclusion. The Hispanic population in the US has increased rapidly, with diversity among the Hispanics in their personal and professional behavior. Significant disparities in health, health risk factors and access to health care manifested by an increased burden of illness and death have been documented. There in an undersupply of academic Hispanic neonatologist. Factors such as availability of academic employment, limited research funding in pediatrics, managed care and large debt burden of the US medical graduates interfere with recruitment of Hispanic trainees and academic physician scientist. Possible solutions, including recognition research awards, revision of NIH policies in awarding funds for neonatology, establishing strategies to improve minorities' acceptance, participation in research and increase accrual of Hispanic population in clinical trials should be given priority. PMID:16801970

  8. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...

  9. Water research to support society: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2014-05-01

    Scientists are nowadays claiming that we are leaving the geological era of Holocene and have entered the Anthropocene (the Age of Man), a man-made world, in which humans are not observers of nature but central to its workings and commanding the planet's features, fluxes and material cycles. Both the hydrological and the biogeochemical cycles are radically changed compared to pristine conditions and the biodiversity is radically declining as the human population is growing. The co-evolution between society and environment is complex and not always reversible and we therefore need more research on effects of change to raise awareness and prepare for consequences. Many problems caused by humans are also well recognized and can be remediated. As the society develops also the environmental concerns normally becomes more important leading to remedial measures and pollution control. The change in water quality for many rivers world-wide shows similar flux over time related to level of economic development, going from deterioration to recovery as an effect of improved water management. Water management is of major importance for sustainable development, both for efficient water use and ecosystem protection. Water management should be based on (i) best available site information and (ii) best practices from understanding cause-effect relationships; yet, large areas still remains un-monitored and the relations between processes are complex and often not well understood. These knowledge gaps hamper the societal development and are thus two key challenges to address in the hydrological sciences initiative Panta Rhei. This presentation will address some of these challenges for water research in the past, present and future. Hydrology is by tradition an applied research, in which scientific questions co-evolve with societal needs. This will be exemplified this by giving a brief overview of the shift in research questions at one national institute, SMHI, during the last 100 years

  10. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed

    Shugart, Erika C; Racaniello, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or "Sagan effect" associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist's career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. PMID:26695633

  11. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed

    Shugart, Erika C; Racaniello, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or "Sagan effect" associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist's career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication.

  12. Presenting research to clinicians: strategies for writing about research findings.

    PubMed

    Oermann, Marilyn H; Galvin, Elizabeth A; Floyd, Judith A; Roop, Janna C

    2006-01-01

    Research is of little value to clinical practice if the findings are not appropriately integrated into that practice. While publishing the results of research is essential for translating findings into practice, Marilyn Oermann and colleagues suggest that work is not done until the findings are disseminated for use by clinicians and others who need the research results to guide their practice

  13. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Design Qualitative focus group interview study. Setting Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Participants Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main outcome measures Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Results Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. PMID:26888726

  14. Modeling the Skills and Practices of Scientists through an 'All-Inclusive' Comparative Planetology Student Research Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, P. V.; Bandfield, J. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2013-12-01

    To effectively prepare the nation's future Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce, students in today's classrooms need opportunities to engage in authentic experiences that model skills and practices used by STEM professionals. Relevant, real-world authentic research experiences allow students to behave as scientists as they model the process of science. This enables students to get a true sense of STEM-related professions and also allows them to develop the requisite knowledge, skills, curiosity, and creativity necessary for success in STEM careers. Providing professional development and opportunities to help teachers infuse research in the classroom is one of the primary goals of the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program. EEAB, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is an Earth and planetary science education program designed to inspire, engage, and educate teachers and students in grades 5-12 by getting them actively involved with exploration, discovery, and the process of science. The program combines the expertise of scientists and educators to ensure the professional development provided to classroom teachers is scientifically valid and also recognizes classroom constraints. For many teachers, facilitating research in the classroom can be challenging. In addition to addressing required academic standards and dealing with time constraints, challenges include structuring a research investigation the entire class can successfully complete. To build educator confidence, foster positive classroom research experiences, and enable teachers to help students model the skills and practices of scientists, EEAB has created an 'all-inclusive' comparative planetology research investigation activity. This activity addresses academic standards while recognizing students (and teachers) potentially lack experience with scientific practices involved in conducting

  15. Modeling the Skills and Practices of Scientists through an “All-Inclusive” Comparative Planetology Student Research Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige; Bandfield, J.; Stefanov, W.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.

    2013-01-01

    To effectively prepare the nation's future Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce, students in today's classrooms need opportunities to engage in authentic experiences that model skills and practices used by STEM professionals. Relevant, real-world authentic research experiences allow students to behave as scientists as they model the process of science. This enables students to get a true sense of STEM-related professions and also allows them to develop the requisite knowledge, skills, curiosity, and creativity necessary for success in STEM careers. Providing professional development and opportunities to help teachers infuse research in the classroom is one of the primary goals of the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program. EEAB, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is an Earth and planetary science education program designed to inspire, engage, and educate teachers and students in grades 5-12 by getting them actively involved with exploration, discovery, and the process of science. The program combines the expertise of scientists and educators to ensure the professional development provided to classroom teachers is scientifically valid and also recognizes classroom constraints. For many teachers, facilitating research in the classroom can be challenging. In addition to addressing required academic standards and dealing with time constraints, challenges include structuring a research investigation the entire class can successfully complete. To build educator confidence, foster positive classroom research experiences, and enable teachers to help students model the skills and practices of scientists, EEAB has created an "allinclusive" comparative planetology research investigation activity. This activity addresses academic standards while recognizing students (and teachers) potentially lack experience with scientific practices involved in conducting

  16. The effects of conducting authentic field-geology research on high school students' understanding of the nature of science, and their views of themselves as research scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millette, Patricia M.

    Authentic field geology research is a inquiry method that encourages students to interact more with their local environment, and by solving genuine puzzles, begin to increase their intuitive understanding of the nature and processes of science. The goal of the current study was to determine if conducting authentic field research and giving high school students the opportunity to present findings to adult audiences outside of the school setting 1) enhances students' understanding of the nature of science, and 2) affects students views of themselves as researchers. To accomplish this, ninth-grade students from a public school in northern New England engaged in a community-initiated glacial geology problem, completed a field research investigation, and presented their findings at several professional conferences. Following the completion of this student-centered field research, I investigated its effects by using a mixed methods approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative data from two sources. These included selected questions from an open-response survey (VNOS-c), and interviews that were conducted with fifteen of the students of different ages and genders. Findings show that conducting original field research seems to have a positive influence on these students' understanding of the NOS as well as the processes of science. Many of the students reported feelings of accomplishment, acceptance of responsibility for the investigation, a sense of their authentic contribution to the body of scientific knowledge in the world, and becoming scientists. This type of authentic field investigation is significant because recent reforms in earth-science education stress the importance of students learning about the nature and processes of scientific knowledge along with science content.

  17. Young Otto Struve: The Education and Development of A Research Scientist 1921-1932

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1995-12-01

    Otto Struve arrived at Yerkes Observatory from Turkey in October 1921, the penniless survivor of a defeated army. Then 24 years old, he immediately began his studies and assistantship as the only graduate student at the observatory. Eleven years later he became its "boy director." His education, training, research experience and development are described in the context of Yerkes Observatory, and of American graduate and post-graduate work in astronomy of the time. Under Director Edwin B. Frost, Yerkes Observatory's main program was radial-velocity measurements of O, B, and A stars. Struve worked on it and did his thesis on spectroscopic binaries. A prodigious achiever, he was appointed to the faculty as an instructor as soon as he received his doctorate. On his own he jumped into frontier research on interstellar absorption lines, based in large part on existing spectrograms taken for the radial-velocity program. Reviewing Cecilia Payne's book on stellar atmospheres in 1926 converted Struve to a self-taught observational astrophysicist. Research leaves at Mount Wilson and Harvard, with working visits to Lick and the DAO, plus a Guggenheim year at Cambridge with Arthur S. Eddington, broadened his horizons. Struve always observed diligently, published frequently, attended AAS meetings, presented oral papers, and discussed his research with others. With practically no knowledge of modern physics, he cultivated others who were experts in it, beginning with Pol Swings, a visitor from Belgium. By 1932 Struve was ready to become director of Yerkes Observatory, and to lead it back into its place as a leading astrophysical research center, for which George Ellery Hale had founded it.

  18. Science Teachers' Views and Stereotypes of Religion, Scientists and Scientific Research: A Call for Scientist-Science Teacher Partnerships to Promote Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better…

  19. The Barrett Foundation: Undergraduate Research Program for Environmental Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Paul, M.; Farmer, C.; Larson, P.; Matt, J.; Sentoff, K.; Vazquez-Spickers, I.; Pearce, A. R.

    2007-12-01

    A new program sponsored by The Barrett Foundation in the University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences (UVM) supports undergraduate students in Environmental Engineering, Earth and Environmental Sciences to pursue independent summer research projects. The Barrett Foundation, a non-profit organization started by a UVM Engineering alum, provided a grant to support undergraduate research. Students must work with at least two different faculty advisors to develop project ideas, then independently prepare a research proposal and submit it to a faculty panel for review. The program was structured as a scholarship to foster a competitive application process. In the last three years, fourteen students have participated in the program. The 2007 Barrett Scholars projects include: - Using bacteria to change the chemistry of subsurface media to encourage calcite precipitation for soil stability and pollutant sequestration - Assessing structural weaknesses in a historic post and beam barn using accelerometers and wireless data collection equipment - Using image processing filters to 1) evaluate leaf wetness, a leading indicator of disease in crops and 2) assess the movement of contaminants through building materials. - Investigating the impact of increased water temperature on cold-water fish species in two Vermont streams. - Studying the impacts of light duty vehicle tailpipe emissions on air quality This program supports applied and interdisciplinary environmental research and introduces students to real- world engineering problems. In addition, faculty from different research focuses are presented the opportunity to establish new collaborations around campus through the interdisciplinary projects. To date, there is a successful publication record from the projects involving the Barrett scholars, including students as authors. One of the objectives of this program was to provide prestigious, competitive awards to outstanding undergraduate engineers

  20. Learning How Scientists Work: Experiential Research Projects to Promote Cell Biology Learning and Scientific Process Skills

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses. PMID:12669101

  1. Learning how scientists work: experiential research projects to promote cell biology learning and scientific process skills.

    PubMed

    DebBurman, Shubhik K

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses.

  2. Learning how scientists work: experiential research projects to promote cell biology learning and scientific process skills.

    PubMed

    DebBurman, Shubhik K

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses. PMID:12669101

  3. Inspiring future scientists in middle-schools through synergy between classroom learning and water cycle research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noone, D. C.; Kellagher, E.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Kaushik, A.

    2012-12-01

    Water is at the core of many issues in environmental change from local to global scales, and learning about the water cycle offers students an opportunity to explore core scientific concepts and their local environment. In climate research, there are significant uncertainties in the role water plays in the climate system. Water also acts as a central theme that provides opportunities for experiential science education at all levels. The "Water Spotters" program underway at University of Colorado exploits the synergy between needs for enrichment of middle-school science education and the needs for water sample collection to provide primary data for climate research. The program takes advantage of the prominent agricultural landscape of the region in eastern Colorado, which is a poignant example of how society influences the climate through irrigation, evaporation/transpiration and run-off and whose productivity is influenced by the climate system. Both natural grasslands and alpine ecosystems in the surrounding regions serve as examples of the native landscape. In coordination with the St. Vrain Valley School District MESA (Math Engineering Science Achievement) program, middle-school students collect rain water samples that are analyzed and used as a core component of the research goals. In concert, new lessons have been developed in coordination with science teachers that emphasize both core scientific standards and application learning about the water cycle. We present the new curriculum modules developed for the program and that are distributed to middle-school teachers. The modules include original lessons and lessons with expanded original material to teach about water and water isotopes. Curriculum packages that include media resources are increasingly important to teachers. The Water Spotters program uses video to teach collection protocols and give background on the project. Weather station data from schools are disseminated online alongside the rainwater

  4. Science Coordination in Support of the US Weather Research Program Office of the Lead Scientist (OLS) and for Coordination with the World Weather Research (WMO) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gall, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This document is the final report of the work of the Office of the Lead Scientist (OLS) of the U.S. Weather Research Program (USWRP) and for Coordination of the World Weather Research Program (WWRP). The proposal was for a continuation of the duties and responsibilities described in the proposal of 7 October, 1993 to NSF and NOAA associated with the USWRP Lead Scientist then referred to as the Chief Scientist. The activities of the Office of the Lead Scientist (OLS) ended on January 31, 2005 and this report describes the activities undertaken by the OLS from February 1, 2004 until January 3 1, 2005. The OLS activities were under the cosponsorship of the agencies that are members of the Interagency Working Group (IWG) of the US WRP currently: NOAA, NSF, NASA, and DOD. The scope of the work described includes activities that were necessary to develop, facilitate and implement the research objectives of the USWRP consistent with the overall program goals and specific agency objectives. It included liaison with and promotion of WMO/WWW activities that were consistent with and beneficial to the USWRP programs and objectives. Funds covered several broad categories of activity including meetings convened by the Lead Scientist, OLS travel, partial salary and benefits support, publications, hard-copy dissemination of reports and program announcements and the development and maintenance of the USWRP website. In addition to funding covered by this grant, NCAR program funds provided co-sponsorship of half the salary and benefits resources of the USWRP Lead Scientist (.25 FTE) and the WWRP Chairman/Liaison (.167 FTE). Also covered by the grant were partial salaries for the Science Coordinator for the hurricane portion of the program and partial salary for a THORPEX coordinator.

  5. How Many Scientists Fabricate and Falsify Research? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    The frequency with which scientists fabricate and falsify data, or commit other forms of scientific misconduct is a matter of controversy. Many surveys have asked scientists directly whether they have committed or know of a colleague who committed research misconduct, but their results appeared difficult to compare and synthesize. This is the first meta-analysis of these surveys. To standardize outcomes, the number of respondents who recalled at least one incident of misconduct was calculated for each question, and the analysis was limited to behaviours that distort scientific knowledge: fabrication, falsification, “cooking” of data, etc… Survey questions on plagiarism and other forms of professional misconduct were excluded. The final sample consisted of 21 surveys that were included in the systematic review, and 18 in the meta-analysis. A pooled weighted average of 1.97% (N = 7, 95%CI: 0.86–4.45) of scientists admitted to have fabricated, falsified or modified data or results at least once –a serious form of misconduct by any standard– and up to 33.7% admitted other questionable research practices. In surveys asking about the behaviour of colleagues, admission rates were 14.12% (N = 12, 95% CI: 9.91–19.72) for falsification, and up to 72% for other questionable research practices. Meta-regression showed that self reports surveys, surveys using the words “falsification” or “fabrication”, and mailed surveys yielded lower percentages of misconduct. When these factors were controlled for, misconduct was reported more frequently by medical/pharmacological researchers than others. Considering that these surveys ask sensitive questions and have other limitations, it appears likely that this is a conservative estimate of the true prevalence of scientific misconduct. PMID:19478950

  6. Preparing clinical pharmacy scientists for careers in clinical/translational research: can we meet the challenge?: ACCP Research Affairs Committee Commentary.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert B; Ellingrod, Vicki; DiPiro, Joseph T; Bauman, Jerry L; Blouin, Robert A; Welage, Lynda S

    2013-12-01

    Developing clinical pharmacists' research skills and their ability to compete for extramural funding is an important component of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy's (ACCP) vision for pharmacists to play a prominent role in generating the new knowledge used to guide patient pharmacotherapy. Given the recent emphasis on clinical/translational research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the key role of drug therapy in the management of many diseases, there is an unprecedented opportunity for the profession to contribute to this enterprise. A crucial question facing the profession is whether we can generate enough appropriately trained scientists to take advantage of these opportunities to generate the new knowledge to advance drug therapy. Since the 2009 publication of the ACCP Research Affairs Committee editorial recommending the Ph.D. degree (as opposed to fellowship training) as the optimal method for preparing pharmacists as clinical/translational scientists, significant changes have occurred in the economic, professional, political, and research environments. As a result, the 2012 ACCP Research Affairs Committee was charged with reexamining the college's position on training clinical pharmacy scientists in the context of these substantial environmental changes. In this commentary, the potential impact of these changes on opportunities for pharmacists in clinical/translational research are discussed as are strategies for ACCP, colleges of pharmacy, and the profession to increase the number and impact of clinical pharmacy scientists. Failure of our profession to take advantage of these opportunities risks our ability to contribute substantively to the biomedical research enterprise and ultimately improve the pharmacotherapy of our patients.

  7. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed Central

    Shugart, Erika C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or “Sagan effect” associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist’s career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. PMID:26695633

  8. From Atmospheric Scientist to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Most of my career has been spent analyzing data from research projects in the atmospheric sciences. I spent twelve years researching boundary layer interactions in the polar regions, which included five field seasons in the Antarctic. During this time, I got both a M.S. and Ph.D. in atmospheric science. I learned most of my data science and programming skills throughout this time as part of my research projects. When I graduated with my Ph.D., I was looking for a new and fresh opportunity to enhance the skills I already had while learning more advanced technical skills. I found a position at the University of Colorado Boulder as a Data Research Specialist with Research Computing, a group that provides cyber infrastructure services, including high-speed networking, large-scale data storage, and supercomputing, to university students and researchers. My position is the perfect merriment between advanced technical skills and "softer" skills, while at the same time understanding exactly what the busy scientist needs to understand about their data. I have had the opportunity to help shape our university's data education system, a development that is still evolving. This presentation will detail my career story, the lessons I have learned, my daily work in my new position, and some of the exciting opportunities that opened up in my new career.

  9. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  10. Research Training Needs of Scientist-Practitioners: Implications for Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Hall, Sean B.; Buser, Juleen K.

    2016-01-01

    Counselors (N = 911) reported the research skills needed for practice and subsequent research training needs. Findings indicate that counselors have a high need for research skills at work, but training needs differ significantly by counselor type. Recommendations include increasing emphasis on single-case design, survey design, and widely…

  11. Oxidation of Ethidium using TAML Activators: A Model for High School Research Performed in Partnership with University Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Pueyo, Natalie C.; Raub, Andrew G.; Jackson, Sean; Metz, Madalyn M.; Mount, Allegra C.; Naughton, Kyle L.; Eaton, Ashley L.; Thomas, Nicole M.; Hastings, Peter; Greaves, John; Blumberg, Bruce; Collins, Terrence J.; Sogo, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    A chemical research program at a public high school has been developed. The full-year Advanced Chemical Research class (ACR) in the high school enrolls 20 to 30 seniors each year, engaging them in long-term experimental projects. Through partnerships involving university scientists, ACR high school students have had the opportunity to explore a number of highly sophisticated original research projects. As an example of the quality of experimental work made possible through these high school–university partnerships, this article describes the development of a novel method for the oxidation of ethidium bromide, a mutagen commonly used in molecular biology. Data collected from ACR alumni show that the ACR program is instrumental in encouraging students to pursue careers in scientific fields and in creating life-long problem-solvers. PMID:23585695

  12. Research advances made in the avian brain and their relevance to poultry scientists.

    PubMed

    Kuenzel, Wayne J

    2014-12-01

    The year 2014 marked the tenth anniversary since the sequence of the chicken genome was published. Two other publications occurred during that time frame in different disciplines, and all 3 have affected poultry scientists. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review 2 publications that are better known to those in animal agriculture. The third paper will be addressed in more detail because it is one that many in poultry science probably have not read. The subject matter involves the avian brain and its future impact and is related to an announcement made by the president of the United States in April 2013. Due to the recent, rapid advances in the understanding of the vertebrate brain and behavior, a national goal was announced by President Obama to map the human brain in more detail than ever before to accelerate the understanding of brain function in health and disease. The main objective is to review the third paper published a decade ago to show that it laid the foundation for the chicken and other avian species to serve as relevant animal models to advance the understanding of the human brain. Emphasis will be placed on the forebrain. The overall goal is to show that the brain of birds is not that different from the mammalian brain and therefore can serve as an excellent comparative biomodel to understand fundamental principles of brain structure and function.

  13. Research advances made in the avian brain and their relevance to poultry scientists.

    PubMed

    Kuenzel, Wayne J

    2014-12-01

    The year 2014 marked the tenth anniversary since the sequence of the chicken genome was published. Two other publications occurred during that time frame in different disciplines, and all 3 have affected poultry scientists. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review 2 publications that are better known to those in animal agriculture. The third paper will be addressed in more detail because it is one that many in poultry science probably have not read. The subject matter involves the avian brain and its future impact and is related to an announcement made by the president of the United States in April 2013. Due to the recent, rapid advances in the understanding of the vertebrate brain and behavior, a national goal was announced by President Obama to map the human brain in more detail than ever before to accelerate the understanding of brain function in health and disease. The main objective is to review the third paper published a decade ago to show that it laid the foundation for the chicken and other avian species to serve as relevant animal models to advance the understanding of the human brain. Emphasis will be placed on the forebrain. The overall goal is to show that the brain of birds is not that different from the mammalian brain and therefore can serve as an excellent comparative biomodel to understand fundamental principles of brain structure and function. PMID:25352678

  14. The making of a scientist-psychotherapist: the research training environment and the psychotherapist.

    PubMed

    Gelso, Charles J; Baumann, Ellen C; Chui, Harold T; Savela, Alexandra E

    2013-06-01

    A theory of the research training environment (RTE) proposed by Gelso (Counseling Psychologist, 8:7-35, 1979; Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24:468-476, 1993; The Counseling Psychologist, 25:307-320, 1997) is updated, and the research evidence that bears upon this theory is reviewed. Evidence accumulated over more than three decades supports the influence of the RTE on the research attitudes, research self-efficacy, and research productivity of graduate students in psychotherapy-related fields in psychology. Both the global RTE and 10 ingredients posited by RTE theory are reviewed. The ingredients that seem to have the greatest association with theorized training outcomes in students are (1) faculty modeling of scientific behavior, (2) positive reinforcement of students' scientific behavior, (3) teaching students, through the advising relationship and research teams, that science can be a partly social-interpersonal experience, and (4) teaching students that all research is flawed and limited. The training program faculty is responsible for arranging the training environment so that it will maximally impact psychotherapy graduate students' research attitudes, research self-efficacy, and productivity. PMID:23773076

  15. The making of a scientist-psychotherapist: the research training environment and the psychotherapist.

    PubMed

    Gelso, Charles J; Baumann, Ellen C; Chui, Harold T; Savela, Alexandra E

    2013-06-01

    A theory of the research training environment (RTE) proposed by Gelso (Counseling Psychologist, 8:7-35, 1979; Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24:468-476, 1993; The Counseling Psychologist, 25:307-320, 1997) is updated, and the research evidence that bears upon this theory is reviewed. Evidence accumulated over more than three decades supports the influence of the RTE on the research attitudes, research self-efficacy, and research productivity of graduate students in psychotherapy-related fields in psychology. Both the global RTE and 10 ingredients posited by RTE theory are reviewed. The ingredients that seem to have the greatest association with theorized training outcomes in students are (1) faculty modeling of scientific behavior, (2) positive reinforcement of students' scientific behavior, (3) teaching students, through the advising relationship and research teams, that science can be a partly social-interpersonal experience, and (4) teaching students that all research is flawed and limited. The training program faculty is responsible for arranging the training environment so that it will maximally impact psychotherapy graduate students' research attitudes, research self-efficacy, and productivity.

  16. Biomedical Scientists' Perceptions of Ethical and Social Implications: Is There a Role for Research Ethics Consultation?

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Jennifer B.; Boyce, Angie M.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Research ethics consultation programs are being established with a goal of addressing the ethical, societal, and policy considerations associated with biomedical research. A number of these programs are modelled after clinical ethics consultation services that began to be institutionalized in the 1980s. Our objective was to determine biomedical science researchers' perceived need for and utility of research ethics consultation, through examination of their perceptions of whether they and their institutions faced ethical, social or policy issues (outside those mandated by regulation) and examination of willingness to seek advice in addressing these issues. We conducted telephone interviews and focus groups in 2006 with researchers from Stanford University and a mailed survey in December 2006 to 7 research universities in the U.S. Findings A total of 16 researchers were interviewed (75% response rate), 29 participated in focus groups, and 856 responded to the survey (50% response rate). Approximately half of researchers surveyed (51%) reported that they would find a research ethics consultation service at their institution moderately, very or extremely useful, while over a third (36%) reported that such a service would be useful to them personally. Respondents conducting human subjects research were more likely to find such a service very to extremely useful to them personally than respondents not conducting human subjects research (20% vs 10%; chi2 p<0.001). Conclusion Our findings indicate that biomedical researchers do encounter and anticipate encountering ethical and societal questions and concerns and a substantial proportion, especially clinical researchers, would likely use a consultation service if they were aware of it. These findings provide data to inform the development of such consultation programs in general. PMID:19252737

  17. Scientist-teacher collaboration: Integration of real data from a coastal wetland into a high school life science ecology-based research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Wendy L.

    Project G.R.O.W. is an ecology-based research project developed for high school biology students. The curriculum was designed based on how students learn and awareness of the nature of science and scientific practices so that students would design and carry out scientific investigations using real data from a local coastal wetland. This was a scientist-teacher collaboration between a CSULB biologist and high school biology teacher. Prior to implementing the three-week research project, students had multiple opportunities to practice building requisite skills via 55 lessons focusing on the nature of science, scientific practices, technology, Common Core State Standards of reading, writing, listening and speaking, and Next Generation Science Standards. Project G.R.O.W. culminated with student generated research papers and oral presentations. Outcomes reveal students struggle with constructing explanations and the use of Excel to create meaningful graphs. They showed gains in data organization, analysis, teamwork and aspects of the nature of science.

  18. An Inquiry-Based Vision Science Activity for Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Research Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, N. M.; Maness, H. L.; Rossi, E. A.; Hunter, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The vision science activity was originally designed for the 2007 Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Summer School. Participants were graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and professionals studying the basics of adaptive optics. The majority were working in fields outside vision science, mainly astronomy and engineering. The primary goal of the activity was to give participants first-hand experience with the use of a wavefront sensor designed for clinical measurement of the aberrations of the human eye and to demonstrate how the resulting wavefront data generated from these measurements can be used to assess optical quality. A secondary goal was to examine the role wavefront measurements play in the investigation of vision-related scientific questions. In 2008, the activity was expanded to include a new section emphasizing defocus and astigmatism and vision testing/correction in a broad sense. As many of the participants were future post-secondary educators, a final goal of the activity was to highlight the inquiry-based approach as a distinct and effective alternative to traditional laboratory exercises. Participants worked in groups throughout the activity and formative assessment by a facilitator (instructor) was used to ensure that participants made progress toward the content goals. At the close of the activity, participants gave short presentations about their work to the whole group, the major points of which were referenced in a facilitator-led synthesis lecture. We discuss highlights and limitations of the vision science activity in its current format (2008 and 2009 summer schools) and make recommendations for its improvement and adaptation to different audiences.

  19. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  20. Including Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Research: Scientists' Perceptions of Risks and Protections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Kidney, Colleen A.; Nelms, Sandra L.; Parker, Michael R.; Kimmel, Ali; Keys, Christopher B.

    2009-01-01

    Social and cognitive characteristics of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) place them at risk for inappropriate inclusion in or exclusion from research participation. As we grapple with how to include adults with ID in research in order to secure their right to contribute to scientific advancements and be positioned to derive benefit from…

  1. Training Future Scientists: Predicting First-Year Minority Student Participation in Health Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Eagan, M. Kevin; Cabrera, Nolan L.; Lin, Monica H.; Park, Julie; Lopez, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the UCLA Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) and Your First College Year (YFCY) surveys, this study examines predictors of the likelihood that science-oriented students would participate in a health science undergraduate research program during the first year of college. The key predictors of…

  2. Becoming a Scientist: The Role of Undergraduate Research in Students' Cognitive, Personal, and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Anne-Barrie; Laursen, Sandra L.; Seymour, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of summer undergraduate research (UR) experiences at four liberal arts colleges, where faculty and students work collaboratively on a project of mutual interest in an apprenticeship of authentic science research work, analysis of the accounts of faculty and student participants yields comparative insights into the…

  3. Optimising Translational Research Opportunities: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of Basic and Clinician Scientists' Perspectives of Factors Which Enable or Hinder Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Euan; Fisher, Helen R.; Maher, John; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; McKevitt, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research is central to international health policy, research and funding initiatives. Despite increasing use of the term, the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical practice is not straightforward. This systematic search and narrative synthesis aimed to examine factors enabling or hindering translational research from the perspective of basic and clinician scientists, a key stakeholder group in translational research, and to draw policy-relevant implications for organisations seeking to optimise translational research opportunities. Methods and Results We searched SCOPUS and Web of Science from inception until April 2015 for papers reporting scientists’ views of the factors they perceive as enabling or hindering the conduct of translational research. We screened 8,295 papers from electronic database searches and 20 papers from hand searches and citation tracking, identifying 26 studies of qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. We used a narrative synthesis approach and identified the following themes: 1) differing concepts of translational research 2) research processes as a barrier to translational research; 3) perceived cultural divide between research and clinical care; 4) interdisciplinary collaboration as enabling translation research, but dependent on the quality of prior and current social relationships; 5) translational research as entrepreneurial science. Across all five themes, factors enabling or hindering translational research were largely shaped by wider social, organisational, and structural factors. Conclusion To optimise translational research, policy could consider refining translational research models to better reflect scientists’ experiences, fostering greater collaboration and buy in from all types of scientists. Organisations could foster cultural change, ensuring that organisational practices and systems keep pace with the change in knowledge production brought about by the

  4. Indian Ocean Research Data: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Allison, Molly; Copley, Nancy; Gegg, Stephen; Kinkade, Danie; Rauch, Shannon; Glover, David; Wiebe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Open access to well-documented data is essential to enable improved understanding of the key processes and their complex interactions in the Indian Ocean. For decades, marine ecosystem data have been collected by expeditions conducting research in this fascinating region. The data from many of the projects including the International Indian Ocean Expedition of the 1960s, the US Joint Global Ocean flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea Expedition of the 1990s, and several more recent projects have been contributed by the original investigators to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). BCO-DMO is funded by the US National Science Foundation to work with marine scientists to improve access to research data and ensure long term preservation of the data that comprise an important part of a research program's legacy. The data are freely available from the Web-accessible BCO-DMO system that supports data discovery, access, display, user-customizable export, and download. The authors will provide an overview of the BCO-DMO data system including examples of the range of data types and an introduction to system capabilities.

  5. Developmental Potential among Creative Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culross, Rita R.

    2008-01-01

    The world of creative scientists is dramatically different in the 21st century than it was during previous centuries. Whether biologists, chemists, physicists, engineers, mathematicians, or computer scientists, the livelihood of research scientists is dependent on their abilities of creative expression. The view of a solitary researcher who…

  6. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  7. Scientists Shaping the Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

  8. Sir Edward Mellanby (1884-1955) GBE KCB FRCP FRS: nutrition scientist and medical research mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    Edward Mellanby used the experimental method to investigate medical problems. In 1918, working at King's College for Women, London, he provided conclusive evidence that rickets is a dietary deficiency disease due to lack of a fat-soluble vitamin [D]. In Sheffield he demonstrated that cereals, in an unbalanced diet, produced rickets due to the phytic acid content reducing the availability of calcium. Mellanby became Secretary of the Medical Research Council (1933-49) but continued his research by working at weekends. In the 1930s he campaigned for the results of nutritional research to be used for the benefit of public health. During World War II he acted as a scientific adviser to the War Cabinet and had a strong influence on the food policy which maintained successfully the nutrition of the population during the shipping blockade. Mellanby was a formidable person but with sagacity he promoted new research and guided the expansion of the organization.

  9. Scientists' Small Errors in Managing Research Grants Can Mean Big Penalties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    James M. Fadool, an associate professor of biology at Florida State University, got a federal grant of more than $300,000 to study eye defects using zebra-fish. Some of that money went to pay another researcher, $1,536 biweekly, to assist with the research and manage the lab where the fish were kept. But an audit by the Office of Inspector General…

  10. How Do Scientists Define Openness? Exploring the Relationship Between Open Science Policies and Research Practice

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Nadine; Leonelli, Sabina; Weckowska, Dagmara; Castle, David; Dupré, John

    2016-01-01

    This article documents how biomedical researchers in the United Kingdom understand and enact the idea of “openness.” This is of particular interest to researchers and science policy worldwide in view of the recent adoption of pioneering policies on Open Science and Open Access by the U.K. government—policies whose impact on and implications for research practice are in need of urgent evaluation, so as to decide on their eventual implementation elsewhere. This study is based on 22 in-depth interviews with U.K. researchers in systems biology, synthetic biology, and bioinformatics, which were conducted between September 2013 and February 2014. Through an analysis of the interview transcripts, we identify seven core themes that characterize researchers’ understanding of openness in science and nine factors that shape the practice of openness in research. Our findings highlight the implications that Open Science policies can have for research processes and outcomes and provide recommendations for enhancing their content, effectiveness, and implementation. PMID:27807390

  11. Traditional and Nontraditional Sources of Future Research Scientists. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Investigation and Oversight of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science, Space and Technology.

    This document presents a transcript of the hearing to examine undergraduate science education in relation to the traditional and nontraditional sources of future research scientists. Two specific aspects of the topic were identified for examination: (1) successful methods of science education employed at small liberal arts schools; and (2) what…

  12. Chautauqua County: Past and Present. Research Guide No. 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Franciska, Comp.

    A research guide citing over 100 annotations presents a variety of research material on Chautauqua County (New York) available in the Reed Library (Fredonia, New York). The guide consists of three major parts. Part 1 addresses the novice with an examination of the basic steps of research. Special attention is given to the card catalog. This part…

  13. Scientist - Educator Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devore, E.

    2003-12-01

    Science is the quest for knowledge about the natural world, and scientists are often characterized as driven by curiosity and the desire to discover, traits they share with children exploring the world through youthful eyes. In contrast, formal science education at the pre-college and college levels frequently distills the joy of scientific research and discovery into a body on known facts, laws, and disciplinary studies, loosing the excitement of doing science. When scientists partner with teachers and other educators, there is an opportunity for engaging students and the public with scientists and their research projects. Further, scientists provide expertise to create up-to-date and accurate materials for use in classrooms, science centers, and youth groups. Scientists also see engagement with teachers, students, and the public through science centers as a means of growing the next generation of scientists to continue the work. Often this process is facilitated by science education professionals who work at the interface between the worlds of scientific research and formal and informal education. The partnership between the research scientist and the science education professional can result in improved science education for a broad community of teachers, students and the public.

  14. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

  16. Health research in Ethiopia--past, present and suggestions on the way forward.

    PubMed

    Gaym, Asheber

    2008-07-01

    Health is a fundamental prerequisite to human development. Evidence based strategies for effective health interventions emanate from a representative, ethical and rigorously conducted health research. Health research undertakings require the coordinated efforts of researchers, research funders and research users as well as the presence of detailed laws and regulations conducive for undertaking health research. Global health research partners have stressed that attempts to improve country level health research should follow the "National Health Research Systems" approach as components of the system are highly interrelated. The systems approach begins with a situation analysis of the existing national health research system. History of health research in Ethiopia spans nearly seven decades. Study of historical abstracts, websites of health research and academic institutions, review of relevant publications, site visits and interview with institution authorities was undertaken to provide an overview of past and present status of health research in Ethiopia. The researcher profile, disease and health focus, publication audit, dissemination modalities and international collaboration of research institutes are outlined. Applicable Ethiopian laws and regulations regarding health research are documented. Existing challenges to conduct of health research are outlined. The number of health researchers, research institutes and volume of research output so far is small. Detailed laws and regulations pertaining to health research are not enacted and governance of health research is not clearly articulated. There are global, regional and programmatic inequities in the national health research arena. Evolution of the health research in the country into an organized "National Health Research System" is still at an early stage. Suggestions are forwarded to augment the ongoing discussions on strengthening efforts to improve the national health research system. These include the

  17. Separated at Birth: Statisticians, Social Scientists, and Causality in Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Bryan E

    2011-01-01

    Objective Health services research is a field of study that brings together experts from a wide variety of academic disciplines. It also is a field that places a high priority on empirical analysis. Many of the questions posed by health services researchers involve the effects of treatments, patient and provider characteristics, and policy interventions on outcomes of interest. These are causal questions. Yet many health services researchers have been trained in disciplines that are reluctant to use the language of causality, and the approaches to causal questions are discipline specific, often with little overlap. How did this situation arise? This paper traces the roots of the division and some recent attempts to remedy the situation. Data Sources and Settings Existing literature. Study Design Review of the literature. PMID:21105867

  18. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist.

    PubMed

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 - 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963-1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957-1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services.

  19. Obligations of a Pharmaceutical Scientist to Help Bridge the Gap Between Basic Research and Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benet, Leslie Z.

    1980-01-01

    A chairman of pharmacy in a state university outlines obligations in reducing tensions within the profession: making teaching relevant to the product of the school--clinical pharmacists; making one's own expertise available to faculty to develop research projects; and insuring highest scientific quality of services. (MSE)

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 31: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SME mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with, not necessarily belonging to, the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

  1. Ethical debates in genetic engineering: U.S. scientists' attitudes on patenting, germ-line research, food labeling, and agri-biotech issues.

    PubMed

    Rabino, I

    1998-09-01

    A 1995 survey of 1,257 scientists working in the field of recombinant DNA research indicates wide areas of agreement as well as some noteworthy divisions when it comes to such thorny questions as patenting, germ-line research, food labeling, and biodiversity. In general, the scientists surveyed approve of patenting living organisms that result from rDNA research, but vary significantly on what should be patentable. They advocate human germ-line therapy, yet have reservations about using it for any but serious diseases. They oppose mandatory labeling of biologically engineered food products, but understand that the public has a right to know and advocate openness. Finally, they favor development of threats to biodiversity and maintain that publicly funded researchers should be legally obligated to consider the potential environmental effects of their research. Some clear differences arise between scientists working in industry and those in academia and between men and women.

  2. Psychology of the scientist: LXXXV. Research on homosexuality: a response to Schumm (and Herek).

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul; Cameron, Kirk

    2003-02-01

    Because social science is "messy," just about any criticism of any work--including our efforts--has validity. But the empiricist principle is more important than a theoretical search for perfection in research. The findings from our 1983-1984 nationwide random survey are superior to earlier efforts and similar enough to those reported by the 1992 nationwide random survey conducted by University of Chicago investigators, the 1994 British effort, and the 1996 NHSDA to suggest all approximate "a similar truth about reported sexuality."

  3. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1: The value of scientific and technical information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R/D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is based on the premise that scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace research and development (R&D) process are related. We intend to support this premise with data gathered from numerous studies concerned with STI, the relationship of STI to the performance and management of R&D activities, and the information use and seeking behavior of engineers in general and aerospace engineers and scientists in particular. We intend to develop and present a synthesized appreciation of how aerospace R&D managers can improve the efficacy of the R&D process by understanding the role and value of STI in this process.

  5. Integrating Assessment and Research Strategies on a Large Development and Research Project: Kids as Airborne Mission Scientists (KaAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Barbara L.; Koszalka, Tiffany A.

    Combining assessment and research components on a large development and research project is a complex task. There are many descriptions of how either assessment or research should be conducted, but detailed examples illustrating integration of such strategies in complex projects are scarce. This paper provides definitions of assessment,…

  6. Abstracts of Educational Research and New Programs Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts of presentations concerning educational research and new programs to be made at the 62nd annual meeting of the American Association of Dental Schools (Las Vegas, March 17-20, 1985) are given. (MSE)

  7. Playing Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  8. Preparing a research presentation: a guide for investigators.

    PubMed

    Wax, Joseph R; Cartin, Angelina; Pinette, Michael G

    2011-07-01

    Many obstetrics and gynecology residencies require trainees to complete a research project as a graduation requirement. These projects may be submitted for publication in a peer-review journal or presentation at a professional meeting. Although written instructions are available for novice authors, few references target research abstract submission and presentation. This paper provides investigators with the advice to successfully negotiate this process. PMID:21529756

  9. Open Research Challenges with Big Data - A Data-Scientist s Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss data-driven discovery challenges of the Big Data era. We observe that recent innovations in being able to collect, access, organize, integrate, and query massive amounts of data from a wide variety of data sources have brought statistical data mining and machine learning under more scrutiny and evaluation for gleaning insights from the data than ever before. In that context, we pose and debate the question - Are data mining algorithms scaling with the ability to store and compute? If yes, how? If not, why not? We survey recent developments in the state-of-the-art to discuss emerging and outstanding challenges in the design and implementation of machine learning algorithms at scale. We leverage experience from real-world Big Data knowledge discovery projects across domains of national security, healthcare and manufacturing to suggest our efforts be focused along the following axes: (i) the data science challenge - designing scalable and flexible computational architectures for machine learning (beyond just data-retrieval); (ii) the science of data challenge the ability to understand characteristics of data before applying machine learning algorithms and tools; and (iii) the scalable predictive functions challenge the ability to construct, learn and infer with increasing sample size, dimensionality, and categories of labels. We conclude with a discussion of opportunities and directions for future research.

  10. Another Kind of Scientist Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

  11. Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to

  12. Scientists as writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre

  13. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 4:] Technical communications in aerospace: An analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from pilot surveys on the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. and NATO-nation aerospace scientists and engineers, undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. The survey procedures and the demographic characteristics of the 67 scientists and engineers who responded to the survey are summarized, and the results are presented in a series of tables and discussed in detail. Findings emphasized include: (1) both U.S. and NATO respondents spend around 60 percent of their work week producing or using STI products; (2) NATO respondents are more likely than their U.S. counterparts to use 'formal' STI products (like technical reports and papers) and the services of librarians and online data bases; (3) most of the respondents use computers and information technology in preparing STI products; and (4) respondents who had taken courses in technical communication agreed on the value and ideal subject matter of such courses.

  14. Partnering for functional genomics research conference: Abstracts of poster presentations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This reports contains abstracts of poster presentations presented at the Functional Genomics Research Conference held April 16--17, 1998 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Attention is focused on the following areas: mouse mutagenesis and genomics; phenotype screening; gene expression analysis; DNA analysis technology development; bioinformatics; comparative analyses of mouse, human, and yeast sequences; and pilot projects to evaluate methodologies.

  15. [Communique on the present status and future of anthropology taken from the meeting of department heads and principle scientists from the Society of Anthropology (GfA)].

    PubMed

    Rühli, F; Schiefenhivel, W

    2009-09-01

    The primary goal discussed is to strengthen the scientifically important research discipline of anthropology in the coming years by reinforcing its position in the German university system as a trans-disciplinary field and to edify its image within the public eye. Like many other branches of science, anthropology has witnessed a number of profound changes in the university sphere in recent years. In addition to increased reliance on monetary funding, the fundamental structure of research and teaching in the university sector, the product of centuries-old development, is experiencing a transition phase and progressively operating ever more under the influence of"excellence monitoring" as well as the "Bologna" process. Financial cuts have led to the termination of once fix job positions at all levels, whereby the loss of mid-level positions requisite for a healthy and functional junior academic environment, such as post-doc jobs, is particularly unsettling. The still tangible burden of recent historical events and small number of prominent representatives in the field are problematic, however, the primary concern today involves the seemingly imminent closure of established anthropological centres and discontinuation of department chair positions. Fortunately, this ominous trend does not apply to all leading university departments, many of which are engaged in innovative and novel concepts, and has resulted in their general acceptance and the fortification of anthropology programs. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly difficult to secure adequate funding for projects from money givers such as the DFG, mainly because of the relatively small size of the field. Specialization within the field at the university level obviously poses a serious problem for such a small holistic discipline (with regards to problem statements and methodology). The definition of anthropology as an entity is complicated by external influences such as newly developing research interests that

  16. Thirty Years of Participatory Watershed Research: Engaging Citizen Scientists Through the NH Lakes Lay Monitoring Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloss, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    While it began as a citizen water quality monitoring program to document long-term trends and find problem areas impacting lake watersheds the New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program soon evolved into a model effort for engaging the participants to help investigate a wide range of scientific questions primarily derived through their concerns. As a true participatory effort, community members were involved in the design as well as the implementation of the research and also in the interpretation of the results. The research outcomes have provided benefits to both the local and scientific communities. In many cases productive partnerships between the research community and participants were initiated that continue to last to this day. In addition, participants have been empowered through their experience and have become local experts and community leaders. Collaborative research projects to date have explored fish condition, recreational impacts, nutrient loadings from watershed land use, morphometric determinants of lake productivity, ground truth for remote sensing of water quality, biological controls for invasive aquatic plants, in-lake resource co-occurrences, and cyanobacteria bloom toxin ecology. Participants were also instrumental in confirming a more accurate method for water clarity measurement. Results have not only provided the community with the information they require for the informed local stewardship of their resources but also have been useful to state agencies and decision-makers. Our success can be attributed to the development of quality assured methods acceptable to regional and state agencies, the cost efficiencies of using volunteer scientists, support from the University and Cooperative Extension, capturing the "local expertise" of our participants, providing timely feedback and support, and making sure the study results are reported back to the local community through the participants involved.

  17. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries.

  18. Join the NASA Science Mission Directorate Scientist Speaker's Bureau!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shupla, C. B.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker's Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. Aside from name, organization, location, bio, and (optional) photo and website, the information that scientists enter into this database will not be made public; instead, it will be used to help match scientists with the requests being placed. One of the most common ways for scientists to interact with students, adults, and general public audiences is to give presentations about or related to their science. However, most educators do not have a simple way to connect with those planetary scientists, Earth scientists, heliophysicists, and astronomers who are interested and available to speak with their audiences. This system is designed to help meet the need for connecting potential audiences to interested scientists. The information input into the database (availability to travel, willingness to present online or in person, interest in presenting to different age groups and sizes of audience, topics, and more) will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All NASA-funded Earth and space scientists engaged in active research are invited to fill out the short registration form, including those who are involved in missions, institutes, grants, and those who are using NASA science data in their research, and more. There is particular need for young scientists, such as graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, and women and people of diverse backgrounds. Submit your information at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  19. Scientists and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 24: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SAE mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 33: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 AIAA mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 34: How early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists produce and use information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.

  3. The GLOBE International Scientist Network: Connecting Scientists and Schools to Promote Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessendorf, S. A.; Andersen, T.; Mackaro, J.; Malmberg, J.; Randolph, J. G.; Wegner, K.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBE Program has a rich history of connecting scientists and schools around the world on issues related to Earth System Science. Science teams developed the program's core science protocols, and these and other scientists use the data collected by GLOBE students, following these protocols, in their research projects. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with scientists, teachers, and students in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has recently initiated a focus on climate science, as well as unveiled a new technological infrastructure (website, database, online collaboration tools, etc.). These recent technological advances provide new opportunities to increase scientist participation in the program. To better facilitate scientist involvement in GLOBE, The GLOBE International Scientist Network (GISN) was developed. This network aims to connect scientists, teachers, and students around the world to promote Earth System Science. It provides a venue for scientists seeking to engage in education and outreach to connect with schools willing to collaborate, as well as to connect with one another. Via the GLOBE website, scientists in the GISN are provided a profile page to display their bio and interests, the ability to make online "friends" thereby connecting with other registered GLOBE community members (i.e. scientists, teachers), and the ability to participate in online discussions. All interested candidates' credentials are reviewed to ensure that they meet designated criteria to maintain the quality of individuals who work with GLOBE schools. The GLOBE Program Office staff scientists facilitate the network, by creating online accounts for approved new members and responding to inquiries. This presentation will provide an overview of the GISN, including how the network is maintained, the process for membership approval, and a few examples of how scientists in the network are working with GLOBE.

  4. Scientists and the 3Rs: attitudes to animal use in biomedical research and the effect of mandatory training in laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Franco, N H; Olsson, I A S

    2014-01-01

    The 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction, and refinement has increasingly been endorsed by legislators and regulatory bodies as the best approach to tackle the ethical dilemma presented by animal experimentation in which the potential benefits for humans stand against the costs borne by the animals. Even when animal use is tightly regulated and supervised, the individual researcher's responsibility is still decisive in the implementation of the 3Rs. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) aims to raise researchers' awareness and increase their knowledge, but its effect on scientists' attitudes and practice has not so far been systematically assessed. Participants (n = 206) in eight LAS courses (following the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations category C recommendations) in Portugal were surveyed in a self-administered questionnaire during the course. Questions were related mainly to the 3Rs and their application, attitudes to animal use and the ethical review of animal experiments. One year later, all the respondents were asked to answer a similar questionnaire (57% response rate) with added self-evaluation questions on the impact of training. Our results suggest that the course is effective in promoting awareness and increasing knowledge of the 3Rs, particularly with regard to refinement. However, participation in the course did not change perceptions on the current and future needs for animal use in research.

  5. The Cosmic Ray Observatory Project: Results of a Summer High-School Student, Teacher, University Scientist Partnership Using a Capstone Research Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Duane F.; Snow, Gregory R.; Claes, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports results from evaluation of the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP), a student, teacher, scientist partnership to engage high-school students and teachers in school based cosmic ray research. Specifically, this study examined whether an intensive summer workshop experience could effectively prepare teacher-student teams to…

  6. Surgeon scientist.

    PubMed

    Murray, J E

    2000-07-01

    The origins and development of the renal transplant program at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital (now the Brigham and Women's Hospital) from the late 1940s to the present are reviewed. The program was initiated as a effort to understand hypertension as a cause of renal failure. The initial transplants were unmodified allogeneic grafts placed in the thigh, followed by extensive laboratory experiments on dogs. This research culminated with the first successful human transplant of a kidney between identical twins in 1954. In 1959 the first successful fraternal allogeneic graft was accomplished as part of a protocol utilizing total body irradiation and bone marrow replacement. Finally, with the development of immunosuppressive drugs, we were able to transplant a cadaveric kidney successfully in 1962. This was a major impetus in the study of organ transplantation worldwide, which currently involves kidneys, liver, heart, pancreas, heart/lung, and bone marrow.

  7. Alliance for NanoHealth (ANH) Training Program for the development of future generations of interdisciplinary scientists and collaborative research focused upon the advancement of nanomedicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, David

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this program are to promote the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Program by recruiting students to science and engineering disciplines with the intent of mentoring and supporting the next generation of scientists; to foster interdisciplinary and collaborative research under the sponsorship of ANH for the discovery and design of nano-based materials and devices with novel structures, functions, and properties; and to prepare a diverse work force of scientists, engineers, and clinicians by utilizing the unique intellectual and physical resources to develop novel nanotechnology paradigms for clinical application.

  8. Education and Outreach: Advice to Young Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M. C.

    2005-08-01

    Carl Sagan set an example to all scientists when he encouraged us to reach out to the public and share the excitement of discovery and exploration. The prejudice that ensued did not deter Sagan and, with the passing of years, more and more scientists have followed his example. Although at present scientists at all ranks are encouraged by their institutions to do outreach, the balancing of a successful scientific career with teaching and outreach is often not an easy one. Young scientists, in particular, may worry about how their outreach efforts are viewed in the community and how they will find the time and energy for these efforts. This talk will offer suggestions on how to balance an active science research program with outreach activities, the many different ways to engage in education and public outreach, and how the rewards are truly priceless.

  9. The Present and Future of MFT Doctoral Education in Research-Focused Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    Doctoral education is greatly impacted by context, and the large majority of marital and family therapy (MFT) doctoral programs are PhD programs in research-focused universities. I believe their primary mission is to equip students to become scientist-practitioners and do original research that will advance the science of the discipline, whereas…

  10. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  11. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  12. Present status of liquid metal research for a fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabarés, Francisco L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of solid materials as targets of divertor plasmas in magnetic fusion research is accepted as the standard solution for the very challenging issue of power and particle handling in a fusion reactor, a generalized feeling that the present options chosen for ITER will not represent the best choice for a reactor is growing up. The problems found for tungsten, the present selection for the divertor target of ITER, in laboratory tests and in hot plasma fusion devices suggest so. Even in the absence of the strong neutron irradiation expected in a reactor, issues like surface melting, droplet ejection, surface cracking, dust generation, etc., call for alternative solutions in a long pulse, high efficient fusion energy-producing continuous machine. Fortunately enough, decades of research on plasma facing materials based on liquid metals (LMs) have produced a wealth of appealing ideas that could find practical application in the route to the realization of a commercial fusion power plant. The options presently available, although in a different degree of maturity, range from full coverage of the inner wall of the device with liquid metals, so that power and particle exhaust together with neutron shielding could be provided, to more conservative combinations of liquid metal films and conventional solid targets basically representing a sort of high performance, evaporative coating for the alleviation of the surface degradation issues found so far. In this work, an updated review of worldwide activities on LM research is presented, together with some open issues still remaining and some proposals based on simple physical considerations leading to the optimization of the most conservative alternatives.

  13. Present role of PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy

    2015-11-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s nearly half of the elemental analyses of atmospheric aerosol samples were performed by PIXE. Since then, other techniques for elemental analysis became available and there has been a steady increase in studies on organic aerosol constituents and other aspects of aerosols, especially in the areas of nucleation (new particle formation), optical properties, and the role of aerosol particles in cloud formation and properties. First, a brief overview and discussion is given of the developments and trends in atmospheric aerosol analysis and research of the past three decades. Subsequently, it is indicated that there is still invaluable work to be done by PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research, especially if one teams up with other aerosol researchers and performs complementary measurements, e.g., on small aerosol samples that are taken with high-time resolution. Fine examples of such research are the work done by the Lund group in the CARIBIC aircraft studies and the analysis of circular streaker samples by the Florence PIXE group. These and other examples are presented and other possibilities of PIXE are indicated.

  14. Publications, peer review, and the young scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, R. L.

    As scientists and communicators, we all make our living through the expression of our ideas and the results of our scientific research. This expression takes many forms, but, most notably, published articles lie at the heart of our endeavors. I would like to present my opinions on some problems that I, as a young scientist, see in our profession.Several years ago, two wonderful letters appeared in Geology discussing the problems of honorary coauthorship [Zen, 1988, Means, 1988]. Honorary coauthorship is a by-product of the system set up to fund scientific research. More generally, the problem is the need to publish a great number of articles in order to survive.

  15. [Research on mangrove soil microorganisms: past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Xia; Zheng, Tian-Ling; Tian, Yun

    2006-10-01

    Special Mangrove soil niches possesses valuable microbial resources. Unfortunately, up to the present, so far there is very little knowledge on the mangrove soil microbial communities. It mainly due to the limitations of research methods. Cultureindependent approaches based on 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA gene analysis open the window to study microbial diversity in mangrove soil. The progress had achieved about studying on mangrove soil microbial species diversity, metabolic diversity and treating environmental pollutions was summarized in the paper. In addition, the bright future of mangrove soil microorganisms was described.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 16: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), NASA ARC, and NASA LaRC. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. The responses of the Russian and U.S. participants, to selected questions, are presented in this report.

  17. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

  18. Reconciling Scientists and Journalists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, H.

    2006-12-01

    The very nature of scientists' and journalists' jobs can put them at cross-purposes. Scientists work for years on one research project, slowly accumulating data, and are hesitant to draw sweeping conclusions without multiple rounds of hypothesis-testing. Journalists, meanwhile, are often looking for "news"—a discovery that was just made ("scientists have just discovered that...") or that defies conventional wisdom and is therefore about to turn society's thinking on its head. The very criteria that the mediamakers often use to determine newsworthiness can automatically preclude some scientific progress from making the news. There are other built-in problems in the relationship between journalists and scientists, some of which we can try to change and others of which we can learn to work around. Drawing on my personal experience as a journalist who has written for a wide variety of magazines, newspapers, and web sites, this talk will illustrate some of the inherent difficulties and offer some suggestions for how to move beyond them. It will provide a background on the way news decisions are made and how the journalist does her job, with an eye toward finding common ground and demonstrating how scientists can enjoy better relationships with journalists—relationships that can help educate the public on important scientific topics and avoid misrepresentation of scientific knowledge in the media.

  19. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Engaging Classrooms in Student-Led Research Using NASA Data, Access to Scientists, and Integrated Educational Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Baker, M.; Lindgren, C.; Mailhot, M.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom teachers are challenged with engaging and preparing today s students for the future. Activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and high-stakes testing. Providing educators with standards-aligned, inquiry-based activities that will help them engage their students in student-led research in the classroom will help them teach required standards, essential skills, and help inspire their students to become motivated learners. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, classroom educators, and ARES scientists at the NASA Johnson Space Center created the Expedition Earth and Beyond education program to help teachers promote student-led research in their classrooms (grades 5-14) by using NASA data, providing access to scientists, and using integrated educational strategies.

  20. Earth 2 Class: The role of technology in providing structure for science content delivery from the research scientist to the secondary (6--12) classroom teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, Cristiana Mattos

    The objective of this study is to identify how technology, with a focus on the website, can enhance the delivery of science content, bridging the distance now existent between research scientists and the secondary classroom teacher. Through action research, the effectiveness of the model being developed by the Earth 2 Class program was studied in order for a pedagogically sound distance learning curriculum and delivery model to be designed. The efficacy of this model was looked at both from the participating teachers' point of view, as well as the contributing scientists' perspective, as technology provided a communication channel that allowed them to approach each other in ways that would not have been possible otherwise. Consequently, this study provided a framework for developing efficient distance-learning modules based upon: (a) themes echoed through research using the Earth 2 Class model; and (b) principles of postmodern learning theories, curriculum development, educational outreach models, and instructional design theories.

  1. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  2. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  3. Inquiry-Based Research Published in "I Wonder: The Journal for Elementary School Scientists" (1992-2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeth, Michael E.; Huziak, Tracy

    Scientific inquiry has been stressed as necessary for all students in science education reform efforts. "I Wonder: The Journal for Elementary School Scientists" provides a unique opportunity for elementary school students to disseminate their scientific investigations in the analog form of print journals. The Heron Network has published this…

  4. United States National Sewage Sludge Repository at Arizona State University – A New Resource and Research Tool for Environmental Scientists, Engineers, and Epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Done, Hansa Y.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Processed municipal sewage sludges (MSS) are an abundant, unwanted by-product of wastewater treatment, increasingly applied to agriculture and forestry for inexpensive disposal and soil conditioning. Due to their high organic-carbon and lipid contents, MSS not only is rich in carbon and nutrients but also represents a ‘sink’ for recalcitrant, hydrophobic and potentially bioaccumulative compounds. Indeed, many organics sequestered and concentrated in MSS meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's definition of being persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT). In a strategic effort, our research team at the Biodesign Institute has created the National Sewage Sludge Repository (NSSR), a large repository of digested MSSs from 164 wastewater treatment plants from across the USA, as part of the Human Health Observatory (H2O) at Arizona State University (ASU). The NSSR likely represents the largest archive of digested MSS specimens in the USA. The present study summarizes key findings gleaned thus far from analysis of NSSR samples. For example, we evaluated the content of toxicants in MSS and computed estimates of nationwide inventories of mass produced chemicals that become sequestrated in sludge and later are released into the environment during sludge disposal on land. Ongoing efforts document co-occurrence of a variety of PBT compounds in both MSS and human samples, while also identifying a large number of potentially harmful MSS constituents for which human exposure data are still lacking. Finally, we summarize new future opportunities and invite collaborative use the NSSR by the research community. The H2O at ASU represents a resource and research tool for environmental scientists and the larger research community. As illustrated in this work, this repository can serve to (i) identify and prioritize emerging contaminants; (ii) provide spatial and temporal trends of contaminants; (iii) inform and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policy

  5. United States National Sewage Sludge Repository at Arizona State University--a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists, engineers, and epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Done, Hansa Y; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-02-01

    Processed municipal sewage sludges (MSS) are an abundant, unwanted by-product of wastewater treatment, increasingly applied to agriculture and forestry for inexpensive disposal and soil conditioning. Due to their high organic carbon and lipid contents, MSS not only is rich in carbon and nutrients but also represents a "sink" for recalcitrant, hydrophobic, and potentially bioaccumulative compounds. Indeed, many organics sequestered and concentrated in MSS meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's definition of being persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT). In a strategic effort, our research team at the Biodesign Institute has created the National Sewage Sludge Repository (NSSR), a large repository of digested MSSs from 164 wastewater treatment plants from across the USA, as part of the Human Health Observatory (H2O) at Arizona State University (ASU). The NSSR likely represents the largest archive of digested MSS specimens in the USA. The present study summarizes key findings gleaned thus far from analysis of NSSR samples. For example, we evaluated the content of toxicants in MSS and computed estimates of nationwide inventories of mass produced chemicals that become sequestrated in sludge and later are released into the environment during sludge disposal on land. Ongoing efforts document co-occurrence of a variety of PBT compounds in both MSS and human samples, while also identifying a large number of potentially harmful MSS constituents for which human exposure data are still lacking. Finally, we summarize future opportunities and invite collaborative use of the NSSR by the research community. The H2O at ASU represents a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists and the larger research community. As illustrated in this work, this repository can serve to (i) identify and prioritize emerging contaminants, (ii) provide spatial and temporal trends of contaminants, (iii) inform and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policy-making and

  6. Developing the Talents of Teacher/Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, George

    2004-01-01

    Going on an expedition enables teachers to become better scientists and researchers and, thus, better classroom instructors. Teachers have the opportunities to go on exotic field trips around the world as amateur research assistants, do hands on research in their own backyards, or vicariously experience another scientist?s work via the Internet. A…

  7. Funding to Support the Participation of Scientists Engaged in DOE Research in the 2008 AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Lee D.

    2009-05-11

    This project provided travel awards for scientists engaged in research relevant to the DOE mission to participate in the American Geophysical Union (AGU) Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics held October 13-16, 2008, in Portland, Maine (http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/). The objective of this Chapman Conference was to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists that are leaders in their field and have a personal interest in exploring this new interdisciplinary field or are conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community and to generate a roadmap for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of earth science research. The sixty participants were an international group of academics, graduate students and scientists at government laboratories engaged in biogeophysics related research. Scientists from Europe, Israel and China traveled to engage North American colleagues in this highly focused 3.5 day meeting. The group included an approximately equal mix of microbiologists, biogeochemists and near surface geophysicists. The recipients of the DOE travel awards were [1] Dennis Bazylinski (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), [2] Yuri Gorby (Craig Venter Institute), [3] Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech), [4] Susan Hubbard (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), [5] Roelof Versteeg (Idaho National Laboratory), [6] Eric Roden (University of Wisconsin), [7] George Luther (University of Delaware), and [8] Jinsong Chen (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory)

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report No. 36: The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 NASA Langley Research Center Mail Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were assigned to the Research and Technology Group (RTG) at the NASA Langley Research Center in September 1995.

  9. Plant root research: the past, the present and the future

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Alexander; Rost, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to root biologists past and present who have been exploring all aspects of root structure and function with an extensive publication record going over 100 years. The content of the Special Issue on Root Biology covers a wide scale of contributions, spanning interactions of roots with microorganisms in the rhizosphere, the anatomy of root cells and tissues, the subcellular components of root cells, and aspects of metal accumulation and stresses on root function and structure. We have organized the papers into three topic categories: (1) root ecology, interactions with microbes, root architecture and the rhizosphere; (2) experimental root biology, root structure and physiology; and (3) applications of new technology to study root biology. Finally, we will speculate on root research for the future. PMID:22966495

  10. From university research to commercial product (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathuis, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Ovizio Imaging Systems, a quantitative microscopic imaging spin-off of the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, was founded in the beginning of 2010 by Philip Mathuis, Serge Jooris, Prof. Frank Dubois and Dr. Catherine Yourassowky. The company has launched a range of specialized microscopy instruments for quantitative imaging mainly focused on the bioprocessing and diagnostics fields within the life sciences market. During my talk I will present the story of how an idea, emerged from the research labs of the University made it to a manufactured and sold product. The talk will look at many aspects of entrepreneurship and setting up a company, finding the funding for the project, attracting people, industrialization and product design and commercialization. It will also be focused on choices one has to make during the start-up phase and methodologies that can be applied in many different settings.

  11. Scientists and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanowicz, Joseph C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results from in-depth interviews in which respondents at a range of U.S. universities provided detailed accounts of their experience in, and identification with, academe. Studies satisfaction from the angle of the self-doubts scientists have about their work and careers, and investigates how self-doubts may systematically differ across…

  12. Talk Like a Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette

    2010-01-01

    In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in which students conduct their own science symposiums. This article presents the science symposium…

  13. Teaming Up with Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

  14. Why do scientists do outreach, what do we achieve, and how can we better learn from each other, and from research in this field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, R. A.; Roop, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Using four very different polar outreach case studies, we will discuss scientists' motivations, expectations, and institutional incentives (and dis-incentives) to engage with the public, and argue that improved training, evaluation, and academic value needs to be associated with scientist-led communication efforts - as well as clearer fora for sharing best practice in this field. We will illustrate our argument using examples from an Antarctic festival with public lectures and science cafes, outreach associated with an Antarctic expedition, the global launch of a climate change documentary that had a significant focus on Antarctica, and a series of "Polar Weeks" led by an international community of scientists and educators. While there is an excellent culture of accountability in both formal and informal science communication sectors, the same rigour is not applied to the majority of 'outreach' activities that are initiated by the science research community. Many of these activities are undertaken based on 'what feels right' and opportunism, and are proclaimed to be a success based on little or no formal evaluation. As a result, much of this work goes undocumented, is not evaluated from the perspective of the science community, and is rarely subject to peer-review and its associated benefits, including professional rewards. We therefore conclude with suggestions of new opportunities for publication in this field that would encourage science communication theory and practice to better inform each other, and for scientists to gain professional recognition for their efforts in this arena.

  15. Education and training for radiation scientists: radiation research program and American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, May 12-14, 2003.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Stone, Helen B; Alexander, George A; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Bedford, Joel S; Bristow, Robert G; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Fuks, Zvi; Gorelic, Lester S; Hill, Richard P; Joiner, Michael C; Liu, Fei-Fei; McBride, William H; McKenna, W Gillies; Powell, Simon N; Robbins, Michael E C; Rockwell, Sara; Schiff, Peter B; Shaw, Edward G; Siemann, Dietmar W; Travis, Elizabeth L; Wallner, Paul E; Wong, Rosemary S L; Zeman, Elaine M

    2003-12-01

    Current and potential shortfalls in the number of radiation scientists stand in sharp contrast to the emerging scientific opportunities and the need for new knowledge to address issues of cancer survivorship and radiological and nuclear terrorism. In response to these challenges, workshops organized by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), National Cancer Institute (NCI) (Radiat. Res. 157, 204-223, 2002; Radiat. Res. 159, 812-834, 2003), and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) (Nature, 421, 787, 2003) have engaged experts from a range of federal agencies, academia and industry. This workshop, Education and Training for Radiation Scientists, addressed the need to establish a sustainable pool of expertise and talent for a wide range of activities and careers related to radiation biology, oncology and epidemiology. Although fundamental radiation chemistry and physics are also critical to radiation sciences, this workshop did not address workforce needs in these areas. The recommendations include: (1) Establish a National Council of Radiation Sciences to develop a strategy for increasing the number of radiation scientists. The strategy includes NIH training grants, interagency cooperation, interinstitutional collaboration among universities, and active involvement of all stakeholders. (2) Create new and expanded training programs with sustained funding. These may take the form of regional Centers of Excellence for Radiation Sciences. (3) Continue and broaden educational efforts of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the Radiation Research Society (RRS). (4) Foster education and training in the radiation sciences for the range of career opportunities including radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation epidemiology, radiation safety, health/government policy, and industrial research. (5) Educate other

  16. Education and training for radiation scientists: radiation research program and American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, May 12-14, 2003.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Stone, Helen B; Alexander, George A; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Bedford, Joel S; Bristow, Robert G; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Fuks, Zvi; Gorelic, Lester S; Hill, Richard P; Joiner, Michael C; Liu, Fei-Fei; McBride, William H; McKenna, W Gillies; Powell, Simon N; Robbins, Michael E C; Rockwell, Sara; Schiff, Peter B; Shaw, Edward G; Siemann, Dietmar W; Travis, Elizabeth L; Wallner, Paul E; Wong, Rosemary S L; Zeman, Elaine M

    2003-12-01

    Current and potential shortfalls in the number of radiation scientists stand in sharp contrast to the emerging scientific opportunities and the need for new knowledge to address issues of cancer survivorship and radiological and nuclear terrorism. In response to these challenges, workshops organized by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), National Cancer Institute (NCI) (Radiat. Res. 157, 204-223, 2002; Radiat. Res. 159, 812-834, 2003), and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) (Nature, 421, 787, 2003) have engaged experts from a range of federal agencies, academia and industry. This workshop, Education and Training for Radiation Scientists, addressed the need to establish a sustainable pool of expertise and talent for a wide range of activities and careers related to radiation biology, oncology and epidemiology. Although fundamental radiation chemistry and physics are also critical to radiation sciences, this workshop did not address workforce needs in these areas. The recommendations include: (1) Establish a National Council of Radiation Sciences to develop a strategy for increasing the number of radiation scientists. The strategy includes NIH training grants, interagency cooperation, interinstitutional collaboration among universities, and active involvement of all stakeholders. (2) Create new and expanded training programs with sustained funding. These may take the form of regional Centers of Excellence for Radiation Sciences. (3) Continue and broaden educational efforts of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the Radiation Research Society (RRS). (4) Foster education and training in the radiation sciences for the range of career opportunities including radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation epidemiology, radiation safety, health/government policy, and industrial research. (5) Educate other

  17. CRYRING@ESR: present status and future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestinsky, M.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Danared, H.; Engström, M.; Enders, W.; Fedotova, S.; Franzke, B.; Heinz, A.; Herfurth, F.; Källberg, A.; Kester, O.; Litvinov, Y.; Steck, M.; Reistad, D.; Simonsson, A.; Skeppstedt, Ö.; Stöhlker, T.; Vorobjev, G.; the CRYRING@ESR working Group

    2015-11-01

    The former storage ring CRYRING has been shipped from the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory in Stockholm to Darmstadt as a Swedish in-kind contribution to FAIR. At its new location downstream of ESR all ion species presently accessible in ESR can be transferred to CRYRING, in which ions with rigidities between 1.44 and 0.054 Tm can be stored. The original Swedish layout has been modified by reconfiguring the sequence of straight sections and by slightly increasing the circumference to ESR/2. Ions can be injected from ESR or from an independent 300 keV/u RFQ test injector. The instrumentation of the ring includes an RF drift tube system for acceleration and deceleration (1 T s-1, with a possibility for an upgrade to 7 T s-1), electron cooling, a free experimental section, and both fast and slow extraction of ions. We report on the present progress of this project, give a prospective timeline, and summarize the new research which will be enabled by this project. First beam for commissioning of the storage ring is expected for 2015, final bakeout to restore ultrahigh vacuum conditions in 2016 and ion beams injected through ESR in ˜2017.

  18. AN INTERACTIVE WEB-BASED RESEARCH PLAN/QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN IS LINKED WITH HELPFUL QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL HINTS AND USED BY THE RESEARCH SCIENTISTS TO DEVELOP PLANS/QAPP

    EPA Science Inventory

    A web based Research Plan/Quality Assurance Project Plan (RP/QAPP) Document is interactively linked to documentation that asks pertinent questions and gives suggested examples and formats to assist the Research Scientist develop a RP/QAPP that will answer the necessary questions ...

  19. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  20. Scientists Talking to Students through Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of connecting school students with scientists are well documented. This paper reports how New Zealand teachers brought scientists into the classrooms through the use of videos of New Zealand scientists talking about themselves and their research. Two researchers observed lessons in 9 different classrooms in which 23 educational videos…

  1. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  2. Ames Scientists Develop MSL Instrument

    NASA Video Gallery

    David Blake, a research scientist at NASA Ames, led the development of CheMin, one of ten scientific instruments onboard Curiosity, the Mars Scientific Laboratory. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction tool...

  3. The Cosmic Ray Observatory Project: Results of a Summer High-School Student, Teacher, University Scientist Partnership Using a Capstone Research Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shell, Duane F.; Snow, Gregory R.; Claes, Daniel R.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports results from evaluation of the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP), a student, teacher, scientist partnership to engage high-school students and teachers in school based cosmic ray research. Specifically, this study examined whether an intensive summer workshop experience could effectively prepare teacher—student teams to engage in cutting edge high-energy physics research. Results showed that teachers and students could acquire enough knowledge about cosmic ray physics and self-efficacy for conducting cosmic ray research during a summer workshop to be full participants in an SSP conducting research in their schools, and a capstone anchoring approach using an authentic research activity was effective for motivating student engagement in didactic classroom learning. CROP demonstrated "proof of concept" that setting up cosmic ray detector arrays in schools run by teachers and students was feasible, but found that set-up and operation in a high-school was technically difficult.

  4. Beyond Synthesis: Re-Presenting Heterogeneous Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester, Allan; Tate, Mary; Johnstone, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the nature, role and function of the literature review in academic discourse. Researchers in information systems (IS) are often advised to espouse a neutral viewpoint and adapt the goal of synthesising previous literature when conducting a literature review. However, since research literature in many areas of IS is diverse…

  5. Literacy and Research: Past, Present and Future. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    The importance of research in literacy is that it provides some routes to greater efficiency in literacy provision. Research from the past shows how important reading and writing have been over the centuries. Literacy was often invested with social and moral power as well, and religious literacy was the predominant form of reading and writing from…

  6. Evaluating Conflicts of Interest in Research Presented in CME Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy L.; Galliher, James M.; Spano, Mindy S.; Main, Deborah S.; Brannigan, Michael; Pace, Wilson D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is much in the literature regarding the potential for commercial bias in clinical research and in continuing medical education (CME), but no studies were found regarding the potential for bias in reporting original research in CME venues. This pilot study investigated the presence of perceived bias in oral and print content of…

  7. Haematology research in India: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2011-06-01

    Haematology research in India is relatively recent in origin. However the pioneers in the field not only did exemplary work when compared to advanced western countries, they also made it a point to develop centres of excellence and human resources for future of haematology work in this country. In this brief overview an effort has been made to give a taste of quality and expanse of haematology research in this country. This review does not claim to have described every bit of haematology research in this country. Our pioneers worked under extremely difficult and trying circumstances on a subject which was limited to funding available from Indian Council of Medical Research. Now the times have changed, several funding agencies in the country are able to provide substantial fund for research. Modern state of the art basic research institutions are tying up with medical colleges for good quality research and the seeds which our pioneers had planted have grown into a mighty tree. It would not be an exaggeration to say we are on the threshold of the golden era of haematology research in this country.

  8. Race and racism in nursing research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Porter, Cornelia P; Barbee, Evelyn

    2004-01-01

    Nursing research on race and racism began in the 1970s. However, because these concepts were seen as cultural attitudes, race and racism were obscured. The evidence on the presence of negative attitudes, biases, and stereotypes about different racial and ethnic groups is inconsistent. During the past two decades, research on race and racism has grown, but there is still an urgent need for more high-quality research on this subject. The major recommendations from this review are to conduct observational research on racism in clinical and practice settings, not as an intellectual end in itself; to assist in eliminating of the historically based disparities among members of racial and ethnic groups; and to conduct research about racism as it affects mobility in educational and practice settings.

  9. Research projects in the Surgeon-Scientist and Clinician-Investigator programs at the University of Toronto (1987-2016): a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Neil M.; Steinberg, Benjamin E.; Rutka, James T.; Chen, Robert; Cabral, Val; Rosenblum, Norman D.; Kapus, Andras; Lee, Warren L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physicians have traditionally been at the forefront of medical research, bringing clinical questions to the laboratory and returning with ideas for treatment. However, we have anecdotally observed a decline in the popularity of basic science research among trainees. We hypothesized that fewer resident physicians have been pursuing basic science research training over time. Methods: We examined records from residents in the Surgeon-Scientist and Clinician-Investigator programs at the University of Toronto (1987-2016). Research by residents was categorized independently by 2 raters as basic science, clinical epidemiology or education-related based on the title of the project, the name of the supervisor and Pubmed searches. The study population was divided into quintiles of time, and the proportion pursuing basic science training in each quintile was calculated. Results: Agreement between the raters was 100%; the categorization of the research topic remained unclear in 9 cases. The proportion of trainees pursuing basic science training dropped by 60% from 1987 to 2016 (p = 0.005). Interpretation: Significantly fewer residents in the Surgeon-Scientist and Clinician-Investigator Programs at the University of Toronto are pursuing training in the basic sciences as compared with previous years. PMID:27730108

  10. Information Presentation and Troubleshooting in Electrical Circuits. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul; van Merrienboer, Jeroen

    2004-01-01

    While learning a complex skill in science using a computer-based simulation, optimal timing of information presentation facilitates learning and enhances test performance. An optimal information presentation format is proposed: supportive information is presented before practising a skill, and procedural information is presented during practice.…

  11. Assisting Scientists With Their Broader Impacts: Examples and Outcomes of Scientist Participation In The Centers For Ocean Science Education Excellence - Pacific Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodder, J.; Boehlert, G. W.; Rowe, S.; Morgan, K.; Gehrke, C.; Cheung, I.

    2010-12-01

    The mission of the Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) network is to engage scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. One role of the COSEE centers is to assist ocean scientists in developing and implementing successful broader impact statements for grant proposals. COSEE - Pacific Partnerships (COSEE - PP) is a regional Center in the COSEE Network based at marine laboratories in Oregon, Washington, California, & Hawai'i. COSEE - PP is specifically focused on connecting research scientists with audiences that historically have been underserved by the ocean sciences community. We have developed programs that provide scientists with opportunities to fulfill the broader impact requirements of their research and have acted as a broker to connect them to audiences who can benefit from outreach. We have connected scientists with community college faculty to increase the inclusion of marine science instruction in community colleges by providing workshops where the two communities work together on current ocean science research. We have paired scientists with community college students to provide the students research and career exposure by developing a summer community college research experiences program. We have worked with scientists to deliver programs to adults who volunteer in organizations along the Oregon coast to improve their understanding of ocean science content. Each program provides scientists with opportunities to showcase their research interests and explore effective ways to present their information to different audiences. Details of the programs and outcomes for both the scientists and the participants will be presented.

  12. Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Beth D; Suarez, Edward C

    2009-07-01

    To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, genetics, immunology and cytokine response. Specific examples shed light on the importance of attending to sex and gender methodology in PNI research and recommendations are provided.

  13. Parkinson's disease and primate research: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, E A C; Aziz, T Z

    2006-01-01

    Scientific research involving non‐human primates has contributed towards many advances in medicine and surgery. This review discusses its role in the progress made towards our understanding of Parkinson's disease and its treatment. Established medical treatments like dopamine agonists continue to need primate models to assess their efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action. The recently developed treatment of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus required validation in primates before entering the clinic. Controversies surrounding future treatments such as gene therapy show the need for properly evaluated preclinical research using appropriate animal models before progression to clinical trials. Research on primates has played—and continues to play—a crucial part in deepening our understanding of Parkinson's disease, improving current therapies, and developing new treatments that are both safe and effective. In animal research, the “three Rs” of humane technique—reduction, refinement, and replacement—should be adhered to. PMID:16679465

  14. Research in paediatric neuropsychology--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Reviews of the research literature in a range of neurodevelopmental disorders and acquired brain injury reveal a remarkably consistent historical transition through three phases, here termed structural, theoretical and dynamic neuropsychology. Of course, any attempt to summarize such a complex and rich history using a simplistic heuristic will inevitably fail to capture the wide diversity of the research effort. Nevertheless, it is argued that looking at three distinct phases in the history of research helps to organize the field and points to possible future directions for applied research. Using examples from an eclectic range of disorders including childhood obsessive compulsive disorder, congenital hemiplegia and disorders implicating mutation of neurodevelopmental control genes, the implications for future efforts in paediatric neurorehabilitation are considered. PMID:14744672

  15. NSF presentation. [summary on energy conversion research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Wind energy conversion research is considered in the framework of the national energy problem. Research and development efforts for the practical application of solar energy -- including wind energy -- as alternative energy supplies are assessed in: (1) Heating and cooling of buildings; (2) photovoltaic energy conversion; (3) solar thermal energy conversion; (4) wind energy conversion; (5) ocean thermal energy conversion; (6) photosynthetic production of organic matter; and (7) conversion of organic matter into fuels.

  16. The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists.

    PubMed

    Bray, Dennis; von Storch, Hans

    2014-11-01

    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists' subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton's CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present in the conduct of climate scientists: there is a tendency to withhold results until publication, there is the intention of maintaining property rights, there is external influence defining research and the tendency to assign the significance of authored work according to the status of the author rather than content of the paper. These are contrary to the norms of science as proposed by Robert K. Merton.

  17. The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists.

    PubMed

    Bray, Dennis; von Storch, Hans

    2014-11-01

    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists' subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton's CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present in the conduct of climate scientists: there is a tendency to withhold results until publication, there is the intention of maintaining property rights, there is external influence defining research and the tendency to assign the significance of authored work according to the status of the author rather than content of the paper. These are contrary to the norms of science as proposed by Robert K. Merton. PMID:25381220

  18. Community-based participatory research helps farmers and scientists to manage invasive pests in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Dangles, O; Carpio, F C; Villares, M; Yumisaca, F; Liger, B; Rebaudo, F; Silvain, J F

    2010-06-01

    Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection between the abundance of one of the species (Tecia solanivora) and the remoteness to the main market place. This suggests that mechanisms structuring invasive populations at the invasion front are different from those occurring in areas invaded for longer period. Participatory monitoring with local people may serve as a cost-effective early warning system to detect and control incipient invasive pest species in countries where the daily management of biological resources is largely in the hands of poor rural people.

  19. A Matrix Mentoring Model That Effectively Supports Clinical and Translational Scientists and Increases Inclusion in Biomedical Research: Lessons From the University of Utah.

    PubMed

    Byington, Carrie L; Keenan, Heather; Phillips, John D; Childs, Rebecca; Wachs, Erin; Berzins, Mary Anne; Clark, Kim; Torres, Maria K; Abramson, Jan; Lee, Vivian; Clark, Edward B

    2016-04-01

    Physician-scientists and scientists in all the health professions are vital members of the U.S. biomedical workforce, but their numbers at academic health centers are declining. Mentorship has been identified as a key component in retention of faculty members at academic health centers. Effective mentoring may promote the retention of clinician-scientists in the biomedical workforce. The authors describe a holistic institutional mentoring program to support junior faculty members engaged in clinical and translational science at the University of Utah. The clinical and translational scholars (CATS) program leverages the resources of the institution, including the Center for Clinical and Translational Science, to augment departmental resources to support junior faculty investigators and uses a multilevel mentoring matrix that includes self, senior, scientific, peer, and staff mentorship. Begun in the Department of Pediatrics, the program was expanded in 2013 to include all departments in the school of medicine and the health sciences. During the two-year program, scholars learn management essentials and have leadership training designed to develop principal investigators. Of the 86 program participants since fiscal year 2008, 92% have received extramural awards, 99% remain in academic medicine, and 95% remain at the University of Utah. The CATS program has also been associated with increased inclusion of women and underrepresented minorities in the institutional research enterprise. The CATS program manifests institutional collaboration and coordination of resources, which have benefited faculty members and the institution. The model can be applied to other academic health centers to support and sustain the biomedical workforce.

  20. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 4:] Technical communications in aerospace: An analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    Two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: (1) solicit opinions regarding the importance of technical communications; (2) determine the use and production of technical communications; (3) seek views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; (4) determine use of libraries, information centers, and online database; (5) determine use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected aerospace engineers and scientists, with a slightly modified version sent to European colleagues. Their responses to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  1. Scientist in residence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, David

    1990-03-01

    In order to enthuse secondary school students about science, and physics in particular, the author spent two one-week periods taking classes in local secondary schools as a `scientist in residence'. Two different private schools were involved and classes were given to students in the last four years preceding tertiary entrance. This article relates some of the motivation, method and implementation of this novel idea and some tentative conclusions are presented.

  2. Thinking like a scientist: innateness as a case study.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Samuels, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of innateness appears in systematic research within cognitive science, but it also appears in less systematic modes of thought that long predate the scientific study of the mind. The present studies therefore explore the relationship between the properly scientific uses of this concept and its role in ordinary folk understanding. Studies 1-4 examined the judgments of people with no specific training in cognitive science. Results showed (a) that judgments about whether a trait was innate were not affected by whether or not the trait was learned, but (b) such judgments were impacted by moral considerations. Study 5 looked at the judgments of both non-scientists and scientists, in conditions that encouraged either thinking about individual cases or thinking about certain general principles. In the case-based condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of moral considerations but little impact of learning. In the principled condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of learning but little impact of moral considerations. These results suggest that both non-scientists and scientists are drawn to a conception of innateness that differs from the one at work in contemporary scientific research but that they are also both capable of 'filtering out' their initial intuitions and using a more scientific approach.

  3. The past and present of blast injury research in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing incidence of blast injury, the research on its mechanisms and protective measures draws more and more attention. Blast injury has many characteristics different from general war injuries or trauma. For example, soldiers often have various degrees of visceral injury without significant surface damage, combined injuries and arterial air embolism. Researchers in China began to investigate blast injury later than the United States and Sweden, but the development is so fast that lots of achievements have been gained, including the development of biological shock tube, the mechanisms and characteristics of blast injury in various organs, as well as protective measures under special environments. This article reviews the past and current situation of blast injury research in China.

  4. The present and future role of microfluidics in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Sackmann, Eric K; Fulton, Anna L; Beebe, David J

    2014-03-13

    Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids at the submillimetre scale, has shown considerable promise for improving diagnostics and biology research. Certain properties of microfluidic technologies, such as rapid sample processing and the precise control of fluids in an assay, have made them attractive candidates to replace traditional experimental approaches. Here we analyse the progress made by lab-on-a-chip microtechnologies in recent years, and discuss the clinical and research areas in which they have made the greatest impact. We also suggest directions that biologists, engineers and clinicians can take to help this technology live up to its potential.

  5. The present and future role of microfluidics in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackmann, Eric K.; Fulton, Anna L.; Beebe, David J.

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids at the submillimetre scale, has shown considerable promise for improving diagnostics and biology research. Certain properties of microfluidic technologies, such as rapid sample processing and the precise control of fluids in an assay, have made them attractive candidates to replace traditional experimental approaches. Here we analyse the progress made by lab-on-a-chip microtechnologies in recent years, and discuss the clinical and research areas in which they have made the greatest impact. We also suggest directions that biologists, engineers and clinicians can take to help this technology live up to its potential.

  6. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-08-10

    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  7. Present State and Prospects for the Meteor Research in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, O.; Voloshchuk, Y.; Kolomiyets, S.; Cherkas, Y.; Kimakovskay, I.; Kimakovsky, S.; Knyazkova, E.; Kozyryev, Y.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Gorbanev, Y.; Stogneeva, I.; Shestopalov, V.; Kozak, P.; Rozhilo, O.; Taranukha, Y.

    2015-03-01

    ODESSA. Systematical study of the meteor events are being carried out since 1953. In 2003 complete modernization of the observing technique was performed, and TV gmeteor patrolh on the base of WATEC LCL902 cameras was created. @ wide variety of mounts and objectives are used: from Schmidt telescope F = 540 mm, F/D = 2.25 (field of view FOV = (0.68x0.51) deg, star limiting magnitude SLM = 13.5 mag, star astrometric accuracy 1-2 arcsec) up to Fisheye lenses F = 8 mm, F/D = 3.5 (FOV = (36x49) deg, SLM = 7 mag). The database of observations that was collected between 2003 and 2012 consists of 6176 registered meteor events. Observational programs on basis and non-basis observations in Odessa (Kryzhanovka station) and Zmeiny island are presented. Software suite of 12 programs was created for processing of meteor TV observations. It enables one to carry out the whole cycle of data processing: from image preprocessing up to orbital elements determination. Major meteor particles research directions: statistic, areas of streams, precise stream radiant, orbit elements, phenomena physics, flare appearance, wakes, afterglow, chemistry and density. KYIV. The group of meteor investigations has been functioning more than twenty years. The observations are carried out simultaneously from two points placed at the distance of 54 km. Super-isocon low light camera tubes are used with photo lens: F = 50mm, F/D = 1.5 (FOV = (23.5 x 19.0) deg, SLM = 9.5 mag), or F = 85, F/D = 1.5 (FOV = (13x11) deg, SLM = 11.5 mag). Astrometry, photometry, calculation of meteor trajectory in Earth atmosphere and computation of heliocentric orbit are realized in developed gFalling Starh software. KHARKOV. Meteor radio-observations have begun in 1957. In 1972, the radiolocation system MARS designed for automatic meteor registration was recognized as being the most sensitive system in the world. With the help of this system 250 000 faint meteors (up to 12 mag) were registered between 1972 and 1978 (frequency

  8. Research on Community Bands: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature was to synthesize findings of studies investigating community bands. This review of literature centers on research that has been conducted on community bands in status studies, historical/cultural studies, pedagogical studies, health and wellness studies, and intergenerational studies. The last section of…

  9. Studies in Teaching 1999 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    This publication presents a collection of research projects presented at the Annual Research Forum at Wake Forest University: "The Use of Group Work as an Effective Teaching Technique in Lower Level Spanish Classes" (James Blackburn); "What Are the Real Factors behind Student Motivation?" (Matthew Grey Burdick); "Can Students Communicate…

  10. Visual self-images of scientists and science in Greece.

    PubMed

    Christidou, Vasilia; Kouvatas, Apostolos

    2013-01-01

    A popular and well-established image of scientists and science dominates in the public field, signifying a contradictory and multifaceted combination of stereotypes. This paper investigates crucial aspects of the visual self-image of Greek scientists and science as exposed in photographic material retrieved from relevant institutions' websites. In total 971 photos were analysed along dimensions corresponding to the image of scientists and science. Analysis demonstrates ambivalence in Greek scientists' self-images between traditional stereotypic characteristics and an intention to overcome them. Differences between the self-images of physics, chemistry and biology are determined, as well as between the "masculine" and "feminine" face of science. Implications concerning improvements in science and scientists' self-images and further research are presented. PMID:23832887

  11. Becoming a scientist: A qualitative study of the educational experience of undergraduates working in an American and a Brazilian research laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoa, Maria Beatriz Amorim

    Because the production of scientific and technological innovations has been at the center of debates for economic growth, scientists are recognized as important actors in the current global market. In this study, I will examine the undergraduate education of future scientists by focusing on students working in research projects of faculty members. This research activity has been promoted by American and Brazilian public agencies as an attempt to attract more college students to scientific careers as well as to improve their future performance in science. Evaluations of these programs have focused on important quantitative indicators focusing mainly on the amount of students that later choose to pursue scientific careers. However, these studies fail to address important educational aspects of undergraduates' experience. In this research, I explore the educational processes taking place as students are introduced to the making of science in order to understand how and what they are learning. Three bodies of literature illuminates the formulation and the analysis of the research questions: (1) theories of globalization situate the education of scientists within the dynamics of a broader social, economic, cultural, and historical framework; (2) the critical pedagogy of Paulo Freire is the basis for the understanding of the pedagogical processes shaping undergraduate students' experiences within the research site; (3) Critical and Cultural Studies of Science and Technology illuminate the analysis of the complex interactions and practices constructed within the laboratory. In order to understand the educational processes shaping the experiences of undergraduate students engaged in research activities, I conducted a qualitative investigation based on participant-observation and in-depth interviews in an American and a Brazilian laboratories. The two sites constituted insightful case studies that illuminated the understanding of inquires about the training of students in

  12. The NASA Ames Controlled Environment Research Chamber: Present status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Harper, Lynn D.; Force, Edwin L.

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Environment Research Chamber (CERC) at the NASA Ames Research Center was created for early-on investigation of promising new technologies for life support of advanced space exploration missions. The CERC facility is being used to address the advanced technology requirements necessary to implement an integrated working and living environment for a planetary habitat. The CERC, along with a human-powered centrifuge, a planetary terrain simulator, advanced displays, and a virtual reality, is able to develop and demonstrate applicable technologies for future planetary exploration. There will be several robotic mechanisms performing exploration tasks external to the habitat that will be controlled through the virtual environment to provide representative workloads for the crew. Finally, there will be a discussion of innovative new multidisciplinary test facilities, and how effective they are to the investigation of the wide range of human and machine problems inherent in exploration missions.

  13. The NASA Ames Controlled Environment Research Chamber - Present status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Harper, Lynn D.; Force, Edwin L.

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Environment Research Chamber (CERC) at the NASA Ames Research Center was created for early-on investigation of promising new technologies for life support of advanced space exploration missions. The CERC facility is being used to address the advanced technology requirements necessary to implement an integrated working and living environment for a planetary habitat. The CERC, along with a human-powered centrifuge, a planetary terrain simulator, advanced displays, and a virtual reality capability, is able to develop and demonstrate applicable technologies for future planetary exploration. There will be several robotic mechanisms performing exploration taskes external to the habitat that will be controlled through the virtual environment to provide representative workloads for the crew. Finally, there will be a discussion of innovative new multidisciplinary test facilities, and how effective they are to the investigation of the wide range of human and machine problems inherent in exploration missions.

  14. Sleep Apnea Research in Animals. Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Swati; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Jun, Jonathan C

    2016-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that describes recurrent collapse of the upper airway during sleep. Animal models have been pivotal to the understanding of OSA pathogenesis, consequences, and treatment. In this review, we highlight the history of OSA research in animals and include the discovery of animals with spontaneous OSA, the induction of OSA in animals, and the emulation of OSA using exposures to intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation.

  15. Research goes to School: understanding the content and the procedures of Science through a new dialogue among students, teachers and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The Education system is increasingly interested in a more interactive dialogue with scientists in order to make science taught at school more aware of the models and the ways in which knowledge is produced, revised and discussed within the scientific community. Not always, in fact, the ministerial programs, the media, and the textbooks adopted by schools seem to be able to grasp the content and the procedures of the scientific knowledge as it is today being developed, sometimes spreading the idea of a monolithic and static science, with no reference to revisions, uncertainties, errors and disputes that, on the opposite, characterize the debate about science. On the other side, scientists, that in several surveys define students and teachers as one of the key groups that are most important to communicate with, often do not seem to be aware that scientific knowledge is continuously revised by the school and its protagonists. Science teaching, in all classes, has a highly educational role, as it offers the opportunity to value individual differences, to make students acquire specific tools and methods that enable them understand the world and critically interact with it. In this process of conscious learning, in which teachers play the role of tutors, the student participates actively bringing his tacit knowledge and beliefs. In this context, an educational proposal has recently been developed by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), aimed at starting a new dialogue between Education and Research. It's a way to encourage the technical and scientific culture among young people and a mutual exchange between the two main actors of the scientific production and promotion, considering weaknesses and strengths of the relationship between these two systems. In this proposal, students and teachers follow side by side a group of CNR scientists involved in an ongoing research project based on the use of innovative methodologies of aerospace Earth Observation (EO) for

  16. [QOL research in child health. Present state and issues].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Makiko; Umeno, Yuko; Kato, Noriko

    2006-11-01

    The evaluation of QOL (Quality of Life) in the medical field has revolved around the development of self-measurement scales comprising two or more questions based on psychometric theory. QOL research in the field of child health progressed in the latter half of the 80s in the United States, and aspects of ambiguity and adaptation to the environment of children were recognized. Objective health and subjective health differ significantly among children and are strongly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, QOL in early life anticipates the later health status in adolescence and youth. For these reasons, QOL research in the field of child health is very important. More than 20 scales, exemplified by CHQ, PedsQL, TACQOL/TAPQOL, and COOP charts, exist as standard generic QOL indices for children. Disease-specific scales cover epilepsy, asthma, and allergic disease, as discussed in a number of early studies. Diabetes, skin disease, and cancer are also major research subjects. Self-evaluation is one of the principles of QOL research; it is stated that children in the age group of 5-6 years are already capable of expressing pain and their physical condition and that the competency to describe abstract concepts such as pride and happiness matures around the age of 9-10 years. Sources of information such as the computer have developed and spread remarkably in recent years. The use of such technology facilitates the evaluation of young children with a high level of accuracy. The problems currently faced are the low reliability of responses of children, difficulties in cross-cultural comparison, and transformation of the sense of values according to growth. In conclusion, the development of QOL research in the field of child health should allow realization of an improved health situation in which children's points of view are included in the decision-making process for required treatments and health care policy. Further, health administration can be expected to

  17. Science Educational Outreach Programs That Benefit Students and Scientists.

    PubMed

    Clark, Greg; Russell, Josh; Enyeart, Peter; Gracia, Brant; Wessel, Aimee; Jarmoskaite, Inga; Polioudakis, Damon; Stuart, Yoel; Gonzalez, Tony; MacKrell, Al; Rodenbusch, Stacia; Stovall, Gwendolyn M; Beckham, Josh T; Montgomery, Michael; Tasneem, Tania; Jones, Jack; Simmons, Sarah; Roux, Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs--"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist"--that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities. PMID:26844991

  18. Science Educational Outreach Programs That Benefit Students and Scientists.

    PubMed

    Clark, Greg; Russell, Josh; Enyeart, Peter; Gracia, Brant; Wessel, Aimee; Jarmoskaite, Inga; Polioudakis, Damon; Stuart, Yoel; Gonzalez, Tony; MacKrell, Al; Rodenbusch, Stacia; Stovall, Gwendolyn M; Beckham, Josh T; Montgomery, Michael; Tasneem, Tania; Jones, Jack; Simmons, Sarah; Roux, Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs--"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist"--that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities.

  19. Geomagnetically induced currents: Present knowledge and future research

    SciTech Connect

    Boteler, D.H. )

    1994-01-01

    The knowledge base regarding the production of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in power systems is briefly reviewed. The relationship between electric and magnetic fields for a layered earth is derived and used to calculate the electric fields produced in Quebec during the March 13, 1989, magnetic disturbance. Factors influencing the distribution of GIC throughout a system are also examined. The transfer functions of the earth and of power systems vary with frequency and so the relation between GIC and magnetic field variations is most appropriately examined in the frequency domain. Data collection requirements to allow this in future research are discussed.

  20. Research Focus: Reflections on Science Education Research Presentations at ASE 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Deb; Oversby, John; Woodhouse, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The original call for research papers went out in the summer of 2011 and, by September, there were over thirty abstracts returned for review, from many countries including Hong Kong, Nigeria, Poland, Jamaica, Malta, the United States, Japan, Ireland and, of course, Britain. Of the proposals reviewed and accepted, 21 were finally presented at…

  1. Deaf students and scientists side-by-side: Self-efficacy and modeling in real-world earth science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepson, Patricia Jane

    Deaf and hard of hearing students from five high schools were involved in an earth science project on geological faults. Variables of interest were self-efficacy in science and self-efficacy in career decision-making. The influence and characteristics of role models for deaf and hard of hearing students were also examined. Social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) was used as the theoretical base in this mixed method study. The fault curriculum unit was a collaborative project between Geosciences faculty at the University of Massachusetts and SOAR-High, an earth science program coordinated by the Clerc Center at Gallaudet University. Students participated in three interconnected learning components: (a) classroom experiments using a specially designed sandbox unit to model changes that take place in the earth's crust; (b) videoconferences with geoscientists; and (c) a five-day field trip where students, teachers, and scientists worked side-by-side in the field studying faults in Utah. Quantitative and qualitative data focused on science self-efficacy, career decision-making self-efficacy, and the influence of role models. Results suggested that active, student-centered learning activities had a positive impact on science self-efficacy and career decision making self-efficacy.

  2. Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wolden, C.A.; Fthenakis, V.; Kurtin, J.; Baxter, J.; Repins, I.; Shasheen, S.; Torvik, J.; Rocket, A.; Aydil, E.

    2011-03-29

    In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article summarizes the major conclusions and outcomes from this workshop, which was focused on identifying the science that needs to be done to help accelerate PV manufacturing. A significant portion of the article focuses on assessing the current status of and future opportunities in the major PV manufacturing technologies. These are solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe), thin films of copper indium gallium diselenide, and thin films of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon. Current trends indicate that the cost per watt of c-Si and CdTe solar cells are being reduced to levels beyond the constraints commonly associated with these technologies. With a focus on TW/yr production capacity, the issue of material availability is discussed along with the emerging technologies of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics that are potentially less constrained by elemental abundance. Lastly, recommendations are made for research investment, with an emphasis on those areas that are expected to have cross-cutting impact.

  3. SMART Designs in Cancer Research: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Kidwell, Kelley M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer affects millions of people worldwide each year. Patients require sequences of treatment based on their response to previous treatments to combat cancer and fight metastases. Physicians provide treatment based on clinical characteristics, changing over time. Guidelines for these individualized sequences of treatments are known as dynamic treatment regimens (DTRs) where the initial treatment and subsequent modifications depend on the response to previous treatments, disease progression and other patient characteristics or behaviors. To provide evidence-based DTRs, the Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART) has emerged over the past few decades. Purpose To examine and learn from past SMARTs investigating cancer treatment options, to discuss potential limitations preventing the widespread use of SMARTs in cancer research, and to describe courses of action to increase the implementation of SMARTs and collaboration between statisticians and clinicians. Conclusions There have been SMARTs investigating treatment questions in areas of cancer, but the novelty and perceived complexity has limited its use. By building bridges between statisticians and clinicians, clarifying research objectives, and furthering methods work, there should be in an increase in SMARTs addressing relevant cancer treatment questions. Within any area of cancer, SMARTs develop DTRs that can guide treatment decisions over the disease history and improve patient outcomes. PMID:24733671

  4. Past, Present, and Future of Traumatic Brain Injury Research.

    PubMed

    Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Bullock, M Ross

    2016-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the greatest cause of death and severe disability in young adults; its incidence is increasing in the elderly and in the developing world. Outcome from severe TBI has improved dramatically as a result of advancements in trauma systems and supportive critical care, however we remain without a therapeutic which acts directly to attenuate brain injury. Recognition of secondary injury and its molecular mediators has raised hopes for such targeted treatments. Unfortunately, over 30 late-phase clinical trials investigating promising agents have failed to translate a therapeutic for clinical use. Numerous explanations for this failure have been postulated and are reviewed here. With this historical context we review ongoing research and anticipated future trends which are armed with lessons from past trials, new scientific advances, as well as improved research infrastructure and funding. There is great hope that these new efforts will finally lead to an effective therapeutic for TBI as well as better clinical management strategies. PMID:27637391

  5. Past and present research on gray whale vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollervides, Francisco

    2002-05-01

    Eberhadt and Evans first recorded vocalizations of gray whales in 1967 in Laguna Ojo de Liebre, Mexico. Three and a half decades of bioacoustic research on gray whales has followed this groundbreaking work. Gray whales appear more vocal while at the southern breeding lagoons off Baja California and are least vocal at the northern feeding areas of the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas. Ten different vocalizations have been identified on the breeding grounds, while only six different vocalizations have been recorded on the feeding grounds. Evans also conducted the first recordings of vocalizations of gray whales in captivity with his work on J.J. II in San Diego in 1974. Since then, the database of captive gray whale vocalizations has expanded with research on GiGi in 1997. From this review, an acoustic repertoire of at least 12 different types of vocalizations is suggested. Nevertheless, not all gray whale calls fall into obvious or distinct categories; thus, correlating specific behaviors with each vocalization type merits further study.

  6. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  7. The Current Situation of Female Scientists in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llois, Ana María; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2009-04-01

    We report the changes that have taken place recently regarding the situation of female scientists in Argentina. We comment on the rules for maternity leave that have been passed recently for research scholars doing their PhDs and on the number of women scientists that occupy decision making-positions in science. We also present some evidence that seems to indicate that, among young scientists, women are more willing to occupy leadership positions and that the Argentinean society is more accepting of this new role.

  8. Organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites: past, present and future research.

    PubMed

    Sephton, Mark A

    2005-12-15

    Carbonaceous meteorites are fragments of ancient asteroids that have remained relatively unprocessed since the formation of the Solar System. These carbon-rich objects provide a record of prebiotic chemical evolution and a window on the early Solar System. Many compound classes are present reflecting a rich organic chemical environment during the formation of the planets. Recent theories suggest that similar extraterrestrial organic mixtures may have acted as the starting materials for life on Earth.

  9. Training the translational scientist.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Gabriel, Sherine; Pariser, Anne; Feig, Peter

    2010-12-22

    A Clinical and Translational Science Awards Industry Forum titled "Promoting Efficient and Effective Collaborations Among Academia, Government, and Industry" was held in February 2010. A session at this forum was organized to address the training and skills needed to develop a biomedical scientific workforce that interfaces academia, government agencies, and industry to support the process of translating science into applicable means to improve health. By examining the requisite competencies and training resources for scientists in each of these sectors, opportunities for collaboration and adoption of new educational strategies were identified that could help to address barriers to translational research education and career development.

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 36: Technical uncertainty as a correlate of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exploratory study that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty on the use of information and information sources by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists in completing or solving a project, task, or problem. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Survey participants were U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists whose names appeared on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list. The results support the findings of previous research and the following study assumptions. Information and information-source use differ for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty. As technical uncertainty increases, information-source use changes from internal to external and from informal to formal sources. As technical uncertainty increases, so too does the use of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The use of formal information sources to learn about federally funded aerospace R&D differs for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty.

  11. The past, present and future tasks of Hungarian dendrological research.

    PubMed

    Bartha, D

    2010-01-01

    Hungarian dendrological research (research of living woody plants) has more than 200 years old history; the first general work by János Keresztély Grossinger was published in 1797. Further basic works in our time yet are: Forest Botany by Lajos Fekete and Sándor Mágócsy-Dietz (1896); and the chorological work, Distribution of trees and shrubs of sylvicultural importance in the region of Hungarian State by Lajos Fekete and Tibor Blattny (1913). A few dendrologists and many botanists have helped to get better knowledge of Hungarian dendroflora. From the point of view of taxonomy, chorology and habitat - which are interested by field botanists - it can be said that knowledge is fairly heterogeneous. There are sufficient information about most of the rare (protected/endangered) woody plants (an about 50 species) and the important adventives, above all invasive trees and shrubs (an about 10 species). From these two groups beyond there are only few taxa which can be said thoroughly worked up and known (e.g. Castanea sativa, Cornus mas, Fraxinus spp., Quercus spp.). List of the dendrotaxa, hardly known in the above-mentioned point of view is rich in species that are important for forestry or horticulture (e.g. Alnus glutinosa, Acer spp., Betula pendula, Corylusavellana and most of Salix spp.), supplemented with other species (e.g. Clematis vitalba, Colutea arborescens, Lonicera xylosteum, Padus avium, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, Viburnum spp.).Followings can be asked from our field botanists: i) look for a specialist in cases of critical dendrotaxa; ii) a circumspect identification is necessary - especially in the case of leaves - by right of great number of samples from the adequate part of shoot; iii) keep in view frequent hybridization (e.g. in the case of Betula, Crataegus, Pyrus, Tilia), and frequent appearance of hybrids (e.g. Betula × rhombifolia, Cerasus × eminens, Salix × rubens); iv) appearance of interim forms are usually typical in the cases of

  12. Two-Year Community: Developing Scientists--A Multiyear Research Experience at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nichole L.; Harmon, Brenda B.

    2014-01-01

    Oxford College is a small liberal-arts intensive 2-year undergraduate division of Emory University, where inquiry-based courses are a required part of the general education program. We have developed an authentic research experience for undergraduates that mimics--as much as possible--a real undergraduate research experience. Our program provides…

  13. Studies in Teaching: 2002 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the of an annual educational research forum held at Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) on December 11, 2002. A table of contents and 27 research studies of high school teaching are included. Studies include: Effects of the Earth/Environmental Science Requirement on High School Science Enrollment in North…

  14. History of Ozone Research: From Schonbein to the Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    In 1840, C.F. Schonbein recognized that the smell generated in several different electrical and chemical processes was a single substance. He named this substance "ozein" from the Greek for "to smell". This substance we know today as ozone. Several periods can be distinguished in the continued development of our understanding of ozone. Throughout the late 19th century, the identity and properties of ozone were established and described. Ozone was recognized to be a constituent of normal air and tests were established to measure its concentration. Its disinfectant properties were recognized. New methods were developed for making ozone in the laboratory. In 1879, ultraviolet spectroscopic techniques were applied to the measurement of the solar spectrum and it was discovered by Comu that the spectrum was cut off at about 300 nm wavelength. Hartley suggested, based on laboratory measurements, that this cutoff was due to ozone in the atmosphere which he correctly asserted was somewhere in the upper atmosphere. This began the period of development of the amount and distribution of ozone throughout the atmosphere. In 1930, Chapman put forward the first theory of the formation and destruction of ozone. By the mid-1960s it was becoming obvious that the description of the chemical loss term was inadequate. By the early 1970s the chemical destruction of ozone by the oxides of hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, and bromine was recognized as an essential element in the chemical balance determining the ozone concentration. Today, ozone is a broad research project which crosses the boundaries of traditional disciplines. Stratospheric ozone loss due to chlorofluorocarbons is a newsworthy item. The Antarctic ozone hole opens up every spring. The provisions of the Montreal Protocol were agreed upon by countries around the world and promise to reduce the future levels of ozone-destroying chlorine in the stratosphere. Ozone concentrations in polluted cities are a subject of local and

  15. A Matrix Mentoring Model That Effectively Supports Clinical and Translational Scientists and Increases Inclusion in Biomedical Research: Lessons From the University of Utah.

    PubMed

    Byington, Carrie L; Keenan, Heather; Phillips, John D; Childs, Rebecca; Wachs, Erin; Berzins, Mary Anne; Clark, Kim; Torres, Maria K; Abramson, Jan; Lee, Vivian; Clark, Edward B

    2016-04-01

    Physician-scientists and scientists in all the health professions are vital members of the U.S. biomedical workforce, but their numbers at academic health centers are declining. Mentorship has been identified as a key component in retention of faculty members at academic health centers. Effective mentoring may promote the retention of clinician-scientists in the biomedical workforce. The authors describe a holistic institutional mentoring program to support junior faculty members engaged in clinical and translational science at the University of Utah. The clinical and translational scholars (CATS) program leverages the resources of the institution, including the Center for Clinical and Translational Science, to augment departmental resources to support junior faculty investigators and uses a multilevel mentoring matrix that includes self, senior, scientific, peer, and staff mentorship. Begun in the Department of Pediatrics, the program was expanded in 2013 to include all departments in the school of medicine and the health sciences. During the two-year program, scholars learn management essentials and have leadership training designed to develop principal investigators. Of the 86 program participants since fiscal year 2008, 92% have received extramural awards, 99% remain in academic medicine, and 95% remain at the University of Utah. The CATS program has also been associated with increased inclusion of women and underrepresented minorities in the institutional research enterprise. The CATS program manifests institutional collaboration and coordination of resources, which have benefited faculty members and the institution. The model can be applied to other academic health centers to support and sustain the biomedical workforce. PMID:26650676

  16. A Matrix Mentoring Model That Effectively Supports Clinical and Translational Scientists and Increases Inclusion in Biomedical Research: Lessons From the University of Utah

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Heather; Phillips, John D.; Childs, Rebecca; Wachs, Erin; Berzins, Mary Anne; Clark, Kim; Torres, Maria K.; Abramson, Jan; Lee, Vivian; Clark, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Physician–scientists and scientists in all the health professions are vital members of the U.S. biomedical workforce, but their numbers at academic health centers are declining. Mentorship has been identified as a key component in retention of faculty members at academic health centers. Effective mentoring may promote the retention of clinician–scientists in the biomedical workforce. The authors describe a holistic institutional mentoring program to support junior faculty members engaged in clinical and translational science at the University of Utah. The clinical and translational scholars (CATS) program leverages the resources of the institution, including the Center for Clinical and Translational Science, to augment departmental resources to support junior faculty investigators and uses a multilevel mentoring matrix that includes self, senior, scientific, peer, and staff mentorship. Begun in the Department of Pediatrics, the program was expanded in 2013 to include all departments in the school of medicine and the health sciences. During the two-year program, scholars learn management essentials and have leadership training designed to develop principal investigators. Of the 86 program participants since fiscal year 2008, 92% have received extramural awards, 99% remain in academic medicine, and 95% remain at the University of Utah. The CATS program has also been associated with increased inclusion of women and underrepresented minorities in the institutional research enterprise. The CATS program manifests institutional collaboration and coordination of resources, which have benefited faculty members and the institution. The model can be applied to other academic health centers to support and sustain the biomedical workforce. PMID:26650676

  17. Dissemination of Health-Related Research among Scientists in Three Countries: Access to Resources and Current Practices

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Wilson, Paul; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In public health and clinical settings insufficient dissemination of evidence-based practices limits the reach of new discoveries to broad populations. This study aimed to describe characteristics of the dissemination process by researchers across three countries (Brazil, United Kingdom, and United States), explore how designing for dissemination practices has been used, and analyze factors associated with dissemination. Methods. A similar online survey was used to query researchers across the three countries; data were pooled to draw cross-country conclusions. Findings. This study identified similarities and differences between countries. Importance of dissemination to nonresearcher audiences was widely recognized as important; however, traditional academic venues were the main dissemination method. Several factors were associated with self-rated dissemination effort in the pooled sample, but these predictive factors (e.g., support and resources for dissemination) had low prevalence. Less than one-third of researchers rated their level of effort for dissemination as excellent. Respondents reported limited support and resources to make it easier for researchers who might want to disseminate their findings. Conclusion. Though intentions show the importance of dissemination, researchers across countries lack supports to increase dissemination efforts. Additional resources and training in designing for dissemination along with improved partnerships could help bridge the research-practice gap. PMID:26495287

  18. Scientists feature their work in Arctic-focused short videos by FrontierScientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; O'Connell, E.

    2013-12-01

    on presenting what they're passionate about, not get bogged down by basic groundwork. Vlogs and short video bios showcase the enthusiasm and personality of the scientists, an important ingredient in crafting compelling videos. Featured scientists become better communicators, and learn to bring their research to life. When viewers see that genuine wonder, they can be motivated to ask questions and pursue more information about the topic, broadening community participation. The website interface opens the door to audience discussion. Digital media is a community builder, an inclusive tool that lets people continents-apart engage with compelling stories and then interact. Internet videos have become a means of supplementing face-to-face education; video reaches people, it's informal self-education from the comfort of one's own computer screen. FS uses videos and social media as part of an education outreach effort directed at lifelong learners. We feature not only scientists, but also teachers who've gone into the field to add to their own science knowledge, and to bring back new lessons for their students. Students who are exposed to FS videos see science in action in the professional world, which might inspire them in a STEM academic and career path, encouraging the next generation of researchers, as well as scientific and environmental literacy.

  19. An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.

    2001-05-01

    Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative

  20. The Virtual Scientist: connecting university scientists to the K-12 classroom through videoconferencing.

    PubMed

    McCombs, Glenn B; Ufnar, Jennifer A; Shepherd, Virginia L

    2007-03-01

    The Vanderbilt University Center for Science Outreach (CSO) connects university scientists to the K-12 community to enhance and improve science education. The Virtual Scientist program utilizes interactive videoconference (IVC) to facilitate this connection, providing 40-50 sessions per academic year to a national audience. Scientists, defined as research faculty members, clinicians, postdoctoral fellows, graduate and medical students, and professional staff, participate through conventional volunteer recruitment and program announcements as well as outreach partnership efforts with other Vanderbilt centers. These experts present 30- to 45-min long, grade-appropriate content sessions from the CSO IVC studio or their own laboratory. Teachers register for sessions via an on-line application process. After the session, teachers, students, and experts are requested to complete an anonymous on-line evaluation that addresses both technical- and content-associated issues. Results from 2003 to the present indicated a favorable assessment for a promising program. Results showed that 69% of students (n = 335) and 88% of teachers (n = 111) felt that IVC improved access to scientists, whereas 97% of students (n = 382) and teachers (n = 126) and 100% of scientists (n = 23) indicated that they would participate in future videoconferences. Students and teachers considered that the Virtual Scientist program was effective [76% (n = 381) and 89% (n = 127), respectively]. In addition, experts supported IVC as effective in teaching [87% (n = 23)]. Because of the favorable responses from experts, teachers, and students, the CSO will continue to implement IVC as a tool to foster interactions of scientists with K-12 classrooms.

  1. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  2. Some Psychological Knowledge for Scientists' Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miclea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Relying on empirical evidences our paper presents the most salient personality traits, developmental factors and cognitive characteristics of the scientists. We claim that a sound exploration of scientists' mind and patterns of behavior could improve public support for science and enhance scientists' mutual understanding.

  3. The Value of Applied Research: Retrieval Practice Improves Classroom Learning and Recommendations from a Teacher, a Principal, and a Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Pooja K.; Bain, Patrice M.; Chamberlain, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the course of a 5-year applied research project with more than 1,400 middle school students, evidence from a number of studies revealed that retrieval practice in authentic classroom settings improves long-term learning (Agarwal et al. 2009; McDaniel et al., "Journal of Educational Psychology" 103:399-414, 2011; McDaniel et al. 2012; Roediger…

  4. Military Utilization of a Sample of Graduate Scientists and Engineers 1968-1971. Research Memorandum 74-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Betty M.

    This publication is an informal report on a technical research problem, that of manpower utilization. This report is based on the results of a questionnaire sent out in 1973 and completed and returned by 621 men. The sample was the result of a steady attrition of the 3,000 men who responded to a short news item in "Science" magazine inviting…

  5. Mission and Research Scientists in NASA EPO and STEM Education: The Results of 15 Years of EPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Mueller, B.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2014-07-01

    Exploration of the Solar System and beyond is a team effort, from research programs to space missions. The same is true for science education. James Webb Space Telescope's Near InfraRed Camera EPO Team has been teamed with Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona for nearly a decade. We now have collaborations throughout Arizona and across the nation.

  6. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  7. Involving Practicing Scientists in K-12 Science Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Science Teacher Education Program (STEP) offered a unique framework for creating professional development courses focused on Arctic research from 2006-2009. Under the STEP framework, science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training was delivered by teams of practicing Arctic researchers in partnership with master teachers with 20+ years experience teaching STEM content in K-12 classrooms. Courses based on the framework were offered to educators across Alaska. STEP offered in-person summer-intensive institutes and follow-on audio-conferenced field-test courses during the academic year, supplemented by online scientist mentorship for teachers. During STEP courses, teams of scientists offered in-depth STEM content instruction at the graduate level for teachers of all grade levels. STEP graduate-level training culminated in the translation of information and data learned from Arctic scientists into standard-aligned lessons designed for immediate use in K-12 classrooms. This presentation will focus on research that explored the question: To what degree was scientist involvement beneficial to teacher training and to what degree was STEP scientist involvement beneficial to scientist instructors? Data sources reveal consistently high levels of ongoing (4 year) scientist and teacher participation; high STEM content learning outcomes for teachers; high STEM content learning outcomes for students; high ratings of STEP courses by scientists and teachers; and a discussion of the reasons scientists indicate they benefited from STEP involvement. Analyses of open-ended comments by teachers and scientists support and clarify these findings. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze teacher and scientist qualitative feedback. Comments were coded and patterns analyzed in three databases. The vast majority of teacher open-ended comments indicate that STEP involvement improved K-12 STEM classroom instruction, and the vast majority of scientist open-ended comments

  8. American Indian and Indigenous Geoscience Program: Ensuring the Evolution of Diverse STEM Scientists and Researchers in the 21st Century and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    Have you ever been lost? Knowing where you want to go yet unsure how to get there? In today's contemporary society you deploy the use of a navigator or navigation system. This is also one component of a cultural geoscience program in ensuring diverse students complete with excellence and success their route to research and education. The critical components of a cultural geoscience program and the role of cultural mentors are broad and the opportunity to expand one's own personal and professional success in science and society is immense. There remains a critical need and challenge to increase the representation of underrepresented people in the sciences. To address this challenge a navigational geoscience program approach was developed centered on the incorporation of traditional knowledge into modern research and education. The approach incorporates defining cultural/personal choices for a STEM vocation, developing science research with a "purpose", and refining leadership. The program model incorporates a mentor's personal oral histories and experiences in education, research and life. The goal is to ensure the next generation of scientists and researchers are more diverse, highly educated, experienced and leadership orientated by the time they complete STEM programs - then by the time they are our age, have our level of education and experience.

  9. The Navigator: Role of the Cultural Mentor in Ensuring the Evolution of Diverse STEM Scientists and Researchers in the 21st Century and Beyond.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Have you ever been lost? Knowing where you want to go yet unsure how to get there? In today's contemporary society you deploy the use of a navigator or navigation system. This is also one role of the cultural mentor in ensuring diverse students complete with excellence and success their route to research and education. The responsibilities of the cultural mentor are broad and the opportunity to expand one's own personal and professional success in science and society is immense. There remains a critical need and challenge to increase the representation of underrepresented people in the sciences. To address this challenge a navigational mentoring approach was developed centered on the incorporation of traditional knowledge into modern research and education. The approach incorporates defining cultural/personal choices for a STEM vocation, developing science research with a "purpose", and refining leadership. The model incorporates a mentor's personal oral histories and experiences in education, research and life. The goal is to ensure the next generation of scientists and researchers are more diverse, highly educated, experienced and leadership orientated by the time they complete STEM programs - then by the time they are our age, have our level of education and experience.

  10. Reading, Writing, and Presenting Original Scientific Research: A Nine-Week Course in Scientific Communication for High School Students†

    PubMed Central

    Danka, Elizabeth S.; Malpede, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    High school students are not often given opportunities to communicate scientific findings to their peers, the general public, and/or people in the scientific community, and therefore they do not develop scientific communication skills. We present a nine-week course that can be used to teach high school students, who may have no previous experience, how to read and write primary scientific articles and how to discuss scientific findings with a broad audience. Various forms of this course have been taught for the past 10 years as part of an intensive summer research program for rising high school seniors that is coordinated by the Young Scientist Program at Washington University in St. Louis. The format presented here includes assessments for efficacy through both rubric-based methods and student self-assessment surveys. PMID:26753027

  11. David Shakow and schizophrenia research at Worcester State Hospital: the roots of the scientist-practitioner model.

    PubMed

    Cautin, Robin L

    2008-01-01

    As Chief Psychologist and Director of Psychological Research at Worcester State Hospital (WSH), David Shakow (1901-1981) made substantial contributions to the scientific study of schizophrenia and by extension to the study of psychopathology in general. His methodological innovations--particularly on issues of diagnosis and conditions of testing-set a new standard for experimental rigor in the field. Shakow helped to establish many of what are considered basic facts about schizophrenia. His empirical work at WSH-specifically on the crossover effect--provided the scientific foundation for his theory of schizophrenic cognition, known as segmental set. Moreover, Shakow's schizophrenia work informed his developing ideas on the synergy between clinical practice and research.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 11: The Voice of the User: How US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists View DoD Technical Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The project examines how the results of NASA/DOD research diffuse into the aerospace R&D process, and empirically analyzes the implications of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Specific issues considered are the roles played by government technical reports, the recognition of the value of scientific and technical information (STI), and the optimization of the STI aerospace transfer system. Information-seeking habits are assessed for the U.S. aerospace community, the general community, the academic sector, and the international community. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists use 65 percent of working time to communicate STI, and prefer 'internal' STI over 'external' STI. The isolation from 'external' information is found to be detrimental to U.S. aerospace R&D in general.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 52: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  14. Present progress and future research in the relativistic klystron amplifier program at the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Moshe; Serlin, Victor; Lampe, Martin; Hubbard, Richard F.

    1994-05-01

    This paper addresses the development of the relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) which is a high power microwave (HPM) source. This source was invented at the Naval Research Laboratory and developed during the last ten years. The present RKA has a 50 db gain and is operated at a frequency of 1.3 GHz with a peak output power > 10 GW and with an efficiency > 35%. However this HPM amplifier is rather large and expensive for many applications. Moreover, extending the frequency of the NRL RKA to frequencies above 3.5 GHz was not fully successful. Recently, it was suggested that incorporation of two modifications to the RKA technology should improve the capabilities of the present NRL HPM source by orders of magnitude and extend the operational frequency to X-band. These improvements enhance the potential for successful and effective military and civilian applications. These modifications are described.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 13: Source selection and information use by US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of a telephone survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.

    1992-01-01

    A telephone survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists belonging to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was conducted between December 4, 1991 and January 5, 1992. The survey was undertaken to (1) validate the telephone survey as an appropriate technique for collecting data from U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists; (2) collect information about how the results of NASA/DoD aerospace research are used in the R&D process; (3) identify those selection criteria which affect the use of federally-funded aerospace R&D; and (4) obtain information that could be used to develop a self-administered mail questionnaire for use with the same population. The average rating of importance of U.S. government technical reports was 2.5 (on a 4-point scale); The mean/median number of times U.S. government technical reports were used per 6 months was 8/2. Factors scoring highest for U.S. government technical reports were technical accuracy (2.9), reliable data and technical information (2.8), and contains comprehensive data and information (2.7) on a 4-point system. The factors scoring highest for influencing the use of U.S. government technical reports were relevance (3.1), technical accuracy (3.06), and reliable data/information (3.02). Ease of use, familiarity, technical accuracy, and relevance correlated with use of U.S. government technical reports. Survey demographics, survey questionnaire, and the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project publications list are included.

  16. The Biology of Aging: Citizen Scientists and Their Pets as a Bridge Between Research on Model Organisms and Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kaeberlein, M

    2016-03-01

    A fundamental goal of research into the basic mechanisms of aging is to develop translational strategies that improve human health by delaying the onset and progression of age-related pathology. Several interventions have been discovered that increase life span in invertebrate organisms, some of which have similar effects in mice. These include dietary restriction and inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin by treatment with rapamycin. Key challenges moving forward will be to assess the extent to which these and other interventions improve healthy longevity and increase life span in mice and to develop practical strategies for extending this work to the clinic. Companion animals may provide an optimal intermediate between laboratory models and humans. By improving healthy longevity in companion animals, important insights will be gained regarding human aging while improving the quality of life for people and their pets. PMID:26077786

  17. The Art and Craft of Engaging Scientists in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf

    Partnerships between students, teachers and scientists have the potential to greatly benefit the students and teachers who have an opportunity get in touch with real life science at the cutting edge of research. But what is in it for the scientist? Is it just charitable work that at best has no impact on their careers, and at worst exposes them to the criticism of their colleagues for not being focused enough? This talk will look at this issue from the perspective of a scientist whose current role it is to engage other scientists in educational projects. How can participation become more attractive and less foreign to the research scientist? What are successful strategies to build sustainable partnerships that benefit all participants? The presentation will describe a three tiered approach of commitments depending on the interest of the research scientist and the needs of educators. Ranging from (1) I will check this fact for you (2) I want to participate as longs as it doesn't too much time, to (3) I am excited and want to take a leading role. Each level will outline necessary support structures that will help plot a path to joint success.

  18. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with

  19. Contemporary High-Profile Scientists and Their Interactions with the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dorothy V.; Mulhall, Pamela J.; Hart, Christina E.; Gunstone, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study of 10 high-profile Australian research scientists. These scientists are highly committed to engaging with the public. They interact with a wide range of groups in the community, including the traditional media. They are aware that they are seen as representatives of science at a time when the authority of science…

  20. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  1. Educators' Views of Collaboration with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated educators' views of collaboration with scientists, a baseline for COSEE Great Lakes efforts in facilitating dynamic collaborative relationships between Great Lakes researchers and educators. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how are educators in the Great Lakes region involved in collaboration with scientists,…

  2. Collaboration between research scientists and educators in implementation of a Masters program for training new Earth Science teachers in New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Flores, K. E.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Grcevich, J.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Kinzler, R. J.; Macdonald, M.; Mathez, E. A.; Mac Low, M.

    2012-12-01

    Educators and research scientists at the American Museum of Natural History are collaborating to implement a teacher education program with the goal of addressing a critical shortage of qualified Earth Science teachers in New York State (NYS), particularly in high-needs schools with diverse populations. This pilot program involves forging a one-of-a-kind partnership between a world-class research museum and high-needs schools in New York City. By placing teaching candidates in such schools, the project has potential to engage, motivate, and improve Earth Science achievement and interest in STEM careers of thousands of students from traditionally underrepresented populations including English language learners, special education students, and racial minority groups. The program, which is part of the state's Race to the Top initiative, is approved by the NYS Board of Regents and will prepare a total of 50 candidates in two cohorts to earn a Board of Regents-awarded Masters of Arts in Teaching (MAT) degree with a specialization in Earth Science for grades 7-12. The museum is in a unique position of being able to break traditional educational barriers as a result of a long history of interdisciplinary collaborations between educators and research scientists, as well as being the only stand-alone science graduate degree-granting museum in the United States. The intensive 15-month curriculum for MAT candidates comprises one summer of museum teaching residency, a full academic year of residency in high-needs public schools, one summer of science research residency, and concurrent graduate-level courses in Earth and space sciences, pedagogy, and adolescent psychology. We emphasize field-based geological studies and experiential learning, in contrast to many traditional teacher education programs. In an effort to ensure that MAT candidates have a robust knowledge base in Earth science, and per NYS Department of Education requirements, we selected candidates with strong

  3. Studies in Teaching 2000 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: "Cheating: Ethics and Honor of High School Students" (Nick Bender); "Assessing Listening Proficiency in High School Spanish Classes" (Michelle Bennett); "Multiple Intelligences, Assessment and Achievement in Traditional High School Classes" (Kathryn Byrnes); "Who Wants To Be a Scientist? An Investigation of High…

  4. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  5. A Teacher-Scientist Partnership as a Vehicle to Incorporate Climate Data in Secondary Science Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatheway, B.

    2013-12-01

    After three years of running a climate science professional development program for secondary teachers, project staff from UCAR and UNC-Greeley have learned the benefits of ample time for interaction between teachers and scientists, informal educators, and their peers. This program gave us the opportunity to develop and refine strategies that leverage teacher-scientist partnerships to improve teachers' ability to teach climate change. First, we prepared both teachers and scientists to work together. Each cohort of teachers took an online course that emphasized climate change content and pedagogy and built a learning community. Scientists were recruited based on their enthusiasm for working with teachers and coached to present materials in an accessible way. Second, the teachers and scientists collaborated during a four-week summer workshop at UCAR. During the workshop, teachers met with a wide range of climate and atmospheric scientists to learn about research, selected a specific scientist's research they would like to adapt for their classrooms, and developed and refined activities based on that research. The program includes strong mentoring from a team of science educators, structured peer feedback, and ample opportunity to interact with the scientists by asking questions, accessing data, or checking resources. This new model of professional development fosters teacher-scientist partnerships. By the end of the four-week workshop, the teachers have built customized activities based on the cutting-edge research being conducted by participating scientists, developed plans to implement and assess those activities, and further strengthened the learning-community that they will rely on for support during the following academic year. This session will provide information about how this model, which differs from the more common model of engaging teachers in research under the direction of scientists, was successful and accomplished positive outcomes for both the

  6. The Gonzo Scientist. Flunking Spore.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, John

    2008-10-24

    The blockbuster video game Spore is being marketed as a science-based adventure that brings evolution, cell biology, and even astrophysics to the masses. But after grading the game's science with a team of researchers, the Gonzo Scientist has some bad news. PMID:18948523

  7. Fundamentalist Scientists Oppose Darwinian Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Walter G., III.

    1970-01-01

    Provides examples of the arguments made by scientist members of the Creation Research Society to the California State Board of Education, which resolved that scientific evidence concerning the origin of life implies at least a dualism." An objection to the board's action by the state Advisory Committee on Science Education is included. (AL)

  8. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of

  9. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

  10. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming.

  11. Science Educational Outreach Programs That Benefit Students and Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Enyeart, Peter; Gracia, Brant; Wessel, Aimee; Jarmoskaite, Inga; Polioudakis, Damon; Stuart, Yoel; Gonzalez, Tony; MacKrell, Al; Rodenbusch, Stacia; Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Beckham, Josh T.; Montgomery, Michael; Tasneem, Tania; Jones, Jack; Simmons, Sarah; Roux, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs—"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist”—that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities. PMID:26844991

  12. Volunteer senior scientists wanted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science plans to establish a nationwide program to involve older scientists as volunteers in public education, business, and government.The Senior Scientists and Engineers (SSE) program was originated by AAAS in response to projected shortages of experienced scientists in many fields, and to draw on the large and rapidly growing population of post-retirement professional scientists. SSE began in 1988 as a pilot program in the Washington D.C. area run in conjunction with the American Association of Retired Persons.

  13. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  14. Scientists and Scientific Thinking: Understanding Scientific Thinking through an Investigation of Scientists Views about Superstitions and Religious Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Lay, Mark C.; Taylor, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Scientific literacy is explored in this paper which describes two studies that seek to understand a particular feature of the nature of science; namely scientists' habits of mind. The research investigated scientists' views of scientific evidence and how scientists judge evidence claims. The first study is concerned with scientists' views of what…

  15. Information Seeking Behaviour of Mathematicians: Scientists and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapa, Remigiusz; Krakowska, Monika; Janiak, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The paper presents original research designed to explore and compare selected aspects of the information seeking behaviour of mathematicians (scientists and students) on the Internet. Method: The data were gathered through a questionnaire distributed at the end of 2011 and in January 2012. Twenty-nine professional mathematicians and…

  16. Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995 Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report profiles the demographic and employment characteristics of doctorate-level scientists and engineers in the United States. The data presented were collected through the 1995 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR). The purpose of the SDR is to estimate the number of people holding research doctorates from U.S. institutions in science and…

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 25: The technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 4 RAeS mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists.

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 45; The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 3 US Aerospace Engineering Educators Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. Little is also known about the intermediary-based system that is used to transfer the results of federally funded R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports, present a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and identified themselves as educators.

  19. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Report 43: The Technical Communication Practices of U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 Mail Survey -- Manufacturing and Production Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

  20. How the Internet Is Changing the Implementation of Traditional Research Methods, People's Daily Lives, and the Way in Which Developmental Scientists Conduct Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Neumann, Linus; van Zalk, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an impressive increase in web-based research, of which we review and discuss two main types. First, researchers can create online versions of traditional questionnaires. Using the internet in this way usually does not compromise the psychometric properties of such measures, and participants are typically not less…

  1. Contemporary high-profile scientists and their interactions with the community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dorothy V.; Mulhall, Pamela J.; Hart, Christina E.; Gunstone, Richard F.

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a case study of 10 high-profile Australian research scientists. These scientists are highly committed to engaging with the public. They interact with a wide range of groups in the community, including the traditional media. They are aware that they are seen as representatives of science at a time when the authority of science and scientists is threatened in Australia by controversy around issues such as climate change and vaccination. Through their experiences of interacting with non-scientists, they have developed views about qualities, characteristics and knowledge that contribute to, or inhibit, positive interactions between scientists and non-scientists. Their experiences and insights highlight aspects of contemporary science that are not generally acknowledged in science curricula.

  2. PowerPoint Presentations: A Creative Addition to the Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that the requirement of a PowerPoint presentation as part of the research process would benefit students in the following ways: learning how to conduct research; starting their research project sooner; honing presentation and public speaking skills; improving cooperative and social skills; and enhancing technology skills. Outlines the…

  3. Entertainers or Education Researchers? The Challenges Associated with Presenting While Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.; Kazembe, Lasana

    2016-01-01

    How black faculty experience presenting their research in educational venues within the context of historical objectification of black people as sources of entertainment is an underexplored topic in higher education research. Presenting research has far-reaching implications for black academics' advancement, such as future employment and…

  4. "Bringing the Message Forward": Using Poetic Re-Presentation to Solve Research Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Researchers cannot always rely on traditional methods for solving research dilemmas. In a research project that explored the friendships and social relationships of four students with severe disabilities in four secondary schools in New Zealand, the author uses poetic re-presentation to solve several ethical and pragmatic research dilemmas. Within…

  5. Retaining clinician-scientists: nature versus nurture.

    PubMed

    Culican, Susan M; Rupp, Jason D; Margolis, Todd P

    2014-05-01

    In their IOVS article "Rejuvenating Clinician-Scientist Training" (published March 28, 2014), Balamurali Ambati and Judd Cahoon rightly point out the dearth of new clinician-scientists in ophthalmology. Within the context of their suggestions for increasing the number of successful clinician-scientists, they claim that the traditional MD-PhD training programs and K awards have failed to produce individuals who will carry on the important work of clinically relevant research that will improve patients' lives and sight. In this response we present data, including information on the career paths of graduates of the Washington University ophthalmology residency, that call into question the presumed failure of MD-PhD and K award programs and show that, in fact, graduates of these programs are more likely to succeed as clinician-scientists than are their peers who have not trained in such scientifically rigorous environments. We propose that, rather than a failure of early training programs, it may be obstacles that arise later in training and among junior faculty that prevent promising careers from reaching maturity. Funding, one rather large obstacle, takes the form of imbalanced start-up monies, less National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding awarded to young investigators, and study section composition that may work against those with clinically driven questions. We also explore the challenges faced in the culture surrounding residency and fellowship training. We agree with Ambati and Cahoon that there needs to be more innovation in the way training programs are structured, but we believe that the evidence supports supplementing the current model rather than scrapping it and starting over with unproven initiatives. The data on training programs supports the contention that those who have already made substantial investment and commitment to the clinician-scientist pathway through participation in MSTP or K training programs are the most likely to succeed on this

  6. Retaining clinician-scientists: nature versus nurture.

    PubMed

    Culican, Susan M; Rupp, Jason D; Margolis, Todd P

    2014-05-27

    In their IOVS article "Rejuvenating Clinician-Scientist Training" (published March 28, 2014), Balamurali Ambati and Judd Cahoon rightly point out the dearth of new clinician-scientists in ophthalmology. Within the context of their suggestions for increasing the number of successful clinician-scientists, they claim that the traditional MD-PhD training programs and K awards have failed to produce individuals who will carry on the important work of clinically relevant research that will improve patients' lives and sight. In this response we present data, including information on the career paths of graduates of the Washington University ophthalmology residency, that call into question the presumed failure of MD-PhD and K award programs and show that, in fact, graduates of these programs are more likely to succeed as clinician-scientists than are their peers who have not trained in such scientifically rigorous environments. We propose that, rather than a failure of early training programs, it may be obstacles that arise later in training and among junior faculty that prevent promising careers from reaching maturity. Funding, one rather large obstacle, takes the form of imbalanced start-up monies, less National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding awarded to young investigators, and study section composition that may work against those with clinically driven questions. We also explore the challenges faced in the culture surrounding residency and fellowship training. We agree with Ambati and Cahoon that there needs to be more innovation in the way training programs are structured, but we believe that the evidence supports supplementing the current model rather than scrapping it and starting over with unproven initiatives. The data on training programs supports the contention that those who have already made substantial investment and commitment to the clinician-scientist pathway through participation in MSTP or K training programs are the most likely to succeed on this

  7. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  8. Scientists as People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the development of students' images of scientists from high school through college in Israel, and indicates the presence of significant discrepancies between the images held by college students and by scientists themselves as measured by the Test On Understanding Science (TOUS) form W. (CC)

  9. Misquoted Scientists Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

  10. A Data Scientist's Guide to Start-Ups.

    PubMed

    Provost, Foster; Webb, Geoffrey I; Bekkerman, Ron; Etzioni, Oren; Fayyad, Usama; Perlich, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    In August 2013, we held a panel discussion at the KDD 2013 conference in Chicago on the subject of data science, data scientists, and start-ups. KDD is the premier conference on data science research and practice. The panel discussed the pros and cons for top-notch data scientists of the hot data science start-up scene. In this article, we first present background on our panelists. Our four panelists have unquestionable pedigrees in data science and substantial experience with start-ups from multiple perspectives (founders, employees, chief scientists, venture capitalists). For the casual reader, we next present a brief summary of the experts' opinions on eight of the issues the panel discussed. The rest of the article presents a lightly edited transcription of the entire panel discussion.

  11. How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

    2009-01-01

    The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are…

  12. Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marty

    1991-01-01

    A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)

  13. Pyrgeometer Calibration for DOE-Atmospheric System Research Program Using NREL Method (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.

    2010-03-15

    Presented at the DOE-Atmospheric System Research Program, Science Team Meeting, 15-19 March 2010, Bethesda, Maryland. The presentation: Pyrgeometer Calibration for DOE-Atmospheric System Research program using NREL Method - was presented by Ibrahim Reda and Tom Stoffel on March 15, 2010 at the 2010 ASR Science Team Meeting. March 15-19, 2010, Bethesda, Maryland.

  14. Taiwanese life scientists less "medialized" than their Western colleagues.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yin-Yueh; Peters, Hans Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results from surveys of life scientists in Taiwan (n=270) and in Germany (n=326). Fewer Taiwanese than German researchers have frequent contact with the media and they rate their experiences with journalists less positively. Furthermore, they are less prepared to adapt to journalistic expectations and to a greater extent than German researchers they expect journalists to consider scientific criteria in their reporting. These findings are interpreted in Weingart's "medialization of science" framework as indicators of lower medialization of science in Taiwan than in Germany. However, Taiwanese scientists are more willing than German scientists to accept journalistic simplification at the expense of accuracy. This is explained as an adaptation to the media system and to the perceived scientific literacy of the media audience. We hypothesize that cultural differences regarding the relative priority of relational vs. rational communication goals may also contribute to more tolerance of journalistic simplification in Taiwan.

  15. Identity Matching to Scientists: Differences that Make a Difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Hanne Moeller; Krogh, Lars Brian; Lykkegaard, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Students' images of science and scientists are generally assumed to influence their related subject choices and aspirations for tertiary education within science and technology. Several research studies have shown that many young people hold rather stereotypical images of scientists, making it hard for them to see themselves as future scientists. Adolescents' educational choices are important aspects of their identity work, and recent theories link individual choice to the perceived match between self and prototypical persons associated with that choice. In the present study, we have investigated images of scientists among the segment of the upper secondary school students (20 % of the cohort) from which future Danish scientists are recruited. Their images were rather realistic, only including vague and predominantly positive stereotypical ideas. With a particular Science-and-Me (SAM) interview methodology, we inquired into the match between self- and prototypical-scientists ( N = 30). We found high perceived similarity within a core of epistemological characteristics, while dissimilarities typically related to a social domain. However, combining interview data with survey data, we found no significant statistical relation between prototype match and aspirations for tertiary education within science and technology. Importantly, the SAM dialogue revealed how students negotiate perceived differences, and we identified four negotiation patterns that all tend to reduce the impact of mismatches on educational aspirations. Our study raises questions about methodological issues concerning the traditional use of self-to-prototype matching as an explanatory model of educational choice.

  16. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1:] The value of Scientific and Technical Information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R&D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace R&D process is examined. Data are presented from studies of the role of STI in the performance and management of R&D activities and the behavior of engineers when using and seeking information. Consideration is given to the information sources used to solve technical problems, the production and use of technical communications, and the use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases.

  17. Effective Models for Scientists Engaging in Meaningful Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; InsightSTEM SILC Partnership Team

    2016-10-01

    We present a central paradigm, extending the model of "Teacher-Scientist" partnerships towards a new philosophy of "Scientist-Instructor-Learner-Communicator" Partnerships. In this paradigm modes of, and expertise in, communication, and the learners themselves, are held is as high status as the experts and teachers in the learning setting.We present three distinctive models that rest on this paradigm in different educational settings. First a model in which scientists and teachers work together with a communications-related specialist to design and develop new science exploration tools for the classroom, and gather feedback from learners. Secondly, we present a model which involves an ongoing joint professional development program helping scientists and teachers to be co-communicators of knowledge exploration to their specific audience of learners. And thirdly a model in which scientists remotely support classroom research based on online data, while the teachers and their students learn to become effective communicators of their genuine scientific results.This work was funded in part by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and by NASA awards NNX16AC68A and NNX16AJ21G. All opinions are those of the authors.

  18. Ask a Climate Scientist

    NASA Video Gallery

    Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

  19. Feelings and Ethics Education: The Film Dear Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence that not only cognition but also emotions shape moral judgment. The conventional teaching of responsible conduct of research, however, does not target emotions; its emphasis is on rational analysis. Here I present a new approach, ‘the feelings method,’ for incorporating emotions into science ethics education. This method is embodied in Dear Scientists, an innovative film that combines humanities with arts and works at the subconscious level, delivering an intense mix of music and images, contrasted by calm narration. Dear Scientists has struck a chord across the science, humanities, and arts communities—a promising sign. PMID:25574256

  20. CrowdHydrology: crowdsourcing hydrologic data and engaging citizen scientists.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Christopher S; Fienen, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    Spatially and temporally distributed measurements of processes, such as baseflow at the watershed scale, come at substantial equipment and personnel cost. Research presented here focuses on building a crowdsourced database of inexpensive distributed stream stage measurements. Signs on staff gauges encourage citizen scientists to voluntarily send hydrologic measurements (e.g., stream stage) via text message to a server that stores and displays the data on the web. Based on the crowdsourced stream stage, we evaluate the accuracy of citizen scientist measurements and measurement approach. The results show that crowdsourced data collection is a supplemental method for collecting hydrologic data and a promising method of public engagement.

  1. An International Survey on Taking Up a Career in Cardiovascular Research: Opportunities and Biases toward Would-Be Physician-Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzi, Mariangela; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Marullo, Antonino G. M.; Cavarretta, Elena; Greco, Ernesto; Benedetto, Umberto; Pompilio, Giulio; Escaned, Javier; Abbate, Antonio; Carpentier, Alain; Chachques, Juan Carlos; Frati, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular research is the main shaper of clinical evidence underpinning decision making, with its cyclic progression of junior researchers to mature faculty members. Despite efforts at improving cardiovascular research training, several unmet needs persist. We aimed to appraise current perceptions on cardiovascular research training with an international survey. Methods and Results We administered a 20-closed-question survey to mentors and mentees belonging to different international institutions. A total of 247 (12%) surveys were available (out of 2,000 invitations). Overall, mentees and mentors were reasonably satisfied with the educational and research resources. Significant differences were found analyzing results according to gender, geographic area, training and full-time researcher status. Specifically, women proved significantly less satisfied than men, disclosed access to fewer resources and less support from mentors (all P<0.05). People working in institutions not located in North America or Northern/Central Europe were significantly less satisfied and disclosed much less support (both P<0.05). Those in training reported limited opportunities for collaboration (P = 0.009), and non-full-time researchers disclosed more limited access to tutors and formal grant writing training (both P<0.05). Conclusions Several potential biases appear to be present in the way training in cardiovascular research is provided worldwide, including one against women. If confirmed, these data require proactive measures to decrease discriminations and improve the cardiovascular research training quality. PMID:26186203

  2. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  3. Data Processing for Scientists.

    PubMed

    Heumann, K F

    1956-10-26

    This brief survey of integrated and electronic data processing has touched on such matters as the origin of the concepts, their use in business, machines that are available, indexing problems, and, finally, some scientific uses that surely foreshadow further development. The purpose of this has been to present for the consideration of scientists a point of view and some techniques which have had a phenomenal growth in the business world and to suggest that these are worth consideration in scientific data-handling problems (30). To close, let me quote from William Bamert on the experience of the C. and O. Railroad once more (8, p. 121): "Frankly, we have been asked whether we weren't planning for Utopia-the implication being that everyone except starry-eyed visionaries knows that Utopia is unattainable. Our answer is that of course we are! Has anyone yet discovered a better way to begin program planning of this nature? Our feeling is that compromise comes early enough in the normal order of things."

  4. Climate Change: On Scientists and Advocacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    Last year, I asked a crowd of a few hundred geoscientists from around the world what positions related to climate science and policy they would be comfortable publicly advocating. I presented a list of recommendations that included increased research funding, greater resources for education, and specific emission reduction technologies. In almost every case, a majority of the audience felt comfortable arguing for them. The only clear exceptions were related to geo-engineering research and nuclear power. I had queried the researchers because the relationship between science and advocacy is marked by many assumptions and little clarity. This despite the fact that the basic question of how scientists can be responsible advocates on issues related to their expertise has been discussed for decades most notably in the case of climate change by the late Stephen Schneider.

  5. A Systematic Review of Extramural Presentations and Publications from Pharmacy Student Research Programs.

    PubMed

    Slack, Marion K; Martin, Jennifer; Worede, Leah; Islam, Sameer

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To conduct a systematic review of reports of pharmacy student research programs that describes the programs and resulting publications or presentations. Methods. To be eligible for the review, reports had to be in English and indicate that students were required to collect, analyze data, and report or present findings. The outcome variables were extramural posters/presentations and publications. Results. Database searches resulted in identification of 13 reports for 12 programs. Two-thirds were reports of projects required for a course or for graduation, and the remaining third were elective (participation was optional). Extramural posters resulted from 75% of the programs and publications from 67%. Conclusion. Although reporting on the outcomes of student research programs is limited, three-quarters of the programs indicated that extramural presentations, publications, or both resulted from student research. Additional research is needed to identify relevant outcomes of student research programs in pharmacy. PMID:27667837

  6. A Systematic Review of Extramural Presentations and Publications from Pharmacy Student Research Programs

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jennifer; Worede, Leah; Islam, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To conduct a systematic review of reports of pharmacy student research programs that describes the programs and resulting publications or presentations. Methods. To be eligible for the review, reports had to be in English and indicate that students were required to collect, analyze data, and report or present findings. The outcome variables were extramural posters/presentations and publications. Results. Database searches resulted in identification of 13 reports for 12 programs. Two-thirds were reports of projects required for a course or for graduation, and the remaining third were elective (participation was optional). Extramural posters resulted from 75% of the programs and publications from 67%. Conclusion. Although reporting on the outcomes of student research programs is limited, three-quarters of the programs indicated that extramural presentations, publications, or both resulted from student research. Additional research is needed to identify relevant outcomes of student research programs in pharmacy.

  7. A Systematic Review of Extramural Presentations and Publications from Pharmacy Student Research Programs.

    PubMed

    Slack, Marion K; Martin, Jennifer; Worede, Leah; Islam, Sameer

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To conduct a systematic review of reports of pharmacy student research programs that describes the programs and resulting publications or presentations. Methods. To be eligible for the review, reports had to be in English and indicate that students were required to collect, analyze data, and report or present findings. The outcome variables were extramural posters/presentations and publications. Results. Database searches resulted in identification of 13 reports for 12 programs. Two-thirds were reports of projects required for a course or for graduation, and the remaining third were elective (participation was optional). Extramural posters resulted from 75% of the programs and publications from 67%. Conclusion. Although reporting on the outcomes of student research programs is limited, three-quarters of the programs indicated that extramural presentations, publications, or both resulted from student research. Additional research is needed to identify relevant outcomes of student research programs in pharmacy.

  8. A Systematic Review of Extramural Presentations and Publications from Pharmacy Student Research Programs

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jennifer; Worede, Leah; Islam, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To conduct a systematic review of reports of pharmacy student research programs that describes the programs and resulting publications or presentations. Methods. To be eligible for the review, reports had to be in English and indicate that students were required to collect, analyze data, and report or present findings. The outcome variables were extramural posters/presentations and publications. Results. Database searches resulted in identification of 13 reports for 12 programs. Two-thirds were reports of projects required for a course or for graduation, and the remaining third were elective (participation was optional). Extramural posters resulted from 75% of the programs and publications from 67%. Conclusion. Although reporting on the outcomes of student research programs is limited, three-quarters of the programs indicated that extramural presentations, publications, or both resulted from student research. Additional research is needed to identify relevant outcomes of student research programs in pharmacy. PMID:27667837

  9. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  10. Telling Your Story: Ocean Scientists in the K-12 Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, H.

    2006-12-01

    Most scientists and engineers are accustomed to presenting their research to colleagues or lecturing college or graduate students. But if asked to speak in front of a classroom full of elementary school or junior high school students, many feel less comfortable. TERC, as part of its work with The Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-New England (COSEE-NE) has designed a workshop to help ocean scientists and engineers develop skills for working with K-12 teachers and students. We call this program: Telling Your Story (TYS). TYS has been offered 4 times over 18 months for a total audience of approximately 50 ocean scientists. We will discuss the rationale for the program, the program outline, outcomes, and what we have learned. ne.net/edu_project_3/index.php

  11. Training young scientists across empirical and modeling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The "fluxcourse," is a two-week program of study on Flux Measurements and Advanced Modeling (www.fluxcourse.org). Since 2007, this course has trained early career scientists to use both empirical observations and models to tackle terrestrial ecological questions. The fluxcourse seeks to cross train young scientists in measurement techniques and advanced modeling approaches for quantifying carbon and water fluxes between the atmosphere and the biosphere. We invited between ten and twenty volunteer instructors depending on the year ranging in experience and expertise, including representatives from industry, university professors and research specialists. The course combines online learning, lecture and discussion with hands on activities that range from measuring photosynthesis and installing an eddy covariance system to wrangling data and carrying out modeling experiments. Attendees are asked to develop and present two different group projects throughout the course. The overall goal is provide the next generation of scientists with the tools to tackle complex problems that require collaboration.

  12. Engaging scientists in outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Richardson, A.; Jasnow, M.

    2003-04-01

    According to a survey reported by the National Science Foundation only 49 percent of high school graduates and 73 percent of those with advanced degrees can correctly answer the question, "How long does it take for the Earth to go around the Sun?" Science literacy in the United States and elsewhere has reached very low levels. In spite of spectacular advances in science and engineering over the past few decades, the wonder and excitement of scientific discovery is not reaching students in the classroom. Scientists can play a critical role in outreach efforts at their home institutions and other organizations, both public and private. NASA has a very clear mission to advance young people's scientific knowledge and, at the same time, "to inspire the next generation of explorers." Acknowledging that doing science is different from teaching science, outreach efforts support scientists who help convey the marvels of science to students, educators and the public. The scientific method raises fundamental questions that can engage students by establishing a baseline of inquiry. Planning and implementing experiments can tap into prior knowledge of students challenged with answering scientific questions. These are a few of the ways that the essential knowledge of scientists can be passed on to the next generation of scientists. Some of the specific roles of scientists can play in the outreach effort include classroom visits, public lectures, high school science curriculum development, media interviews, and web site content, to name only a few.

  13. Predicting scientists' participation in public life.

    PubMed

    Besley, John C; Oh, Sang Hwa; Nisbet, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This research provides secondary data analysis of two large-scale scientist surveys. These include a 2009 survey of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) members and a 2006 survey of university scientists by the United Kingdom's Royal Society. Multivariate models are applied to better understand the motivations, beliefs, and conditions that promote scientists' involvement in communication with the public and the news media. In terms of demographics, scientists who have reached mid-career status are more likely than their peers to engage in outreach, though even after controlling for career stage, chemists are less likely than other scientists to do so. In terms of perceptions and motivations, a deficit model view that a lack of public knowledge is harmful, a personal commitment to the public good, and feelings of personal efficacy and professional obligation are among the strongest predictors of seeing outreach as important and in participating in engagement activities.

  14. Statement of American Social Scientists of Research on School Desegregation to the U.S. Supreme Court in "Parents v. Seattle School District" and "Meredith v. Jefferson County"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary; Frankenberg, Erica; Garces, Liliana M.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2006, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to review two related cases originating from school districts in Louisville, Kentucky and Seattle, Washington that involved voluntarily adopted racial integration plans. Concerned about the outcome of these cases, 553 social scientists submitted a social science statement to the Supreme Court summarizing…

  15. Outlining Purposes, Stating the Nature of the Present Research, and Listing Research Questions or Hypotheses in Academic Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehzad, Wasima

    2011-01-01

    Driving research questions from the prevailing issues and interests and developing from them new theories, formulas, algorithms, methods, and designs, and linking them to the interests of the larger audience is a vital component of scientific research papers. The present article discusses outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present…

  16. Tribal and Indigenous Geoscience and Earth System Science: Ensuring the Evolution and Practice of Underrepresented Scientists and Researchers in the 21ST Century and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J.

    2014-12-01

    The time is critical for Tribal, Indigenous and Underrepresented K-12/university students and communities to accept the duty to provide representation in Earth System Sciences/Geosciences fields of study and professions. Tribal nations in the U.S have a unique legal status rooted in a complex relationship between the U.S. federal government, individual state/local governments and Tribal authorities. Although geosciences are often at the center of these relationships, especially as they pertain to the development of natural resources, tribal economics, and environmental stewardship, Tribal/Indigenous people remain severely underrepresented in advanced geoscience education. Our students and communities have responded to the invitation. To represent and most important develop and lead research initiatives. Leadership is a central focus of the invitation to participate, as Tribal people have immense responsibility for significant landscapes across North American Continent, critical natural resources and millennia of unpretentious natural evolution with the localized native geologies, species and environmental systems. INRSEP and Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations found sustaining relationships with the Geoscience Alliance, MS PHD's, Woods Hole PEP, Native American Pacific Islander Research Experience (NAPIRE) and LSAMP programs, in addition to state/federal agencies, has advanced culturally-relevant STEM research. Research foundationally grounded on traditional ecological knowledge, individual and Tribal self-determination. A key component is student research experiences within their ancestral homelands and traversing to REU's in multiple national and international Tribal/Indigenous ancestral territories. The relationships also serve an immense capacity in tracking student achievement, promoting best practices in research development and assessing outcomes. The model has significantly improved the success of students completing STEM graduate programs. The presentation

  17. Opportunities and Resources for Scientist Participation in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Shipp, S.; Hsu, B.

    2012-10-01

    Active engagement of scientists in Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities results in benefits for both the audience and scientists. Most scientists are trained in research but have little formal training in education. The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum helps the Science Mission Directorate support scientists currently involved in E/PO and to help scientists who are interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. We will present current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in education and public outreach. These include upcoming NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities, professional development resources for writing NASA SMD E/PO proposals (webinars and other online tools), toolkits for scientists interested in best practices in E/PO (online guides for K-12 education and public outreach), EarthSpace (a community web space where instructors can find and share about teaching space and earth sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials news and funding opportunities, and the latest education research), thematic resources for teaching about the solar system (archived resources from Year of the Solar System), and an online database of scientists interested in connecting with education programs. Learn more about the Forum and find resources at http://smdepo.org/.

  18. Scientists Needed! The Year of the Solar System: Opportunities for Scientist Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.

    2011-12-01

    Spanning a Martian Year - 23 months from October 2010 through August 2012 - the Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebrates the amazing discoveries of numerous new and ongoing NASA missions and research efforts as they explore our near and distant neighbors and probe the outer edges of our solar system. The science revealed by these endeavors is dramatically revising our understanding of the formation and evolution of our solar system. YSS offers opportunities for planetary scientists to become involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) in meaningful ways. By getting involved in YSS E/PO activities, scientists can help to raise awareness of, build excitement in, and make connections with educators, students and the public about current planetary science research and exploration. Each month during YSS a different compelling aspect of the solar system - its formation, volcanism, ice, life - is explored. The monthly topics, tied to the big questions of planetary science, include online resources that can be used by scientists to engage their audiences: hands-on learning activities, demonstrations, connections to solar system and mission events, ideas for partnering with other organizations, and other programming ideas. Resources for past, present, and future YSS monthly topics can be found at: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. Scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS through an avenue that best fits their available time and interests. Possible paths include: contacting the YSS organizational team to provide content for or to review the monthly topics; integrating current planetary research discoveries into your introductory college science classes; starting a science club; prompting an interview with the local media, creating a podcast about your science, sharing YSS with educators or program coordinators at your local schools, museums, libraries, astronomical clubs and societies, retirement homes, or rotary club; volunteering to present your science in one

  19. An Attempt to Improve Students' Presentation Skills via Course of Graduation Research and its Educational Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Kenji; Ohtuka, Sigeru; Morita, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Itaru; Yakabe, Masaki; Hayamizu, Yasutaka; Ohtuka, Kouichi

    The importance of presentation skills rapidly increases in engineering education in Japan. The authors have applied various teaching-method of presentation skills to the course of graduation research for the fifth-grade students of the mechanical engineering program in Yonago National College of Technology. The lectures including teachers' demonstration and basic skills in presentation have resulted in improvement of students' skills. The meeting for announcing the results of graduation research has been opened to the public in cooperation with the Yonago Chamber of Commerce and Industry to give the students incentives to graduation research as well as presentation. The students have mutually evaluated their presentation to get good opportunities for even self-evaluation. This paper discusses the effects and problems of our educational practice.

  20. Investigating How the Biographies of Today's Scientists Affect 8th Graders' Scientist Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaçam, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how a poster study focusing on the biographies of today's scientists affected 8th graders' scientist images. The study utilized a mixed model which combined qualitative and quantitative research techniques. 142 8th graders from a secondary school in Ankara Province Keçiören District participated in the study.…

  1. Moments in the Life of a Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Bruno

    1990-08-01

    Bruno Rossi has long been an influential figure in diverse areas of physics and in this volume he presents a fascinating account of his life and work as an experimental physicist. He discusses his scientific contributions, from experiments that played a major role in establishing the nature and properties of cosmic rays to those establishing the existence of a solar wind and others that laid the foundations of X-ray astronomy. Rossi provides close insight into his actual experiences as a scientist and the motivations that gave direction to his research, and he recounts the beginning of very significant stages in high energy physics and space research. He writes evocatively of the many places where he worked--of Florence, Arcetri, Padua, and Venice, of the mountains of Colorado and the deserts of New Mexico. His narrative also provides insight into the life of a Jewish family in fascist Italy. The text is accompanied by photographs taken throughout Rossi's career.

  2. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  3. Nurturing the Child Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

  4. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  5. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

  6. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

  7. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  8. Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

  9. Women Scientists. American Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglahn, Nancy, J.

    This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…

  10. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Garovic, Vesna D.; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S.; Winham, Stacey J.; Obradovic, Zoran; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Milic, Natasa M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students’ fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists. PMID:27058055

  11. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists.

    PubMed

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Garovic, Vesna D; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S; Winham, Stacey J; Obradovic, Zoran; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Milic, Natasa M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students' fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists.

  12. National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 45th Annual Meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science Education, Columbus, OH.

    Abstracts of papers presented to the 45th Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching are arranged according to the topic for the session at which they were presented. Series of sessions were devoted to test and instrument development, evaluation, learning theory, verbal behavior, instructional methods and…

  13. National Association for Research in Science Teaching 44th Annual Meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science Education, Columbus, OH.

    Abstracts of papers presented to the 44th Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching are arranged according to the topic of the session at which they were presented. Separate sessions were devoted to elementary, secondary, junior high school, and college and university science teaching, with papers on evaluation,…

  14. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Presentation to Korean Aerospace Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide basic information about NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), for sharing with representatives of the South Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as part of a larger presentation by Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. The NEPP information includes mission and goals, history of the program, basic focus areas, strategies, deliverables and some examples of current tasks.

  15. Education for life scientists on the dual-use implications of their research : commentary on "implementing biosecurity education: approaches, resources and programmes".

    PubMed

    Nixdorff, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    Advances in the life sciences are occurring with extreme rapidity and accumulating a great deal of knowledge about life's vital processes. While this knowledge is essential for fighting disease in a more effective way, it can also be misused either intentionally or inadvertently to develop novel and more effective biological weapons. For nearly a decade civil-academic society as well as States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention have recognised the importance of dual-use biosecurity education for life scientists as a means to foster a culture of responsibility and prevent the potential misuse of advances in the life sciences for non-peaceful purposes. Nevertheless, the implementation of dual-use biosecurity education for life scientists has made little progress in institutions of higher learning. Professional societies and academic organizations have worked from the bottom-up in developing online dual-use biosecurity education modules that can be used for instruction. However, top-down help is needed from goverments if further progress is to be made in implementing biosecurity education for life scientists.

  16. Geoffrey Burnstock: most highly cited scientist.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2004-08-01

    If you haven't taken the time to read up on purinergic signaling, consider this: of the ten most cited scientists in pharmacology for the past decade, no less than four work on biological responses to purines and related molecules(1). If you're surprised by this statistic, you're in good company: until a few weeks ago, the fact was also unknown to Geoffrey Burnstock, the single-most cited researcher on the list and the scientist who coined the term "purinergic nerves" in the early 70s. (He is also about to launch a new journal devoted to the discipline, Purinergic Signalling, as Editor-in-Chief ). At that time, Burnstock's depiction of ATP as an important neurotransmitter was met with considerable skepticism, even among those who otherwise accepted and studied the intracellular actions of purines. This year in June, Burnstock appeared at the Purines 2004 Meeting, appropriately enough, to deliver the "First Burnstock Lecture." Many of the symposia presenters openly acknowledged Burnstock's work in driving the purinergic field to its present state of fruition; this acknowledgment, along with the genuine affection that typically accompanies it, seems to surprise as much as it delights Burnstock, who remembers very well the many meetings where his results went hotly challenged. The following interview took place at Purines 2004 in Chapel Hill.

  17. The Scientist as Anti-Hero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goran, Morris

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a new strategy for the proponents of science to rebut the cultural anti-science wave. This strategy involves publicizing the anti-hero scientist and presents a number of candidates from the past as examples. (GS)

  18. Integrating Scientists into Teacher Professional Development—Strategies for Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, S. E.; Buhr, S. M.; Smith, L. K.

    2010-12-01

    Professional development workshops for science teachers can be greatly enhanced by scientist participation. Such workshops may promote a collegial community and mutual understanding between researchers and educators. The CIRES (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences) Education and Outreach (EO) group at the University of Colorado, Boulder, has over a decade of experience in successfully developing and hosting such events. Scientist participation in these workshops varies widely—from giving formal presentations to working one-on-one with educators in designing a research project. Researchers from CIRES, NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center), and other Colorado agencies and institutions have participated in the workshops. In addition, graduate students in scientific research programs at the University of Colorado are frequently involved. Such workshops can be effective broader impacts components of scientific programs. One example of a long-running successful program was the Earthworks project (1998-2007), a one-week workshop for secondary science teachers from around the country. With the help of practicing geoscientists, participants working in teams designed and conducted a field-based interdisciplinary study. Attendees were so enthusiastic that the ongoing Listserv community (including both scientist and educators) is still active and engaged three years after the last workshop. In a more recent example, since 2009 CIRES EO has been hosting an annual week-long summer workshop as the COSEE (Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence) West—Colorado Collaborative. The COSEE workshops have had a different theme each year. In 2010, the workshop explored the link between Arctic sea ice, the Greenland ice sheet, sea level, and global climate processes. Extensive evaluation efforts have been included in the design of each workshop and the evaluation results are used to improve

  19. Behavioral toxicology in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists. Summary of a symposium presented at the annual meeting of the neurobehavioral teratology society, June, 2009.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J; Kavlock, Robert J; Crofton, Kevin M; Weiss, Bernard; Rice, Deborah C

    2010-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies of Science recently published a report of its vision of toxicity testing in the 21st century. The report proposes that the current toxicity testing paradigm that depends upon whole-animal tests be replaced with a strategy based upon in vitro tests, in silico models and evaluations of toxicity at the human population level. These goals are intended to set in motion changes that will transform risk assessment into a process in which adverse effects on public health are predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and data from suites of high-throughput in vitro tests. The potential roles for whole-animal testing in this futuristic vision are both various and undefined. A symposium was convened at the annual meeting of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico in June, 2009 to discuss the potential challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists in developing and/or altering this strategy toward the ultimate goal of protecting public health from hazardous chemicals. R. Kavlock described the NRC vision, introduced the concept of the 'toxicity pathway' (a central guiding principle of the NRC vision), and described the current status of an initial implementation this approach with the EPA's ToxCast(R) program. K. Crofton described a pathway based upon disruption of thyroid hormone metabolism during development, including agents, targets, and outcomes linked by this mode of action. P. Bushnell proposed a pathway linking the neural targets and cellular to behavioral effects of acute exposure to organic solvents, whose predictive power is limited by our incomplete understanding of the complex CNS circuitry that mediates the behavioral responses to solvents. B. Weiss cautioned the audience regarding a pathway approach to toxicity testing, using the example of the developmental toxicity of phthalates, whose effects on mammalian sexual differentiation would

  20. Studies in Teaching 2001 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.

    This collection of research projects includes: "What Types of Questions Do Mathematics Teachers Ask?" (Cynthia L. Adams); "Will Alternate Assessment Formats Create a Difference in Student Motivation to Study?" (Robyn J. Allen); "Factors Affecting the Motivation of Students" (Dejon J. Banks); "The Dynamics of English Classes with Gender Minorities"…

  1. Past, present and future of saline lakes: research for global sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrin, Nickolai; Zheng, Mianping; Oren, Aharon

    2015-11-01

    The 12th International Conference on Salt Lake Research was held in Langfang City, China from July 14 to 18, 2014. Fifteen manuscripts of presentations have been retained for publication in this special issue. They are very diverse, covering the biology, physics, chemistry and geology of salt lakes, the history of hydrological research on the Dead Sea, the effects of socioeconomic and environmental policies by stakeholders on human populations, and the increasing salinization of freshwater lakes around the world.

  2. Role and goals of the EUR-OCEANS Consortium - Bringing marine scientists priorities and strategies to the European research planning agenda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cury, Philippe; Baisnée, Pierre-François

    2010-05-01

    The EUR-OCEANS Consortium is the follow-up structure of the homonym European Network of Excellence (NoE; 2005-2008, FP6 contract number 511106). It is a scientific network, benefiting from and relying upon the institutional commitment of the 27 research performing organisations forming its core (paying) membership. It aims at the long-term harmonization of European research efforts related to ocean ecosystems undergoing anthropogenic and natural forcing. More specifically, its objectives are to facilitate and promote: (1) top-level scientific research on the impacts of anthropogenic and natural forcing on ocean ecosystems, fostering collaborations across the European Research Area; (2) the optimal use of any shared technical infrastructures and scientific facilities; and (3) activities to spread excellence, such as the training of scientific personnel and students, or knowledge dissemination towards the general public and socio-economic users. A particular focus is put during the first scientific coordination mandate on the building of scenarios for marine ecosystems under anthropogenic and natural forcing in the XXI Century, and on the improvement of the science-policy interface. Through calls for projects and networking activities, the Consortium seeks to favour the emergence of coordinated projects on key hot topics on one hand, and the crystallisation of scientific priorities and strategies that could serve as input to ERA-NETs, ESFRI, Joint Programming Initiatives and European Research Planning actors in general. While being an active standalone structure, the Consortium is also engaged in the Euromarine FP7 project (submitted) aiming at the definition of a common coordinating or integrating structure for the three follow-up entities of FP6 marine science NoEs (Marine Genomics Europe, MarBEF, EUR-OCEANS). The 2009-2011 strategy and activity plan of EUR-OCEANS will be presented and the involvement of EUR-OCEANS members in other key projects or programmes will

  3. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  4. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    SciTech Connect

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  5. Rejuvenating clinician-scientist training.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Balamurali K; Cahoon, Judd

    2014-03-28

    Clinician-scientists are becoming increasingly rare in medicine as a whole, but especially in ophthalmology. There is a structural gap between MD-PhD training and K-series awards where interested candidates go through residency and fellowship without any structured research exposure or involvement. Furthermore, the success rate of the MD-PhD and K awards leaves much to be desired. The authors propose a redeployment of training resources to reconfigure residency and fellowship training programs for interested candidates with sufficient additional time for a credible research project, augmented salary, and sound mentoring. Opportunities for research training in nontraditional pathways to diversify skill sets and build interdisciplinary teams also would be a prime objective of this novel "Learn-and-Earn" approach.

  6. Epidemiologic research topics in Germany: a keyword network analysis of 2014 DGEpi conference presentations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Brehme, Torben; Völzke, Henry; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Büchele, Gisela

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of epidemiologic research topics as well as trends is useful for scientific societies, researchers and funding agencies. In recent years researchers recognized the usefulness of keyword network analysis for visualizing and analyzing scientific research topics. Therefore, we applied keyword network analysis to present an overview of current epidemiologic research topics in Germany. Accepted submissions to the 9th annual congress of the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) in 2014 were used as data source. Submitters had to choose one of 19 subject areas, and were ask to provide a title, structured abstract, names of authors along with their affiliations, and a list of freely selectable keywords. Keywords had been provided for 262 (82 %) submissions, 1030 keywords in total. Overall the most common keywords were: "migration" (18 times), "prevention" (15 times), followed by "children", "cohort study", "physical activity", and "secondary data analysis" (11 times each). Some keywords showed a certain concentration under one specific subject area, e.g. "migration" with 8 of 18 in social epidemiology or "breast cancer" with 4 of 7 in cancer epidemiology. While others like "physical activity" were equally distributed over multiple subject areas (cardiovascular & metabolic diseases, ageing, methods, paediatrics, prevention & health service research). This keyword network analysis demonstrated the high diversity of epidemiologic research topics with a large number of distinct keywords as presented at the annual conference of the DGEpi.

  7. An example of woman scientist in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A.

    2002-12-01

    Although the presence of women in sciences has been increasing in the past few decades in Europe, it remains incredibly low at the top levels. Recent statistics from the European Commission indicate that now women represent 50 per cent of first degree students in many countries. However, the proportion of women at each stage of the scientific career decreases almost linearly, reaching less than 10 per cent at the highest level jobs. From my own experience, I don't think that this results from sexism nor discrimination. Rather, I think that this is a result of complex cultural factors making women subconsciously persuaded that top level jobs are destined to male scientists only. Many women scientists drop the idea of playing a role at high-level research, considering it is a way of exerting power (a matter reserved to men). Others give up the possibility of combining childcare and high level commitments in research. And too many (married women) still find only natural to sacrifice their own scientific ambitions to the benefit of their spouse's career. In this poster, I briefly present my personal experience. I chose to prioritize scientific productivity and expertise versus hierarchical responsibilities. Besides I tried to keep a satisfactory balance between family demand and research involvement. This was indeed facilitated by the French system, which provides substantial support to women's work (nurseries, recreation centers during school holidays, etc.). To my point of view, the most promising way of increasing the number of women at top levels in research is through education and mentality evolution

  8. Science and Exploration Research Office Publications and Presentations, January 1-December 31, 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, F. G. (Compiler)

    2007-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) lists the significant publications and presentations of the Science and Exploration Research Office during the period January 1-December 31, 2006. Entries in the main part of the document are categorized according to NASA Reports (arranged by report number), Open Literature and Presentations (arranged alphabetically by title). Most of the articles listed under Open Literature have appeared in refereed professional journals, books, monographs, or conference proceedings. Although many published abstracts are eventually expanded into full papers for publication in scientific and technical journals, they are often sufficiently comprehensive to include the significant results of the research reported. Therefore, published abstracts are listed separately in a subsection under Open Literature.

  9. [The critical scientists' voice].

    PubMed

    Lewgoy, F

    2000-01-01

    The intricate debate over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) involves powerful economic interests, as well as ethical, legal, emotional and scientific aspects, some of which are dealt with in this paper.(It is possible to identify two main groups of scientists across the GMOs divide: the triumphalist and the critical group.) Scientists in the triumphalist group state that GMOs and their derivatives are safe for the environment and do not offer health hazards any more than similar, non-genetically modified, products. This view is disputed by the critical scientists, who are prompted by the scarcity of studies on the environmental impacts and toxicity of GMOs, and who point out flaws in tests performed by the same companies which hold the patents. They are also critical of the current state of the process of gene transference, lacking accuracy, a fact which, coupled with the scant knowledge available about 97% of the genome functions, may produce unforseeable effects with risks for the environment and public health yet to be assessed. Examples of such effects are: the transference of alien genes [??] to other species, the emergence of toxins, the creation of new viruses, the impacts on beneficial insects and on biodiversity in general.

  10. The Dentist Scientist Award program and prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lipton, J A

    1996-06-01

    The Dentist Scientist Award (DSA) program was started by the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) in 1984 to prepare dentists for careers as clinical research scientists who would be highly skilled investigators and potential leaders in the full scope of oral health research. The DSA program provides support for dentists to undertake 5 years of intensive preparation in a course of study that includes basic and clinical science components integrated with a supervised research experience. From 1984 to 1994, the NIDR has invested +66.1 million dollars in the individual and institutional Dentist Scientist Award programs. Almost 250 people have been or are involved now in the DSA career development activity. Men comprise 72% of the recipients and women 28%. PMID:8725844

  11. Scientists Interacting With University Science Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, B. S.

    2004-12-01

    Scientists with limited time to devote to educating the public about their work will get the greatest multiplier effect for their investment of time by successfully interacting with university science educators. These university professors are the smallest and least publicized group of professionals in the chain of people working to create science literate citizens. They connect to all aspects of formal and informal education, influencing everything from what and how youngsters and adults learn science to legislative rulings. They commonly teach methods of teaching science to undergraduates aspiring to teach in K-12 settings and experienced teachers. They serve as agents for change to improve science education inside schools and at the state level K-16, including what science content courses are acceptable for teacher licensure. University science educators are most often housed in a College of Education or Department of Education. Significant differences in culture exist in the world in which marine scientists function and that in which university science educators function, even when they are in the same university. Subsequently, communication and building relationships between the groups is often difficult. Barriers stem from not understanding each other's roles and responsibilities; and different reward systems, assumptions about teaching and learning, use of language, approaches to research, etc. This presentation will provide suggestions to mitigate the barriers and enable scientists to leverage the multiplier effect saving much time and energy while ensuring the authenticity of their message is maintained. Likelihood that a scientist's message will retain its authenticity stems from criteria for a university science education position. These professors have undergraduate degrees in a natural science (e.g., biology, chemistry, physics, geology), and usually a master's degree in one of the sciences, a combination of natural sciences, or a master's including

  12. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 17: The relationship between seven variables and the use of US government technical reports by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Nanci; Demerath, Loren

    1991-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the use of U.S. government technical reports by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists and seven selected sociometric variables. Data were collected by means of a self-administered mail survey which was distributed to a randomly drawn sample of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) members. Two research questions concerning the use of conference meeting papers, journal articles, in-house technical reports, and U.S. government technical reports were investigated. Relevance, technical quality, and accessibility were found to be more important determinants of the overall extent to which U.S. government technical reports and three other information products were used by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  14. Scientist volunteers: Doing science with children

    SciTech Connect

    Kirwan, G.M.

    1994-12-31

    The number of scientists who are volunteering to visit school classrooms is growing. Unfortunately, scientists have a tendency to cram too much information into their presentation. The result is almost always disastrous. The best thing a scientist can do is provide students with a positive science experience that may cause them to re-evaluate their attitude toward science. One of the best ways to do this is to involve students in a novel hands-on activity that engages and maintains their interest. Guidelines for developing such activities are provided.

  15. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. PMID:23890623

  16. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored.

  17. Desperately seeking reductions in health inequalities: perspectives of UK researchers on past, present and future directions in health inequalities research.

    PubMed

    Garthwaite, Kayleigh; Smith, Katherine E; Bambra, Clare; Pearce, Jamie

    2016-03-01

    Following government commitments to reducing health inequalities from 1997 onwards, the UK has been recognised as a global leader in health inequalities research and policy. Yet health inequalities have continued to widen by most measures, prompting calls for new research agendas and advocacy to facilitate greater public support for the upstream policies that evidence suggests are required. However, there is currently no agreement as to what new research might involve or precisely what public health egalitarians ought to be advocating. This article presents an analysis of discussions among 52 researchers to consider the feasibility that research-informed advocacy around particular solutions to health inequalities may emerge in the UK. The data indicate there is a consensus that more should be been done to learn from post-1997 efforts to reduce health inequalities, and an obvious desire to provide clearer policy guidance in future.However, discussions as to where researchers should now focus their efforts and with whom researchers ought to be engaging reveal three distinct ways of approaching health inequalities, each of which has its own epistemological foundations. Such differences imply that a consensus on reducing health inequalities is unlikely to materialise. Instead, progress seems most likely if all three approaches are simultaneously enabled. PMID:27358991

  18. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  19. Studies in Teaching: 2013 Research Digest. Action Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, June 26, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of the 18th Annual Research Forum held June 26, 2013, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Included are the following 13 action research papers: (1) Developing Oral Language Ability in the Secondary Spanish Classroom Using the Interpersonal and Presentational Modes of Communication…

  20. National Association for Research in Science Teaching 48th Annual Meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.

    This publication was produced by the ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education in cooperation with the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) to provide abstracts of most of the papers presented at the 48th annual conference in Los Angeles, California, March 17-19, 1975. The…