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Sample records for scooters

  1. Skateboard and scooter injuries.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Skateboard-related injuries account for an estimated 50 000 emergency department visits and 1500 hospitalizations among children and adolescents in the United States each year. Nonpowered scooter-related injuries accounted for an estimated 9400 emergency department visits between January and August 2000, and 90% of these patients were children younger than 15 years. Many such injuries can be avoided if children and youth do not ride in traffic, if proper protective gear is worn, and if, in the absence of close adult supervision, skateboards and scooters are not used by children younger than 10 and 8 years, respectively.

  2. Electric scooter pilot project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanina, Zdenek; Dedek, Jan; Golembiovsky, Matej

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the issue of electric scooter development for educational and demonstration purposes on the Technical University of Ostrava. Electric scooter is equipped with a brushless motor with permanent magnets and engine controller, measuring and monitoring system for speed regulation, energy flow control and both online and off-line data analysis, visualization system for real-time diagnostics and battery management with balancing modules system. Implemented device brings a wide area for the following scientific research. This article also includes some initial test results and electric vehicles experiences.

  3. Can scooter emissions dominate urban organic aerosol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haddad, Imad; Platt, Stephen; Huang, Ru-Jin; Zardini, Alessandro; Clairotte, Micheal; Pieber, Simone; Pfaffenberger, Lisa; Fuller, Steve; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Slowik, Jay; Chirico, Roberto; Kalberer, Markus; Marchand, Nicolas; Dommen, Josef; Astorga, Covadonga; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre

    2014-05-01

    In urban areas, where the health impact of pollutants increases due to higher population density, traffic is a major source of ambient organic aerosol (OA). A significant fraction of OA from traffic is secondary, produced via the reaction of exhaust volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with atmospheric oxidants. Secondary OA (SOA) has not been systematically assessed for different vehicles and driving conditions and thus its relative importance compared to directly emitted, primary OA (POA) is unknown, hindering the design of effective vehicle emissions regulations. 2-stroke (2S) scooters are inexpensive and convenient and as such a popular means of transportation globally, particularly in Asia. European regulations for scooters are less stringent than for other vehicles and thus primary particulate emissions and SOA precursor VOCs from 2S engines are estimated to be much higher. Assessing the effects of scooters on public health requires consideration of both POA, and SOA production. Here, we quantify POA emission factors and potential SOA EFs from 2S scooters, and the effect of using aromatic free fuel instead of standard gasoline thereon. During the tests, Euro 1 and Euro 2 2S scooters were run in idle or simulated low power conditions. Emissions from a Euro 2 2S scooter were also sampled during regulatory driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. Vehicle exhaust was introduced into smog chambers, where POA emission and SOA production were quantified using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. A high resolution proton transfer time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to investigate volatile organic compounds and a suite of instruments was utilized to quantify CO, CO2, O3, NOX and total hydrocarbons. We show that the oxidation of VOCs in the exhaust emissions of 2S scooters produce significant SOA, exceeding by up to an order of magnitude POA emissions. By monitoring the decay of VOC precursors, we show that SOA formation from 2S scooter

  4. More Cooperative and Fitness Activities on Scooters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes both individual and team cooperative and fitness activities that can be played with scooters. The activities include but are not limited to: (1) Traffic Jam; (2) Chariot; (3) Crab Walk; (4) Pom Pom Pull Away; (5) Clothespin Hustle; (6) Four Corners; (7) Spider; (8) Carousel; (9) Amoeba; (10) Caterpillar; (11) Centipede; (12)…

  5. More Cooperative and Fitness Activities on Scooters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes both individual and team cooperative and fitness activities that can be played with scooters. The activities include but are not limited to: (1) Traffic Jam; (2) Chariot; (3) Crab Walk; (4) Pom Pom Pull Away; (5) Clothespin Hustle; (6) Four Corners; (7) Spider; (8) Carousel; (9) Amoeba; (10) Caterpillar; (11) Centipede; (12)…

  6. Injuries in children associated with the use of nonmotorized scooters.

    PubMed

    Schalamon, Johannes; Sarkola, Taisto; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä

    2003-11-01

    Since 2000, a substantial increase in injuries related to nonmotorized scooters (kickboards) has been observed among children. The authors conducted a population-based prospective study to characterize these injuries in comparison with skateboard-related injuries during the same period. All children (age <16 years) presenting with a scooter-related injury between July and October 2000 in Graz (Austria) and all children presenting with a scooter- or skateboard-related injury between June and September 2001 in Helsinki, Finland were interviewed at the time of seeking medical attention. One hundred thirteen patients with scooter injuries and 72 patients with skateboard injuries were recorded. The 4-month calculated incidence in children less than 16 years of age was 0.72 per 1,000 for scooter injuries and 0.68 per 1,000 for skateboard injuries. The scooter injuries accounted for 1.9% and the skateboard injuries for 2.6% of all pediatric traumas within the respective catchment areas. The majority of the patients in both groups were boys. The patients with scooter injuries were younger than the patients with skateboard injuries (mean age 10.2 +/- 2.7 v 12.5 +/- 2.4 years; P <.001). Most of the scooter-related accidents were claimed to be caused by the wheels of the scooter getting caught by uneven ground, whereas most skateboard accidents occurred during attempted trick maneuvers. Protective gear was seldom used. More than half of the scooter-related injuries were minor bruises, wounds, or contusions. One third of the patients sustained a fracture, usually involving the upper extremity distal to the elbow. The only life-threatening injury was a ruptured spleen in a skateboarder. The injury pattern of scooter and skateboard injuries was similar. Public awareness of the potential dangers related to scooter riding should be increased and the use of protective gear encouraged.

  7. Incidence and description of scooter-related injuries among children.

    PubMed

    Powell, Elizabeth C; Tanz, Robert R

    2004-01-01

    To describe trends in scooter-related injuries among US youth and compare scooter injuries to those related to in-line skates and skateboards. Retrospective review of data for children 1-19 years old from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for 1997-2002. There were an estimated 190,878 scooter-related injuries (95% confidence interval: 145,984-235,773) among children treated in US emergency departments; 90% were in those 15 years old or younger. There was a marked increase in scooter-related injuries in 2000, injuries peaked in 2001, and declined. In 2002, the number of scooter-related injuries was similar to in-line skates and lower than skateboard-related injuries. Scooter- and in-line skate-associated injuries primarily involved children 5-12 years old: rates of scooter-related injuries were higher than rates of in-line skate-associated injuries among those 1-9 years old. Skateboard-related injuries more often involved teens. Forearm fractures accounted for 56% of fractures related to scooters (vs 74% in-line skates and 49% skateboards, chi-square, P < .01). Five percent of children injured using scooters had a closed head injury or skull fracture, similar to in-line skates and skateboards. The annual number of injuries related to scooters, which peaked in 2001, is now similar to the number of injuries related to in-line skates. Injuries related to scooters primarily involve children 5-12 years old, and forearm fractures are common. These data suggest helmets should be used, and protective equipment should be developed to reduce forearm fractures.

  8. The experience of being a motorised mobility scooter user.

    PubMed

    Fomiatti, Ryan; Moir, Lois; Richmond, Janet; Millsteed, Jeannine

    2014-05-01

    To explore the individual experience of being a scooter user and the ways in which scooters impact the individual's community and social engagement, daily activities and enhances mobility. A qualitative, constructive framework utilising purposive sampling and a semi structured interview was used with 14 individuals. Questions were categorised according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework into the three areas of activities, participation and environmental factors. The three main themes identified through the research were knowledge, engagement and environments. Knowledge included a lack of concise information, and adequate trialling and training prior to purchase. Engagement consisted of participation and interaction demonstrating scooter use resulted in increased participation, role maintenance, choice, freedom and social interaction. Environments highlighted discrimination from the wider population and building design and barriers. The research demonstrated a strong positive impact on individual's engagement from using a scooter, while highlighting a lack of adequate knowledge about scooters, batteries, skill ability and design along with environmental challenges of discriminatory attitudes and physical barriers. The research indicates the need for pre-purchase assessments and trials along with improvements in community attitudes and environments. Development of a pre-purchase assessment including specific core skills for scooter use is of great importance to minimise accidents and death as a consequence of scooter driving. Education and training of prescribers and suppliers of scooters is important to match needs and skills to enable a better fit of scooter to user. Incorporation of adjustability of features within the standard design of scooters, including type of driving controls, seat height, and adjustment of distance to controls, will enable greater fit of scooter to the user s needs.

  9. Motorcycle and scooter speeds approaching urban intersections.

    PubMed

    Walton, D; Buchanan, J

    2012-09-01

    Five urban, uncontrolled T-intersections known to be motorcycle crash 'black spots' were monitored using instrumentation and a roadside observer. Two sets of twelve-hour observations were collected for each site (N≈100,000). Instrumentation recorded the 'events' of vehicles passing to measure, speed, direction, lane position, vehicle type (broadly characterised) and headway. Observers further recorded times of bicycle events, type of motorcycle (scooters or motorcycles), the behaviour of motorcycles and the use of 'high conspicuity' gear such as clothing or helmets. Results establish that motorcycles travel around 10% faster than the other traffic (car mean speed=34.97 km/h), with motorcycles travelling on average 3.3 km/h faster than cars. Motorcycles were 3.4 times more likely to be exceeding the speed limit than cars. Similar results are described for scooters. Also examined are the influences on mean speeds such as the time of day, the presence of a car at the t-intersection, and the influence of free headway. The results are compared for robustness across locations and days. It is concluded that in urban areas motorcycles are travelling significantly faster than other traffic. These findings are discussed against a concern to reduce motorcycle crashes by improving conspicuity and previous research that implicates a 'looked-but-failed-to-see' effect for car drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatal and severe injury: scooter and moped crashes in California, 1985.

    PubMed Central

    Salatka, M; Arzemanian, S; Kraus, J F; Anderson, C L

    1990-01-01

    Fatal and severe injury crashes for scooters and mopeds in California for 1985 were compared with those for motorcycles during the same year. Scooters had more than twice the injury crash rate of mopeds but one-half the rate of motorcycles. Age of injured drivers and crash patterns for scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles varied significantly. PMID:2382755

  11. Pediatric fractures during skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding.

    PubMed

    Zalavras, Charalampos; Nikolopoulou, Georgia; Essin, Daniel; Manjra, Nahid; Zionts, Lewis E

    2005-04-01

    Skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding are popular recreational and sporting activities for children and adolescents but can be associated with skeletal injury. The purpose of this study is to describe the frequency and characteristics of fractures resulting from these activities. Fractures from skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding compose a considerable proportion of pediatric musculoskeletal injuries. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Demographic data and injury characteristics were analyzed for all patients who presented to the pediatric fracture clinic of the level I trauma center from January 2001 to May 2002 after sustaining fractures due to skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding. Among a total of 2371 fractures, the authors identified 325 fractures (13.7%) that occurred during one of these activities. There were 187 patients (mean age, 13 years; 95% male) who sustained 191 skateboard-related fractures, 64 patients (mean age, 10.8 years; 54% male) who sustained 65 fractures while roller skating, and 66 patients (mean age, 9.7 years; 64% male) who sustained 69 fractures while riding a scooter. The forearm was fractured most often, composing 48.2% of skate-boarding fractures, 63.1% of roller-skating fractures, and 50.7% of fractures due to scooter riding. Of the forearm fractures, 94% were located in the distal third. In the skateboarding group, 10 of 191 (5.2%) fractures were open injuries of the forearm, compared to 6 of 2046 (0.3%) fractures caused by other mechanisms of injury (significant odds ratio, 18.8). Skateboarding, roller-skating, and scooter-riding accidents result in a large proportion of pediatric fractures. An open fracture, especially of the forearm, was more likely to be caused by skateboarding than by other mechanisms of injury. Use of wrist and forearm protective equipment should be considered in all children who ride a skateboard.

  12. The casualties from electric bike and motorized scooter road accidents.

    PubMed

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Radomislensky, Irina; Israel Trauma Group; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-04-03

    The objective of this study was to describe demographic and injury characteristics of hospitalized injured patients involved in e-bike and motorized scooter accidents at a national level in Israel divided by different road user groups: riders and pedestrians. This was a retrospective study based on data from the National Trauma Registry, between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. All hospitalized casualties due to the involvement of an e-bike or motorized scooter were included. The type of hospitalized road user was further categorized and described by different variables. During the study period, the Israel Trauma Registry identified 795 hospitalized patients due to an e-bike or motorized scooter accident, with a dramatic 6-fold increase from 2013 to 2015. Although the majority of the injured patients were riders, 8% were pedestrians. Among the total casualties, 33% were children aged 0-14 years and among pedestrians 42% were children and 33% were seniors (ages 60+). Five persons died in hospital, 3 riders and 2 pedestrians. E-bike and motorized scooter riders represent the majority of patients hospitalized due to related traffic incident. This finding questions the social and economic advantages of electric-powered 2-wheeled vehicles.

  13. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van…

  14. A survey of adult power wheelchair and scooter users.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kara; McCluskey, Annie

    2010-01-01

    Power wheelchairs and scooters have the potential to increase community participation for people with mobility limitations. However, there are also challenges associated with use. The aims of this study were to investigate the characteristics of adults who use power wheelchairs and scooters, explore the process of power-mobility provision and examine the benefits and challenges of use. A cross-sectional survey design was used to recruit power wheelchair or scooter users, aged over 18 years, or their carer, living in New South Wales, Australia. The survey was distributed by mail and e-mail. Two hundred and two usable surveys were returned, 25% were power wheelchair users (median age: 57 years, IQR: 40-69) and 74% were scooter users (mean age: 81 years, IQR: 72-85). Only one-third of users (33%) consulted a health professional prior to purchasing their device. Benefits included increased independence and quality of life. Challenges included environmental barriers and accidents. A sizeable proportion of respondents (21%) reported accidents in the previous year, often resulting in personal injury and damage to their device. Power-mobility devices have many benefits for users, but can also have negative outcomes, like accidents resulting in injuries. Further high quality studies need to be conducted to determine whether the positive benefits outweigh the negative outcomes such as accidents and injuries.

  15. Mopeds and Scooters: Crash Outcomes in a High Traffic State

    PubMed Central

    Miggins, Makesha; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Liu, Huazhi; Moldawer, Lyle; Efron, Philip; Ang, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    Background Moped and scooter crash outcomes in the United States were last reported over 20 years ago. These vehicles have experienced resurgence in popularity with sales that have increased up to 60% in recent years. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors between severe and non-severe driver related injuries and to identify modifiable risk factors. Methods The Florida Traffic Crash Records Database (FTCRD) was used to identify all crashes involving mopeds and scooters occurring between 2002 and 2008. A total of 5,660 moped crashes were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the strength of association of severe injury for each risk factor. Results Over 90% of drivers involved in moped or scooter crashes were uninsured. Only 17% of all drivers wore helmets. Alcohol and drug use was a significant risk factor severe and lethal crashes OR 2.09, 95% CI (1.64, 2.66). Risk factors amenable for state intervention and associated with increased severe or lethal injury were unpaved roads OR 1.57, 95% CI (1.30, 1.88); driving speeds > 20 mph OR 2.02, 95% CI (1.73, 2.36); posted speed limits >30 mph OR 1.40, 95% CI (1.22, 1.62); major roadways with 4 or more lanes OR 1.83, 95% CI (1.04, 3.21); and poor lighting conditions OR 1.69, 95% CI (1.23, 2.32). Conclusions These results suggest that most of the traffic infrastructure does not accommodate the safety of moped and scooter drivers. Focused interventions and further investigation into statewide traffic rules may improve moped crash outcomes. PMID:21399547

  16. Prevalence of Wheelchair and Scooter Use Among Community-Dwelling Canadians.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma M; Giesbrecht, Edward M; Mortenson, W Ben; Miller, William C

    2016-08-01

    Mobility impairments are the third leading cause of disability for community-dwelling Canadians. Wheelchairs and scooters help compensate for these challenges. There are limited data within the last decade estimating the prevalence of wheelchair and scooter use in Canada. The aims of this study were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of wheelchair and scooter use in Canada and (2) to explore relevant demographic characteristics of wheelchair and scooter users. This study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional national survey. The Canadian Survey on Disability (2012) collected data on wheelchair and scooter use from community-dwelling individuals aged 15 years and over with a self-identified activity limitation on the National Household Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated as weighted frequencies, with cross-tabulations to determine the number of wheelchair and scooter users in Canada, by province, and demographic characteristics (ie, age, sex) and bootstrapping to estimate the variance of all point estimates. There were approximately 288,800 community-dwelling wheelchair and scooter users aged 15 years and over, representing 1.0% of the Canadian population. The sample included 197,560 manual wheelchair users, 42,360 powered wheelchair users, and 108,550 scooter users. Wheelchair and scooter users were predominantly women, with a mean age of 65 years. Approximately 50,620 individuals used a combination of 2 different types of devices. The results are representative of individuals living in the community in Canada and exclude individuals in residential or group-based settings; estimates do not represent the true population prevalence. This analysis is the first in more than 10 years to provide a prevalence estimate and description of wheelchair and scooter users in Canada. Since 2004, there has been an increase in the proportion of the population who use wheelchairs and scooters, likely related to an aging Canadian population. These new prevalence data

  17. Prevalence of Wheelchair and Scooter Use Among Community-Dwelling Canadians

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emma M.; Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Mortenson, W. Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobility impairments are the third leading cause of disability for community-dwelling Canadians. Wheelchairs and scooters help compensate for these challenges. There are limited data within the last decade estimating the prevalence of wheelchair and scooter use in Canada. Objective The aims of this study were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of wheelchair and scooter use in Canada and (2) to explore relevant demographic characteristics of wheelchair and scooter users. Design This study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional national survey. Methods The Canadian Survey on Disability (2012) collected data on wheelchair and scooter use from community-dwelling individuals aged 15 years and over with a self-identified activity limitation on the National Household Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated as weighted frequencies, with cross-tabulations to determine the number of wheelchair and scooter users in Canada, by province, and demographic characteristics (ie, age, sex) and bootstrapping to estimate the variance of all point estimates. Results There were approximately 288,800 community-dwelling wheelchair and scooter users aged 15 years and over, representing 1.0% of the Canadian population. The sample included 197,560 manual wheelchair users, 42,360 powered wheelchair users, and 108,550 scooter users. Wheelchair and scooter users were predominantly women, with a mean age of 65 years. Approximately 50,620 individuals used a combination of 2 different types of devices. Limitations The results are representative of individuals living in the community in Canada and exclude individuals in residential or group-based settings; estimates do not represent the true population prevalence. Conclusion This analysis is the first in more than 10 years to provide a prevalence estimate and description of wheelchair and scooter users in Canada. Since 2004, there has been an increase in the proportion of the population who use wheelchairs and scooters, likely

  18. Adult Scandinavians' use of powered scooters: user satisfaction, frequency of use, and prediction of daily use.

    PubMed

    Sund, Terje; Brandt, Åse

    2017-04-01

    To investigate user satisfaction with characteristics of powered scooters (scooters), frequency of use, and factors predicting daily scooter use. Cross-sectional. Adult scooter users (n = 59) in Denmark and Norway, mean age 74.5 (standard deviation 12.3) years. Structured face-to-face interviews. The NOMO 1.0, the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive devices (QUEST 2.0), and a study specific instrument were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were applied, and regression analyzes were used to investigate predictors for daily scooter use. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) served as a framework for classifying variables and guiding the investigation. Satisfaction with the scooter characteristics was high with most participants being very satisfied or quite satisfied (66.1-91.5%). Most scooters were used daily (36.2%) or several times a week (50.0%). User satisfaction with safety of the scooter [odds ratio (OR) = 11.76, confidence interval (CI) = 1.70-81.28] and reduced balance (OR = 5.63, CI = 0.90-35.39) increased the likelihood of daily use, while reduced function in back and/or legs (OR = .04, CI = 0.00-0.75), tiredness (OR = .06, CI = 0.01-0.51), and increased age (OR = .93, CI = 0.87-1.00) reduced the likelihood of daily use. 52.8% of the variance was explained by these variables. User satisfaction was high, and most scooters were used frequently. User satisfaction with safety, specific functional limitations and age were predictors for daily scooter use. Implications for Rehabilitation Scooters seem to be a beneficial intervention for people with mobility impairment: user satisfaction and frequency of use are high. Users' subjective feeling of safety should be secured in the service delivery process in order to support safe and frequent scooter use. Training of scooter skills should be considered in the service delivery process.

  19. An electric scooter simulation program for training the driving skills of stroke patients with mobility problems: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jannink, Michiel J A; Erren-Wolters, C Victorien; de Kort, Alexander C; van der Kooij, Herman

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes an electric scooter simulation program and a first evaluation study in which we explored if it is possible to train the driving skills of future users of electric mobility scooters by means of an electric scooter simulation program in addition to conventional electric scooter training. Within this explorative study,10 stroke survivors were randomly assigned to either the control (n=5) or the electric scooter simulation intervention group (n=5). Participants were assessed twice on the functional evaluating rating scale. During the followup measurement, subjective experiences regarding both forms of electric scooter training were elicited by a questionnaire. After a training period of 5 weeks, both groups improved on the Functional Evaluation Rating Scale. It can be concluded that the patients with stroke were satisfied with the electric scooter simulation training.

  20. Pedestrian and motorized mobility scooter safety of older people.

    PubMed

    Jancey, Jonine; Cooper, Lisa; Howat, Peter; Meuleners, Lynn; Sleet, David; Baldwin, Grant

    2013-01-01

    After driving, walking is older adults' second most preferred mode of transport and preferred recreational activity. This leads to greater exposure to traffic, increasing their risk of pedestrian-vehicle crashes, with older adults being more likely to die as a pedestrian compared to when using other modes of transport. However, less focus has been placed on this particularly vulnerable group. This review summarizes issues associated with older adult pedestrian and motorized mobility scooters (MMS) safety and interventions that have been conducted. A literature search was undertaken from PubMed, MUARC publications, the Curtin University Library Catalogue, and Google Scholar. Keywords included older pedestrians, older adult road injury, mobility scooter injury, and injury prevention. Publications from 2000 and later were used, unless an earlier publication had significant relevance and worth. Maintaining older adults' mobility and independence during a time of decreasing physical and mental capacity is a priority. Walking provides a key mode of transport that needs to be given higher priority within the road environment by policy makers, transport planners, and drivers. Therefore, governments need to consider appropriate and comprehensive urban planning and road safety policies that accommodate active aging to provide pedestrians and MMS users with environments that facilitate active living and safe transport. In addition, there is a need for community programs that raise awareness about safe road crossing for this growing vulnerable age group.

  1. Comparison of moped, scooter and motorcycle crash risk and crash severity.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Ross A; Haworth, Narelle L

    2013-08-01

    The increased popularity of mopeds and motor scooters in Australia and elsewhere in the last decade has contributed substantially to the greater use of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) as a whole. As the exposure of mopeds and scooters has increased, so too has the number of reported crashes involving those PTW types, but there is currently little research comparing the safety of mopeds and, particularly, larger scooters with motorcycles. This study compared the crash risk and crash severity of motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive data cleansing was undertaken to separate motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in police-reported crash data covering the five years to 30 June 2008. The crash rates of motorcycles (including larger scooters) and mopeds in terms of registered vehicles were similar over this period, although the moped crash rate showed a stronger downward trend. However, the crash rates in terms of distance travelled were nearly four times higher for mopeds than for motorcycles (including larger scooters). More comprehensive distance travelled data is needed to confirm these findings. The overall severity of moped and scooter crashes was significantly lower than motorcycle crashes but an ordered probit regression model showed that crash severity outcomes related to differences in crash characteristics and circumstances, rather than differences between PTW types per se. Greater motorcycle crash severity was associated with higher (>80km/h) speed zones, horizontal curves, weekend, single vehicle and nighttime crashes. Moped crashes were more severe at night and in speed zones of 90km/h or more. Larger scooter crashes were more severe in 70km/h zones (than 60km/h zones) but not in higher speed zones, and less severe on weekends than on weekdays. The findings can be used to inform potential crash and injury countermeasures tailored to users of different PTW types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Are electric self-balancing scooters safe in vehicle crash accidents?

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Yu, Guizhen; Qi, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Xu, Shucai

    2016-02-01

    With the pressing demand of environmentally friendly personal transportation vehicles, mobility scooters become more and more popular for the short-distance transportation. Similar to pedestrians and bicyclists, scooter riders are vulnerable road users and are expected to receive severe injuries during traffic accidents. In this research, a MADYMO model of vehicle-scooter crash scenarios is numerically set up. The model of the vehicle with the scenario is validated in pedestrian-vehicle accident investigation with previous literatures in terms of throwing distance and HIC15 value. HIC15 values gained at systematic parametric studies. Injury information from various vehicle crashing speeds (i.e. from 10m/s to 24m/s), angles (i.e. from 0 to 360°), scooter's speeds (i.e. from 0m/s to 4m/s), contact positions (i.e. left, middle and right bumper positions) are extracted, analyzed and then compared with those from widely studied pedestrian-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle accidents. Results show that the ESS provides better impact protection for the riders. Riding ESS would not increase the risk higher than walking at the same impact conditions in terms of head injury. The responsible reasons should be the smaller friction coefficient between the wheel-road than the heel-road interactions, different body gestures leading to different contact positions, forces and timing. Results may shed lights upon the future research of mobility scooter safety analysis and also the safety design guidance for the scooters.

  3. A comparison of injuries to moped/scooter and motorcycle riders in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    White, David; Lang, Jacelle; Russell, Glen; Tetsworth, Kevin; Harvey, Kathy; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    The popularity of moped and motor scooter riding in Australia is increasing. However, there is a paucity of information about their safety, especially in comparison to motorcycle riding where riders require specific licensing, education and training. Given it is widely established that motorcycle riders are overrepresented in road injury statistics, consideration of moped and scooter riders as a sub-group of all motorcyclists is required for accurate understanding of injury patterns and the acute care needs of this group. A comparison of demographic, injury and acute care characteristics between seriously injured moped/scooter riders and motorcycle riders was undertaken using data from the state-wide trauma registry in Queensland, Australia, from 2006 to 2010. A total of 206 moped/scooter riders and 2667 motorcycle riders were identified. Motorcycle rider injury admissions significantly decreased over time (p<0.01), whereas no change was observed for injured moped/scooter riders. Moped/scooter riders sustained a greater percentage of head/neck (+8.6%), facial (+3.0%) and abdominal injuries (+2.3%), whereas motorcycle riders sustained a greater percentage of upper extremity (+4.0%), thoracic (+3.9%), spinal (+3.6%) and lower extremity injuries (+2.6%). There was no statistically significant difference in injury severity, length of acute hospital stay, admission to ICU or survival to discharge from acute care between injured moped/scooter riders and motorcycle riders. The results of this study suggest that riders of mopeds/scooters and motorcycles may have different injury patterns, but sustain similar overall injury severity. This analysis fills a gap in transport crash data, where there is limited information on the nature of injuries sustained. While moped-related injuries cannot be isolated in ICD-10 health coding, it is anticipated that ICD-11, due for release in 2015, may provide a moped-specific code; however, this will not address the issue of the apparent

  4. Bioethanol/gasoline blends for fuelling conventional and hybrid scooter. Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costagliola, Maria Antonietta; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Murena, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this experimental activity was to evaluate the influence of ethanol fuel on the pollutant emissions measured at the exhaust of a conventional and a hybrid scooter. Both scooters are 4-stroke, 125 cm3 of engine capacity and Euro 3 compliant. They were tested on chassis dynamometer for measuring gaseous emissions of CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and some toxic micro organic pollutants, such as benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The fuel consumption was estimated throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust species. Moreover, total particles number with diameter between 20 nm up to 1 μm was measured. Worldwide and European test cycles were carried out with both scooters fuelled with gasoline and ethanol/gasoline blends (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70% vol). According to the experimental results relative to both scooter technologies, the addiction of ethanol in gasoline reduces CO and particles number emissions. The combustion of conventional scooter becomes unstable when a percentage of 30%v of bioethanol is fed; as consequence a strong increasing of hydrocarbon is monitored, including carcinogenic species. The negative effects of ethanol fuel are related to the increasing of fuel consumption due to the less carbon content for volume unit and to the increasing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde due to the higher oxygen availability. Almost 70% of Ozone Formation Potential is covered by alkenes and aromatics.

  5. Simulative investigation on head injuries of electric self-balancing scooter riders subject to ground impact.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Qi, Hongsheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Chen, Peng

    2016-04-01

    The safety performance of an electric self-balancing scooter (ESS) has recently become a main concern in preventing its further wide application as a major candidate for green transportation. Scooter riders may suffer severe brain injuries in possible vehicle crash accidents not only from contact with a windshield or bonnet but also from secondary contact with the ground. In this paper, virtual vehicle-ESS crash scenarios combined with finite element (FE) car models and multi-body scooter/human models are set up. Post-impact kinematic gestures of scooter riders under various contact conditions, such as different vehicle impact speeds, ESS moving speeds, impact angles or positions, and different human sizes, are classified and analyzed. Furthermore, head-ground impact processes are reconstructed using validated FE head models, and important parameters of contusion and laceration (e.g., coup or contrecoup pressures and Von Mises stress and the maximum shear stress) are extracted and analyzed to assess the severity of regional contusion from head-ground contact. Results show that the brain injury risk increases with vehicle speeds and ESS moving speeds and may provide fundamental knowledge to popularize the use of a helmet and the vehicle-fitted safety systems, and lay a strong foundation for the reconstruction of ESS-involved accidents. There is scope to improve safety for the use of ESS in public roads according to the analysis and conclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Driver's education may reduce annual incidence and severity of moped and scooter accidents. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kosola, Silja; Salminen, Päivi; Kallio, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, the annual number of adolescents treated at Helsinki Children's Hospital and Töölö Trauma Centre for injuries from moped and scooter accidents increased five-fold between 2002 and 2007. In June 2011, the requirements for a moped/scooter license changed to include driver's education and a vehicle handling evaluation. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the influence of legislative changes on moped and scooter related serious injuries in adolescents. Data from 520 patients (age 15-16) treated for trauma from moped and scooter accidents at our institutions between January 2008 and December 2013 were included. Case numbers were compared with population data from national databases. Overall incidence, trauma mechanism, injury profile, and proportion of patients requiring hospital admission were calculated for time periods before and after the law amendment. After the law change in 2011, the annual incidence of moped/scooter injuries among 15-year-olds in our area decreased from 0.8% in 2011 to 0.3% in 2013 (p<0.001), and estimated incidence of injuries per new moped/scooter license declined from 1.8% in 2011 to 1.0% in 2013 (p=0.001). Simultaneously, proportions of patients injured in collisions, diagnosed with multiple trauma or requiring in-patient care reduced. A change in moped/scooter license requirements may have a causal relationship with both reduced number and severity of moped/scooter related injuries in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of mobility scooters on their users. Does their usage help or hinder?: A state of the art review

    PubMed Central

    Thoreau, Roselle

    2015-01-01

    As older people start to have difficulty in walking many choose to use a mobility scooter to help them move around. Benefitting from improved design, mobility scooters are becoming an increasingly popular mobility device and are a common sight on many streets. However, very little is known about their usage or their impact in terms of either quality of life or functional health. Whilst mobility scooters may help to improve the quality of life of their users, it is also possible that the sedentary nature of their usage results in a decline of physical functionality and therefore reduced capabilities. Before any substantial research can be carried out it is crucial to understand the importance of a mobility scooter on the lives of the people that use them and to review the initial research published on the effect of scooter use on physical health. This paper is a state-of-the-art review. It describes the current research knowledge on mobility scooters, shows where gaps in knowledge exist and where future research needs to focus. PMID:26258048

  8. The impact of mobility scooters on their users. Does their usage help or hinder?: A state of the art review.

    PubMed

    Thoreau, Roselle

    2015-06-01

    As older people start to have difficulty in walking many choose to use a mobility scooter to help them move around. Benefitting from improved design, mobility scooters are becoming an increasingly popular mobility device and are a common sight on many streets. However, very little is known about their usage or their impact in terms of either quality of life or functional health. Whilst mobility scooters may help to improve the quality of life of their users, it is also possible that the sedentary nature of their usage results in a decline of physical functionality and therefore reduced capabilities. Before any substantial research can be carried out it is crucial to understand the importance of a mobility scooter on the lives of the people that use them and to review the initial research published on the effect of scooter use on physical health. This paper is a state-of-the-art review. It describes the current research knowledge on mobility scooters, shows where gaps in knowledge exist and where future research needs to focus.

  9. Two-stroke scooters are a dominant source of air pollution in many cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, S. M.; Haddad, I. El.; Pieber, S. M.; Huang, R.-J.; Zardini, A. A.; Clairotte, M.; Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Barmet, P.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Wolf, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Fuller, S. J.; Kalberer, M.; Chirico, R.; Dommen, J.; Astorga, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Marchand, N.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-05-01

    Fossil fuel-powered vehicles emit significant particulate matter, for example, black carbon and primary organic aerosol, and produce secondary organic aerosol. Here we quantify secondary organic aerosol production from two-stroke scooters. Cars and trucks, particularly diesel vehicles, are thought to be the main vehicular pollution sources. This needs re-thinking, as we show that elevated particulate matter levels can be a consequence of ‘asymmetric pollution’ from two-stroke scooters, vehicles that constitute a small fraction of the fleet, but can dominate urban vehicular pollution through organic aerosol and aromatic emission factors up to thousands of times higher than from other vehicle classes. Further, we demonstrate that oxidation processes producing secondary organic aerosol from vehicle exhaust also form potentially toxic ‘reactive oxygen species’.

  10. Two-stroke scooters are a dominant source of air pollution in many cities.

    PubMed

    Platt, S M; Haddad, I El; Pieber, S M; Huang, R-J; Zardini, A A; Clairotte, M; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Barmet, P; Pfaffenberger, L; Wolf, R; Slowik, J G; Fuller, S J; Kalberer, M; Chirico, R; Dommen, J; Astorga, C; Zimmermann, R; Marchand, N; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Baltensperger, U; Prévôt, A S H

    2014-05-13

    Fossil fuel-powered vehicles emit significant particulate matter, for example, black carbon and primary organic aerosol, and produce secondary organic aerosol. Here we quantify secondary organic aerosol production from two-stroke scooters. Cars and trucks, particularly diesel vehicles, are thought to be the main vehicular pollution sources. This needs re-thinking, as we show that elevated particulate matter levels can be a consequence of 'asymmetric pollution' from two-stroke scooters, vehicles that constitute a small fraction of the fleet, but can dominate urban vehicular pollution through organic aerosol and aromatic emission factors up to thousands of times higher than from other vehicle classes. Further, we demonstrate that oxidation processes producing secondary organic aerosol from vehicle exhaust also form potentially toxic 'reactive oxygen species'.

  11. Motion estimation by integrated low cost system (vision and MEMS) for positioning of a scooter "Vespa"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, A.; Milan, N.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the automotive sector, especially in these last decade, a growing number of investigations have taken into account electronic systems to check and correct the behavior of drivers, increasing road safety. The possibility to identify with high accuracy the vehicle position in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is also another topic which attracts lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate time by time the position, orientation and velocity of the system. To this aim low cost GPS and MEMS (sensors can be used. In comparison to a four wheel vehicle, the dynamics of a two wheel vehicle (e.g. a scooter) feature a higher level of complexity. Indeed more degrees of freedom must be taken into account to describe the motion of the latter. For example a scooter can twist sideways, thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well, since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion with respect to four wheel vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a motorcycle ("Vespa" scooter), which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on the integration of GPS and INS sensors. Position and orientation of the scooter are derived from MEMS data and images acquired by on-board digital camera. A Bayesian filter provides the means for integrating the data from MEMS-based orientation sensor and the GPS receiver.

  12. Effect of Motorized Scooters on Quality of Life and Cardiovascular Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    frequency, were disabling arthritis, chronic lung disease , neurologic disorders, and heart failure. Patients returning the surveys estimated scooter...plasma lipoproteins and the risk of coronary heart disease . J Intern Med 1994;236:7–22. 3. Thompson PD, Cullinane EM, Sady SP, Flynn MM, Bernier DN...Exercise training improves lipoprotein lipid profiles in patients with coronary artery disease . Am Heart J 1983;105:889–895. 7. Houmard JA, McCulley C

  13. Fall prevalence in people with multiple sclerosis who use wheelchairs and scooters.

    PubMed

    Rice, Laura; Kalron, Alon; Berkowitz, Shani H; Backus, Deborah; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2017-09-01

    Falls are a serious health concern for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) who use wheelchairs or scooters as their primary mode of mobility. Unfortunately, little is known about the fall prevalence and characteristics of this large segment of the multiple sclerosis (MS) community. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and circumstances of falls in wheelchair and scooter users living with MS. Forty-four PwMS were recruited from research and medical centers in the United States and Asia. Participants completed a survey focusing on prevalence of falls, frequency of injurious falls, circumstances of the fall, and various quality of life indicators. A total of 44 individuals (32 females/11 males/1 not reported) aged 27 to 82 years (mean = 58 yrs) completed the survey. Seventy-five percent (n = 33) reported falling at least once in 6 months and 48% (n = 12) of those that fell sustained an injury. The majority (87.5%) of the falls occurred inside the home. Most individuals (76.7%; n = 33) reported concerns about falling and 65.9% (n = 29) limited their activities because of their concern of falling. Falls are prevalent in wheelchair and scooter users with MS. The observations highlight the need for interventions targeting this segment of the MS community.

  14. New exposure system to evaluate the toxicity of (scooter) exhaust emissions in lung cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Müller, Loretta; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas C R; Gehr, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz; Morin, Jean-Paul; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2010-04-01

    A constantly growing number of scooters produce an increasing amount of potentially harmful emissions. Due to their engine technology, two-stroke scooters emit huge amounts of adverse substances, which can induce adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. The aim of this study was to develop a system to expose a characterized triple cell coculture model of the human epithelial airway barrier, to freshly produced and characterized total scooter exhaust emissions. In exposure chambers, cell cultures were exposed for 1 and 2 h to 1:100 diluted exhaust emissions and in the reference chamber to filtered ambient air, both controlled at 5% CO(2), 85% relative humidity, and 37 degrees C. The postexposure time was 0-24 h. Cytotoxicity, used to validate the exposure system, was significantly increased in exposed cell cultures after 8 h postexposure time. (Pro-) inflammatory chemo- and cytokine concentrations in the medium of exposed cells were significantly higher at the 12 h postexposure time point. It was shown that the described exposure system (with 2 h exposure duration, 8 and 24 h postexposure time, dilution of 1:100, flow of 2 L/min as optimal exposure conditions) can be used to evaluate the toxic potential of total exhaust emissions.

  15. Low-Cost MEMS sensors and vision system for motion and position estimation of a scooter.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Alberto; Pirotti, Francesco; Vettore, Antonio

    2013-01-24

    The possibility to identify with significant accuracy the position of a vehicle in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is a topic which is attracting a lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate position, orientation and velocity of the system with high measurement rates. In this work we test a system which uses low-cost sensors, based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, coupled with information derived from a video camera placed on a two-wheel motor vehicle (scooter). In comparison to a four-wheel vehicle; the dynamics of a two-wheel vehicle feature a higher level of complexity given that more degrees of freedom must be taken into account. For example a motorcycle can twist sideways; thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well; since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion compared to four-wheel motor vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a "Vespa" scooter; which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on GPS/INS sensor integration. Position and orientation of the scooter are obtained by integrating MEMS-based orientation sensor data with digital images through a cascade of a Kalman filter and a Bayesian particle filter.

  16. Low-Cost MEMS Sensors and Vision System for Motion and Position Estimation of a Scooter

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Alberto; Pirotti, Francesco; Vettore, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to identify with significant accuracy the position of a vehicle in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is a topic which is attracting a lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate position, orientation and velocity of the system with high measurement rates. In this work we test a system which uses low-cost sensors, based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, coupled with information derived from a video camera placed on a two-wheel motor vehicle (scooter). In comparison to a four-wheel vehicle; the dynamics of a two-wheel vehicle feature a higher level of complexity given that more degrees of freedom must be taken into account. For example a motorcycle can twist sideways; thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well; since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion compared to four-wheel motor vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a “Vespa” scooter; which can be used as alternative to the “classical” approach based on GPS/INS sensor integration. Position and orientation of the scooter are obtained by integrating MEMS-based orientation sensor data with digital images through a cascade of a Kalman filter and a Bayesian particle filter. PMID:23348036

  17. Investigating the technical, economic and environmental performance of electric vehicles in the real-world: A case study using electric scooters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Justin D. K.; Doucette, Reed T.; Robinson, Daniel; Mills, Barnaby; McCulloch, Malcolm D.

    This work presents the findings of a small-scale electric scooter trial in Oxford, United Kingdom. The trial scooters were instrumented with global positioning satellite data loggers and energy meters to record their time of day usage and charging regimes. The scooters were most likely driving at 09:00, 12:45 and 17:15 and charging at 10:15-10:40. The electric scooter normalized mains-to-wheel energy use was 0.10 kWh km -1. The electric scooter total operating costs (electricity and battery replacement) of £0.045 km -1 is 24% greater than the best selling equivalent petrol motorcycle and 1.7 times lower than the best selling car. The electric scooter uses 0.45 MJ km -1, or 2.9 times and 6.1 times less than the petrol motorcycle and car, respectively. Further, the electric scooter can achieve zero carbon dioxide equivalent (greenhouse gas, GHG) emissions when electricity from renewable energy sources is used. In 2008, there were 247 000 motorcycles in the UK vehicle fleet of equivalent size to the trial scooter. Scaling up the electric vehicle fleet size accordingly would avoid 0.60 billion car or motorcycle kilometres and 54-110 kt associated GHG. The fleet would require 59 GWh, or 0.015% of total annual generation with a time-shifted, peak demand of 250 MW, or 0.44% of the 58 GW maximum national demand.

  18. On the outdoor annoyance from scooter and motorbike noise in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Paviotti, Marco; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-15

    The health impacts of environmental noise are a growing concern amongst both the general public and policy-makers in Europe. Environmental noise - especially from road transportation - is widely accepted as an important environmental impact factor that can be taken as a start for the process of evaluating the impact of annoyance on the exposed urban population. Extensive urbanisation and the increase of road transport define the main driving forces for the environmental noise exposure of the population. In urban conditions, it is rather common, regarding road transportation noise, to hear from people that, especially, PTW (Powered Two Wheelers) are annoying, and many times are actually the most annoying environmental noise sources introducing a degradation of the urban environment. In this research, in Athens city centre, both scooters and motorbikes operation patterns are analysed, in the basis of their environmental impact through ad-hoc tests to establish if specific features of their emitted noise are annoying and affect the quality of life. It resulted that PTW are a relevant cause of specific environmental annoyance on pedestrians when low background noise levels and sparse traffic flow allow identifying the PTW. Based on the results of a measurement campaign, both L(max) and roughness indices are identified as characteristic noise signatures of the PTW. Results are compared to laboratory studies on annoyance found in literature and to a specific set of interviews with a large number of pedestrians in selected sites. Annoyance caused by scooters and motorbikes is analysed in the findings and conclusions.

  19. Adaptive Driving Equipment: Selection and Major Considerations [and] Battery Powered Scooters and 3-Wheelers. Information Support Packets #1 and #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    Two brief guides offer suggestions for persons with physical disabilities who are considering the purchase of adaptive driving equipment, battery-powered scooters, or three wheelers. The first guide offers guidelines for individuals considering purchase of special hand controls or other modifications or a van lift to enhance their independence in…

  20. Neptune Scooter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-08

    This photograph of Neptune was reconstructed from two images taken by NASA Voyager 2. At the north top is the Great Dark Spot, accompanied by bright, white clouds that undergo rapid changes in appearance.

  1. Wind-drag estimation in a traffic accident involving a motor scooter and a tractor-trailer.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Seong; Jeon, Seung-Won; Lee, Kyu-Jung; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Jae-Geun; Park, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hong-Seok; Choi, Young-Shik

    2012-07-01

    This case report describes a noncontact traffic accident involving a motor scooter and a tractor-trailer with a focus on the wind-drag effect. We used load cells to measure the drag force acting on a substantially similar motor scooter when a substantially similar tractor-trailer passes by it, taking into consideration various speeds of the tractor-trailer and distances between the two vehicles. A three-dimensional steady-state flow analysis was also performed by using the CFX program for computational fluid dynamics to examine the streamlines and the pressure distribution around the tractor-trailer at various speeds. From the experiment, for a separation distance of 1.0 m (3.28 ft) and a speed of 90 km/h (55.9 mph), the maximum resultant drag force is 124.5 N (28 lb); this constitutes a degree of force that could abruptly disrupt the stability in maneuvering by an operator who is unaware of the approaching tractor-trailer. In addition, a single equation that relates the tractor-trailer speed to the drag force that acts on the motor scooter was derived on the basis of the Reynolds number (Re) and the wind-drag coefficient (C(d)): C(d) = 1.298 × 10(-7) Re.

  2. Mobility and mobility-related participation outcomes of powered wheelchair and scooter interventions after 4-months and 1-year use.

    PubMed

    Löfqvist, C; Pettersson, C; Iwarsson, S; Brandt, A

    2012-05-01

    The aim was to investigate outcomes of powered wheelchair and scooter interventions after 4-months and 1-year use regarding need for assistance when moving around, frequency of mobility-related participation, easiness/difficulty in mobility during participation, and number of participation aspects performed in everyday life. The study was a prospective cohort study, using an instrument focusing on mobility-related participation outcomes of mobility device interventions (NOMO 1.0), at baseline, after 4-months and 1-year use. The results show that the outcomes in terms of participation frequency and easiness in mobility occur in a short time perspective, and that the effects remained stable at 1-year follow-up. The frequency of going for a walk increased most prominently (26%). Even though the majority of the participation aspects were not performed, more often they became easier to perform: 56-91% found that shopping, walking and visiting family/friends were easier. Moreover, independence outdoors and indoors increased. This small study provides knowledge about the outcomes of powered wheelchairs and scooters in terms of mobility and mobility-related participation in real-life situations. The study supports results from former studies, but even so, larger studies are required in order to provide evidence for the effectiveness of powered wheelchairs and scooters. [Box: see text].

  3. Documentation of and satisfaction with the service delivery process of electric powered scooters among adult users in different national contexts.

    PubMed

    Sund, Terje; Iwarsson, Susanne; Andersen, Mette C; Brandt, Åse

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different service delivery systems for assistive devices were associated with the service delivery process (SDP) and user satisfaction in two national contexts when electric powered scooters were provided. The study had a follow-up design based on a consecutive inclusion of 50 Danish and 86 Norwegian adults as they were about to be provided a scooter. A study-specific structured questionnaire for documentation of the SDP was administered. The Satisfaction with Assistive Technology Services was used for documenting user satisfaction with the SDP. Besides descriptive statistics, regression analysis was used to identify contributors of variance and predictors of user satisfaction. The various steps of the SDP were carried out to a various degree. Significantly more total time was spent in the SDP in the Danish sample (p < 0.001). About 80% of the informants were satisfied/very satisfied with different aspects of the SDP. Time spent in the different steps was not associated with user satisfaction with the SDP. This study supports the assumption that structure of the service impacts on the SDP, but not that the process impacts on outcomes in terms of user satisfaction with the SDP. It may, however, be questioned whether this actually is an outcome.

  4. Niobium Solar Mobile Project — High Strength Niobium Microalloyed Steel as a Solution to Improve Electric Super Scooter and Motorcycle Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Terry; Kauppi, Erik; Flanagan, Lauren; Ribeio, Eduardo A. A. G.; Nogueira, Marcos A. Stuart; McCourtney, Ian

    This paper presents the advantages of replacing mild steel with high strength niobium microalloyed steel in the structure of Electric Super Scooters, Electric Cargo Motorcycles and Solar Charging Stations. The Mini-Fleet-in-a-Box concept was developed by Current Motor to guarantee mobility, efficiency and solar generated electricity. With the adoption of niobium microalloyed high strength steel for more than 90% of the Super Scooter and Motorcycle structures, it was possible to redesign the frame, resulting in a 31% weight reduction and a very modern and functional body. Together with a new powertrain, these changes were responsible for increasing Motorcycle autonomy by more than 15%, depending on average speed. The new frame design reduced the number of high strain points in the frame, increasing the safety of the project. The Solar Charging Station was built using the container concept and designed with high strength niobium microalloyed steel, which resulted in a weight reduction of 25%. CBMM's facility in Araxá, Brazil was selected in the second half of 2013 as the demonstration site to test the efficiency of the Super Scooter and Solar Charging Station. Each Super Scooter has run more than 2,000 km maintenance-free with an autonomy of more than 100 km per charge.

  5. Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels

  6. Les accidents de scooter chez l'enfant au CHU Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar: à propos de 74 cas

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Azhar Salim; Ngom, Gabriel; Sow, Mamadou; Mbaye, Papa Alassane; Camara, Souleymane; Seck, Ndeye Fatou; Ndour, Oumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les accidents de scooter sont de plus en plus fréquents à Dakar. Le but de ce travail est de rapporter les aspects épidémiologiques et lésionnels des ces accidents chez l'enfant à Dakar. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective et descriptive a été menée dans le Service de Chirurgie Pédiatrique du CHU Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar entre le 1er janvier 2009 et le 31 décembre 2011. Nous avons étudié divers paramètres dont la fréquence, les aspects sociodémographiques et lésionnels. Résultats Les accidents de scooter représentaient 12% des accidents de la voie publique. Ils étaient fréquents entre 12 heures et 14 heures (27%) et entre 18 heures et 20 heures (28,4%). Ils pouvaient survenir tous les jours et étaient fréquents pendant les mois d'avril (17,6%) et de juin (13,5%). Ils survenaient essentiellement dans la périphérie de Dakar (78%). La tranche de 3 à 8 ans (60,8%) était la plus touchée. Le sexe masculin était prédominant (sexe ratio de 1,5). Les piétons étaient les plus vulnérables (93,2%). La chute était le mécanisme dominant (98,7%). Les lésions touchaient surtout le membre inférieur (51,1%) et étaient constituées essentiellement de fracture. Conclusion La fréquence des accidents de scooter chez l'enfant est liée à l'urbanisation galopante et à l'accroissement du parc automobile dans une presqu’île. Les victimes sont essentiellement des piétons et présentent le plus souvent des fractures. PMID:27200137

  7. Use of Cognitive Work Analysis for exploration of safety management in the operation of motorcycles and scooters.

    PubMed

    Regan, Michael A; Lintern, Gavan; Hutchinson, Robin; Turetschek, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The risk of accident, injury and death is disproportionately higher for motorcycle riders than for motorists. In this paper, we investigate strategies of safety management associated with operation of powered two-wheel vehicles (motorcycles and scooters). Accident prevention is most often driven by an epidemiological approach that investigates the risk factors associated with accidents. By focusing on risk factors, these types of studies fail to examine the strengths of the system in any depth. In this paper we employ an ethnographic approach structured by reference to the framework of Cognitive Work Analysis, to identify how riders of powered two-wheel vehicles manage their own safety and the safety of others. We anticipate that this research will open up a rich, relatively untapped, area for exploration of safety interventions.

  8. A comparison of energy consumption between the use of a walking frame, crutches and a Stride-on rehabilitation scooter.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nimesh; Batten, Timothy; Roberton, Andrew; Enki, Doyo; Wansbrough, Guy; Davis, James

    2016-08-01

    Following foot and ankle surgery, patients may be required to mobilise non-weight bearing, requiring a walking aid such as crutches, walking frame or a Stride-on rehabilitation scooter, which aims to reduce the amount of work required. The energy consumption of mobilising using a Stride-on scooter has not previously been investigated, and we aim to establish this. Ten healthy volunteers (5 males:5 females) aged 20-40 years mobilised independently, then with each mobility device for 3min at 1km/h on a treadmill, with rest periods, whilst undergoing Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET). Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), minute ventilation (MV), respiratory rate (RR) and pulse (HR) were measured at baseline, and after 3min of walking, without and with all 3 devices. Wilcoxon signed rank test was carried out to calculate significance with non-parametric values with Bonferroni correction. Three-point crutch mobilisation demonstrated significant increases in VO2 (0.7L), VCO2 (0.7L), MV (16.7L/min), pulse (24.8bpm) and RR (11.4breaths/min) compared to walking (p<0.05). Mobilisation with a frame produced significant (p<0.05) increases compared to walking; VO2 (0.7L), VCO2 (0.7L), MV (18.3L/min), pulse (35.9bpm), and RR (11.7breaths/min). Tests using the Stride-on demonstrated no significant increase compared to walking with regards to VO2 (0.1L; p=0.959), VCO2 (0.2L; p=0.332), pulse (10.1bpm; p=0.575), and RR (4.7breaths/min; p=0.633). The MV was significantly higher compared to walking (4.3L/min; p<0.05). Energy required for unit distance ambulation with a Stride-on device is similar to walking, and significantly lower than with a walking frame in single legged stance and three-point crutch mobilisation. This justifies its use as part of routine practice aiding early mobilisation of patients requiring restricted weight bearing or single legged weight bearing, especially in those with reduced cardio-pulmonary reserve as it is less

  9. Identification of the characteristics of motorcycle and scooter tyres in the presence of large variations in inflation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossalter, V.; Doria, A.; Giolo, E.; Taraborrelli, L.; Massaro, M.

    2014-10-01

    Stability and safety of road vehicles are largely affected by tyre properties. Single-track vehicles are characterised by weakly damped modes of vibration (weave and wobble) and therefore this phenomenon is even more important. This article focuses on the study of both steady-state and transient properties of motorcycle and scooter tyres in the presence of very low and very high inflation pressures. The steady-state properties are defined as lateral forces (side-slip and camber forces) and yaw torques (self-aligning and twisting). The transient properties are described in terms of relaxation length, which represents the distance needed to reach a certain percentage of the steady-state value of the tyre force. Experimental tests are carried out on a specific rotating disk machine. Three sets of tyres are analysed. Steady-state properties are measured by increasing step by step the values of camber and side-slip angles. Transient properties are studied carrying out tests with harmonic side-slip excitation and measuring the phase lag between the excitation (input) and the tyre force (output). Experimental results show important variations in tyre properties with inflation pressure with general trends of all the tested tyres and particular features related to the tyre's geometry. After the analysis and discussion of experimental results, the measured data are fitted by means of a specific version of the Magic Formula. The dependence of the Magic Formula's coefficients on inflation pressure is analysed and interpolation curves are given.

  10. An Analysis of US Emergency Department Visits From Falls From Skiing, Snowboarding, Skateboarding, Roller-Skating, and Using Nonmotorized Scooters.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Brian H; Ribeiro, Kara; Henneman, Philip L

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed the US incidence of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for falls from skiing, snowboarding, skateboarding, roller-skating, and nonmotorized scooters in 2011. The outcome was hospital admission from the ED. The primary analysis compared pediatric patients aged 1 to 17 years to adults aged 18 to 44 years. The analysis used ICD-9 E-codes E885.0 to E885.4 using discharge data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Approximately 214 000 ED visits met study criteria. Skiing injuries had the highest percentage of hospitalizations (3.30% in pediatric patients and 6.65% in adults 18-44 years old). Skateboard and snowboard injuries were more likely to require hospitalization than roller skating injuries in pediatric patients (odds ratio = 2.42; 95% CI = 2.14-2.75 and odds ratio = 1.83; 95% CI =1.55-2.15, respectively). In contrast, skateboard and snowboard injuries were less severe than roller-skating injuries in adults.

  11. Design and simulation of a lithium-ion battery with a phase change material thermal management system for an electric scooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khateeb, Siddique A.; Farid, Mohammed M.; Selman, J. Robert; Al-Hallaj, Said

    A lithium-ion battery employing a novel phase change material (PCM) thermal management system was designed for an electric scooter. Passive thermal management systems using PCM can control the temperature excursions and maintain temperature uniformity in Li-ion batteries without the use of active cooling components such as a fan, a blower or a pump found in air/liquid-cooling systems. Hence, the advantages of a compact, lightweight, and energy efficient system can be achieved with this novel form of thermal management system. Simulation results are shown for a Li-ion battery sub-module consisting of nine 18650 Li-ion cells surrounded by PCM with a melting point between 41 and 44 °C. The use of aluminum foam within the PCM and fins attached to the battery module were studied to overcome the low thermal conductivity of the PCM and the low natural convection heat transfer coefficient. The comparative results of the PCM performance in the presence of Al-foam and Al-fins are shown. The battery module is also simulated for summer and winter conditions. The effect of air-cooling on the Li-ion battery was also studied. These simulation results demonstrate the successful use of the PCM as a potential candidate for thermal management solution in electric scooter applications and therefore for other electric vehicle applications.

  12. [The specific features of a lethal injury to the driver and the passenger of a scooter resulting from the collision with a car moving in the same direction].

    PubMed

    Fetisov, V A; Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S

    2014-01-01

    Forensic medical diagnostics of the injuries inflicted to the drivers and the passengers of bicycles (scooters, mopeds, quadrocycles, etc.) remains a serious challenge for the specialists involved in forensic medical and combined medico-autotechnical expertises. The present article is an overview of materials pertinent to the analysis of this form of traffic injuries. The approach to the analysis is exemplified by the case of repeated panel expertise with the purpose of elucidation of the mechanisms and the sequence of events leading to a combined blunt injury in the driver and the passenger of a scooter resulting from the collision with a car moving at a high speed in the same direction. Both victims presented with a whiplash injury to the brain stem region responsible for their immediate death at the scene of the accident. The results of the expertise allowed to differentiate between the driver and the passenger in terms of the extent of the injury. The authors emphasize the necessity of and good prospects for further traffic injury research bearing in mind a great variety of the aforementioned means of transportation.

  13. Motorized mobility scooters: the use of training/intervention and technology for improving driving skills in aging adults - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Bunting, Matthew; Howe, Carol; Mohler, Jane; Sprinkle, Jonathan; Najafi, Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Motorized mobility scooters (MMS) have become the most acceptable powered assistive device for those with impaired mobility, who have sufficient upper body strength and dexterity, and postural stability. Although several benefits have been attributed to MMS usage, there are likewise risks of use, including injuries and even deaths. The aim of the current review was to summarize results from clinical studies regarding the enhancement of MMS driver safety with a primary focus on improving driving skills/performance using clinical approaches. We addressed three main objectives: (1) to identify and summarize any available evidence (strong, moderate, or weak evidence based on the quality of studies) regarding improved driving skills/performance following training/intervention; (2) to identify types of driving skills/performance that might be improved by training/intervention, and (3) to identify the use of technology in improving MMS performance or training procedure. Articles were searched for in the following medical and engineering electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, EI Compendix, IEEE Explore, and REHABDATA. Inclusion criteria included: aging adults or those with ambulatory problems, intervention or targeted training, and clinical trial. Outcomes included: MMS skills/performance. Six articles met the inclusion criteria and are analyzed in this review. Four of the six articles contained training approaches for MMS drivers including skill trainings using real MMS inside and outside (i.e. in the community) and in a 3D virtual environment. The other two studies contain infrastructural assessments (i.e. the minimum space required for safe maneuverability of MMS users) and additional mobility assistance tools to improve maneuverability and to enhance driving performance. RESULTS from the current review showed improved driving skills/performance by training, infrastructural assessments, and

  14. Motorized mobility scooters – The use of training/intervention and technology for improving driving skills in aging adults - A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Bunting, Matthew; Howe, Carol; Mohler, Jane; Sprinkle, Jonathan; Najafi, Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Background Motorized mobility scooters (MMS) have become the most acceptable powered assistive device for those with impaired mobility, who have sufficient upper body strength and dexterity, and postural stability. Although several benefits have been attributed to MMS usage, there are likewise risks of use, including injuries and even deaths. Objective The aim of the current review was to summarize results from clinical studies regarding the enhancement of MMS driver safety with a primary focus on improving driving skills/performance using clinical approaches. We addressed three main objectives: 1) to identify and summarize any available evidence (strong, moderate, or weak evidence based on the quality of studies) regarding improved driving skills/performance following training/intervention; 2) to identify types of driving skills/performance that might be improved by training/intervention; and 3) to identify the use of technology in improving MMS performance or training procedure. Methods Articles were searched for in the following medical and engineering electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, EI Compendix, IEEE Explore, and REHABDATA. Inclusion criteria included: aging adults or those with ambulatory problems; intervention or targeted training; and clinical trial. Outcomes included: MMS skills/performance. Results Six articles met the inclusion criteria and are analyzed in this review. Four of the six articles contained training approaches for MMS drivers including skill trainings using real MMS inside and outside (i.e., in community) and in a 3D virtual environment. The other two studies contain infrastructural assessments (i.e., the minimum space required for safe maneuverability of MMS users) and additional mobility assistance tools to improve maneuverability and to enhance driving performance. Conclusions Results from the current review showed improved driving skills/performance by training

  15. Neptune - Great Dark Spot and Scooter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This image of clouds in Neptune atmosphere is the first that tests the accuracy of the weather forecast that was made eight days earlier to select targets for NASA Voyager narrow angle camera. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00048

  16. 41 CFR 109-38.001 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... scooters, construction and maintenance equipment, materials handling equipment, and watercraft. Motor... Classification Group (FSCG) 38; material handling equipment set forth in FSCG 39; and fire fighting equipment...

  17. 76 FR 13631 - Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997: Modifications to the List of Recognized...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    .... implants and extracorporeal systems--Hemodialyz ers, hemodiafilters, hemofilters and hemoconcentrators. 9... and extracorporeal systems--Extracorpo real blood circuit for hemodialyzers, hemodiafilters and... for Wheelchairs (including Scooters) with Electrical Systems Section 2: Determination of dynamic...

  18. 41 CFR 109-38.001 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES... scooters, construction and maintenance equipment, materials handling equipment, and watercraft. Motor... Classification Group (FSCG) 38; material handling equipment set forth in FSCG 39; and fire fighting equipment set...

  19. ARC-1989-AC89-7003

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-08-21

    Range : 16 million km (9.9 million miles) P-34616 This series of six Voyager 2 images of Neptune through different filters reveals altitude in Neptune's clouds. The top three images, taken though orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters by the narrow-angle camera, show several bright cloud features, clearly visible in each image. The 'scooter' cloud, at 42 degrees south latitude, although prominent in the orange image, is invisible in ultraviolet, where scattering by atmospheric molecules is strongest. The disappearance can be understood if the 'scooter cloud has more obscurring atmosphere above it ( i.e. the scooter cloud is lower ) than other bright clouds. The observation also suggest that the centrally located Great Dark Spot is also a low lying feature because it also loses visiblity in the ultraviolet image. The lower three wide angle images ( from left to right: orange, weak methane [541nm], and strong methane [619nm] are arranged in increasing absorption by methane in Neptune's atmosphere. In the lower images the 'scooter cloud' becomes less obvious from left to right, implying there is relatively more absorbing methane above the 'scooter cloud'. Thus the set of images also implies that the 'scooter cloud' is deeper in the atmosphere ( and therefore at higher atmospheric pressure ) than the other bright clouds.

  20. Analysis of an employment of a gear ratio rate in CVT control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegożek, W.; Szczepka, M.

    2016-09-01

    Continuously variable transmissions(CVTs) potentially ensure the selection of such a gear ratio that scooter fuel consumption can reach minimum value. Traditionally these CVT gearboxes are mechanically controlled, causing a gear ratio to be an engine revs function. This solution does not ensure optimum gear ratio. In this paper the solution for fuel optimal control problem is presented. The results obtained during brake stand research of scooter powertrains show the significant values of brake specific fuel consumption for the velocity that is maximum for a scooter according to highway code. With the introduction of CVT gearbox in which the selection of gear ratio can be controlled according to the worked out strategy the solution for fuel consumption problem is possible. Electromechanical actuators ensure the selection of a gear ratio independently of engine revs. Such type of construction solution makes working out the suitable control strategy that ensures decreasing of scooter fuel consumption possible. Presented strategies do not use precise optimization techniques. The CVT efficiency has a strong influence on transient operation. In the paper the control strategy owing to which fuel consumption decreases by over 40% is presented. The strategy was worked out on the basis of fuel consumption map for a defined scooter exploitation model. The possibilities of realization of the worked out strategy were tested on the brake test stand.

  1. Persistent groin pain after a bicycle fall.

    PubMed

    Luu, Say-Chong; Jacques, Nicole; Jost, Daniel; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-12-17

    Motor scooter handlebar syndrome (MSH) is uncommon. MSH includes groin pain associated with intimal injury to the common femoral artery caused by a direct blow from objects such as a motor scooter handlebar. We describe a case of a 23-year-old man with MSH occurring after a bicycle fall. The diagnosis was performed 5 years after the onset of pain. The patient underwent endovascular surgery and made a rapid recovery. Postoperatively, he was free of symptoms. This case highlights the difficulty of recognising this syndrome.

  2. [Hearing disorders after Bungee jumping?].

    PubMed

    Mees, K

    1994-03-01

    Acceleration forces in bungee jumping acting on the head are different in nature and extent from those in merry-go-round, looping and scooter rides. They act mainly in the vertical plane, horizontal accelerations may develop only during uncontrollable vibrations in different directions after slowing down. According to our present knowledge the risks for injuries of the cervical spine and functional disorders of the inner ear in bungee jumping are lower than in merry-go-round, looping and scooter rides. They seem to be enhanced, however, in individuals suffering from diseases of the cervical spine and disorders of the heart and the blood circulation.

  3. 22 CFR 228.01 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... trucks), boats, and other vehicles that are not designed for travel at normal road speeds (40 kilometers.... Motor vehicles means self-propelled vehicles with passenger carriage capacity, such as highway trucks, passenger cars and buses, motorcycles, scooters, motorized bicycles, ATVs, and utility vehicles....

  4. 22 CFR 228.01 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... trucks), boats, and other vehicles that are not designed for travel at normal road speeds (40 kilometers.... Motor vehicles means self-propelled vehicles with passenger carriage capacity, such as highway trucks, passenger cars and buses, motorcycles, scooters, motorized bicycles, ATVs, and utility vehicles....

  5. 22 CFR 228.01 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... trucks), boats, and other vehicles that are not designed for travel at normal road speeds (40 kilometers.... Motor vehicles means self-propelled vehicles with passenger carriage capacity, such as highway trucks, passenger cars and buses, motorcycles, scooters, motorized bicycles, ATVs, and utility vehicles....

  6. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... processing and accounting for baggage and wheelchairs. This information is critical to determining the cost... costs of compliance would include the adaption of the current reporting systems and processes (or, if... current industry practice regarding processing and accounting for wheelchairs and scooters that...

  7. 78 FR 54896 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Agency Information Collection Activities... for Payment of Power Mobility Devices, including Power Wheelchairs and Power-Operated Vehicles; Use... term power mobility devices (PMDs) as power wheelchairs and power operated vehicles (POVs or scooters...

  8. Energy: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments through which students can learn about the properties of energy. These experiments include making a kitchen "volcano," a soda-pop "cannon," and a puffed-rice "scooter." Topics include: energy and work, fossil fuels, solar energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, mechanical energy, heat energy, sound energy,…

  9. Disability, Technology, and Compromises with Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Doris Zames

    2007-01-01

    Because of New York City's proximity to water, edifices were built with one step as a barrier to potential flooding. The increase in the disability population made it evident that this step formed a barrier to people who could not negotiate level changes, especially those in wheelchairs and motorized scooters. The Americans with Disabilities Act…

  10. Employees with Myasthenia Gravis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the workstation Allow a flexible work schedule and flexible use of leave time Allow work from home Provide a scooter or other mobility aid if walking cannot be reduced Vision Impairment: Provide large print material or screen reading software Control glare by adding a glare ...

  11. Catalog of Navy Training Courses (CANTRAC) Introductory, General Information and Quota Control Notes. Volume 1. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    motor scooter both on and off base. Overcoats (bridgecoats), reefers/peacoats, jackets and other military outer garments will be worn buttoned or...and stowage of air launched weapons, including guided missiles and aviation armament equipment, that includes aircraft launchers, suspension and

  12. Catalog of Navy Training Courses (CANTRAC). Volume 1. Introductory General Information and Quota Control Notes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    personnel are required to wear a safety helmet while operating a motorcycle or motor scooter both on and off base. (5) Overcoats (bridgecoats), reefers...of air launched weapons, Including guided missiles ard aviation armam.;nt equipment, that includes aircraft launchers, suspension and ejector racks

  13. Catalog of Navy Training Courses (CANTRAC). Volume 1. Introductory, General Information and Quota Control Notes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    helmet while operating a motorcycle or motor scooter both on and off base. (5) Overcoats (bridgecoats), reefers/peacoats, jackets and other military... suspension and ejector racks, and M61AI gun and linkless ammunition loading system (TALS). Quota requests for air launched weapons training should be

  14. 77 FR 61783 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Drayton Mill, 1802 Drayton Rd., Spartanburg, 12000882 UTAH Davis County Lagoon Carousel, (Lagoon Amusement Park, Farmington, Utah MPS) 375 Lagoon Dr., Farmington, 12000883 Lagoon Flying Scooter, (Lagoon Amusement Park, Farmington, Utah MPS) 375 N. Lagoon Dr., Farmington, 12000884 Lagoon Roller Coaster, (Lagoon...

  15. Energy: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments through which students can learn about the properties of energy. These experiments include making a kitchen "volcano," a soda-pop "cannon," and a puffed-rice "scooter." Topics include: energy and work, fossil fuels, solar energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, mechanical energy, heat energy, sound energy,…

  16. Negative g-Force Ocular Trauma Caused by a Rapidly Spinning Carousel

    PubMed Central

    Moisseiev, Elad; Dotan, Gad

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with bilateral diffuse subconjunctival hemorrhages after spinning rapidly on a carousel attached to an electrical scooter. We present his clinical course and discuss the physics and pathophysiology of this unique mechanism of ocular trauma. PMID:24403901

  17. U.S. EPA and Customs joint operations at California Ports results in illegal vehicles and engines seized or turned back at border

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Customs and Border Protection announced $94,700 in fines and more than 1,394 items, including engines, scooters and ATVs, that were recently seized, exported out of the country,

  18. 75 FR 13809 - Reclassification of Motorcycles (Two and Three Wheeled Vehicles) in the Guide to Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Erickson, Highway Funding and Motor Fuels Team Leader, Office of Policy, HPPI-10, (202) 366-9235, or Adam... motorcycle is two-fold: (1) motorcycles and (2) motor bicycles and scooters. The current language for... Motor-Vehicle Registrations and Taxation, page 3-2. Item I.E.2. Motorcycles: This item includes...

  19. Disability, Technology, and Compromises with Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Doris Zames

    2007-01-01

    Because of New York City's proximity to water, edifices were built with one step as a barrier to potential flooding. The increase in the disability population made it evident that this step formed a barrier to people who could not negotiate level changes, especially those in wheelchairs and motorized scooters. The Americans with Disabilities Act…

  20. 75 FR 49020 - CFMOTO Powersports, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... brake control, the control shall be located on the left handlebar. If a scooter with an automatic clutch is equipped with a supplemental rear brake control, the control shall be on the right side and operable by the operator's right foot. A supplemental control shall provide brake actuation identical to...

  1. Development and testing of an innovative user-adjustable support surface for wheelchair seating discomfort.

    PubMed

    Crane, Barbara; Hobson, Douglas; Stadelmeier, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 2000, a study of discomfort experienced by wheelchair users and development of technology solutions were undertaken. This research culminated with the present study of a new technology targeting sitting discomfort. Support for development of the "Butt Scooter" prototype and its testing was provided through an NIH research grant. Investigators tested a prototype device, called the "Butt Scooter," and conducted a focus group to obtain expert clinical opinions about the potential usefulness of the prototype. Subject testing of the prototype device followed a single subject design (ABABA). Subjects self-administered the Tool for Assessing Wheelchair disComfort (TAWC) to evaluate their discomfort levels. Results from three subjects are reported. All three expert therapists participating in the focus group responded favorably to the prototype. In summary, results from subject testing were somewhat mixed with regard to discomfort management, however all subjects commented positively on the features of the device.

  2. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

    PubMed Central

    Karmarkar, Amol M.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Cooper, Rosemarie; Collins, Diane M.; Matthews, Judith T.; Koontz, Alicia; Teodorski, Emily E.; Cooper, Rory A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized) and powered (scooter, standard, and customized) mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user. PMID:21748007

  3. America Promises to Come Back: A New National Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-13

    an annex. In mid-March, "Scooter" Libby , the Principal Deputy Tynder- secretary of Defense (Strategy and Resources)2 9 and Admiral Jeremiah 3 0...Annual Report to the President and the Congress, January 1991, 134 pp. (29) "Statement of I. Lewis Libby , Principal Deputy Undersecre- tary of... Willard Avenue Chevy Chase, MD 20815-4625 15 138 Vivian Ravdin SECDEF Speechwriter Pnt Room 3D853 Office of the Secretary of Defense Washington, D.C

  4. Security Police Officer Utilization Field, AFSCs 8111, 8116, 8121, and 8124.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    21. Which of the following kinds of vehicles do you use inyor _ _flfj cycles DU A LL .,z~LUyULbIIU . 2. Bus , 29 Passenger 3. Bus , 44 Passenger- 4... Electric Golf Carts 5. Forklifts - ----- 6. Horses- 7. Motorcycles- 8. Motor Scooters m - 9. Sedans 10. Snowmobiles 11. Station Wagons CODE 99 xiv -I _ ’C...as control . . rostiars weight control. or administrative dir~ sharg - . 42. Direct vehicle control programs- 43 Draft general correspondence ..- ; 44

  5. Examination of lightbulb filaments after a car crash: difficulties in interpreting the results.

    PubMed

    Lavabre, R; Baudoin, P

    2001-01-01

    A drunk car driver was involved in a fatal crash with a scooter at night. Examination of the lightbulbs from the vehicles revealed some mechanical and analytical incompatibilities. The laboratory's initial observations led to complementary police investigations which finally solved the first incompatibility. The different precautions taken by the technical police investigators on the crime scene finally allowed the forensic scientists to establish the functional state of the lightbulbs during the crash.

  6. DoD Traffic Safety Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-22

    regulates operating privileges shall establish procedures for applicable mandatory administrative or disciplinary action, to include the suspension ...exhaust sys- tem, wipers, horns, brake systems, steering systems, suspension , tires, and wheel assemblies as well as the following: 1. The inspection... scooters , or ATVs, such 2-1 license requirements, as a minimum, shall apply to operation of those vehicles on DoD installations. (An ATV is a

  7. Should the Marine Corps Ban Motorcycles?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    2000, states Operators of government or privately owned motorcycles, mopeds, motor scooters , or ATVs must successfully complete a rider or...normal riding conditions. Such conditions are at the very low end of the capability of sport bikes. Their “sophisticated suspension and braking...toward sport bike handling, basic maintenance requirements, and specific suspension component tuning that is required for individual riders. Such

  8. Vehicle Maintenance Manpower Requirements for U.S. Army Installation Directorates of Engineering and Housing Based on Air Force, Navy, and Army Reserves’ Staffing Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    monitors repair cycle asset. 2. Tool Crib. Issues and receives tools upon request; maintains suspense file; inspects and maintains tools; schedules...request; maintains suspense file; inspects and maintains tools; schedules precision measurement equipment (PME); performs tool crib inventory. 13. Workload...SCOOT PK 3-4WHL SCOOTER , MOTOR, PKG DELIVERY, 3-4 WHEEL WITH SIDE CAR 0907 Z SLED SNOWMOBILE SLED, SELF-PROP, GED, SNOWMOB, SKI-STEER 5820 S TRK COMPAC

  9. Simulated Students and Classroom Use of Model-Based Intelligent Tutoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Two educational uses of models and simulations: 1) Students create models and use simulations ; and 2) Researchers create models of learners to guide development of reliably effective materials. Cognitive tutors simulate and support tutoring - data is crucial to create effective model. Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center: Resources for modeling, authoring, experimentation. Repository of data and theory. Examples of advanced modeling efforts: SimStudent learns rule-based model. Help-seeking model: Tutors metacognition. Scooter uses machine learning detectors of student engagement.

  10. Libert-E Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  11. Libert-E Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  12. [School teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards road safety: results from a multicenter cross-sectional study in Italy].

    PubMed

    Miccoli, S; Giraldi, G; Boccia, A; La Torre, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of secondary school teachers towards traffic safety behaviors. The study is concerning data coming from a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaires filled in by school teachers of Lazio and Campania regions. 262 teachers entered into the study. Among the scooter holders, 69.2% did use helmet; 95.8% of people who drives car uses seatbelts. The scooter and bicycle helmet is considered useful for 99.6% and 57.4% of participants. The accident rate depends on the means of transportation used: 10.8% and 19% for bicycle and scooter riders, respectively, and 44.6%for the car drivers. Regarding injuries using a bicycle, teachers with less than 40 years are less involved in accidents compared to the over 40 years (OR = 0.19; p = 0.05), as well as teachers who are married (OR = 0.16; p = 0.03) compared to the other group (single/widowed/divorced). Car accidents involve less frequently women (OR = 0.60; p = 0.05) compared to males. Road accidents prevention is part of the health priorities indicated in the National Health Plan, the National Prevention Plan and Regional Prevention Plans. School teachers' can play an important role in students' education on road safety, and there is the need to improve knowledge and behaviors in this field.

  13. Exploring manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler manufacturing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deep Singh, Chandan; Singh Khamba, Jaimal; Singh, Rajdeep; Singh, Navdeep

    2014-07-01

    The two wheeler industry of India is one of the most dependable industries as every person has at least a two wheeler with him, if not any four wheeler. Earlier there were scooters like Bajaj Chetak, Priya but with evolution of motorcycles like splendor, splendor+, etc. the scooter market started declining but with arrival of gearless scooters like Honda Activa, Scooty Pep, etc. the market place has become increasingly competitive in recent time and industries are facing tough test of improving products and thus market share. The competitiveness among industries is an important issue. Competency development is a vital tool to enhance the competitiveness of industries. Based, on aggregate performance of a firm, it comprehensively explores the varying importance of manufacturing competencies and drives of industrial competitiveness. Hence by, exploring the manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler industry, one can reflect the competitiveness of two wheeler manufacturing industry as a whole. This study presents various factors of manufacturing competencies affecting industrial competitiveness as the significance of these competencies is increasing day by day in two wheeler manufacturing industry.

  14. Comparative analysis of risky behaviors of electric bicycles at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Pan; Guo, Yanyong; Yu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the risky behaviors of e-bike, e-scooter, and bicycle riders as they were crossing signalized intersections. Pearson's chi-square test was used to identify whether there were significant differences in the risky behaviors among e-bike, e-scooter, and bicycle riders. Binary logit models were developed to evaluate how various variables affected the behaviors of 2-wheeled vehicle riders at signalized intersections. Field data collection was conducted at 13 signalized intersections in 2 cities (Nanjing and Kunming) in China. Three different types of risky behaviors were identified, including stop beyond the stop line, riding in motorized lanes, and riding against traffic. Two-wheeled vehicle riders' gender and age and traffic conditions were significantly associated with the behaviors of 2-wheeled vehicle riders at the selected signalized intersections. Compared to e-bike and bicycle riders, e-scooter riders are more likely to take risky behaviors. More specifically, they are more likely to ride in motorized lanes and ride against traffic.

  15. Paediatric recreational vehicle-related head injuries presenting to the emergency department of a major paediatric trauma centre in Australia: Is there room for improvement?

    PubMed

    Bressan, Silvia; Daverio, Marco; Barker, Ruth; Molesworth, Charlotte; Babl, Franz E

    2016-08-01

    This study examines clinical characteristics and helmet use of children presenting to the ED with a recreational vehicle (RV)-related head injury (HI). Observational retrospective study of children <18 years presenting with a RV-related HI to the ED of a state-wide paediatric trauma centre in Australia between April 2011 and January 2014. In the 647 presentations identified, corresponding to 7.5% (95% CI 7.0-8.1) of all HI presentations, RVs involved were bicycles (36.3%), push scooters (18.5%), motorcycles (18.4%), horses (11.7%), skateboards (11.6%), quadbikes (2.8%) and go-karts (0.6%). Recorded helmet use was the highest in motorcycle, horse and bicycle riders (83.2%, 82.9% and 65.1%, respectively), and the lowest for push scooter (25.8%) and skateboard riders (17.3%). Overall 23% underwent a CT scan, 8.8% had intracranial injuries on CT, 30.6% were admitted, and 2.2% underwent neurosurgery. Push scooter-related HIs were the least severe. Age (in years), riding a motorised vehicle and not wearing a helmet were independently associated with intracranial injuries on CT on multiple logistic regression (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2; OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.6 and OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.2-11.2, respectively). RV-related HIs accounted for a non-negligible proportion of paediatric HIs presenting to the ED and for significant morbidity and use of hospital resources. Interventions such as introduction of mandatory helmet use for off-road motorised vehicle riding and skateboard riding in children, enhanced injury prevention campaigns, and strict adult supervision during motorised vehicle riding may reduce the morbidity and health care costs associated with paediatric RV-related HIs. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  16. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft. Calendar Year 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    ac 2 41 1 0...4 A-4 4 40 4 A/C7 1 41 1 0 1 AA CUBETTE 41 1 0 1 AAF SCOOTER 2 41 0 1 ABS-1 1 1O t AC -2 41 1 0 1 ACB-2 TAILWINO 41 1 ACE1 41 101 AC C 2...41 1 0 1 ACE -E 1 41 1 0 3 ACE -E P-70 2 41 1 0 3 ACE ¥ OEUCY 2 4 0 t 1 ACEY OEUCY P70 2 41 0 1 ACEY-OUCY 1 41 1 0 1 ACI P5i D 2 41 1 1 ACRO CUSY

  17. Underwater noise of small personal watercraft (jet skis).

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Personal watercraft (water scooters, jet skis) were recorded under water in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia. Underwater noise emissions consisted of broadband energy between 100 Hz and 10 kHz due to the vibrating bubble cloud generated by the jet stream, overlain with frequency-modulated tonals corresponding to impeller blade rates and harmonics. Broadband monopole source levels were 149, 137, and 122 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m (5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles). Even though these are lower than those of small propeller-driven boats, it is not necessarily the broadband source level that correlates with the bioacoustic impact on marine fauna.

  18. Effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing crashes, the first cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Matteo; Strandroth, Johan; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Fildes, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing real-life crashes. Since the European Parliament has voted on legislation making ABS mandatory on all new motorcycles over 125 cc from 2016, the fitment rate in Europe is likely to increase in the coming years. Though previous research has focused on mostly large displacement motorcycles, this study used police reports from Spain (2006-2009), Italy (2009), and Sweden (2003-2012) in order to analyze a wide range of motorcycles, including scooters, and compare countries with different motorcycling habits. The statistical analysis used odds ratio calculations with an induced exposure approach. Previous research found that head-on crashes were the least ABS-affected crash type and was therefore used as the nonsensitive crash type for ABS in these calculations. The same motorcycle models, with and without ABS, were compared and the calculations were carried out for each country separately. Crashes involving only scooters were further analyzed. The effectiveness of motorcycle ABS in reducing injury crashes ranged from 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12-36) in Italy to 29% (95% CI, 20-38) in Spain, and 34% (95% CI, 16-52) in Sweden. The reductions in severe and fatal crashes were even greater, at 34% (95% CI, 24-44) in Spain and 42% (95% CI, 23-61) in Sweden. The overall reductions of crashes involving ABS-equipped scooters (at least 250 cc) were 27% (95% CI, 12-42) in Italy and 22% (95% CI, 2-42) in Spain. ABS on scooters with at least a 250 cc engine reduced severe and fatal crashes by 31% (95% CI, 12-50), based on Spanish data alone. At this stage, there is more than sufficient scientific-based evidence to support the implementation of ABS on all motorcycles, even light ones. Further research should aim at understanding the injury mitigating effects of motorcycle ABS, possibly in combination with combined braking systems.

  19. A new two-phase homopolar switched reluctance motor for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Mi-Ching; Huang, Chien-Chin; Huang, Zheng-Yi

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a novel 2-phase homopolar switched reluctance motor (SRM), whose design successfully avoids dead-zone problems that afflict low cost 1- and/or 2-phase SRMs. Unlike conventional radial-winding-radial-gap motors, the proposed SRM has an interior stator that is of the pancake type with axial winding. Such a design allows for a high slot-fill factor and is suitable for implementation as a flat pancake-shaped stator. An efficient, compact prototype was produced with TMS320F240 DSP driving control unit. Experimental results indicate that the present SRM design has the potential to be used for electric bicycles and scooters.

  20. [Traumatic cervical disc prolapse with severe neurological impact].

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Roland; Gundtoft, Per

    2014-12-15

    A 51-year-old male drove into a ditch on his scooter. Immediately after the trauma the patient complained of neck pain and decreased ability to feel and move his extremities. An initial trauma computed tomography (CT) of the columna showed normal conditions. Because the patient had neurological deficiencies, magnetic resonance imaging of the columna was performed 12 days later, and a disc prolapse at the C3/C4 level with spinal cord compression was visible. Despite decompression the patient did not recover. Traumatic cervical disc prolapse is a rare and positionally dangerous condition, which can be present despite a CT showing normal conditions.

  1. Circle the Wagons: The History of US Army Convoy Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    heavier than the steel plating, and that the weight of both quickly wore out the suspension on the trucks. Also, the bags kicked up dust caused by...the enemy would drive by and shoot at drivers from scooters . At other times they would pull in front of the last vehicle in the convoy, separate it...the war’s fi rst few years. Unfortunately though, the extra weight stressed out the suspension system and the vehicle tended to roll over on turns at

  2. A sealed bipolar lead acid battery for small electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, J.L.; Harbaugh, D.L.; Drake, E.D.; Boughn, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    Arias Research Associates (ARA) has been developing it`s sealed bipolar lead-acid (SBLA) battery technology since 1990 for eventual application in electric vehicles (EVs). The successful development of small SBLA batteries (up to 48V, 10Ah) for use in small electric vehicles (electric powered bicycles, motor scooters, wheelchairs, etc), is reported together with specifications and preliminary test data. Performance and cost comparisons are made with commercially available sealed lead-acid and nickel-cadmium battery packs for an electric power-assist bicycle.

  3. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Hilsenrath, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among young adults. Although automobile fatalities have declined in recent years, motorcycle fatalities are rapidly increasing. The purpose of our research was to quantify the relationship between changing fuel prices and motorcycle fatalities. Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices. We estimate that use of motorcycles and scooters instead of 4-wheeled vehicles results in over 1500 additional motorcycle fatalities annually for each dollar increase in gas prices. Motorcycle safety should receive more attention as a leading public health issue. PMID:19696374

  4. Nickel/metal hydride technology for consumer and electric vehicle batteries—a review and up-date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, S. K.; Ovshínsky, S. R.; Gifford, P. R.; Corrigan, D. A.; Fetcenko, M. A.; Venkatesan, S.

    Nickel/metal hydride batteries today represent the fastest growing market segment for rechargeable batteries due to the high energy density and more environmentally acceptable chemistry offered by this technology. The high energy density of nickel/metal hydride batteries coupled with high power density and long cycle life make this battery chemistry a key enabling technology for practical electric vehicles, including cars, vans, trucks, and other forms of transportation such as scooters, bicycles, and three-wheelers. This paper provides a review of Ovonic technology and up-dates recent developments in materials and cell development for both consumer electronic and EV applications, and highlights areas for future development.

  5. Using an interview study of transport use by people who have had a stroke to inform rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Logan, P A; Dyas, J; Gladman, J R F

    2004-09-01

    Many people who have had a stroke want to get out of their house more often. This study explored attitudes and barriers to the use of transport with the aim of informing rehabilitation. Semi-structured interview study of 24 community-dwelling people who had had a stroke, purposively sampled to find people with a variety of recent experiences of transport. Interviews were taped and transcribed. Analysis was by constant-comparative methodology, to develop emerging themes and concepts. Interviewees wanted to travel for specific purposes but also for its own sake. Many could no longer use their car. This gave them less flexibility to travel and reduced their autonomy. Barriers to using alternative forms of transport were fear of injury or embarrassment from falling, an associated lack of confidence, inadequate information about transport services, perceptions about the cost of taxis and pavement vehicles (scooters) and environmental factors such as the weather. Those who could drive, or who lived with someone who did, gave the most positive descriptions of transport use. Those reliant on family or friends felt they could ask only for help getting to health-related appointments and those who used specialist transport services provided the most negative descriptions of transport. Many of the barriers to transport use after stroke may be amenable to intervention. An intervention package capable of re-enabling people to drive or be driven, to use a pavement scooter safely, to provide information about the alternatives and to encourage best use of public transport is worth developing.

  6. Wheelchair securement and occupant restraint system (WTORS) practices in public transit buses.

    PubMed

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina; Salipur, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) usage in public transit buses based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility device: WhMD) passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video surveillance recordings of WhMD trips on fixed-route, large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs) was performed. Two hundred ninety-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis during the period June 2007-February 2009. Results showed that 73.6% of WhMDs were unsecured during transit. Complete use of all four tiedowns was observed more frequently for manual wheelchairs (14.9%) and power wheelchairs (5.5%), compared to scooters (0.0%), and this difference was significant (p=0.013). Nonuse or misuse (lap belt use only) of the occupant restraint system occurred during 47.5% of WhMD trips. The most frequently observed (52.5%) use of the lap belt consisted of bus operators routing the lap belt around the WhMD seatback in an attempt to secure the WhMD. These findings support the need for development and implementation of WTORS with improved usability and/or WTORS that can be operated independently by WhMD passengers and improved WTORS training for bus operators.

  7. User evaluation of three wheelchair securement systems in large accessible transit vehicles.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Karg, Patricia; Hobson, Douglas; Turkovich, Michael; Porach, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Ease of use, comfort, security, and independent use of three types of wheelchair securement systems were evaluated in a large accessible transit vehicle by 20 wheelchair and scooter users. The securement systems included a 4-point tie-down system, a prototype autodocking system, and a prototype rear-facing wheelchair passenger (RF-WP) system. Study participants took a 15-minute city ride and completed a survey. Participants responded positively to the autodocking and RF-WP systems that were quicker and easier to use and allowed more independent use than the 4-point tie-down system (p < 0.001). There was concern regarding the RF-WP system that rear-facing travel made it more difficult to see upcoming stops and was less comfortable than a forward-facing ride and that the system may damage wheelchair wheels during use. The majority of participants preferred using an autodocking system because it allowed secure and independent forward-facing travel. Participants found it undesirable, however, that a wheelchair-mounted docking adaptor was needed to use the autodocking system. Study results indicate a need for improved securement systems for forward-facing use that do not require a wheelchair adaptation and can be easily and independently used by wheelchair and scooter users.

  8. Factors Predictive of Type of Powered Mobility Received by Veterans with Disability

    PubMed Central

    Rabadi, Meheroz H.; Vincent, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of this observational study was to determine factors predictive of the type of powered mobility prescribed to veterans with disability. Material/Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all veterans (n=170) who received powered mobility from a designated power mobility clinic. Logistic regression analysis was used to determined factors predictive of the type of powered mobility provided. Results Sixty-four (38%) veterans were provided powered wheelchairs and 106 (62%) were provided powered scooters. Of the variables examined, only primary medical conditions for referral and disability severity (as measured by the 2-minute timed walk test; 2-MWT) were predictive of the types of powered mobility prescribed. Veterans who were able to walk longer distances were more likely to be prescribed powered scooters. Age, gender, race, level of education, marital and employment status, number of chronic medical conditions, and upper and lower limb muscle strength were not significant predictors. Conclusions This study suggests that the primary medical conditions for referral and 2-MWT can assist clinicians in the determination of the type of powered mobility to prescribe to veterans with disability. PMID:25955214

  9. Hoverboards: A new cause of pediatric morbidity.

    PubMed

    Siracuse, Brianna L; Ippolito, Joseph A; Gibson, Peter D; Beebe, Kathleen S

    2017-06-01

    The hoverboard, a self-balancing powered scooter, was introduced to the market in 2015 and quickly became one of the most popular purchases of the year. As with similar products, this scooter brought a host of concerns surrounding injuries. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of injuries that coincided with the popularity of hoverboard. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried from 2011 through 2015 for injuries related to scooters/skateboards, powered (product number, 5042), which includes the hoverboard. Patient data on sex, age, race, diagnosis, most severely injured body part, location where the injury occurred, and narrative of the injury were collected. The estimated injury incidence was calculated and compared on a yearly and monthly basis. Google Trends was used to determine the popularity of the hoverboard over the same time period. During the 5-year study period, there were an estimated 47,277 injuries associated with the hoverboard. In 2015, there was an average 208% (range, 167-278%; standard deviation (SD), 51.8%) increase in the number of injuries compared to any of the previous 4 years. Further analysis of these injuries revealed a significant increase in the number of forearm (475%; range, 310-662%; SD, 159%), leg (178%; range, 133-206%; SD, 34%), and head and neck (187%; range, 179-197%; SD, 7.6%) injuries in 2015 compared to the previous 4 years. The most common type of injury in 2015 was a fracture (38.9%). Analysis of the sites of these fractures between 2014 and 2015 revealed a 752% increase in forearm fractures, which included over a 4000% increase in the number of wrist fractures. Given the number of injuries caused by these products, safety equipment, such as wrist guards and helmets, should be worn in an attempt to reduce the number of injuries. Additionally, this study highlights the importance of physicians keeping up to date with current trends to best advise their patients on safe

  10. Novice riders and the predictors of riding without motorcycle protective clothing.

    PubMed

    de Rome, Liz; Ivers, Rebecca; Haworth, Narelle; Heritier, Stephane; Du, Wei; Fitzharris, Michael

    2011-05-01

    While helmet usage is often mandated, few motorcycle and scooter riders make full use of protection for the rest of the body. Little is known about the factors associated with riders' usage or non-usage of protective clothing. Novice riders were surveyed prior to their provisional licence test in NSW, Australia. Questions related to usage and beliefs about protective clothing, riding experience and exposure, risk taking and demographic details. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with two measures of usage, comparing those who sometimes vs rarely/never rode unprotected and who usually wore non-motorcycle pants vs motorcycle pants. Ninety-four percent of eligible riders participated and usable data was obtained from 66% (n=776). Factors significantly associated with riding unprotected were: youth (17-25 years) (RR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.50-2.65), not seeking protective clothing information (RR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.07-1.56), non-usage in hot weather (RR = 3.01, 95% CI: 2.38-3.82), awareness of social pressure to wear more protection (RR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12-1.95), scepticism about protective benefits (RR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.22-3.28) and riding a scooter vs any type of motorcycle. A similar cluster of factors including youth (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04-1.32), social pressure (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.16-1.50), hot weather (RR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.19-1.41) and scooter vs motorcycles were also associated with wearing non-motorcycle pants. There was no evidence of an association between use of protective clothing and other indicators of risk taking behaviour. Factors strongly associated with non-use of protective clothing include not having sought information about protective clothing and not believing in its injury reduction value. Interventions to increase use may therefore need to focus on development of credible information sources about crash risk and the benefits of protective clothing. Further work is required to develop motorcycle

  11. PIA01492

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-10-30

    This picture of Neptune was produced from the last whole planet images taken through the green and orange filters on NASA's Voyager 2 narrow angle camera. The images were taken at a range of 4.4 million miles from the planet, 4 days and 20 hours before closest approach. The picture shows the Great Dark Spot and its companion bright smudge; on the west limb the fast moving bright feature called Scooter and the little dark spot are visible. These clouds were seen to persist for as long as Voyager's cameras could resolve them. North of these, a bright cloud band similar to the south polar streak may be seen. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01492

  12. Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune shows three of the features that Voyager 2 has been photographing during recent weeks. At the north is the Great Dark Spot, accompanied by bright, white clouds that undergo rapid changes in appearance. To the south of the Great Dark Spot is the bright feature that Voyager scientists have nicknamed 'Scooter.' Still farther south is the feature called 'Dark Spot 2,' which has a bright core. Each feature moves eastward at a different velocity, so it is only occasionally that they appear close to each other, such as at the time this picture was taken. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  13. Advanced materials for next generation NiMH portable, HEV and EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ovshinsky, S.R.; Dhar, S.K.; Fetcenko, M.A.; Corrigan, D.A.; Reichman, B.; Young, K.; Fierro, C.; Venkatesan, S.; Gifford, P.; Koch, J.

    1998-07-01

    While Ovonic NiMH batteries are already in high volume commercial production for portable applications, advances in materials technology have enabled performance improvements in specific energy (100 Wh/kg), specific power (600-1000 W/kg), high temperature operation, charge retention, and voltage stability. Concurrent with technology advances, Ovonic NiMH batteries have established performance and commercial milestones in electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, as well as scooter, motorcycle and bicycle applications. As important as these advances, significant manufacturing cost reductions have also occurred which allow continued growth of NiMH technology. In this paper, advances in performance, applications and cost reduction are discussed with particular emphasis on the improved proprietary metal hydride and nickel hydroxide materials that make such advances possible.

  14. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deng-kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-feng; Yu, Sui-huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design. PMID:27630709

  15. Development of electric motor cycle technologies in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. T.; Kuo, C. C.; Pan, J. S.; Lin, B. M.

    1994-02-01

    The development of an electric motor cycle was initiated at the Industrial Technology Research Institute in 1990. Several types of experimental electric scooters have been developed and field-tested, but their individual performances are far from satisfactory. Thus, it has been decided to make improvements on both the key components (such as battery, motor and driver) and the structural designs. The targeted electric motor cycle will adopt well to city-driving conditions and will help to alleviate urban air-pollution problems. The impact of electric motor cycles on the improvement of urban air-pollution problem has been evaluated. It is found that if 20% of the total motor cycle population is replaced by electric versions, a tremendous improvement in air quality will result, but this will still not meet the air-regulation standard. At least a 50% replacement is required to prevent continuous degradation of air quality.

  16. The experimentalanalysis of the slip in the rubber belt CVT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegożek, W.; Kot, A.

    2016-09-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the speed losses in CVT. The bench tests have been conducted on the scooter CVT equipped with the centrifugal regulation system. This solution is typical for this type of vehicles so the conducted experiments refer to real exploitation conditions. The slip has been defined on the base of the difference between speed ratios obtained from the angular speeds and the belt pitch radii. This approach corresponds with the Dittrich model. The non-linear dependence between the slip and the transmitted torque has been obtained for the constant gear ratio. Also non-linear dependence between the slip and the gear ratio has been received for constant torque. The amount of slip value indicates that this is significant part of the total power losses as it has been described by Bertini. However it clashes with the Chen researches, where the slip corresponds with the marginal part of the overall losses.

  17. Exploring Winter Community Participation Among Wheelchair Users: An Online Focus Group

    PubMed Central

    Ripat, Jacquie; Colatruglio, Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of what people who use wheeled mobility devices (WMDs; e.g., manual and power wheelchairs, and scooters) identify as environmental barriers to community participation in cold weather climates, and to explore recommendations to overcome environmental barriers to community participation. Researchers conducted an online asynchronous focus group that spanned seven days, with eight individuals who use WMDs. Each day, participants were asked to respond to a moderator-provided question, and to engage with one another around the topic area. The researchers analyzed the verbatim data using an inductive content-analysis approach. Four categories emerged from the data: (1) winter barriers to community participation; (2) life resumes in spring and summer; (3) change requires awareness, education, and advocacy; and (4) winter participation is a right. Participants confirmed that it is a collective responsibility to ensure that WMD users are able to participate in the community throughout the seasons. PMID:26295488

  18. Spatial measurement of mobility barriers: improving the environment of community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Jong; Matsuoka, Rodney H; Tsai, Kun-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Mobility barriers can impede physical activity, increase the fear of falling, and pose a threat to the ability of older adults to live independently. This study investigated outdoor mobility barriers within a nonretirement public housing community located in Tainan, Taiwan. Site observations and interviews with older adult residents determined that parked motor scooters, potted plants, the rubber tiles of play areas, and a set of steps were the most important barriers. In addition, the space syntax parameters of control value and mean depth were effectively able to quantitatively measure improvements in walkability resulting from the hypothesized removal of these four barriers. These measures of improved walkability can be included in a cost-benefit analysis of spatial improvement factors to help policymakers address the mobility and accessibility needs of older adults.

  19. Exploring Winter Community Participation Among Wheelchair Users: An Online Focus Group.

    PubMed

    Ripat, Jacquie; Colatruglio, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of what people who use wheeled mobility devices (WMDs; e.g., manual and power wheelchairs, and scooters) identify as environmental barriers to community participation in cold weather climates, and to explore recommendations to overcome environmental barriers to community participation. Researchers conducted an online asynchronous focus group that spanned seven days, with eight individuals who use WMDs. Each day, participants were asked to respond to a moderator-provided question, and to engage with one another around the topic area. The researchers analyzed the verbatim data using an inductive content-analysis approach. Four categories emerged from the data: (1) winter barriers to community participation; (2) life resumes in spring and summer; (3) change requires awareness, education, and advocacy; and (4) winter participation is a right. Participants confirmed that it is a collective responsibility to ensure that WMD users are able to participate in the community throughout the seasons.

  20. Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-02

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  1. Teaching physical activities to students with significant disabilities using video modeling.

    PubMed

    Cannella-Malone, Helen I; Mizrachi, Sharona V; Sabielny, Linsey M; Jimenez, Eliseo D

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of video modeling on teaching physical activities to three adolescents with significant disabilities. The study implemented a multiple baseline across six physical activities (three per student): jumping rope, scooter board with cones, ladder drill (i.e., feet going in and out), ladder design (i.e., multiple steps), shuttle run, and disc ride. Additional prompt procedures (i.e., verbal, gestural, visual cues, and modeling) were implemented within the study. After the students mastered the physical activities, we tested to see if they would link the skills together (i.e., complete an obstacle course). All three students made progress learning the physical activities, but only one learned them with video modeling alone (i.e., without error correction). Video modeling can be an effective tool for teaching students with significant disabilities various physical activities, though additional prompting procedures may be needed.

  2. Opportunity, Choice, and Burglary Victimization in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya

    2015-07-01

    This study examined burglary victimization in Taiwan with an application of the structure-choice model that included four theoretical dimensions: proximity to crime, exposure to crime, target attractiveness, and guardianship. Drawing on the 2000 Taiwan Areas Criminal Victimization Survey, the results of the current study showed a moderate effect of the opportunity model on Taiwan's burglary victimization. Also, this study found both consistent and conflicting findings in the current data. The null effect of motorcycles (including scooters) that represented the concept of target attractiveness in relation to burglary risk reflected a difference in population density and transportation needs between Taiwan and the West. Clearly, the role of social context needs to be understood when studies apply a Western model to a non-Western context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Analysis of the minimum swerving distance for the development of a motorcycle autonomous braking system.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Federico; Savino, Giovanni; Pierini, Marco; Baldanzini, Niccolò

    2013-10-01

    In the recent years the autonomous emergency brake (AEB) was introduced in the automotive field to mitigate the injury severity in case of unavoidable collisions. A crucial element for the activation of the AEB is to establish when the obstacle is no longer avoidable by lateral evasive maneuvers (swerving). In the present paper a model to compute the minimum swerving distance needed by a powered two-wheeler (PTW) to avoid the collision against a fixed obstacle, named last-second swerving model (Lsw), is proposed. The effectiveness of the model was investigated by an experimental campaign involving 12 volunteers riding a scooter equipped with a prototype autonomous emergency braking, named motorcycle autonomous emergency braking system (MAEB). The tests showed the performance of the model in evasive trajectory computation for different riding styles and fixed obstacles.

  4. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Pu; Chen, Deng-Kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Sui-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design.

  5. Pediatric Scaphoid Proximal Pole Nonunion With Avascular Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Edward W; Smetana, Brandon S; Patterson, J Megan M

    2016-12-24

    A 13-year-old, right hand-dominant, otherwise healthy boy presented with left wrist pain 19 months after a nonmotorized scooter injury. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging at presentation demonstrated proximal pole scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis of the proximal fragment. Operative and nonsurgical treatment options were discussed and the family elected for an attempt at nonsurgical management. The patient was placed in a short-arm thumb spica cast, with a window for a bone stimulator, for 14 weeks. At the conclusion of the treatment, the pain had resolved and x-ray and computed tomography scan demonstrated bony union. The authors recommend considering an initial trial of nonsurgical management for treatment of all pediatric scaphoid nonunions.

  6. A Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Zhao; Ahmed, Adeeb; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-10-05

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction application using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to Halbach-array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) show the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  7. Visible-Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    In a continuing study to capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained new high resolution visible-near infrared images of several explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to obtain images in 224 spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns [1]. The main craters that were imaged were Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, Buggy, and Danny Boy [2]. The 390 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of the detonation of a 104 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a "simple" crater [2]. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology [3] and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also imaged by AVIRIS. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m, Fig. 1) craters were also important targets for AVIRIS as they were excavated in hard welded tuff and basaltic andesite, respectively [3, 4]. This variation in targets will allow the study of ejecta patterns, compositional modifications due to the explosions, and the role of craters as subsurface probes.

  8. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  9. Investigation of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes Using Cassini ISS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, David S.; Showman, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the ISS onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial 5-micron hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but a diffuse western edge serving as a nebulous boundary with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-iike 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. This raises the possibility that the plumes and fast-moving clouds are at higher altitudes, because their speed does not match previously published zonal wind profiles. Most profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby waves controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed. Instead, our expanded data set demonstrating the rapid flow of these scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. This research was supported by a NASA JDAP grant and the NASA Postdoctoral Program.

  10. [The rationale for promotion of bicycle helmet legislation for children up to 18 years].

    PubMed

    Hemmo-Lotem, Michal; Endy-Findling, Liri; Epel, Avital; Klein, Michal; Raanan, Rachel

    2007-09-01

    Each year, many children suffer from injuries caused by bicycles, scooters, skateboards, and roller skates accidents. Head injury is the most common cause of death and serious disability in bicycle-related crashes. In various studies the use of bicycle helmets has been proven to be the most effective measure in preventing head injury: the use of bicycle helmets reduced the risk of head and brain injury by 85-88%. Legislation that mandates the use of helmets has been shown to effectively increase helmet use and, therefore, significantly decrease head injuries among riders. COST-BENEFIT: Legislation requiring helmets will save $44.2 million (direct benefit) to society over a 5-year period, and save approximately 57 lives, 2,544 hospitalizations, and 13,355 emergency room visits. BICYCLE-RELATED DEATHS AND INJURIES IN ISRAEL: Data from trauma registry of 10 hospitals of the Israeli Center for Trauma and Emergency Medicine research indicate that 649 children ages 17 years and under were injured in a bicycle-related accidents (58-serious, 77-medium injury). Bicycle-related injuries accounted for approximately 33% of motor vehicle accidents among children ages 17 years and under. Many countries have legislation requiring helmets for riders. In Israel, there is no law requiring helmets. On a telephone survey, conducted by 'Beterem', a high support rate for a law requiring bicycle helmets (89%) was found among parents to children up to 15 years of age. Based on the evidence of the effectiveness of helmets as a means for reducing head injuries in cyclists, and the importance of a law to this effect, the medical community in Israel should act to promote the legislation requiring helmets for children on bicycles, scooters, skateboards, roller skates, and rollerblades.

  11. Investigation of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes using Cassini ISS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, David S.; Showman, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-10-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the ISS onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 microns; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby waves controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed. This research was supported by a NASA JDAP grant and the NASA Postdoctoral Program.

  12. Visible-Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    In a continuing study to capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained new high resolution visible-near infrared images of several explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to obtain images in 224 spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns [1]. The main craters that were imaged were Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, Buggy, and Danny Boy [2]. The 390 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of the detonation of a 104 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a "simple" crater [2]. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology [3] and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also imaged by AVIRIS. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m, Fig. 1) craters were also important targets for AVIRIS as they were excavated in hard welded tuff and basaltic andesite, respectively [3, 4]. This variation in targets will allow the study of ejecta patterns, compositional modifications due to the explosions, and the role of craters as subsurface probes.

  13. Helmet use and cervical spine injury: a review of motorcycle, moped, and bicycle accidents at a level 1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Kristopher G; Murad, Gregory J A

    2014-08-01

    Helmet use in two-wheeled vehicle accidents is widely reported to decrease the rates of death and traumatic brain injury. Previous reports suggest that there exists a trade off with helmet use consisting of an increased risk of cervical spine injuries. Recently, a review of a national trauma database demonstrated the opposite, with reduction in cervical spinal cord injuries in motorcycle crashes (MCC). In 2000, the State of Florida repealed its mandatory helmet law to make helmet use optional for individuals older than 21 with $10,000 of health insurance coverage. To better ascertain the risks of cervical spine injury with non-helmet use in all two-wheeled vehicles, we analyzed the University of Florida level one trauma center experience. We reviewed the Traumatic injury database over a five-year period (January 1, 2005, to July 1, 2010) for all patients involved in two-wheeled vehicle accidents. Patients were stratified according to vehicle type (motorcycle, scooter, and bicycle), helmet use, and the presence or absence of a cervical spine injury. Outcomes were compared for injury severity, cervical spine injury, cervical spinal cord injury, and presence of cervical spine injuries requiring surgery. Population means were compared using paired t-test. A total of 1331 patients were identified: 995 involved in motorcycle accidents, 87 involved in low-powered scooter accidents, and 249 involved in bicycle accidents. Helmet use was variable between each group. One hundred thirty-five total cervical spine injuries were identified. No evidence was found to suggest an increased risk of cervical spine injury or increased severity of cervical spine injury with helmet use. This fact, in combination with our previous findings, suggest that the law's age and insurance exemption should be revoked and a universal helmet law be reinstated in the state of Florida.

  14. Detection of Vehicle Tracks and Vegetation Damages Caused by use of Snowmobiles in the Longyearbyen Area on Svalbard using Unmanned Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storvold, R.; Karlsen, S. R.; Solbø, S. A.; Johansen, B.; Johansen, K.; Høgda, K. A.; Tømmervik, H.; Zmarz, A.; Joly, D.

    2013-12-01

    mapping 2-3 sq.km per flight. The multirotor helicopter were mapping areas of a few hundred square meters with ground resolution as high as 1 mm. An automated technique using HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value) was used instead of RGB color space to automatic detect tracks and quantify area affected. This may be used to monitor future changes and effect of regulatory actions. The 2.5 cm resolution data easily detected tracks on the flat valley floor. These areas have mixed vegetation of mires and dry areas. The dry areas have silty substrate, which is easily compressed by the skids and belts of the snow scooters. The vegetation in these areas is scattered, but rather species rich. Most common is the small Arctic Willow (Salix polaris), several bryophytes and graminoides, and the small shrubs White Arctic bell heather (Cassiope tetragona) and Mountain Avens (Dryas ocopetala). Among these species Mountain Avens seems to be most affected by the scooter activity. The mires seem to be less affected by the snow scooter activity. The slopes of the valley are dominated by Mountain Avens ridges, heaths, and spots with moss tundra. However, tracks were only detected on the ridges of the valley slopes.

  15. High Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Pristine Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.; Krabill, W.; Garvin, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to effectively capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained high resolution digital elevation models of several pristine explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Terrain Mapper (ATM), operated by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to obtain DEMs with 1 m spacing and 10 cm vertical errors of 4 main craters and many other craters and collapse pits. The main craters that were mapped are Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, and Danny Boy. The 370 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of a controlled detonation of a 100 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a simple crater. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also mapped by ATM. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m) craters were also important targets for ATM as they were excavated in hard basalt and therefore have much rougher ejecta. This will allow study of ejecta patterns in hard rock as well as engineering tests of crater and rock avoidance and rover trafficability. In addition to the high resolution DEMs, crater geometric characteristics, RMS roughness maps, and other higher-order derived data products will be generated using these data. These will provide constraints for models of landing hazards on Mars and for rover trafficability. Other planned studies will include ejecta size-frequency distribution at the resolution of the DEM and at finer resolution through air photography and field measurements

  16. High Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Pristine Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.; Krabill, W.; Garvin, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to effectively capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained high resolution digital elevation models of several pristine explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Terrain Mapper (ATM), operated by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to obtain DEMs with 1 m spacing and 10 cm vertical errors of 4 main craters and many other craters and collapse pits. The main craters that were mapped are Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, and Danny Boy. The 370 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of a controlled detonation of a 100 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a simple crater. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also mapped by ATM. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m) craters were also important targets for ATM as they were excavated in hard basalt and therefore have much rougher ejecta. This will allow study of ejecta patterns in hard rock as well as engineering tests of crater and rock avoidance and rover trafficability. In addition to the high resolution DEMs, crater geometric characteristics, RMS roughness maps, and other higher-order derived data products will be generated using these data. These will provide constraints for models of landing hazards on Mars and for rover trafficability. Other planned studies will include ejecta size-frequency distribution at the resolution of the DEM and at finer resolution through air photography and field measurements

  17. Effectiveness of Powered Mobility Devices in Enabling Community Mobility-Related Participation: A Prospective Study Among People With Mobility Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Sund, Terje; Iwarsson, Susanne; Anttila, Heidi; Brandt, Åse

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of powered mobility device (ie, powered wheelchair and scooter) interventions over a 1-year period in Nordic countries. Prospective design. The study involved community-dwelling participants from Denmark, Finland, and Norway. In all, 180 participants with different self-reported impairments participated in the study. The mean age was 68.7 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 39.9-97.5 years), and 47.8% of the participants were men. Two face-to-face interviews about mobility and mobility-related participation were conducted with participants in their homes. The first interview took place shortly before the participants received their powered mobility device, and the second took place about 1 year later (mean, 386.9 days; standard deviation = 52.78). Changes in frequency, ease/difficulty, and number of mobility-related aspects of participation in daily life were investigated in the total sample and in subgroups by means of the NOMO 1.0 instrument, applying a structured interview format. In the total sample, the frequency of shopping for groceries (P < .001, effect size = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.08-0.50) and going for a walk/ride (P < .001, effect size = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-83) increased, whereas the number of aspects of participation performed (P < .001) increased only slightly. Going to a restaurant/café/pub, shopping for groceries, doing other shopping, posting letters, going to the bank or the chemist's, going for a walk/ride, and visiting family/friends became easier (P < .001 to P = .001); effect sizes varied between 0.50 (95% CI = 0.29-0.71) and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.63-1.07). Men, persons who used scooters, and persons with poor self-reported health seem to benefit the most from the intervention. Powered mobility device interventions mainly contribute to mobility-related participation by making participation easier for people with mobility restrictions and by increasing the frequency of aspects of participation such as shopping for

  18. Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults Who Do Not Drive: Association With Mobility Resources and Perceived Transportation Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Namkee G.; DiNitto, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To examine alternative means of mobility that nondriving older adults rely on and their impact on well-being. Design and Methods: Data from the 2011 (T1, N = 6,680) and 2012 (T2, N = 5,413) interview waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study were used to examine sample characteristics by driving status, use of alternative mobility resources, and perceived transportation-related barriers among ex-drivers and nondrivers, and their association with depressive symptoms. Results: A majority of nondrivers relied on their informal support system and/or paid assistance to drive them to places. About half reported walking/using a wheelchair or scooter. A significant proportion of never drivers also used public transportation and van/shuttle services, whereas a smaller proportion of ex-drivers used them. Nondrivers who walked for transport had lower depressive symptoms than those who did not walk at either T1 or T2, and perception of transportation barriers to visiting friends/family was associated with higher depressive symptoms at T1 only. Implications: Older adults’ mobility needs should be met through increasing walkability, public and paratransit transportation, supplemental senior transportation, and increasing informal caregivers-transportation providers’ ability to aid older adults. PMID:25601389

  19. Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults Who Do Not Drive: Association With Mobility Resources and Perceived Transportation Barriers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    To examine alternative means of mobility that nondriving older adults rely on and their impact on well-being. Data from the 2011 (T1, N = 6,680) and 2012 (T2, N = 5,413) interview waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study were used to examine sample characteristics by driving status, use of alternative mobility resources, and perceived transportation-related barriers among ex-drivers and nondrivers, and their association with depressive symptoms. A majority of nondrivers relied on their informal support system and/or paid assistance to drive them to places. About half reported walking/using a wheelchair or scooter. A significant proportion of never drivers also used public transportation and van/shuttle services, whereas a smaller proportion of ex-drivers used them. Nondrivers who walked for transport had lower depressive symptoms than those who did not walk at either T1 or T2, and perception of transportation barriers to visiting friends/family was associated with higher depressive symptoms at T1 only. Older adults' mobility needs should be met through increasing walkability, public and paratransit transportation, supplemental senior transportation, and increasing informal caregivers-transportation providers' ability to aid older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Relation between Scores on Noise Annoyance and Noise Disturbed Sleep in a Public Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Frits; Verhagen, Claudia; Uitenbroek, Daan

    2014-01-01

    The relation between responses to survey questions on noise annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance has been analysed to gain insight in its dependency on noise source or noise type and on individual characteristics. The results show a high correlation between responses (scores 0–10) with Pearson’s correlation coefficient close to 0.8 for respondents who report hearing the source. At the same level of annoyance, scooters and neighbours are associated with more sleep disturbance, air and road traffic with less. The relation between Annoyance (A) and Sleep Disturbance (SD) is also significantly related to age, the use of sleeping drugs, and living alone. However, the differences in the A-SD relations with respect to source and characteristic are small. Noise-related sleep disturbance is associated more strongly to noise annoyance than it is to noise exposure. For transportation noise both scores are more often equal when the annoyance score is 7 or higher; this change in scoring behaviour could be an indication for a change to severe annoyance. PMID:24566056

  1. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  2. A case series of pediatric seymour fractures related to hoverboards: Increasing trend with changing lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Kattan, A E; AlShomer, F; Alhujayri, A K; Alfowzan, M; Murrad, K A; Alsajjan, H

    2017-01-01

    Several recreational activities such as roller skating, skateboarding, and scooter riding create the risk for hand injuries, which are the fourth most commonly injured body part in relation to their use. Seymour first identified a specific pattern of digit injury as an open fracture affecting the distal phalangeal physis associated with nail avulsion from the eponychial fold. In this article, we report a series of Seymour fractures associated with misuse of the newly emerging recreational/transportation vehicle, the hoverboard. The study includes a retrospective chart review of patients who presented to a tertiary hospital between December 2015 and October 2016 with a Seymour fracture caused while operating a hoverboard. A total of 13 patients were treated for Seymour fractures. The majority were male patients, and the group had a mean age of 10.3 years (±2.21). The affected digits were primarily the middle and ring fingers of the non-dominant hand. The injury mechanism reported by patients or families indicated that the child was operating the hoverboard in a sitting position with the hands grasping the wheel rim parts. We report a case series of a fracture pattern resulting from the improper/unsafe use of a hoverboard. This type of fracture occurs with a tremendous load of energy. Although improper use was a factor, design fault also plays a role in causing the injury. Parent awareness and supervision are important to prevent such injuries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Hoverboards: spectrum of injury and association with an uncommon fracture.

    PubMed

    Schapiro, Andrew H; Lall, Neil U; Anton, Christopher G; Trout, Andrew T

    2017-04-01

    Self-balancing electric scooters, commonly known as hoverboards, are a new and popular consumer item with recognized fall hazards. The spectrum of injuries associated with hoverboard use has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to determine the spectrum of radiologically apparent injuries associated with hoverboard use. We retrospectively reviewed all imaging studies interpreted at our institution for hoverboard-related injuries during an 8-month period. We recorded patient demographics and injury characteristics. Thirty-two of the 47 pediatric patients imaged for hoverboard-related injury had radiologically detectable injuries, all fractures. Fifty percent of these 32 patients were female and 50% were male, with a mean age of 12.4 years. There were 42 fractures total, all involving the appendicular skeleton, with 74% in the upper extremities and 26% in the lower extremities. Thirty-eight percent of the fractures involved the physis. A distinct injury pattern was seen in three patients who sustained open distal phalanx juxta-epiphyseal fractures. Most of the fractures sustained during hoverboard use are commonly seen in everyday pediatric radiology practice, with an overall pattern paralleling that reported in association with skateboard use. However an otherwise uncommon fracture, the distal phalanx juxta-epiphyseal fracture, was identified in association with hoverboard use, and this finding has important treatment implications including need for irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and potential surgical fixation.

  4. A Method for Consensus Reaching in Product Kansei Evaluation Using Advanced Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Consumers' opinions toward product design alternatives are often subjective and perceptual, which reflect their perception about a product and can be described using Kansei adjectives. Therefore, Kansei evaluation is often employed to determine consumers' preference. However, how to identify and improve the reliability of consumers' Kansei evaluation opinions toward design alternatives has an important role in adding additional insurance and reducing uncertainty to successful product design. To solve this problem, this study employs a consensus model to measure consistence among consumers' opinions, and an advanced particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm combined with Linearly Decreasing Inertia Weight (LDW) method is proposed for consensus reaching by minimizing adjustment of consumers' opinions. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented and the details are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter design evaluation. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for reaching a consensus through searching optimal solutions by PSO and improving the reliability of consumers' evaluation opinions toward design alternatives according to Kansei indexes. PMID:28316619

  5. Neptune Blue-green Atmosphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-16

    Neptune's blue-green atmosphere is shown in greater detail than ever before by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as it rapidly approaches its encounter with the giant planet. This color image, produced from a distance of about 16 million kilometers, shows several complex and puzzling atmospheric features. The Great Dark Spot (GDS) seen at the center is about 13,000 km by 6,600 km in size -- as large along its longer dimension as the Earth. The bright, wispy "cirrus-type" clouds seen hovering in the vicinity of the GDS are higher in altitude than the dark material of unknown origin which defines its boundaries. A thin veil often fills part of the GDS interior, as seen on the image. The bright cloud at the southern (lower) edge of the GDS measures about 1,000 km in its north-south extent. The small, bright cloud below the GDS, dubbed the "scooter," rotates faster than the GDS, gaining about 30 degrees eastward (toward the right) in longitude every rotation. Bright streaks of cloud at the latitude of the GDS, the small clouds overlying it, and a dimly visible dark protrusion at its western end are examples of dynamic weather patterns on Neptune, which can change significantly on time scales of one rotation (about 18 hours). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02245

  6. Development of Lithium-ion Battery as Energy Storage for Mobile Power Sources Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Ali; Hasan, Hasimah

    2009-09-01

    In view of the need to protect the global environment and save energy, there has been strong demand for the development of lithium-ion battery technology as a energy storage system, especially for Light Electric Vehicle (LEV) and electric vehicles (EV) applications. The R&D trend in the lithium-ion battery development is toward the high power and energy density, cheaper in price and high safety standard. In our laboratory, the research and development of lithium-ion battery technology was mainly focus to develop high power density performance of cathode material, which is focusing to the Li-metal-oxide system, LiMO2, where M=Co, Ni, Mn and its combination. The nano particle size material, which has irregular particle shape and high specific surface area was successfully synthesized by self propagating combustion technique. As a result the energy density and power density of the synthesized materials are significantly improved. In addition, we also developed variety of sizes of lithium-ion battery prototype, including (i) small size for electronic gadgets such as mobile phone and PDA applications, (ii) medium size for remote control toys and power tools applications and (iii) battery module for high power application such as electric bicycle and electric scooter applications. The detail performance of R&D in advanced materials and prototype development in AMREC, SIRIM Berhad will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Surface mass balance at A.P. Olsen Ice Cap, NE Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillerup Larsen, Signe; Citterio, Michele; Hock, Regine; Ahlstrøm, Andreas Peter

    2015-04-01

    A.P. Olsen Ice Cap is located in Northeast Greenland (74.6° N, 21.5° W), close to the Zackenberg Research Station. Since 2008 the GlacioBasis project has been running a monitoring programme on the SE outlet of A.P. Olsen Ice Cap, the sector draining into the Zackenberg River. The remote location of A.P. Olsen ice cap makes field work limited to the period allowing snow scooter access and the ice cap is therefore visited once per year at the end of the accumulation season. The monitoring consists of a network of 14 ablation and accumulation stakes along with 3 automatic weather stations and annual snow depth profiles using snow radar. Monitoring shows a complex inter-annual and spatial variability in SMB and special care needs to be taken when extrapolating stake measurements to the entire ice cap. We use the distributed energy balance model by Hock and Holmgren (2005) calibrated to the large amount of data that exist for the ice cap, to obtain a SMB record (2008-2014) for the ice cap. We compare our modelling and observation results against river discharge at the mouth of Zackenberg River, and evaluate their relevance at the regional scale in the light of a sensitivity analysis to temperature and snow depth in the model.

  8. Ergonomic evaluation of a wheelchair transportation securement system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Madiha; Campbell-Kyureghyan, Naira; Frost, Karen; Bertocci, Gina

    2012-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) specifies guidelines covering the securement system and environment for wheeled mobility device (WhMD) passengers on the public bus system in the United States, referred to as the wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS). The misuse or disuse of the WTORS system can be a source of injury for WhMD passengers riding the buses. The purpose of this study was to quantify the risks posed to the bus driver while performing the WTORS procedure using traditional ergonomic analysis methods. Four bus drivers completed the WTORS procedure for a representative passenger seated in three different WhMDs: manual wheelchair (MWC), scooter (SCTR), and power wheelchair (PWC). Potential work-related risks were identified using the four most applicable ergonomic assessment tools: PLIBEL, RULA, REBA, and iLMM. Task evaluation results revealed high levels of risk to be present to drivers during the WTORS procedure. The securement station space design and equipment layout were identified as contributing factors forcing drivers to adopt awkward postures while performing the WTORS task. These risk factors are known contributors to injury and the drivers could opt to improperly secure the passengers to avoid that risk.

  9. Wheeled mobility device transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive public transit vehicles within the United States.

    PubMed

    Frost, Karen L; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina; Cross, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility, and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems, and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations and voluntary industry standards have been implemented with the intent of improving safety and accessibility for individuals who travel while seated in their wheeled mobility device (e.g., wheelchair or scooter). However, across both fixed route and demand-responsive transit systems a myriad of factors such as nonuse and misuse of safety systems, oversized wheeled mobility devices, vehicle space constraints, and inadequate vehicle operator training may place wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users at risk of injury even under non-impact driving conditions. Since WhMD-related incidents also often occur during the boarding and alighting process, the frequency of these events, along with factors associated with these events are described for each transit mode. Recommendations for improving WhMD transportation are discussed given the current state of

  10. Voyager: Neptune Encounter Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Voyager encounter data are presented in computer animation (CA) and real (R) animation. The highlights include a view of 2 full rotations of Neptune. It shows spacecraft trajectory 'diving' over Neptune and intercepting Triton's orbit, depicting radiation and occulation zones. Also shown are a renegade orbit of Triton and Voyager's encounter with Neptune's Magnetopause. A model of the spacecraft's complex maneuvers during close encounters of Neptune and Triton is presented. A view from Earth of Neptune's occulation experiment is is shown as well as a recreation of Voyager's final pass. There is detail of Voyager's Image Compensation technique which produces Voyager images. Eighteen images were produced on June 22 - 23, 1989, from 57 million miles away. A 68 day sequence which provides a stroboscopic view - colorization approximates what is seen by the human eye. Real time images recorded live from Voyager on 8/24/89 are presented. Photoclinometry produced the topography of Triton. Three images are used to create a sequence of Neptune's rings. The globe of Neptune and 2 views of the south pole are shown as well as Neptune rotating. The rotation of a scooter is frozen in images showing differential motion. There is a view of rotation of the Great Dark Spot about its own axis. Photoclinometry provides a 3-dimensional perspective using a color mosaic of Triton images. The globe is used to indicate the orientation of Neptune's crescent. The east and west plumes on Triton are shown.

  11. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  12. The buzz on buzz.

    PubMed

    Dye, R

    2000-01-01

    Word-of-mouth promotion has become an increasingly potent force, capable of catapulting products from obscurity into runaway commercial successes. Harry Potter, collapsible scooters, the Chrysler PT Cruiser, and The Blair Witch Project are all recent examples of the considerable power of buzz. Yet many top executives and marketing managers are misinformed about the phenomenon and remain enslaved to some common myths. In her article, author Renée Dye explores the truth behind these myths. Myth 1: Only outrageous or edgy products are buzz-worthy. That's simply not true. The most unlikely products, like prescription drugs, can generate tremendous buzz. Myth 2: Buzz just happens. Not so, says Dye. Buzz is increasingly the result of shrewd marketing tactics in which companies seed a vanguard group, ration supplies, use celebrity endorsements, leverage the power of lists, and initiate grassroots marketing. Myth 3: The best buzz-starters are your best customers. Often, a counterculture has a greater ability to start buzz. Myth 4: To profit from buzz, you must act first and fast. In fact, copycat companies can reap substantial profits if they know when and when not to jump in. Myth 5: The media and advertising are needed to create buzz. When used either too early or too much, the media and advertising can squelch buzz before it ignites. As globalization and brand proliferation continue, writes Dye, buzz may come to dominate the shaping of markets. Indeed, companies that are unable to control buzz may soon find the phenomenon controlling them.

  13. Multiple sclerosis and mobility-related assistive technology: systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rosemarie; Cooper, Rory A; Iezzoni, Lisa I; Collins, Diane M

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes a wide variety of neurological deficits, with ambulatory impairment the most obvious cause of disability. Within 10 to 15 years of disease onset, 80% of persons with MS experience gait problems due to muscle weakness or spasticity, fatigue, and loss of balance. To facilitate mobility, persons with MS frequently use mobility assistive technology (MAT), such as canes, crutches, walkers, wheelchairs, and scooters. We systematically reviewed the published literature on MAT use among persons with MS. We used electronic reference lists such as Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed to search the literature. We located 50 articles that met the initial criteria of providing good evidence of the types of MAT devices and their benefits for individuals with MS. A limited number of articles with higher levels of evidence was found regarding benefits of MAT use specifically for persons with MS. Evidence-based literature provides the basis for the strongest method of measurable clinical performance; therefore, having a strong research study design is vital to the justification of MAT prescription and reimbursement decisions. However, a paucity of studies with higher levels of evidence-based practice exists.

  14. Dynamic behaviour of Li batteries in hydrogen fuel cell power trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneri, O.; Migliardini, F.; Capasso, C.; Corbo, P.

    A Li ion polymer battery pack for road vehicles (48 V, 20 Ah) was tested by charging/discharging tests at different current values, in order to evaluate its performance in comparison with a conventional Pb acid battery pack. The comparative analysis was also performed integrating the two storage systems in a hydrogen fuel cell power train for moped applications. The propulsion system comprised a fuel cell generator based on a 2.5 kW polymeric electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack, fuelled with compressed hydrogen, an electric drive of 1.8 kW as nominal power, of the same typology of that installed on commercial electric scooters (brushless electric machine and controlled bidirectional inverter). The power train was characterized making use of a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on driving cycles with different acceleration/deceleration rates and lengths. The power flows between fuel cell system, electric energy storage system and electric drive during the different cycles were analyzed, evidencing the effect of high battery currents on the vehicle driving range. The use of Li batteries in the fuel cell power train, adopting a range extender configuration, determined a hydrogen consumption lower than the correspondent Pb battery/fuel cell hybrid vehicle, with a major flexibility in the power management.

  15. Function combined method for design innovation of children's bike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Qiu, Tingting; Chen, Huijuan

    2013-03-01

    As children mature, bike products for children in the market develop at the same time, and the conditions are frequently updated. Certain problems occur when using a bike, such as cycle overlapping, repeating function, and short life cycle, which go against the principles of energy conservation and the environmental protection intensive design concept. In this paper, a rational multi-function method of design through functional superposition, transformation, and technical implementation is proposed. An organic combination of frog-style scooter and children's tricycle is developed using the multi-function method. From the ergonomic perspective, the paper elaborates on the body size of children aged 5 to 12 and effectively extracts data for a multi-function children's bike, which can be used for gliding and riding. By inverting the body, parts can be interchanged between the handles and the pedals of the bike. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the components and structural design, body material, and processing technology of the bike. The study of Industrial Product Innovation Design provides an effective design method to solve the bicycle problems, extends the function problems, improves the product market situation, and enhances the energy saving feature while implementing intensive product development effectively at the same time.

  16. Exploration of health perceptions and assistive technology use by driving status as related to transportation independence in New Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Nahom M; Steinfeld, Aaron; Pearlman, Jon; Cooper, Rory A

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates travel tendencies among people with disabilities and senior citizens in New Delhi, India to reveal relationships between the desire for transportation independence, use of assistive technology for mobility, travel frequency, and satisfaction with available modes of transportation. Study volunteers received invitations to complete a one-time, three-part questionnaire. The survey included an assessment battery developed by the Quality of Life Technology Engineering Research Center, questions featured in the 2002 National Transportation Availability and Use Survey, and a variation on the PARTS/M and FABS/M questionnaires. 80 study participants completed the questionnaire, and were grouped according to driving status as No Driving Experience (NDE), Ceased Driving (CD), and Continue To Drive (CTD). Participants in the NDE group were less likely to use transportation more than twice daily. However, the CD group had the lowest perceived value for available transportation options, with transportation use comparable to the CTD group and an enduring desire to continue driving. Study findings suggest an inner drive for transportation independence. The rise of driving culture internationally presents driver rehabilitation services with challenges due to the need for vehicle modifications and driving assessment using manual transmission automobiles, scooters, and motorcycles.

  17. Rehabilitative technology use among individuals with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Shree; Andrews, Jennifer; Campbell, Kim; Meaney, F John

    2016-01-01

    To document use of rehabilitative technology among individuals with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) among sites of the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research network (MD STARnet). Data from 362 caregivers who participated in the MD STARnet caregiver interview between April 2006 and March 2012 (54.7% response rate) were analyzed to assess the type, frequency and duration of use of assistive technology. Caregiver reports of technology use by individuals with DBMD across five MD STARnet sites in the US demonstrated significant regional differences in the proportion of individuals who had ever used night splints (36.9%-73.0%), standers (3.1%-22.2%) and scooters (10.7%-54.5%). Among individuals who used night splints 59.7% stopped using them at a mean age of 10.3 years after a mean duration of 2.9 years in spite of the current recommendation to continue using them through the non-ambulatory phase. Results of this comprehensive survey document the frequency of assistive device use by individuals with DBMD in the USA and also provides data on differences across the sites. Further research is needed to understand the reasons for and the impact of these differences on clinical outcomes and health related quality of life of individuals with DBMD.

  18. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs.

  19. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Servadei, F; Begliomini, C; Gardini, E; Giustini, M; Taggi, F; Kraus, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a revised Italian motorcycle-moped-scooter helmet law on crash brain injuries. Design: A pre-post law evaluation of helmet use and traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurrence from 1999 to 2001. Setting: Romagna region, northeastern Italy, with a 2000 resident population of 983 534 persons. Participants: Motorcycle-moped rider survey for helmet use compliance and all residents in the region admitted to the Division of Neurosurgery of the Maurizio Bufalini Hospital in Cesena, Italy for TBI. Outcome measures: Helmet use compliance and change in TBI admissions and type(s) of brain lesions. Results: Helmet use increased from an average of less than 20% to over 96%. A comparison of TBI incidence in the Romagna region shows that there was no significant variation before and after introduction of the revised helmet law, except for TBI admissions for motorcycle-moped crashes where a 66% decrease was observed. In the same area TBI admissions by age group showed that motorcycle mopeds riders aged 14–60 years sustained significantly fewer TBIs. The rate of TBI admissions to neurosurgery decreased by over 31% and epidural hematomas almost completely disappeared in crash injured moped riders. Conclusions: The revised Italian mandatory helmet law, with police enforcement, is an effective measure for TBI prevention at all ages. PMID:12966016

  20. Low cost balancing unit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  1. A systematic review on ankle injury and ankle sprain in sports.

    PubMed

    Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Hong, Youlian; Chan, Lap-Ki; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2007-01-01

    This article systematically reviews epidemiological studies on sports injury from 1977 to 2005 in which ankle injury was included. A total of 227 studies reporting injury pattern in 70 sports from 38 countries were included. A total of 201,600 patients were included, with 32,509 ankle injuries. Ankle injury information was available from 14,098 patients, with 11 847 ankle sprains. Results show that the ankle was the most common injured body site in 24 of 70 included sports, especially in aeroball, wall climbing, indoor volleyball, mountaineering, netball and field events in track and field. Ankle sprain was the major ankle injury in 33 of 43 sports, especially in Australian football, field hockey, handball, orienteering, scooter and squash. In sports injuries throughout the countries studied, the ankle was the second most common injured body site after the knee, and ankle sprain was the most common type of ankle injury. The incidence of ankle injury and ankle sprain was high in court games and team sports, such as rugby, soccer, volleyball, handball and basketball. This systematic review provides a summary of the epidemiology of ankle injury in sports.

  2. All-terrain self-leveling wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Andrew; Barrett, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Limited mobility is something that affects approximately 6.8 million Americans. Approximately 1.7 million are using wheelchairs or scooters of some kind to enhance mobility. Everyday obstacles present a challenge to those in a wheelchair. Also, outdoor environments such as campsites, lakes, or even grass fields provide additional challenges for those with limited mobility. This project provides a solution to some of the limitations faced by those in wheelchairs. The wheels and tires of the wheelchair allow navigation through most terrains such as grass, gravel, and sand. Furthermore, as a wheelchair climbs or descends a hill it becomes unstable and the user risks tipping the wheelchair causing injury or even death. The self-leveling wheelchair uses an accelerometer to determine its angle of inclination and depending on user interface choices will display the angle or raise the seat with linear actuators to keep the seat level. This will keep the center of gravity towards the front of the chair when going up a hill and towards the back of the chair when going down a hill. This enhanced stability will give the user the confidence and ability to go places where most traditional wheelchairs can not. The chair has the ability to self-level at up to 45 degree and can provide a manual lift of 6 inches. The design presented in this report is patent pending.

  3. [Source profile and chemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds from vehicle exhaust].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yue-Zhen; Wang, Hong-Li; Huang, Cheng; Chen, Chang-Hong; Su, Lei-Yan; Zhou, Min; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Gang-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ran; Li, Li; Chen, Ming-Hua; Huang, Hai-Ying

    2012-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline taxis (LDGT) and passenger cars (LDGV), heavy-duty diesel buses (HDDB) and trucks (HDDT), gasoline motorcycles (MC) and LPG scooters (LPGS), were selected for tailpipe volatile organic compounds (VOCs) samplings by using transient dynamometer and on road test combined with SUMMA canisters technology. The samples were tested by GC-MS to analyze the concentration and species composition of VOCs. The results indicate that light-duty gasoline automobiles have higher fractions of aromatic hydrocarbons, which account for 43.38%-44.45% of the total VOCs, the main aromatic hydrocarbons are toluene and xylenes. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles have higher fractions of alkanes, which constitute 46.86%-48.57% of the total VOCs, the main alkanes are propane, n-dodecane and n-undecane. In addition, oxy-organics account for 13.28%-15.01% of the VOCs, the main oxy-organics is acetone. The major compound from MC and LPGS exhaust is acetylene, it accounts for 39.75% and 76.67% of the total VOCs, respectively. VOCs exhaust from gasoline motorcycles and light-duty gasoline automobiles has a significantly higher chemical reactivity than those from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, which contribute 55% and 44% to the atmospheric chemical reactivity in Shanghai. The gasoline motorcycles and light-duty gasoline automobiles are the key pollution sources affecting city and region ambient oxidation, and the key active species of toluene, xylenes, propylene, and styrene make the greatest contribution.

  4. Assessing the reliability and validity of direct observation and traffic camera streams to measure helmet and motorcycle use.

    PubMed

    Zaccaro, Heather N; Carbone, Emily C; Dsouza, Nishita; Xu, Michelle R; Byrne, Mary C; Kraemer, John D

    2015-12-01

    There is a need to develop motorcycle helmet surveillance approaches that are less labour intensive than direct observation (DO), which is the commonly recommended but never formally validated approach, particularly in developing settings. This study sought to assess public traffic camera feeds as an alternative to DO, in addition to the reliability of DO under field conditions. DO had high inter-rater reliability, κ=0.88 and 0.84, respectively, for cycle type and helmet type, which reinforces its use as a gold standard. However, traffic camera-based data collection was found to be unreliable, with κ=0.46 and 0.53 for cycle type and helmet type. When bicycles, motorcycles and scooters were classified based on traffic camera streams, only 68.4% of classifications concurred with those made via DO. Given the current technology, helmet surveillance via traffic camera streams is infeasible, and there remains a need for innovative traffic safety surveillance approaches in low-income urban settings.

  5. Investigation of wheelchair instability during transport in large accessible transit vehicles.

    PubMed

    Salipur, Zdravko; Frost, Karen; Bertocci, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs, fixed-route intracity buses), generally considered safe, may not be as safe for wheelchair-seated passengers. Transit provider practices vary regarding use of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORSs), while recent research suggests high levels of WTORS disuse and misuse. We sought to better understand wheelchair and wheelchair passenger instabilities related to WTORS disuse and misuse on LATVs. This article presents a retrospective review of 295 video surveillance records of wheelchair passenger trips on LATVs. Wheelchair trips involving disuse and misuse of WTORS were quantified and categorized based on WTORS configurations. Cases of wheelchair and wheelchair passenger instability were categorized based on severity, type, and direction. Three adverse events involving severe wheelchair and/or passenger instability were examined in greater detail. Results showed 20.3% of records involved wheelchair-related adverse events (95% minor instabilities, 5% severe instabilities). Scooters were most likely to be unstable, followed by manual and power wheelchairs. In most instability cases, no tiedowns were used to secure the wheelchair and no lap belt was used to restrain the wheelchair passenger properly. In many instances, the lap belt was misused in an attempt to secure the wheelchair, whereas the shoulder belt was never used.

  6. The relationship between the travelling speed and motorcycle styles in urban settings: a case study in Belgrade.

    PubMed

    Jevtić, Vladimir; Vujanić, Milan; Lipovac, Кrsto; Jovanović, Dragan; Pešić, Dalibor

    2015-02-01

    This report examines the difference in the distribution of the speeds of different motorcycle styles and the difference in the distribution of speeds of particular motorcycle styles and cars. The relationship between the speed of motorcycles that possess and those that do not possess vehicle registration plates was also explored. The speed was measured at six different locations on main roads in the city of Belgrade, Serbia. The study confirmed that, on average, motorcyclists drive faster than drivers of cars, but extreme speeding is recorded 2.3 times more often by motorcyclists than by car drivers. In this research, the styles of motorcycles were divided into three different groups according to their average speeds. The first group consists of sport motorcycles, which were faster than the other styles. The second group consists of scooter motorcycles, which were slower. The third group consists of conventional, touring, enduro, and chopper motorcycles with speeds that were statistically not significantly different. According to the differences of the mean speed of motorcyclists who use and do not use vehicle registration plates, the use of the registration plates can be considered a significant indicator of traffic safety. By classifying motorcycles in the three different groups, the issue of "generalizing" motorcyclists as a unique group is avoided and can be taken into consideration for future studies of motorcyclist safety.

  7. A Method for Consensus Reaching in Product Kansei Evaluation Using Advanced Particle Swarm Optimization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Pu

    2017-01-01

    Consumers' opinions toward product design alternatives are often subjective and perceptual, which reflect their perception about a product and can be described using Kansei adjectives. Therefore, Kansei evaluation is often employed to determine consumers' preference. However, how to identify and improve the reliability of consumers' Kansei evaluation opinions toward design alternatives has an important role in adding additional insurance and reducing uncertainty to successful product design. To solve this problem, this study employs a consensus model to measure consistence among consumers' opinions, and an advanced particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm combined with Linearly Decreasing Inertia Weight (LDW) method is proposed for consensus reaching by minimizing adjustment of consumers' opinions. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented and the details are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter design evaluation. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for reaching a consensus through searching optimal solutions by PSO and improving the reliability of consumers' evaluation opinions toward design alternatives according to Kansei indexes.

  8. Semantic Enrichment of Movement Behavior with Foursquare--A Visual Analytics Approach.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Robert; Thom, Dennis; Ertl, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, many approaches have been developed that efficiently and effectively visualize movement data, e.g., by providing suitable aggregation strategies to reduce visual clutter. Analysts can use them to identify distinct movement patterns, such as trajectories with similar direction, form, length, and speed. However, less effort has been spent on finding the semantics behind movements, i.e. why somebody or something is moving. This can be of great value for different applications, such as product usage and consumer analysis, to better understand urban dynamics, and to improve situational awareness. Unfortunately, semantic information often gets lost when data is recorded. Thus, we suggest to enrich trajectory data with POI information using social media services and show how semantic insights can be gained. Furthermore, we show how to handle semantic uncertainties in time and space, which result from noisy, unprecise, and missing data, by introducing a POI decision model in combination with highly interactive visualizations. Finally, we evaluate our approach with two case studies on a large electric scooter data set and test our model on data with known ground truth.

  9. Dimensionnement des actionneurs électriques alimentés à fréquence variable sous faible tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedinger, J.-M.; Vilain, J.-P.

    1999-09-01

    In Part I we present a multidisciplinary analysis model for the prediction of functional connections between the design variables and the electromagnetical, electrical and thermal performances of a brushless permanent magnet motor. In this paper we have elaborated a design methodology for electrical motors supplied from a variable-frequency low-voltage source. The objective is to take into account the influence of the inverter's dynamics from the beginning of the design, for the same reasons as we do for electromechanical and thermal constraints. The procedure is based on a Sequential Quadratic Programming optimization method. Two techniques are used to take into account the influence of the inverter: the first one develops the performance analysis with the multidisciplinary model; the second one considers the inverter's current reference as a supplementary optimization variable for the control of the design. Optimization difficulties linked to the chopping of the converter are discuted in connection with a sensitivity analysis of the torque, with respect to the inverter's current reference; a method is proposed to enhance the performances of the algorithm. The method has been applied to the design of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor used in the propulsion system of an electrical scooter; evolution of the design with the complexity level of analysis model is evidenced. Dans une première partie nous avons développé un modèle d'analyse pluridisciplinaire qui établissait les dépendances fonctionnelles entre les variables de conception et les performances magnéto-électro-thermiques d'un moteur brushless à aimants permanents. Dans cet article nous décrivons une procédure de dimensionnement adaptée à la conception de la machine alimentée à fréquence variable sous faible tension. L'objectif est d'intégrer la dynamique du convertisseur électronique dès la phase initiale du dimensionnement, au même titre que les spécifications

  10. Cycling Promotion and Non-Communicable Disease Prevention: Health Impact Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Cycling to Work or School in Florence

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Cristina; Gnesotto, Roberto; Forni, Silvia; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Vannucci, Andrea; Garofalo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effects of cycling promotion on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and costs from the public healthcare payer’s perspective. Design Health impact assessment and economic evaluation using a dynamic model over a ten-year period and according to two cycling promotion scenarios. Setting Cycling to work or school in Florence, Italy. Population All individuals aged 15 and older commuting to work or school in Florence. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were changes in NCD incidence and healthcare direct costs for the Tuscany Regional Health Service (SST) due to increased cycling. The secondary outcome was change in road traffic accidents. Results Increasing cycling modal share in Florence from 7.5% to about 17% (Scenario 1) or 27% (Scenario 2) could decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.2% or 2.5%, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke by 0.6% or 1.2%. Within 10 years, the number of cases that can be prevented is 280 or 549 for type 2 diabetes, 51 or 100 for AMI, and 51 or 99 for stroke in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. Average annual discounted savings for the SST are estimated to amount to €400,804 or €771,201 in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. In Florence, due to the high use of vulnerable motorized vehicles (such as scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles), road traffic accidents are expected to decline in both our scenarios. Sensitivity analyses showed that health benefits and savings for the SST are substantial, the most sensitive parameters being the relative risk estimates of NCDs and active commuting. Conclusions Effective policies and programs to promote a modal shift towards cycling among students and workers in Florence will contribute to reducing the NCD burden and helping long-term economic sustainability of the SST. PMID:25928421

  11. Injuries among wheeled shoe users: A comparison with other nonmotorized wheeled activities

    PubMed Central

    Thakore, Siddharth; Tram, Janna; Hagel, Brent E; Kyle, Tania; Senger, Trudi; Belanger, Francois

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nonmotorized wheeled activities are popular among children. However, these activities can result in significant injury if effective injury prevention measures are not taken. Recently, nonmotorized wheeled shoes have become increasingly popular among children. Preliminary research shows that these activities also result in significant injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the injury profiles of nonmotorized wheeled activities among Canadian children presenting to the emergency department. METHODS: A two-year retrospective study was conducted using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database, specific to the Alberta Children’s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta. Data were analyzed using cross tabulations of the type and nature of injury, helmet use, age and sex, with type of nonmotorized wheeled activity. RESULTS: The most common mechanism of injury for a nonmotorized wheeled activity was bicycling (66.9%), while wheeled shoe use produced the fewest injuries (2.7%). The upper extremity was the most frequently injured body region in all groups, comprising more than 75% of the injuries in wheeled shoe users and approximately 50% of the injuries in participants of other nonmotorized wheeled activities. Forearm fractures were the most common type of injury. Wheeled shoe users had the greatest proportion of forearm fractures. Helmet use was most prevalent in bicyclists (84.6%) and least prevalent in wheeled shoe users (4.7%). DISCUSSION: Nonmotorized wheeled activities can result in significant morbidity. Results from the present study suggest that wheeled shoe and push scooter activities can result in upper extremity injuries. Protective equipment, particularly wrist guards and helmets, should be used when participating in these activities. PMID:20885801

  12. Effects of transit bus interior configuration on performance of wheeled mobility users during simulated boarding and disembarking.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James A; Steinfeld, Edward

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of low-floor bus designs and related regulatory standards in the U.S. have resulted in substantial improvements in public transit accessibility. However, passengers using wheeled mobility devices still experience safety concerns and inefficiencies in boarding, disembarking, and interior circulation on low-floor buses. This study investigates effects of low-floor bus interior configuration and passenger crowding on boarding and disembarking efficiency and safety. Users of manual wheelchairs (n = 18), powered wheelchairs (n = 21) and electric scooters (n = 9) simulated boarding and disembarking in three interior layout configurations at low and high passenger crowding conditions on a full-scale laboratory mock-up of a low-floor bus. Dependent measures comprised task times and critical incidents during access ramp use, fare payment, and movement to and from the doorway and wheeled mobility securement area. Individual times for unassisted boarding ranged from 15.2 to 245.3 s and for disembarking ranged from 9.1 to 164.6 s across layout and passenger crowding conditions. Nonparametric analysis of variance showed significant differences and interactions across vehicle design conditions, passenger load and mobility device type on user performance. The configuration having electronic on-board fare payment, rear-bus entrance doorways and adjacent device securement areas demonstrated greatest efficiency and safety. High passenger load adversely impacted efficiency and frequency of critical incidents during on-board circulation across all three layouts. Findings have broader implications for improving transit system efficiency and quality of service across the spectrum of transit users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Search systems and medical data quoting from the internet.

    PubMed

    Cvitanović, Hrvoje; Situm, Mirna

    2002-09-01

    The Internet as a new medium also has its use in medicine. Plenty of information which can be found on the world computer network, needs an efficient searching as well as an evaluation system and quoting of the information obtained. Twelve most popular search engines were chosen--9 general: Netscape, Altavista, HotBot, Goggle, Northern Light, Magellan, Infoseek, MSN; 2 specialized medical search engines: Medscape and Medline; and one Croatian search engine: Cross. The efficiency of searching was observed by analyzing the number of obtained pages, their contents and examples of the quoted references from the Internet. The searching was done using the mentioned search engines, and results varied from 2,189,793 network pages found on the Infoseek for the term 'skin cancer' to 0 pages with the search engine Cross for the term 'melanoma+therapy'. When comparing the results for a single term using various search engines, it is concluded that the number of pages varied because of different databases and specialized scooters that search and make indexes. It is possible to use logical operators and more advanced search systems with the majority of search engines. The quoting system is based on mentioning the names of the author and his work, the access date and url (uniform resource locator) addresses of the network pages. Permanent and reliable access to quotations could not be established with previous quotation systems. Dermatologic terms have been well dealt with concerning general population, whereas professionals are recommended to use Medline and reviewed web pages. There have been very few professional and professionally relevant and comprehensive pages on the Internet relative to the total of web pages.

  14. Characteristics of road traffic accidents treated in an urban trauma center.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Meir; Parnes, Nata; Aladgem, David; Birshan, Vered; Sorkine, Patrick; Halpern, Pinchas

    2005-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of accidental injury and death for persons under the age of 35. The medical literature presents surprisingly little information on the general characteristics of such accidents in the urban setting. To characterize RTA patients arriving at an urban trauma center. We prospectively examined the charts of all patients admitted to the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center due to RTA injuries during two periods in 1995. Of the 1,560 patients examined, the male:female ratio was 1:1 and median age was 27 years (47% aged 20-30 years); 51% of the accidents took place between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. and on working week days; automobiles comprised 47.1% of the vehicles involved, motorized two-wheel vehicles 37.1%, bicycles 3.8%, and pedestrians 12%. The Glasgow Coma Scale was 15 on arrival in 98.7% of the patients. The trunk was the most commonly injured body part (84.7%); whiplash injury to the neck was diagnosed in 343 patients (22%), and brain concussion in 183 (11.7%). Computed tomography studies were performed in 34 patients (2.2%). The vast majority of patients (1,438, 92.2%) was discharged home; 14 (0.9%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 2 (0.13%) died during hospitalization. The average time spent in the emergency department in the morning shift was 2.1 hours. We could identify distinguishing factors of this population: equal gender distribution, peak RTA incidence in the young adult working population during working hours, automobile drivers being the most injured subgroup, a disproportionate number of motorcycle and motor scooter involvement, and a relatively extensive amount of time and resources spent treating these injuries despite their generally minor nature.

  15. Injuries and helmet use related to non-motorized wheeled activities among pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, H; Brussoni, M

    2014-07-01

    Patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) for injuries resulting from recreational activities represent a unique source of information on important directions for injury prevention efforts. We describe the epidemiology of non-motorized wheeled activity-related injury in pediatric patients presenting to Canadian EDs as well as patients' helmet use. Data for the years 2004 to 2009 were abstracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national ED injury surveillance program in fifteen hospitals. Most of the 28 618 children aged 1 to 16 years injured during non-motorized wheeled activities were injured while cycling, followed by skateboarding. Most injuries occurred among boys. Children injured on scooters tended to be younger whereas skateboarders were the oldest. On average, the number of all injuries decreased by 6% over the time period. Falls were the most common mechanism of injury; 8.3% of patients had head injuries, which were seen more often among cyclists than other wheeled-activity users. Helmet use was greatest among cyclists (62.2%) and lowest among skateboarders (32.9%). Injured patients presenting to EDs in jurisdictions with legislation mandating helmet use had 2.12 greater odds of helmet use and 0.86 lesser odds of head injury compared with those presenting in jurisdictions without helmet laws. These results provide further evidence that legislation mandating helmet use may be an effective way of reducing injury among all wheeled-activity users. The small number of patients who presented with helmet use and protective gear (59.4% overall) suggests that this remains an area for intervention.

  16. Multiple risk behaviour in adolescence and socio-economic status: findings from a UK birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kipping, Ruth R; Smith, Michèle; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    Background. Patterns of risk behaviour during teenage years may vary by socio-economic status (SES). We aimed to examine possible associations between individual and multiple risk behaviours and three measures of SES in mid-adolescence. Methods. The sample (n = 6406) comprised participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort. Thirteen risk behaviours spanning sexual health, substance use, self-harm, vehicle-related injury, criminality and physical inactivity were assessed in mid-adolescence (age 15–16 years). Associations between three measures of SES (maternal education, household income and parental social class) and (i) individual risk behaviours and (ii) the total number of risk behaviours were examined. Results. For a one-category reduction in social class, maternal education or income, the odds of having a greater number of multiple risk behaviours increased by 22, 15 and 12%, respectively. At the individual level, there was evidence of a strong relationship with decreasing SES across all three measures of SES and criminality, car passenger risk, TV viewing, scooter risk, early sexual behaviour and weekly tobacco use but insufficient evidence of a relationship for physical inactivity, cycling without a helmet and illicit substance use. There was weak evidence of association between SES and hazardous drinking, self-harm, cannabis use and unprotected sex, but this was not consistent across the SES measures. Conclusion. The association between multiple risk behaviours and SES suggests that prevention strategies should apply the principal of proportionate universalism with a focus on more deprived populations, within a population-wide strategy, to prevent widening of social inequalities. PMID:24963150

  17. Cost-effectiveness of powered mobility devices for elderly people with disability.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Lars; Hermansson, Liselotte; Fredriksson, Carin; Pettersson, Ingvor

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the cost-effectiveness of prescribing powered mobility devices (PMDs) to elderly users. Forty-five persons participated in the pre- and post-intervention study with a follow-up at four months. All participants were prescribed a scooter model and were offered individual support to get started using the PMD. In the analysis, the use of the PMD was compared to the situation prior to its use. The cost-utility analysis takes a societal perspective and considers costs, savings and quality of life (QoL) using answers to the EQ-5D questionnaire. Costs for the first year with the PMD were 1395 USD and then 592 USD per subsequent year. There was a significant decrease in transportation costs and in relatives' time use, but the increase in QoL of 0.041 was not significant. Costs per gained quality adjusted life year (QALY) were 12 400-14 700 USD/QALY if the value of time saved not was considered and 600-2900 USD/QALY when an hour was valued at 3.6 USD. Prescription of PMDs to elderly users might be cost-effective. However, there are shortcomings in measuring QALY gains from the use of a PMD, and it is unclear how time savings among relatives should be valued. Implications for Rehabilitation Prescription of powered mobility devices for the elderly with disability seems to be cost effective and should be a standard intervention. In economic evaluations of powered mobility devices and other assistive devices, the commonly used analyses methods are not always appropriate and therefore need to be adjusted.

  18. Dentoalveolar trauma in Glasgow: an audit of mechanism and injury.

    PubMed

    Wright, Graeme; Bell, Aileen; McGlashan, Gregor; Vincent, Carolyn; Welbury, Richard R

    2007-08-01

    Traumatic dental injuries in children often require multiple follow-up visits to the dentist and may have long-term consequences for the developing dentition. The aim of this audit was to examine age, gender, location, time of year, mechanism of injury and type of injury sustained in relation to dentoalveolar trauma in children attending the paediatric dental trauma clinic at Glasgow Dental Hospital from 2002 to 2004, and to compare our findings with data in the published literature. Males suffered 60% of all dental trauma, 79% of sporting injuries and 85% of assaults. The injuries in males were more severe, representing 65% of enamel dentine and pulp fractures, 100% of crown root fractures and 66% of crown root and pulp fractures. A peak for trauma was seen in the 8-11-year-old group (43%). The majority of injuries in the under four age group resulted from falls (87%). Taken as a whole, falls accounted for 49%, sports related injuries 18%, bicycle and scooter 13%, assault 7%, and road traffic accidents 1.5% of all injuries. They also accounted for a far higher percentage of intrusive luxations (67%). The largest proportion of injuries occurred during the summer months (33%). Sixty-four percent of children suffered trauma to more than one tooth. Fifty-eight percent of injuries involved the dental hard tissues and pulp and the majority of these (82%) were crown fractures. Most subjects (82%) suffered trauma to their periodontal tissues, (26% concussion or subluxation, 26% lateral luxation and 23% avulsion). Injuries to the supporting bone were uncommon. Sixty-six percent of all injuries occurred outdoors. Our findings were similar to a number of published studies, but in contrast to several others. More consistency is required in the collection and reporting of trauma data to be able to draw meaningful conclusions by comparison.

  19. Life-space mobility of middle-aged and older adults at various stages of usage of power mobility devices.

    PubMed

    Auger, Claudine; Demers, Louise; Gélinas, Isabelle; Miller, William C; Jutai, Jeffrey W; Noreau, Luc

    2010-05-01

    To examine whether the impact of power mobility devices (PMDs) varies as a function of stage of usage and to explore key factors associated with greater life-space mobility for middle-aged and older adults. Multicohort study with respondents grouped as a function of stage of PMD usage (reference group with mobility impairments, n=42; initial users, 1-6mo, n=35; long-term users, 12-18mo, n=39). Cohorts were compared with respect to life-space mobility in a continuum of environments ranging from home to outside town, using analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Baseline personal, assistive device, intervention, and environmental factors associated with life-space mobility were explored with age-adjusted linear regression models. Four Canadian rehabilitation centers. Random sample of middle-aged and older adults (N=116; 50-89y) living in the community or residential care. Procurement of a powered wheelchair or scooter. Life-Space Assessment composite score. Cohort comparisons showed higher frequency of outings for PMD users in the neighborhood (P<.001) and around home (P<.05) and significantly greater Life-Space Assessment composite scores for initial and long-term users than for the reference group (P<.05). Factors such as sex, the nature of activities, and device type explained variances in Life-Space Assessment composite score ranging from 15.9% to 18.0% (P<.006). Life-space mobility increases after PMD use and remains stable across the stages of initial and long-term use. To appreciate the impact of PMDs, clinicians should consider the environment and a combination of personal and device factors that are associated with the range of life-space mobility in the first 18 months after procurement.

  20. Clinical--imaging aspects of young permanent teeth traumas and the ethiopatogenic mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Nemţoi, A; Dănila, I; Lăduncă, Oana; Petcu, Ana; Bamboi, Ana; Haba, Danisia

    2013-01-01

    Dental trauma occurring to children and teenagers all over the world represents a serious issue in Public Health. This present study wants to investigate the etiology and the environment in which the dental trauma occurs and also wants to establish a connection between dental trauma and social-economic status. The study was made to collect information about dental trauma on human subjects involving 372 children and teenagers, both female and male, between 8 and 20 years of age. The data obtained from the clinical and radiological exams for each patient have been registered in a special conceived register, which represented a stage of the study. The frequency of dental trauma varied from 62.1% for males to 37.9% for women. Most of them have suffered from dental trauma between the age of 14 and 16 (30.1%), and a few between 18 and 20 years (2.2%). Dental trauma has occurred most frequently in school, during sports lessons, followed by those in public places like the street (23.1%), from which 17.1% have been associated with bicycle accidents, 3.5% with scooter accidents and 2.5% with car accidents. Children and teenagers who live in areas with a low social economic level have been the fewest to seek medical attention due to difficult access to medical services. Overall, this study wanted to present the importance of knowing the frequency of dental trauma in children and teenagers and to point out the need of promoting medical education to parents regarding the means they can use to reduce the risk factors associated with dental trauma.

  1. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  2. A hybrid model for predicting carbon monoxide from vehicular exhausts in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Sharad; Khare, Mukesh

    -wheelers (scooters, motorcycles, etc).

  3. Injuries among powered two-wheeler users in eight European countries: a descriptive analysis of hospital discharge data.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Pollack, Keshia; Heredero-Ordoyo, Rafael; Molinero, Aquilino; Mansilla, Alberto; Fildes, Brian; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2012-11-01

    Powered two-wheelers (PTWs--mopeds, motorcycles, and scooters) remain the most dangerous form of travel on today's roads. This study used hospital discharge data from eight European countries to examine the frequencies and patterns of injury among PTW users (age≥14 years), the predicted incidence of the loss of functional ability, and the mechanisms of the head injuries observed (all in light of increased helmet use). Of 977,557 injured patients discharged in 2004, 12,994 were identified as having been injured in PTW collisions. Lower extremity injuries accounted for 26% (25.6-26.7, 95% C.I.) of the total injuries, followed by upper extremity injuries (20.7%: 20.3-21.2), traumatic brain injuries (TBI) (18.5%: 18-19), and thoracic injuries (8.2%: 7.8-8.5). Approximately 80% of the lower extremity injury cases were expected to exhibit some functional disability one year following discharge (predicted Functional Capacity Index, pFCI-AIS98<100), compared to 47% of the upper extremity injury cases and 24% of the TBI cases. Although it occurred less frequently, patients that were expected to experience some functional limitation from TBI were predicted to fair worse on average (lose more functional ability) than patients expected to have functional limitations from extremity injuries. Cerebral concussion was the most common head injury observed (occurring in 56% of head injury cases), with most concussion cases (78%) exhibiting no other head injury. Among the AIS3+ head injuries that could be mapped to an injury mechanism, 48% of these were associated with a translational-impact mechanism, and 37% were associated with a rotational mechanism. The observation of high rates of expected long-term disability suggests that future efforts aim to mitigate lower and upper extremity injuries among PTW users. Likewise, the high rates of concussion and head injuries associated with a rotational mechanism provide goals for the next phase of PTW user head protection.

  4. Bioconcentration and phytotoxicity of chromium in Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kumkum; Gupta, Kiran; Rai, Upendra Nath

    2009-07-01

    Physico-chemical parameter and metal concentration in effluents of two industries i.e. Tannery industry, Jajmau, Kanpur and Electroplating industry, Scooter India Limited (SIL), Lucknow were determined to assess the toxicity of chromium. Metal accumulation in Eichhomia crassipes growing in these contaminated sites were also determined. For laboratory toxicity testing the plants were exposed to nutrient solution containing Cr concentration ranging from 0.01-10 microg ml(-1) for 24-96 hr. Accumulation of chromium was observed to be dependent on its concentration and time of exposure and was greater in roots (789.3 mg g(-1) d.wt.) than in leaves (335.6 mg g(-1) d.wt.) after 96 hrat 10 microg ml(-1) concentration. Under field conditions the accumulation of Cr was 1258 and 733.3 in roots and 94 and 53 microg g(-1) d.wt. in leaves of E. crassipes growing in Jajmau, Kanpur tanning industry and SIL effluents, respectively. It was found that lower doses (0.01-0.1 microg ml(-1)) of chromium had stimulatory effect on various metabolic activities in plants including chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll, protein, nitrate reductase and mitotic index. Whereas higher doses of chromium had inhibitory effect. The carotenoid content and number of micronuclei was found directly proportional to the concentration of chromium and increased with increase in concentration of chromium to which plants were exposed. It may be concluded from the present study that E. crassipes is tolerant to the elevated Cr concentration as there is no inhibition of chlorophyll and carotenoid up to 0.1 microg ml(-1) at 24 and 48 hr exhibiting phytotoxicity at higher concentration. Therefore, E. crassipes may be used as bioassay for biomonitoring and control of Cr pollution in the environment.

  5. Cycling promotion and non-communicable disease prevention: health impact assessment and economic evaluation of cycling to work or school in Florence.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Cristina; Gnesotto, Roberto; Forni, Silvia; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Vannucci, Andrea; Garofalo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the effects of cycling promotion on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and costs from the public healthcare payer's perspective. Health impact assessment and economic evaluation using a dynamic model over a ten-year period and according to two cycling promotion scenarios. Cycling to work or school in Florence, Italy. All individuals aged 15 and older commuting to work or school in Florence. The primary outcome measures were changes in NCD incidence and healthcare direct costs for the Tuscany Regional Health Service (SST) due to increased cycling. The secondary outcome was change in road traffic accidents. Increasing cycling modal share in Florence from 7.5% to about 17% (Scenario 1) or 27% (Scenario 2) could decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.2% or 2.5%, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke by 0.6% or 1.2%. Within 10 years, the number of cases that can be prevented is 280 or 549 for type 2 diabetes, 51 or 100 for AMI, and 51 or 99 for stroke in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. Average annual discounted savings for the SST are estimated to amount to €400,804 or €771,201 in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. In Florence, due to the high use of vulnerable motorized vehicles (such as scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles), road traffic accidents are expected to decline in both our scenarios. Sensitivity analyses showed that health benefits and savings for the SST are substantial, the most sensitive parameters being the relative risk estimates of NCDs and active commuting. Effective policies and programs to promote a modal shift towards cycling among students and workers in Florence will contribute to reducing the NCD burden and helping long-term economic sustainability of the SST.

  6. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bond, S W; Alvarez, R; Vollmer, M K; Steinbacher, M; Weilenmann, M; Reimann, S

    2010-08-01

    This study assesses individual-vehicle molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions in exhaust gas from current gasoline and diesel vehicles measured on a chassis dynamometer. Absolute H2 emissions were found to be highest for motorcycles and scooters (141+/-38.6 mg km(-1)), approximately 5 times higher than for gasoline-powered automobiles (26.5+/-12.1 mg km(-1)). All diesel-powered vehicles emitted marginal amounts of H2 ( approximately 0.1 mg km(-1)). For automobiles, the highest emission factors were observed for sub-cycles subject to a cold-start (mean of 53.1+/-17.0 mg km(-1)). High speeds also caused elevated H2 emission factors for sub-cycles reaching at least 150 km h(-1) (mean of 40.4+/-7.1 mg km(-1)). We show that H2/CO ratios (mol mol(-1)) from gasoline-powered vehicles are variable (sub-cycle means of 0.44-5.69) and are typically higher (mean for automobiles 1.02, for 2-wheelers 0.59) than previous atmospheric ratios characteristic of traffic-influenced measurements. The lowest mean individual sub-cycle ratios, which correspond to high absolute emissions of both H2 and CO, were observed during cold starts (for automobiles 0.48, for 2-wheelers 0.44) and at high vehicle speeds (for automobiles 0.73, for 2-wheelers 0.45). This finding illustrates the importance of these conditions to observed H2/CO ratios in ambient air. Overall, 2-wheelers displayed lower H2/CO ratios (0.48-0.69) than those from gasoline-powered automobiles (0.75-3.18). This observation, along with the lower H2/CO ratios observed through studies without catalytic converters, suggests that less developed (e.g. 2-wheelers) and older vehicle technologies are largely responsible for the atmospheric H2/CO ratios reported in past literature.

  7. Pain in Youths With Neuromuscular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Joyce M.; Kartin, Deborah; Carter, Gregory T.; Jensen, Mark P.; Jaffe, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and characteristics of pain in children with neuromuscular disease (NMD), 42 youths with NMD underwent a comprehensive evaluation including a detailed intake interview and structured questionnaire that included demographic and functional data. Youths who reported chronic pain were further queried about pain characteristics, locations, and intensity using an 11-point numerical rating scale and a modified Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). The sample consisted of 24 males (57%) and 18 females (43%), ages ranging from 9 to 20 years (M = 14.8, SD = 2.96). Participants included 14 (37%) with Duchenne-muscular dystrophy, 6 (14%) with myotonic dystrophy, 2 (5%) with Becker dystrophy, 2 (5%) with limb-girdle dystrophy, 2 (5%) with congenital muscular dystrophy, 1 (2%) facioscapulohumeral, and 15 (36%) were classified as “other NMD.” Twenty-one (50%) were ambulatory; 26 (62%) used power wheelchairs/scooters, 9 (2%) used manual wheelchairs, 3 (.07%) used crutches/canes, and 1 (2%) used a walker. A total of 23 (55%) of the youths reported having chronic pain. Current pain intensity was 1.30(range=0–6), mean pain intensity over the past week was 2.39 (range = 0–7), mean pain duration was 8.75 hours (SD=12.84). Pain in the legs was most commonly reported and 83% reported using pain medications. This study indicates that chronic pain is a significant problem in youths with NMD. These data strongly support making comprehensive pain assessment and management an integral part of the standard of care for youths with NMD. PMID:19820205

  8. Are independent mobility and territorial range associated with park visitation among youth?

    PubMed

    Veitch, Jenny; Carver, Alison; Hume, Clare; Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2014-06-09

    Parks are important for providing opportunities for physical activity among youth. Apart from engaging in physical activity whilst visiting a park, active transportation (e.g. walking or cycling) to parks is potentially an additional source of physical activity. Previous research has shown that a major barrier to young people visiting parks is their inability to visit parks unaccompanied by an adult. It is not known; however, whether young people who have greater independent mobility and territorial range (ability to move around their neighbourhood alone or with friends, unaccompanied by an adult) are more likely to visit parks. This study examined park visitation and travel mode to parks and whether independent mobility and territorial range were associated with park visitation among youth living in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. In 2010-11, 311 youth aged 8-16 years self-reported their park use, active transport, independent mobility to parks, and territorial range. Logistic regression models determined the odds of park visitation (once per week or more) according to independent mobility and territorial range, adjusting for key covariates. Overall, 75% of participants reported visiting parks, and 37% visited their 'usual' park at least once per week. Of those who reported visiting parks, 87% travelled to the park they usually visited using active transport: 57% walked, 22% cycled, and 8% used a scooter/skateboard. Just 15% and 13% of youth regularly walked or cycled alone to parks/playgrounds respectively, and 25% and 19% regularly walked or cycled with friends or siblings (no adults) respectively. For the 84% who reported having parks/playgrounds within walking distance from home, those who regularly walked alone to parks (OR 3.61; CI=1.67, 7.80), and regularly walked (OR 2.27; CI=1.14, 4.55) or cycled (OR 3.38; CI=1.73, 6.62) with friends to parks, were significantly more likely to visit a park at least once per week, compared to others. This study

  9. Identifying factors affecting the safety of mid-block bicycle lanes considering mixed 2-wheeled traffic flow.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Chan, Ching-Yao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Chengcheng

    2017-10-03

    Electric bikes (e-bikes) have been one of the fastest growing trip modes in Southeast Asia over the past 2 decades. The increasing popularity of e-bikes raised some safety concerns regarding urban transport systems. The primary objective of this study was to identify whether and how the generalized linear regression model (GLM) could be used to relate cyclists' safety with various contributing factors when riding in a mid-block bike lane. The types of 2-wheeled vehicles in the study included bicycle-style electric bicycles (BSEBs), scooter-style electric bicycles (SSEBs), and regular bicycles (RBs). Traffic conflict technology was applied as a surrogate measure to evaluate the safety of 2-wheeled vehicles. The safety performance model was developed by adopting a generalized linear regression model for relating the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and regular bikes to the operating speeds of BSEBs, SSEBs, and RBs in mid-block bike lanes. The frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes increased with an increase in the operating speeds of e-bikes and the volume of e-bikes and bikes and decreased with an increase in the width of bike lanes. The large speed difference between e-bikes and bikes increased the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes in mid-block bike lanes. A 1% increase in the average operating speed of e-bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes by 1.48%. A 1% increase in the speed difference between e-bikes and bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes/bikes by 0.16%. The conflict frequency in mid-block bike lanes can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The factors that significantly affected the frequency of rear-end conflicts included the operating speeds of e-bikes, the speed difference between e-bikes and regular bikes, the volume of e-bikes, the volume of bikes, and the width of bike lanes. The

  10. The incidence of pedestrian distraction at urban intersections after implementation of a Streets Smarts campaign.

    PubMed

    Violano, Pina; Roney, Linda; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    Pedestrians distracted by digital devices or other activities are at a higher risk of injury as they cross streets. We sought to describe the incidence of pedestrians distracted by digital devices or other activities at two highly traveled urban intersections after the implementation of a pedestrian safety intervention at one of the intersections. This was an observational field study of two urban intersections. Two investigators were stationed at each of the four corners of the intersection. Each pair of observers included one "person counter" and one "behavior counter". The "person counter" tallied every individual who approached that corner from any of the three opposing corners. The "behavior counter" tallied every individual approaching from the three opposing corners who were exhibiting any of the following behaviors: 1) eating, 2) drinking, 3) wearing ear buds/headphones, 4) texting, 5) looking at mobile phone or reading something on mobile phone, or 6) talking on mobile phone. Every 15 min, each pair of observers rotated to the next corner of the same intersection, allowing each pair of observers to complete one 15-min observation at each of the four corners of the intersection. Intersection A had stencils at the curb cuts of each corner alerting pedestrians to put down a digital device while crossing the intersection while intersection B did not. 1362 pedestrians were observed; of those, 19 % were distracted by another activity at both intersections. Of the total, 9 % were using ear buds/headphones; 8 % were using a digital device (talking, texting, or looking down at it); and 2 % were eating or drinking. Inter-observer validity among observers (kappa) was 98 %. Of those that were distracted, 5 % were either using an assistive device (cane, walker, motorized scooter) or walking with a child (either on foot or in stroller). There were no differences in the proportion of pedestrians who were distracted at either intersection, except that more

  11. Exposure factors of Victoria's active motorcycle fleet related to serious injury crash risk.

    PubMed

    Allen, T; McClure, R; Newstead, S V; Lenné, M G; Hillard, P; Symmons, M; Day, L

    2016-11-16

    The purpose of this study was to describe the nature and extent of current powered 2-wheeler (PTW) risk exposures in order to support future efforts to improve safety for this mode of transport. A cross-sectional analysis of the control arm of a population-based case-control study was conducted. The control sample was selected from 204 sites on public roads within 150 km of the city of Melbourne that were locations of recent serious injury motorcycle crashes. Traffic observations and measurements at each site were sampled for a mean of 2 h on the same type of day (weekday, Saturday, or Sunday) and within 1 h of the crash time. Photographs of passing riders during this observation period recorded data relating to characteristics of PTWs, age of riders, travel speed of PTWs and all vehicles, time gaps between vehicles, visibility, and protective clothing use. Motorcycles and scooters represented 0.6% of all traffic (compared with 4% of all vehicle registrations). Riders were significantly more likely to have larger time gaps in front and behind when compared to other vehicles. The average travel speed of motorcycles was not significantly different than the traffic, but a significantly greater proportion were exceeding the speed limit when compared to other vehicles (6 vs. 3%, respectively). The age of registered owners of passing motorcycles was 42 years. Over half of riders were wearing dark clothing with no fluorescent or reflective surfaces. One third of motorcyclists had maximum coverage of motorcycle-specific protective clothing. A very low prevalence of motorcyclists combined with relatively higher rates of larger time gaps to other vehicles around motorcycles may help explain their overrepresentation in injury crashes where another vehicle fails to give way. An increased risk of injury in the event of a crash exists for a small but greater proportion of motorcyclists (compared to other vehicle types) who were exceeding the speed limit. An apparent shift

  12. Feasibility study of airbag concept applicable to motorcycles without sufficient reaction structure.

    PubMed

    Aikyo, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Yuki; Akashi, Tomohiko; Ishiwatari, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    An airbag system for motorcycle applications was developed and marketed in 2006 followed by many research projects on the system. In the airbag system, the bag should be supported during the kinetic energy-absorbing period of a rider in a collision. The previously developed system employed a configuration in which motorcycle structures support the airbag, such as a gauge unit and/or a steering structure. The supporting structure functions to receive the reaction force to hold the airbag during a crash to properly absorb the rider's kinetic energy. However, the previous system requires a larger area for this reaction structure and is applicable only to the motorcycles that can provide that area. To overcome this limitation, we propose an airbag system employing another concept. In this concept, the airbag does not use its vehicle structures as a reaction structure but uses the structures of an opposing vehicle, such as doors and/or pillars of an opposing vehicle. In this project, we aim to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system when installed in a motorcycle that cannot provide a larger area for the reaction structure. In the system with this concept, it is assumed that the occupant protection performance is largely affected depending on impact configurations. Accordingly, full-scale motorcycle-to-car crash tests using 125 cm3 scooter-type models with and without the proposed system were conducted in various impact configurations. The 7 impact configurations specified in ISO 13232 were selected as the test configurations. Injury variables and injury indices of head, neck, chest, and abdomen were evaluated with the motorcyclist dummy. Injury variables and indices obtained from the crash tests with the airbag were compared to those of the baseline tests. In 2 impact configurations, the airbags were supported by the side structures of the opposing vehicle and performed to reduce the injury variable of head and/or chest compared to that of the baseline test

  13. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  14. Technology to promote safe mobility in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Audrey; Powell-Cope, Gail; Gavin-Dreschnack, Deborah; Quigley, Pat; Bulat, Tatjana; Baptiste, Andrea S; Applegarth, Shawn; Friedman, Yvonne

    2004-09-01

    New technologies designed to help prevent adverse events related to the mobility of geriatric patients (ie, patient falls, bed-rail entrapment, patient handling, and wandering) are described. Technology offers the potential to eliminate or mitigate preventable adverse events that interfere with treatment, delay rehabilitation, potentiate impairment, and compromise patient safety. Unchecked, these adverse events can have a negative impact on patient health, functional status, and quality of life. It is not surprising that the elderly constitute the population at highest risk for adverse events, based on poor health, chronic conditions, long hospitalizations, and institutional care. Patient falls are a high-risk, high-volume, and high-cost adverse event. Key technologies to prevent falls and fall-related injuries include hip protectors, wheelchair/scooter safety features, intelligent walkers, fall alarms, and environmental aids. Bed-rail entrapment is a serious adverse event, which includes patients being trapped, entangled, or strangled in beds. New technologies to prevent bed-rail entrapment include new hospital bed designs, height-adjustable low beds, devices to close gaps in legacy beds, and bedside floor mats. Patients with mobility impairments necessitate physical assistance in transfers and other patient-handling tasks, which increases risk for the caregiver and the patient. Featured technologies to prevent patient handling injuries include innovations in floor-based lifts, new ceiling-mounted patient lifts, and improvements in powered standing lifts, new friction-reducing devices, and new patient transport technology. Wandering affects 39% of cognitively impaired nursing home residents and up to 70% of community-residing elderly persons with cognitive impairments. New technologies to prevent adverse events associated with wandering include door alarms and signal-transmitting devices. Nurses in geriatric settings would benefit from exposure to technologies

  15. Children and adolescents admitted to a university-level trauma centre in Denmark 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Danny Stefan; Larsen, Rasmus Hviid; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Færgemann, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The epidemiology of children or adolescents admitted to a Scandinavian trauma centre is largely unknown. The aim of this paper was to describe the epi-demiology and severity of potentially severely injured children and adolescents admitted to a university hospital trauma centre. This was a descriptive study of all children and adolescents aged 0-17 admitted to the university level trauma centre at Odense University Hospital, Denmark in the 2002-2011 period. Data were extracted from the Southern Danish Trauma Register and from medical records. A total of 950 children and adolescents were included. The median age was 13 (range: 0-17) years. Boys accounted for 60.6% of the cases. Accidents accounted for 97.2%, violence 1.4% and self-inflicted injuries 0.4%. More than three fourths of the injuries occurred either in traffic or at home. The occurrence was greatest in the summer (34.0%), during weekends (48.9%) and in the hours between 12.00 and 20.00 (59.2%). Overall, 58.5% of the in-juries were due to traffic. Of these injuries, 39.7% were in-juries suffered by passengers in motor vehicles, 27.5% drivers/passengers of a scooter/MC, 21.8% bicyclists and 10.3% pedestrians. The median Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Abbreviated Injury Scale was 4 (range: 1-75) and 2 (range: 1-6), respectively. Head/face injuries accounted for 36.5% and injuries to the extremities for 30.9% of all injuries. A total of 153 (16.1%) suffered from severe injuries (ISS > 15). Overall, 49 (5.2%) died due to their injuries. Based on a local trauma register, we described the epidemiology and severity of potentially se-verely injured children and adolescents admitted to a university trauma centre. none. not relevant. Articles published in the Danish Medical Journal are “open access”. This means that the articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided

  16. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2017-07-31

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  17. Participation in Physical Play and Leisure in Children With Motor Impairments: Mixed-Methods Study to Generate Evidence for Developing an Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Craig; McKee, Lorna; Missiuna, Cheryl; Owen, Christine; Francis, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in physical play/leisure (PPP) is an important therapy goal of children with motor impairments. Evidence for interventions promoting PPP in these children is scarce. The first step is to identify modifiable, clinically meaningful predictors of PPP for targeting by interventions. Objective The study objective was to identify, in children with motor impairments, body function and structure, activity, environmental, and personal factors related to PPP and modifiable by therapists. Design This was a mixed-methods, intervention development study. The World Health Organization framework International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used. Methods Participants were children (6–8 years old) with motor impairments, mobilizing independently with or without equipment and seen by physical therapists or occupational therapists in 6 regions in the United Kingdom, and their parents. Self-reported PPP was assessed with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Modifiable-factor data were collected with therapists' observations, parent questionnaires, and child-friendly interviews. The Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, therapist, and parent data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Interview data were analyzed for emerging themes. Results Children's (n=195) PPP (X=18 times per week, interquartile range=11–25) was mainly ‘recreational’ (eg, pretend play, playing with pets) rather than ‘active physical’ (eg, riding a bike/scooter). Parents (n=152) reported positive beliefs about children's PPP but various levels of family PPP. Therapists reported 23 unique impairments (eg, muscle tone), 16 activity limitations (eg, walking), and 3 personal factors (eg, child's PPP confidence). Children interviewed (n=17) reported a strong preference for active play but indicated that adults regulated their PPP. Family PPP and impairment in the child's movement-related body

  18. Requirements and Markets for Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    , if required on all trucks and busses, and they would save many lives. For electric bikes, scooters and cars, there is no limit to more intelligent control and energy efficiency. Effective individual mobility, compatible with the environment, is another matter of global competition, of public well-being and of a related public policy.

  19. The rise of electric two-wheelers in China: Factors for their success and implications for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan Xavier

    This dissertation examines the rise, present use, and future growth of the electric two-wheeler (E2W, a.k.a. E2W or e-scooter) in China, the world's most successful electric-drive vehicle. The E2W market has been experiencing tremendous growth with over 30 million now in regular use on Chinese streets. The adoption of E2W technology is significant because, along with their air quality and energy (low-carbon) benefits compared to gasoline powered motorcycles, E2Ws are driving the development of improved and lower cost batteries and may lead to a shift toward larger three-and four-wheel electric vehicles (EV). This dissertation explores three questions: why the E2W market grew so rapidly in China, what factors are driving and resisting its growth, and how future growth might impact the adoption of electric vehicles. In Chapter 1, the context for this analysis is built by describing China's transportation past, present, and future challenges. E2Ws are also introduced and compared with gasoline-powered motorcycles on several metrics, such as performance, air emissions, and energy use. In Chapter 2, data from the literature was collected and analyzed to understand the history and important reasons for E2W growth in China. To supplement these data, the author and colleagues interviewed leaders of E2W and battery companies and toured several manufacturing plants. In Chapter 3, E2W and bicycles users were surveyed to understand how and why they use (or don't use) E2Ws. In Chapter 4, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries commonly used in today's E2Ws were laboratory tested to determine their performance characteristics. Data were also compiled on their cost, and on the cost and performance of Li-ion batteries. In Chapter 5, the future of E2Ws in China was assessed by integrating data from the previous three chapters and from the literature to create a force-field analysis of the E2W market. This chapter concludes by examining the spillover effects E2W market growth may

  20. Wheelchair armrest strength testing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; Rentschler, A J; O'Connor, T J; Ster, J F

    2000-01-01

    There are about 1.4 million manual wheelchair users, 100,000 electric-powered wheelchair users, and 60,000 electric-powered scooter users. The current study was undertaken to determine if the fasteners of a clamp-type armrest receiver were prone to failure. The first test was used to examine the potential misalignment of the armrest receiver components that attach it to the frame. The second test was to evaluate the entire armrest using the American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America armrest static strength standard. Finally, we conducted three fatigue tests. The first fatigue test was performed by repeating the static stability tests multiple times. The last two tests were a modified version of the double-drum wheelchair fatigue test used to apply repeated loading and vibration simultaneously. A paired t-test showed that there is no statistically significant difference (p = 0.08), with a confidence of 95%, between critical alignment measurements. The armrest including the receiver passed the standard requirement of a force of 760 N being applied outward at 15 degrees. During fatigue testing, we found that armrests did not exhibit any visible or functional damage. Upon completion of the tests, the armrests and receivers functioned properly. At about 100,289 cycles on a double-drum test machine, three bolts failed on each armrest receiver when the screws were loosened to have only five threads engaged prior to commencing the test. The design of the armrest tested was in compliance with existing national and international standards. Currently, both International Standards Organization and American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society committees are developing standards for seating systems that will include static, impact, and fatigue strength testing of devices like lateral torso supports, lateral hip support, etc. Methods similar to those

  1. Are independent mobility and territorial range associated with park visitation among youth?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parks are important for providing opportunities for physical activity among youth. Apart from engaging in physical activity whilst visiting a park, active transportation (e.g. walking or cycling) to parks is potentially an additional source of physical activity. Previous research has shown that a major barrier to young people visiting parks is their inability to visit parks unaccompanied by an adult. It is not known; however, whether young people who have greater independent mobility and territorial range (ability to move around their neighbourhood alone or with friends, unaccompanied by an adult) are more likely to visit parks. This study examined park visitation and travel mode to parks and whether independent mobility and territorial range were associated with park visitation among youth living in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Methods In 2010–11, 311 youth aged 8–16 years self-reported their park use, active transport, independent mobility to parks, and territorial range. Logistic regression models determined the odds of park visitation (once per week or more) according to independent mobility and territorial range, adjusting for key covariates. Results Overall, 75% of participants reported visiting parks, and 37% visited their ‘usual’ park at least once per week. Of those who reported visiting parks, 87% travelled to the park they usually visited using active transport: 57% walked, 22% cycled, and 8% used a scooter/skateboard. Just 15% and 13% of youth regularly walked or cycled alone to parks/playgrounds respectively, and 25% and 19% regularly walked or cycled with friends or siblings (no adults) respectively. For the 84% who reported having parks/playgrounds within walking distance from home, those who regularly walked alone to parks (OR 3.61; CI=1.67, 7.80), and regularly walked (OR 2.27; CI=1.14, 4.55) or cycled (OR 3.38; CI=1.73, 6.62) with friends to parks, were significantly more likely to visit a park at least once per

  2. Tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven; Hosalkar, Harish; Cameron, Danielle B; Heath, Aaron; David Horn, B; Ganley, Theodore J

    2008-12-01

    Tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents are uncommon. We retrospectively reviewed all tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents (10-19) who presented to our level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 7-year period to review fracture morphology, mechanism of injury, fracture management including return to play, as well as complications. Additionally, we present a review of the literature and treatment algorithm. We reviewed the clinical charts and radiographs of consecutive patients with tibial tuberosity fractures between 01 January 2000 and 01 January 2007. Data parameters included the following: patients age and gender, involved side, injury classification, co-morbidities, mechanism of injury, treatment, return to activity and complications. Data were extracted and reviewed, and a treatment algorithm is proposed with some additional insights into the epidemiology of the injury. Nineteen patients met the inclusion criteria. There were 19 patients with 20 tibial tuberosity fractures. The mean age was 13.7 years. There were 18 males and 1 female patient. There were nine left-sided injuries and eleven right-sided including one patient with bilateral fractures. Mechanism of injuries included basketball injury (8), running injury (5), football injury (3), fall from a scooter (2), high jump (1) and fall (1). Co-morbidities included three patients with concurrent Osgood-Schlatter disease and one with osteogenesis imperfecta. All were treated with ORIF, including arthroscopic-assisted techniques in two cases. Complications included four patients with pre-operative presentation of compartment syndrome all requiring fasciotomy, one post-operative stiffness and one painful hardware requiring removal. Range of motion was started an average of 4.3 weeks post-operatively and return to play was an average of 3.9 months post-operatively. Although uncommon, tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents are clinically important injuries. Early recognition and treatment (closed or open

  3. Social determinants of rest deprivation amongst Ghanaian women: national and urban-rural comparisons with data from a cross-sectional nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Mittelmark, Maurice B; Bull, Torill

    2010-09-28

    Rest deprivation (rest/napping/sleep 6 or less hours daily) is a clinically recognised risk factor for poor health, but its epidemiology is little studied. This study reports prevalence's and social correlates of rest deprivation in Ghana. Data are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Women ages 15-49 were recruited in a national sampling design. Respondents were 4,916 women in the national sample, a sub-sample of 530 women in the three northernmost rural regions and a sub-sample of 853 women in urban Greater Accra. Prevalence's of rest deprivation were 0.13% nationally, 14.5% in Greater Accra and 16.8% in the North. The significant correlates nationally were age, education, wealth index, Christian religion and literacy. In Accra, they were age, wealth index, having household electricity, and possession of a refrigerator, a stove and a mobile phone. In the North, they were education, occupation, drinking water source, possession of motorcycle/scooter, Christian religion, literacy, and possession of a clock and a cupboard. In logistic regression analyses controlling for age in the national sample, the significant odds ratios were 1.40 for no education compared to secondary and higher education, 0.78-0.43 for the four poorer wealth quintiles compared to the richest wealth index quintile, and 0.55 for Christian religion compared to all others.Also controlling for age, the significant odds ratios in Accra were 2.15 for the second richest wealth quintile compared to the richest quintile and 0.16 for possession of a mobile phone. In the North they were 0.49 for Christian religion compared to all others, 1.87 for having a protected compared to an unprotected water source, and 0.41 for having a cupboard in the home. Education, wealth and religion were related to rest deprivation nationally but not in the urban and rural regions (except for religion in the North). This suggests caution in generalising about the social correlates of rest deprivation at a

  4. Toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shun-Hua; Zhou, Wei; Song, Jian; Peng, Bao-Cheng; Yuan, Dong; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Qi, Ping-Ping

    In China, the number of vehicles is increasing rapidly with the continuous development of economy, and vehicle emission pollution in major cities is more serious than ever. In this article, we summarized the results of a series of short-term assays, animal experiments and epidemiology investigations on the genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, respiratory toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai, including gasoline exhausts (gas condensate and particles), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and scooter exhaust particles (SEP). The results showed that: (1) Both gases and particulate phases of the exhausts of different kinds of vehicles showed strong mutagenicity in Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains), rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and mouse micronucleus assay, and vehicle emissions could induce the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. DEP and SEP could induce the transformation of human diploid cell strain (KMB-13) cells, immunohistochemistry assay showed that c-myc and p21 proteins were highly expressed in the transformed cells. DEP and SEP could also inhibit the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) of BALB/C3T3 cells (2) Vehicle emissions could decrease the number of macrophages in the lung (bronchial alveolar lavage fluid) (BALF) of male SD rats. Vehicle emissions could also increase the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), the content of cetyneuraminic acid (NA), the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkali phosphate (AKP), acid phosphate (ACP) in the lung BALF of the animals. (3) In epidemiology investigation, the proportion of those who have respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the workers who were exposed to DEP ( n=806) were much higher than those of the controls ( n=413). The OR (odd ratio) values of angina, nasal obstruction, phlegm, short of breath and COPD were 2.27, 3.08, 3.00, 3.19 and 2.32, respectively, and the proportion of those who